Large Deviations Principle for Stochastic Scalar Conservation Laws
Mauro Mariani
2009-04-06
We investigate large deviations for a family of conservative stochastic PDEs (conservation laws) in the asymptotic of jointly vanishing noise and viscosity. We obtain a first large deviations principle in a space of Young measures. The associated rate functional vanishes on a wide set, the so-called set of measure-valued solutions to the limiting conservation law. We therefore investigate a second order large deviations principle, thus providing a quantitative characterization of non-entropic solutions to the conservation law.
Large deviations principles of Non-Freidlin-Wentzell type
Foukzon, Jaykov
2008-01-01
Generalized Large deviation principles was developed for weakly time inhomogeneous diffusions prove to be key tools for a treatment of the problem of diffusion exit from a domain and thus for the approach of stochastic resonance via transition probabilities between meta-stable states. We expand the classical theory of large deviations for randomly perturbed dynamical systems developed by Freidlin and Wentzell.
Large deviations principles of Non-Freidlin-Wentzell type
Jaykov Foukzon
2014-10-22
Generalized Large deviation principles was developed for Colombeau-Ito SDE with a random coefficients. We is significantly expand the classical theory of large deviations for randomly perturbed dynamical systems developed by Freidlin and Wentzell.Using SLDP approach, jumps phenomena, in financial markets, also is considered. Jumps phenomena, in financial markets is explained from the first principles, without any reference to Poisson jump process. In contrast with a phenomenological approach we explain such jumps phenomena from the first principles, without any reference to Poisson jump process.
Large deviations and GallavottiCohen principle for dissipative PDE's with rough noise
Large deviations and GallavottiCohen principle for dissipative PDE's with rough noise V. Jaksi´c V- teger times form a homogeneous Markov process. Assuming that the noise is rough with respect: Dissipative PDE's, large deviation principle, occupation mea- sures, entropy production, Gallavotti
The large deviation principle for the Erdos-Renyi random graph
Durrett, Richard
The large deviation principle for the Erdos-RÂ´enyi random graph Sourav Chatterjee (Courant Institute, NYU) joint work with S. R. S. Varadhan Sourav Chatterjee Large deviations for random graphs #12;Main objective: how to count graphs with a given property Only consider finite undirected graphs
Invertible mappings and the large deviation theory for the $q$-maximum entropy principle
R. C. Venkatesan; A. Plastino
2013-03-31
The possibility of reconciliation between canonical probability distributions obtained from the $q$-maximum entropy principle with predictions from the law of large numbers when empirical samples are held to the same constraints, is investigated into. Canonical probability distributions are constrained by both: $(i)$ the additive duality of generalized statistics and $(ii)$ normal averages expectations. Necessary conditions to establish such a reconciliation are derived by appealing to a result concerning large deviation properties of conditional measures. The (dual) $q^*$-maximum entropy principle is shown {\\bf not} to adhere to the large deviation theory. However, the necessary conditions are proven to constitute an invertible mapping between: $(i)$ a canonical ensemble satisfying the $q^*$-maximum entropy principle for energy-eigenvalues $\\varepsilon_i^*$, and, $(ii)$ a canonical ensemble satisfying the Shannon-Jaynes maximum entropy theory for energy-eigenvalues $\\varepsilon_i$. Such an invertible mapping is demonstrated to facilitate an \\emph{implicit} reconciliation between the $q^*$-maximum entropy principle and the large deviation theory. Numerical examples for exemplary cases are provided.
Large-deviation statistics of a diffusive quantum spin chain and the additivity principle.
Žnidari?, Marko
2014-04-01
Using the large-deviation formalism, we study the statistics of current fluctuations in a diffusive nonequilibrium quantum spin chain. The boundary-driven XX chain with dephasing consists of a coherent bulk hopping and a local dissipative dephasing. We analytically calculate the exact expression for the second current moment in a system of any length and then numerically demonstrate that in the thermodynamic limit, higher-order cumulants and the large-deviation function can be calculated using the additivity principle or macroscopic hydrodynamic theory. This shows that the additivity principle can also hold in systems that are not purely stochastic, and can in particular be valid in quantum systems. We also show that in large systems, the current fluctuations are the same as in the classical symmetric simple exclusion process. PMID:24827225
Large deviation principles for non gradient weakly asymmetric stochastic lattice gases
Bertini, L; Gabrielli, D
2010-01-01
We consider a lattice gas on the discrete d-dimensional torus (Z/NZ)^d with a generic translation invariant, finite range interaction satisfying a uniform strong mixing condition. The lattice gas performs a Kawasaki dynamics in the presence of a weak external field E/N. We show that, under diffusive rescaling, the hydrodynamic behavior of the lattice gas is described by a nonlinear driven diffusion equation. We then prove the associated dynamical large deviation principle. Under suitable assumptions on the external field (e.g. E constant), we finally analyze the variational problem defining the quasi-potential and characterize the optimal exit trajectory. From these results we deduce the asymptotic behavior of the stationary measures of the stochastic lattice gas, which are not explicitly known. In particular, when the external field E is constant, we prove a stationary large deviation principle for the empirical density and show that the rate function does not depend on E.
Large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for pinned diffusion processes
Inahama, Yuzuru
2012-01-01
Since T. Lyons invented rough path theory, one of its most successful applications is a new proof of Freidlin-Wentzell's large deviation principle for diffusion processes. In this paper we extend this method to the case of pinned diffusion processes under a mild ellipticity assumption. Besides rough path theory, our main tool is quasi-sure analysis, which is one of the deepest parts of Malliavin calculus.
Large Deviation Principle for Empirical Fields of Log and Riesz Gases
Thomas Leblé; Sylvia Serfaty
2015-02-23
We study the Gibbs measure associated to a system of N particles with logarithmic, Coulomb or Riesz pair interactions under a fairly general confining potential, in the limit N tends to infinity. After rescaling we examine a microscopic quantity, the associated empirical point process, for which we prove a large deviation principle whose rate function is the sum of a specific relative entropy weighted by the temperature and of a "renormalized energy" which measures the disorder of a configuration. This indicates that the configurations should cristallize as the temperature vanishes and behave microscopically like Poisson point processes as the temperature tends to infinity. We deduce a variational characterization of the sine-beta and Ginibre point processes which arise in random matrix theory. We also give a next-to-leading order expansion of the free energy of the system, thus proving the existence of a thermodynamic limit.
Large deviations for Langevin spin glass dynamics
G. Ben Arous; A. Guionnet
1995-01-01
Summary We study the asymptotic behaviour of asymmetrical spin glass dynamics in a Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model as proposed by Sompolinsky-Zippelius. We prove that the annealed law of the empirical measure on path space of these dynamics satisfy a large deviation principle in the high temperature regime. We study the rate function of this large deviation principle and prove that it achieves
One-deviation principle in coalition formation
Hannu Vartiainen
2008-01-01
We study coalitional one-deviation principle in a framework a la Chwe (1994). The principle requires that an active coalition or any of its subcoalition will not benefit from a single deviation to a strategy that specifies, for each history of coalitional moves, an active coalition and its move. A strategy meeting the one-deviation property is characterized. Moreover, it is shown
Large deviations and rain showers
Wilkinson, Michael
2015-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
Large Deviations in the Superstable Weakly Imperfect Bose Gas 1 Large Deviations in the Superstable 6207 LuminyCase 907, F13288 Marseille, Cedex 09, France Abstract The superstable Weakly Imperfect). In the present paper we extend the study of Large Deviations (LD) principle to the superstable Weakly Imperfect
Sample path large deviations for order statistics Ken R. Duffy
Duffy, Ken
Sample path large deviations for order statistics Ken R. Duffy Claudio Macci Giovanni Luca Torrisi November 23, 2010 Abstract We consider the sample paths of the order statistics of i.i.d. random variables prove that the sample paths of the order statistics satisfy the large deviation principle
Freidlin-Wentzell's Large Deviations for Stochastic Evolution Equations
Ren, Jiagang
2008-01-01
We prove a Freidlin-Wentzell large deviation principle for general stochastic evolution equations with small perturbation multiplicative noises. In particular, our general result can be used to deal with a large class of quasi linear stochastic partial differential equations, such as stochastic porous medium equations and stochastic reaction diffusion equations with polynomial growth zero order term and $p$-Laplacian second order term.
Large deviations for nonlocal stochastic neural fields.
Kuehn, Christian; Riedler, Martin G
2014-01-01
We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers' law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations.Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20. PMID:24742297
Flows, currents, and cycles for Markov Chains: large deviation asymptotics
L. Bertini; A. Faggionato; D. Gabrielli
2014-08-23
We consider a continuous time Markov chain on a countable state space. We prove a joint large deviation principle (LDP) of the empirical measure and current in the limit of large time interval. The proof is based on results on the joint large deviations of the empirical measure and flow obtained in \\cite{BFG}. By improving such results we also show, under additional assumptions, that the LDP holds with the strong L^1 topology on the space of currents. We deduce a general version of the Gallavotti-Cohen (GC) symmetry for the current field and show that it implies the so-called fluctuation theorem for the GC functional. We also analyze the large deviation properties of generalized empirical currents associated to a fundamental basis in the cycle space, which, as we show, are given by the first class homological coefficients in the graph underlying the Markov chain. Finally, we discuss in detail some examples.
Large deviations in single-file diffusion.
Krapivsky, P L; Mallick, Kirone; Sadhu, Tridib
2014-08-15
We apply macroscopic fluctuation theory to study the diffusion of a tracer in a one-dimensional interacting particle system with excluded mutual passage, known as single-file diffusion. In the case of Brownian point particles with hard-core repulsion, we derive the cumulant generating function of the tracer position and its large deviation function. In the general case of arbitrary interparticle interactions, we express the variance of the tracer position in terms of the collective transport properties, viz., the diffusion coefficient and the mobility. Our analysis applies both for fluctuating (annealed) and fixed (quenched) initial configurations. PMID:25170732
Elements of Statistical Mechanics and Large Deviation Theory
Friedli, Sacha
Elements of Statistical Mechanics and Large Deviation Theory #12;#12;Contents Chapter 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics areas, namely Equilibirum Statistical Mechanics (ESM) and Large Deviation Th
Large deviations of the current in stochastic collisional dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lefevere, Raphaël; Mariani, Mauro; Zambotti, Lorenzo
2011-03-01
We consider a class of deterministic local collisional dynamics, showing how to approximate them by means of stochastic models and then studying the fluctuations of the current of energy. We show first that the variance of the time-integrated current is finite and related to the conductivity by the Green-Kubo relation. Next we show that the law of the empirical average current satisfies a large deviations principle and compute explicitly the rate functional in a suitable scaling limit. We observe that this functional is not strictly convex.
Nonequilibrium Markov processes conditioned on large deviations
Raphael Chetrite; Hugo Touchette
2014-10-09
We consider the problem of conditioning a Markov process on a rare event and of representing this conditioned process by a conditioning-free process, called the effective or driven process. The basic assumption is that the rare event used in the conditioning is a large deviation-type event, characterized by a convex rate function. Under this assumption, we construct the driven process via a generalization of Doob's $h$-transform, used in the context of bridge processes, and show that this process is equivalent to the conditioned process in the long-time limit. The notion of equivalence that we consider is based on the logarithmic equivalence of path measures and implies that the two processes have the same typical states. In constructing the driven process, we also prove equivalence with the so-called exponential tilting of the Markov process, which is used with importance sampling to simulate rare events, and which gives rise, from the point of view of statistical mechanics, to a nonequilibrium version of the canonical ensemble. Other links between our results and the topics of bridge processes, quasi-stationary distributions, stochastic control, and conditional limit theorems are mentioned.
General Freidlin-Wentzell Large Deviations and positive Diffusions
Caramellino, Lucia
General Freidlin-Wentzell Large Deviations and positive Diffusions P.Baldi and L.Caramellino Universit`a di Roma Tor Vergata Abstract We prove Freidlin-Wentzell Large Deviation estimates under rather minimal assump- tions. This allows to derive Wentzell-Freidlin Large Deviation estimates for diffusions
Hans-Otto Georgii
1994-01-01
Summary For Gibbsian systems of particles inRd, we investigate large deviations of the translation invariant empirical fields in increasing boxes. The particle interaction is given by a superstable, regular pair potential. The large deviation principle is established for systems with free or periodic boundary conditions and, under a stronger stability hypothesis on the potential, for systems with tempered boundary conditions,
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR THE LARGEST EIGENVALUE OF RANK ONE DEFORMATIONS OF GAUSSIAN ENSEMBLES
ENE MAIDA
We establish a large deviation principle for the largest eigenvalue of a rank one defor- mation of a matrix from the GUE or GOE. As a corollary, we get another proof of the phenomenon, well-known in learning theory and finance, that the largest eigenvalue separates from the bulk when the perturbation is large enough. A large part of the paper
Large Deviations for the largest eigenvalue of rank one deformations of Gaussian ensembles
Mylene Ma
We establish a large deviation principle for the largest eigenvalue of a rank one deformation of a matrix from the GUE or GOE. As a corollary, we get another proof of the phenomenon, well-known in learning theory and finance, that the largest eigenvalue separates from the bulk when the perturbation is large enough. A large part of the paper is
Large Deviations and Overflow Probabilities for the General Single-Server Queue, With Applications
N. g. Duffield; Neil Connell
1994-01-01
We consider from a thermodynamic viewpoint queueing systems where the workloadprocess is assumed to have an associated large deviation principle with arbitraryscaling: there exist increasing scaling functions (a t ; v t ; t 2R+ ) and a rate function Isuch that if (W t ; t 2 R+ ) denotes the workload process, thenlimt!1v\\\\Gamma1t log P (W t =a
Large deviations for the largest eigenvalue of rank one deformations of Gaussian ensembles
Mylène Maïda
2006-01-01
We establish a large deviation principle for the largest eigenvalue of a rank\\u000aone deformation of a matrix from the GUE or GOE. As a corollary, we get another\\u000aproof of the phenomenon, well-known in learning theory and finance, that the\\u000alargest eigenvalue separates from the bulk if the perturbation is large enough.\\u000aA large part of the paper is
TEST CONFIGURATIONS, LARGE DEVIATIONS AND GEODESIC RAYS ON TORIC VARIETIES
Zelditch, Steve
TEST CONFIGURATIONS, LARGE DEVIATIONS AND GEODESIC RAYS ON TORIC VARIETIES JIAN SONG AND STEVE rays t defined by Phong-Sturm corresponding to test configurations T in the sense of Donaldson. We show that the `Bergman approximations' k(t, z) of Phong-Sturm converge in C1 to the geodesic ray t, and that the geodesic
Lower large deviations for supercritical branching processes in random environment
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Lower large deviations for supercritical branching processes in random environment Vincent Bansaye in an i.i.d. manner. In the supercritical regime, the process survives with a positive probability Classification. 60J80, 60K37, 60J05, 60F17, 92D25 Key words and phrases. supercritical branching processes
Martingales and large deviations for binary search trees
Jean Jabbour-hattab
2001-01-01
We establish an almost sure large deviations theorem for thedepth of the external nodes of binary search trees (BST). To achieve this, aparametric family of martingales is introduced. This family also allows us toget asymptotic results on the number of external nodes at deepest level.
