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Sample records for large deviation principle

  1. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  2. Large deviations and portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

  3. Large Deviations for Stochastic Evolution Equations with Small Multiplicative Noise

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei

    2010-02-15

    The Freidlin-Wentzell large deviation principle is established for the distributions of stochastic evolution equations with general monotone drift and small multiplicative noise. As examples, the main results are applied to derive the large deviation principle for different types of SPDE such as stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, stochastic porous media equations and fast diffusion equations, and the stochastic p-Laplace equation in Hilbert space. The weak convergence approach is employed in the proof to establish the Laplace principle, which is equivalent to the large deviation principle in our framework.

  4. Large Deviations in Fast-Slow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Grafke, Tobias; Tangarife, Toms; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of rare events in fast-slow systems is investigated via analysis of the large deviation principle (LDP) that characterizes the likelihood and pathway of large fluctuations of the slow variables away from their mean behaviorsuch fluctuations are rare on short time-scales but become ubiquitous eventually. Classical results prove that this LDP involves an Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is related to the leading eigenvalue of the generator of the fast process, and is typically non-quadratic in the momentain other words, the LDP for the slow variables in fast-slow systems is different in general from that of any stochastic differential equation (SDE) one would write for the slow variables alone. It is shown here that the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian can be reduced to a simpler algebraic equation for this Hamiltonian for a specific class of systems in which the fast variables satisfy a linear equation whose coefficients depend nonlinearly on the slow variables, and the fast variables enter quadratically the equation for the slow variables. These results are illustrated via examples, inspired by kinetic theories of turbulent flows and plasma, in which the quasipotential characterizing the long time behavior of the system is calculated and shown again to be different from that of an SDE.

  5. Large Deviations in Fast-Slow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Grafke, Tobias; Tangarife, Tomás; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of rare events in fast-slow systems is investigated via analysis of the large deviation principle (LDP) that characterizes the likelihood and pathway of large fluctuations of the slow variables away from their mean behavior—such fluctuations are rare on short time-scales but become ubiquitous eventually. Classical results prove that this LDP involves an Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is related to the leading eigenvalue of the generator of the fast process, and is typically non-quadratic in the momenta—in other words, the LDP for the slow variables in fast-slow systems is different in general from that of any stochastic differential equation (SDE) one would write for the slow variables alone. It is shown here that the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian can be reduced to a simpler algebraic equation for this Hamiltonian for a specific class of systems in which the fast variables satisfy a linear equation whose coefficients depend nonlinearly on the slow variables, and the fast variables enter quadratically the equation for the slow variables. These results are illustrated via examples, inspired by kinetic theories of turbulent flows and plasma, in which the quasipotential characterizing the long time behavior of the system is calculated and shown again to be different from that of an SDE.

  6. Large Deviations for Nonlocal Stochastic Neural Fields

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers’ law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20. PMID:24742297

  7. Special ergodic theorems and dynamical large deviations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleptsyn, Victor; Ryzhov, Dmitry; Minkov, Stanislav

    2012-11-01

    Let f : M → M be a self-map of a compact Riemannian manifold M, admitting a global SRB measure μ. For a continuous test function \\varphi\\colon M\\to R and a constant α > 0, consider the set Kφ,α of the initial points for which the Birkhoff time averages of the function φ differ from its μ-space average by at least α. As the measure μ is a global SRB one, the set Kφ,α should have zero Lebesgue measure. The special ergodic theorem, whenever it holds, claims that, moreover, this set has a Hausdorff dimension less than the dimension of M. We prove that for Lipschitz maps, the special ergodic theorem follows from the dynamical large deviations principle. We also define and prove analogous result for flows. Applying the theorems of Young and of Araújo and Pacifico, we conclude that the special ergodic theorem holds for transitive hyperbolic attractors of C2-diffeomorphisms, as well as for some other known classes of maps (including the one of partially hyperbolic non-uniformly expanding maps) and flows.

  8. Large Deviations: Advanced Probability for Undergrads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolls, David A.

    2007-01-01

    In the branch of probability called "large deviations," rates of convergence (e.g. of the sample mean) are considered. The theory makes use of the moment generating function. So, particularly for sums of independent and identically distributed random variables, the theory can be made accessible to senior undergraduates after a first course in…

  9. Large deviations for Markov processes with resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meylahn, Janusz M.; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Touchette, Hugo

    2015-12-01

    Markov processes restarted or reset at random times to a fixed state or region in space have been actively studied recently in connection with random searches, foraging, and population dynamics. Here we study the large deviations of time-additive functions or observables of Markov processes with resetting. By deriving a renewal formula linking generating functions with and without resetting, we are able to obtain the rate function of such observables, characterizing the likelihood of their fluctuations in the long-time limit. We consider as an illustration the large deviations of the area of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with resetting. Other applications involving diffusions, random walks, and jump processes with resetting or catastrophes are discussed.

  10. On large deviations for ensembles of distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Khrychev, D A

    2013-11-30

    The paper is concerned with the large deviations problem in the Freidlin-Wentzell formulation without the assumption of the uniqueness of the solution to the equation involving white noise. In other words, it is assumed that for each ε>0 the nonempty set P{sub ε} of weak solutions is not necessarily a singleton. Analogues of a number of concepts in the theory of large deviations are introduced for the set (P{sub ε}, ε>0), hereafter referred to as an ensemble of distributions. The ensembles of weak solutions of an n-dimensional stochastic Navier-Stokes system and stochastic wave equation with power-law nonlinearity are shown to be uniformly exponentially tight. An idempotent Wiener process in a Hilbert space and idempotent partial differential equations are defined. The accumulation points in the sense of large deviations of the ensembles in question are shown to be weak solutions of the corresponding idempotent equations. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  11. Large deviations in single-file diffusion.

    PubMed

    Krapivsky, P L; Mallick, Kirone; Sadhu, Tridib

    2014-08-15

    We apply macroscopic fluctuation theory to study the diffusion of a tracer in a one-dimensional interacting particle system with excluded mutual passage, known as single-file diffusion. In the case of Brownian point particles with hard-core repulsion, we derive the cumulant generating function of the tracer position and its large deviation function. In the general case of arbitrary interparticle interactions, we express the variance of the tracer position in terms of the collective transport properties, viz., the diffusion coefficient and the mobility. Our analysis applies both for fluctuating (annealed) and fixed (quenched) initial configurations. PMID:25170732

  12. Large deviations in the random sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmett, Geoffrey

    1997-05-01

    The proportion [rho]k of gaps with length k between square-free numbers is shown to satisfy log[rho]k=[minus sign](1+o(1))(6/[pi]2) klogk as k[rightward arrow][infty infinity]. Such asymptotics are consistent with Erdos's challenge to prove that the gap following the square-free number t is smaller than clogt/log logt, for all t and some constant c satisfying c>[pi]2/12. The results of this paper are achieved by studying the probabilities of large deviations in a certain random sieve, for which the proportions [rho]k have representations as probabilities. The asymptotic form of [rho]k may be obtained in situations of greater generality, when the squared primes are replaced by an arbitrary sequence (sr) of relatively prime integers satisfying [sum L: summation operator]r1/sr<[infty infinity], subject to two further conditions of regularity on this sequence.

  13. Stochastic quantum Zeno by large deviation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherardini, Stefano; Gupta, Shamik; Saverio Cataliotti, Francesco; Smerzi, Augusto; Caruso, Filippo; Ruffo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quantum measurements are crucial for observing the properties of a quantum system, which, however, unavoidably perturb its state and dynamics in an irreversible way. Here we study the dynamics of a quantum system being subjected to a sequence of projective measurements applied at random times. In the case of independent and identically distributed intervals of time between consecutive measurements, we analytically demonstrate that the survival probability of the system to remain in the projected state assumes a large deviation (exponentially decaying) form in the limit of an infinite number of measurements. This allows us to estimate the typical value of the survival probability, which can therefore be tuned by controlling the probability distribution of the random time intervals. Our analytical results are numerically tested for Zeno-protected entangled states, which also demonstrate that the presence of disorder in the measurement sequence further enhances the survival probability when the Zeno limit is not reached (as it happens in experiments). Our studies provide a new tool for protecting and controlling the amount of quantum coherence in open complex quantum systems by means of tunable stochastic measurements.

  14. Path integrals and large deviations in stochastic hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2014-04-01

    We construct a path-integral representation of solutions to a stochastic hybrid system, consisting of one or more continuous variables evolving according to a piecewise-deterministic dynamics. The differential equations for the continuous variables are coupled to a set of discrete variables that satisfy a continuous-time Markov process, which means that the differential equations are only valid between jumps in the discrete variables. Examples of stochastic hybrid systems arise in biophysical models of stochastic ion channels, motor-driven intracellular transport, gene networks, and stochastic neural networks. We use the path-integral representation to derive a large deviation action principle for a stochastic hybrid system. Minimizing the associated action functional with respect to the set of all trajectories emanating from a metastable state (assuming that such a minimization scheme exists) then determines the most probable paths of escape. Moreover, evaluating the action functional along a most probable path generates the so-called quasipotential used in the calculation of mean first passage times. We illustrate the theory by considering the optimal paths of escape from a metastable state in a bistable neural network.

  15. Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry L.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-03-01

    A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Reλ=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.

  16. Small shape deviations causes complex dynamics in large electric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundström, Niklas L. P.; Grafström, Anton; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2014-05-01

    We prove that combinations of small eccentricity, ovality and/or triangularity in the rotor and stator can produce complex whirling motions of an unbalanced rotor in large synchronous generators. It is concluded which structures of shape deviations that are more harmful, in the sense of producing complex whirling motions, than others. For each such structure, we derive simplified equations of motions from which we conclude analytically the relation between shape deviations and mass unbalance that yield non-smooth whirling motions. Finally we discuss validity of our results in the sense of modeling of the unbalanced magnetic pull force.

  17. Large Deviations for Stochastic Tamed 3D Navier-Stokes Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Roeckner, Michael; Zhang, Tusheng; Zhang Xicheng

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, using weak convergence method, we prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for the stochastic tamed 3D Navier-Stokes equations driven by multiplicative noise, which was investigated in (Roeckner and Zhang in Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 145(1-2), 211-267, 2009).

  18. Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2010-12-15

    We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

  19. On the Iteration Properties of Large Deviations Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinxing; Wang, Xiong

    An important feature of chaoticity of a dynamical system (T,μ) is its sensitive dependence on initial conditions, which has recently been extended to a concept of ergodic sensitivity. This paper proves that if there exists a positive integer n such that (Tn,μ) satisfies the large deviations theorem or ergodicity, then so is (T,μ). Moreover, the iteration invariance of some ergodic properties are obtained.

  20. Large-deviation properties of Brownian motion with dry friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yaming; Just, Wolfram

    2014-10-01

    We investigate piecewise-linear stochastic models with regard to the probability distribution of functionals of the stochastic processes, a question that occurs frequently in large deviation theory. The functionals that we are looking into in detail are related to the time a stochastic process spends at a phase space point or in a phase space region, as well as to the motion with inertia. For a Langevin equation with discontinuous drift, we extend the so-called backward Fokker-Planck technique for non-negative support functionals to arbitrary support functionals, to derive explicit expressions for the moments of the functional. Explicit solutions for the moments and for the distribution of the so-called local time, the occupation time, and the displacement are derived for the Brownian motion with dry friction, including quantitative measures to characterize deviation from Gaussian behavior in the asymptotic long time limit.

  1. Stochastic 2D Hydrodynamical Type Systems: Well Posedness and Large Deviations

    SciTech Connect

    Chueshov, Igor; Millet, Annie

    2010-06-15

    We deal with a class of abstract nonlinear stochastic models, which covers many 2D hydrodynamical models including 2D Navier-Stokes equations, 2D MHD models and the 2D magnetic Benard problem and also some shell models of turbulence. We state the existence and uniqueness theorem for the class considered. Our main result is a Wentzell-Freidlin type large deviation principle for small multiplicative noise which we prove by a weak convergence method.

  2. Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K; Majumdar, Satya N

    2015-05-01

    We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A. While the mean perimeter 〈L〉 and the mean area 〈A〉 have been studied before, analytically and numerically, and exact results are known for large T (Brownian motion limit), little is known about the full distributions P(A) and P(L). In this paper we provide numerical results for these distributions. We use a sophisticated large-deviation approach that allows us to study the distributions over a larger range of the support, where the probabilities P(A) and P(L) are as small as 10(-300). We analyze (open) random walks as well as (closed) Brownian bridges on the two-dimensional discrete grid as well as in the two-dimensional plane. The resulting distributions exhibit, for large T, a universal scaling behavior (independent of the details of the jump distributions) as a function of A/T and L/√[T], respectively. We are also able to obtain the rate function, describing rare events at the tails of these distributions, via a numerical extrapolation scheme and find a linear and square dependence as a function of the rescaled perimeter and the rescaled area, respectively. PMID:26066116

  3. Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2015-05-01

    We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A . While the mean perimeter and the mean area have been studied before, analytically and numerically, and exact results are known for large T (Brownian motion limit), little is known about the full distributions P (A ) and P (L ) . In this paper we provide numerical results for these distributions. We use a sophisticated large-deviation approach that allows us to study the distributions over a larger range of the support, where the probabilities P (A ) and P (L ) are as small as 10-300. We analyze (open) random walks as well as (closed) Brownian bridges on the two-dimensional discrete grid as well as in the two-dimensional plane. The resulting distributions exhibit, for large T , a universal scaling behavior (independent of the details of the jump distributions) as a function of A /T and L /√{T } , respectively. We are also able to obtain the rate function, describing rare events at the tails of these distributions, via a numerical extrapolation scheme and find a linear and square dependence as a function of the rescaled perimeter and the rescaled area, respectively.

  4. From the Law of Large Numbers to Large Deviation Theory in Statistical Physics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Fabio; Cencini, Massimo; Puglisi, Andrea; Vergni, Davide; Vulpiani, Angelo

    This contribution aims at introducing the topics of this book. We start with a brief historical excursion on the developments from the law of large numbers to the central limit theorem and large deviations theory. The same topics are then presented using the language of probability theory. Finally, some applications of large deviations theory in physics are briefly discussed through examples taken from statistical mechanics, dynamical and disordered systems.

  5. Irreversible Langevin samplers and variance reduction: a large deviations approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey-Bellet, Luc; Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-07-01

    In order to sample from a given target distribution (often of Gibbs type), the Monte Carlo Markov chain method consists of constructing an ergodic Markov process whose invariant measure is the target distribution. By sampling the Markov process one can then compute, approximately, expectations of observables with respect to the target distribution. Often the Markov processes used in practice are time-reversible (i.e. they satisfy detailed balance), but our main goal here is to assess and quantify how the addition of a non-reversible part to the process can be used to improve the sampling properties. We focus on the diffusion setting (overdamped Langevin equations) where the drift consists of a gradient vector field as well as another drift which breaks the reversibility of the process but is chosen to preserve the Gibbs measure. In this paper we use the large deviation rate function for the empirical measure as a tool to analyze the speed of convergence to the invariant measure. We show that the addition of an irreversible drift leads to a larger rate function and it strictly improves the speed of convergence of ergodic average for (generic smooth) observables. We also deduce from this result that the asymptotic variance decreases under the addition of the irreversible drift and we give an explicit characterization of the observables whose variance is not reduced reduced, in terms of a nonlinear Poisson equation. Our theoretical results are illustrated and supplemented by numerical simulations.

  6. Locality and nonlocality of classical restrictions of quantum spin systems with applications to quantum large deviations and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    De Roeck, W. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Maes, C. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Schütz, M. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Netočný, K. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be

    2015-02-15

    We study the projection on classical spins starting from quantum equilibria. We show Gibbsianness or quasi-locality of the resulting classical spin system for a class of gapped quantum systems at low temperatures including quantum ground states. A consequence of Gibbsianness is the validity of a large deviation principle in the quantum system which is known and here recovered in regimes of high temperature or for thermal states in one dimension. On the other hand, we give an example of a quantum ground state with strong nonlocality in the classical restriction, giving rise to what we call measurement induced entanglement and still satisfying a large deviation principle.

  7. Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Patrick; Médigue, Claire; Gonçalves, Paulo; Attia, Najmeddine; Seuret, Stéphane; Cottin, François; Chemla, Denis; Sorine, Michel; Barral, Julien

    2012-11-01

    In the realm of multiscale signal analysis, multifractal analysis provides a natural and rich framework to measure the roughness of a time series. As such, it has drawn special attention of both mathematicians and practitioners, and led them to characterize relevant physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding these considerable progresses, multifractal analysis almost exclusively developed around the concept of Legendre singularity spectrum, for which efficient and elaborate estimators exist, but which are structurally blind to subtle features like non-concavity or, to a certain extent, non scaling of the distributions. Large deviations theory allows bypassing these limitations but it is only very recently that performing estimators were proposed to reliably compute the corresponding large deviations singularity spectrum. In this article, we illustrate the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate signals from the Physionet public database. As conjectured, we verify that large deviations principles reveal significant information that otherwise remains hidden with classical approaches, and which can be reminiscent of some physiological characteristics. In particular we quantify the presence/absence of scale invariance of RR signals.

  8. On the concentration of large deviations for fat tailed distributions, with application to financial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiasi, Mario; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Peressi, Maria; Vesselli, Erik; Zarinelli, Elia

    2014-09-01

    Large deviations for fat tailed distributions, i.e. those that decay slower than exponential, are not only relatively likely, but they also occur in a rather peculiar way where a finite fraction of the whole sample deviation is concentrated on a single variable. The regime of large deviations is separated from the regime of typical fluctuations by a phase transition where the symmetry between the points in the sample is spontaneously broken. For stochastic processes with a fat tailed microscopic noise, this implies that, while typical realizations are well described by a diffusion process with continuous sample paths, large deviation paths are typically discontinuous. For eigenvalues of random matrices with fat tailed distributed elements, a large deviation where the trace of the matrix is anomalously large concentrates on just a single eigenvalue, whereas in the thin tailed world the large deviation affects the whole distribution. These results find a natural application to finance. Since the price dynamics of financial stocks are characterized by fat tailed increments, large fluctuations in stock prices are expected to be realized by discrete jumps. Interestingly, we find that large excursions of prices are more likely realized by continuous drifts rather than by discontinuous jumps. Indeed, auto correlations suppress the concentration of large deviations. Financial covariance matrices also exhibit an anomalously large eigenvalue, the market mode, as compared to the prediction of random matrix theory. We show that this is explained by a large deviation with excess covariance rather than by one with excess volatility.

  9. Synchronization of Stochastically Coupled Oscillators: Dynamical Phase Transitions and Large Deviations Theory (or Birds and Frogs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Razvan

    2009-10-01

    Systems of oscillators coupled non-linearly (stochastically or not) are ubiquitous in nature and can explain many complex phenomena: coupled Josephson junction arrays, cardiac pacemaker cells, swarms or flocks of insects and birds, etc. They are know to have a non-trivial phase diagram, which includes chaotic, partially synchronized, and fully synchronized phases. A traditional model for this class of problems is the Kuramoto system of oscillators, which has been studied extensively for the last three decades. The model is a canonical example for non-equilibrium, dynamical phase transitions, so little understood in physics. From a stochastic analysis point of view, the transition is described by the large deviations principle, which offers little information on the scaling behavior near the critical point. I will discuss a special case of the model, which allows a rigorous analysis of the critical properties of the model, and reveals a new, anomalous scaling behavior in the vicinity of the critical point.

  10. Back in the saddle: Large-deviation statistics of the cosmic log-density field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, C.; Codis, S.; Pichon, C.; Bernardeau, F.; Reimberg, P.

    2016-05-01

    We present a first principle approach to obtain analytical predictions for spherically-averaged cosmic densities in the mildly non-linear regime that go well beyond what is usually achieved by standard perturbation theory. A large deviation principle allows us to compute the leading-order cumulants of average densities in concentric cells. In this symmetry, the spherical collapse model leads to cumulant generating functions that are robust for finite variances and free of critical points when logarithmic density transformations are implemented. They yield in turn accurate density probability distribution functions (PDFs) from a straightforward saddle-point approximation valid for all density values. Based on this easy-to-implement modification, explicit analytic formulas for the evaluation of the one- and two-cell PDF are provided. The theoretical predictions obtained for the PDFs are accurate to a few percent compared to the numerical integration, regardless of the density under consideration and in excellent agreement with N-body simulations for a wide range of densities. This formalism should prove valuable for accurately probing the quasi-linear scales of low redshift surveys for arbitrary primordial power spectra.

  11. Two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction kinetics through second quantization path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tiejun; Lin, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the study of rare events for a typical genetic switching model in systems biology, in this paper we aim to establish the general two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction systems. We build a formal approach to explicitly obtain the large deviation rate functionals for the considered two-scale processes based upon the second quantization path integral technique. We get three important types of large deviation results when the underlying two timescales are in three different regimes. This is realized by singular perturbation analysis to the rate functionals obtained by the path integral. We find that the three regimes possess the same deterministic mean-field limit but completely different chemical Langevin approximations. The obtained results are natural extensions of the classical large volume limit for chemical reactions. We also discuss its implication on the single-molecule Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Our framework and results can be applied to understand general multi-scale systems including diffusion processes.

  12. Efficiency and large deviations in time-asymmetric stochastic heat engines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gingrich, Todd R.; Rotskoff, Grant M.; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2014-10-24

    In a stochastic heat engine driven by a cyclic non-equilibrium protocol, fluctuations in work and heat give rise to a fluctuating efficiency. Using computer simulations and tools from large deviation theory, we have examined these fluctuations in detail for a model two-state engine. We find in general that the form of efficiency probability distributions is similar to those described by Verley et al (2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4721), in particular featuring a local minimum in the long-time limit. In contrast to the time-symmetric engine protocols studied previously, however, this minimum need not occur at the value characteristic of a reversible Carnot engine. Furthermore, while the local minimum may reside at the global minimum of a large deviation rate function, it does not generally correspond to the least likely efficiency measured over finite time. Lastly, we introduce a general approximation for the finite-time efficiency distribution,more » $$P(\\eta )$$, based on large deviation statistics of work and heat, that remains very accurate even when $$P(\\eta )$$ deviates significantly from its large deviation form.« less

  13. Efficiency and large deviations in time-asymmetric stochastic heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingrich, Todd R.; Rotskoff, Grant M.; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2014-10-01

    In a stochastic heat engine driven by a cyclic non-equilibrium protocol, fluctuations in work and heat give rise to a fluctuating efficiency. Using computer simulations and tools from large deviation theory, we have examined these fluctuations in detail for a model two-state engine. We find in general that the form of efficiency probability distributions is similar to those described by Verley et al (2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4721), in particular featuring a local minimum in the long-time limit. In contrast to the time-symmetric engine protocols studied previously, however, this minimum need not occur at the value characteristic of a reversible Carnot engine. Furthermore, while the local minimum may reside at the global minimum of a large deviation rate function, it does not generally correspond to the least likely efficiency measured over finite time. We introduce a general approximation for the finite-time efficiency distribution, P(η ), based on large deviation statistics of work and heat, that remains very accurate even when P(η ) deviates significantly from its large deviation form.

  14. Efficiency and Large Deviations in Time-Asymmetric Stochastic Heat Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingrich, Todd; Rotskoff, Grant; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Geissler, Phillip

    2015-03-01

    In a stochastic heat engine driven by a cyclic non-equilibrium protocol, fluctuations in work and heat give rise to a fluctuating efficiency. Using computer simulations and tools from large deviation theory, we have examined these fluctuations in detail for a model two-state engine. We find in general that the form of efficiency probability distributions is similar to those described by Verley et al. [2014 Nat Comm, 5 4721], in particular featuring a local minimum in the long-time limit. In contrast to the time-symmetric engine protocols studied previously, however, this minimum need not occur at the value characteristic of a reversible Carnot engine. Furthermore, while the local minimum may reside at the global minimum of a large deviation rate function, it does not generally correspond to the least likely efficiency measured over finite time.

  15. Loss aversion, large deviation preferences and optimal portfolio weights for some classes of return processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Ken; Lobunets, Olena; Suhov, Yuri

    2007-05-01

    We propose a model of a loss averse investor who aims to maximize his expected wealth under certain constraints. The constraints are that he avoids, with high probability, incurring an (suitably defined) unacceptable loss. The methodology employed comes from the theory of large deviations. We explore a number of fundamental properties of the model and illustrate its desirable features. We demonstrate its utility by analyzing assets that follow some commonly used financial return processes: Fractional Brownian Motion, Jump Diffusion, Variance Gamma and Truncated Lévy.

  16. Phase Diagram and Density Large Deviations of a Nonconserving ABC Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, O.; Mukamel, D.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of particle-nonconserving processes on the steady state of driven diffusive systems is studied within the context of a generalized ABC model. It is shown that in the limit of slow nonconserving processes, the large deviation function of the overall particle density can be computed by making use of the steady-state density profile of the conserving model. In this limit one can define a chemical potential and identify first order transitions via Maxwell’s construction, similarly to what is done in equilibrium systems. This method may be applied to other driven models subjected to slow nonconserving dynamics.

  17. Large deviations for the height in 1D Kardar-Parisi-Zhang growth at late times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Doussal, Pierre; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

    2016-03-01

    We study the atypically large deviations of the height H∼O}(t) at the origin at late times in (1 + 1)-dimensional growth models belonging to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class. We present exact results for the rate functions for the discrete single-step growth model, as well as for the continuum KPZ equation in a droplet geometry. Based on our exact calculation of the rate functions we argue that models in the KPZ class undergo a third-order phase transition from a strong-coupling to a weak-coupling phase, at late times.

  18. Fine-structured large deviations and the fluctuation theorem: Molecular motors and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Zimmermann, Eva; Seifert, Udo

    2014-07-01

    By considering subexponential contributions in large deviation theory, we determine the fine structure in the probability distribution of the observable displacement of a bead coupled to a molecular motor. More generally, for any stochastic motion along a periodic substrate, this approach reveals a discrete symmetry of this distribution for which hidden degrees of freedom lead to a periodic modulation of the slope typically associated with the fluctuation theorem. Contrary to previous interpretations of experimental data, the mean force exerted by a molecular motor is unrelated to the long-time asymptotics of this slope and must rather be extracted from its short-time limit.

  19. Quadratic and rate-independent limits for a large-deviations functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaschi, Giovanni A.; Peletier, Mark A.

    2015-08-01

    We construct a stochastic model showing the relationship between noise, gradient flows and rate-independent systems. The model consists of a one-dimensional birth-death process on a lattice, with rates derived from Kramers' law as an approximation of a Brownian motion on a wiggly energy landscape. Taking various limits, we show how to obtain a whole family of generalized gradient flows, ranging from quadratic to rate-independent ones, connected via `L log L' gradient flows. This is achieved via Mosco-convergence of the renormalized large-deviations rate functional of the stochastic process.

  20. Design Principles of Concentration-Dependent Transcriptome Deviations in Drug-Exposed Differentiating Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Information on design principles governing transcriptome changes upon transition from safe to hazardous drug concentrations or from tolerated to cytotoxic drug levels are important for the application of toxicogenomics data in developmental toxicology. Here, we tested the effect of eight concentrations of valproic acid (VPA; 25–1000 μM) in an assay that recapitulates the development of human embryonic stem cells to neuroectoderm. Cells were exposed to the drug during the entire differentiation process, and the number of differentially regulated genes increased continuously over the concentration range from zero to about 3000. We identified overrepresented transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) as well as superordinate cell biological processes, and we developed a gene ontology (GO) activation profiler, as well as a two-dimensional teratogenicity index. Analysis of the transcriptome data set by the above biostatistical and systems biology approaches yielded the following insights: (i) tolerated (≤25 μM), deregulated/teratogenic (150–550 μM), and cytotoxic (≥800 μM) concentrations could be differentiated. (ii) Biological signatures related to the mode of action of VPA, such as protein acetylation, developmental changes, and cell migration, emerged from the teratogenic concentrations range. (iii) Cytotoxicity was not accompanied by signatures of newly emerging canonical cell death/stress indicators, but by catabolism and decreased expression of cell cycle associated genes. (iv) Most, but not all of the GO groups and TFBS seen at the highest concentrations were already overrepresented at 350–450 μM. (v) The teratogenicity index reflected this behavior, and thus differed strongly from cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest the use of the highest noncytotoxic drug concentration for gene array toxicogenomics studies, as higher concentrations possibly yield wrong information on the mode of action, and lower drug levels result in decreased gene expression changes and thus a reduced power of the study. PMID:24383497

  1. Large Deviations of Surface Height in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerson, Baruch; Katzav, Eytan; Vilenkin, Arkady

    2016-02-01

    Using the weak-noise theory, we evaluate the probability distribution P (H ,t ) of large deviations of height H of the evolving surface height h (x ,t ) in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation in one dimension when starting from a flat interface. We also determine the optimal history of the interface, conditioned on reaching the height H at time t . We argue that the tails of P behave, at arbitrary time t >0 , and in a proper moving frame, as -ln P ˜|H |5 /2 and ˜|H |3/2. The 3 /2 tail coincides with the asymptotic of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble Tracy-Widom distribution, previously observed at long times.

  2. Analytical Mechanics in Stochastic Dynamics: Most Probable Path, Large-Deviation Rate Function and Hamilton-Jacobi Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Analytical (rational) mechanics is the mathematical structure of Newtonian deterministic dynamics developed by D'Alembert, Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi, and many other luminaries of applied mathematics. Diffusion as a stochastic process of an overdamped individual particle immersed in a fluid, initiated by Einstein, Smoluchowski, Langevin and Wiener, has no momentum since its path is nowhere differentiable. In this exposition, we illustrate how analytical mechanics arises in stochastic dynamics from a randomly perturbed ordinary differential equation dXt = b(Xt)dt+ɛdWt, where Wt is a Brownian motion. In the limit of vanishingly small ɛ, the solution to the stochastic differential equation other than ˙ {x} = b(x) are all rare events. However, conditioned on an occurrence of such an event, the most probable trajectory of the stochastic motion is the solution to Lagrangian mechanics with L = \\Vert ˙ {q}-b(q)\\Vert 2/4 and Hamiltonian equations with H(p, q) = \\dvbr p\\dvbr2+b(q)ṡp. Hamiltonian conservation law implies that the most probable trajectory for a "rare" event has a uniform "excess kinetic energy" along its path. Rare events can also be characterized by the principle of large deviations which expresses the probability density function for Xt as f(x, t) = e-u(x, t)/ɛ, where u(x, t) is called a large-deviation rate function which satisfies the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation. An irreversible diffusion process with ∇×b≠0 corresponds to a Newtonian system with a Lorentz force ḋ {q} = (∇ × b)× ˙ {q}+({1}/{2})∇ \\Vert b\\Vert 2. The connection between stochastic motion and analytical mechanics can be explored in terms of various techniques of applied mathematics, for example, singular perturbations, viscosity solutions and integrable systems.