A basic introduction to large deviations: Theory, applications, simulations
Hugo Touchette
2012-02-29
The theory of large deviations deals with the probabilities of rare events (or fluctuations) that are exponentially small as a function of some parameter, e.g., the number of random components of a system, the time over which a stochastic system is observed, the amplitude of the noise perturbing a dynamical system or the temperature of a chemical reaction. The theory has applications in many different scientific fields, ranging from queuing theory to statistics and from finance to engineering. It is also increasingly used in statistical physics for studying both equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems. In this context, deep analogies can be made between familiar concepts of statistical physics, such as the entropy and the free energy, and concepts of large deviation theory having more technical names, such as the rate function and the scaled cumulant generating function. The first part of these notes introduces the basic elements of large deviation theory at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics, engineering, chemistry, and mathematics. The focus there is on the simple but powerful ideas behind large deviation theory, stated in non-technical terms, and on the application of these ideas in simple stochastic processes, such as sums of independent and identically distributed random variables and Markov processes. Some physical applications of these processes are covered in exercises contained at the end of each section. In the second part, the problem of numerically evaluating large deviation probabilities is treated at a basic level. The fundamental idea of importance sampling is introduced there together with its sister idea, the exponential change of measure. Other numerical methods based on sample means and generating functions, with applications to Markov processes, are also covered.
Distributed Detection over Time Varying Networks: Large Deviations Analysis
Jakoveti´c, Jo~ao Xavier, Bruno Sinopoli and Jos´e M. F. Moura Abstract--We apply large deviations theory/EEA- ACR/73749/2006; and by ISR/IST plurianual funding (POSC program, FEDER). Work of Jos´e M. F. Moura T´ecnico (IST), Lisbon, Portugal jxavier@isr.ist.utl.pt B. Sinopoli and Jos´e M. F. Moura
Large Deviations in the Superstable Weakly Imperfect Bose-Gas
J.-B. Bru; V. A. Zagrebnov
2008-01-01
The Superstable Weakly Imperfect Bose-Gas (Sup-WIBG) was originally proposed to solve some inconsistencies of the Bogoliubov theory based on the WIBG. The grand-canonical\\u000a thermodynamics of the Sup-WIBG has been recently studied in details but only out of the point of the (first order) phase transition.\\u000a The present paper closes this gap. The key technical tools are the Large Deviations (LD)
Large-deviation properties of Brownian motion with dry friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yaming; Just, Wolfram
2014-10-01
We investigate piecewise-linear stochastic models with regard to the probability distribution of functionals of the stochastic processes, a question that occurs frequently in large deviation theory. The functionals that we are looking into in detail are related to the time a stochastic process spends at a phase space point or in a phase space region, as well as to the motion with inertia. For a Langevin equation with discontinuous drift, we extend the so-called backward Fokker-Planck technique for non-negative support functionals to arbitrary support functionals, to derive explicit expressions for the moments of the functional. Explicit solutions for the moments and for the distribution of the so-called local time, the occupation time, and the displacement are derived for the Brownian motion with dry friction, including quantitative measures to characterize deviation from Gaussian behavior in the asymptotic long time limit.
Large-deviation achromatic Risley prisms pointing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacoursiere, Jean; Doucet, Michel; Curatu, Eugene O.; Savard, Maxime; Verreault, Sonia; Thibault, Simon; Chevrette, Paul C.; Ricard, Benoit
2002-06-01
As part of the Infrared Eye project, this article describes the design of large-deviation, achromatic Risley prisms scanning systems operating in the 0.5 - 0.92 and 8 - 9.5 ?m spectral regions. Designing these systems is challenging due to the large deviation required (zero - 25 degrees), the large spectral bandwidth and the mechanical constraints imposed by the need to rotate the prisms to any position in 1/30 second. A design approach making extensive use of the versatility of optical design softwares is described. Designs consisting of different pairs of optical materials are shown in order to illustrate the trade-off between chromatic aberration, mass and vignetting. Control of chromatic aberration and reasonable prism shape is obtained over 8 - 9.5 ?m with zinc sulfide and germanium. The design is more difficult for the 0.5 - 0.92 ?m band. Trade-offs consist in using sapphire with Cleartran« over a reduced bandwidth (0.75 - 0.9 ?m ) or acrylic singlets with the Infrared Eye in active mode (0.85 - 0.86 ?m). Non-sequential ray-tracing is used to study the effects of fresnelizing one element of the achromat to reduce its mass, and to evaluate detector narcissus in the 8 - 9.5 ?m region.
Large-deviation approach to space-time chaos.
Kuptsov, Pavel V; Politi, Antonio
2011-09-01
In this Letter, we show that the analysis of Lyapunov-exponent fluctuations contributes to deepen our understanding of high-dimensional chaos. This is achieved by introducing a gaussian approximation for the large-deviation function that quantifies the fluctuation probability. More precisely, a diffusion matrix D (a dynamical invariant itself) is measured and analyzed in terms of its principal components. The application of this method to three (conservative, as well as dissipative) models allows (i) quantifying the strength of the effective interactions among the different degrees of freedom, (ii) unveiling microscopic constraints such as those associated to a symplectic structure, and (iii) checking the hyperbolicity of the dynamics. PMID:22026670
A large-deviation view on dynamical Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions
van Enter, Aernout; Hollander, Frank den; Redig, Frank
2010-01-01
We develop a space-time large-deviation point of view on Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions in spin systems subject to a stochastic spin-flip dynamics. Using the general theory for large deviations of functionals of Markov processes outlined in Feng and Kurtz [11], we show that the trajectory under the spin-flip dynamics of the empirical measure of the spins in a large block in Z^d satisfies a large deviation principle in the limit as the block size tends to infinity. The associated rate function can be computed as the action functional of a Lagrangian that is the Legendre transform of a certain non-linear generator, playing a role analogous to the moment-generating function in the Gartner-Ellis theorem of large deviation theory when this is applied to finite-dimensional Markov processes. This rate function is used to define the notion of "bad empirical measures", which are the discontinuity points of the optimal trajectories (i.e., the trajectories minimizing the rate function) given the empirical measure at the en...
Large Deviations, Dynamics and Phase Transitions in Large Stochastic and Disordered Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabana, Tanguy; Touboul, Jonathan
2013-10-01
Neuronal networks are characterized by highly heterogeneous connectivity, and this disorder was recently related experimentally to qualitative properties of the network. The motivation of this paper is to mathematically analyze the role of these disordered connectivities on the large-scale properties of neuronal networks. To this end, we analyze here large-scale limit behaviors of neural networks including, for biological relevance, multiple populations, random connectivities and interaction delays. Due to the randomness of the connectivity, usual mean-field methods (e.g. coupling) cannot be applied, but, similarly to studies developed for spin glasses, we will show that the sequences of empirical measures satisfy a large deviation principle, and converge towards a self-consistent non-Markovian process. From a mathematical viewpoint, the proof differs from previous works in that we are working in infinite-dimensional spaces (interaction delays) and consider multiple cell types. The limit obtained formally characterizes the macroscopic behavior of the network. We propose a dynamical systems approach in order to address the qualitative nature of the solutions of these very complex equations, and apply this methodology to three instances in order to show how non-centered coefficients, interaction delays and multiple populations networks are affected by disorder levels. We identify a number of phase transitions in such systems upon changes in delays, connectivity patterns and dispersion, and particularly focus on the emergence of non-equilibrium states involving synchronized oscillations.
Smaragdakis, Georgios
A Large Deviations Approach to Statistical Traffic Anomaly Detection Ioannis Ch. Paschalidis Georgios Smaragdakis Abstract-- We introduce an Internet traffic anomaly detection mechanism based on large detection, statisti- cal anomaly detection, method of types, large deviations. I. INTRODUCTION ALTHOUGH
Large Deviations in the Superstable Weakly Imperfect Bose Gas
J. -B. Bru; V. A. Zagrebnov
2007-09-21
The superstable Weakly Imperfect Bose Gas {(WIBG)} was originally derived to solve the inconsistency of the Bogoliubov theory of superfluidity. Its grand-canonical thermodynamics was recently solved but not at {point of} the {(first order)} phase transition. This paper proposes to close this gap by using the large deviations formalism and in particular the analysis of the Kac distribution function. It turns out that, as a function of the chemical potential, the discontinuity of the Bose condensate density at the phase transition {point} disappears as a function of the particle density. Indeed, the Bose condensate continuously starts at the first critical particle density and progressively grows but the free-energy per particle stays constant until the second critical density is reached. At higher particle densities, the Bose condensate density as well as the free-energy per particle both increase {monotonously}.
Large Deviations in the Superstable Weakly Imperfect Bose Gas
Bru, J -B
2007-01-01
The superstable Weakly Imperfect Bose Gas {(WIBG)} was originally derived to solve the inconsistency of the Bogoliubov theory of superfluidity. Its grand-canonical thermodynamics was recently solved but not at {point of} the {(first order)} phase transition. This paper proposes to close this gap by using the large deviations formalism and in particular the analysis of the Kac distribution function. It turns out that, as a function of the chemical potential, the discontinuity of the Bose condensate density at the phase transition {point} disappears as a function of the particle density. Indeed, the Bose condensate continuously starts at the first critical particle density and progressively grows but the free-energy per particle stays constant until the second critical density is reached. At higher particle densities, the Bose condensate density as well as the free-energy per particle both increase {monotonously}.
Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K.; Majumdar, Satya N.
2015-05-01
We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A . While the mean perimeter
Large deviations and mixing for dissipative PDE's with unbounded random kicks
Vojkan Jaksic; Vahagn Nersesyan; Claude-Alain Pillet; Armen Shirikyan
2014-10-22
We study the problem of exponential mixing and large deviations for discrete-time Markov processes associated with a class of random dynamical systems. Under some dissipativity and regularisation hypotheses for the underlying deterministic dynamics and a non-degeneracy condition for the driving random force, we discuss the existence and uniqueness of a stationary measure and its exponential stability in the Kantorovich-Wasserstein metric. We next turn to the large deviation principle and establish its validity for the occupation measures of the Markov processes in question. The obtained results extend those established earlier for the case of the bounded noise and can be applied to the 2D Navier-Stokes system in a bounded domain and to the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.
Smaragdakis, Georgios
A Large Deviations Approach to Statistical Traffic Anomaly Detection # Ioannis Ch. Paschalidis + Georgios Smaragdakis # Abstract--- We introduce an Internet traffic anomaly detection mechanism based detection, statisti cal anomaly detection, method of types, large deviations. I. INTRODUCTION A LTHOUGH
Large Deviations of Max-Weight Scheduling Policies on Convex Rate Regions
Vijay G. Subramanian
2010-01-01
Abstract—We,consider,a single server discrete-time system with K users where,the server picks operating,points from,a compact, convex and co-ordinate convex set in , +. For this system,we,analyse,the performance,of a stablising policy that at any,given,time,picks,operating,points,from,the,allowed rate region that maximise a weighted sum of rate, where the weights,depend,upon,the workloads,of the users. Assuming,a Large Deviations Principle (LDP) for the arrival processes,in the Skorohod,space of functions
Irreversible Langevin samplers and variance reduction: a large deviations approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rey-Bellet, Luc; Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos
2015-07-01
In order to sample from a given target distribution (often of Gibbs type), the Monte Carlo Markov chain method consists of constructing an ergodic Markov process whose invariant measure is the target distribution. By sampling the Markov process one can then compute, approximately, expectations of observables with respect to the target distribution. Often the Markov processes used in practice are time-reversible (i.e. they satisfy detailed balance), but our main goal here is to assess and quantify how the addition of a non-reversible part to the process can be used to improve the sampling properties. We focus on the diffusion setting (overdamped Langevin equations) where the drift consists of a gradient vector field as well as another drift which breaks the reversibility of the process but is chosen to preserve the Gibbs measure. In this paper we use the large deviation rate function for the empirical measure as a tool to analyze the speed of convergence to the invariant measure. We show that the addition of an irreversible drift leads to a larger rate function and it strictly improves the speed of convergence of ergodic average for (generic smooth) observables. We also deduce from this result that the asymptotic variance decreases under the addition of the irreversible drift and we give an explicit characterization of the observables whose variance is not reduced reduced, in terms of a nonlinear Poisson equation. Our theoretical results are illustrated and supplemented by numerical simulations.
Irreversible Langevin samplers and variance reduction: a large deviation approach
Luc Rey-Bellet; Kostantinos Spiliopoulos
2015-04-22
In order to sample from a given target distribution (often of Gibbs type), the Monte Carlo Markov chain method consists in constructing an ergodic Markov process whose invariant measure is the target distribution. By sampling the Markov process one can then compute, approximately, expectations of observables with respect to the target distribution. Often the Markov processes used in practice are time-reversible (i.e., they satisfy detailed balance), but our main goal here is to assess and quantify how the addition of a non-reversible part to the process can be used to improve the sampling properties. We focus on the diffusion setting (overdamped Langevin equations) where the drift consists of a gradient vector field as well as another drift which breaks the reversibility of the process but is chosen to preserve the Gibbs measure. In this paper we use the large deviation rate function for the empirical measure as a tool to analyze the speed of convergence to the invariant measure. We show that the addition of an irreversible drift leads to a larger rate function and it strictly improves the speed of convergence of ergodic average for (generic smooth) observables. We also deduce from this result that the asymptotic variance decreases under the addition of the irreversible drift and we give an explicit characterization of the observables whose variance is not reduced reduced, in terms of a nonlinear Poisson equation. Our theoretical results are illustrated and supplemented by numerical simulations.