  3. Large-deviation joint statistics of the finite-time Lyapunov spectrum in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry L.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-08-01

    One of the hallmarks of turbulent flows is the chaotic behavior of fluid particle paths with exponentially growing separation among them while their distance does not exceed the viscous range. The maximal (positive) Lyapunov exponent represents the average strength of the exponential growth rate, while fluctuations in the rate of growth are characterized by the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs). In the last decade or so, the notion of Lagrangian coherent structures (which are often computed using FTLEs) has gained attention as a tool for visualizing coherent trajectory patterns in a flow and distinguishing regions of the flow with different mixing properties. A quantitative statistical characterization of FTLEs can be accomplished using the statistical theory of large deviations, based on the so-called Cramér function. To obtain the Cramér function from data, we use both the method based on measuring moments and measuring histograms and introduce a finite-size correction to the histogram-based method. We generalize the existing univariate formalism to the joint distributions of the two FTLEs needed to fully specify the Lyapunov spectrum in 3D flows. The joint Cramér function of turbulence is measured from two direct numerical simulation datasets of isotropic turbulence. Results are compared with joint statistics of FTLEs computed using only the symmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor, as well as with joint statistics of instantaneous strain-rate eigenvalues. When using only the strain contribution of the velocity gradient, the maximal FTLE nearly doubles in magnitude, highlighting the role of rotation in de-correlating the fluid deformations along particle paths. We also extend the large-deviation theory to study the statistics of the ratio of FTLEs. The most likely ratio of the FTLEs λ1 : λ2 : λ3 is shown to be about 4:1:-5, compared to about 8:3:-11 when using only the strain-rate tensor for calculating fluid volume deformations. The results serve to characterize the fundamental statistical and geometric structure of turbulence at small scales including cumulative, time integrated effects. These are important for deformable particles such as droplets and polymers advected by turbulence.

  4. Large-deviation joint statistics of the finite-time Lyapunov spectrum in isotropic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Perry L. Meneveau, Charles

    2015-08-15

    One of the hallmarks of turbulent flows is the chaotic behavior of fluid particle paths with exponentially growing separation among them while their distance does not exceed the viscous range. The maximal (positive) Lyapunov exponent represents the average strength of the exponential growth rate, while fluctuations in the rate of growth are characterized by the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs). In the last decade or so, the notion of Lagrangian coherent structures (which are often computed using FTLEs) has gained attention as a tool for visualizing coherent trajectory patterns in a flow and distinguishing regions of the flow with different mixing properties. A quantitative statistical characterization of FTLEs can be accomplished using the statistical theory of large deviations, based on the so-called Cramér function. To obtain the Cramér function from data, we use both the method based on measuring moments and measuring histograms and introduce a finite-size correction to the histogram-based method. We generalize the existing univariate formalism to the joint distributions of the two FTLEs needed to fully specify the Lyapunov spectrum in 3D flows. The joint Cramér function of turbulence is measured from two direct numerical simulation datasets of isotropic turbulence. Results are compared with joint statistics of FTLEs computed using only the symmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor, as well as with joint statistics of instantaneous strain-rate eigenvalues. When using only the strain contribution of the velocity gradient, the maximal FTLE nearly doubles in magnitude, highlighting the role of rotation in de-correlating the fluid deformations along particle paths. We also extend the large-deviation theory to study the statistics of the ratio of FTLEs. The most likely ratio of the FTLEs λ{sub 1} : λ{sub 2} : λ{sub 3} is shown to be about 4:1:−5, compared to about 8:3:−11 when using only the strain-rate tensor for calculating fluid volume deformations. The results serve to characterize the fundamental statistical and geometric structure of turbulence at small scales including cumulative, time integrated effects. These are important for deformable particles such as droplets and polymers advected by turbulence.

  5. Large deviations of the maximum of independent and identically distributed random variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2015-09-01

    A pedagogical account of some aspects of extreme value statistics (EVS) is presented from the somewhat non-standard viewpoint of large deviation theory. We address the following problem: given a set of N independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables \\{{X}1,\\ldots ,{X}N\\} drawn from a parent probability density function (pdf) p(x), what is the probability that the maximum value of the set {X}{max}={{max}}i{X}i is ‘atypically larger’ than expected? The cases of exponential and Gaussian distributed variables are worked out in detail, and the right rate function for a general pdf in the Gumbel basin of attraction is derived. The Gaussian case convincingly demonstrates that the full rate function cannot be determined from the knowledge of the limiting distribution (Gumbel) alone, thus implying that it indeed carries additional information. Given the simplicity and richness of the result and its derivation, its absence from textbooks, tutorials and lecture notes on EVS for physicists appears inexplicable.

  6. A Thermodynamic Formalism for Continuous Time Markov Chains with Values on the Bernoulli Space: Entropy, Pressure and Large Deviations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Artur; Neumann, Adriana; Thieullen, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    Through this paper we analyze the ergodic properties of continuous time Markov chains with values on the one-dimensional spin lattice (also known as the Bernoulli space). Initially, we consider as the infinitesimal generator the operator [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], where [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is a discrete time Ruelle operator (transfer operator), and is a given fixed Lipschitz function. The associated continuous time stationary Markov chain will define the a priori probability. Given a Lipschitz interaction , we are interested in Gibbs (equilibrium) state for such V. This will be another continuous time stationary Markov chain. In order to analyze this problem we will use a continuous time Ruelle operator (transfer operator) naturally associated to V. Among other things we will show that a continuous time Perron-Frobenius Theorem is true in the case V is a Lipschitz function. We also introduce an entropy, which is negative (see also Lopes et al. in Entropy and Variational Principle for one-dimensional Lattice Systems with a general a-priori probability: positive and zero temperature. Arxiv, 2012), and we consider a variational principle of pressure. Finally, we analyze large deviations properties for the empirical measure in the continuous time setting using results by Y. Kifer (Tamsui Oxf. J. Manag. Sci. 321(2):505-524, 1990). In the last appendix of the paper we explain why the techniques we develop here have the capability to be applied to the analysis of convergence of a certain version of the Metropolis algorithm.

  7. Unification of Small and Large Time Scales for Biological Evolution: Deviations from Power Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2003-02-01

    We develop a unified model that describes both “micro” and “macro” evolutions within a single theoretical framework. The ecosystem is described as a dynamic network; the population dynamics at each node of this network describes the “microevolution” over ecological time scales (i.e., birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms), while the appearance of new nodes, the slow changes of the links, and the disappearance of existing nodes accounts for the “macroevolution” over geological time scales (i.e., the origination, evolution, and extinction of species). In contrast to several earlier claims in the literature, we observe strong deviations from power law in the regime of long lifetimes.

  8. Tsallis maximum entropy principle and the law of large numbers

    SciTech Connect

    La Cour, Brian R.; Schieve, William C.

    2000-11-01

    Tsallis has suggested a nonextensive generalization of the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy, the maximization of which gives a generalized canonical distribution under special constraints. In this Brief Report, we show that the generalized canonical distribution so obtained may differ from that predicted by the law of large numbers when empirical samples are held to the same constraint. This conclusion is based on a result regarding the large deviation property of conditional measures and is confirmed by numerical evidence.

  9. Extending the Principles of Intensive Writing to Large Macroeconomics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, Peter; Tse, Harry; Forman, Ross; McKenzie, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the design and implementation of a pilot program to extend the principles of intensive writing outlined by W. Lee Hansen (1998), Murray S. Simpson and Shireen E. Carroll (1999) and David Carless (2006) to large macroeconomics classes. The key aspect of this program was its collaborative nature, with staff from two specialist…

  10. Directed Network as a Chaotic Piece-Wise Linear One-Dimensional Map and Its Large-Deviation Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, S.

    A directed network such as the WWW can be represented by a transition matrix. Comparing this matrix to a Frobenius-Perron matrix of a chaotic piecewise-linear one-dimensional map whose domain can be divided into Markov subintervals, we are able to relate the network structure itself to chaotic dynamics. Just like various large-deviation properties of local expansion rates (finite-time Lyapunov exponents) related to chaotic dynamics, we can also discuss those properties of network structure. Recurrence time statistics and their relationships to double time correlation functions and to power spectra are also considered.

  11. Large aperture spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer: Principle and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangli, Bin; Cai, Qisheng; Du, Shusong

    2015-12-01

    A large aperture spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer (LASHIS) is proposed. It is a kind of pushbroom Fourier transform ultraspectral imager with no moving parts. This imaging spectrometer, based on a Sagnac lateral shearing interferometer combined with a pair of gratings, has the advantages of high spectral resolution, high throughput and robustness. The principle of LASHIS and its spectral retrieval method are introduced. The processing chain to convert raw images to ultraspectral datacube is also described. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolving power of LASHIS with the emission spectrum of a low pressure sodium lamp.

  12. Large deviations in stochastic heat-conduction processes provide a gradient-flow structure for heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars

    2014-09-01

    We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form -log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ² for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation.

  13. Large fluctuations of the macroscopic current in diffusive systems: a numerical test of the additivity principle.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L

    2010-04-01

    Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems. PMID:20481672

  14. Matching between typical fluctuations and large deviations in disordered systems: application to the statistics of the ground state energy in the SK spin-glass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    For the statistics of global observables in disordered systems, we discuss the matching between typical fluctuations and large deviations. We focus on the statistics of the ground state energy E0 in disorder models of two types: (i) for the directed polymer of length N in a two-dimensional medium, for which many exact results exist; (ii) for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin-glass model of N spins, for which various possibilities have been proposed. Here we stress that it is very instructive to study, besides the behavior of the disorder average E0av(N) and that of the standard deviation ΔE0(N) ~ Nωf that defines the fluctuation exponent ωf, also the full probability distribution Π(u) of the rescaled variable u = (E0(N) - E0av(N))/ΔE0(N): (a) numerically, the convergence towards Π(u) is usually very rapid, so data for rather small sizes but with high statistics allow one to measure the two tail exponents η ± defined as \\ln \\Pi (u \\to \\pm \\infty) \\sim-\\vert u \\vert^{\\eta_{\\pm }} ; in the generic case 1\\lt \\eta_{\\pm } \\lt+\\infty , this leads to explicit non-trivial terms in the asymptotic behaviors of the moments \\overline {Z_N^n} of the partition function when the combination [|n|Nωf] becomes large; (b) simple rare events arguments can usually be found for providing explicit relations between η ± and ωf these rare events usually correspond to 'anomalous' large deviation properties of the generalized form R(w_{\\pm }=({E_0(N)-E_0^{\\mathrm {av}}(N)})/{N^{\\kappa _{\\pm }}}) \\sim \\rme^{-N^{\\rho_{\\pm }} {\\cal R}_{\\pm }(w_{\\pm })} (the 'usual' large deviations formalism corresponds to κ ± = 1 = ρ ± ).

  15. Large impurity effects in rubrene crystals: First-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Tsetseris, L.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2008-01-01

    Carrier mobilities of rubrene films are among the highest values reported for any organic semiconductor. Here, we probe with first-principles calculations the sensitivity of rubrene crystals on impurities. We find that isolated oxygen impurities create distinct peaks in the electronic density of states consistent with observations of defect levels in rubrene and that increased O content changes the position and shape of rubrene energy bands significantly. We also establish a dual role of hydrogen as individual H species and H impurity pairs create and annihilate deep carrier traps, respectively. The results are relevant to the performance and reliability of rubrene-based devices.

  16. Large deviations from the polarization-analyzing power equality and implied breakdown of time reversal invariance. [14 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Conzett, H.E.

    1980-09-01

    The first test that compares the polarization (P) and the analyzing power (A) from measurements in a nuclear reaction and its inverse is reported. The reactions chosen for the P-A comparisons were the two-nucleon transfers /sup 7/Li(/sup 3/He,p)/sup 9/Be and /sup 9/Be(/sup 3/He,p)/sup 11/B, with 14-MeV incident /sup 3/He ions, and their inverses studied at the same CM energies. An astonishingly large P-A difference is found. The clear implication is that time-reversal invariance (TRI) is broken in some component of the nuclear interaction, since the polarization-analyzing power equality follows directly from TRI. 5 figures. (RWR)

  17. deltaT/T limits from the UCSB South Pole degree-scale experiment and constraints on the large-scale deviations from the Hubble flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.

    1992-01-01

    The limits to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) temperature anisotropy derived from the results of the University of California at Santa Barbara South Pole degree-scale experiment are translated into upper bounds on large-scale deviations from the Hubble flow. The lack of measurable CBR anisotropy in this experiment implies very low upper bounds upon the rms amplitude V(R) of the streaming motion within a Gaussian window of radius R: Vmax(R is greater than 4000 km/s) less than 200 km/s, and Vmax(R is greater than 7500 km/s) is less than 100 km/s. Thus, the smoothness of the CBR at about 1-2 deg and the apparent large-amplitude (about 500 km/s) deviations from pure Hubble flow at R greater than about 4000 km/s cannot be simultaneously explained in the framework of usual large-scale structure formation models based on the assumptions involved in this calculation.

  18. Final Technical Report - Large Deviation Methods for the Analysis and Design of Monte Carlo Schemes in Physics and Chemistry - DE-SC0002413

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, Paul

    2014-03-14

    This proposal is concerned with applications of Monte Carlo to problems in physics and chemistry where rare events degrade the performance of standard Monte Carlo. One class of problems is concerned with computation of various aspects of the equilibrium behavior of some Markov process via time averages. The problem to be overcome is that rare events interfere with the efficient sampling of all relevant parts of phase space. A second class concerns sampling transitions between two or more stable attractors. Here, rare events do not interfere with the sampling of all relevant parts of phase space, but make Monte Carlo inefficient because of the very large number of samples required to obtain variance comparable to the quantity estimated. The project uses large deviation methods for the mathematical analyses of various Monte Carlo techniques, and in particular for algorithmic analysis and design. This is done in the context of relevant application areas, mainly from chemistry and biology.

  19. Characterizing Coherent Wind Structures using Large-Scale Particle Tracking Velocimetry: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, G. A.; la Bastide, B.; Gaebler, J.; Kinzel, M.; Rival, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    The following study proposes a two-dimensional large-scale particle tracking velocimetry (LS-PTV) system to characterize coherent wind structures. Seven minutes of LS-PTV data is collected via an apparatus that seeds fog-filled soap bubbles into the wind at a height of 6m from the ground. The LS-PTV data is compared to 20 minutes of data collected concurrently from a wind mast at the same site. The LS-PTV system recorded a mean streamwise velocity of 1.35m/s with a standard deviation of 0.23m/s at a mean height of 2.50m with a standard deviation of 0.7m, which agrees well with the velocity profile measured by the wind mast. Furthermore, the Reynolds stresses measured by the LS-PTV system are found to compare to those measured by the wind mast and by Klebanoff [1] for a canonical turbulent boundary layer. The current study assumes that the centre-of-curvature trajectories of the particle pathlines are representative of the trajectories followed by the spanwise vortices. As a proof-of-principle study, this work has been successful in accurately describing the vortex distribution very near to the ground. However, the trajectories followed by the centres-of- curvat.ure belonging to pathlines concurrently passing through the field-of-view were sporadic and uncorrelated.

  20. Implementing the "Marketing You" Project in Large Sections of Principles of Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    There is mounting pressure on business education to increase experiential learning at the same time that budget constraints are forcing universities to increase class size. This article explains the design and implementation of the "Marketing You" project in two large sections of Principles of Marketing to bring experiential learning into the…

  1. On Large Time Behavior and Selection Principle for a Diffusive Carr-Penrose Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlon, Joseph G.; Dabkowski, Michael; Wu, Jingchen

    2016-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the study of a diffusive perturbation of the linear LSW model introduced by Carr and Penrose. A main subject of interest is to understand how the presence of diffusion acts as a selection principle, which singles out a particular self-similar solution of the linear LSW model as determining the large time behavior of the diffusive model. A selection principle is rigorously proven for a model which is a semiclassical approximation to the diffusive model. Upper bounds on the rate of coarsening are also obtained for the full diffusive model.

  2. Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Electrostatic Embedding: Application to Acetylcholinesterase Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Lau, Edmond Y.; Bennion, Brian J.; Huang, Patrick; Lightstone, Felice C.

    2015-10-22

    Enzymes are complicated solvated systems that typically require many atoms to simulate their function with any degree of accuracy. We have recently developed numerical techniques for large scale First-Principles molecular dynamics simulations and applied them to study the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. We carried out Density functional theory calculations for a quantum mechanical (QM) sub- system consisting of 612 atoms with an O(N) complexity finite-difference approach. The QM sub-system is embedded inside an external potential field representing the electrostatic effect due to the environment. We obtained finite temperature sampling by First-Principles molecular dynamics for the acylation reaction of acetylcholine catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. Our calculations shows two energies barriers along the reaction coordinate for the enzyme catalyzed acylation of acetylcholine. In conclusion, the second barrier (8.5 kcal/mole) is rate-limiting for the acylation reaction and in good agreement with experiment.

  3. Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Electrostatic Embedding: Application to Acetylcholinesterase Catalysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Lau, Edmond Y.; Bennion, Brian J.; Huang, Patrick; Lightstone, Felice C.

    2015-10-22

    Enzymes are complicated solvated systems that typically require many atoms to simulate their function with any degree of accuracy. We have recently developed numerical techniques for large scale First-Principles molecular dynamics simulations and applied them to study the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. We carried out Density functional theory calculations for a quantum mechanical (QM) sub- system consisting of 612 atoms with an O(N) complexity finite-difference approach. The QM sub-system is embedded inside an external potential field representing the electrostatic effect due to the environment. We obtained finite temperature sampling by First-Principles molecular dynamics for the acylation reaction of acetylcholinemore » catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. Our calculations shows two energies barriers along the reaction coordinate for the enzyme catalyzed acylation of acetylcholine. In conclusion, the second barrier (8.5 kcal/mole) is rate-limiting for the acylation reaction and in good agreement with experiment.« less

  4. New principle for large-scale preparation of purified human pancreas islets.

    PubMed

    Winoto-Morbach, S; Ulrichs, K; Leyhausen, G; Mller-Ruchholtz, W

    1989-01-01

    Because successful human islet transplantation requires large quantities of viable islets that must be separated from the highly immunogenic exocrine tissue and because handpicking is too time-consuming and laborious to be clinically relevant, a new approach for solving this problem has been established in rat models. It is based on the principle that magnetic microspheres (MMSs) coupled to lectins with binding specificity for the exocrine tissue portion are trapped in an electromagnetic field, thus providing effluent islets of a high degree of purity. In this study our aim was to adapt this principle to human islet preparations. In this context our prime interest was focused on a lectin suitable for human pancreatic tissue. Of 19 different lectins tested, only 1, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), is suitable, as shown by immunofluorescence, MMS-lectin binding, and magnetic separation. PMID:2642840

  5. Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Electrostatic Embedding: Application to Acetylcholinesterase Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Lau, Edmond Y; Bennion, Brian J; Huang, Patrick; Lightstone, Felice C

    2015-12-01

    Enzymes are complicated solvated systems that typically require many atoms to simulate their function with any degree of accuracy. We have recently developed numerical techniques for large scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and applied them to the study of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. We carried out density functional theory calculations for a quantum-mechanical (QM) subsystem consisting of 612 atoms with an O(N) complexity finite-difference approach. The QM subsystem is embedded inside an external potential field representing the electrostatic effect due to the environment. We obtained finite-temperature sampling by first-principles molecular dynamics for the acylation reaction of acetylcholine catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. Our calculations show two energy barriers along the reaction coordinate for the enzyme-catalyzed acylation of acetylcholine. The second barrier (8.5 kcal/mol) is rate-limiting for the acylation reaction and in good agreement with experiment. PMID:26642985

  6. Requirements and principles for the implementation and construction of large-scale geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Terence R.; Menon, Sudhakar; Star, Jeffrey L.; Estes, John E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides a brief survey of the history, structure and functions of 'traditional' geographic information systems (GIS), and then suggests a set of requirements that large-scale GIS should satisfy, together with a set of principles for their satisfaction. These principles, which include the systematic application of techniques from several subfields of computer science to the design and implementation of GIS and the integration of techniques from computer vision and image processing into standard GIS technology, are discussed in some detail. In particular, the paper provides a detailed discussion of questions relating to appropriate data models, data structures and computational procedures for the efficient storage, retrieval and analysis of spatially-indexed data.

  7. A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2014-06-01

    An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF4).

  8. Probing principles of large-scale object representation: category preference and location encoding.

    PubMed

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Sterzer, Philipp; Heinzle, Jakob; Elliott, Lloyd T; Ramirez, Fernando; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge about the principles that govern large-scale neural representations of objects is central to a systematic understanding of object recognition. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivariate pattern classification to investigate two such candidate principles: category preference and location encoding. The former designates the preferential activation of distinct cortical regions by a specific category of objects. The latter refers to information about where in the visual field a particular object is located. Participants viewed exemplars of three object categories (faces, bodies, and scenes) that were presented left or right of fixation. The analysis of fMRI activation patterns revealed the following. Category-selective regions retained their preference to the same categories in a manner tolerant to changes in object location. However, category preference was not absolute: category-selective regions also contained location-tolerant information about nonpreferred categories. Furthermore, location information was present throughout high-level ventral visual cortex and was distributed systematically across the cortical surface. We found more location information in lateral-occipital cortex than in ventral-temporal cortex. Our results provide a systematic account of the extent to which the principles of category preference and location encoding determine the representation of objects in the high-level ventral visual cortex. PMID:22371355

  9. The Force-From-Lipid (FFL) principle of mechanosensitivity, at large and in elements

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Jinfeng; Loukin, Stephen; Anishkin, Andriy; Kung, Ching

    2014-01-01

    Focus on touch and hearing distracts attention from numerous subconscious force sensors such as the vital control of blood pressure, systemic osmolarity, etc. and sensors in non-animals. Multifarious manifestations should not obscure invariant and fundamental physico-chemical principles. We advocate that force-from-lipid (FFL) is one such principle. It is based on the fact that the self-assembled bilayer necessitates inherent forces that are large, and anisotropic, even at life’s origin. Functional response of membrane proteins is governed by bilayer-force changes. Added stress can redirect these forces, leading to geometric changes of embedded proteins such as ion channels. The FFL principle was first demonstrated when purified bacterial MscL remained mechanosensitive (MS) after reconstituting into bilayers. This key experiment has recently been unequivocally replicated with two vertebrate MS K2p channels. Even the canonical Kv and the Drosophila TRPCs have now been shown to be MS in biophysical and in physiological contexts, supporting the universality of the FFL paradigm. We also review the deterministic role of mechanical force during stem-cell differentiation as well as the cell-cell and cell-matrix tethers that provide force communications. In both the ear hair cell and the worm’s touch neuron, deleting the cadherin or microtubule tethers reduces but does not eliminate MS-channel activities. We found no evidence to distinguish whether these tethers directly pulls on the channel protein or a surrounding lipid platform. Regardless of the implementation, pulling tether tenses up the bilayer. Membrane tenting is directly visible at the apexes of the stereocilia. PMID:24888690

  10. Integration of human factors principles in LARG organizations--a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Sara; Machado, V Cruz; Nunes, Isabel L

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays many companies are undergoing organizational transformations in order to meet the changing market demands. Thus, in order to become more competitive, supply chains (SC) are adopting new management paradigms to improve SC performance: lean, agile, resilient and green (LARG paradigms). The implementation of new production paradigms demands particular care with the issues related with Human Factors to avoid health and safety problems to workers and losses to companies. Thus, the successful introduction of these new production paradigms depends among others on a Human Factors oriented approach. This work presents a conceptual framework that allows integrating ergonomic and safety design principles during the different implementation phases of lean, agile, resilient and green practices. PMID:22316960

  11. Single-field consistency relations of large scale structure part III: test of the equivalence principle

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Gleyzes, Jérôme; Vernizzi, Filippo; Hui, Lam; Simonović, Marko E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it

    2014-06-01

    The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10{sup −3}÷10{sup −4} on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.

  12. Jump rates for surface diffusion of large molecules from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Patrick Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen

    2015-04-21

    We apply a recently developed stochastic model for the surface diffusion of large molecules to calculate jump rates for 9,10-dithioanthracene on a Cu(111) surface. The necessary input parameters for the stochastic model are calculated from first principles using density functional theory (DFT). We find that the inclusion of van der Waals corrections to the DFT energies is critical to obtain good agreement with experimental results for the adsorption geometry and energy barrier for diffusion. The predictions for jump rates in our model are in excellent agreement with measured values and show a marked improvement over transition state theory (TST). We find that the jump rate prefactor is reduced by an order of magnitude from the TST estimate due to frictional damping resulting from energy exchange with surface phonons, as well as a rotational mode of the diffusing molecule.

  13. Jump rates for surface diffusion of large molecules from first principles.

    PubMed

    Shea, Patrick; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen

    2015-04-21

    We apply a recently developed stochastic model for the surface diffusion of large molecules to calculate jump rates for 9,10-dithioanthracene on a Cu(111) surface. The necessary input parameters for the stochastic model are calculated from first principles using density functional theory (DFT). We find that the inclusion of van der Waals corrections to the DFT energies is critical to obtain good agreement with experimental results for the adsorption geometry and energy barrier for diffusion. The predictions for jump rates in our model are in excellent agreement with measured values and show a marked improvement over transition state theory (TST). We find that the jump rate prefactor is reduced by an order of magnitude from the TST estimate due to frictional damping resulting from energy exchange with surface phonons, as well as a rotational mode of the diffusing molecule. PMID:25903864

  14. A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2014-06-28

    An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF{sub 4})

  15. The boron conundrum: which principles underlie the formation of large hollow boron cages?

    PubMed

    Muya, Jules Tshishimbi; Lijnen, Erwin; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Ceulemans, Arnout

    2013-02-01

    Extensive optimisation calculations are performed for the B(80) isomers in order to find out which principles underlie the formation of large hollow boron cages. Our analysis shows that the most stable isomers contain triangular B(10) or rhombohedral B(16) building blocks. The lowest-energy isomer has C(3v) symmetry and is characterised by a belt of three interconnected B(16) units and two separate B(10) units. At the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory, this newly discovered isomer is 2.29, 1.48, and 0.54 eV below the leapfrog B(80) of Szwacki et al., the T(h) -B(80) of Wang, and the D(3d) -B(80) of Pochet et al., respectively. Our C(3v) isomer is therefore identified as the most stable hollow cage isomer of B(80) presently known. Its HOMO-LUMO gap of 1.6 eV approaches that of the leapfrog B(80). The leapfrog principle still remains a reliable scheme for producing boron cages with larger HOMO-LUMO gaps, whereas the thermodynamically most stable B(80) cages are formed when all pentagonal faces are capped. We show that large hollow cages of boron retain a preference for fullerene frames. The additional capping is in accordance with the following rules: preference for capping of pentagonal faces, formation of B(10) and/or B(16) units, homogeneous distribution of the hexagonal caps, and hole density approaching 1/9. Although our most stable B(80) isomer still remains higher in energy than the B(80) core-shell structure, we show that by applying the bonding principles to larger structures it is possible to construct boron cages with higher stabilisation energy per boron atom than the core-shell structure; a prototypical example is B(160). This clearly shows the continuous competition between the two suggested construction schemes, namely, the formation of multiple-shell structures and hollow cages. PMID:23345038

  16. How Is Diffusion of Neutral and Charged Tracers Related to the Structure and Dynamics of a Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid? Large Deviations from Stokes-Einstein Behavior Explained.

    PubMed

    Araque, Juan C; Yadav, Sharad K; Shadeck, Michael; Maroncelli, Mark; Margulis, Claudio J

    2015-06-11

    The deviations from Stokes-Einstein hydrodynamics of small solutes are more pronounced in ionic liquids than in conventional solvents (J. Phys. Chem. B 2013 117 (39), 11697). Small neutral solutes diffuse much faster than expected, whereas small charged solutes diffuse much slower. This article attempts to establish a link between the local friction experienced by tracer solutes and the polar/apolar structure of ionic liquids. We find that small neutral solutes probe locally "stiff" (mostly charged, high electrostriction) regions and locally "soft" (mostly apolar, low electrostriction) regions. These regions of high and low friction are associated with cage and jump regimes. Enhanced neutral tracer mobility in the low friction regions associated with the cationic apolar component has an important bearing on the large positive deviations from Stokes-Einstein behavior. In contrast, diminished charged tracer mobility involves long caging dynamics separated by jump events often triggered by the loss and recovery of counterions. PMID:25811753

  17. Subpixelic Measurement of Large 1D Displacements: Principle, Processing Algorithms, Performances and Software

    PubMed Central

    Guelpa, Valérian; Laurent, Guillaume J.; Sandoz, Patrick; Zea, July Galeano; Clévy, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a visual measurement method able to sense 1D rigid body displacements with very high resolutions, large ranges and high processing rates. Sub-pixelic resolution is obtained thanks to a structured pattern placed on the target. The pattern is made of twin periodic grids with slightly different periods. The periodic frames are suited for Fourier-like phase calculations—leading to high resolution—while the period difference allows the removal of phase ambiguity and thus a high range-to-resolution ratio. The paper presents the measurement principle as well as the processing algorithms (source files are provided as supplementary materials). The theoretical and experimental performances are also discussed. The processing time is around 3 μs for a line of 780 pixels, which means that the measurement rate is mostly limited by the image acquisition frame rate. A 3-σ repeatability of 5 nm is experimentally demonstrated which has to be compared with the 168 μm measurement range. PMID:24625736

  18. Principles for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krinitzsky, E.L.; Marcuson, William F.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives a synopsis of the various tools and techniques used in selecting earthquake ground motion parameters for large dams. It presents 18 charts giving newly developed relations for acceleration, velocity, and duration versus site earthquake intensity for near- and far-field hard and soft sites and earthquakes having magnitudes above and below 7. The material for this report is based on procedures developed at the Waterways Experiment Station. Although these procedures are suggested primarily for large dams, they may also be applicable for other facilities. Because no standard procedure exists for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams, a number of precautions are presented to guide users. The selection of earthquake motions is dependent on which one of two types of engineering analyses are performed. A pseudostatic analysis uses a coefficient usually obtained from an appropriate contour map; whereas, a dynamic analysis uses either accelerograms assigned to a site or specified respunse spectra. Each type of analysis requires significantly different input motions. All selections of design motions must allow for the lack of representative strong motion records, especially near-field motions from earthquakes of magnitude 7 and greater, as well as an enormous spread in the available data. Limited data must be projected and its spread bracketed in order to fill in the gaps and to assure that there will be no surprises. Because each site may have differing special characteristics in its geology, seismic history, attenuation, recurrence, interpreted maximum events, etc., as integrated approach gives best results. Each part of the site investigation requires a number of decisions. In some cases, the decision to use a 'least ork' approach may be suitable, simply assuming the worst of several possibilities and testing for it. Because there are no standard procedures to follow, multiple approaches are useful. For example, peak motions at a site may be obtained from several methods that involve magnitude of earthquake, distance from source, and corresponding motions; or, alternately, peak motions may be assigned from other correlations based on earthquake intensity. Various interpretations exist to account for duration, recurrence, effects of site conditions, etc. Comparison of the various interpretations can be very useful. Probabilities can be assigned; however, they can present very serious problems unless appropriate care is taken when data are extrapolated beyond their data base. In making deterministic judgments, probabilistic data can provide useful guidance in estimating the uncertainties of the decision. The selection of a design ground motion for large dams is based in the end on subjective judgments which should depend, to an important extent, on the consequences of failure. Usually, use of a design value of ground motion representing a mean plus one standard deviation of possible variation in the mean of the data puts one in a conservative position. If failure presents no hazard to life, lower values of design ground motion may be justified, providing there are cost benefits and the risk is acceptable to the owner. Where a large hazard to life exists (i.e., a dam above an urbanized area) one may wish to use values of design ground motion that approximate the very worst case. The selection of a design ground motion must be appropriate for its particular set of circumstances.