Large Deviations and Importance Sampling for Systems of Slow-Fast Motion
Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos, E-mail: kspiliop@dam.brown.edu [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)] [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)
2013-02-15
In this paper we develop the large deviations principle and a rigorous mathematical framework for asymptotically efficient importance sampling schemes for general, fully dependent systems of stochastic differential equations of slow and fast motion with small noise in the slow component. We assume periodicity with respect to the fast component. Depending on the interaction of the fast scale with the smallness of the noise, we get different behavior. We examine how one range of interaction differs from the other one both for the large deviations and for the importance sampling. We use the large deviations results to identify asymptotically optimal importance sampling schemes in each case. Standard Monte Carlo schemes perform poorly in the small noise limit. In the presence of multiscale aspects one faces additional difficulties and straightforward adaptation of importance sampling schemes for standard small noise diffusions will not produce efficient schemes. It turns out that one has to consider the so called cell problem from the homogenization theory for Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations in order to guarantee asymptotic optimality. We use stochastic control arguments.
Large Deviations, Central Limit and dynamical phase transitions in the atom maser
Merlijn van Horssen; Madalin Guta
2013-10-14
The theory of quantum jump trajectories provides a new framework for understanding dynamical phase transitions in open systems. A candidate for such transitions is the atom maser, which for certain parameters exhibits strong intermittency in the atom detection counts, and has a bistable stationary state. Although previous numerical results suggested that the "free energy" may not be a smooth function, we show that the atom detection counts satisfy a large deviations principle, and therefore we deal with a phase cross-over rather than a genuine phase transition. We argue however that the latter occurs in the limit of infinite pumping rate. As a corollary, we obtain the Central Limit Theorem for the counting process. The proof relies on the analysis of a certain deformed generator whose spectral bound is the limiting cumulant generating function. The latter is shown to be smooth, so that a large deviations principle holds by the Gartner-Ellis Theorem. One of the main ingredients is the Krein-Rutman Theorem which extends the Perron-Frobenius theory to a general class of positive compact semigroups.
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR HARMONIC CRYSTALS
on the interactions such as super- stability, [26]. Assuming superstability and other regularity properties, a version free #12;eld in dimension d > 3 - which violate superstability, it is interesting to see how far
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR HARMONIC CRYSTALS
Caputo, Pietro
on the interactions such as superstability, [26]. Assuming superstability and other regularity properties, a version free #12;eld in dimension d > 3 - which violate superstability, it is interesting to see how far
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filiasi, Mario; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Peressi, Maria; Vesselli, Erik; Zarinelli, Elia
2014-09-01
Large deviations for fat tailed distributions, i.e. those that decay slower than exponential, are not only relatively likely, but they also occur in a rather peculiar way where a finite fraction of the whole sample deviation is concentrated on a single variable. The regime of large deviations is separated from the regime of typical fluctuations by a phase transition where the symmetry between the points in the sample is spontaneously broken. For stochastic processes with a fat tailed microscopic noise, this implies that, while typical realizations are well described by a diffusion process with continuous sample paths, large deviation paths are typically discontinuous. For eigenvalues of random matrices with fat tailed distributed elements, a large deviation where the trace of the matrix is anomalously large concentrates on just a single eigenvalue, whereas in the thin tailed world the large deviation affects the whole distribution. These results find a natural application to finance. Since the price dynamics of financial stocks are characterized by fat tailed increments, large fluctuations in stock prices are expected to be realized by discrete jumps. Interestingly, we find that large excursions of prices are more likely realized by continuous drifts rather than by discontinuous jumps. Indeed, auto correlations suppress the concentration of large deviations. Financial covariance matrices also exhibit an anomalously large eigenvalue, the market mode, as compared to the prediction of random matrix theory. We show that this is explained by a large deviation with excess covariance rather than by one with excess volatility.
Large deviations of the current in a two-dimensional diffusive system
Perez-Espigares, C.; Pozo, J. J. del; Garrido, P. L.; Hurtado, P. I. [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia, and Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)
2011-03-24
In this notes we study the large deviations of the time-averaged current in the two-dimensional (2D) Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti model of energy transport when subject to a boundary gradient. We use the tools of hydrodynamic fluctuation theory, supplemented with an appropriate generalization of the additivity principle. As compared to its one-dimensional counterpart, which amounts to assume that the optimal profiles responsible of a given current fluctuation are time-independent, the 2D additivity conjecture requires an extra assumption, i.e. that the optimal, divergence-free current vector field associated to a given fluctuation of the time-averaged current is in fact constant across the system. Within this context we show that the current distribution exhibits in general non-Gaussian tails. The ensuing optimal density profile can be either monotone for small current fluctuations, or non-monotone with a single maximum for large enough current deviations. Furthermore, this optimal profile remains invariant under arbitrary rotations of the current vector, providing a detailed example of the recently introduced Isometric Fluctuation Relation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teodorescu, Razvan
2009-10-01
Systems of oscillators coupled non-linearly (stochastically or not) are ubiquitous in nature and can explain many complex phenomena: coupled Josephson junction arrays, cardiac pacemaker cells, swarms or flocks of insects and birds, etc. They are know to have a non-trivial phase diagram, which includes chaotic, partially synchronized, and fully synchronized phases. A traditional model for this class of problems is the Kuramoto system of oscillators, which has been studied extensively for the last three decades. The model is a canonical example for non-equilibrium, dynamical phase transitions, so little understood in physics. From a stochastic analysis point of view, the transition is described by the large deviations principle, which offers little information on the scaling behavior near the critical point. I will discuss a special case of the model, which allows a rigorous analysis of the critical properties of the model, and reveals a new, anomalous scaling behavior in the vicinity of the critical point.
Another Look at the Physics of Large Deviations With Application to RateDistortion Theory
Merhav, Neri
between largeÂdeviations rateÂ functions (as well as applications of this identity to Information Theory1 Another Look at the Physics of Large Deviations With Application to RateÂDistortion Theory Neri Merhav Abstract--We revisit and extend the physical interpretation recently given to a certain identity
Large Deviations of the Free Energy in the O'Connell-Yor Polymer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janjigian, Chris
2015-04-01
We investigate large deviations of the free energy in the O'Connell-Yor polymer through a variational representation of the positive real moment Lyapunov exponents of the associated parabolic Anderson model. Our methods yield an exact formula for all real moment Lyapunov exponents of the parabolic Anderson model and a dual representation of the large deviation rate function with normalization n for the free energy.
Determinantal Point Processes and Fermions on Complex Manifolds: Large Deviations and Bosonization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berman, Robert J.
2014-04-01
We study determinantal random point processes on a compact complex manifold X associated to a Hermitian metric on a line bundle over X and a probability measure on X. Physically, this setup describes a gas of free fermions on X subject to a U(1)-gauge field and when X is the Riemann sphere it specializes to various random matrix ensembles. Our general setup will also include the setting of weighted orthogonal polynomials in , as well as in . It is shown that, in the many particle limit, the empirical random measures on X converge exponentially towards the deterministic pluripotential equilibrium measure, defined in terms of the Monge-Ampère operator of complex pluripotential theory. More precisely, a large deviation principle (LDP) is established with a good rate functional which coincides with the (normalized) pluricomplex energy of a measure recently introduced in Berman et al. (Publ Math de l'IHÉS 117, 179-245, 2013). We also express the LDP in terms of the Ray-Singer analytic torsion. This can be seen as an effective bosonization formula, generalizing the previously known formula in the Riemann surface case to higher dimensions and the paper is concluded with a heuristic quantum field theory interpretation of the resulting effective boson-fermion correspondence.
Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue for wishart and Gaussian random matrices.
Majumdar, Satya N; Vergassola, Massimo
2009-02-13
We present a Coulomb gas method to calculate analytically the probability of rare events where the maximum eigenvalue of a random matrix is much larger than its typical value. The large deviation function that characterizes this probability is computed explicitly for Wishart and Gaussian ensembles. The method is general and applies to other related problems, e.g., the joint large deviation function for large fluctuations of top eigenvalues. Our results are relevant to widely employed data compression techniques, namely, the principal components analysis. Analytical predictions are verified by extensive numerical simulations. PMID:19257572
Computing bit-error probabilities for avalanche photodiode receivers by large deviations theory
Khaled Ben Letaief; John S. Sadowsky
1992-01-01
A bit error probability analysis of direct detection optical receivers is presented employing avalanche photodiodes. An asymptotic analysis for large signal intensities is presented. This analysis provides some useful insight into the balance between the Poisson statistics, the avalanche gain statistics, and the Gaussian thermal noise. The conjugate distribution is developed. It is obtained by applying the large-deviation exponential twisting
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR THE LARGEST EIGENVALUE OF AN HERMITIAN BROWNIAN MOTION
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR THE LARGEST EIGENVALUE OF AN HERMITIAN BROWNIAN MOTION C. DONATI-MARTIN AND M of an Hermitian Brownian motion. By a contraction princi- ple, we recover the LDP for the largest eigenvalue, introduced in 1962 by Dyson : he defined the Hermitian Brownian motion whose set of eigenvalues is a time
Large Deviations Analysis of Variable-Rate Slepian-Wolf Coding
Merhav, Neri
Large Deviations Analysis of Variable-Rate Slepian-Wolf Coding Nir Weinberger and Neri Merhav of ensembles of random binning Slepian-Wolf codes, where each type class of the source might have a different be achieved using variable-rate coding, at the price of a finite excess rate exponent. Index Terms Slepian-Wolf
Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$
Boyer, Edmond
Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$ Patrick to characterize relevant physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding. In this article, we illustrate the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate
Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$
Gonçalves, Paulo
Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$ Patrick physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding these considerable progresses, multi the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate signals from the Physionet
Large deviations for diffusions with time periodic drift and stochastic resonance
Imkeller, Peter
Large deviations for diffusions with time periodic drift and stochastic resonance Samuel Herrmann: a slow external periodic perturbation of period T and a small Gaussian random perturbation of intensity- tion b(q, T) describes the force associated with a double well potential possessing two stable
Large deviations for di#usions with time periodic drift and stochastic resonance
Imkeller, Peter
Large deviations for di#usions with time periodic drift and stochastic resonance Samuel Herrmann: a slow external periodic perturbation of period T and a small Gaussian random perturbation of intensity the force associated with a double well potential possessing two stable temperature states which represent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glasbrenner, J. K.; Pujari, B. S.; Belashchenko, K. D.
2014-05-01
According to earlier first-principles calculations, the spin-disorder contribution to the resistivity of rare-earth metals in the paramagnetic state is strongly underestimated if Matthiessen's rule is assumed to hold. To understand this discrepancy, the resistivity of paramagnetic Fe and Gd is evaluated by taking into account both spin and phonon disorder. Calculations are performed using the supercell approach within the linear muffin-tin orbital method. Phonon disorder is modeled by introducing random displacements of the atomic nuclei, and the results are compared with the case of fictitious Anderson disorder. In both cases, the resistivity shows a nonlinear dependence on the square of the disorder potential, which is interpreted as a resistivity saturation effect. This effect is much stronger in Gd than in Fe. The nonlinearity makes the phonon and spin-disorder contributions to the resistivity nonadditive, and the standard procedure of extracting the spin-disorder resistivity by extrapolation from high temperatures becomes ambiguous. An "apparent" spin-disorder resistivity obtained through such extrapolation is in much better agreement with experiment compared to the results obtained by considering only spin disorder. By analyzing the spectral function of the paramagnetic Gd in the presence of Anderson disorder, the resistivity saturation is explained by the collapse of a large area of the Fermi surface due to the disorder-induced mixing between the electron and hole sheets.
Living at the Edge: A Large Deviations Approach to the Outage MIMO Capacity
Kazakopoulos, P; Moustakas, A L; Caire, G
2009-01-01
Using a large deviations approach we calculate the probability distribution of the mutual information of MIMO channels in the limit of large antenna numbers. In contrast to previous methods that only focused at the distribution close to its mean (thus obtaining an asymptotically Gaussian distribution), we calculate the full distribution, including its tails which strongly deviate from the Gaussian behavior near the mean. The resulting distribution interpolates seamlessly between the Gaussian approximation for rates $R$ close to the ergodic value of the mutual information and the approach of Zheng and Tse for large signal to noise ratios $\\rho$. This calculation provides us with a tool to obtain outage probabilities analytically at any point in the $(R, \\rho, N)$ parameter space, as long as the number of antennas $N$ is not too small. In addition, this method also yields the probability distribution of eigenvalues constrained in the subspace where the mutual information per antenna is fixed to $R$ for a given ...
John S. Sadowsky; Randall K. Bahr
1991-01-01
A direct-sequence spread-spectrum multiple-access bit-error probability analysis is developed using large-deviations theory. Let m denote the number of interfering spread-spectrum signals and let n denote the signature sequence length. Then the large deviations limit is as n to infinity with m fixed. A tight asymptotic expression for the bit-error probability is proven, and in addition, recent large-deviations results with the
Hao Ge; Hong Qian
2012-05-28
Analytical (rational) mechanics is the mathematical structure of Newtonian deterministic dynamics developed by D'Alembert, Langrange, Hamilton, Jacobi, and many other luminaries of applied mathematics. Diffusion as a stochastic process of an overdamped individual particle immersed in a fluid, initiated by Einstein, Smoluchowski, Langevin and Wiener, has no momentum since its path is nowhere differentiable. In this exposition, we illustrate how analytical mechanics arises in stochastic dynamics from a randomly perturbed ordinary differential equation $dX_t=b(X_t)dt+\\epsilon dW_t$ where $W_t$ is a Brownian motion. In the limit of vanishingly small $\\epsilon$, the solution to the stochastic differential equation other than $\\dot{x}=b(x)$ are all rare events. However, conditioned on an occurence of such an event, the most probable trajectory of the stochastic motion is the solution to Lagrangian mechanics with $\\mathcal{L}=\\|\\dot{q}-b(q)\\|^2/4$ and Hamiltonian equations with $H(p,q)=\\|p\\|^2+b(q)\\cdot p$. Hamiltonian conservation law implies that the most probable trajectory for a "rare" event has a uniform "excess kinetic energy" along its path. Rare events can also be characterized by the principle of large deviations which expresses the probability density function for $X_t$ as $f(x,t)=e^{-u(x,t)/\\epsilon}$, where $u(x,t)$ is called a large-deviation rate function which satisfies the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation. An irreversible diffusion process with $\
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duffy, Ken; Lobunets, Olena; Suhov, Yuri
2007-05-01
We propose a model of a loss averse investor who aims to maximize his expected wealth under certain constraints. The constraints are that he avoids, with high probability, incurring an (suitably defined) unacceptable loss. The methodology employed comes from the theory of large deviations. We explore a number of fundamental properties of the model and illustrate its desirable features. We demonstrate its utility by analyzing assets that follow some commonly used financial return processes: Fractional Brownian Motion, Jump Diffusion, Variance Gamma and Truncated Lévy.