  19. Testing deviations from ΛCDM with growth rate measurements from six large-scale structure surveys at z = 0.06-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Shadab; Ho, Shirley; Silvestri, Alessandra

    2016-03-01

    We use measurements from the Planck satellite mission and galaxy redshift surveys over the last decade to test three of the basic assumptions of the standard model of cosmology, ΛCDM (Λ cold dark matter): the spatial curvature of the universe, the nature of dark energy and the laws of gravity on large scales. We obtain improved constraints on several scenarios that violate one or more of these assumptions. We measure w0 = -0.94 ± 0.17 (18 per cent measurement) and 1 + wa = 1.16 ± 0.36 (31 per cent measurement) for models with a time-dependent equation of state, which is an improvement over current best constraints. In the context of modified gravity, we consider popular scalar-tensor models as well as a parametrization of the growth factor. In the case of one-parameter f(R) gravity models with a ΛCDM background, we constrain B0 < 1.36 × 10-5 (1σ C.L.), which is an improvement by a factor of 4 on the current best. We provide the very first constraint on the coupling parameters of general scalar-tensor theory and stringent constraint on the only free coupling parameter of Chameleon models. We also derive constraints on extended Chameleon models, improving the constraint on the coupling by a factor of 6 on the current best. The constraints on coupling parameter for Chameleon model rule out the value of β1 = 4/3 required for f(R) gravity. We also measure γ = 0.612 ± 0.072 (11.7 per cent measurement) for growth index parametrization. We improve all the current constraints by combining results from various galaxy redshift surveys in a coherent way, which includes a careful treatment of scale dependence introduced by modified gravity.

  20. Clickenomics: Using a Classroom Response System to Increase Student Engagement in a Large-Enrollment Principles of Economics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salemi, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important challenges facing college instructors of economics is helping students engage. Engagement is particularly important in a large-enrollment Principles of Economics course, where it can help students achieve a long-lived understanding of how economists use basic economic ideas to look at the world. The author reports how…

  1. Pleasure and pain: teaching neuroscientific principles of hedonism in a large general education undergraduate course.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Stellar, James R; Kraft, Tamar T; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo

    2013-01-01

    In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20-25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first and last pages. A draft of the first page, collected early in the term, was returned to each student by graduate TAs to provide individual feedback on scientific writing. Overall the course has run three times at ful or near enrollment capacity despite being held at an 8:00 AM time slot. Student-generated teaching evaluations place it well within the normal range, while this format importantly contributes to budget efficiency permitting the teaching of more required small-format courses (e.g., freshman writing). The demographics of the course have changed to one in which the vast majority of the students are now outside the disciplines of neuroscience or psychology and are taking the course to fulfill a General Education requirement. This pattern allows the wide dissemination of basic neuroscientific knowledge to a general college audience. PMID:24319388

  2. Pleasure and Pain: Teaching Neuroscientific Principles of Hedonism in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J.; Stellar, James R.; Kraft, Tamar T.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M.; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo

    2013-01-01

    In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20–25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first and last pages. A draft of the first page, collected early in the term, was returned to each student by graduate TAs to provide individual feedback on scientific writing. Overall the course has run three times at ful or near enrollment capacity despite being held at an 8:00 AM time slot. Student-generated teaching evaluations place it well within the normal range, while this format importantly contributes to budget efficiency permitting the teaching of more required small-format courses (e.g., freshman writing). The demographics of the course have changed to one in which the vast majority of the students are now outside the disciplines of neuroscience or psychology and are taking the course to fulfill a General Education requirement. This pattern allows the wide dissemination of basic neuroscientific knowledge to a general college audience. PMID:24319388

  3. Software engineering principles applied to large healthcare information systems--a case report.

    PubMed

    Nardon, Fabiane Bizinella; de A Moura, Lincoln

    2007-01-01

    São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil and one of the largest cities in the world. In 2004, São Paulo City Department of Health decided to implement a Healthcare Information System to support managing healthcare services and provide an ambulatory health record. The resulting information system is one of the largest public healthcare information systems ever built, with more than 2 million lines of code. Although statistics shows that most software projects fail, and the risks for the São Paulo initiative were enormous, the information system was completed on-time and on-budget. In this paper, we discuss the software engineering principles adopted that allowed to accomplish that project's goals, hoping that sharing the experience of this project will help other healthcare information systems initiatives to succeed. PMID:17911673

  4. The guided tissue regeneration principle in endodontic surgery: one-year postoperative results of large periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Pecora, G; Kim, S; Celletti, R; Davarpanah, M

    1995-01-01

    Twenty patients with large endodontic lesions, which failed to respond to conventional endodontic therapy, were selected for this study. The lesions had a radiographic diameter of at least 10 mm, were removed by periradicular surgery, before retrofilling the apices with either super EBA or dessicated zinc oxide-eugenol. In 10 test sites large e-PTFE membranes (Gortex) were placed to cover the lesions, while at the control sites the lesions were not covered before resuturing. Radio-graphic analysis of the lesions at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months revealed that lesions covered with the membranes healed quicker than the control lesions, and that the quality and quantity of the regenerated bone was superior when membranes were used. Results of the study indicate that guided tissue regeneration (GTR) principles can be effectively applied to the healing of large periapical lesions, especially in through-and-through lesions. PMID:7642328

  5. Large piezoelectric response of quarternary wurtzite nitride alloys and its physical origin from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholander, C.; Tasnádi, F.; Abrikosov, I. A.; Hultman, L.; Birch, J.; Alling, B.

    2015-11-01

    The potential of quarternary wurtzite TMx /2Mx /2Al1 -xN (TM =Ti , Zr, Hf; M =Mg , Ca, Zn) alloys for piezoelectric applications is investigated using first-principles calculations. All considered alloys show increased piezoelectric response compared to pure AlN, and competing with the best ternary system proven to date: ScAlN. (Zr,Hf)x /2(Mg,Ca)x /2Al1 -xN alloys are particularly promising. Calculations reveal positive mixing enthalpies indicative for phase separating systems; their values are smaller compared to related nitride alloys, which still can be grown as metastable thin films. The wurtzite phase of the alloys is lowest in energy at least up to x =0.5 and for Tix /2Znx /2Al1 -xN in the full composition range. Moreover, calculations reveal that wurtzite TM0.5Zn0.5N (TM =Ti , Zr, Hf) are piezoelectric alloys with d33 ,f=19.95 , 29.89, and 24.65 pC/N respectively, up to six times that of AlN. Finally, we discuss the physical origin behind the increased piezoelectric response and show that the energy difference between tetrahedrally coordinated zinc-blende (B3) and the layered hexagonal (Bk) phases of the TM0.5M0.5N alloy can be used as a descriptor in a high-throughput search for complex wurtzite alloys with high piezoelectric response.

  6. Computational Challenges of Large-Scale Long-Time First-Principles Molecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    Plane-wave density functional calculations have traditionally been able to use the largest available supercomputing resources. We analyze the scalability of modern projector- augmented wave implementations to identify the challenges in performing molecular dynamics calculations of large systems containing many thousands of electrons. Benchmark calculations on the Cray XT4 demonstrate that global linear-algebra operations are the primary reason for limited parallel scalability. Plane-wave related operations can be made sufficiently scalable. Improving parallel linear-algebra performance is an essential step to reaching longer timescales in future large-scale molecular dynamics calculations.

  7. Modeling optical properties of silicon clusters by first principles: From a few atoms to large nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurbawono, Argo; Liu, Shuanglong; Zhang, Chun

    2015-04-01

    Time dependent density functional tight binding (TDDFTB) method is implemented with sparse matrix techniques and improved parallelization algorithms. The method is employed to calculate the optical properties of various Si nanocrystals (NCs). The calculated light absorption spectra of small Si NCs from TDDFTB were found to be comparable with many body perturbation methods utilizing planewave basis sets. For large Si NCs (more than a thousand atoms) that are beyond the reach of conventional approaches, the TDDFTB method is able to produce reasonable results that are consistent with prior experiments. We also employed the method to study the effects of surface chemistry on the optical properties of large Si NCs. We learned that the optical properties of Si NCs can be manipulated with small molecule passivations such as methyl, hydroxyl, amino, and fluorine. In general, the shifts and profiles in the absorption spectra can be tuned with suitably chosen passivants.

  8. Modeling optical properties of silicon clusters by first principles: From a few atoms to large nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nurbawono, Argo; Liu, Shuanglong; Zhang, Chun

    2015-04-21

    Time dependent density functional tight binding (TDDFTB) method is implemented with sparse matrix techniques and improved parallelization algorithms. The method is employed to calculate the optical properties of various Si nanocrystals (NCs). The calculated light absorption spectra of small Si NCs from TDDFTB were found to be comparable with many body perturbation methods utilizing planewave basis sets. For large Si NCs (more than a thousand atoms) that are beyond the reach of conventional approaches, the TDDFTB method is able to produce reasonable results that are consistent with prior experiments. We also employed the method to study the effects of surface chemistry on the optical properties of large Si NCs. We learned that the optical properties of Si NCs can be manipulated with small molecule passivations such as methyl, hydroxyl, amino, and fluorine. In general, the shifts and profiles in the absorption spectra can be tuned with suitably chosen passivants.

  9. Spatio-temporal spike train analysis for large scale networks using the maximum entropy principle and Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasser, Hassan; Marre, Olivier; Cessac, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics of neural networks is a major challenge in experimental neuroscience. For that purpose, a modelling of the recorded activity that reproduces the main statistics of the data is required. In the first part, we present a review on recent results dealing with spike train statistics analysis using maximum entropy models (MaxEnt). Most of these studies have focused on modelling synchronous spike patterns, leaving aside the temporal dynamics of the neural activity. However, the maximum entropy principle can be generalized to the temporal case, leading to Markovian models where memory effects and time correlations in the dynamics are properly taken into account. In the second part, we present a new method based on Monte Carlo sampling which is suited for the fitting of large-scale spatio-temporal MaxEnt models. The formalism and the tools presented here will be essential to fit MaxEnt spatio-temporal models to large neural ensembles.

  10. Systematic, spatial imaging of large multimolecular assemblies and the emerging principles of supramolecular order in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding biological systems at the level of their relational (emergent) molecular properties in functional protein networks relies on imaging methods, able to spatially resolve a tissue or a cell as a giant, non-random, topologically defined collection of interacting supermolecules executing myriads of subcellular mechanisms. Here, the development and findings of parameter-unlimited functional super-resolution microscopy are described-a technology based on the fluorescence imaging cycler (IC) principle capable of co-mapping thousands of distinct biomolecular assemblies at high spatial resolution and differentiation (<40 nm distances). It is shown that the subcellular and transcellular features of such supermolecules can be described at the compositional and constitutional levels; that the spatial connection, relational stoichiometry, and topology of supermolecules generate hitherto unrecognized functional self-segmentation of biological tissues; that hierarchical features, common to thousands of simultaneously imaged supermolecules, can be identified; and how the resulting supramolecular order relates to spatial coding of cellular functionalities in biological systems. A large body of observations with IC molecular systems microscopy collected over 20 years have disclosed principles governed by a law of supramolecular segregation of cellular functionalities. This pervades phenomena, such as exceptional orderliness, functional selectivity, combinatorial and spatial periodicity, and hierarchical organization of large molecular systems, across all species investigated so far. This insight is based on the high degree of specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity of molecular recognition processes for fluorescence imaging beyond the spectral resolution limit, using probe libraries controlled by ICs. PMID:24375580

  11. The PubChemQC project: A large chemical database from the first principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maho, Nakata

    2015-12-01

    In this research, we have been constructing a large database of molecules by ab initio calculations. Currently, we have over 1.53 million entries of 6-31G* B3LYP optimized geometries and ten excited states by 6-31+G* TDDFT calculations. To calculate molecules, we only refer the InChI (International Chemical Identifier) representation of chemical formula by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), thus, no reference to experimental data. These results are open to public at http://pubchemqc.riken.jp/. The molecular data have been taken from the PubChem Project (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) which is one of the largest in the world (approximately 63 million molecules are listed) and free (public domain) database. Our final goal is, using these data, to develop a molecular search engine or molecular expert system to find molecules which have desired properties.

  12. Constitutive Description of Large Elastic Deformations in Diamond and Silicon Crystals from First-Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvetti, M.; Duchenne, S.; Parks, D. M.; Marzari, N.

    2010-03-01

    Within a continuum approach, the prediction of the mechanical response of single crystals at large elastic deformations relies on the accurate description of the strain energy density function ψ. The coupling of hydrostatic and deviatoric terms at high compressions is of particular interest for applications, and the effect is generally not taken into account by current models available in the literature [1,2]. We present a general approach that leads to the construction of strain energy density functions of cubic single crystals based on data obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We connect the deformation-induced energy changes and Cauchy stress calculated from DFT calculations to the Lagrangian description frequently adopted within the continuum theory of hyperelasticity [3]. In particular, we adopt a coordinate--free invariant formulation [4] that intrinsically preserves the properties of the cubic symmetry group. We present results on diamond and silicon single crystals, and highlight both similarities and striking differences. [1] R.G.Veprek et. al, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 4248, 366-378 (2007) [2] B.P Gearing, L. Anand, Int. J. Solids Struct. 41, 827-845 (2004) [3] A.N. Norris, J. Mech. Mater. Struct. 3, No.2, 243-260 (2008) [4] J.P. Boehler, Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 59, 157-167 (1979)

  13. First principles study of lattice thermal conductivity and large isotope effect in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broido, David; Lindsay, Lucas; Reinecke, Tom

    2014-03-01

    The isotope effect--the percent enhancement to a material's lattice thermal conductivity, k, with isotopic purification--depends on the interplay between phonon-isotope and phonon-phonon scattering. Diamond is known to have the largest measured room temperature (RT) isotope effect of any bulk crystal, achieving a k enhancement of 50%. Using an ab initioBoltzmann transport equation approach, we have identified several other materials with far larger RT isotope effects. In particular, we find that germanium carbide (GeC) and beryllium selenide (BeSe) have RT isotope effects of 450%, almost an order of magnitude higher than that in diamond. Isotopic purification in these materials gives surprisingly high intrinsic RT k values, over 1500 Wm-1K-1 for GeC and over 600 Wm-1 K-1 for BeSe, well above those of the best metals. These large values stem from fundamental material properties that give both enhanced phonon scattering by isotopes and weak anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering. The physical insights discussed in this work provide guidance for efficient manipulation of thermal transport properties of compound semiconductors through isotopic modification. This work was supported by ONR, DARPA and NSF.

  14. Discrete conservation principles in large-eddy simulation with application to separation control over an airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Donghyun; Ham, Frank; Moin, Parviz

    2008-10-01

    An unstructured-grid large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is used to investigate the turbulent flow separation over an airfoil with and without synthetic-jet control. Numerical accuracy and stability on arbitrary shaped mesh elements at high Reynolds numbers are achieved using a finite-volume discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations based on higher-order conservation principles—i.e., in addition to mass and momentum conservation, kinetic energy conservation in the inviscid limit is used to guide the selection of the discrete operators and solution algorithm. Two different stall configurations, which consist of flow over a NACA 0015 airfoil at 16.6° and 20° angles of attack, are simulated at Reynolds number of 896 000 based on the airfoil chord length and freestream velocity. In the case of 16.6° angle of attack where flow separates around a midchord location, LES results show excellent agreement with the experimental data for both uncontrolled and controlled cases. LES confirms the experimental finding that synthetic jets, which are produced through a slot across the entire span on suction surface at 12% chord location, effectively delay the onset of flow separation and cause a significant increase in the lift coefficient. In the case of 20° angle of attack where flow separates near the leading edge, LES predicts reasonable results comparable to experimental data when grid resolution is sufficient to predict the separated shear layer. In this case, the synthetic-jet actuation at 12% chord location is found marginally effective in controlling leading-edge separation.

  15. Real-space method for first-principles electron transport calculations: Self-energy terms of electrodes for large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Tomoya; Tsukamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    We present a fast and stable numerical technique to obtain the self-energy terms of electrodes for first-principles electron transport calculations. Although first-principles calculations based on the real-space finite-difference method are advantageous for execution on massively parallel computers, large-scale transport calculations are hampered by the computational cost and numerical instability of the computation of the self-energy terms. Using the orthogonal complement vectors of the space spanned by the generalized Bloch waves that actually contribute to transport phenomena, the computational accuracy of transport properties is significantly improved with a moderate computational cost. To demonstrate the efficiency of the present technique, the electron transport properties of a Stone-Wales (SW) defect in graphene and silicene are examined. The resonance scattering of the SW defect is observed in the conductance spectrum of silicene since the σ* state of silicene lies near the Fermi energy. In addition, we found that one conduction channel is sensitive to a defect near the Fermi energy, while the other channel is hardly affected. This characteristic behavior of the conduction channels is interpreted in terms of the bonding network between the bilattices of the honeycomb structure in the formation of the SW defect. The present technique enables us to distinguish the different behaviors of the two conduction channels in graphene and silicene owing to its excellent accuracy.

  16. Electronic stopping in liquid water from first principles: An application of large-scale real-time TDDFT simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Kyle; Yao, Yi; Kanai, Yosuke

    Electronic stopping describes the transfer of energy from a highly-energetic charged particle to electrons in a material. This process induces massive electronic excitations via interaction between the material and the highly localized electric field from the charged particle. Understanding this phenomenon in condensed matter systems under proton irradiation has implications in various modern technologies. First-principles simulations, based on our recently-developed large-scale real-time time-dependent density functional theory approach, provide a detailed description of how electrons are excited via a non-equilibrium energy transfer from protons on the attosecond time scale. We apply this computational approach to the important case of liquid water under proton irradiation. Our work reveals several key features of the excitation dynamics at the mesoscopic and molecular levels which support a clearer understanding of the water radiolysis mechanism under proton irradiation. Importantly, we will demonstrate a first-principles determination of the energy transfer rate, (i.e. electronic stopping power) in liquid water, and a comparison to existing empirical models will be presented. We will conclude by discussing how the exchange-correlation approximation influences the calculation of the electronic stopping power.

  17. Computer generation of random deviates.

    PubMed

    Cormack, J; Shuter, B

    1991-06-01

    The need for random deviates arises in many scientific applications, such as the simulation of physical processes, numerical evaluation of complex mathematical formulae and the modeling of decision processes. In medical physics, Monte Carlo simulations have been used in radiology, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Specific instances include the modelling of x-ray scattering processes and the addition of random noise to images or curves in order to assess the effects of various processing procedures. Reliable sources of random deviates with statistical properties indistinguishable from true random deviates are a fundamental necessity for such tasks. This paper provides a review of computer algorithms which can be used to generate uniform random deviates and other distributions of interest to medical physicists, along with a few caveats relating to various problems and pitfalls which can occur. Source code listings for the generators discussed (in FORTRAN, Turbo-PASCAL and Data General ASSEMBLER) are available on request from the authors. PMID:1747086

  18. Systematic, spatial imaging of large multimolecular assemblies and the emerging principles of supramolecular order in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Understanding biological systems at the level of their relational (emergent) molecular properties in functional protein networks relies on imaging methods, able to spatially resolve a tissue or a cell as a giant, non-random, topologically defined collection of interacting supermolecules executing myriads of subcellular mechanisms. Here, the development and findings of parameter-unlimited functional super-resolution microscopy are described—a technology based on the fluorescence imaging cycler (IC) principle capable of co-mapping thousands of distinct biomolecular assemblies at high spatial resolution and differentiation (<40 nm distances). It is shown that the subcellular and transcellular features of such supermolecules can be described at the compositional and constitutional levels; that the spatial connection, relational stoichiometry, and topology of supermolecules generate hitherto unrecognized functional self-segmentation of biological tissues; that hierarchical features, common to thousands of simultaneously imaged supermolecules, can be identified; and how the resulting supramolecular order relates to spatial coding of cellular functionalities in biological systems. A large body of observations with IC molecular systems microscopy collected over 20 years have disclosed principles governed by a law of supramolecular segregation of cellular functionalities. This pervades phenomena, such as exceptional orderliness, functional selectivity, combinatorial and spatial periodicity, and hierarchical organization of large molecular systems, across all species investigated so far. This insight is based on the high degree of specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity of molecular recognition processes for fluorescence imaging beyond the spectral resolution limit, using probe libraries controlled by ICs. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Molecular Recognition published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24375580

  19. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  20. Large-scale surface reconstructions from first principles: Au(100) and Pt(100) by all-electron DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havu, Paula; Blum, Volker; Havu, Ville; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    We show that the large-scale, quasihexagonal surface reconstructions of Au(100) and Pt(100) are captured by all-electron density functional theory (DFT) in the local-density approximation and PBE generalized gradient approximation in excellent agreement with experiment. While the superstructure is often approximated as (5x1) in first-principles calculations, larger, more realistic approximants turn out to be important for some aspects. For example, the reconstruction energy for Au(100) approximately doubles compared to (5x1) when considering the much larger, more realistic series (5xN) (N=10,15,20,25,30). For Pt(100), where an experimental reconstruction energy estimate exists [1], DFT based on these approximants is in close agreement. In addition to the energetics, our calculations reveal the full local surface geometry, and corroborrate relativistically enhanced d-d hybridization as the electronic reconstruction driving force. Our calculations are based on 5-layer asymmetric slab geometries, two layers of which are fully relaxed, i.e. up to 786 atoms, with 336 relaxed, and are performed using the efficient, accurate all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims [2]. [1] W.A. Brown, R. Kose, D.A. King, Chem. Rev. 98, 797 (1998) [2] V. Blum et al, Comp. Phys. Comm. 180, 2175 (2009).

  1. Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported graphene: Large-scale first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yong; Evans, James W.

    2015-10-27

    Large-scale first-principles density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on monolayer graphene (G) supported on Ru(0001). The G sheet exhibits a periodic moiré-cell superstructure due to lattice mismatch. Within a moiré cell, there are three distinct regions: fcc, hcp, and mound, in which the C6-ring center is above a fcc site, a hcp site, and a surface Ru atom of Ru(0001), respectively. The adsorption energy of a Ru adatom is evaluated at specific sites in these distinct regions. We find the strongest binding at an adsorption site above a C atom in the fcc region, next strongest in the hcp region, then the fcc-hcp boundary (ridge) between these regions, and the weakest binding in the mound region. Behavior is similar to that observed from small-unit-cell calculations of Habenicht et al. [Top. Catal. 57, 69 (2014)], which differ from previous large-scale calculations. We determine the minimum-energy path for local diffusion near the center of the fcc region and obtain a local diffusion barrier of ~0.48 eV. We also estimate a significantly lower local diffusion barrier in the ridge region. These barriers and information on the adsorption energy variation facilitate development of a realistic model for the global potential energy surface for Ru adatoms. Furthermore, this in turn enables simulation studies elucidating diffusion-mediated directed-assembly of Ru nanoclusters during deposition of Ru on G/Ru(0001).

  2. Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported graphene: Large-scale first-principles calculations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Han, Yong; Evans, James W.

    2015-10-27

    Large-scale first-principles density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on monolayer graphene (G) supported on Ru(0001). The G sheet exhibits a periodic moiré-cell superstructure due to lattice mismatch. Within a moiré cell, there are three distinct regions: fcc, hcp, and mound, in which the C6-ring center is above a fcc site, a hcp site, and a surface Ru atom of Ru(0001), respectively. The adsorption energy of a Ru adatom is evaluated at specific sites in these distinct regions. We find the strongest binding at an adsorption site above a C atom inmore » the fcc region, next strongest in the hcp region, then the fcc-hcp boundary (ridge) between these regions, and the weakest binding in the mound region. Behavior is similar to that observed from small-unit-cell calculations of Habenicht et al. [Top. Catal. 57, 69 (2014)], which differ from previous large-scale calculations. We determine the minimum-energy path for local diffusion near the center of the fcc region and obtain a local diffusion barrier of ~0.48 eV. We also estimate a significantly lower local diffusion barrier in the ridge region. These barriers and information on the adsorption energy variation facilitate development of a realistic model for the global potential energy surface for Ru adatoms. Furthermore, this in turn enables simulation studies elucidating diffusion-mediated directed-assembly of Ru nanoclusters during deposition of Ru on G/Ru(0001).« less

  3. Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported graphene: Large-scale first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yong; Evans, James W.

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale first-principles density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on monolayer graphene (G) supported on Ru(0001). The G sheet exhibits a periodic moiré-cell superstructure due to lattice mismatch. Within a moiré cell, there are three distinct regions: fcc, hcp, and mound, in which the C6-ring center is above a fcc site, a hcp site, and a surface Ru atom of Ru(0001), respectively. The adsorption energy of a Ru adatom is evaluated at specific sites in these distinct regions. We find the strongest binding at an adsorption site above a C atom in the fcc region, next strongest in the hcp region, then the fcc-hcp boundary (ridge) between these regions, and the weakest binding in the mound region. Behavior is similar to that observed from small-unit-cell calculations of Habenicht et al. [Top. Catal. 57, 69 (2014)], which differ from previous large-scale calculations. We determine the minimum-energy path for local diffusion near the center of the fcc region and obtain a local diffusion barrier of ˜0.48 eV. We also estimate a significantly lower local diffusion barrier in the ridge region. These barriers and information on the adsorption energy variation facilitate development of a realistic model for the global potential energy surface for Ru adatoms. This in turn enables simulation studies elucidating diffusion-mediated directed-assembly of Ru nanoclusters during deposition of Ru on G/Ru(0001).

  4. Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported graphene: Large-scale first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Evans, James W

    2015-10-28

    Large-scale first-principles density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on monolayer graphene (G) supported on Ru(0001). The G sheet exhibits a periodic moiré-cell superstructure due to lattice mismatch. Within a moiré cell, there are three distinct regions: fcc, hcp, and mound, in which the C6-ring center is above a fcc site, a hcp site, and a surface Ru atom of Ru(0001), respectively. The adsorption energy of a Ru adatom is evaluated at specific sites in these distinct regions. We find the strongest binding at an adsorption site above a C atom in the fcc region, next strongest in the hcp region, then the fcc-hcp boundary (ridge) between these regions, and the weakest binding in the mound region. Behavior is similar to that observed from small-unit-cell calculations of Habenicht et al. [Top. Catal. 57, 69 (2014)], which differ from previous large-scale calculations. We determine the minimum-energy path for local diffusion near the center of the fcc region and obtain a local diffusion barrier of ∼0.48 eV. We also estimate a significantly lower local diffusion barrier in the ridge region. These barriers and information on the adsorption energy variation facilitate development of a realistic model for the global potential energy surface for Ru adatoms. This in turn enables simulation studies elucidating diffusion-mediated directed-assembly of Ru nanoclusters during deposition of Ru on G/Ru(0001). PMID:26520542

  5. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  6. 10 CFR 600.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) General. (1) A deviation is the use of any policy, procedure, form, standard, term, or condition which... in § 600.30 are not subject to this section. (2) A single-case deviation is a deviation which applies... class deviation is a deviation which applies to more than one financial assistance...

  7. Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation Exerts Its Effect through Three Synergistic Mechanisms: Proof of Principle in Phenylketonuria Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Danique; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Mazzola, Priscila N.; van Faassen, Martijn H. J. R.; de Blaauw, Pim; Kema, Ido P.; Heiner-Fokkema, M. Rebecca; van Anholt, Rogier D.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phenylketonuria (PKU) was the first disorder in which severe neurocognitive dysfunction could be prevented by dietary treatment. However, despite this effect, neuropsychological outcome in PKU still remains suboptimal and the phenylalanine-restricted diet is very demanding. To improve neuropsychological outcome and relieve the dietary restrictions for PKU patients, supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) is suggested as alternative treatment strategy that might correct all brain biochemical disturbances caused by high blood phenylalanine, and thereby improve neurocognitive functioning. Objective As a proof-of-principle, this study aimed to investigate all hypothesized biochemical treatment objectives of LNAA supplementation (normalizing brain phenylalanine, non-phenylalanine LNAA, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations) in PKU mice. Methods C57Bl/6 Pah-enu2 (PKU) mice and wild-type mice received a LNAA supplemented diet, an isonitrogenic/isocaloric high-protein control diet, or normal chow. After six weeks of dietary treatment, blood and brain amino acid and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were assessed. Results In PKU mice, the investigated LNAA supplementation regimen significantly reduced blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations by 33% and 26%, respectively, compared to normal chow (p<0.01), while alleviating brain deficiencies of some but not all supplemented LNAA. Moreover, LNAA supplementation in PKU mice significantly increased brain serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations from 35% to 71% and from 57% to 86% of wild-type concentrations (p<0.01), respectively, but not brain dopamine concentrations (p = 0.307). Conclusions This study shows that LNAA supplementation without dietary phenylalanine restriction in PKU mice improves brain biochemistry through all three hypothesized biochemical mechanisms. Thereby, these data provide proof-of-concept for LNAA supplementation as a valuable alternative dietary treatment strategy in PKU. Based on these results, LNAA treatment should be further optimized for clinical application with regard to the composition and dose of the LNAA supplement, taking into account all three working mechanisms of LNAA treatment. PMID:26624009

  8. 14 CFR 125.3 - Deviation authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviation authority. 125.3 Section 125.3... OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 125.3 Deviation authority. (a... deviation authority providing relief from specified sections of part 125. This deviation authority will...

  9. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... proposed deviation from this part would be a deviation from 10 CFR part 600, the deviation must also be... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL...

  10. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... proposed deviation from this part would be a deviation from 10 CFR part 600, the deviation must also be... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL...

  11. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... proposed deviation from this part would be a deviation from 10 CFR part 600, the deviation must also be... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL...

  12. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... proposed deviation from this part would be a deviation from 10 CFR part 600, the deviation must also be... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL...

  13. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proposed deviation from this part would be a deviation from 10 CFR part 600, the deviation must also be... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL...

  14. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  15. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  16. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  17. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  18. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  19. 48 CFR 1401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 1401.404... THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.404 Class deviations. (a) The Director, PAM, is authorized to approve class deviations of FAR or DIAR provisions...

  20. Allan deviation analysis of financial return series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.

    2012-05-01

    We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.

  1. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  2. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  3. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  4. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  5. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  6. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  7. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  8. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  9. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  10. 48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 201.403 Section 201.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.403 Individual deviations. (1) Individual...

  11. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the deviation and nuclear power reactor(s) affected; (e) A statement as to whether the deviation has... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE...

  12. 48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies....

  13. 48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies....

  14. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval... receiving the delegation designates another official. (c) Send a copy of each deviation to GSA's SPE (V)....

  15. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval... receiving the delegation designates another official. (c) Send a copy of each deviation to GSA's SPE (V)....

  16. 48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies....

  17. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval... receiving the delegation designates another official. (c) Send a copy of each deviation to GSA's SPE (V)....

  18. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval... receiving the delegation designates another official. (c) Send a copy of each deviation to GSA's SPE (V)....

  19. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval... receiving the delegation designates another official. (c) Send a copy of each deviation to GSA's SPE (V)....

  20. 48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies....

  1. 48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies....

  2. [Principles of callus distraction].

    PubMed

    Hankemeier, S; Bastian, L; Gosling, T; Krettek, C

    2004-10-01

    Callus distraction is based on the principle of regenerating bone by continuous distraction of proliferating callus tissue. It has become the standard treatment of significant leg shortening and large bone defects. Due to many problems and complications, exact preoperative planning, operative technique and careful postoperative follow-up are essential. External fixators can be used for all indications of callus distraction. However, due to pin tract infections, pain and loss of mobility caused by soft tissue transfixation, fixators are applied in patients with open growth plates, simultaneous lengthening with continuous deformity corrections, and increased risk of infection. Distraction over an intramedullary nail allows removal of the external fixator at the end of distraction before callus consolidation (monorail method). The intramedullary nail protects newly formed callus tissue and reduces the risk of axial deviation and refractures. Recently developed, fully intramedullary lengthening devices eliminate fixator-associated complications and accelerate return to normal daily activities. This review describes principles of callus distraction, potential complications and their management. PMID:15452653

  3. The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunis, Isam

    2005-01-01

    Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

  4. First-principles studies on vacancy-modified interstitial diffusion mechanism of oxygen in nickel, associated with large-scale atomic simulation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H. Z.; Shang, S. L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K.; Alfonso, D.; Alman, D. E.; Shin, Y. K.; Zou, C. Y.; Duin, A. C. T. van; Lei, Y. K.; Wang, G. F.

    2014-01-28

    This paper is concerned with the prediction of oxygen diffusivities in fcc nickel from first-principles calculations and large-scale atomic simulations. Considering only the interstitial octahedral to tetrahedral to octahedral minimum energy pathway for oxygen diffusion in fcc lattice, greatly underestimates the migration barrier and overestimates the diffusivities by several orders of magnitude. The results indicate that vacancies in the Ni-lattice significantly impact the migration barrier of oxygen in nickel. Incorporation of the effect of vacancies results in predicted diffusivities consistent with available experimental data. First-principles calculations show that at high temperatures the vacancy concentration is comparable to the oxygen solubility, and there is a strong binding energy and a redistribution of charge density between the oxygen atom and vacancy. Consequently, there is a strong attraction between the oxygen and vacancy in the Ni lattice, which impacts diffusion.

  5. Accurate and scalable O(N) algorithm for first-principles molecular-dynamics computations on large parallel computers.

    PubMed

    Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-31

    We present the first truly scalable first-principles molecular dynamics algorithm with O(N) complexity and controllable accuracy, capable of simulating systems with finite band gaps of sizes that were previously impossible with this degree of accuracy. By avoiding global communications, we provide a practical computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic wave functions are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the components of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected elements of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to 101,952 atoms on 23,328 processors, with a wall-clock time of the order of 1 min per molecular dynamics time step and numerical error on the forces of less than 7×10(-4)  Ha/Bohr. PMID:24580471

  6. Accurate and Scalable O(N) Algorithm for First-Principles Molecular-Dynamics Computations on Large Parallel Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    We present the first truly scalable first-principles molecular dynamics algorithm with O(N) complexity and controllable accuracy, capable of simulating systems with finite band gaps of sizes that were previously impossible with this degree of accuracy. By avoiding global communications, we provide a practical computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic wave functions are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the components of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected elements of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to 101 952 atoms on 23 328 processors, with a wall-clock time of the order of 1 min per molecular dynamics time step and numerical error on the forces of less than 7×10-4 Ha/Bohr.

  7. Accurate and Scalable O(N) Algorithm for First-Principles Molecular-Dynamics Computations on Large Parallel Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    We present the first truly scalable first-principles molecular dynamics algorithm with O(N) complexity and controllable accuracy, capable of simulating systems with finite band gaps of sizes that were previously impossible with this degree of accuracy. By avoiding global communications, we provide a practical computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic wave functions are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the components of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected elements of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to 101 952 atoms on 23 328 processors, with a wall-clock time of the order of 1 min per molecular dynamics time step and numerical error on the forces of less than 7x10-4 Ha/Bohr.

  8. Structure of deviations from optimality in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; Rivera-Alba, Marta; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization theory has been used to analyze evolutionary adaptation. This theory has explained many features of biological systems, from the genetic code to animal behavior. However, these systems show important deviations from optimality. Typically, these deviations are large in some particular components of the system, whereas others seem to be almost optimal. Deviations from optimality may be due to many factors in evolution, including stochastic effects and finite time, that may not allow the system to reach the ideal optimum. However, we still expect the system to have a higher probability of reaching a state with a higher value of the proposed indirect measure of fitness. In systems of many components, this implies that the largest deviations are expected in those components with less impact on the indirect measure of fitness. Here, we show that this simple probabilistic rule explains deviations from optimality in two very different biological systems. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this rule successfully explains the experimental deviations of the position of neurons from the configuration of minimal wiring cost. In Escherichia coli, the probabilistic rule correctly obtains the structure of the experimental deviations of metabolic fluxes from the configuration that maximizes biomass production. This approach is proposed to explain or predict more data than optimization theory while using no extra parameters. Thus, it can also be used to find and refine hypotheses about which constraints have shaped biological structures in evolution. PMID:19918070

  9. Phonon-isotope scattering and thermal conductivity in materials with a large isotope effect: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Reinecke, T. L.

    2013-10-01

    The interplay between phonon-isotope and phonon-phonon scattering in determining lattice thermal conductivities in semiconductors and insulators is examined using an ab initio Boltzmann transport equation approach. We identify materials with large enhancements to their thermal conductivities with isotopic purification, known as the isotope effect, and we focus in particular on results for beryllium-VI compounds and cubic germanium carbide. We find that germanium carbide and beryllium selenide have very large room temperature isotope effects of 450%, far larger than in any other material. Thus, isotopic purification in these materials gives surprisingly high intrinsic room temperature thermal conductivities, over 1500 Wm-1 K-1 for germanium carbide and over 600 Wm-1 K-1 for beryllium selenide, well above those of the best metals. In compound semiconductors, a large mass ratio of the constituent atoms and large isotope mixture for the heavier atom gives enhanced isotope scattering. A frequency gap between acoustic and optic phonons (also due to a large mass ratio) and bunching of the acoustic phonon branches give weak anharmonic scattering. Combined, weak anharmonic phonon scattering and strong isotope scattering give a large isotope effect in the materials examined here. The physical insights discussed in this work will help guide the efficient manipulation of thermal transport properties of compound semiconductors through isotopic modification.

  10. A Scalable O(N) Algorithm for Large-Scale Parallel First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Traditional algorithms for first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations only gain a modest capability increase from current petascale computers, due to their O(N3) complexity and their heavy use of global communications. To address this issue, we are developing a truly scalable O(N) complexity FPMD algorithm, based on density functional theory (DFT), which avoids global communications. The computational model uses a general nonorthogonal orbital formulation for the DFT energy functional, which requires knowledge of selected elements of the inverse of the associated overlap matrix. We present a scalable algorithm for approximately computing selected entries of the inverse of the overlap matrix, based on an approximate inverse technique, by inverting local blocks corresponding to principal submatrices of the global overlap matrix. The new FPMD algorithm exploits sparsity and uses nearest neighbor communication to provide a computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic orbitals are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the entries of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected entries of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to O(100K) atoms on O(100K) processors, with a wall-clock time of O(1) minute per molecular dynamics time step.

  11. Age-Related Deviation of Gait from Normality in Alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Barton, Gabor J; King, Stephanie L; Robinson, Mark A; Hawken, Malcolm B; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R

    2015-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disease leading to systemic changes including early and severe arthropathy which affects mobility. For unknown reasons, the onset of degenerative changes is delayed to around 30 years of age when both objective and subjective symptoms develop. In order to complement description of the structural changes in alkaptonuria with measures of movement function, clinical gait analysis was added to the list of assessments in 2013. The aim of this study was to describe the deviation of gait from normality as a function of age in patients with alkaptonuria. Three-dimensional movement of reflective markers attached to joints were captured during walking in 39 patients and 10 controls. Subsequent to processing the data to emphasise the shape of marker trajectories, the mean Movement Deviation Profile was generated for all participants. This single number measure gives the deviation of a patient's gait from a distributed definition of gait normality. Results showed that gait deviation roughly follows a sigmoid profile with minimal increase of gait deviations in a younger patient group and an abrupt large increase around the second half of the 4th decade of life. Larger variations of gait deviations were found in the older group than in the younger group suggesting a complex interaction of multiple factors which determine gait function after symptoms manifest. Continued gait analysis of adults with AKU, extended to younger adults and children with AKU, is expected to complete understanding of both the natural history of alkaptonuria and how interventions can affect movement function. PMID:25786642

  12. Large Deviation Statistics of Vorticity Stretching in Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-11-01

    A key feature of 3D fluid turbulence is the stretching/re-alignment of vorticity by the action of the strain-rate. It is shown using the cumulant-generating function that cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence behaves statistically like a sum of i.i.d. variables. The Cramer function for vorticity stretching is computed from the JHTDB isotropic DNS (Reλ = 430) and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain-rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramer functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of largest FTLE. A model Fokker-Planck equation is constructed by approximating the viscous destruction of vorticity with a deterministic non-linear relaxation law matching conditional statistics, while the fluctuations in vorticity stretching are modelled by stochastic noise matching the statistics encoded in the Cramer function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude PDF, with good agreement for the exponent but significant error (30-40%) in the pre-factor. Supported by NSF Graduate Fellowship (DGE-1232825) and NSF Grant CMMI-0941530.

  13. Large deviations of Rouse polymer chain: First passage problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jing; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Zuowei; Likhtman, Alexei E.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate several analytical methods of solving first passage (FP) problem for the Rouse model, a simplest model of a polymer chain. We show that this problem has to be treated as a multi-dimensional Kramers' problem, which presents rich and unexpected behavior. We first perform direct and forward-flux sampling (FFS) simulations and measure the mean first-passage time τ(z) for the free end to reach a certain distance z away from the origin. The results show that the mean FP time is getting faster if the Rouse chain is represented by more beads. Two scaling regimes of τ(z) are observed, with transition between them varying as a function of chain length. We use these simulation results to test two theoretical approaches. One is a well known asymptotic theory valid in the limit of zero temperature. We show that this limit corresponds to fully extended chain when each chain segment is stretched, which is not particularly realistic. A new theory based on the well known Freidlin-Wentzell theory is proposed, where dynamics is projected onto the minimal action path. The new theory predicts both scaling regimes correctly, but fails to get the correct numerical prefactor in the first regime. Combining our theory with the FFS simulations leads us to a simple analytical expression valid for all extensions and chain lengths. One of the applications of polymer FP problem occurs in the context of branched polymer rheology. In this paper, we consider the arm-retraction mechanism in the tube model, which maps exactly on the model we have solved. The results are compared to the Milner-McLeish theory without constraint release, which is found to overestimate FP time by a factor of 10 or more.

  14. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  15. Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…

  16. 48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... class deviation requests shall be submitted to the CPO per (HSAR) 48 CFR subpart 3001.70 including... is authorized to approve FAR class deviations, except (FAR) 48 CFR 30.201-3, and 30.201-4 (the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards Board); 48 CFR Chapter 99 (FAR Appendix); and part 50. Prior...

  17. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...

  18. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...

  19. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...

  20. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...

  1. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...

  2. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class deviations. 201.404 Section 201.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.404...

  3. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 201.404 Section 201.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.404...

  4. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 201.404 Section 201.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.404...

  5. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 201.404 Section 201.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.404...

  6. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 201.404 Section 201.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.404...

  7. 41 CFR 105-1.110 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation. 105-1.110 Section 105-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.110 Deviation....

  8. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  9. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary, after consultation with the Office of...

  10. 48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... through the Director, DAMS. (b) Requests for deviations under paragraph (a) of this section must be... contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the Director, DAMS will consult with... Director, DAMS as required in FAR 1.404....

  11. 48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... through the Director, DAMS. (b) Requests for deviations under paragraph (a) of this section must be... contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the Director, DAMS will consult with... Director, DAMS as required in FAR 1.404....

  12. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  13. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  14. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  15. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  16. 14 CFR 1216.318 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 1216.318 Section 1216.318 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.318 Deviations. From time...

  17. 14 CFR 1216.318 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Deviations. 1216.318 Section 1216.318 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.318 Deviations. From time...

  18. 14 CFR 1216.318 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 1216.318 Section 1216.318 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.318 Deviations. From time...

  19. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR may... documentation shall be provided to the SPE. Deviations from the FAR shall not be made unless such action is authorized by the SPE after consultation with the Office of the General Counsel and any other...

  20. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR may... documentation shall be provided to the SPE. Deviations from the FAR shall not be made unless such action is authorized by the SPE after consultation with the Office of the General Counsel and any other...

  1. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR may... documentation shall be provided to the SPE. Deviations from the FAR shall not be made unless such action is authorized by the SPE after consultation with the Office of the General Counsel and any other...

  2. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR may... documentation shall be provided to the SPE. Deviations from the FAR shall not be made unless such action is authorized by the SPE after consultation with the Office of the General Counsel and any other...

  3. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR may... documentation shall be provided to the SPE. Deviations from the FAR shall not be made unless such action is authorized by the SPE after consultation with the Office of the General Counsel and any other...

  4. 48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....403 Section 3001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the... regulation, the HCA is authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to (FAR) 48 CFR...

  5. 48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

  6. 48 CFR 1901.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 1901.404 Section 1901.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1901.404 Class...

  7. 48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

  8. 48 CFR 1901.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 1901.404 Section 1901.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1901.404 Class...

  9. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of single Co atom on MgO monolayer: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Bin; Shi, Wu-Jun; Feng, Min; Zuo, Xu

    2015-05-07

    Realizing the magnetic bit with a single atom is the ultimate goal for magnetic storage. Based on density functional theory, the magnetic anisotropy (MA) of single Co atom on MgO monolayer has been investigated. Results show that this two dimensional system possesses a large perpendicular MA, about 5.8 meV per Co atom. Besides, there exists remarkable unquenched orbital moments for different magnetization directions, which can be attributed to the reduction of coordination number in two dimensional system and is responsible for the enhanced MA. The Bloch pseudo-wavefunction and band structure of Co d-orbitals have been calculated to elucidate the origin of the perpendicular MA.

  10. Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. Anat Rec, 299:295-306, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26677010

  11. Raypath deviation under stable and unstable conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Denis; Seiffer, Dirk; Stein, Karin; Forand, Luc; Potvin, Guy

    2005-10-01

    Ray-bending resulting from atmospheric refraction in the maritime environment has been shown to potentially produce significant effects on electro-optical target detection and imaging. Positive bending makes possible detection beyond the horizon while negative bending reduces the maximum inter-vision range (MIVR) and is likely to produce severe image distortion or mirages. It has been shown by many authors that these phenomena can be efficiently described using ray-tracing in conjunction with bulk estimations of the refractivity profiles based on the Monin-Obhukov theory. In this paper, the accuracy of bulk methods to describe ray bending is assessed by examining angular deviations of apparent target elevations with respect to the meteorological conditions. Prediction accuracy is shown for a large spectrum of conditions, characterized by the air-sea temperature difference, by combining measurements collected in the North Sea and in the Baltic Sea. Moreover, the use of bulk profiles as opposed to profiles measured at sea by using a buoy is discussed.

  12. Program helps quickly calculate deviated well path

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.P. )

    1993-11-22

    A BASIC computer program quickly calculates the angle and measured depth of a simple directional well given only the true vertical depth and total displacement of the target. Many petroleum engineers and geologists need a quick, easy method to calculate the angle and measured depth necessary to reach a target in a proposed deviated well bore. Too many of the existing programs are large and require much input data. The drilling literature is full of equations and methods to calculate the course of well paths from surveys taken after a well is drilled. Very little information, however, covers how to calculate well bore trajectories for proposed wells from limited data. Furthermore, many of the equations are quite complex and difficult to use. A figure lists a computer program with the equations to calculate the well bore trajectory necessary to reach a given displacement and true vertical depth (TVD) for a simple build plant. It can be run on an IBM compatible computer with MS-DOS version 5 or higher, QBasic, or any BASIC that does no require line numbers. QBasic 4.5 compiler will also run the program. The equations are based on conventional geometry and trigonometry.

  13. Prediction of a large number of electron pockets near the band edges in type-VIII clathrate Si46 and its physical properties from first principles.

    PubMed

    Norouzzadeh, Payam; Myles, Charles W; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2013-11-27

    The material design of type-VIII clathrate Si46 is presented based on first principles. The structural, electronic, elastic, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of this hypothetical material are presented. Our results predict that type-VIII clathrate Si46 is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.24 eV. The band structure revealed an interestingly large number of electron pockets near both conduction and valance band edges. Such a large density of states near the band edges, which is higher than that of the best thermoelectric materials discovered so far, can result in a large thermoelectric power factor (>0.004 W m(-1) K(-2)) making it a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications. The elastic properties as well as the vibrational modes and the phonon state densities of this material were also calculated. Our calculations predict that the heat capacity at constant volume (isochoric) of this clathrate increases smoothly with temperature and approaches the Dulong-Petit value near room temperature. The electronic band structure shows a large number of valleys closely packed around the valance band edge, which is rare among the known semiconducting materials. These valleys can contribute to transport at high temperature resulting in a possibly high performance (ZT > 1.5) p-type thermoelectric material. PMID:24172765

  14. Skew deviation after intratympanic gentamicin therapy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Diana; Fouladvand, Mohammad; Lalwani, Anil K

    2011-03-01

    Intratympanic gentamicin therapy for the treatment of episodic vertigo associated with Ménière's disease is generally well tolerated. Although auditory and vestibular symptoms following intratympanic gentamicin are well known, visual disturbance has not been previously described. In this report, we describe two patients with Ménière's disease who developed sudden onset of binocular vertical diplopia due to skew deviation after intratympanic gentamicin therapy. The skew deviation and diplopia resolved spontaneously and completely within 6 to 8 weeks without therapy. Development of diplopia due to skew deviation should be discussed as a potential complication in patients undergoing intratympanic gentamicin therapy. PMID:21344424

  15. Scaling Deviations for Neutrino Reactions in Aysmptotically Free Field Theories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Treiman, S. B.

    1974-11-01

    Several aspects of deep inelastic neutrino scattering are discussed in the framework of asymptotically free field theories. We first consider the growth behavior of the total cross sections at large energies. Because of the deviations from strict scaling which are characteristic of such theories the growth need not be linear. However, upper and lower bounds are established which rather closely bracket a linear growth. We next consider in more detail the expected pattern of scaling deviation for the structure functions and, correspondingly, for the differential cross sections. The analysis here is based on certain speculative assumptions. The focus is on qualitative effects of scaling breakdown as they may show up in the X and y distributions. The last section of the paper deals with deviations from the Callan-Gross relation.

  16. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be submitted in writing to the SPE for approval. The SPE may authorize class deviations from the... precludes consultation. The SPE shall subsequently inform the Chairperson of the Civilian Agency...

  17. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall be submitted in writing to the SPE for approval. The SPE may authorize class deviations from the... precludes consultation. The SPE shall subsequently inform the Chairperson of the Civilian Agency...

  18. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall be submitted in writing to the SPE for approval. The SPE may authorize class deviations from the... precludes consultation. The SPE shall subsequently inform the Chairperson of the Civilian Agency...

  19. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall be submitted in writing to the SPE for approval. The SPE may authorize class deviations from the... precludes consultation. The SPE shall subsequently inform the Chairperson of the Civilian Agency...

  20. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall be submitted in writing to the SPE for approval. The SPE may authorize class deviations from the... precludes consultation. The SPE shall subsequently inform the Chairperson of the Civilian Agency...

  1. Does standard deviation matter? Using "standard deviation" to quantify security of multistage testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk. PMID:24323297

  2. Estimate of standard deviation for a log-transformed variable using arithmetic means and standard deviations.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hui; Zhang, Ji

    2003-09-15

    Analyses of study variables are frequently based on log transformations. To calculate the power for detecting the between-treatment difference in the log scale, we need an estimate of the standard deviation of the log-transformed variable. However, in many situations a literature search only provides the arithmetic means and the corresponding standard deviations. Without individual log-transformed data to directly calculate the sample standard deviation, we need alternative methods to estimate it. This paper presents methods for estimating and constructing confidence intervals for the standard deviation of a log-transformed variable given the mean and standard deviation of the untransformed variable. It also presents methods for estimating the standard deviation of change from baseline in the log scale given the means and standard deviations of the untransformed baseline value, on-treatment value and change from baseline. Simulations and examples are provided to assess the performance of these estimates. PMID:12939782

  3. Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim

    2015-03-01

    The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.

  4. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  5. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it

  6. Fatigue, pilot deviations and time of day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Susan P.

    1989-01-01

    The relationships between pilot fatigue, pilot deviations, reported incidents, and time of day are examined. A sample of 200 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports were analyzed from 1985 and 200 reports from 1987, plus 100 reports from late 1987 and early 1988 that were selected because of possible association with fatigue. The FAA pilot deviation data and incident data were analyzed in relation to denominator data that summarized the hourly operations (landings and takeoffs of scheduled flights) at major U.S. airports. Using as numerators FAA data on pilot deviations and incidents reported to the FAA, the rates by time of day were calculated. Pilot age was also analyzed in relation to the time of day, phase of flight, and type of incident.

  7. Online Deviation Detection for Medical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Stefan C.; Avrunin, George S.; Clarke, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Human errors are a major concern in many medical processes. To help address this problem, we are investigating an approach for automatically detecting when performers of a medical process deviate from the acceptable ways of performing that process as specified by a detailed process model. Such deviations could represent errors and, thus, detecting and reporting deviations as they occur could help catch errors before harm is done. In this paper, we identify important issues related to the feasibility of the proposed approach and empirically evaluate the approach for two medical procedures, chemotherapy and blood transfusion. For the evaluation, we use the process models to generate sample process executions that we then seed with synthetic errors. The process models describe the coordination of activities of different process performers in normal, as well as in exceptional situations. The evaluation results suggest that the proposed approach could be applied in clinical settings to help catch errors before harm is done. PMID:25954343

  8. Geodesic deviation equation in f (T ) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, F.; Mousavi, M.; Atazadeh, K.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we show that it is possible to study the notion of a geodesic deviation equation in f (T ) gravity, in spite of the fact that in teleparallel gravity there is no notion of geodesics, and the torsion is responsible for the appearance of gravitational interaction. In this regard, we obtain the general relativity equivalent equations for f (T ) gravity, which are in the modified gravity form such as f (R ) gravity. Then, we obtain the geodesic deviation equation within the context of this modified gravity. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the f (T ) gravity. Eventually, we extend the calculations to obtain the modification of the Mattig relation.

  9. Laser-scanning angle deviation microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, M.-H.; Shih, B.-Y.; Lai, C.-W.

    2007-01-08

    A microscope manifesting a dynamic range of several microns and an axial (or height) resolution of 1 nm is presented. It is based on the method of angle deviation due to nonfocal plane reflection and the application of surface plasmon resonance effect as well as the technique of heterodyne interferometry. The deviation angle and the induced phase difference between two rays are proportional to the departure from the focal plane. Using the common-path heterodyne interferometry to scan the specimen and measure the phase difference distribution, the surface profile would be obtained in real time.

  10. 48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... other regulation, the HCA is authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to (FAR) 48 CFR 30.201-3, 30.201-4; the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards board rules and regulations at 48 CFR chapter 99 (FAR appendix); and part 50). Submit requests per (HSAR) 48 CFR...

  11. 29 CFR 95.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND WITH COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS, FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, ORGANIZATIONS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 95.4 Deviations. The Office of...

  12. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  13. Manifestations of Deviation in the Adolescent Subculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.

    2005-01-01

    In this article the authors look at questions relating to school students' attitudes toward types of deviation such as smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotics. The empirical material is divided into the following topics: how widespread these forms of behavior are; motives that cause adolescents to start smoking, using alcohol, and taking…

  14. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... will be permitted only in unusual circumstances. SSA may apply more restrictive requirements to a...

  15. 7 CFR 2502.3 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 2502.3 Section 2502.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CAREER AND EMPLOYMENT (ACE) GRANTS PROGRAM General Information § 2502.3...

  16. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110...

  17. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a

  18. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle control... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent...

  19. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle control... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent...

  20. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS REPORTING SUBAWARD AND...

  1. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Pre-award responsibilities UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  2. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  3. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  4. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  5. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  6. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  7. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  8. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  9. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  10. 48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 3001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY... is authorized to approve FAR class deviations, except (FAR) 48 CFR 30.201-3, and 30.201-4 (the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards Board); 48 CFR Chapter 99 (FAR Appendix); and part 50. Prior...

  11. 32 CFR 21.645 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation. 21.645 Section 21.645 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD... procedure that is inconsistent with the DoDGARs....

  12. 32 CFR 21.645 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviation. 21.645 Section 21.645 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD... procedure that is inconsistent with the DoDGARs....

  13. 32 CFR 21.645 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deviation. 21.645 Section 21.645 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD... procedure that is inconsistent with the DoDGARs....

  14. 32 CFR 21.645 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviation. 21.645 Section 21.645 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD... procedure that is inconsistent with the DoDGARs....

  15. 32 CFR 21.645 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviation. 21.645 Section 21.645 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD... procedure that is inconsistent with the DoDGARs....

  16. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110...

  17. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110...

  18. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110...

  19. Equivalence principle and gravitational redshift.

    PubMed

    Hohensee, Michael A; Chu, Steven; Peters, Achim; Müller, Holger

    2011-04-15

    We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Mössbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10(-6) level. PMID:21568541

  20. Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger; Peters, Achim

    2011-04-15

    We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.

  1. Electron density and transport in top-gated graphene nanoribbon devices: First-principles Green function algorithms for systems containing a large number of atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areshkin, Denis A.; Nikolić, Branislav K.

    2010-04-01

    The recent fabrication of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) field-effect transistors poses a challenge for first-principles modeling of carbon nanoelectronics due to many thousand atoms present in the device. The state of the art quantum transport algorithms, based on the nonequilibrium Green function formalism combined with the density-functional theory (NEGF-DFT), were originally developed to calculate self-consistent electron density in equilibrium and at finite bias voltage (as a prerequisite to obtain conductance or current-voltage characteristics, respectively) for small molecules attached to metallic electrodes where only a few hundred atoms are typically simulated. Here we introduce combination of two numerically efficient algorithms which make it possible to extend the NEGF-DFT framework to device simulations involving large number of atoms. Our first algorithm offers an alternative to the usual evaluation of the equilibrium part of electron density via numerical contour integration of the retarded Green function in the upper complex half-plane. It is based on the replacement of the Fermi function f(E) with an analytic function f˜(E) coinciding with f(E) inside the integration range along the real axis, but decaying exponentially in the upper complex half-plane. Although f˜(E) has infinite number of poles, whose positions and residues are determined analytically, only a finite number of those poles have non-negligible residues. We also discuss how this algorithm can be extended to compute the nonequilibrium contribution to electron density, thereby evading cumbersome real-axis integration (within the bias voltage window) of NEGFs which is very difficult to converge for systems with large number of atoms while maintaining current conservation. Our second algorithm combines the recursive formulas with the geometrical partitioning of an arbitrary multiterminal device into nonuniform segments in order to reduce the computational complexity of the retarded Green function evaluation by extracting only its submatrices required for electron density and transmission function. We illustrate fusion of these two algorithms into the NEGF-DFT-type code by computing charge transfer, charge redistribution and conductance in zigzag- GNR∣variable -width-armchair- GNR∣zigzag -GNR two-terminal device covered with a gate electrode made of graphene layer as well. The total number of carbon and edge-passivating hydrogen atoms within the simulated central region of this device is ≃7000 . Our self-consistent modeling of the gate voltage effect suggests that rather large gate voltage ≃3eV might be required to shift the band gap of the proposed AGNR interconnect and switch the transport from insulating into the regime of a single open conducting channel.

  2. Determination of real machine-tool settings and minimization of real surface deviation by computerized inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  3. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

  4. Top Yukawa deviation in extra dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Oda, Kin-ya; Takahashi, Ryo

    2009-11-01

    We suggest a simple one-Higgs-doublet model living in the bulk of five-dimensional spacetime compactified on S/Z, in which the top Yukawa coupling can be smaller than the naive standard-model expectation, i.e. the top quark mass divided by the Higgs vacuum expectation value. If we find only single Higgs particle at the LHC and also observe the top Yukawa deviation, our scenario becomes a realistic candidate beyond the standard model. The Yukawa deviation comes from the fact that the wave function profile of the free physical Higgs field can become different from that of the vacuum expectation value, due to the presence of the brane-localized Higgs potentials. In the Brane-Localized Fermion scenario, we find sizable top Yukawa deviation, which could be checked at the LHC experiment, with a dominant Higgs production channel being the WW fusion. We also study the Bulk Fermion scenario with brane-localized Higgs potential, which resembles the Universal Extra Dimension model with a stable dark matter candidate. We show that both scenarios are consistent with the current electroweak precision measurements.

  5. Note Onset Deviations as Musical Piece Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

  6. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    PubMed

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

  7. Variability of Ocular Deviation in Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE In strabismus, the fixating eye conveys the direction of gaze while the fellow eye points at a peripheral location in space. The stability of the eyes may be reduced by the absence of a common target. OBJECTIVE To quantify the stability of eye position in strabismus and to measure variability in the ocular deviation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS From 2010 to 2014, a prospective comparative case study of 25 patients with alternating exotropia with normal visual acuity in each eye and 25 control individuals was conducted in a laboratory at a tertiary eye center. A video eye tracker was used to measure the position of each eye while participants alternated fixation on the center of a cross under dichoptic conditions or scanned pictures of natural scenes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Spatial and temporal variability in the position of the fixating eye and the nonfixating eye in patients with strabismus and control individuals, quantified by the log area of ellipses containing 95% of eye positions or mean SDs of eye position. RESULTS In the 25 patients with strabismus, the mean (SD) age was 28 (14) years (range, 8–55 years) and the mean (SD) ocular deviation was 14.2° (5.9°) (range, 4.4°–22.4°). In the patients with strabismus, the mean position variability (1.80 log units; 95% CI, 1.66–1.93) for the deviating eye was greater than for the fixating eye (1.26 log units; 95% CI, 1.17–1.35) (P < .001). The fixating eye of patients with strabismus was more variable in position than the fixating eye of individuals without strabismus (0.98 log units; 95% CI, 0.88–1.08) (P < .005). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In patients with strabismus, even without amblyopia, the deviated eye is more variable in position than the fixating eye. Both eyes are less stable in position than the eyes of control individuals, which indicates that strabismus impairs the ability to fixate targets steadily. Saccades contribute to variability of the deviation angle because they are less conjugate in patients with strabismus. PMID:26562632

  8. Electromagnetic modelling of superconductors with a smooth current-voltage relation: variational principle and coils from a few turns to large magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Enric; Šouc, Ján; Frolek, Lubomir

    2015-04-01

    Many large-scale applications require electromagnetic modelling with extensive numerical computations, such as magnets or three-dimensional (3D) objects like transposed conductors or motors and generators. Therefore, it is necessary to develop computationally time-efficient but still accurate numerical methods. This article develops a general variational formalism for any {E}({J}) relation and applies it to model coated-conductor coils containing up to thousands of turns, taking magnetization currents fully into account. The variational principle, valid for any 3D situation, restricts the computations to the sample volume, reducing the computation time. However, no additional magnetic materials interacting with the superconductor are taken directly into account. Regarding the coil modelling, we use a power law E(J) relation with magnetic field-dependent critical current density, Jc, and power law exponent, n. We test the numerical model by comparing the results to analytical formulas for thin strips and experiments for stacks of pancake coils, finding a very good agreement. Afterwards, we model a magnet-size coil of 4000 turns (stack of 20 pancake coils of 200 turns each). We found that the ac loss is mainly due to magnetization currents. We also found that for an n exponent of 20, the magnetization currents are greatly suppressed after 1 h relaxation. In addition, in coated conductor coils magnetization currents have an important impact on the generated magnetic field; which should be taken into account for magnet design. In conclusion, the presented numerical method fulfills the requirements for electromagnetic design of coated conductor windings.