Phase diagram and density large deviations of a nonconserving ABC model.
Cohen, O; Mukamel, D
2012-02-10
The effect of particle-nonconserving processes on the steady state of driven diffusive systems is studied within the context of a generalized ABC model. It is shown that in the limit of slow nonconserving processes, the large deviation function of the overall particle density can be computed by making use of the steady-state density profile of the conserving model. In this limit one can define a chemical potential and identify first order transitions via Maxwell's construction, similarly to what is done in equilibrium systems. This method may be applied to other driven models subjected to slow nonconserving dynamics. PMID:22401045
Quadratic and rate-independent limits for a large-deviations functional
Giovanni A. Bonaschi; Mark A. Peletier
2014-09-15
We construct a stochastic model showing the relationship between noise, gradient flows and rate-independent systems. The model consists of a one-dimensional birth-death process on a lattice, with rates derived from Kramers' law as an approximation of a Brownian motion on a wiggly energy landscape. Taking various limits we show how to obtain a whole family of generalized gradient flows, ranging from quadratic to rate-independent ones, connected via '$L \\log L$' gradient flows. This is achieved via Mosco-convergence of the renormalized large-deviations rate functional of the stochastic process.
Universal large deviations for the tagged particle in single-file motion.
Hegde, Chaitra; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Dhar, Abhishek
2014-09-19
We consider a gas of point particles moving in a one-dimensional channel with a hard-core interparticle interaction that prevents particle crossings--this is called single-file motion. Starting from equilibrium initial conditions we observe the motion of a tagged particle. It is well known that if the individual particle dynamics is diffusive, then the tagged particle motion is subdiffusive, while for ballistic particle dynamics, the tagged particle motion is diffusive. Here we compute the exact large deviation function for the tagged particle displacement and show that this is universal, independent of the individual dynamics. PMID:25279614
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes, Artur O.; Neumann, Adriana
2015-05-01
In the present paper, we consider a family of continuous time symmetric random walks indexed by , . For each the matching random walk take values in the finite set of states ; notice that is a subset of , where is the unitary circle. The infinitesimal generator of such chain is denoted by . The stationary probability for such process converges to the uniform distribution on the circle, when . Here we want to study other natural measures, obtained via a limit on , that are concentrated on some points of . We will disturb this process by a potential and study for each the perturbed stationary measures of this new process when . We disturb the system considering a fixed potential and we will denote by the restriction of to . Then, we define a non-stochastic semigroup generated by the matrix , where is the infinifesimal generator of . From the continuous time Perron's Theorem one can normalized such semigroup, and, then we get another stochastic semigroup which generates a continuous time Markov Chain taking values on . This new chain is called the continuous time Gibbs state associated to the potential , see (Lopes et al. in J Stat Phys 152:894-933, 2013). The stationary probability vector for such Markov Chain is denoted by . We assume that the maximum of is attained in a unique point of , and from this will follow that . Thus, here, our main goal is to analyze the large deviation principle for the family , when . The deviation function , which is defined on , will be obtained from a procedure based on fixed points of the Lax-Oleinik operator and Aubry-Mather theory. In order to obtain the associated Lax-Oleinik operator we use the Varadhan's Lemma for the process . For a careful analysis of the problem we present full details of the proof of the Large Deviation Principle, in the Skorohod space, for such family of Markov Chains, when . Finally, we compute the entropy of the invariant probabilities on the Skorohod space associated to the Markov Chains we analyze.
2014-01-01
Information on design principles governing transcriptome changes upon transition from safe to hazardous drug concentrations or from tolerated to cytotoxic drug levels are important for the application of toxicogenomics data in developmental toxicology. Here, we tested the effect of eight concentrations of valproic acid (VPA; 25–1000 ?M) in an assay that recapitulates the development of human embryonic stem cells to neuroectoderm. Cells were exposed to the drug during the entire differentiation process, and the number of differentially regulated genes increased continuously over the concentration range from zero to about 3000. We identified overrepresented transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) as well as superordinate cell biological processes, and we developed a gene ontology (GO) activation profiler, as well as a two-dimensional teratogenicity index. Analysis of the transcriptome data set by the above biostatistical and systems biology approaches yielded the following insights: (i) tolerated (?25 ?M), deregulated/teratogenic (150–550 ?M), and cytotoxic (?800 ?M) concentrations could be differentiated. (ii) Biological signatures related to the mode of action of VPA, such as protein acetylation, developmental changes, and cell migration, emerged from the teratogenic concentrations range. (iii) Cytotoxicity was not accompanied by signatures of newly emerging canonical cell death/stress indicators, but by catabolism and decreased expression of cell cycle associated genes. (iv) Most, but not all of the GO groups and TFBS seen at the highest concentrations were already overrepresented at 350–450 ?M. (v) The teratogenicity index reflected this behavior, and thus differed strongly from cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest the use of the highest noncytotoxic drug concentration for gene array toxicogenomics studies, as higher concentrations possibly yield wrong information on the mode of action, and lower drug levels result in decreased gene expression changes and thus a reduced power of the study. PMID:24383497
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong
2012-09-01
Analytical (rational) mechanics is the mathematical structure of Newtonian deterministic dynamics developed by D'Alembert, Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi, and many other luminaries of applied mathematics. Diffusion as a stochastic process of an overdamped individual particle immersed in a fluid, initiated by Einstein, Smoluchowski, Langevin and Wiener, has no momentum since its path is nowhere differentiable. In this exposition, we illustrate how analytical mechanics arises in stochastic dynamics from a randomly perturbed ordinary differential equation dXt = b(Xt)dt+?dWt, where Wt is a Brownian motion. In the limit of vanishingly small ?, the solution to the stochastic differential equation other than ? {x} = b(x) are all rare events. However, conditioned on an occurrence of such an event, the most probable trajectory of the stochastic motion is the solution to Lagrangian mechanics with L = \\Vert ? {q}-b(q)\\Vert 2/4 and Hamiltonian equations with H(p, q) = \\dvbr p\\dvbr2+b(q)?p. Hamiltonian conservation law implies that the most probable trajectory for a "rare" event has a uniform "excess kinetic energy" along its path. Rare events can also be characterized by the principle of large deviations which expresses the probability density function for Xt as f(x, t) = e-u(x, t)/?, where u(x, t) is called a large-deviation rate function which satisfies the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation. An irreversible diffusion process with ?×b?0 corresponds to a Newtonian system with a Lorentz force ? {q} = (? × b)× ? {q}+({1}/{2})? \\Vert b\\Vert 2. The connection between stochastic motion and analytical mechanics can be explored in terms of various techniques of applied mathematics, for example, singular perturbations, viscosity solutions and integrable systems.
Topology Trivialization and Large Deviations for the Minimum in the Simplest Random Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fyodorov, Yan V.; Le Doussal, Pierre
2013-09-01
Finding the global minimum of a cost function given by the sum of a quadratic and a linear form in N real variables over (N-1)-dimensional sphere is one of the simplest, yet paradigmatic problems in Optimization Theory known as the "trust region subproblem" or "constraint least square problem". When both terms in the cost function are random this amounts to studying the ground state energy of the simplest spherical spin glass in a random magnetic field. We first identify and study two distinct large-N scaling regimes in which the linear term (magnetic field) leads to a gradual topology trivialization, i.e. reduction in the total number {N}_{tot} of critical (stationary) points in the cost function landscape. In the first regime {N}_{tot} remains of the order N and the cost function (energy) has generically two almost degenerate minima with the Tracy-Widom (TW) statistics. In the second regime the number of critical points is of the order of unity with a finite probability for a single minimum. In that case the mean total number of extrema (minima and maxima) of the cost function is given by the Laplace transform of the TW density, and the distribution of the global minimum energy is expected to take a universal scaling form generalizing the TW law. Though the full form of that distribution is not yet known to us, one of its far tails can be inferred from the large deviation theory for the global minimum. In the rest of the paper we show how to use the replica method to obtain the probability density of the minimum energy in the large-deviation approximation by finding both the rate function and the leading pre-exponential factor.
Large deviations of the limiting distribution in the Shanks-R\\'enyi prime number race
Lamzouri, Youness
2011-01-01
Let $q\\geq 3$, $2\\leq r\\leq \\phi(q)$ and $a_1,...,a_r$ be distinct residue classes modulo $q$ that are relatively prime to $q$. Assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis and the Grand Simplicity Hypothesis, M. Rubinstein and P. Sarnak showed that the vector-valued function $E_{q;a_1,...,a_r}(x)=(E(x;q,a_1),..., E(x;q,a_r)),$ where $E(x;q,a)= \\frac{\\log x}{\\sqrt{x}}(\\phi(q)\\pi(x;q,a)-\\pi(x))$, has a limiting distribution $\\mu_{q;a_1,...,a_r}$ which is absolutely continuous on $\\mathbb{R}^r$. Under the same assumptions, we determine the asymptotic behavior of the large deviations $\\mu_{q;a_1,...,a_r}(||\\vx||>V)$ for different ranges of $V$, uniformly as $q\\to\\infty.$
Nonequilibrium ensemble inequivalence and large deviations of the density in the ABC model.
Cohen, O; Mukamel, D
2014-07-01
We consider the one-dimensional driven ABC model under particle-conserving and particle-nonconserving processes. Two limiting cases are studied: (a) The rates of the nonconserving processes are vanishingly slow compared with the conserving processes in the thermodynamic limit and (b) the two rates are comparable. For case (a) we provide a detailed analysis of the phase diagram and the large deviations function of the overall density, G(r). The phase diagram of the nonconserving model, derived from G(r), is found to be different from the conserving one. This difference, which stems from the nonconvexity of G(r), is analogous to ensemble inequivalence found in equilibrium systems with long-range interactions. An outline of the analysis of case (a) was given in an earlier letter. For case (b) we show that, unlike the conserving model, the nonconserving model exhibits a moving density profile in the steady state with a velocity that remains finite in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, in contrast with case (a), the critical lines of the conserving and nonconserving models do not coincide. These are new features which are present only when the rates of the conserving and nonconserving processes are comparable. In addition, we analyze G(r) in case (b) using macroscopic fluctuations theory. Much of the derivation presented in this paper is applicable to any driven-diffusive system coupled to an external particle bath via a slow dynamics. PMID:25122251
Mechanical principles of large mirror supports
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kärcher, Hans J.; Eisenträger, Peter; Süss, Martin
2010-07-01
Large thin meniscus mirrors use force-controlled shape actuators to obtain the required optical performance. The shape actuators can be interpreted as an advancement of classical mirror supports as whiffle trees or iso-static levers, which worked purely mechanical. The paper develops, after a short historical overview, the theoretical background of mirror mechanics. Different combinations of force-controlled shape actuators with mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic whiffle trees or iso-static levers are analyzed in regard of their impact on optical performance, dynamic and control behavior. The investigations were the basis for the choice of the shape actuator system for the E-ELT M2, executed by MT Mechatronics under an ESO contract in 2008-09.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Langevin dynamics, large deviations and instantons for the quasi-geostrophic model and two for Langevin dynamics of turbulent flows, including the one-layer quasi-geostrophic equation and the two for a corresponding dual dynamics, which are also within the framework of quasi-geostrophic Langevin dynamics. Cases
Kurchan, Jorge
of equilibrium systems of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. At that time, the only proof I knew (but did obeying time-reversal. Because the #12;2 fluctuation-dissipation theorem itself works as well1 Fluctuation Theorems and Large Deviations Fluctuation Theorems and the Jarzynski equality are two
Annual Rainfall Maxima: Practical Estimation Based on Large-Deviation Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lepore, C.; Veneziano, D.; Langousis, A.
2009-04-01
In a separate communication (Veneziano et al., "Annual Rainfall Maxima: Large-deviation Alternative to Extreme-Value and Extreme-Excess Methods," EGU 2009), we show that, at least for scale-invariant rainfall models, classical extreme value analysis based on Gumbel's extreme value (EV) theory and peak-over-threshold (PoT) analysis based on Pickands' extreme excess (EE) theory do not apply to annual rainfall maxima (AM). A more appropriate theoretical setting is provided by large-deviation (LD) theory. This paper delves with some practical implications of these findings. All above theories predict that, as the averaging durations d â?? 0, (1) the annual maximum rainfall intensity in d, Iyear(d), has generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution, (2) the excess of the average intensity in d, I(d), above a level u on the order of the annual maximum has generalized Pareto (GP) distribution, and (3) the GEV and GP distributions have the same shape parameter k. The value of k depends on the theory used. According to EV and EE theories, k is determined by the upper tail of I(d), whereas LD theory shows that k is determined by less extreme regions of the distribution of I(d). The LD parameter kLD is always in the EV2 range and is larger than the value kEV?EE predicted by EV and EE theories. Since all theories predict that the annual maxima have GEV distribution and the corresponding excesses have GP distribution, methods that directly fit GEV and GP distributions to the data without reference to its asymptotic value should not be affected by which theory is correct. However, the theoretical results have other significant practical implications: Accurate estimation of k from at-site data is difficult. For this reason, k is often estimated regionally. The estimate of k from LD theory is much more robust than that from EV and EE theories and relies on the scaling of the moments of rainfall of order 2.5-3.5. This scaling is nearly universal for rainfall, providing a good "prior" value of k (around 0.3-0.4), which can be used also at un-gauged sites. The shift of focus to regions of the marginal distribution of I(d) below the extreme upper tail, and the recognition that in practice one needs extreme rainfall estimates over a range of finite durations dfor which Iyear(d) does not have GEV distribution make non-asymptotic methods more attractive. These methods fit marginal distributions to the order statistics of I(d) or to PoT values above thresholds not much below the level of the annual maxima and estimate the distribution of Iyear(d) as P [Iyear(d) > x] ? {P [I(d) > x]}n(d) (1) P [Iyear(d) > x] ? e-Î»d,uP[IPoT(d;u)>x-u] (2) where n(d) is a parameter that gives the effective number of independent I(d) variables in one year, Î»d,u is the annual rate at which I(d) up-crosses level u, and IPoT(d;u) is the PoT intensity for averaging duration d and threshold u. We have implemented procedures based on these non-asymptotic approaches, with the following specific characteristics: The distributions of I(d) (in the upper region) and IPoT(d;u) are taken to have scaled lognormal shape, with 3 parameters (the mean value m, the variance 2, and a scaling factor c >0 on the probability density). This choice of distribution is based on both empirical evidence and asymptotic multifractal results; The unknown parameters {m, 2, c, n(d)} or {m, 2, c, Î»d,u} are estimated simultaneously from marginal or PoT and AM data (the latter data mainly constrain n(d) and Î»d,u) using maximum likelihood. The upper region for I(d) is chosen such that the predicted AM distribution from Eq. 1 closely matches the empirical AM distribution. Application to several actual and simulated rainfall records shows that this approach is superior in accuracy and robustness to conventional AM and PoT methods. This work is funded by project RISK (High Speed Rail) of the M.I.T.-Portugal Program.
Large Deviations for Non-Markovian Diffusions and a Path-Dependent Eikonal Equation
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
by Pardoux & Peng [23], can be effectively used as a substitute to the partial differential equations principle for Non-Markovian, Brow- nian motion driven stochastic differential equations with random & Wentzell [18]. However, we use a different line of argument, adapting the PDE method of Fleming [14
Unification of Small and Large Time Scales for Biological Evolution: Deviations from Power Law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kunwar, Ambarish
2003-02-01
We develop a unified model that describes both “micro” and “macro” evolutions within a single theoretical framework. The ecosystem is described as a dynamic network; the population dynamics at each node of this network describes the “microevolution” over ecological time scales (i.e., birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms), while the appearance of new nodes, the slow changes of the links, and the disappearance of existing nodes accounts for the “macroevolution” over geological time scales (i.e., the origination, evolution, and extinction of species). In contrast to several earlier claims in the literature, we observe strong deviations from power law in the regime of long lifetimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbari, M. R.; Nimafar, M.; Ganji, D. D.; Akbarzade, M. M.
2014-12-01
The kinematic assumptions upon which the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is founded allow it to be extended to more advanced analysis. Simple superposition allows for three-dimensional transverse loading. Using alternative constitutive equations can allow for viscoelastic or plastic beam deformation. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory can also be extended to the analysis of curved beams, beam buckling, composite beams and geometrically nonlinear beam deflection. In this study, solving the nonlinear differential equation governing the calculation of the large rotation deviation of the beam (or column) has been discussed. Previously to calculate the rotational deviation of the beam, the assumption is made that the angular deviation of the beam is small. By considering the small slope in the linearization of the governing differential equation, the solving is easy. The result of this simplification in some cases will lead to an excessive error. In this paper nonlinear differential equations governing on this system are solved analytically by Akbari-Ganji's method (AGM). Moreover, in AGM by solving a set of algebraic equations, complicated nonlinear equations can easily be solved and without any mathematical operations such as integration solving. The solution of the problem can be obtained very simply and easily. Furthermore, to enhance the accuracy of the results, the Taylor expansion is not needed in most cases via AGM manner. Also, comparisons are made between AGM and numerical method (Runge-Kutta 4th). The results reveal that this method is very effective and simple, and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.
Large deviations theory and efficient simulation of excessive backlogs in a GI\\/GI\\/m queue
John S. Sadowsky
1991-01-01
The problem of using importance sampling to estimate the average time to buffer overflow in a stable GI\\/GI\\/m queue is considered. Using the notion of busy cycles, estimation of the expected time to buffer overflow is reduced to the problem of estimating pn=P (buffer overflow during a cycle) where n is the buffer size. The probability pn is a large
Kelâmi, A
1985-05-01
Penile deviation has been gaining in importance as a symptom of several diseases. There are congenital forms (congenital penile deviation, hypo- and epispadias) as well as acquired forms (induratio penis plastica, traumatic deviation, urethral manipulation syndrome). History and autophotography are the most important diagnostic procedures. The therapeutic procedure is corporaplasty according to Nesbit-Kelâmi. PMID:4012944
Bachelorproef: Large deviation
Einmahl, Uwe
is de semicontinue van beneden regu- larisatie van f is gedefinieerd door flsc(x) = sup inf yG f(y) | G open met x G . Deze functie is inderdaad semicontinu van beneden. Zij x {flsc > c}. Dan bestaat er een G open zodat infG f > c. Voor elke y G geldt er dat flsc(y) infG f > c en dus is {flsc > c} open
Herb, S.W.
1983-01-01
An experiment measuring large momentum transfer inelastic scatters of muons from an iron target is described. The data are analyzed for deviations from the Bjorken scaling prediction that the nucleon structure function nuW/sub 2/(omega) be independent of the four-momentum transfer Q/sup 2/. Significant deviations are observed: as absolute value Q/sup 2/ increases, nuW/sub 2/ increases for omega > 6 and decreases for omega < 6. These deviations are parameterized and compared with qualitative expectations from scale-breaking in asymptotically free field theories and from the turn-on of a charm contribution to the scatters.
Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics simulations on the BlueGene/L Platform
Franchetti, Franz
Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics simulations on the BlueGene/L Platform using. Keywords Electronic structure. Molecular Dynamics. Ab initio simulations. First-principles simulations that the Qbox code supports unprecedented large-scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) applications
Gibb, Alice C.
deviated from the general vertebrate plan of skeletal and muscular bilateral symmetry. Although flatfishes. liolepis were video-taped feeding at 250 fields s-1 in order to quantify prey-capture kinematics
Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L
2010-04-01
Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems. PMID:20481672
Mathematical principles of predicting the probabilities of large earthquakes
Ghertzik, V M
2009-01-01
A multicomponent random process used as a model for the problem of space-time earthquake prediction; this allows us to develop consistent estimation for conditional probabilities of large earthquakes if the values of the predictor characterizing the seismicity prehistory are known. We introduce tools for assessing prediction efficiency, including a separate determination of efficiency for "time prediction" and "location prediction": a generalized correlation coefficient and the density of information gain. We suggest a technique for testing the predictor to decide whether the hypothesis of no prediction can be rejected.
Dupuis, Paul [Brown University] [Brown University
2014-03-14
This proposal is concerned with applications of Monte Carlo to problems in physics and chemistry where rare events degrade the performance of standard Monte Carlo. One class of problems is concerned with computation of various aspects of the equilibrium behavior of some Markov process via time averages. The problem to be overcome is that rare events interfere with the efficient sampling of all relevant parts of phase space. A second class concerns sampling transitions between two or more stable attractors. Here, rare events do not interfere with the sampling of all relevant parts of phase space, but make Monte Carlo inefficient because of the very large number of samples required to obtain variance comparable to the quantity estimated. The project uses large deviation methods for the mathematical analyses of various Monte Carlo techniques, and in particular for algorithmic analysis and design. This is done in the context of relevant application areas, mainly from chemistry and biology.
Arboreal Ants Use the ``VelcroH Principle'' to Capture Very Large Prey
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Arboreal Ants Use the ``VelcroH Principle'' to Capture Very Large Prey Alain Dejean1 *, Ce Biologi´a Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain Abstract Plant-ants live and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN) and/or food bodies (FBs); the ants can also attend sap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creminelli, Paolo; Gleyzes, Jérôme; Hui, Lam; Simonovi?, Marko; Vernizzi, Filippo
2014-06-01
The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10-3÷10-4 on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.
Jump rates for surface diffusion of large molecules from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shea, Patrick; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen
2015-04-01
We apply a recently developed stochastic model for the surface diffusion of large molecules to calculate jump rates for 9,10-dithioanthracene on a Cu(111) surface. The necessary input parameters for the stochastic model are calculated from first principles using density functional theory (DFT). We find that the inclusion of van der Waals corrections to the DFT energies is critical to obtain good agreement with experimental results for the adsorption geometry and energy barrier for diffusion. The predictions for jump rates in our model are in excellent agreement with measured values and show a marked improvement over transition state theory (TST). We find that the jump rate prefactor is reduced by an order of magnitude from the TST estimate due to frictional damping resulting from energy exchange with surface phonons, as well as a rotational mode of the diffusing molecule.
Guelpa, Valérian; Laurent, Guillaume J.; Sandoz, Patrick; Zea, July Galeano; Clévy, Cédric
2014-01-01
This paper presents a visual measurement method able to sense 1D rigid body displacements with very high resolutions, large ranges and high processing rates. Sub-pixelic resolution is obtained thanks to a structured pattern placed on the target. The pattern is made of twin periodic grids with slightly different periods. The periodic frames are suited for Fourier-like phase calculations—leading to high resolution—while the period difference allows the removal of phase ambiguity and thus a high range-to-resolution ratio. The paper presents the measurement principle as well as the processing algorithms (source files are provided as supplementary materials). The theoretical and experimental performances are also discussed. The processing time is around 3 ?s for a line of 780 pixels, which means that the measurement rate is mostly limited by the image acquisition frame rate. A 3-? repeatability of 5 nm is experimentally demonstrated which has to be compared with the 168 ?m measurement range. PMID:24625736
Araque, Juan C; Yadav, Sharad K; Shadeck, Michael; Maroncelli, Mark; Margulis, Claudio J
2015-06-11
The deviations from Stokes-Einstein hydrodynamics of small solutes are more pronounced in ionic liquids than in conventional solvents (J. Phys. Chem. B 2013 117 (39), 11697). Small neutral solutes diffuse much faster than expected, whereas small charged solutes diffuse much slower. This article attempts to establish a link between the local friction experienced by tracer solutes and the polar/apolar structure of ionic liquids. We find that small neutral solutes probe locally "stiff" (mostly charged, high electrostriction) regions and locally "soft" (mostly apolar, low electrostriction) regions. These regions of high and low friction are associated with cage and jump regimes. Enhanced neutral tracer mobility in the low friction regions associated with the cationic apolar component has an important bearing on the large positive deviations from Stokes-Einstein behavior. In contrast, diminished charged tracer mobility involves long caging dynamics separated by jump events often triggered by the loss and recovery of counterions. PMID:25811753
François Gygi; Robert K. Yates; Juergen Lorenz; Erik W. Draeger; Franz Franchetti; Christoph W. Ueberhuber; Bronis R. De Supinski; Stefan Kral; John A. Gunnels; James C. Sexton
2005-01-01
We demonstrate that the Qbox code supports unprecedented large-scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) applications on the BlueGene\\/L supercomputer. Qbox is an FPMD implementation specifically designed for large-scale parallel platforms such as BlueGene\\/L. Strong scaling tests for a Materials Science application show an 86% scaling efficiency between 1024 and 32,768 CPUs. Measurements of performance by means of hardware counters show that
Gygi, F; Draeger, E W; de Supinski, B R; Yates, R K; Franchetti, F; Kral, S; Lorenz, J; Ueberhuber, C; Gunnels, J A; Sexton, J C
2005-04-25
We demonstrate that the Qbox code supports unprecedented large-scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) applications on the BlueGene/L supercomputer. Qbox is an FPMD implementation specifically designed for large-scale parallel platforms such as BlueGene/L. Strong scaling tests for a Materials Science application show an 86% scaling efficiency between 1024 and 32,768 CPUs. Measurements of performance by means of hardware counters show that 37% of the peak FPU performance can be attained.
Petrenko, Anton; McArthur, Dan
2010-09-01
The Precautionary Principle is a guide to coping with scientific uncertainties in the assessment and management of risks. In recent years, it has moved to the forefront of debates in policy and applied ethics, becoming a key normative tool in policy discussions in such diverse areas as medical and scientific research, health and safety regulation, environmental regulation, product development, international trade, and even judicial review. The principle has attracted critics who claim that it is fundamentally incoherent, too vague to guide policy, and makes demands that are logically and scientifically impossible. In this paper we will answer these criticisms by formulating guidelines for its application that ensure its coherence as a useful normative guide in applied and policy ethics debates. We will also provide analyses of cases that demonstrate how our version of the principle functions in practice. PMID:19757190
Variance and Standard Deviation
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Lane, David M.
This resource, created by author David M. Lane, is a general reference which helps to define and explain variance and standard deviation. The website is fairly simple, users just select the term they wish to define. The site's simplicity is one of its best qualities, it can be easily understood by any level of students studying statistics. References to other quality statistic web pages are also featured.
Jaykov Foukzon
2015-05-30
In this article we proved so-called strong reflection principles corresponding to formal theories Th which has omega-models. An posible generalization of the Lob's theorem is considered.Main results is: (1) let $k$ be an inaccessible cardinal and $H_k$ is a set of all sets having hereditary size less then k, then $\
DEVIATION INEQUALITIES AND MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR ESTIMATORS OF PARAMETERS IN BIFURCATING
Boyer, Edmond
autoregressive processes. More precisely we are interested in the asymptotic estimations of P n bn n - A where on the driven noise of the process. Our investigation relies on the moderate deviation principle for martingalesXk + 2k+1. The noise sequence (2k, 2k+1) represents environmental effects, while a, b are unknown real
Gygi, F; Draeger, E; de Supinski, B; Yates, R K; Franchetti, F; Kral, S; Lorenz, J; Ueberhueber, C; Gunnels, J A; Sexton, J
2006-01-04
First-Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) is an accurate, atomistic simulation approach that is routinely applied to a variety of areas including solid-state physics, chemistry, biochemistry and nanotechnology. FPMD enables one to perform predictive materials simulations, as no empirical or adjustable parameters are used to describe a given system. Instead, a quantum mechanical description of electrons is obtained by solving the Kohn-Sham equations within a pseudopotential plane-wave formalism. This rigorous first-principles treatment of electronic structure is computationally expensive and limits the size of tractable systems to a few hundred atoms on most currently available parallel computers. Developed specifically for large parallel systems at LLNL's Center for Applied Scientific Computing, the Qbox implementation of the FPMD method shows unprecedented performance and scaling on BlueGene/L.
Power fluctuations, large deviations and turbulence
Bandi, Mahesh M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chumakov, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Connaughton, Colm P [U OF WARWICK, UK
2008-01-01
We study local power fluctuations in numerical simulations of stationary, homogenous, isotropic turbulence in two and three dimensions with Gaussian forcing. Due to the near-Gaussianity of the one-point velocity distribution, the probability distribution function (pdf) of the local power is well modeled by the pdf of the product of two joint normally distributed variables. In appropriate units, this distribution is calculated exactly and shown to satisfy a Fluctuation Relation (FR) with a coefficient which depends on {epsilon}.