  9. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  10. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  11. Measuring and Plotting Surface-Contour Deviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Lino A.; Shuck, Thomas; Crockett, Leroy K.

    1987-01-01

    Hand-held device measures deviation of contour of surface from desired contour and provides output to x-y plotter. Carriage on device rolled along track representing desired contour, while spring-loaded stylus on device deflects perpendicularly to track to follow surface. Operator moves carriage of contour-measuring device on beamlike track. Stylus on carriage traces contour of surface above it. Carriage of measuring device holds transducer measuring cross-track displacement of surface from desired contour, and multiple-turn potentiometer measuring position along track.

  12. Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.

  13. Classification of Ceres HST albedo deviation map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Tosi, F.; McFadden, L. A.; Blewett, T. D.; Scipioni, F.; Longobardo, A.; Li, Y. J.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2014-04-01

    With a mean diameter of 952 km, dwarf planet Ceres is the largest object in the main asteroid belt. Here we classify Hubble Space Telescope (HST) albedo deviation map of Ceres calculated in three bands, using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classification method. The data are available in the PDS Small Bodies Node and are described in [1]. Our classification allows the identification of regions of interest on Ceres, and to distinguish areas with similar spectral characteristics. Our work is in support of the arrival of the Dawn spacecraft at Ceres in 2015.

  14. Mitigation of multiple fractures from deviated wellbores

    SciTech Connect

    Hainey, B.W.; Weng, X.; Stoisits, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    While over six hundred Kuparuk A Sand wells have been hydraulically fractured or re-fractured successfully from deviated wellbores, a number of wells in the field have not responded to the conventional fracture treatments. In these wells, the conventional design resulted in premature, near-wellbore screenouts, with low proppant placement, and consequently, poor productivity. A symptom common to each of the failed treatments was a near-wellbore friction pressure loss too high to be explained by perforation restriction or simple fracture twisting and turning. An extensive analytical study of hydraulic fracture initiation and propagation from deviated wellbores suggested multiple fractures as a mechanism to account for the abnormally high near-wellbore friction pressure loss and the reduction in fracture width. A model was developed (XFRAC) which correlates these responses to formation stress, wellbore parameters and treatment conditions. A counter-intuitive fracture treatment which employed lower pumping rates combined with higher viscosity fracturing fluids was designed to minimize the formation of multiple fractures and increase fracture width. This unconventional design has been successfully pumped in eleven wells which exhibited the premature screenout problem. Proppant placement was increased over ten fold with a tripling of post-frac production rates and a 35 percent increase in estimated recovery.

  15. Global temperature deviations as a random walk

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, O.

    1996-12-31

    Surface air temperature is the main parameter to represent the earth`s contemporary climate. Several historical temperature records on a global/monthly basis are available. Time-series analysis shows that they can be modelled via autoregressive moving average models closely connected to the classical random walk model. Fitted models emphasize a nonstationary character of the global/monthly temperature deviation from a certain level. The nonstationarity explains all trends and periods, found in the last century`s variability of global mean temperature. This means that the short-term temperature trends are inevitable and may have little in common with a currently increasing carbon dioxide amount. The calculations show that a reasonable understanding of the contemporary global mean climate is attainable, assuming random forcing to the climate system and treating temperature deviation as a response to it. The forcings occur due to volcanic eruptions, redistribution of cloudiness, variations in snow and ice covered areas, changes in solar output, etc. Their impact can not be directly estimated from changes of the earth`s radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, because actual measurements represent mixture of the forcings and responses. Thus, it is impossible empirically to separate the impact of one particular forcing (e.g., that due to increase of CO{sub 2} amount) from the sequence of all existing forcings in the earth climate system. More accurate modelling involving main feedback loops is necessary to ease such a separation.

  16. Perception via the deviated eye in strabismus.

    PubMed

    Economides, John R; Adams, Daniel L; Horton, Jonathan C

    2012-07-25

    Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color ("red" or "blue") revealed which eye's image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus. PMID:22836262

  17. Perception via the Deviated Eye in Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color (“red” or “blue”) revealed which eye’s image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus. PMID:22836262

  18. Buridan's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamport, Leslie

    2012-08-01

    Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

  19. Principled Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

  20. Fast self contained exponential random deviate algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Julio F.

    1997-03-01

    An algorithm that generates random numbers with an exponential distribution and is about ten times faster than other well known algorithms has been reported before (J. F. Fernández and J. Rivero, Comput. Phys. 10), 83 (1996). That algorithm requires input of uniform random deviates. We now report a new version of it that needs no input and is nearly as fast. The only limitation we predict thus far for the quality of the output is the amount of computer memory available. Performance results under various tests will be reported. The algorithm works in close analogy to the set up that is often used in statistical physics in order to obtain the Gibb's distribution. N numbers, that are are stored in N registers, change with time according to the rules of the algorithm, keeping their sum constant. Further details will be given.

  1. Dynamic sealing principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  2. Principled leadership.

    PubMed

    Lexa, Frank James

    2010-07-01

    Leadership is not just a set of activities; it is also about vision and character. Principles matter: for you, for your coworkers, and for the group or institution you serve. Individuals and groups can succeed only through a climate of commitment and trust. Your integrity and principled leadership are the cornerstones for building an effective team. Following principles doesn't mean that you will win every time, but having a plan and sticking to it even in tough times is a strong element of long-term success. PMID:20630389

  3. Experiences from Participants in Large-Scale Group Practice of the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programs and Parallel Principles of Quantum Theory, Astrophysics, Quantum Cosmology, and String Theory: Interdisciplinary Qualitative Correspondences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenson, Eric Johan

    Participants on the Invincible America Assembly in Fairfield, Iowa, and neighboring Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa, practicing Maharishi Transcendental Meditation(TM) (TM) and the TM-Sidhi(TM) programs in large groups, submitted written experiences that they had had during, and in some cases shortly after, their daily practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs. Participants were instructed to include in their written experiences only what they observed and to leave out interpretation and analysis. These experiences were then read by the author and compared with principles and phenomena of modern physics, particularly with quantum theory, astrophysics, quantum cosmology, and string theory as well as defining characteristics of higher states of consciousness as described by Maharishi Vedic Science. In all cases, particular principles or phenomena of physics and qualities of higher states of consciousness appeared qualitatively quite similar to the content of the given experience. These experiences are presented in an Appendix, in which the corresponding principles and phenomena of physics are also presented. These physics "commentaries" on the experiences were written largely in layman's terms, without equations, and, in nearly every case, with clear reference to the corresponding sections of the experiences to which a given principle appears to relate. An abundance of similarities were apparent between the subjective experiences during meditation and principles of modern physics. A theoretic framework for understanding these rich similarities may begin with Maharishi's theory of higher states of consciousness provided herein. We conclude that the consistency and richness of detail found in these abundant similarities warrants the further pursuit and development of such a framework.

  4. Effect of stress on energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in GR/EP composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy because of the large anisotropy. The angle of deviation is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of deviation is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux deviation for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis (fiber axis) and the x1 for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as large as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers a new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.

  5. The Role of Burden and Deviation in Ostracizing Others.

    PubMed

    Wesselmann, Eric D; Wirth, James H; Pryor, John B; Reeder, Glenn D; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded and ignored) is a painful experience, so why do individuals ostracize others? Previous research suggests individuals often ostracize those who are deviate, but not always. We posit that there may be two types of deviation, burdensome and non-burdensome, and the former is most likely to be ostracized. Study 1 manipulated burdensome deviation by programming a group member to perform more slowly (8 or 16 sec.) than others (4 sec.) in a virtual ball-toss game. Participants perceived slower players as more burdensome and deviate than normal speed players. Additionally, participants ostracized (gave fewer ball tosses to) the slowest player. Study 2 examined participant responses to both burdensome deviation (8- and 16-sec. players) and non-burdensome deviation (goth appearance). Participants again perceived the slower players to be burdensome and deviate, and ostracized them. They perceived the goth player to be deviate but not burdensome and did not ostracize this player. PMID:26267129

  6. A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orris, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.

  7. 7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall... that the deviation is temporary, the Corporation may grant a temporary waiver pending compliance...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more of... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  9. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more of... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  10. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more of... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  11. Thermodynamic Lower Bounds of Deviation from Instantaneous Canonical State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnai, Takaaki

    2016-04-01

    We address the issue of the characterization of the nonequilibrium states for the time-dependent processes of a system interacting with a large reservoir, which is initially prepared in an equilibrium state. During the time evolution, we apply an external force to the system so that the actual density matrix is quantitatively different from the canonical state specified by the time-dependent system Hamiltonian. To express how the external forcing causes the deviation from equilibrium, we give a class of thermodynamic expressions for the lower bounds of the distance between the actual nonequilibrium state and the corresponding canonical state. The lower bounds are thermodynamically expressed only in terms of the strength of the forcing and its consequent entropy production rate.

  12. Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN1-xSbx from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Lisenkov, Sergey; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Mahendra K.; Menon, Madhu

    2011-08-01

    Applicability of the Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting water under visible light irradiation.

  13. Fighting the curse of dimensionality in first-principles semiclassical calculations: Non-local reference states for large number of dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Tantardini, Gian Franco; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2011-12-01

    Semiclassical methods face numerical challenges as the dimensionality of the system increases. In the general context of the theory of differential equations, this is known as the "curse of dimensionality." In the present manuscript, we apply the recently-introduced multi-coherent states semiclassical initial value representation (MC-SC-IVR) approach to extend the applicability of first-principles semiclassical calculations. The proposed strategy involves the use of non-local coherent states with the goal of increasing accuracy in the Fourier transforms, and on the other hand, allows for the selection of peaks of different frequencies. The ability to filter desired peaks is important for analyzing the power spectra of complex systems. The MC-SC-IVR approach allows us to solve a 19-dimensional test system and to resolve on-the-fly the power spectra of the formaldehyde molecule with very few classical trajectories.

  14. Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN1-xSbx from first principles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Lisenkov, Sergey; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Mahendra K.; Menon, Madhu

    2011-08-01

    Applicability of the Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting water under visible light irradiation.

  15. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…

  16. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In

  17. First-principles study of the large-gap three-dimensional topological insulators M3Bi2 (M =Ca , Sr, Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ronghan; Xie, Qing; Cheng, Xiyue; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi; Chen, Xing-Qiu

    2015-11-01

    By means of first-principles calculations in combination with universal evolutionary structure search, we identified the crystalline structure of long-term argued M3Bi2 (M =Sr , Ca, and Ba), which crystallizes in a tubelike structure stacked by buckled graphenelike layers. The analyses of electronic structures revealed that this type of M3Bi2 is a native wide-gap three-dimensional topological insulator with the inverted band order induced mainly by crystal field effect. The spin-orbit coupling effect was found to open the band gap and further enhance the band inversion. Among them, Sr3Bi2 is most attractive due to its largest fundamental gap of about 0.3 eV and the directly inverted band gap of 0.81 eV at Γ obtained within the framework of Green functionals (G W ). Moreover, the computation also evidences that their tubelike structure is suitable for further treatment via magnetic dopants, which prefer to occupy 1 b site. Interestingly, the ferromagnetic insulating state has been achieved for V- and Mn-doped cases. This may provide a further opportunity to observe the quantized anomalous Hall effect in its thin films.

  18. Psychosomatic Principles

    PubMed Central

    Cleghorn, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    There are four lines of development that might be called psychosomatic principles. The first represents the work initiated by Claude Bernard, Cannon, and others, in neurophysiology and endocrinology in relationship to stress. The second is the application of psychoanalytic formulations to the understanding of illness. The third is in the development of the social sciences, particularly anthropology, social psychology and sociology with respect to the emotional life of man, and, fourth, there is an increased application of epidemiological techniques to the understanding and incidence of disease and its causes. These principles can be applied to the concepts of comprehensive medicine and they bid fair to be unifying and helpful in its study. This means that future practitioners, as well as those working in the field of psychosomatic medicine, are going to have to have a much more precise knowledge of the influence of emotions on bodily processes. PMID:14259334

  19. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  20. The gait standard deviation, a single measure of kinematic variability.

    PubMed

    Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. PMID:27131201

  1. Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2016-02-01

    Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time αi(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy ΩDE(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

  2. First principles calculation of a large variation in dielectric tensor through the spin crossover in the CsFe[Cr(CN)6] Prussian blue analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlemiss, Derek S.; Deeth, Robert J.

    2014-04-01

    The dielectric response of spin-crossover (SCO) materials is a key property facilitating their use in next-generation information processing technologies. Solid state hybrid density functional theory calculations show that the temperature-induced and strongly hysteretic SCO transition in the Cs+Fe2+[Cr3+(CN-)6] Prussian blue analogue (PBA) is associated with a large change (Δ) in both the static, Δɛ0(HS - LS), and high frequency, Δɛ∞(HS - LS) dielectric constants. The SCO-induced variation in CsFe[Cr(CN)6] is significantly greater than the experimental Δɛ values observed previously in other SCO materials. The phonon contribution, Δɛphon(HS - LS), determined within a lattice dynamics approach, dominates over the clamped nuclei term, Δɛ∞(HS - LS), and is in turn dominated by the low-frequency translational motions of Cs+ cations within the cubic voids of the Fe[Cr(CN)6]- framework. The Cs+ translational modes couple strongly to the large unit cell volume change occurring through the SCO transition. PBAs and associated metal-organic frameworks emerge as a potentially fruitful class of materials in which to search for SCO transitions associated with large changes in dielectric response and other macroscopic properties.

  3. First principles calculation of a large variation in dielectric tensor through the spin crossover in the CsFe[Cr(CN){sub 6}] Prussian blue analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Middlemiss, Derek S. E-mail: R.J.Deeth@warwick.ac.uk; Deeth, Robert J. E-mail: R.J.Deeth@warwick.ac.uk

    2014-04-14

    The dielectric response of spin-crossover (SCO) materials is a key property facilitating their use in next-generation information processing technologies. Solid state hybrid density functional theory calculations show that the temperature-induced and strongly hysteretic SCO transition in the Cs{sup +}Fe{sup 2+}[Cr{sup 3+}(CN{sup −}){sub 6}] Prussian blue analogue (PBA) is associated with a large change (Δ) in both the static, Δε{sup 0}(HS − LS), and high frequency, Δε{sup ∞}(HS − LS) dielectric constants. The SCO-induced variation in CsFe[Cr(CN){sub 6}] is significantly greater than the experimental Δε values observed previously in other SCO materials. The phonon contribution, Δε{sup phon}(HS − LS), determined within a lattice dynamics approach, dominates over the clamped nuclei term, Δε{sup ∞}(HS − LS), and is in turn dominated by the low-frequency translational motions of Cs{sup +} cations within the cubic voids of the Fe[Cr(CN){sub 6}]{sup −} framework. The Cs{sup +} translational modes couple strongly to the large unit cell volume change occurring through the SCO transition. PBAs and associated metal-organic frameworks emerge as a potentially fruitful class of materials in which to search for SCO transitions associated with large changes in dielectric response and other macroscopic properties.

  4. First principles calculation of a large variation in dielectric tensor through the spin crossover in the CsFe[Cr(CN)₆] Prussian blue analogue.

    PubMed

    Middlemiss, Derek S; Deeth, Robert J

    2014-04-14

    The dielectric response of spin-crossover (SCO) materials is a key property facilitating their use in next-generation information processing technologies. Solid state hybrid density functional theory calculations show that the temperature-induced and strongly hysteretic SCO transition in the Cs(+)Fe(2+)[Cr(3+)(CN(-))6] Prussian blue analogue (PBA) is associated with a large change (Δ) in both the static, Δɛ(0)(HS - LS), and high frequency, Δɛ(∞)(HS - LS) dielectric constants. The SCO-induced variation in CsFe[Cr(CN)6] is significantly greater than the experimental Δɛ values observed previously in other SCO materials. The phonon contribution, Δɛ(phon)(HS - LS), determined within a lattice dynamics approach, dominates over the clamped nuclei term, Δɛ(∞)(HS - LS), and is in turn dominated by the low-frequency translational motions of Cs(+) cations within the cubic voids of the Fe[Cr(CN)6](-) framework. The Cs(+) translational modes couple strongly to the large unit cell volume change occurring through the SCO transition. PBAs and associated metal-organic frameworks emerge as a potentially fruitful class of materials in which to search for SCO transitions associated with large changes in dielectric response and other macroscopic properties. PMID:24735301

  5. On combination of strict Bayesian principles with model reduction technique or how stochastic model calibration can become feasible for large-scale applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. Calibration on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for calibration are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian principles. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model reduction. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of calibrated model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of accurate filtering become very feasible for our suggested aPC-based calibration framework. However, the power of aPC-based Bayesian updating strongly depends on the accuracy of prior information. In the current study, the prior assumptions on the model parameters were not satisfactory and strongly underestimate the reservoir pressure. Thus, the aPC-based response surface used in Bootstrap filtering is fitted to a distant and poorly chosen region within the parameter space. Thanks to the iterative procedure suggested in [2] we overcome this drawback with small computational costs. The iteration successively improves the accuracy of the expansion around the current estimation of the posterior distribution. The final result is a calibrated model of the site that can be used for further studies, with an excellent match to the data. References [1] Oladyshkin S. and Nowak W. Data-driven uncertainty quantification using the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 106:179-190, 2012. [2] Oladyshkin S., Class H., Nowak W. Bayesian updating via Bootstrap filtering combined with data-driven polynomial chaos expansions: methodology and application to history matching for carbon dioxide storage in geological formations. Computational Geosciences, 17 (4), 671-687, 2013.

  6. Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave deviates from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux deviation and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux deviation. The energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite large because of their high anisotropy. The flux deviation angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux deviation was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1).

  7. 14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for deviation. 21.609 Section 21.609 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Technical Standard Order Authorizations § 21.609 Approval for deviation. (a) Each manufacturer...

  8. Data Sets Having Integer Means and Standard Deviations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudek, Frank J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the recent suggestion (by McGown and Spencer) that construction of tests for introductory statistics is facilitated if data sets have means and standard deviations that are integers. Maintains that it is fairly easy to devise data sets with integer means and standard deviations for larger samples. Explains advantages and describes…

  9. Teaching Intuitive Statistics. II. Aiding the Estimation of Standard Deviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovie, Patricia

    1978-01-01

    In this study, the subjects were found to produce better estimates of standard deviations by using a "range rule" than by a direct estimation procedure, particularly when the sample variances were small. No differences were found in the subjects' performance in making direct estimates of standard deviations and variances. (Author/MN)

  10. 48 CFR 570.704 - Deviations to provisions and clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deviations to provisions and clauses. 570.704 Section 570.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES... contracting officer also needs an approved deviation to modify the language of a provision or clause...

  11. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations. Deviations from the regulations in this part shall only be granted by the Administrator of General...

  12. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations. Deviations from the regulations in this part shall only be granted by the Administrator of General...

  13. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations. Deviations from the regulations in this part shall only be granted by the Administrator of General...

  14. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations. Deviations from the regulations in this part shall only be granted by the Administrator of General...

  15. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations. Deviations from the regulations in this part shall only be granted by the Administrator of General...

  16. Adverse Drug Reactions and quality deviations monitored by spontaneous reports

    PubMed Central

    Visacri, Marília Berlofa; de Souza, Cinthia Madeira; Sato, Catarina Miyako Shibata; Granja, Silvia; de Marialva, Mécia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Moriel, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and quality deviations in a Brazilian teaching hospital and propose a consistent classification to study quality deviations. Methods This is a descriptive and retrospective study involving the analysis of spontaneous reports of ADRs and quality deviations in 2010. ADRs were classified according to the reaction mechanism, severity, and causality. The drugs were classified according to their therapeutic classes and symptoms according to the affected organ. The quality deviations were classified according to the type of deviation and type of medicine available in the Brazilian market. Results A total of 68 forms were examined; ADRs accounted for 39.7% of the notifications, while quality deviations accounted for 60.3%. ADRs occurred more frequently in men (51.9%) and adults (63.0%). The skin (28.0%) was the most affected organ, while anti-infectives (40.7%) were the therapeutic class that caused the most ADRs. The most common ADRs were type B (74.0%), moderates (37.0%), and probables (55.6%). In relation to quality deviations, the most frequent notifications were breaks, splits and leaks (20.9%) and related to generic drugs (43.9%). Conclusion The classification system to study quality deviations was clear and consistent. This study demonstrated that practices and public policies related to more effective pharmacovigilance need to be implemented so that the number of spontaneous reports increases. PMID:25972731

  17. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  18. 33 CFR 155.5012 - Deviation from response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviation from response plan. 155.5012 Section 155.5012 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Nontank Vessel Response Plans § 155.5012 Deviation...

  19. 33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...

  20. 33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...

  1. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89 Deviations from scheduled processes. Whenever any process operation deviates from the scheduled process for any... processor of the acidified food shall either: (a) Fully reprocess that portion of the food by a...

  2. Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

  3. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  4. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  5. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    PubMed

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:20809379

  6. Drastic deviations from stoichiometry transfer during pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Arne; Eberl, Christian; Schlenkrich, Susanne; Schlenkrich, Felix; Döring, Florian; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    In common, one of the most characteristic properties of pulsed laser deposition is the stoichiometry transfer between target and substrate, which has been used heavily for many complex systems. In this paper we show that it is yet possible to obtain drastic deviations from stoichiometry transfer in a binary system by just varying the fluence during laser deposition. In the W-Cu system, the W concentration of films grown from a composite W60Cu40 target (60 wt% W) was indeed continuously changed over an unprecedented large range of 0-70 wt% W. Close to the deposition threshold, pure Cu films are formed due to the much higher vapor pressure of Cu. At higher laser fluences, more and more W-rich W-Cu alloy samples are obtained, since ion implantation and intermixing processes occur. These alloys can reach W contents even higher than that of the target because of enhanced resputtering and reflection of the lighter Cu atoms at the film surface. Stoichiometric films with 60 wt% of W are only obtained at laser fluences around 2.7 J/cm2, when the strong Cu evaporation from the target and reflection and resputtering effects of Cu at the film surface are in balance.

  7. On Testing the Equivalence Principle with Extragalactic Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusser, Adi

    2016-04-01

    An interesting test of Einstein’s equivalence principle (EEP) relies on the observed lag in the arrival times of photons emitted from extragalactic transient sources. Attributing the lag between photons of different energies to the gravitational potential of the Milky Way (MW), several authors derive new constraints on deviations from EEP. It is shown here that potential fluctuations from the large-scale structure are at least two orders of magnitude larger than the gravitational potential of the MW. Combined with the larger distances, for sources at redshift z≳ 0.5 the rms of the contribution from these fluctuations exceeds the MW by more than four orders of magnitude. We provide actual constraints for several objects based on a statistical calculation of the large-scale fluctuations in the standard ΛCDM cosmological model.

  8. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  9. Robust estimation of standard deviation using ordered samples

    SciTech Connect

    Beedgen, R.

    1982-07-01

    A robust estimate for the standard deviation of a normal distribution is developed. We choose the contaminated normal distribution as our outlier model and demonstrate the method with two examples representing data from international interlaboratory experiments.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing Compliance... described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more...

  11. A hybrid method with deviational particles for spatial inhomogeneous plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bokai

    2016-03-01

    In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in [31], a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method [3] to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. This method is applicable in all regimes and significantly more efficient compared to a PIC-DSMC method near the fluid regime.

  12. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  13. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  14. Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors

  15. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510

  16. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510

  17. Dynamic consequences of electromagnetic pull due to deviations in generator shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundström, Niklas L. P.; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2007-03-01

    Results from earlier measurements on hydropower generators have indicated relatively large eccentricities and shape deviations in the rotor and stator. These non-symmetric geometries produce an attraction force between the rotor and the stator, called unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP). The UMP force can produce large vibrations which can be dangerous to the machine. A mathematical model is developed to describe the shapes of the rotor and stator, and the corresponding UMP is obtained through the law of energy conservation. The target of the paper is to analyse the dynamics of a generator due to shape deviations in the rotor and stator. As rotor-model, a balanced Jeffcott rotor is used. A linearization of the UMP indicates the importance of considering the nonlinear effects. The stability of some attractors are analysed and the generator dynamics are further investigated by simulating the basin of attraction. The magnitudes are approximately obtained when the shape deviations become dangerous for the generator. It is concluded which shape deviations that are more dangerous than others. In hydropower generator maintenance the shapes of the rotor and stator are frequently measured. The results from this paper can be used to evaluate such measurements and estimate the stability and robustness by simulations.

  18. Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

    2014-10-01

    A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (?) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO (<1 ppbv to a peak of 295 ppbv), NO2 (<2 ppbv-47 ppbv) and O3 (4 ppbv-95 ppbv) mixing ratios, all of which showed strong diurnal variation. The ? values showed large deviations from unity over the measurement period, with mostly negative deviations (? < 1), showing that the air masses were dominated by local sources of NOx and that the PSS was not achieved. Positive deviations (? > 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

  19. The precautionary principle: is it safe.

    PubMed

    Gignon, Maxime; Ganry, Olivier; Jardé, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2013-06-01

    The precautionary principle is generally acknowledged to be a powerful tool for protecting health but it was originally invoked by policy makers for dealing with environmental issues. In the 1990s, the principle was incorporated into many legislative and regulatory texts in international law. One can consider that the precautionary principle has turned into "precautionism" necessary to prove to the people, taking account of risk in decisions. There is now a risk that these abuses will deprive the principle of its meaning and value. When pushed to its limits, the precautionary principle can even be dangerous when applied to the healthcare field. This is why a critical analysis of the principle is necessary. Through the literature, it sometimes seems to deviate somehow from the essence of the precautionary principle as it is commonly used in relation to health. We believe that educational work is necessary to familiarize professionals, policy makers and public opinion of the precautionary principle and avoid confusion. We propose a critical analysis of the use and misuse of the precautionary principle. PMID:23984492

  20. The inconstant "principle of constancy".

    PubMed

    Kanzer, M

    1983-01-01

    A review of the principle of constancy, as it appeared in Freud's writings, shows that it was inspired by his clinical observations, first with Breuer in the field of cathartic therapy and then through experiences in the early usage of psychoanalysis. The recognition that memories repressed in the unconscious created increasing tension, and that this was relieved with dischargelike phenomena when the unconscious was made conscious, was the basis for his claim to originality in this area. The two principles of "neuronic inertia" Freud expounded in the Project (1895), are found to offer the key to the ambiguous definition of the principle of constancy he was to offer in later years. The "original" principle, which sought the complete discharge of energy (or elimination of stimuli), became the forerunner of the death drive; the "extended" principle achieved balances that were relatively constant, but succumbed in the end to complete discharge. This was the predecessor of the life drives. The relation between the constancy and pleasure-unpleasure principles was maintained for twenty-five years largely on an empirical basis which invoked the concept of psychophysical parallelism between "quantity" and "quality." As the links between the two principles were weakened by clinical experiences attendant upon the growth of ego psychology, a revision of the principle of constancy was suggested, and it was renamed the Nirvana principle. Actually it was shifted from alignment with the "extended" principle of inertia to the original, so that "constancy" was incongruously identified with self-extinction. The former basis for the constancy principle, the extended principle of inertia, became identified with Eros. Only a few commentators seem aware of this radical transformation, which has been overlooked in the Standard Edition of Freud's writings. Physiological biases in the history and conception of the principle of constancy are noted in the Standard Edition. The historical antecedents of the principle of constancy, especially in relation to the teachings and influence of J. F. Herbart (1776-1841), do much to bridge the gap between psychological and neurophysiological aspects of Freud's ideas about constancy and its associated doctrine, psychic determinism. Freud's later teachings about the Nirvana principle and Eros suggest a continuum of "constancies" embodied in the structural and functional development of the mental apparatus as it evolves from primal unity with the environment (e.g., the mother-child unit) and differentiates in patterns that organize the inner and outer worlds in relation to each other. PMID:6681436

  1. Effect of Stress on Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy because of the large anisotropy. The angle of deviation is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of deviation is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux deviation for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis fiber axis) and the x1 axis for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as large as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.

  2. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  3. High septal osteotomy in rhinoplasty for the deviated nose.

    PubMed

    Jameson, John J; Perry, Adam D; Ritter, Edmond F

    2006-01-01

    When attempting to straighten a patient's healed, deviated bony nasal dorsum, deviation of the central structure (high dorsal septum and medial nasal bones) must be addressed following the completion of medial and lateral osteotomies. When hump resection is not performed, blunt fracture (digitally or with forceps) of the deviated central structure is not a reliable method of mobilization, often leading to postoperative nasal drift. An intranasal osteotomy technique to mobilize the central structure of the nose is described, called "high septal osteotomy." Review of 25 cases suggests high septal osteotomy, supplemented as needed by resection of overlapping septal elements, can be performed safely and efficaciously, permitting stable midline reduction of the nasal pyramid. The technique is not advocated when hump resection is performed, as it is unnecessary and could destabilize the dorsum. Even aggressive maneuvers to mobilize the bony dorsum may fail if not performed properly with meticulous attention to completion of all osteotomies. PMID:16374094

  4. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. [Deviation index of eye and mouth on peripheral facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Liao, Pin-Dong; Luo, Min; Zhu, Bin-Ye

    2011-09-01

    Differences of some points, levels and angles of the healthy and affected sides of patients with peripheral facial paralysis were picked out according to photographs. Through analysis of the index between the healthy and affected side of the patients and the difference between healthy people and patients, it is approved that those special points, levels and angles, which are called as deviation index of eye and mouth, can evaluate peripheral facial paralysis objectively and judge the degree of deviation. Therefore, it provides references for the diagnosis of facial paralysis and its degree judgement. PMID:21972641

  6. A study of course deviations during cross-country soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, S. M.; Sliwa, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Several models are developed for studying the impact of deviations from course during cross country soaring flights. Analyses are performed at the microstrategy and macrostrategy levels. Two types of lift sources are considered: concentrated thermals and thermal streets. The sensitivity of the optimum speed solutions to various model, piloting and performance parameters is evaluated. Guides are presented to provide the pilot with criterions for making in-flight decisions. In general, course deviations are warranted during weak lift conditions, but are less justifiable with moderate to strong lift conditions.

  7. Gulf Stream model. [which considers surface elevation deviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Surface elevation deviations in the Gulf Stream region off the eastern coast of the United States between Wallops Island, Virginia and Miami, Florida were investigated. The main causes of surface elevation deviations are geoid perturbations due to the continental shelf and the geostrophic adjustment of the density field due to the Gulf Stream. Quantitative surface elevation profiles were calculated based on geophysical measurements of gravity anomalies and hydrographic data. The results are presented graphically along with contemporaneous weather data. Comparisons are made between the profiles based on hydrographic data and a mean theoretical model. The theory of geostrophic flows including some classical Gulf Stream models is also presented briefly.

  8. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Canning and Canned Products § 318.308 Deviations in processing. (a) Whenever the actual process is less... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or (ii) Use an... information submitted and approved the product disposition actions. (v) If an alternate process schedule...