Geodesic deviation at higher orders via covariant bitensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vines, Justin
2015-05-01
We review a simple but instructive application of the formalism of covariant bitensors, to use a deviation vector field along a fiducial geodesic to describe a neighboring worldline, in an exact and manifestly covariant manner, via the exponential map. Requiring the neighboring worldline to be a geodesic leads to the usual linear geodesic deviation equation for the deviation vector, plus corrections at higher order in the deviation and relative velocity. We show how these corrections can be efficiently computed to arbitrary orders via covariant bitensor expansions, deriving a form of the geodesic deviation equation valid to all orders, and producing its explicit expanded form through fourth order. We also discuss the generalized Jacobi equation, action principles for the higher-order geodesic deviation equations, results useful for describing accelerated neighboring worldlines, and the formal general solution to the geodesic deviation equation through second order.
Geodesic deviation at higher orders via covariant bitensors
Justin Vines
2014-07-25
We review a simple but instructive application of the formalism of covariant bitensors, to use a deviation vector field along a fiducial geodesic to describe a neighboring worldline, in an exact and manifestly covariant manner, via the exponential map. Requiring the neighboring worldline to be a geodesic leads to the usual linear geodesic deviation equation for the deviation vector, plus corrections at higher order in the deviation and relative velocity. We show how these corrections can be efficiently computed to arbitrary orders via covariant bitensor expansions, deriving a form of the geodesic deviation equation valid to all orders, and producing its explicit expanded form through fourth order. We also discuss the generalized Jacobi equation, action principles for the higher-order geodesic deviation equations, results useful for describing accelerated neighboring worldlines, and the formal general solution to the geodesic deviation equation through second order.
Band-gap bowing coefficients in large size-mismatched II-VI alloys: first-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moon, Chang-Youn; Wei, Su-Huai; Zhu, Y. Z.; Chen, G. D.
2006-12-01
Band-gap bowing coefficients in large size-mismatched II-VI alloys MIIX1-xVIOx with MII=Zn and Cd, and XVI=S , Se, and Te in the zinc-blende structure are calculated using first-principles methods. We show that in these systems, the bowing coefficients are large and composition dependent. The bowing coefficients increase as the size and chemical mismatch between the constituents increase. The bowing coefficients for the Zn alloys are larger than the corresponding Cd alloys, but smaller than the corresponding III-V alloys. We show that these results can be explained by the size and atomic eigenvalue differences between the constituents and the resulting band offsets and isovalent defect levels in these systems. Our results are compared with recent experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasser, Hassan; Marre, Olivier; Cessac, Bruno
2013-03-01
Understanding the dynamics of neural networks is a major challenge in experimental neuroscience. For that purpose, a modelling of the recorded activity that reproduces the main statistics of the data is required. In the first part, we present a review on recent results dealing with spike train statistics analysis using maximum entropy models (MaxEnt). Most of these studies have focused on modelling synchronous spike patterns, leaving aside the temporal dynamics of the neural activity. However, the maximum entropy principle can be generalized to the temporal case, leading to Markovian models where memory effects and time correlations in the dynamics are properly taken into account. In the second part, we present a new method based on Monte Carlo sampling which is suited for the fitting of large-scale spatio-temporal MaxEnt models. The formalism and the tools presented here will be essential to fit MaxEnt spatio-temporal models to large neural ensembles.
Schubert, Walter
2014-01-01
Understanding biological systems at the level of their relational (emergent) molecular properties in functional protein networks relies on imaging methods, able to spatially resolve a tissue or a cell as a giant, non-random, topologically defined collection of interacting supermolecules executing myriads of subcellular mechanisms. Here, the development and findings of parameter-unlimited functional super-resolution microscopy are described-a technology based on the fluorescence imaging cycler (IC) principle capable of co-mapping thousands of distinct biomolecular assemblies at high spatial resolution and differentiation (<40?nm distances). It is shown that the subcellular and transcellular features of such supermolecules can be described at the compositional and constitutional levels; that the spatial connection, relational stoichiometry, and topology of supermolecules generate hitherto unrecognized functional self-segmentation of biological tissues; that hierarchical features, common to thousands of simultaneously imaged supermolecules, can be identified; and how the resulting supramolecular order relates to spatial coding of cellular functionalities in biological systems. A large body of observations with IC molecular systems microscopy collected over 20?years have disclosed principles governed by a law of supramolecular segregation of cellular functionalities. This pervades phenomena, such as exceptional orderliness, functional selectivity, combinatorial and spatial periodicity, and hierarchical organization of large molecular systems, across all species investigated so far. This insight is based on the high degree of specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity of molecular recognition processes for fluorescence imaging beyond the spectral resolution limit, using probe libraries controlled by ICs. PMID:24375580
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nurbawono, Argo; Liu, Shuanglong; Zhang, Chun
2015-04-01
Time dependent density functional tight binding (TDDFTB) method is implemented with sparse matrix techniques and improved parallelization algorithms. The method is employed to calculate the optical properties of various Si nanocrystals (NCs). The calculated light absorption spectra of small Si NCs from TDDFTB were found to be comparable with many body perturbation methods utilizing planewave basis sets. For large Si NCs (more than a thousand atoms) that are beyond the reach of conventional approaches, the TDDFTB method is able to produce reasonable results that are consistent with prior experiments. We also employed the method to study the effects of surface chemistry on the optical properties of large Si NCs. We learned that the optical properties of Si NCs can be manipulated with small molecule passivations such as methyl, hydroxyl, amino, and fluorine. In general, the shifts and profiles in the absorption spectra can be tuned with suitably chosen passivants.
Yew, C.H.; Li, Y. (Univ. of Texas, TX (US))
1988-11-01
The fracturing of a deviated well and the deviation of a hydraulically induced fracture plane were analyzed by applying three-dimensional (3D) elasticity theory. It was demonstrated that, under the influence of the off-plane shear-stress components, the fracture lines on the well surface were inclined at an angle with respect to the direction of the well axis and that the plane initiated from these fracture lines deviates from the plane formed by these initial fracture lines.
48 CFR 1.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more than one contract action. When an agency knows that it will require a class deviation on a permanent basis, it should propose a...
48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...the FAR and GSAR 501.404 Class deviations. (a) A class deviation affects more than one contract action. A deviation for any solicitation...considered an individual contract action. (1) A class deviation to the FAR must be...
48 CFR 1.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more than one contract action. When an agency knows that it will require a class deviation on a permanent basis, it should propose a...
48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...the FAR and GSAR 501.404 Class deviations. (a) A class deviation affects more than one contract action. A deviation for any solicitation...considered an individual contract action. (1) A class deviation to the FAR must be...
48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...the FAR and GSAR 501.404 Class deviations. (a) A class deviation affects more than one contract action. A deviation for any solicitation...considered an individual contract action. (1) A class deviation to the FAR must be...
48 CFR 1901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 1901.404 Section 1901...Deviations From the FAR 1901.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affecting more than one contracting action shall be authorized only by the...
48 CFR 1901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 1901.404 Section 1901...Deviations From the FAR 1901.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affecting more than one contracting action shall be authorized only by the...
48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...the FAR and GSAR 501.404 Class deviations. (a) A class deviation affects more than one contract action. A deviation for any solicitation...considered an individual contract action. (1) A class deviation to the FAR must be...
48 CFR 1901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 1901.404 Section 1901...Deviations From the FAR 1901.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affecting more than one contracting action shall be authorized only by the...
48 CFR 1.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more than one contract action. When an agency knows that it will require a class deviation on a permanent basis, it should propose a...
48 CFR 1901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 1901.404 Section 1901...Deviations From the FAR 1901.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affecting more than one contracting action shall be authorized only by the...
48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...the FAR and GSAR 501.404 Class deviations. (a) A class deviation affects more than one contract action. A deviation for any solicitation...considered an individual contract action. (1) A class deviation to the FAR must be...
48 CFR 1.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more than one contract action. When an agency knows that it will require a class deviation on a permanent basis, it should propose a...
48 CFR 1.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more than one contract action. When an agency knows that it will require a class deviation on a permanent basis, it should propose a...
48 CFR 1901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class deviations. 1901.404 Section 1901...Deviations From the FAR 1901.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affecting more than one contracting action shall be authorized only by the...
48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations...deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential...approve individual deviations from the AGAR, after coordinating with the...
48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations...deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential...approve individual deviations from the AGAR, after coordinating with the...
48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations...deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential...approve individual deviations from the AGAR, after coordinating with the...
48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations...deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential...approve individual deviations from the AGAR, after coordinating with the...
ROUTE DEVIATION ROUTE: Red Route
Stuart, Steven J.
ROUTE DEVIATION NOTICE: ROUTE: Red Route WHEN: Friday, Sept. 5th @ 4:00pm-8:00pm LOCATION: First Friday Parade Event College Avenue & Hwy 93 RE-ROUTED DIRECTIONS: The Red to Central bus Will travelMillan Road. The Red to Clemson bus Will travel its normal route from Central to Clemson University
48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...DOLAR 2901.404 Class deviations. (a...authorized to approve class deviations from FAR...than one contracting action, unless FAR 1.405...number of contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the...
48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...DOLAR 2901.404 Class deviations. (a...authorized to approve class deviations from FAR...than one contracting action, unless FAR 1.405...number of contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the...
48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more than one contracting action. Where deviations from the FAR or NRCAR are considered necessary for classes of contracts, requests for...
48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more than one contracting action. Where deviations from the FAR or NRCAR are considered necessary for classes of contracts, requests for...
48 CFR 1401.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...and DIAR 1401.404 Class deviations. (a...authorized to approve class deviations of FAR or...than one contracting action. (b) Requests...number of contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the...
48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more than one contracting action. Where deviations from the FAR or NRCAR are considered necessary for classes of contracts, requests for...
48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more than one contracting action. Where deviations from the FAR or NRCAR are considered necessary for classes of contracts, requests for...
48 CFR 1401.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...and DIAR 1401.404 Class deviations. (a...authorized to approve class deviations of FAR or...than one contracting action. (b) Requests...number of contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the...
48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...DOLAR 2901.404 Class deviations. (a...authorized to approve class deviations from FAR...than one contracting action, unless FAR 1.405...number of contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the...
48 CFR 1401.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...and DIAR 1401.404 Class deviations. (a...authorized to approve class deviations of FAR or...than one contracting action. (b) Requests...number of contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the...
48 CFR 1401.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...and DIAR 1401.404 Class deviations. (a...authorized to approve class deviations of FAR or...than one contracting action. (b) Requests...number of contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the...
48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more than one contracting action. Where deviations from the FAR or NRCAR are considered necessary for classes of contracts, requests for...
48 CFR 1401.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...and DIAR 1401.404 Class deviations. (a...authorized to approve class deviations of FAR or...than one contracting action. (b) Requests...number of contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the...
48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...DOLAR 2901.404 Class deviations. (a...authorized to approve class deviations from FAR...than one contracting action, unless FAR 1.405...number of contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the...
48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...DOLAR 2901.404 Class deviations. (a...authorized to approve class deviations from FAR...than one contracting action, unless FAR 1.405...number of contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the...
48 CFR 2801.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Individual deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be approved by the head of the contracting activity (HCA). A copy of the deviation shall be included in the contract file. Copies of all deviations will be provided to the...
48 CFR 2801.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... Individual deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be approved by the head of the contracting activity (HCA). A copy of the deviation shall be included in the contract file. Copies of all deviations will be provided to the...
48 CFR 2801.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... Individual deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be approved by the head of the contracting activity (HCA). A copy of the deviation shall be included in the contract file. Copies of all deviations will be provided to the...
48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations....
Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra
2005-01-01
To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.
A spine proof of a largedeviations principle for branching Brownian motion
Bath, University of
A spine proof of a largeÂdeviations principle for branching Brownian motion Robert Hardy and Simon C. Harris March 8, 2004 Abstract Using the foundations for the use of spines in branching di martingales can be used to change measure so that the spine follows `close' to the path of interest. We
Development of a first-principles code based on the screened KKR method for large super-cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doi, S.; Ogura, M.; Akai, H.
2013-08-01
The procedures of performing first-principles electronic structure calculation using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) and the screened KKR methods are reviewed with an emphasis put on their numerical efficiency. It is shown that an iterative matrix inversion combined with a suitable preconditioning greatly improves the computational time of screened KKR method. The method is well parallelized and also has an O(N) scaling property.
Compensation of Deviations from Homology of RT70 Radio Telescope Main Mirror
S. G. Olskaya; A. V. Bondarev; A. P. Mozgov; V. G. Gimmelman
2006-01-01
RT-70 mirror system was designed according to a principle of homological deformations. Deviations of the deformed mirror from the optimal inscribed paraboloid arising in reality remain the main cause of the radio telescope efficiency reduction. According to the results of the conducted calculations, one can conclude that deviations of the deformed mirror from the approximating paraboloid can be compensated with
Boyer, Edmond
MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR THE DURBIN-WATSON STATISTIC RELATED TO THE FIRST-ORDER AUTOREGRESSIVE to introduce the Durbin-Watson statistic, we shall focus our attention on the first-order autoregressive. Durbin-Watson statistic, Moderate deviation principle, First-order autoregres- sive process, Serial
Fang, H. Z.; Shang, S. L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Alfonso, D.; Alman, D. E. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Shin, Y. K.; Zou, C. Y.; Duin, A. C. T. van [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lei, Y. K.; Wang, G. F. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)
2014-01-28
This paper is concerned with the prediction of oxygen diffusivities in fcc nickel from first-principles calculations and large-scale atomic simulations. Considering only the interstitial octahedral to tetrahedral to octahedral minimum energy pathway for oxygen diffusion in fcc lattice, greatly underestimates the migration barrier and overestimates the diffusivities by several orders of magnitude. The results indicate that vacancies in the Ni-lattice significantly impact the migration barrier of oxygen in nickel. Incorporation of the effect of vacancies results in predicted diffusivities consistent with available experimental data. First-principles calculations show that at high temperatures the vacancy concentration is comparable to the oxygen solubility, and there is a strong binding energy and a redistribution of charge density between the oxygen atom and vacancy. Consequently, there is a strong attraction between the oxygen and vacancy in the Ni lattice, which impacts diffusion.
48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual...
Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fattebert, Jean-Luc [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2014-01-01
We present the first truly scalable first-principles molecular dynamics algorithm with O(N) complexity and controllable accuracy, capable of simulating systems with finite band gaps of sizes that were previously impossible with this degree of accuracy. By avoiding global communications, we provide a practical computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic wave functions are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the components of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected elements of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to 101 952 atoms on 23 328 processors, with a wall-clock time of the order of 1 min per molecular dynamics time step and numerical error on the forces of less than 7x10^{-4} Ha/Bohr.
Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gorard, Stephen
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…
A Scalable O(N) Algorithm for Large-Scale Parallel First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fattebert, Jean-Luc [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2014-01-01
Traditional algorithms for first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations only gain a modest capability increase from current petascale computers, due to their O(N^{3}) complexity and their heavy use of global communications. To address this issue, we are developing a truly scalable O(N) complexity FPMD algorithm, based on density functional theory (DFT), which avoids global communications. The computational model uses a general nonorthogonal orbital formulation for the DFT energy functional, which requires knowledge of selected elements of the inverse of the associated overlap matrix. We present a scalable algorithm for approximately computing selected entries of the inverse of the overlap matrix, based on an approximate inverse technique, by inverting local blocks corresponding to principal submatrices of the global overlap matrix. The new FPMD algorithm exploits sparsity and uses nearest neighbor communication to provide a computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic orbitals are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the entries of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected entries of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to O(100K) atoms on O(100K) processors, with a wall-clock time of O(1) minute per molecular dynamics time step.
[Vertical and tortional deviations in early strabismus].
Spielmann, A
1990-04-01
The occlusion of one eye may trigger two types of deviation: 1) Heterophorias: the occluded eye deviates towards a horizontal, vertical or torsional abnormal position of rest. Fusion keeps the eyes straight during binocular fixation. 2) Dissociated deviations, horizontal (DHD), vertical (DVD), torsional (DTD): they are found in infantile strabismus. The deviation without fixation is always smaller than the deviation of the occluded eye. The more typical cases are the ones where the position of rest without fixation is an orthoposition. Normal binocular vision is lacking. Most of the time, an alternant neutralisation is found: the occlusion deviation is not the return of the occluded eye to an abnormal position of rest. The deviation is caused by a disequilibrium of binocular retinal stimulations. Horizontal and vertical deviations are easy to study. It is not the case in dissociated torsional deviation (DTD) where the incyclotorsion does not exist when fixation is absent. An indirect proof of extorsion is given by the study of horizontal and vertical deviations determined in the cardinal position of gaze. Extorsion of the globus leeds always to abnormal actions of the recti. This give a typical synoptometer chart which is found in any extorsion whatever its origins: paralysis, alphabetic patterns or infantile strabismus. Dissociated extorsions are always associated with a bilateral elevation in the primary position. Dissociated deviations are found in infantile strabismus with the other dissociations phenomenon such as nystagmus, optokinetic nystagmus asymmetry, fixation in adduction preference (and incyclotorsion). PMID:2208493
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norouzzadeh, Payam; Myles, Charles W.; Vashaee, Daryoosh
2013-11-01
The material design of type-VIII clathrate Si46 is presented based on first principles. The structural, electronic, elastic, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of this hypothetical material are presented. Our results predict that type-VIII clathrate Si46 is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.24 eV. The band structure revealed an interestingly large number of electron pockets near both conduction and valance band edges. Such a large density of states near the band edges, which is higher than that of the best thermoelectric materials discovered so far, can result in a large thermoelectric power factor (>0.004 W m-1 K-2) making it a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications. The elastic properties as well as the vibrational modes and the phonon state densities of this material were also calculated. Our calculations predict that the heat capacity at constant volume (isochoric) of this clathrate increases smoothly with temperature and approaches the Dulong-Petit value near room temperature. The electronic band structure shows a large number of valleys closely packed around the valance band edge, which is rare among the known semiconducting materials. These valleys can contribute to transport at high temperature resulting in a possibly high performance (ZT > 1.5) p-type thermoelectric material.
Norouzzadeh, Payam; Myles, Charles W; Vashaee, Daryoosh
2013-11-27
The material design of type-VIII clathrate Si46 is presented based on first principles. The structural, electronic, elastic, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of this hypothetical material are presented. Our results predict that type-VIII clathrate Si46 is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.24 eV. The band structure revealed an interestingly large number of electron pockets near both conduction and valance band edges. Such a large density of states near the band edges, which is higher than that of the best thermoelectric materials discovered so far, can result in a large thermoelectric power factor (>0.004 W m(-1) K(-2)) making it a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications. The elastic properties as well as the vibrational modes and the phonon state densities of this material were also calculated. Our calculations predict that the heat capacity at constant volume (isochoric) of this clathrate increases smoothly with temperature and approaches the Dulong-Petit value near room temperature. The electronic band structure shows a large number of valleys closely packed around the valance band edge, which is rare among the known semiconducting materials. These valleys can contribute to transport at high temperature resulting in a possibly high performance (ZT > 1.5) p-type thermoelectric material. PMID:24172765
Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of single Co atom on MgO monolayer: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Bin; Shi, Wu-Jun; Feng, Min; Zuo, Xu
2015-05-01
Realizing the magnetic bit with a single atom is the ultimate goal for magnetic storage. Based on density functional theory, the magnetic anisotropy (MA) of single Co atom on MgO monolayer has been investigated. Results show that this two dimensional system possesses a large perpendicular MA, about 5.8 meV per Co atom. Besides, there exists remarkable unquenched orbital moments for different magnetization directions, which can be attributed to the reduction of coordination number in two dimensional system and is responsible for the enhanced MA. The Bloch pseudo-wavefunction and band structure of Co d-orbitals have been calculated to elucidate the origin of the perpendicular MA.
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
Shihan Sajeed; Igor Radchenko; Sarah Kaiser; Jean-Philippe Bourgoin; Anna Pappa; Laurent Monat; Matthieu Legre; Vadim Makarov
2015-03-30
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD, we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle, and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems, and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Effects of well deviation on helical buckling
Mitchell, R.F.
1995-12-31
Current helical buckling models are valid for vertical wells, but the validity of these solutions for deviated wells was not known. This paper describes the numerical solution of the nonlinear buckling equations for arbitrary well deviation. Stability criteria are developed for lateral and helical buckling, and simple correlations are developed for buckling length change, maximum bending stress, and contact force.
Effects of well deviation on helical buckling
Mitchell, R.F.
1997-03-01
Current helical buckling models are valid for vertical wells, but the validity of these solutions for deviated wells was not known. This paper describes the numerical solution of the nonlinear buckling equations for arbitrary well deviation. Stability criteria are developed for lateral and helical buckling, and simple correlations are developed for buckling length change, maximum bending stress, and contact force.
48 CFR 2801.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...JAR 2801.404 Class deviations. Requests for class deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be submitted to the PE. The PE will consult with the chairperson of the Civilian Agency Acquisition Council, as appropriate, and send his/her...
48 CFR 2801.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...JAR 2801.404 Class deviations. Requests for class deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be submitted to the PE. The PE will consult with the chairperson of the Civilian Agency Acquisition Council, as appropriate, and send his/her...
48 CFR 2801.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...JAR 2801.404 Class deviations. Requests for class deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be submitted to the PE. The PE will consult with the chairperson of the Civilian Agency Acquisition Council, as appropriate, and send his/her...
48 CFR 2801.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...JAR 2801.404 Class deviations. Requests for class deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be submitted to the PE. The PE will consult with the chairperson of the Civilian Agency Acquisition Council, as appropriate, and send his/her...
48 CFR 2801.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...JAR 2801.404 Class deviations. Requests for class deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be submitted to the PE. The PE will consult with the chairperson of the Civilian Agency Acquisition Council, as appropriate, and send his/her...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hewitt, Paul G.
2004-01-01
Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…
LARGE DEVIATIONS OF EMPIRICAL MEASURES OF ZEROS OF RANDOM POLYNOMIALS
Zeitouni, Ofer
measure on the space PN = H0 (CP1 , O(N)) determined by inner products GN (h, ) induced by any smooth Hermitian metric h on O(1) CP1 and any probability measure d on CP1 satisfying the weighted Bernstein of probability measures on CP1 , and in particular its unique minimizer is the weighted equilibrium measure. 1
Limiting Distributions and Large Deviations for Random Walks in ...
2008-07-21
5.4.2 Quenched Exponential Limits Along a Subsequence . ..... and ?(x) is the cumulative distribution function for a standard Gaussian distribution. ..... added condition that after reaching ?k the environment is modified by setting ??k?bn = 1
Queueing Systems Large Deviations and the Generalized Processor
Zhang, Zhi-Li
introduced by the GPS scheduling discipline makes understanding of its behavior a challenging task (GPS) scheduling discipline. In the special case where there are only two queues, the upper and lowerqueue GPS system is captured using the notion of partial feasi ble sets, and the bounds are obtained using
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR RANDOM WALKS IN A RANDOM ...
2013-02-28
Feb 28, 2013 ... where E? denotes expectation with respect to the distribution ? on the ...... to the proof of the existence of the vectors µn(?) and the associated error bounds ..... For certain parts of the proofs of the main ...... XVII, 1985–87, volume 1362 of Lecture Notes in Math., pages 101–203. ... [Var03] S. R. S. Varadhan.
Large deviation results for time-dependent queue length distributions
Søren Asmussen; Hermann Thorisson
1988-01-01
A normal approximation of the form [um0001] is derived for the stable GI\\/G\\/1 queue length process as well as for the level process {Qn} of Markov chains {(In,Qn)} having a matrix-geometric stationary distribution.
Large Deviations and Fast Simulation in the presence of boundaries
Søren Asmussen; Pascal Frantz; Manfred Jobmann; Hans-peter Schwefel
2000-01-01
Let r(x) ---- inf {t > 0: Q(t) _ x) be the time of first overflow of a queueing process {Q(t)) over level x (the buffer size) and z = P(-(x) _< T). Assuming that {Q(t)) is the reflected version of a Lévy process {X(t)) or a Markov additive process, we study a variety of algorithms for estimating z by
Large deviations and fast simulation in the presence of boundaries
Søren Asmussen; Pascal Fuckerieder; Manfred Jobmann; Hans-Peter Schwefel
2002-01-01
Let ?(x)=inf{t>0:Q(t)?x} be the time of first overflow of a queueing process {Q(t)} over level x (the buffer size) and z=P(?(x)?T). Assuming that {Q(t)} is the reflected version of a Lévy process {X(t)} or a Markov additive process, we study a variety of algorithms for estimating z by simulation when the event {?(x)?T} is rare, and analyse their performance. In
Thermodynamic Formalism, Maximizing Probabilities and Large Deviations Artur O. Lopes
Vermet, Franck
there exist constants 0 HolA > 0 such that |A(x) - A(y)| HolAd(x, y) . We call the exponent of A and HolA the constant for A. We will be interested here in the Gibbs state ÂµA associated to such A, which
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Paul G. Hewitt
2004-09-01
Many physics teachers have an unclear understanding of Bernoulli's principle, particularly when the principle is applied to aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it altogether. The following simplified treatment of the principle ignores most of the complexities of aerodynamics and hopefully will encourage teachers to bring Bernoulli back into the classroom.
Geodesic Deviation Equation Approach to Chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczesny, J.; Dobrowolski, T.
1999-11-01
A geodesic deviation equation is introduced. In an "adiabatic" approximation its exact solution is found. Perturbation theory in general case is formulated. A geometrical criterion of local instability which may lead to chaos is formulated.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Bellagio Principles (available in text and as a RealAudio multimedia presentation) provide "guidelines for the practical assessment of progress towards sustainable development." These principles were developed by an international group of researchers in 1996.
10 CFR 719.7 - Is there a procedure for exceptions or deviations from this part?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...policy. See, e.g., DOE Acquisition Guide chapter 1.1, requiring approval by the Senior Procurement Executive of DOE or NNSA as applicable. In any event, the written request from a contractor for a deviation from a cost principle relating to this...
Online Deviation Detection for Medical Processes
Christov, Stefan C.; Avrunin, George S.; Clarke, Lori A.
2014-01-01
Human errors are a major concern in many medical processes. To help address this problem, we are investigating an approach for automatically detecting when performers of a medical process deviate from the acceptable ways of performing that process as specified by a detailed process model. Such deviations could represent errors and, thus, detecting and reporting deviations as they occur could help catch errors before harm is done. In this paper, we identify important issues related to the feasibility of the proposed approach and empirically evaluate the approach for two medical procedures, chemotherapy and blood transfusion. For the evaluation, we use the process models to generate sample process executions that we then seed with synthetic errors. The process models describe the coordination of activities of different process performers in normal, as well as in exceptional situations. The evaluation results suggest that the proposed approach could be applied in clinical settings to help catch errors before harm is done. PMID:25954343
Geodesic deviation equation in f (T ) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darabi, F.; Mousavi, M.; Atazadeh, K.
2015-04-01
In this work, we show that it is possible to study the notion of a geodesic deviation equation in f (T ) gravity, in spite of the fact that in teleparallel gravity there is no notion of geodesics, and the torsion is responsible for the appearance of gravitational interaction. In this regard, we obtain the general relativity equivalent equations for f (T ) gravity, which are in the modified gravity form such as f (R ) gravity. Then, we obtain the geodesic deviation equation within the context of this modified gravity. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the f (T ) gravity. Eventually, we extend the calculations to obtain the modification of the Mattig relation.
Evaluating Optical Fiber Links with Data Filtering and Allan Deviation
Calosso, Claudio Eligio; Micalizio, Salvatore
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose a simple method to reject the high-frequency noise in the evaluation of statistical uncertainty of coherent optical fiber links. Specifically, we propose a preliminary data filtering, separated from the frequency stability computation. In this way, it is possible to use the Allan deviation as estimator of stability, to get unbiased data, which are representative of the noise process affecting the delivered signal. Our approach is alternative to the use of the modified Allan deviation, which is largely adopted in this field. We apply this processing to the experimental data we obtained on a 1284 km coherent optical link for frequency dissemination, which we realized in Italy. We also show how the so-called Lambda-type commercial phase/frequency counters can be used to this purpose.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1976-01-01
The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.
Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.