  9. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Canning and Canned Products § 318.308 Deviations in processing. (a) Whenever the actual process is less... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or (ii) Use an... information submitted and approved the product disposition actions. (v) If an alternate process schedule...

  10. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Deviations in processing. (a) Whenever the actual process is less than the process schedule or when any... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or, (ii) Use an... information submitted and approved the product disposition actions. (v) If an alternate process schedule...

  11. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Canning and Canned Products § 318.308 Deviations in processing. (a) Whenever the actual process is less... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or (ii) Use an... information submitted and approved the product disposition actions. (v) If an alternate process schedule...

  12. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Deviations in processing. (a) Whenever the actual process is less than the process schedule or when any... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or, (ii) Use an... information submitted and approved the product disposition actions. (v) If an alternate process schedule...

  13. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Deviations in processing. (a) Whenever the actual process is less than the process schedule or when any... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or, (ii) Use an... information submitted and approved the product disposition actions. (v) If an alternate process schedule...

  14. Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…

  15. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ROW OF INTACT COLUMNS, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST. (NOTE BOLTED BLOCK SCABBED TO COLUMN AS JOIST/TRUSS SUPPORT) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. The Effect of Type of Punishment on Resistance to Deviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVoie, Joseph C.

    The comparative effectiveness of an aversive stimulus, withholding of resources, withdrawal of love and reasoning, when used alone and combined with praise, was assessed in the standard laboratory punishment paradigm using 120 first and second graders as subjects. Resistance to deviation was used as the measure of punishment effectiveness. Sex of

  17. Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.

    PubMed Central

    Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M

    1975-01-01

    Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed. PMID:1184490

  18. Mini-Muddling: Learning from Project Plan Deviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Markus; Wilson, Timothy L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the informal and incidental learning that takes place in project work among individuals who must adapt to deviations from project plans. Design/methodology/approach: Reflections in the study are built on four power plant projects found in an integrated provider of projects of this

  19. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is...

  20. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is...

  1. Deviations in the Accumulated Dose For Archaeological Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Santana, J. C. C.; Calarge, F.

    The archaeological dating by thermoluminescence (TL) method is obtained through the determination of the accumulative dose and the annual. In this work, an evaluation of two factors which can cause deviations in the accumulative dose in archaeological dating of sediments by TL method was carried out.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is a deviation? 63.1965 Section 63.1965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  3. 48 CFR 225.1070 - Clause deviations in overseas contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clause deviations in overseas contracts. 225.1070 Section 225.1070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Additional Foreign Acquisition Regulations 225.1070...

  4. Fast Hough transform analysis: pattern deviation from line segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, E.; Terekhin, A.; Nikolaev, D.; Postnikov, V.; Karpenko, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we analyze properties of dyadic patterns. These pattern were proposed to approximate line segments in the fast Hough transform (FHT). Initially, these patterns only had recursive computational scheme. We provide simple closed form expression for calculating point coordinates and their deviation from corresponding ideal lines.

  5. 10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Office of Classification, Office of Health, Safety and Security, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting a deviation. 1017.5 Section 1017.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED...

  6. 21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written procedures; deviations. 211.100 Section 211.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production...

  7. Mini-Muddling: Learning from Project Plan Deviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Markus; Wilson, Timothy L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the informal and incidental learning that takes place in project work among individuals who must adapt to deviations from project plans. Design/methodology/approach: Reflections in the study are built on four power plant projects found in an integrated provider of projects of this…

  8. First-Principles Prediction of Enthalpies of Formation for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Allison, Thomas C; Burgess, Donald R

    2015-11-19

    In this article, the first-principles prediction of enthalpies of formation is demonstrated for 669 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and a number of related functionalized molecules. It is shown that by extrapolating density functional theory calculations to a large basis set limit and then applying a group based correction scheme that good results may be obtained. Specifically, a mean unsigned deviation and root mean squared deviation from the experimental enthalpies of formation data of 5.0 and 6.4 kJ/mol, respectively, are obtained using this scheme. This computational scheme is economical to compute and straightforward to apply, while yielding results of reasonable reliability. The results are also compared for a smaller set of molecules to the predictions given by the G3B3 and G3MP2B3 variants of the Gaussian-3 model chemistry with a mean unsigned deviation and root mean squared deviation from the experimental enthalpies of formation of 4.5 and 4.8 kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:26485436

  9. Clinical Implications of Septal Deviation in Lateralized Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Seok; Ryu, Yoon-Jong; Rhee, Jihye; Seok, Jungirl; Han, Sungjun; Jin, Hong Ryul; Kim, Dae Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Results of butanol threshold tests (BTTs) have shown that birhinal olfaction tends to converge toward monorhinal olfaction of the dominant nostril. However, birhinal olfaction may also be worse than dominant-side monorhinal olfaction. The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of deviated nasal septum on birhinal olfaction in patients with lateralized olfaction and to examine the effect of septoplasty in these patients. Methods A retrospective study with planned data collection was conducted in 518 patients who underwent BTTs. Lateralized olfaction was defined as monorhinal BTT scores that differed by >2 between sides. Underestimated birhinal olfaction was defined as a birhinal BTT score >2 lower than the dominant nostril monorhinal BTT score. Patients with lateralized olfaction were divided into 2 groups: group 1, underestimated birhinal olfaction; and group 2, without underestimated birhinal olfaction. Results Among 518 patients, 112 with lateralized olfaction were enrolled in this study. Group 1 included 23 patients (20.5%) and group 2 included 89 patients (79.5%). The severity of septal deviation (ratio of the distance of narrower side to wider side) did not differ between the 2 groups. Septal deviation to the dominant nostril was more common in group 1 than group 2 (73.9% vs. 37.6%; P=0.002). Five patients with septal deviation to the dominant nostril with underestimated birhinal olfaction underwent septoplasty. Improved lateralized olfaction occurred in all 5 patients postoperatively (P=0.041). Conclusion Septal deviation of the dominant nostril in patients with lateralized olfaction is associated with underestimated birhinal olfaction. Septoplasty may improve olfaction by increasing airflow in the dominant olfactory side. PMID:26976025

  10. On deviations from ideal Chapman-Jouguet detonation velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Bruels, H.K.; Lefebvre, M.H.; Berghmans, J.

    1994-12-31

    Experimental data shows that under certain conditions, measured detonation velocities exhibit deviations from theoretical values computed according to the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) model. The purpose of this paper is to investigate why in some circumstances such deviations occur. A Zeldovitcb-von Neuman-Doring model (ZND) taking into account the specific chemical kinetics of the mixture, enables one to identify a critical parameter: the effective chemical reaction length. This parameter is mainly related to the chemical composition of the reactive mixture. It is shown that the ratio of this parameter to the dimension of the tube where the velocity measurements are carried out can explain deviations from ideal values. This simple model has been applied to a series of existing experimental data characterized by such deviations. Different initial conditions, namely, (1) mixtures near detonation limits, (2) low initial pressures, and (3) mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons, are investigated. All data show that the velocity deficit, {Delta}D{sub CJ}, is an increasing, but not necessarily linear, function of the ratio reaction length/dimension of the tube, d{sub rea}/d{sub tube}. To support this statement, a detailed one dimensional numerical computation has been performed, taking into account both nonstationary hydrodynamics and detailed chemical kinetics. These computations end tip with a detonation wave traveling at the ideal Chapman-Jouguet velocity. This suggests that the deviation from the CJ values ought to be explained by parameters taking into account the relative size of the surrounding of the detonation wave; d{sub rea}/d{sub tube} is such a parameter. In the present paper, the following mixtures are investigated: (1) hydrogen-oxygen mixtures near the detonation limits; (2) H{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}, and Ar mixtures at low pressures; and (3) hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons (CF{sub 3}H).

  11. Effects of Simulated Marker Placement Deviations on Running Kinematics and Evaluation of a Morphometric-Based Placement Feedback Method

    PubMed Central

    Osis, Sean T.; Hettinga, Blayne A.; Macdonald, Shari; Ferber, Reed

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide effective test-retest and pooling of information from clinical gait analyses, it is critical to ensure that the data produced are as reliable as possible. Furthermore, it has been shown that anatomical marker placement is the largest source of inter-examiner variance in gait analyses. However, the effects of specific, known deviations in marker placement on calculated kinematic variables are unclear, and there is currently no mechanism to provide location-based feedback regarding placement consistency. The current study addresses these disparities by: applying a simulation of marker placement deviations to a large (n = 411) database of runners; evaluating a recently published method of morphometric-based deviation detection; and pilot-testing a system of location-based feedback for marker placements. Anatomical markers from a standing neutral trial were moved virtually by up to 30 mm to simulate deviations. Kinematic variables during running were then calculated using the original, and altered static trials. Results indicate that transverse plane angles at the knee and ankle are most sensitive to deviations in marker placement (7.59 degrees of change for every 10 mm of marker error), followed by frontal plane knee angles (5.17 degrees for every 10 mm). Evaluation of the deviation detection method demonstrated accuracies of up to 82% in classifying placements as deviant. Finally, pilot testing of a new methodology for providing location-based feedback demonstrated reductions of up to 80% in the deviation of outcome kinematics. PMID:26765846

  12. Predicting leptonic CP phase by considering deviations in charged lepton and neutrino sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sruthilaya, M.; Soumya, C.; Deepthi, K. N.; Mohanta, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the reactor mixing angle {θ }13 has been measured precisely by Daya Bay, RENO, and T2K experiments with a moderately large value. However, the standard form of neutrino mixing patterns such as bimaximal, tri-bimaximal, golden ratio of types A and B, hexagonal, etc., which are based on certain flavor symmetries, predict vanishing {θ }13. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix can be represented as {V}{PMNS}={U}l\\dagger {U}ν {P}ν , where Ul and {U}ν result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices and {P}ν is a diagonal matrix containing Majorana phases, we explore the possibility of accounting for the large reactor mixing angle by considering deviations both in the charged lepton and neutrino sector. In the charged lepton sector we consider the deviation as an additional rotation in the (12) and (13) planes, whereas in the neutrino sector we consider deviations to various neutrino mixing patterns through (13) and (23) rotations. We find that with the inclusion of these deviations it is possible to accommodate the observed large reactor mixing angle {θ }13, and one can also obtain limits on the charge-conjugation parity-violating Dirac phase{δ }{CP} and Jarlskog invariant JCP for most of the cases. We then explore whether our findings can be tested in the currently running NuMI Off-axis ve Appearance experiment with three years of data taking in neutrino mode followed by three years with the anti-neutrino mode.

  13. First-Principles Momentum-Dependent Local Ansatz Wavefunction and Momentum Distribution Function Bands of Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac function for the d electrons with eg symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data.

  14. Deviations from Scale-Invariance in Extreme Event Phenomena: A Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaliapin, I.; Keilis-Borok, V.; Gabrielov, A.

    2006-12-01

    Power-law distribution has been shown to describe a broad spectrum of hazardous extreme events that span a prominent range of energies and spatial scales from micro-cracks in laboratory samples to earthquakes, land- slides, and forest-fires, to star-quakes. Notably, the pure power law is only a first-order approximation to the observed distributions. Even in paradigmatic models such as percolation and sand-pile the pure power-laws can only be observed for infinite systems. Moreover, laboratory experiments, observations, and numerical modeling of seismicity suggest that certain deviations of earthquake sizes from a pure power-law distribution (a.k.a. Gutenberg-Richter law) signal approach of a large regional earthquake. This motivates exploration of general mechanisms for origin and development of deviations from a pure power-law distribution. We approach this problem by analyzing branching diffusion with immigration -- a classical generic model for spatially distributed processes that involve direct cascade of energy redistribution and permanent external driving. Our analytical results show how event size distribution depends on spatio-temporal averaging; we establish a) pure power law under global spatio-temporal averaging, b) upward deviations from a pure power law emerging at a right side of the distribution as a large event approaches.

  15. How Marginal Deviations Sometimes Grow Into Serious Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2009-01-01

    We offer a theory of marginal deviations that articulates the processes through which initial behavior that is only slightly deviant from the norm gets transformed into more serious antisocial outcomes. We present evidence that, of the one third of the population that is marginally deviant, about one fourth (or 8% of the total population) becomes seriously deviant over time. Hypothesized factors in this transformation involve the child actor, peer observer-judges, and social transactions between them in processes that derive from self-fulfilling prophecies and dynamic systems theory. Hypotheses and studies are proposed to address the circumstances and processes that determine whether a marginal deviation will be bought back to the norm (through assimilation and attenuation) or accelerated to severe deviance (through accommodation and amplification). PMID:19774091

  16. Solar radiation pressure and deviations from Keplerian orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.

    2009-05-01

    Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, potentially rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.

  17. On deviations in Ruedenberg energy formula for molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, K. D.

    1981-01-01

    The deviation Δ=E-3/2ɛkνkɛk in the Ruedenberg2 energy formula is discussed in terms of atomic parameters. The formula Δ˜ɛa(Eza-21ee) is found to give good approximation to Δ. Ea and Veea represent the core energy and interelectronic energy of the constitutent atoms in the molecule.(AIP)

  18. OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Harold W.

    1985-01-01

    This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.

  19. Numerical approach for solving neutral differential equation with deviating argument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesgarani, H.; Mollapourasl, R.; Ostadi, A.

    2015-06-01

    In this article, numerical solution of a neutral differential equation with deviating argument by means of the Sinc scheme and fixed point theorem is considered. Properties of the DE-Sinc and SE-Sinc quadratures are utilized to reduce the computation of the neutral differential equations to an iterative technique. Then convergence of this technique is discussed by preparing a theorem. To guarantee the analytical results and show the efficiency and accuracy of the present method, some examples are presented.

  20. Lateral and axial resolutions of an angle-deviation microscope for different numerical apertures: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ming-Hung; Lai, Chin-Fa; Tan, Chen-Tai; Lin, Yi-Zhi

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the lateral and axial resolutions of a transmission laser-scanning angle-deviation microscope (TADM) with different numerical aperture (NA) values. The TADM is based on geometric optics and surface plasmon resonance principles. The surface height is proportional to the phase difference between two marginal rays of the test beam, which is passed through the test medium. We used common-path heterodyne interferometry to measure the phase difference in real time, and used a personal computer to calculate and plot the surface profile. The experimental results showed that the best lateral and axial resolutions for NA = 0.41 were 0.5 μm and 3 nm, respectively, and the lateral resolution breaks through the diffraction limits.

  1. Determining Statistically Significant Deviations from a Model Crater Production Function for Estimating Resurfacing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, B. P.; Hilbe, J. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Plesko, C. S.; Riggs, J. D.

    2015-05-01

    Many crater analysts will search for deviations of observed crater population data from model crater populations and treat those deviations as a modification event - usually resurfacing. We will discuss how to assign confidences for these deviations.

  2. Meristem temperature substantially deviates from air temperature even in moderate environments: is the magnitude of this deviation species-specific?

    PubMed

    Savvides, Andreas; van Ieperen, Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2013-11-01

    Meristem temperature (Tmeristem ) drives plant development but is hardly ever quantified. Instead, air temperature (Tair ) is usually used as its approximation. Meristems are enclosed within apical buds. Bud structure and function may differ across species. Therefore, Tmeristem may deviate from Tair in a species-specific way. Environmental variables (air temperature, vapour pressure deficit, radiation, and wind speed) were systematically varied to quantify the response of Tmeristem . This response was related to observations of bud structure and transpiration. Tomato and cucumber plants were used as model plants as they are morphologically distinct and usually growing in similar environments. Tmeristem substantially deviated from Tair in a species-specific manner under moderate environments. This deviation ranged between -2.6 and 3.8 °C in tomato and between -4.1 and 3.0 °C in cucumber. The lower Tmeristem observed in cucumber was linked with the higher transpiration of the bud foliage sheltering the meristem when compared with tomato plants. We here indicate that for properly linking growth and development of plants to temperature in future applications, for instance in climate change scenarios studies, Tmeristem should be used instead of Tair , as a species-specific trait highly reliant on various environmental factors. PMID:23509944

  3. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-01-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…

  4. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-01-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed

  5. Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Ribeiro, A.; Costa Santos, A.; Alves Sousa, J.; Forbes, A. B.

    2015-02-01

    Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment.

  6. Babinet's principle in double-refraction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ropars, Guy; Le Floch, Albert

    2014-06-01

    Babinet's principle applied to systems with double refraction is shown to involve spatial interchanges between the ordinary and extraordinary patterns observed through two complementary screens. As in the case of metamaterials, the extraordinary beam does not follow the Snell-Descartes refraction law, the superposition principle has to be applied simultaneously at two points. Surprisingly, by contrast to the intuitive impression, in the presence of the screen with an opaque region, we observe that the emerging extraordinary photon pattern, which however has undergone a deviation, remains fixed when a natural birefringent crystal is rotated while the ordinary one rotates with the crystal. The twofold application of Babinet's principle implies intensity and polarization interchanges but also spatial and dynamic interchanges which should occur in birefringent metamaterials.

  7. Lamb waves beam deviation due to small inclination of the test structure in air-coupled ultrasonic NDT.

    PubMed

    Kichou, H B; Chavez, J A; Turo, A; Salazar, J; Garcia-Hernandez, M J

    2006-12-22

    In Lamb waves inspection, an air-coupled transmitter transducer is oriented at a specific angle such that it generates a pure Lamb mode which propagates along the structure and interacts with any existing defects. For this inspection system, amplitude losses appears when small inclinations of the tested structure occurs. An important factor which affects directly these losses has been observed, it consists of the Lamb waves beam (LWB) deviation due to this bad alignment. In this work, a simple expression of LWB deviation has been deduced. This expression includes the test structure angle, phase velocity of generated Lamb mode, and the phase velocity of waves propagating in the coupled medium. A(0) Lamb mode is generated and detected in 1 mm thick aluminium plate sample using 1 MHz PZ27 piezoelectric transducers of 20 mm of diameter. Experimental LWB deviation angles are measured for different inclination angles of the test sample. A comparative study is released with theoretical results. For 1 degree of misalignment in the aluminium plate inclination, and transducers separation distance of 35 mm, LWB deviation angle is around 7 degrees and the amplitude is reduced by around 11%. Then, for a large separation distance, we must move the receiver transducer to detect the deviated LWB. It is shown that, for both theoretical and experimental studies, the LWB deviation and its measured amplitude are very sensitive to the alignment of the tested structure with respect to the transmitter-receiver transducers plane. In metal plates it is most satisfactory to use A(0) mode compared with S(0) mode since it is easy to excite and has a large amplitude and small deviation beam angles. PMID:16806365

  8. Intuitions, principles and consequences.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A B

    2001-02-01

    Some approaches to the assessment of moral intuitions are discussed. The controlled ethical trial isolates a moral issue from confounding factors and thereby clarifies what a person's intuition actually is. Casuistic reasoning from situations, where intuitions are clear, suggests or modifies principles, which can then help to make decisions in situations where intuitions are unclear. When intuitions are defended by a supporting principle, that principle can be tested by finding extreme cases, in which it is counterintuitive to follow the principle. An approach to the resolution of conflict between valid moral principles, specifically the utilitarian and justice principles, is considered. It is argued that even those who justify intuitions by a priori principles are often obliged to modify or support their principles by resort to the consideration of consequences. PMID:11233371

  9. Chemical Principls Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

  10. Principles of project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  11. How the “main condition” of phase stability can explain the effect of the velocity deviation of secondary electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mostajeran, M.

    2014-11-15

    In this work, a “main condition” for phase stability has been employed to investigate the effects of the velocity deviation of the electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors (MPs). In a previous study [M. Mostajeran, Phys. Plasmas 21, 053108 (2014)], a stability equation was derived, where the secondary electron was assumed to have zero initial velocity and the phase deviation from the resonant phase was considered. In this work, both deviations in phase and velocity from the resonant condition are taken into account, assuming nonzero initial velocity for the secondary electrons. Using the main condition for stability, it is shown that MP discharge can rise in situations, where large velocity deviations from initial velocity and large phase deviations from resonant phase exist. This is contrary to what can be predicted on the basis of the “simple stability condition.” This result is further confirmed by numerical simulations.

  12. The Time Deviation in Packet-Based Synchronization.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M A; Shenoi, Kishan

    2016-04-01

    The telecommunications industry has used the time deviation (TDEV) very effectively for specifying network equipment clock performance as well as the performance of timing signals generated by Central Office equipment such as primary reference clocks and building integrated timing supplies (BITS) and synchronization supply units (SSUs). We discuss here the development of TDEV, and the variations of TDEV motivated by the advent of packet-switching and the steady transformation of the telecom network from circuit-switched-based to packet-switched-based. We illustrate these with simulation of the performance of the precise time protocol (PTP) across a packet-switched network. We then apply published methods to automatically determine noise types, and use these to predict time dispersion from a master clock for a slave clock using these PTP packets to stay synchronized. The result shows how TDEV and the other deviations provide an extensive array of tools for telecom networks, as well as for general time and frequency applications. PMID:26529756

  13. Altitude deviations: Breakdowns of an error-tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Everett A.; Hutchins, Edwin L.; Ritter, Richard D.; Vancleemput, Inge

    1993-01-01

    Pilot reports of aviation incidents to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) provide a window on the problems occurring in today's airline cockpits. The narratives of 10 pilot reports of errors made in the automation-assisted altitude-change task are used to illustrate some of the issues of pilots interacting with automatic systems. These narratives are then used to construct a description of the cockpit as an information processing system. The analysis concentrates on the error-tolerant properties of the system and on how breakdowns can occasionally occur. An error-tolerant system can detect and correct its internal processing errors. The cockpit system consists of two or three pilots supported by autoflight, flight-management, and alerting systems. These humans and machines have distributed access to clearance information and perform redundant processing of information. Errors can be detected as deviations from either expected behavior or as deviations from expected information. Breakdowns in this system can occur when the checking and cross-checking tasks that give the system its error-tolerant properties are not performed because of distractions or other task demands. Recommendations based on the analysis for improving the error tolerance of the cockpit system are given.

  14. Small populations and offspring sex-ratio deviations in eagles.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Miguel; Newton, Ian; Pandolfi, Massimo

    2009-08-01

    Stochastic variation of sex ratio has long been appreciated as a potential factor driving small populations to extinction, but it is not the only source of sex-ratio bias in small populations. We examined whether some consequences of sex allocation could affect extinction risk in small populations of size-dimorphic birds such as eagles. We report variations in sex ratio at fledging from a long-term study of a declining population of Spanish Imperial Eagles (Aquila adalberti). Nestling sex-ratio deviation apparently was mediated by age of breeders, whereas territory quality had no obvious effect. Adult-adult pairs produced the same proportion of both sexes in high- or low-density situations, but pairs with at least one member in nonadult plumage class produced more males. As the population declined over a period of years, the proportion of breeders with immature plumage increased; consequently, the proportion of fledgling males increased. However, when population density was high, the proportion of breeders with immature plumage decreased and more female offspring were produced. This relationship between population density, composition of breeder age, and fledgling sex ratios allowed us to make predictions of extinction risk due to nonstochastic deviations of sex ratio in small, declining populations. In the study population, on the basis of the Vortex simulation results, an estimated reduction of 42.5% in predicted mean time to extinction was attributed solely to biased sex ratio. PMID:19627325

  15. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  16. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that

  17. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

  18. The deviation from parallel shear flow as an indicator of linear eddy-viscosity model inaccuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlé, C.; Larsson, J.; Emory, M.; Iaccarino, G.

    2014-05-01

    A marker function designed to indicate in which regions of a generic flow field the results from linear eddy-viscosity turbulence models are plausibly inaccurate is introduced. The marker is defined to identify regions that deviate from parallel shear flow. For two different flow fields it is shown that these regions largely coincide with regions where the prediction of the Reynolds stress divergence is inaccurate. The marker therefore offers a guideline for interpreting results obtained from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations and provides a basis for the further development of turbulence model-form uncertainty quantification methods.

  19. Nonequivalence of equivalence principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Casola, Eolo; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Equivalence principles played a central role in the development of general relativity. Furthermore, they have provided operative procedures for testing the validity of general relativity, or constraining competing theories of gravitation. This has led to a flourishing of different, and inequivalent, formulations of these principles, with the undesired consequence that often the same name, "equivalence principle," is associated with statements having a quite different physical meaning. In this paper, we provide a precise formulation of the several incarnations of the equivalence principle, clarifying their uses and reciprocal relations. We also discuss their possible role as selecting principles in the design and classification of viable theories of gravitation.

  20. Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E.; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.

  1. Driving Toward Guiding Principles

    PubMed Central

    Buckovich, Suzy A.; Rippen, Helga E.; Rozen, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    As health care moves from paper to electronic data collection, providing easier access and dissemination of health information, the development of guiding privacy, confidentiality, and security principles is necessary to help balance the protection of patients' privacy interests against appropriate information access. A comparative review and analysis was done, based on a compilation of privacy, confidentiality, and security principles from many sources. Principles derived from ten identified sources were compared with each of the compiled principles to assess support level, uniformity, and inconsistencies. Of 28 compiled principles, 23 were supported by at least 50 percent of the sources. Technology could address at least 12 of the principles. Notable consistencies among the principles could provide a basis for consensus for further legislative and organizational work. It is imperative that all participants in our health care system work actively toward a viable resolution of this information privacy debate. PMID:10094065

  2. The Effects of Marginal Deviations on Behavioral Development.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was conceptually framed within the theory of marginal deviations (Caprara & Zimbardo, 1996) and sought evidence for the general hypothesis that some children who initially show marginal behavioral problems may, over time, develop more serious problems depending partly on other personal and behavioral characteristics. To this end, the findings of two studies conducted, respectively, with American elementary school children and Italian middle school students are reviewed. These two studies show that hyperactivity, cognitive difficulties, low special preference, and lack of prosocial behavior increase a child's risk for growth in aggressive behavior over several school years. More importantly, they also show that equivalent levels of these risk factors have a greater impact on the development of children who, early on, were marginally aggressive. PMID:19960113

  3. Low-energy magnetic radiation: Deviations from GOE

    SciTech Connect

    Frauendorf, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wimmer, K.

    2014-10-15

    A pronounced spike at low energy in the strength function for magnetic radiation (LEMAR) is found by means of Shell Model calculations, which explains the experimentally observed enhancement of the dipole strength. LEMAR originates from statistical low-energy M1-transitions between many excited complex states. Re-coupling of the proton and neutron high-j orbitals generates the strong magnetic radiation. LEMAR is closely related to Magnetic Rotation. LEMAR is predicted for nuclides participating in the r-process of element synthesis and is expected to change the reaction rates. An exponential decrease of the strength function and a power law for the size distribution of the B(M1) values are found, which strongly deviate from the ones of the GOE of random matrices, which is commonly used to represent complex compound states.

  4. The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310Ω/□ and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately. PMID:25364316

  5. Patterns of Consistency and Deviation in Therapists' Countertransference Feelings

    PubMed Central

    Holmqvist, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    The author addressed the question of consistency in psychotherapists' countertransference feelings. Research findings have indicated that the therapist's own personal feeling style may be more important than the patient's impact on the therapist's feelings. In this study, the feelings of 9 psychotherapists toward 28 patients were followed by using checklist self-report after each session during moderately long psychotherapies. ANOVAs and discriminant analyses showed that the therapists were very consistent in their feeling style over different patients and over time. The consistency in feelings toward the individual patients was smaller. Deviations from consistency are analyzed, and their importance for the understanding of different aspects of the countertransference is discussed. It is suggested that a meaningful use of the countertransference concept ought to be based on systematic identifications of recurrent and deviant patterns in the therapist's reactions. PMID:11264334

  6. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  7. Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong

    1996-12-31

    The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt`s Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Field estimation of standard deviations for 3D Gaussian model

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, A.; Chang, S.Y.

    1996-07-01

    The Gaussian dispersion model is the model most frequently used by environmental engineers to estimate the concentration (g/m{sup 3}), c, due to the atmospheric transport of contaminants. A method has been developed that gives analytical solutions for estimation of the standard deviations {sigma}{sub y} and {sigma}{sub z} in the Gaussian model from observed data without requiring knowledge of the change in wind direction. With a defined concentration radio term, R, estimates for {sigma}{sub y} can be obtained by solving the Gaussian model. By introducing a dimensionless concentration factor, c{prime}, estimates for {sigma}{sub z} can be approximated at different downwind ranges. This method can be used in field applications and also for model calibration and verification.

  9. Spine deviations and orthodontic treatment of asymmetric malocclusions in children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept). The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3 years, SD 2.1 years). After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy = 37, control = 40); 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2). The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1 years (SD 0.2 years). Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test). Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study). This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:22906114

  10. Deviations of the energy-momentum tensor from equilibrium in the initial state for hydrodynamics from transport approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliinychenko, D.; Petersen, H.

    2016-03-01

    Many hybrid models of heavy ion collisions construct the initial state for hydrodynamics from transport models. Hydrodynamics requires that the energy-momentum tensor Tμ ν and four-currents jμ do not deviate considerably from the equilibrium ideal-fluid form, but the ones constructed from transport do not necessarily possess this property. In this work we investigate the space-time picture of Tμ ν deviations from equilibrium in Au+Au collisions using a coarse-grained transport approach. The collision energy is varied in the range Elab=5 -160 A GeV . The sensitivity of Tμ ν deviations from equilibrium to collision centrality, and other parameters such as the switching criterion, the amount of statistics used to construct the initial state, and the smearing parameter σ are investigated. For low statistics, deviations of Tμ ν from equilibrium are large and dominated by the effect of finite sampling. For large statistics, the pressure anisotropy plays the most significant role, while the off-diagonal components of Tμ ν are small in a large volume during the whole evolution. For all considered energies and centralities the pressure anisotropy exhibits a similar feature: there is a narrow interval of time when it rapidly drops in a considerable volume. This allows us to introduce an "isotropization time," which is found to decrease with energy and slightly increase with centrality. The isotropization times are larger than times typically used for initializing hydrodynamics.

  11. Deviation from Power Law Behavior in Landslide Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Lan, H.; Wu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Power law distribution of magnitude is widely observed in many natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, floods, tornadoes, and forest fires). Landslide is unique as the size distribution of landslide is characterized by a power law decrease with a rollover in the small size end. Yet, the emergence of the rollover, i.e., the deviation from power law behavior for small size landslides, remains a mystery. In this contribution, we grouped the forces applied on landslide bodies into two categories: 1) the forces proportional to the volume of failure mass (gravity and friction), and 2) the forces proportional to the area of failure surface (cohesion). Failure occurs when the forces proportional to volume exceed the forces proportional to surface area. As such, given a certain mechanical configuration, the failure volume to failure surface area ratio must exceed a corresponding threshold to guarantee a failure. Assuming all landslides share a uniform shape, which means the volume to surface area ratio of landslide regularly increase with the landslide volume, a cutoff of landslide volume distribution in the small size end can be defined. However, in realistic landslide phenomena, where heterogeneities of landslide shape and mechanical configuration are existent, a simple cutoff of landslide volume distribution does not exist. The stochasticity of landslide shape introduce a probability distribution of the volume to surface area ratio with regard to landslide volume, with which the probability that the volume to surface ratio exceed the threshold can be estimated regarding values of landslide volume. An experiment based on empirical data showed that this probability can induce the power law distribution of landslide volume roll down in the small size end. We therefore proposed that the constraints on the failure volume to failure surface area ratio together with the heterogeneity of landslide geometry and mechanical configuration attribute for the deviation from power law behavior in landslide phenomenon. Figure shows that a rollover of landslide size distribution in the small size end is produced as the probability for V/S (the failure volume to failure surface ratio of landslide) exceeding the mechanical threshold applied to the power law distribution of landslide volume.

  12. Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions

    PubMed Central

    Degrelle, Séverine A; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Chiapello, Hélène; Piot-Kaminski, Karine; Piumi, Francois; Robin, Stéphane; Renard, Jean-Paul; Hue, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Background Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored. Results Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3) and somatic tissues (n = 2), we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 μg of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round). Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number) but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70%) and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID). However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions) and relevant (biologically validated). In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples. Conclusion Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i) the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii) the enzymatic properties initially inferred (exponential or linear) and (iii) the preliminary optimization of the protocols. Moreover the use of an in-house developed array, small-sized but well suited to the tissues we worked with, was of real interest for the search of differential expressions. PMID:18226214

  13. Physical principles of hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Psychophysical properties of hearing * The cochlear amplifier * Mechanosensory hair cells * The "critical" oscillator as a general principle of auditory detection * Bibliography

  14. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kindregan, Deirdre; Gallagher, Louise; Gormley, John

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning. PMID:25922766

  15. Pubertal Development in Rett Syndrome Deviates from Typical Females

    PubMed Central

    Killian, John T.; Lane, Jane B.; Cutter, Gary R.; Skinner, Steven A.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Tarquinio, Daniel C.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Motil, Kathleen J.; Neul, Jeffrey L.; Percy, Alan K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rett syndrome is a unique neurodevelopmental disorder, affecting approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births, most experiencing reduced growth. We characterized pubertal trajectories in females with Rett syndrome. We hypothesized that pubertal trajectory deviates from the general female population with early pubertal onset and delayed menarche. Methods Participants were individuals enrolled in the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study with clinical diagnosis of Rett syndrome or mutations in MECP2. Intervals to thelarche, adrenarche, and menarche were assessed by survival analysis; BMI, mutation type, clinical severity, and pubertal milestone relationships were assessed by log-likelihood test; pathway synchrony (relationship between thelarche, adrenarche, and menarche) was assessed by Chi-squared analysis. Results Compared to the general female population, over 25% initiated puberty early, yet entered menarche later (median age 13.0 years). 19% experienced delayed menarche. Median length of puberty, from thelarche to menarche, was 3.9 years. Higher BMI correlated with earlier thelarche and adrenarche but not menarche; milder mutations correlated with earlier menarche; and milder clinical presentation correlated with earlier thelarche and menarche. Fifty-two percent entered puberty in synchrony, but differing from general population, 15% led with thelarche, and 32% with adrenarche. Conclusions Pubertal trajectories in Rett syndrome differ from general population, entering puberty early and reaching menarche later. BMI affects pubertal timing, but the relationship between specific mutations, clinical presentation, and underlying neuroendocrine pathology is less clear. PMID:25283752

  16. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-11-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed "cookbook" instructions are given. Recent studies indicate that this approach leaves students with a poor conceptual understanding of one of the most important features of laboratory physics and of the real world of science, in general: the development of an understanding of the nature of measurement and its attendant uncertainty . While students might be able to reproduce certain technical manipulations of data, as novice thinkers they lack the mental scaffolding that allows an expert to organize and apply this knowledge.2,3 Our goal is to put novices on the path to expertise, so that they will be able to transfer their knowledge to novel situations.

  17. Principled Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Rob; Ellis, Rod

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the acquisition of grammar for second language learners involves learning how to make appropriate connections between grammatical forms and the meanings which they typically signal. We argue that learning form/function mappings involves three interrelated principles. The first is the Given-to-New Principle, where existing world

  18. The genetic difference principle.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Colin

    2004-01-01

    In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice. PMID:15186680

  19. Principles of learning.

    PubMed

    Voith, V L

    1986-12-01

    This article discusses some general principles of learning as well as possible constraints and how such principles can apply to horses. A brief review is presented of experiments that were designed to assess learning in horses. The use of behavior modification techniques to treat behavior problems in horses is discussed and several examples of the use of these techniques are provided. PMID:3492241

  20. Principled Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Rob; Ellis, Rod

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the acquisition of grammar for second language learners involves learning how to make appropriate connections between grammatical forms and the meanings which they typically signal. We argue that learning form/function mappings involves three interrelated principles. The first is the Given-to-New Principle, where existing world…

  1. Hamilton's Principle for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…

  2. The anthropic principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Joe

    1985-04-01

    The anthropic principle states that the fact of existence of intelligent beings may be a valid explanation of why the universe and laws of physics are as they are. The origin and some of the deeper implications of the principle are investigated. The discussion involves considerations of physics and metaphysics, unified schemes and holism, the nature of physical explanation, realism and idealism, and symmetry.

  3. Spectral Relative Standard Deviation: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...

  4. Principlism and communitarianism.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    2003-10-01

    The decline in the interest in ethical theory is first outlined, as a background to the author's discussion of principlism. The author's own stance, that of a communitarian philosopher, is then described, before the subject of principlism itself is addressed. Two problems stand in the way of the author's embracing principlism: its individualistic bias and its capacity to block substantive ethical inquiry. The more serious problem the author finds to be its blocking function. Discussing the four scenarios the author finds that the utility of principlism is shown in the two scenarios about Jehovah's Witnesses but that when it comes to selling kidneys for transplantation and germline enhancement, principlism is of little help. PMID:14519838

  5. On the superposition principle in interference experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Aninda; H. Vijay, Aravind; Sinha, Urbasi

    2015-01-01

    The superposition principle is usually incorrectly applied in interference experiments. This has recently been investigated through numerics based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods as well as the Feynman path integral formalism. In the current work, we have derived an analytic formula for the Sorkin parameter which can be used to determine the deviation from the application of the principle. We have found excellent agreement between the analytic distribution and those that have been earlier estimated by numerical integration as well as resource intensive FDTD simulations. The analytic handle would be useful for comparing theory with future experiments. It is applicable both to physics based on classical wave equations as well as the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. PMID:25973948

  6. Cranial base deviation in hemifacial microsomia by craniometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Paliga, James Thomas; Tahiri, Youssef; Wink, Jason; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2015-01-01

    Although facial asymmetry in hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is well documented in the literature, no studies have concentrated on the morphology of the cranial base. This study aimed to evaluate the endocranial morphology in patients with HFM. Consecutive patients with unilateral HFM treated at a craniofacial center from 2000 to 2012 were included. The patients were grouped according to severity on the basis of the Kaban-Pruzansky classification: mild (0-1), moderate (2a), and severe (2b-3). Skull base angulation and transverse craniometric measures were recorded and then compared with those of age-matched controls. A total of 30 patients (14 males, 16 females) averaging 7.5 years of age (range, 1.1-15.7 y) were included. Four patients were classified as mild; 12, as moderate; and 14, as severe. The mean cranial base angle was found to be between 179 and 181 degrees with no significant difference between the severity groups (P = 0.57). The mean cranial base angle did not differ significantly in the patients compared with the controls(179.6 vs 180.0; P = 0.51) No significant differences between the affected and unaffected sides in the patients were found in distances from the midline to hypoglossal canal, internal acoustic meatus, lateral carotid canal, medial carotid canal, foramen ovale, and rotundum. There were no significant differences in transverse measurements between the severity classes using the same landmarks (P = 0.46, P = 0.30, P = 0.40, P = 0.25, P = 0.57, and P = 0.76, respectively). The cranial base axis is not deviated in the patients with HFM compared with the age-matched controls, and there exists little difference in endocranial morphologic measurements with increasing severity of HFM. These data are interesting, given the role of the cranial base in facial growth and the varying hypotheses regarding the mechanism of disease in HFM. PMID:25569421

  7. Immune deviation and ocular infections with varicella zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Kezuka, Takeshi

    2004-03-01

    Since experimental, herpes simplex virus-induced acute retinal necrosis (ARN) develops in mice only if the mice fail to acquire virus-specific delayed hypersensitivity (DH) and despite their production of anti-viral antibodies (i.e. ACAID), I investigated whether a similar situation exists for patients with either varicella zoster virus (VZV)-induced ARN or anterior uveitis caused by VZV. Patients with either acute VZV-induced ARN, anterior uveitis with dermatitis (herpes zoster ophthalmicus, ZO-AU), or anterior uveitis without dermatitis (zoster sine herpete, ZSH-AU) were skin-tested with VZV to evaluate DH. The formal diagnoses of ARN associated with VZV, ZO-AU, and ZSH-AU were established by PCR analysis of the ocular samples and/or by the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient to determine levels of local antibody production. ARN, ZO-AU, and ZSH-AU activity were assessed clinically, and DH skin tests were repeated three months after onset when ocular recovery had taken place. All patients with VZV-induced skin disease alone (control group) displayed intense DH when tested with VZV antigen. In contrast, subsets of patients with ARN or ZO-AU displayed loss of VZV-specific DH. Patients with the most severe ARN or ZO-AU had the lowest DH responses to VZV antigens. Serum anti-VZV antibody titers were higher in ARN patients than in normal controls, and the anti-viral titer correlated inversely with the intensity of anti-VZV DH responses. VZV-specific DH responses were restored in patients who recovered from ARN. Patients with ZSH-AU also failed to display VZV-specific DH. The absence of DH reactivity to VZV antigens (i.e. immune deviation) appears to be a concomitant feature of VZV uveitis of high intensity, implying that virus-specific DH may interfere with the emergence of VZV-induced ARN or anterior uveitis. PMID:15209460

  8. Petrothermal heat extraction using a single deviated well (Horstberg, revisited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Vogt, Esther; Bartetzko, Anne; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The single-well tracer test conducted (Behrens et al. 2006) in conjunction with waterfrac experiments at Horstberg is re-examined with a view at four basic issues: why single-well? why fracturing? why tracers? does this only work at Horstberg, or can it work almost anywhere else in the Northern-German sedimentary basin? Heat and tracer transport within a composite reservoir (impermeable matrix + waterfrac + permeable layer), as accessed by a single deviated well, turn out to fit into a surprisingly simple description, as the plain (arithmetic) sum of certain petrothermal-type and aquifer-type contributions, whose weighting relative to each other can vary from site to site, depending upon stratigraphy and upon wellbore geometry. At Horstberg, within the particular formations tested ('Volpriehausen', 'Detfurth', 'Solling', comprising mainly claystone and sandstone layers), thermal lifetime results to be petrothermally-dominated, while tracer residence times prove to be 'aquifer'-dominated. Despite this disparity, the reservoir's thermal lifetime can reliably be predicted from tracer test results. What cannot be determined from waterfrac flow-path tracing is the very waterfrac's aperture. Aperture uncertainty, however, does not impede upon thermal lifetime predictability. The results of the semi-analytical approach are confirmed by numerical simulations using a FE model that includes more details of hydrogeological heterogeneity for the Horstberg site. They are complemented by a parameter sensitivity analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit G6 of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').

  9. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of energetic consistency implies that, to precisely the extent that growing modes are important in data assimilation, this term is also important.

  10. Experimental characterization of the deviation from Darcy flow at low Reynolds numbers through elastic porous matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Sid; Munro, Ben

    2014-11-01

    The subject of this study concerns viscous flow through an elastic porous matrial for which the solid matrix is capable of experiencing deformation under the influence of the flow field. The inherent challenges associated with developing experimental testing of flow in deformable porous media are largely related to the fabrication of a deformable matrix. In this study a method of media fabrication is presented that uses an indirect solid free form fabrication process combining 3D Printing with an infused Polydimethylsiloxane elastomer. This allows for the precise control of the matrix parameters: elasticity and pore geometry. The conjugate flow-media behavior is then observed in an experimental test rig which captures the global flow behavior, the local matrix deformation, and the onset of the deviation from Darcy flow at low Re. The experimental data is presented such that the results can be used for numerical validation. Dimensionless combinations of parameters are considered in the prediction of the point of deviation from Darcy flow at low Re and confirmed from the experimental data. Supported by the Marsden Fund Council from Government funding, Administered by the Royal Society of New Zealand.

  11. A model for the transport of cuttings in highly deviated wells

    SciTech Connect

    Gavignet, A.A.; Sobey, I.J.

    1986-01-01

    At present, drilling of highly deviated wells is complicated by the possibility of the formation of a thick bed of cuttings at low flow rates. The bed of cuttings can cause large torque loads on drill pipe and can fall back around the bit resulting in a stuck bit. Previous investigators have made experimental observations which show that bed formation is characterized by a relatively rapid increase in bed thickness as either the flow rate is lowered past some critical value, or as the deviation from the vertical increases. The authors present a simple model which explains these observations. The model shows that the bed thickness is controlled by the interfacial stress caused by the different velocities of the mud and the cuttings layer. The results confirm previous observations that bed formation is relatively insensitive to mud rheology. Eccentricity of the drill pipe in the hole is an important factor. The model is used to determine critical flow rate needed to prevent the formation of a thick bed of cuttings and the inclination, hole size and rate of penetration are varied.

  12. Deviation between navigated and final 3-dimensional implant position in mini-invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is an established method of treating isolated gonartrosis. Modern techniques such as computer-assisted surgery (CAS) and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) are attractive complementary methods to UKA. However, the positioning of the components remains a concern. Thus, we performed a prospective study to assess whether there was deviation between the navigated implant position and the final implant position. Patients and methods We performed UKA with MIS and CAS in 13 patients. By comparing intraoperative navigation data with postoperative computed tomography (CT) measurements, we calculated the deviation between the computer-assisted implant position and the final 3-D implant position of the femoral and tibial components. Results The computer-assisted placement of the femoral and tibial component showed adequate position and consistent results regarding flexion-extension and varus-valgus. However, regarding rotation there was a large variation and 6 of 10 patients were outside the target range for both the femoral component and the tibial component. Interpretation Difficulties in assessing anatomical landmarks with the CAS in combination with MIS might be a reason for the poor rotational alignment of the components. PMID:23043273

  13. Principles for system level electrochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.

  14. 48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is... deviations not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for...

  15. 48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is... deviations not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for...

  16. Surgical management of unilateral elevator deficiency associated with horizontal deviation using a modified Knapp's procedure.

    PubMed

    Kamlesh; Dadeya, Subhash

    2003-01-01

    Both horizontal recti are transpositioned in unilateral elevator deficiency, leaving no alternative to correct any significant ipsilateral horizontal deviation. An effective method to correct vertical and horizontal deviations simultaneously is reported. A modified Knapp's procedure was performed by transposition of the superior half of equally divided (up to 15 mm) medial and lateral recti for vertical deviation and the inferior half after suitable recession or resection for horizontal deviation. This procedure was performed in ten patients who had type II unilateral elevator deficiency with horizontal deviation ranging from 18 to 45 prism diopters (PD). We were able to correct 20 PD of horizontal deviation and 25 PD of vertical deviation with a modified Knapp's procedure without any significant adverse effects after a follow-up of 21 months. A modified Knapp's procedure is recommended for unilateral elevator deficiency associated with horizontal deviation. PMID:12757102

  17. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...

  18. 7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from financial standards. 400.174 Section 400.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL... Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer must immediately advise FCIC if it deviates...

  19. Revisiting a 90-Year-Old Debate: The Advantages of the Mean Deviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the reliance of numerical analysis on the concept of the standard deviation, and its close relative the variance. It suggests that the original reasons why the standard deviation concept has permeated traditional statistics are no longer clearly valid, if they ever were. The absolute mean deviation, it is argued here, has many…

  20. What Metadata Principles Apply to Scientific Data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Information researchers and professionals based in the library and information science fields often approach their work through developing and applying defined sets of principles. For example, for over 100 years, the evolution of library cataloging practice has largely been driven by debates (which are still ongoing) about the fundamental principles of cataloging and how those principles should manifest in rules for cataloging. Similarly, the development of archival research and practices over the past century has proceeded hand-in-hand with the emergence of principles of archival arrangement and description, such as maintaining the original order of records and documenting provenance. This project examines principles related to the creation of metadata for scientific data. The presentation will outline: 1) how understandings and implementations of metadata can range broadly depending on the institutional context, and 2) how metadata principles developed by the library and information science community might apply to metadata developments for scientific data. The development and formalization of such principles would contribute to the development of metadata practices and standards in a wide range of institutions, including data repositories, libraries, and research centers. Shared metadata principles would potentially be useful in streamlining data discovery and integration, and would also benefit the growing efforts to formalize data curation education.

  1. A Principled Approach to the Origin Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, Masashi; Kitadai, Norio; Oono, Yoshi

    2015-09-01

    The key issue of the origin of life is the origin of a complex system rather than the abiotic formation of various organic substances, small and large. To consider this "origin problem" it is advantageous to abstract some principles from biology and statistical physics to guide our approach. Referring to these principles, we aim to construct a chemical system called "protometabolism," which would be a precursor of metabolism.

  2. Simulation study on slant-to-vertical deviation in two dimensional TEC mapping over the ionosphere equatorial anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tao; Mao, Tian; Wang, Yungang; Zeng, Zhongcao; Xia, Chunliang; Wu, Fenglei; Wang, Le

    2014-08-01

    With the rapid increase of GPS/GNSS receivers being deployed and operated in China, real-time GPS data from nearly a thousand sites are available at the National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorology Administration. However, it is challenging to generate a high-quality regional total electron content (TEC) map with the traditional two-dimensional (2-D) retrieval scheme because a large horizontal gradient has been reported over east-south Asia due to the northern equatorial ionization anomaly. We developed an Ionosphere Data Assimilation Analysis System (IDAAS), which is described in this study, using an International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model as the background and applying a Kalman filter for updated observations. The IDAAS can reconstruct a three-dimensional ionosphere with the GPS slant TEC. The inverse slant TEC correlates well with observations both for GPS sites involved in the reconstruction and sites that are not involved. Based on the IDAAS, simulations were performed to investigate the deviation relative to the slant-to-vertical conversion (STV). The results indicate that the relative deviation induced by slant-to-vertical conversion may be significant in certain instances, and the deviation varies from 0% to 40% when the elevation decreases from 90° to 15°, while the relative IDAAS deviation is much smaller and varies from -5% to 15% without an elevation dependence. Compared with ‘true TEC’ map derived from the model, there is large difference in STV TEC map but no obvious discrepancy in IDAAS map. Generally, the IDAAS TEC map is much closer to the “true TEC” than is STV TEC map is. It is suggested that three-dimensional inversion technique is necessary for GPS observations of low elevation at an equatorial anomaly region, wherein the high horizontal electron density gradient may produce significant slant-to-vertical deviations using the two-dimensional STV inversion method.

  3. GOCE: Its principles and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, R.; Gruber, T.; Albertella, W.; Yi, A.

    2012-12-01

    GOCE is the first satellite mission with a gravity gradiometer. It is very successful in delivering the global geoid and gravity anomaly field with rather high spatial resolution. The gradiometer measurements are based on the principle of differential accelerometry. It is the centre piece of a sensor system comprising in addition GPS, star tracking, angular control by magnetic torquing, drag free control in flight direction by ion thrusting and calibration via shaking with cold gas thrusters. Gravity field sensitivity is enhanced by the satellite's extremely low orbit altitude of only 265 km. GOCE science and application is primarily about "dynamic topography". In geophysics dynamic topography is referred to as that part of surface deformation which is not in isostatic balance but supported by vertical stresses at the base of the lithosphere. Gravity and geoid anomalies reflect the gravitational effect of dynamic topography. In oceanography dynamic topography is the deviation of the actual mean ocean surface, as measured by satellite altimetry, from the geoid which is the hypothetical ocean surface at rest. The uses of mean dynamic ocean topography range from ocean circulation studies via mass and heat transport in the oceans to the unification of height systems and levelling by GPS. Full exploitation of GOCE requires its combination with GRACE and with satellite laser ranging and GPS. The considered measurements and techniques must all refer consistently to the same set of geodetic standards such as those defined by the IERS.

  4. Deviation of permeable coarse-grained boundary resistance from Nikuradse's observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Nian-Sheng; Liu, Xingnian; Chen, Xingwei; Qiao, Changkai

    2016-02-01

    Nikuradse's (1933) rough pipe study is enormously influential in the understanding of flow resistance over a sediment bed. However, the rough boundary employed in Nikuradse's study differs from permeable sediment beds in rivers. This implies that the results derived from the rough pipe experiments may not be applicable for flows over a permeable coarse-grained bed. The present study aimed to explore to what extent the flow resistance of a permeable coarse-grained boundary deviates from the Nikuradse's observations. Experiments were conducted with rough pipes, which were prepared by overlaying the inner wall with one to four layers of spherical beads. The single layer roughness resembles the experimental setup reported in Nikuradse's study, while the multilayer of grains allows significant flow to pass through the porous roughness layer. In addition, the ratio of grain diameter, k, to pipe diameter, d, was chosen to be one to two orders greater than the range (0.001 < k/d < 0.033) adopted in Nikuradse's experiments. The data show that the friction factor deviates significantly from the prediction based on Nikuradse's rough pipe relation. For hydraulically rough pipes, the friction factor is found to be proportional to the squared ratio of the grain diameter to nominal pipe diameter. This result is different from the one-third power function as implied by Nikuradse's rough pipe relation or the Manning-Strickler formula but agrees well with laboratory observations of open channel resistance in the presence of large-scale roughness. The measurements also suggest the existence of a laminar flow regime, in which the friction factor is inversely proportional to the Reynolds number. The observed variations in the flow resistance are attributed to both wall permeability and large-scale roughness.

  5. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  6. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)

  7. Principles of Technology Spinoffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Douglas E.; Thode, Brad

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss "Principles of Technology," a standard introduction to technology in many secondary schools. They suggest the possibility of introducing teacher-developed spinoff activities into the curriculum and provide several examples. (CH)

  8. Global ethics and principlism.

    PubMed

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together. PMID:22073817

  9. Deviations from Boltzmann-Gibbs Statistics in Confined Optical Lattices.

    PubMed

    Dechant, Andreas; Kessler, David A; Barkai, Eli

    2015-10-23

    We investigate the semiclassical phase-space probability distribution P(x,p) of cold atoms in a Sisyphus cooling lattice with an additional harmonic confinement. We pose the question of whether this nonequilibrium steady state satisfies the equivalence of energy and probability. This equivalence is the foundation of Boltzmann-Gibbs and generalized thermostatic statistics, and a prerequisite for the description in terms of a temperature. At large energies, P(x,p) depends only on the Hamiltonian H(x,p) and the answer to the question is yes. In distinction to the Boltzmann-Gibbs state, the large-energy tails are power laws P(x,p)∝H(x,p)(-1/D), where D is related to the depth of the optical lattice. At intermediate energies, however, P(x,p) cannot be expressed as a function of the Hamiltonian and the equivalence between energy and probability breaks down. As a consequence the average potential and kinetic energy differ and no well-defined temperature can be assigned. The Boltzmann-Gibbs state is regained only in the limit of deep optical lattices. For strong confinement relative to the damping, we derive an explicit expression for the stationary phase-space distribution. PMID:26551114

  10. Hulls for Large Seaplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magaldi, Giulio

    1925-01-01

    In reality, the principle of similitude is not applicable to the hulls, the designing of which increases in difficulty with increasing size of the seaplanes. In order to formulate, at least in a general way, the basic principles of calculation, we must first summarize the essential characteristics of a hull with reference to its gradual enlargement. In this study, we will disregard hulls with wing stubs, as being inapplicable to large seaplanes.

  11. A variational principle in optics.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon

    2004-11-01

    We derive a new variational principle in optics. We first formulate the principle for paraxial waves and then generalize it to arbitrary waves. The new principle, unlike the Fermat principle, concerns both the phase and the intensity of the wave. In particular, the principle provides a method for finding the ray mapping between two surfaces in space from information on the wave's intensity there. We show how to apply the new principle to the problem of phase reconstruction from intensity measurements. PMID:15535374

  12. The traveltime holographic principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  13. Applying the four principles.

    PubMed

    Macklin, R

    2003-10-01

    Gillon is correct that the four principles provide a sound and useful way of analysing moral dilemmas. As he observes, the approach using these principles does not provide a unique solution to dilemmas. This can be illustrated by alternatives to Gillon's own analysis of the four case scenarios. In the first scenario, a different set of factual assumptions could yield a different conclusion about what is required by the principle of beneficence. In the second scenario, although Gillon's conclusion is correct, what is open to question is his claim that what society regards as the child's best interest determines what really is in the child's best interest. The third scenario shows how it may be reasonable for the principle of beneficence to take precedence over autonomy in certain circumstances, yet like the first scenario, the ethical conclusion relies on a set of empirical assumptions and predictions of what is likely to occur. The fourth scenario illustrates how one can draw different conclusions based on the importance given to the precautionary principle. PMID:14519836

  14. Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.

  15. Effect of foot deformity on conventional mechanical axis deviation and ground mechanical axis deviation during single leg stance and two leg stance in genu varum.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sameer Shrikrishna; Shetty, Gautam M; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seok Hyun; Kim, Tae Young; Hur, Chung Yong

    2007-12-01

    We assessed the effect of foot deformity on the loading axis of lower limbs in 33 patients with genu varum (25 bilateral and eigth unilateral) caused by varying etiologies including achondroplasia, cerebral palsy, prior trauma, rickets, metaphyseal chondrodysplasia and primary osteoarthritis using single leg stance and both leg stance radiographs. Deviation at the knee from the hip ankle line (conventional) and hip foot line (centre of hip to centre of heel) was calculated. A comparison was made between single leg stance and two leg stance for tibiocalcaneal angle, mechanical axis angle, knee and ankle joint line convergence angle, conventional mechanical axis deviation (MADC) and ground mechanical axis deviation (MADG). In addition comparisons were also made among three groups formed depending on the tibiocalcaneal angle and MADC-MADG difference for all the above measurements. Mechanical axis deviation (calculated using the two methods) varied with the talocalcaneal angle and single leg stance. Patients with a fixed subtalar varus and with severe genu varum, where the normal compensatory subtalar eversion could not compensate showed that conventional mechanical axis deviation was significantly higher by 3.4+/-2.4 mm and ground mechanical axis deviation degrees was significantly higher by 3.8+/-3.2 mm in single leg stance when compared to two leg stance (p<.0001). Foot deformity should be included during preoperative evaluation and planning for knee deformity correction. PMID:17825567

  16. Deviation from Optimal Vascular Caliber Control at Middle Cerebral Artery Bifurcations Harboring Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Baharoglu, Merih I.; Lauric, Alexandra; Wu, Chengyuan; Hippelheuser, James; Malek, Adel M.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysms form preferentially at arterial bifurcations. The vascular optimality principle (VOP) decrees that minimal energy loss across bifurcations requires optimal caliber control between radii of parent (r0) and daughter branches (r1 and r2): r0n=r1n+r2n, with n approximating three. VOP entails constant wall shear stress (WSS), an endothelial phenotype regulator. We sought to determine if caliber control is maintained in aneurysmal intracranial bifurcations. Three-dimensional rotational angiographic volumes of 159 middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcations (62 aneurysmal) were processed using 3D gradient edge-detection filtering, enabling threshold-insensitive radius measurement. Radius ratio (RR)=r03/(r13+r23) and estimated junction exponent (n) were compared between aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal bifurcations using Student t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis. The results show that non-aneurysmal bifurcations display optimal caliber control with mean RR of 1.05 and median n of 2.84. In contrast, aneurysmal bifurcations had significantly lower RR (0.76, p<.0001) and higher n (4.28, p<.0001). Unexpectedly, 37% of aneurysmal bifurcations revealed a daughter branch larger than its parent vessel, an absolute violation of optimality, not witnessed in non-aneurysmal bifurcations. The aneurysms originated more often off the smaller daughter (52%) vs. larger daughter branch (16%). Aneurysm size was not statistically correlated to RR or n. Aneurysmal males showed higher deviation from VOP. Non-aneurysmal MCA bifurcations contralateral to aneurysmal ones showed optimal caliber control. Aneurysmal bifurcations, in contrast to non-aneurysmal counterparts, disobey the VOP and may exhibit dysregulation in WSS-mediated caliber control. The mechanism of this focal divergence from optimality may underlie aneurysm pathogenesis and requires further study. PMID:25242132

  17. Principles of Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Max; Wolf, Emil

    1999-10-01

    Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.

  18. Teaching/learning principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

  19. Deviations in cortex sulcation associated with visual hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cachia, A; Amad, A; Brunelin, J; Krebs, M-O; Plaze, M; Thomas, P; Jardri, R

    2015-09-01

    Hallucinations, and auditory hallucinations (AH) in particular, constitute the most typical and disabling schizophrenia symptoms. Although visual hallucinations (VH) have been largely neglected in psychiatric disorders, a recent review reported a 27% mean prevalence of VH in schizophrenia patients. The pathophysiology underlying VH in schizophrenia remains elusive. Several schizophrenia studies reported a significant effect of age on VH; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia may explain VH occurrence. We analyzed cortex sulcation, a marker of brain development, in healthy controls (HCs) and two subgroups of carefully selected schizophrenia patients suffering from hallucinations: patients with only AH (that is, patients who never reported VH) and patients with audio-visual hallucinations (A+VH). Different cortical sulcation and left-right sulcal asymmetry were found between A+VH and AH patients, with decreased sulcation in both A+VH and AH patients in comparison with the HCs. Although a specific association between VH and neurodegenerative mechanisms, for example, in Body-Lewy Dementia or Parkinson's Disease, has previously been reported in the literature, the current study provides the first neuroimaging evidence of an association between VH and neurodevelopmental mechanisms. PMID:25349166

  20. Observable signature of a background deviating from the Kerr metric

    SciTech Connect

    Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios; Apostolatos, Theocharis A.; Contopoulos, George

    2010-06-15

    By detecting gravitational wave signals from extreme mass ratio inspiraling sources (EMRIs) we will be given the opportunity to check our theoretical expectations regarding the nature of supermassive bodies that inhabit the central regions of galaxies. We have explored some qualitatively new features that a perturbed Kerr metric induces in its geodesic orbits. Since a generic perturbed Kerr metric does not possess all the special symmetries of a Kerr metric, the geodesic equations in the former case are described by a slightly nonintegrable Hamiltonian system. According to the Poincare-Birkhoff theorem, this causes the appearance of the so-called Birkhoff chains of islands on the corresponding surfaces of section in between the anticipated KAM curves of the integrable Kerr case, whenever the intrinsic frequencies of the system are at resonance. The chains of islands are characterized by finite width, i.e. there is a finite range of initial conditions that correspond to a particular resonance and consequently to a constant rational ratio of intrinsic frequencies. Thus while the EMRI changes adiabatically by radiating energy and angular momentum, by monitoring the frequencies of a signal we can look for a transient pattern, in the form of a plateau, in the evolution of their ratio. We have shown that such a plateau is anticipated to be apparent in a quite large fraction of possible orbital characteristics if the central gravitating source is not a Kerr black hole. Moreover, the plateau in the ratio of frequencies is expected to be more prominent at specific rational values that correspond to the strongest resonances. This gives a possible observational detection of such non-Kerr exotic objects.

  1. Full-field transmission-type angle-deviation optical microscope with reflectivity-height transformation

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ming-Hung; Tan, Chen-Tai; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Yang, Ya-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    This full-field transmission-type three-dimensional (3D) optical microscope is constructed based on the angle deviation method (ADM) and the algorithm of reflectivity-height transformation (RHT). The surface height is proportional to the deviation angle of light passing through the object. The angle deviation and surface height can be measured based on the reflectivity closed to the critical angle using a parallelogram prism and two CCDs. PMID:26504645

  2. A Correlational Study of Scoliosis and Trunk Balance in Adult Patients with Mandibular Deviation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Na; Wang, Wenyong; Ding, Yin; Sun, Shiyao

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an “S” type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p<0.01). The trunk balance of patients with mandibular deviation was disturbed (imbalance angle >1°), while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°). There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation. PMID:23555836

  3. Minimization of deviations of gear real tooth surfaces determined by coordinate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Kuan, C.; Wang, J.-C.; Handschuh, R. F.; Masseth, J.; Maruyama, N.

    1992-01-01

    The deviations of a gear's real tooth surface from the theoretical surface are determined by coordinate measurements at the grid of the surface. A method was developed to transform the deviations from Cartesian coordinates to those along the normal at the measurement locations. Equations are derived that relate the first order deviations with the adjustment to the manufacturing machine-tool settings. The deviations of the entire surface are minimized. The minimization is achieved by application of the least-square method for an overdetermined system of linear equations. The proposed method is illustrated with a numerical example for hypoid gear and pinion.

  4. Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.

  5. The August Krogh principle applies to plants.

    PubMed

    Wayne, R; Staves, M P

    1996-05-01

    The Krogh principle refers to the use of a large number of animals to study the large number of physiological problems, rather than limiting study to a particular organism for all problems. There may be organisms that are more suited to study of a particular problem than others. This same principle applies to plants. The authors are concerned with the recent trend in plant biology of using Arabidopsis thaliana as the "organism of choice." Arabidopsis is an excellent organism for molecular genetic research, but other plants are superior models for other research areas of plant biology. The authors present examples of the successful use of the Krogh principle in plant cell biology research, emphasizing the particular characteristics of the selected research organisms that make them the appropriate choice. PMID:11539194

  6. The August Krogh principle applies to plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.

    1996-01-01

    The Krogh principle refers to the use of a large number of animals to study the large number of physiological problems, rather than limiting study to a particular organism for all problems. There may be organisms that are more suited to study of a particular problem than others. This same principle applies to plants. The authors are concerned with the recent trend in plant biology of using Arabidopsis thaliana as the "organism of choice." Arabidopsis is an excellent organism for molecular genetic research, but other plants are superior models for other research areas of plant biology. The authors present examples of the successful use of the Krogh principle in plant cell biology research, emphasizing the particular characteristics of the selected research organisms that make them the appropriate choice.

  7. Business Principles 201.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting a secondary-level course on business principles. Intended as part of an office skills or accounting/data processing program, the course provides the management viewpoint toward the planning and operation of a business. First, the goals and objectives of the course are outlined. Provided…

  8. Fermat's Principle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamat, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

  9. STANDARD SETTING PRINCIPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The basis for setting drinking water standards has not changed much in principle during the past decade, but the procedure for creating them in an open manner has caused the United States, at least, to go through a much more elaborate process to obtain approval and support from t...

  10. Business Principles 201.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting a secondary-level course on business principles. Intended as part of an office skills or accounting/data processing program, the course provides the management viewpoint toward the planning and operation of a business. First, the goals and objectives of the course are outlined. Provided

  11. First Principles of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David

    2002-01-01

    Examines instructional design theories and elaborates principles about when learning is promoted, i.e., when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems, when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge, and when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner, applied by the learner, and integrated into the learner's…

  12. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. PMID:26315516

  13. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  14. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  15. Matters of Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    1999-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at individuals who have stood on principle against authority or popular opinion. The first article investigates John Adams and his defense of British soldiers at the Boston Massacre trials. The second article explores Archbishop Thomas Becket's fatal conflict with England's King Henry II. The final…

  16. Addendum to 'Time-dependent variational principle with constraints for parametrized wave functions'

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Katsuhisa

    2006-04-15

    The sensitivity analysis for the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP) with constraints for parametrized wave functions [K. Ohta, Phys. Rev. A 70, 022503 (2004)] is investigated to assess the geodesic deviation caused by external parameters. The constraints for the sensitivity functions, inherited from the TDVP, are dealt with their consistency conditions. As an example of the sensitivity analysis, the geodesic deviation in the neighborhood of stationary states is investigated for general wave functions.

  17. Design Principles of the ESCOT Math Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Jody S.; Hoadley, Chris; DiGiano, Chris; Stohl, Hollylynne; Hollebrands, Karen

    This paper describes the Educational Software Components of Tomorrow (ESCOT) project. The focus of the project was on principles that support problem-solving and learner-centered design issues, and the purpose was to garner lessons from a large educational software development project to share with the learning sciences and other interested…

  18. 14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... deviation alerting system. 121.360 Section 121.360 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.360 Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system. (a) No... turbine-powered airplane unless it is equipped with a ground proximity warning/glide slope...

  19. An Upper Bound on Standard Deviation as a Function of Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This article disproves a conjecture that the ratio of the maximum standard deviation to the range of a set of data decreases as the number of data points increases. It also provides an alternative and more general approach for examining the standard deviation as a function of the range.

  20. 21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of biological product deviations by... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.14 Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. (a) Who must report...

  1. Prism adaptation power on spatial cognition: adaptation to different optical deviations in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Michel, Carine; Cruz, Remy

    2015-03-17

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the minimal optical deviation responsible for cognitive after-effects in healthy individuals and to explore whether there was a relationship between the degree of optical deviation and cognitive after-effects. Therefore different leftward optical deviations (8°, 10° and 15°) were used in three different groups of healthy participants. Sensorimotor after-effects (evaluating the visuo-manual realignment) were assessed using an open-loop pointing task and cognitive after-effects (evaluating changes in spatial representation) were assessed using manual and perceptual (landmark) line bisection tasks. Results revealed that exposure to 8°, 10° and 15° optical shifts produced sensorimotor after-effects. In contrast, the occurrence of cognitive after-effects depended on the optical deviation. Adaptation to an 8° leftward optical deviation did not produce cognitive after-effects. Adaptation to a 10° leftward optical deviation was responsible for after-effects in the manual line bisection task only. Adaptation to a 15° leftward optical deviation produced after-effects in both the manual and perceptual line bisection tasks. All cognitive after-effects were rightward and were similar to mild, neglect-like manifestations. Both sensorimotor and cognitive after-effects were correlated with the degree of optical deviation. Our results are of methodological and theoretical interest to those interested in sensorimotor plasticity and spatial cognition. PMID:25660233

  2. 14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system. 121.360 Section 121.360 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.360 Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system. (a)...

  3. Intercardinal deviation of a gyroscopic compass with a dynamically tunable gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrutov, V. V.

    1991-06-01

    The deviation of a single-rotor gyroscopic compass based on a biaxial hydrostabilized platform with analytical stabilization, a dynamically tunable gyroscope, and two accelerometers is investigated in the case of rolling motion. Intercardinal deviation expressions are obtained for different versions of the control system.

  4. Two cases of hypotropia and dissociated vertical deviation treated with oblique muscle surgery.

    PubMed

    Niyaz, Leyla; Gursoy, Haluk Huseyin; Basmak, Hikmet

    2014-01-01

    The authors report two cases with vertical deviations. The first patient had right exotropia and hypotropia and left inferior oblique overaction and was treated with left inferior oblique muscle weakening and bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession. The second patient had chin-up posture and right dissociated vertical deviation and was treated with bilateral superior oblique posterior tenotomy. PMID:25490238

  5. Two universal physical principles shape the power-law statistics of real-world networks

    PubMed Central

    Lorimer, Tom; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    The study of complex networks has pursued an understanding of macroscopic behaviour by focusing on power-laws in microscopic observables. Here, we uncover two universal fundamental physical principles that are at the basis of complex network generation. These principles together predict the generic emergence of deviations from ideal power laws, which were previously discussed away by reference to the thermodynamic limit. Our approach proposes a paradigm shift in the physics of complex networks, toward the use of power-law deviations to infer meso-scale structure from macroscopic observations. PMID:26202858

  6. Two universal physical principles shape the power-law statistics of real-world networks.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Tom; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    The study of complex networks has pursued an understanding of macroscopic behaviour by focusing on power-laws in microscopic observables. Here, we uncover two universal fundamental physical principles that are at the basis of complex network generation. These principles together predict the generic emergence of deviations from ideal power laws, which were previously discussed away by reference to the thermodynamic limit. Our approach proposes a paradigm shift in the physics of complex networks, toward the use of power-law deviations to infer meso-scale structure from macroscopic observations. PMID:26202858

  7. Principles of Natural Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Krewald, Vera; Retegan, Marius; Pantazis, Dimitrios A

    2016-01-01

    Nature relies on a unique and intricate biochemical setup to achieve sunlight-driven water splitting. Combined experimental and computational efforts have produced significant insights into the structural and functional principles governing the operation of the water-oxidizing enzyme Photosystem II in general, and of the oxygen-evolving manganese-calcium cluster at its active site in particular. Here we review the most important aspects of biological water oxidation, emphasizing current knowledge on the organization of the enzyme, the geometric and electronic structure of the catalyst, and the role of calcium and chloride cofactors. The combination of recent experimental work on the identification of possible substrate sites with computational modeling have considerably limited the possible mechanistic pathways for the critical O-O bond formation step. Taken together, the key features and principles of natural photosynthesis may serve as inspiration for the design, development, and implementation of artificial systems. PMID:26099285

  8. Principles of magnetodynamic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Babincová, M; Leszczynska, D; Sourivong, P; Babinec, P; Leszczynski, J

    2004-01-01

    Basic principles of a novel method of cancer treatment are explained. Method is based on the thermal activation of an inactive prodrug encapsulated in magnetoliposomes via Neél and Brown effects of inductive heating of subdomain superparamagnetic particles to sufficiently high temperatures. This principle may be combined with targeted drug delivery (using constant magnetic field) and controlled release (using high-frequency magnetic field) of an activated drug entrapped in magnetoliposomes. Using this method drug may be applied very selectively in the particular site of organism and this procedure may be repeated several times using e.g. stealth magnetoliposomes which are circulating in a blood-stream for several days. Moreover the magnetoliposomes concentrated by external constant magnetic field in tumor vasculature may lead to embolic lesions and necrosis of a tumor body and further the heat produced for thermal activation of a drug enhances the effect of chemotherapy by local hyperthermic treatment of neoplastic cells. PMID:14975506

  9. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  10. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  11. Secondary flow spanwise deviation model for the stators of NASA middle compressor stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. B.; Sandercock, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the spanwise variation of deviation for stator blades is presented. Deviation is defined as the difference between the passage mean flow angle and the metal angle at the outlet of a blade element of an axial compressor stage. The variation of deviation is taken as the difference above or below that predicted by blade element, (i.e., two-dimensional) theory at any spanwise location. The variation of deviation is dependent upon the blade camber, solidity and inlet boundary layer thickness at the hub or tip end-wall, and the blade channel aspect ratio. If these parameters are known or can be calculated, the model provides a reasonable approximation of the spanwise variation of deviation for most compressor middle stage stators operating at subsonic inlet Mach numbers.

  12. The role of septal surgery in management of the deviated nose.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-02-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 260 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 75 percent of them had various degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 232 patients (89 percent), not only to improve breathing but also to achieve a straight, symmetrical, external nose as well. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:15692343

  13. Illusory shadow person causing paradoxical gaze deviations during temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Zijlmans, M; van Eijsden, P; Ferrier, C H; Kho, K H; van Rijen, P C; Leijten, F S S

    2009-06-01

    Generally, activation of the frontal eye field during seizures can cause versive (forced) gaze deviation, while non-versive head deviation is hypothesised to result from ictal neglect after inactivation of the ipsilateral temporo-parietal area. Almost all non-versive head deviations occurring during temporal lobe seizures are directed to the side of seizure onset, so in derogatory cases it is worth while explaining the paradoxical event. We present a patient with a paradoxical direction of gaze deviation during temporal lobe seizures with an unexpected explanation. Electrocortical stimulation of the temporo-parieto-occipital junction elicited an irrepressible urge to look towards an illusory shadow person besides the patient. Paradoxical non-versive gaze deviations in temporal lobe seizures may be due to illusory experiences masked by postictal amnesia. PMID:19448096

  14. Pauli Exclusion Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A principle of quantum theory, devised in 1925 by Wolfgang Pauli (1900-58), which states that no two fermions may exist in the same quantum state. The quantum state of a particle is defined by a set of numbers that describe quantities such as energy, angular momentum and spin. Fermions are particles such as quarks, protons, neutrons and electrons, that have spin = ½ (in units of h/2π, where h is ...

  15. Computational principles of memory.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rishidev; Fiete, Ila

    2016-02-23

    The ability to store and later use information is essential for a variety of adaptive behaviors, including integration, learning, generalization, prediction and inference. In this Review, we survey theoretical principles that can allow the brain to construct persistent states for memory. We identify requirements that a memory system must satisfy and analyze existing models and hypothesized biological substrates in light of these requirements. We also highlight open questions, theoretical puzzles and problems shared with computer science and information theory. PMID:26906506

  16. Principles of dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Scaife, B.K.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper focuses on basic principles of the theory of dielectrics. Concentrates on fundamentals including relevant areas of electrostatics. Author takes a completely classical approach, avoiding quantum mechanics altogether. The electrostatic field in free space, multipole-moment fluctuations the generalized Kubo equation, the thermodynamics of electrostriction, and the incremental permittivity tensor are among the specific topics examined. Extensive appendices, specific journal references, and a general bibliography are included. Intended for advanced undergraduates in the physical sciences.

  17. A correspondence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Barry D.; Ninham, Barry W.

    2016-02-01

    A single mathematical theme underpins disparate physical phenomena in classical, quantum and statistical mechanical contexts. This mathematical "correspondence principle", a kind of wave-particle duality with glorious realizations in classical and modern mathematical analysis, embodies fundamental geometrical and physical order, and yet in some sense sits on the edge of chaos. Illustrative cases discussed are drawn from classical and anomalous diffusion, quantum mechanics of single particles and ideal gases, quasicrystals and Casimir forces.

  18. Strong and weak principles for progressing from precontemplation to action on the basis of twelve problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, J O

    1994-01-01

    Two principles for progressing from the precontemplation stage of change to the action stage were discovered. The strong principle states that progression from precontemplation to action is a function of approximately a 1 standard deviation increase in the pros of a health behavior change. The weak principle states that progression from precontemplation to action is a function of approximately a 1/2 standard deviation decrease in the cons of a health behavior change. In Study 1, these principles were derived from cross-sectional data on 12 problem behaviors relating the pros and cons of changing to the stages of change. In Study 2, these principles were validated on cross-sectional data from an independent sample of 1,466 smokers. Discussion focuses on the implications of these principles for individual psychology and public health policy. PMID:8168471

  19. Reliable detection of fluence anomalies in EPID-based IMRT pretreatment quality assurance using pixel intensity deviations

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning deviations. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity deviations (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional deviations of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional deviations produce large intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of {>=}5% in {approx}1 mm{sup 2} areas and {>=}2% in {approx}20 mm{sup 2} areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences ({<=}2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.

  20. Teaching professionalism: general principles.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R

    2006-05-01

    There are educational principles that apply to the teaching of professionalism during undergraduate education and postgraduate training. It is axiomatic that there is a single cognitive base that applies with increasing moral force as students enter medical school, progress to residency or registrar training, and enter practice. While parts of this body of knowledge are easier to teach and learn at different stages of an individual's career, it remains a definable whole at all times and should be taught as such. While the principle that self-reflection on theoretical and real issues encountered in the life of a student, resident or practitioner is essential to the acquisition of experiential learning and the incorporation of the values and behaviors of the professional, the opportunities to provide situations where this can take place will change as an individual progresses through the system, as will the sophistication of the level of learning. Teaching the cognitive base of professionalism and providing opportunities for the internalization of its values and behaviors are the cornerstones of the organization of the teaching of professionalism at all levels. Situated learning theory appears to provide practical guidance as to how this may be implemented. While the application of this theory will vary with the type of curriculum, the institutional culture and the resources available, the principles outlined should remain constant. PMID:16753716

  1. Sea level rise of semi-enclosed basins: deviation of Adriatic and Baltic sea level from the mean global value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Future sea level rise (SL), which represents today one of the major threats that are caused by climate change, will not be uniform. Regional differences are crucial for 40% of the world population, which is located in the coastal zone. To explore the mechanisms linking regional SL to climate variables is very important in order to provide reliable future projections. This study focuses on two semi-enclosed basins, the Adriatic and Baltic Sea and investigates the deviation of their SL from the mean global value. In fact, past deviations of the SL of these two basins from the global value have been observed and can be attributed to large scale factors (such as teleconnections) and regional factors, such as the inverse barometric effect, the wind stress, the thermosteric and halosteric effects. The final goal of this work is to assess to which extent the Adriatic and Baltic SL will depart from the mean global value in the next decades and at the end of 21st century. This is achieved by analyzing deviations of the mean SL of the Baltic and Adriatic Sea from the global mean SL during the 20th century and investigating which factors can explain such deviations. A multivariate linear regression model is built and used to describe the link between three large scale climate variables which are used as predictors (mean sea level pressure, surface air temperature and precipitation), and the regional SL deviation (the predictand), computed as the difference between the regional and the global SL. At monthly scale this linear regression model provides a good reconstruction of the past variability in the cold season during which it explains 60%-70% of the variance. Summer reconstruction is substantially less successful and it represents presently the main limit of the model skill. This linear regression model, forced by predictors extracted from CMIP5 multi-model simulations, is used to provide projections of SL in the Adriatic and Baltic Sea. On the basis of the projections until 2100, the Baltic Sea will rise faster than the global SL. Adriatic SL, on the contrary, shows a substantial agreement with the global trend. This study is part of the activities of RISES-AM project (FP7-EU-603396).

  2. The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Lawrence B. Light, Kim L.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Georgas, Debra L.; Jones, Ellen L.; Wright, Melanie C.; Willett, Christopher G.; Yin Fangfang

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches.

  3. Optimality Principles of Undulatory Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nangia, Nishant; Bale, Rahul; Patankar, Neelesh

    2015-11-01

    A number of dimensionless quantities derived from a fish's kinematic and morphological parameters have been used to describe the hydrodynamics of swimming. In particular, body/caudal fin swimmers have been found to swim within a relatively narrow range of these quantities in nature, e.g., Strouhal number or the optimal specific wavelength. It has been hypothesized or shown that these constraints arise due to maximization of swimming speed, efficiency, or cost of transport in certain domains of this large dimensionless parameter space. Using fully resolved simulations of undulatory patterns, we investigate the existence of various optimality principles in fish swimming. Using scaling arguments, we relate various dimensionless parameters to each other. Based on these findings, we make design recommendations on how kinematic parameters for a swimming robot or vehicle should be chosen. This work is supported by NSF Grants CBET-0828749, CMMI-0941674, CBET-1066575 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1324585.

  4. Providing Runtime Clock Synchronization With Minimal Node-to-Node Time Deviation on XT4s and XT5s

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R; Koenig, Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    We present a new high precision clock synchronization algorithm designed for large XT4 and XT5 leadership-class machines. The algorithm, which is designed to support OS noise reduction through co-scheduling, is suitable for usage cases requiring low overhead and minimal time deviation between nodes. Unlike most high-precision algorithms which reach their precision in a post-mortem analysis after the application has completed, the new ORNL developed algorithm rapidly provides precise results during runtime. Previous to our work, the leading high-precision clock synchronization algorithms that made results available during runtime relied on probabilistic schemes that are not guaranteed to result in an answer.

  5. Determination of ensemble-average pairwise root mean-square deviation from experimental B-factors.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanic, Antonija; Zagrovic, Bojan

    2010-03-01

    Root mean-square deviation (RMSD) after roto-translational least-squares fitting is a measure of global structural similarity of macromolecules used commonly. On the other hand, experimental x-ray B-factors are used frequently to study local structural heterogeneity and dynamics in macromolecules by providing direct information about root mean-square fluctuations (RMSF) that can also be calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. We provide a mathematical derivation showing that, given a set of conservative assumptions, a root mean-square ensemble-average of an all-against-all distribution of pairwise RMSD for a single molecular species, (1/2), is directly related to average B-factors () and (1/2). We show this relationship and explore its limits of validity on a heterogeneous ensemble of structures taken from molecular dynamics simulations of villin headpiece generated using distributed-computing techniques and the Folding@Home cluster. Our results provide a basis for quantifying global structural diversity of macromolecules in crystals directly from x-ray experiments, and we show this on a large set of structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. In particular, we show that the ensemble-average pairwise backbone RMSD for a microscopic ensemble underlying a typical protein x-ray structure is approximately 1.1 A, under the assumption that the principal contribution to experimental B-factors is conformational variability. PMID:20197040

  6. Determination of Ensemble-Average Pairwise Root Mean-Square Deviation from Experimental B-Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmanic, Antonija; Zagrovic, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Root mean-square deviation (RMSD) after roto-translational least-squares fitting is a measure of globalstructural similarity of macromolecules used commonly. On the other hand, experimental x-ray B-factors are used frequently to study local structural heterogeneity and dynamics in macromolecules by providing direct information about root mean-square fluctuations (RMSF) that can also be calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. We provide a mathematical derivation showing that, given a set of conservative assumptions, a root mean-square ensemble-average of an all-against-all distribution of pairwise RMSD for a single molecular species, 1/2, is directly related to average B-factors () and 1/2. We show this relationship and explore its limits of validity on a heterogeneous ensemble of structures takenfrom molecular dynamics simulations of villin headpiece generated using distributed-computing techniques and the Folding@Home cluster. Our results provide a basis for quantifying global structural diversity of macromolecules in crystals directly from x-ray experiments, and we show this on a large set of structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. In particular, we show that the ensemble-average pairwise backbone RMSD for a microscopic ensemble underlying a typical protein x-ray structure is?1.1 , under the assumption that the principal contribution to experimental B-factors is conformational variability. PMID:20197040

  7. Deviation of Long-Period Tides from Equilibrium: Kinematics and Geostrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egbert, Gary D.; Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    New empirical estimates of the long-period fortnightly (Mf) tide obtained from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter data confirm significant basin-scale deviations from equilibrium. Elevations in the low-latitude Pacific have reduced amplitude and lag those in the Atlantic by 30 deg or more. These interbasin amplitude and phase variations are robust features that are reproduced by numerical solutions of the shallow-water equations, even for a constant-depth ocean with schematic interconnected rectangular basins. A simplified analytical model for cooscillating connected basins also reproduces the principal features observed in the empirical solutions. This simple model is largely kinematic. Zonally averaged elevations within a simple closed basin would be nearly in equilibrium with the gravitational potential, except for a constant offset required to conserve mass. With connected basins these offsets are mostly eliminated by interbasin mass flux. Because of rotation, this flux occurs mostly in a narrow boundary layer across the mouth and at the western edge of each basin, and geostrophic balance in this zone supports small residual offsets (and phase shifts) between basins. The simple model predicts that this effect should decrease roughly linearly with frequency, a result that is confirmed by numerical modeling and empirical T/P estimates of the monthly (Mm) tidal constituent. This model also explains some aspects of the anomalous nonisostatic response of the ocean to atmospheric pressure forcing at periods of around 5 days.

  8. Deviated Septum

    MedlinePlus

    Get Involved Join Now Annual Election Committees Sections Humanitarian Efforts International Outreach Advocacy Board of Governors Industry Programs Professional Development AcademyU Home Study Course Maintenance of Certification ...

  9. Generalized convective quasi-equilibrium principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi; Plant, Robert S.

    2016-03-01

    A generalization of Arakawa and Schubert's convective quasi-equilibrium principle is presented for a closure formulation of mass-flux convection parameterization. The original principle is based on the budget of the cloud work function. This principle is generalized by considering the budget for a vertical integral of an arbitrary convection-related quantity. The closure formulation includes Arakawa and Schubert's quasi-equilibrium, as well as both CAPE and moisture closures as special cases. The formulation also includes new possibilities for considering vertical integrals that are dependent on convective-scale variables, such as the moisture within convection. The generalized convective quasi-equilibrium is defined by a balance between large-scale forcing and convective response for a given vertically-integrated quantity. The latter takes the form of a convolution of a kernel matrix and a mass-flux spectrum, as in the original convective quasi-equilibrium. The kernel reduces to a scalar when either a bulk formulation is adopted, or only large-scale variables are considered within the vertical integral. Various physical implications of the generalized closure are discussed. These include the possibility that precipitation might be considered as a potentially-significant contribution to the large-scale forcing. Two dicta are proposed as guiding physical principles for the specifying a suitable vertically-integrated quantity.

  10. ACTION PRINCIPLES FOR WORKING WITH LOW INCOME PEOPLE. PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RIESSMAN, FRANK

    SIX PRINCIPLES OF ACTION FOR WORKING WITH LOW-INCOME GROUPS WERE DISCUSSED. ACTION PRINCIPLES ARE NOT THE SELF-EVIDENT RESULT OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT LOW-INCOME CULTURES. THEY LARGELY DEPEND ON THE GOALS WHICH ARE ANTICIPATED FOR LOW-INCOME INDIVIDUALS. THE ACTION CONCEPTS SUGGESTED SHOULD BE VIEWED AS GENERALIZATION AND GUIDE LINES WHICH MUST BE USED…

  11. Differential processing of melodic, rhythmic and simple tone deviations in musicians--an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Claudia; Lappe, Markus; Pantev, Christo

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm and melody are two basic characteristics of music. Performing musicians have to pay attention to both, and avoid errors in either aspect of their performance. To investigate the neural processes involved in detecting melodic and rhythmic errors from auditory input we tested musicians on both kinds of deviations in a mismatch negativity (MMN) design. We found that MMN responses to a rhythmic deviation occurred at shorter latencies than MMN responses to a melodic deviation. Beamformer source analysis showed that the melodic deviation activated superior temporal, inferior frontal and superior frontal areas whereas the activation pattern of the rhythmic deviation focused more strongly on inferior and superior parietal areas, in addition to superior temporal cortex. Activation in the supplementary motor area occurred for both types of deviations. We also recorded responses to similar pitch and tempo deviations in a simple, non-musical repetitive tone pattern. In this case, there was no latency difference between the MMNs and cortical activation was smaller and mostly limited to auditory cortex. The results suggest that prediction and error detection of musical stimuli in trained musicians involve a broad cortical network and that rhythmic and melodic errors are processed in partially different cortical streams. PMID:26436712

  12. Welding deviation detection algorithm based on extremum of molten pool image contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yong; Jiang, Lipei; Li, Yunhua; Xue, Long; Huang, Junfen; Huang, Jiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The welding deviation detection is the basis of robotic tracking welding, but the on-line real-time measurement of welding deviation is still not well solved by the existing methods. There is plenty of information in the gas metal arc welding(GMAW) molten pool images that is very important for the control of welding seam tracking. The physical meaning for the curvature extremum of molten pool contour is revealed by researching the molten pool images, that is, the deviation information points of welding wire center and the molten tip center are the maxima and the local maxima of the contour curvature, and the horizontal welding deviation is the position difference of these two extremum points. A new method of weld deviation detection is presented, including the process of preprocessing molten pool images, extracting and segmenting the contours, obtaining the contour extremum points, and calculating the welding deviation, etc. Extracting the contours is the premise, segmenting the contour lines is the foundation, and obtaining the contour extremum points is the key. The contour images can be extracted with the method of discrete dyadic wavelet transform, which is divided into two sub contours including welding wire and molten tip separately. The curvature value of each point of the two sub contour lines is calculated based on the approximate curvature formula of multi-points for plane curve, and the two points of the curvature extremum are the characteristics needed for the welding deviation calculation. The results of the tests and analyses show that the maximum error of the obtained on-line welding deviation is 2 pixels(0.16 mm), and the algorithm is stable enough to meet the requirements of the pipeline in real-time control at a speed of less than 500 mm/min. The method can be applied to the on-line automatic welding deviation detection.

  13. Principles of tendon transfers.

    PubMed

    Coulet, B

    2016-04-01

    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively. PMID:27117119

  14. Deviations of the glass transition temperature in amorphous conjugated polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Osuna Orozco, Rodrigo; Wang, Tao

    2013-08-01

    The deviations of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in thin films of an amorphous conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine) (TFB) are reported. Monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg deviations are observed in TFB thin films supported on Si-SiOx and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. A three-layer model is developed to fit both monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg deviations in these films. A 5-nm PEDOT:PSS capping layer was not found to be effective to remove the free-surface effect in Si-SiOx supported TFB films.

  15. Understanding of cluster size deviation by measuring the dimensions of cluster jet from conical nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guanglong; Geng, Xiaotao; Xu, Hongxia; Mi, Yiming; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Lili; Kim, Dong Eon

    2013-03-01

    This work aims to understand the cluster size deviation from the prediction by an existing scaling law for conical nozzles. The dimensions of cluster jet at different heights above a nozzle along the direction of gas flow are measured. This study indicates that the dimension of cluster jet is underestimated in the existing scaling law and this under-estimation leads to the over-estimation of the equivalent diameter of conical nozzle. Thus the underestimation of the dimension of cluster jet may be one of possible factors responsible for the cluster size deviation (the degree of the deviation depends on details of cluster jet).

  16. Deviations of the exciton level spectrum in Cu2O from the hydrogen series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, F.; Krüger, S.-O.; Grünwald, P.; Stolz, H.; Scheel, S.; Aßmann, M.; Heckötter, J.; Thewes, J.; Fröhlich, D.; Bayer, M.

    2016-02-01

    Recent high-resolution absorption spectroscopy on excited excitons in cuprous oxide [Nature (London) 514, 343 (2014), 10.1038/nature13832] has revealed significant deviations of their spectrum from that of the ideal hydrogen-like series. Here we show that the complex band dispersion of the crystal, which determines the kinetic energy of electrons and holes, strongly affects the exciton binding energy. Specifically, we show that the nonparabolicity of the band dispersion is the main cause of the deviation from the hydrogen series. Experimental data collected from high-resolution absorption spectroscopy in electric fields validate the assignment of the deviation to the nonparabolicity of the band dispersion.

  17. Protection - Principles and practice.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, G. S.; Denning, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The protection mechanisms of computer systems control the access to objects, especially information objects. The principles of protection system design are formalized as a model (theory) of protection. Each process has a unique identification number which is attached by the system to each access attempted by the process. Details of system implementation are discussed, taking into account the storing of the access matrix, aspects of efficiency, and the selection of subjects and objects. Two systems which have protection features incorporating all the elements of the model are described.

  18. Principles of smile design

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvaneswaran, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile. PMID:21217950

  19. Principles of electromagnetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kovetz, A.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book emphasizes the fundamental understanding of the laws governing the behavior of charge and current carrying bodies. Electromagnetism is presented as a classical theory, based-like mechanics-on principles that are independent of the atomic constitution of matter. This book is unique among electromagnetic texts in its treatment of the precise manner in which electromagnetism is linked to mechanics and thermodynamics. Applications include electrostriction, piezoelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, thermoelectricity, magnetohydrodynamics, radiation from charged particles, electromagnetic wave propagation and guided waves. There are many worked examples of dynamical and thermal effects of electromagnetic fields, and of effects resulting from the motion of bodies.

  20. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…