2001-01-01
This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary, suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, here we report a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of a subbasin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We generalize this relationship to a joint probability density, and provide observations and explanations of deviations from scaling. We show that fluctuations about scaling are substantial, and grow with system size. We find strong deviations from scaling at small scales which can be explained by the existence of a linear network structure. At intermediate scales, we find slow drifts in exponent values, indicating that scaling is only approximately obeyed and that universality remains indeterminate. At large scales, we observe a breakdown in scaling due to decreasing sample space and correlations with overall basin shape. The extent of approximate scaling is significantly restricted by these deviations, and will not be improved by increases in network resolution.
Controlling Live Generative Electronic Music with Deviate
Sarah Keith
2009-01-01
Deviate generates multiple streams of melodic and rhythmic output in real-time, according to user-specified control parameters. This performance system has been implemented using Max 5 [1] within the genre of popular contemporary electronic music, incorporating techno, IDM, and related forms. The aim of this project is not musical style synthesis, but to construct an environment in which a range of
Manifestations of Deviation in the Adolescent Subculture
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.
2005-01-01
In this article the authors look at questions relating to school students' attitudes toward types of deviation such as smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotics. The empirical material is divided into the following topics: how widespread these forms of behavior are; motives that cause adolescents to start smoking, using alcohol, and taking…
Linear Curve Fitting Using Least Deviations
Otto J. Karst
1958-01-01
A method is developed for finding a straight line of best fit to a set of two dimensional points such that the sum of the absolute values of the vertical deviations of the points from the line is a minimum. This is first done with the restriction that the line pass through any designated point. In this case one application
Tertiary recovery method using inverted deviated holes
Goodhart
1987-01-01
A method is described of recovering oil and the like from a subsurface earth formation comprising the steps of: establishing a substantially vertical shaft hole extending from the surface of the earth of the subsurface earth formation, boring from the vertical shaft initially in an essentially upward direction in the formation at least one deviated hole in the formation, the
Predicting deviations in software quality by using relative critical value deviation metrics
Norman F. Schneidewind; A. P. Nikora
1999-01-01
We develop a new metric, relative critical value deviation (RCVD), for classifying and predicting software quality. The RCVD is based on the concept that the extent to which a metric's value deviates from its critical value, normalized by the scale of the metric, indicates the degree to which the item being measured does not conform to a specified norm. For
Babinet's principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas
T. Zentgraf; T. P. Meyrath; A. Seidel; S. Kaiser; H. Giessen; C. Rockstuhl; F. Lederer
2007-01-01
We consider Babinet's principle for metamaterials at optical frequencies and include realistic conditions which deviate from the theoretical assumptions of the classic principle such as an infinitely thin and perfectly conducting metal layer. It is shown that Babinet's principle associates not only transmission and reflection between a structure and its complement but also the field modal profiles of the electromagnetic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David
2009-01-01
This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…
Cerveny, Vlastislav
Borehole deviation surveys are necessary for hydraulic fracture monitoring Leo Eisner, Schlumberger Not performing accurate borehole deviation surveys for hydraulic fracture monitoring (HFM) and neglecting fracture parameters. Introduction Recently a large number of hydraulic fracture treatments have been
Yue, Ning J.; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Narra, Venkat; Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States)
2007-11-15
Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup verification and were used to determine potential target deviations. To derive the detected CTV geometry from the planning CTV based on the locations of the gold markers, the CTV was approximated with an elastic semirigid body model. The derived CTV geometry and shape were confirmed with CBCT imaging. The evaluation results and the related mathematical equations and computational algorithm are presented. It is concluded that the proposed strategy is potentially useful in establishing objective criteria for the necessity of correction of the target deviations.
Effect of stress on energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in GR/EP composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1990-01-01
Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy because of the large anisotropy. The angle of deviation is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of deviation is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux deviation for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis (fiber axis) and the x1 for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as large as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers a new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.
DEVIATIONS IN INFLUENZA SEASONALITY: ODD COINCIDENCE OR OBSCURE CONSEQUENCE?
Moorthy, Mahesh; Castronovo, Denise; Abraham, Asha; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Gradus, Steve; Gorski, Jack; Naumov, Yuri N.; Fefferman, Nina H.; Naumova, Elena N.
2012-01-01
In temperate regions, influenza typically arrives with the onset of colder weather. Seasonal waves travel over large spaces covering many climatic zones in a relatively short period of time. The precise mechanism for this striking seasonal pattern is still not well understood and the interplay of factors that influence the spread of infection and the emergence of new strains is largely unknown. The study of influenza seasonality has been fraught with problems. One of these is the ever shifting description of illness due to influenza and the use of both the historical definitions and new definitions based on actual isolation of the virus. The compilation of records describing influenza oscillations on a local and global scale is massive, but the value of these data is a function of the definitions used. In this review we argue that both observations of seasonality and deviation from the expected pattern stem from the nature of this disease. Heterogeneity in seasonal patterns may arrive from differences in behavior of specific strains, emergence of a novel strain or cross-protection from previously observed strains. Most likely the seasonal patterns emerge from interactions of individual factors behaving as coupled resonators. We emphasize that both seasonality and deviations from it may merely be a reflection of our inability to disentangle signal from noise, be it due to ambiguity in measurement and/or terminology. We conclude the review with suggestions for new promising and realistic directions with tangible consequences to model complex influenza dynamics in order to effectively control infection. PMID:22958213
An Approach to Support Deviation Management of Project-specific Process
Bae, Doo-Hwan
/2) Schedule, cost, quality deviation deviation PSEE Deviation #12;4 / 25 Introduction Deviation Activity Activity Experience Base Repository Experience Experience DeviationAn Approach to Support Deviation Management of Project-specific Process Using Experience Base 2006
Nasal septal deviation in a mediaeval population.
Mays, Simon
2012-07-01
In modern populations, there is evidence that nasal septal deviation (NSD) may be associated with maxillary sinusitis, and that those with NSD may differ in craniofacial morphology from those without or with less severe NSD. Whether these associations hold true for earlier populations has yet to be investigated. The current work is a step toward remedying this. The study group comes from a mediaeval English archaeological site. NSD was quantified using image analysis. Maxillary sinusitis was identified from new bone formation in the antrum. Cranial morphology was assessed using standard craniometric measurements. The results provided no evidence for a relationship between NSD and maxillary sinus disease. NSD was associated with reduced measures of upper facial height, suggesting decoupling of growth in vertical height of the nasal septum and the bony structures surrounding it. PMID:22565652
Hypotropic Dissociated Vertical Deviation; a Case Report
Rajavi, Zhale; Feizi, Mohadasseh; Haftabadi, Narges; Sheibani, Kourosh
2013-01-01
Purpose To report the clinical features of a rare case of hypotropic dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). Case report A 25-year-old female was referred with unilateral esotropia, hypotropia and slow variable downward drift in her left eye. She had history of esotropia since she had been 3-4 months of age. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in her right eye and 20/40 in the left one when hyperopia was corrected. She underwent bimedial rectus muscle recession of 5.25mm for 45 prism diopters (PDs) of esotropia. She was orthophoric 3 months after surgery and no further operation was planned for correction of the hypotropic DVD. Conclusion This rare case of hypotropic DVD showed only mild amblyopia in her non-fixating eye. The etiology was most probably acquired considering hyperopia as a sign of early onset accommodative esotropia. PMID:24349672
NSDL National Science Digital Library
On this site from the NASA Glenn Research Center Learning Technologies Project, the science and history of rocketry is explained. Visitors will find out how rocket principles illustrate Newton's Laws of Motion. There is a second page of this site, Practical Rocketry, which discusses the workings of rockets, including propellants, engine thrust control, stability and control systems, and mass.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Michael Horton
2009-05-30
In this lab, students will use a little background information about Bernoulli's principle to figure out how the spinning of a moving ball affects its trajectory. The activity is inquiry in that students will be discovering this relationship on their own.
41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...Administrator of General Services (or designee). Requests for deviations shall be made in writing to the General Services Administration (FB), Washington, DC 20406, with complete justification. A copy of the authorizing statement for each deviation, including...
41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...Administrator of General Services (or designee). Requests for deviations shall be made in writing to the General Services Administration (FB), Washington, DC 20406, with complete justification. A copy of the authorizing statement for each deviation, including...
41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...Administrator of General Services (or designee). Requests for deviations shall be made in writing to the General Services Administration (FB), Washington, DC 20406, with complete justification. A copy of the authorizing statement for each deviation, including...
41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...Administrator of General Services (or designee). Requests for deviations shall be made in writing to the General Services Administration (FB), Washington, DC 20406, with complete justification. A copy of the authorizing statement for each deviation, including...
41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...Administrator of General Services (or designee). Requests for deviations shall be made in writing to the General Services Administration (FB), Washington, DC 20406, with complete justification. A copy of the authorizing statement for each deviation, including...
Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN1-xSbx from first principles
Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Lisenkov, Sergey; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Mahendra K.; Menon, Madhu
2011-08-01
Applicability of the Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting water under visible light irradiation.
A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orris, J. B.
2011-01-01
This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.
48 CFR 2801.470 - Requests for class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... Requests for class deviations. Requests for approval of class deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be forwarded to the PE. Such requests will be signed by the Bureau Procurement Chief (BPC). Requests for class deviations shall be submitted as far...
48 CFR 2801.470 - Requests for class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Requests for class deviations. Requests for approval of class deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be forwarded to the PE. Such requests will be signed by the Bureau Procurement Chief (BPC). Requests for class deviations shall be submitted as far...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...2014-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...2013-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...2012-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...
Moderate deviations for the blockwise bootstrap Amir Dembo
Dembo, Amir
of the mean satisfy the MDP while the empirical means do not. 0 Introduction. Efron's bootstrap (1979Moderate deviations for the blockwise bootstrap Amir Dembo #3; Departments of Mathematics Abbreviated title: Moderate deviations for blockwise bootstrap Abstract We study the moderate deviations
Deviation from Bimaximality due to Planck scale effects
Bipin Singh Koranga; Mohan Narayan; S. Uma Sankar
2006-11-16
We consider the effect of Planck scale operators on neutrino mixing. We assume that GUT scale operators give rise to degenerate neutrino masses with bimaximal mixing. Quantum gravity (Planck scale) effects lead to an effective SU(2)L*U(1) invariant dimension-5 Lagrangian involving neutrino and Higgs fields. This gives rise to additional terms in the neutrino mass matrix on electroweak symmetry breaking. These additional terms can be considered as a perturbation to the GUT scale bi-maximal neutrino mass matrix. We assume that the gravitational interaction is flavour blind and compute the deviations of the three neutrino mixing angles due to the Planck scale effects. We find that the changes in theta13, and theta23 are very small but the change in solar mixing angle theta12 can be as large as 3.5 degrees.
Deviation from Bimaximality due to Planck scale effects
Koranga, B S; Sankar, S U; Koranga, Bipin Singh; Narayan, Mohana
2006-01-01
We consider the effect of Planck scale operators on neutrino mixing. We assume that GUT scale operators give rise to degenerate neutrino masses with bimaximal mixing. Quantum gravity (Planck scale) effects lead to an effective SU(2)L*U(1) invariant dimension-5 Lagrangian involving neutrino and Higgs fields. This gives rise to additional terms in the neutrino mass matrix on electroweak symmetry breaking. These additional terms can be considered as a perturbation to the GUT scale bi-maximal neutrino mass matrix. We assume that the gravitational interaction is flavour blind and compute the deviations of the three neutrino mixing angles due to the Planck scale effects. We find that the changes in theta13, and theta23 are very small but the change in solar mixing angle theta12 can be as large as 3.5 degrees.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sato, Toru
1989-01-01
Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.
Modeling propagating heat pulses in the Large Helical Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Hao; Dendy, Richard; Chapman, Sandra; Inagaki, Shigeru
2014-10-01
Rapid edge cooling induced by pellet injection in Large Helical Device plasmas generates inward propagating pulses with either large positive or negative deviations of the electron temperature at the core. By applying a traveling wave transformation, we extend a recent model for local temporal evolution, to include also spatial dependence. The extended model comprises two coupled nonlinear first order differential equations for the (x,t) evolution of the deviation from steady state of two variables, the temperature gradient and heat flux. It also defines the pulse velocity in terms of plasma quantities. This enables us to model spatiotemporal pulse evolution, from first principles, in terms of the electron temperature. We have tested the model against LHD datasets using appropriate initial and boundary conditions. We find that this model can match experimental data for pulse peaks, shapes and propagation velocities within a broad radial range from plasma edge to core.
Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1992-01-01
In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave deviates from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux deviation and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux deviation. The energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite large because of their high anisotropy. The flux deviation angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux deviation was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1).
Middlemiss, Derek S., E-mail: derekmiddlemiss@gmail.com, E-mail: R.J.Deeth@warwick.ac.uk; Deeth, Robert J., E-mail: derekmiddlemiss@gmail.com, E-mail: R.J.Deeth@warwick.ac.uk [Inorganic Computational Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2014-04-14
The dielectric response of spin-crossover (SCO) materials is a key property facilitating their use in next-generation information processing technologies. Solid state hybrid density functional theory calculations show that the temperature-induced and strongly hysteretic SCO transition in the Cs{sup +}Fe{sup 2+}[Cr{sup 3+}(CN{sup ?}){sub 6}] Prussian blue analogue (PBA) is associated with a large change (?) in both the static, ??{sup 0}(HS ? LS), and high frequency, ??{sup ?}(HS ? LS) dielectric constants. The SCO-induced variation in CsFe[Cr(CN){sub 6}] is significantly greater than the experimental ?? values observed previously in other SCO materials. The phonon contribution, ??{sup phon}(HS ? LS), determined within a lattice dynamics approach, dominates over the clamped nuclei term, ??{sup ?}(HS ? LS), and is in turn dominated by the low-frequency translational motions of Cs{sup +} cations within the cubic voids of the Fe[Cr(CN){sub 6}]{sup ?} framework. The Cs{sup +} translational modes couple strongly to the large unit cell volume change occurring through the SCO transition. PBAs and associated metal-organic frameworks emerge as a potentially fruitful class of materials in which to search for SCO transitions associated with large changes in dielectric response and other macroscopic properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolovskiy, Vladimir V.; Entel, P.; Buchelnikov, V. D.; Gruner, M. E.
2015-06-01
The magnetocaloric properties of Ni-Co-Mn-Cr-In Heusler alloys have been studied by means of ab initio calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. We discuss the resulting complex spin configurations, the temperature behavior of entropy, as well as the critical temperatures of the phase transitions. The substitution of 5% Co for Ni and 5% Cr for Mn results in a first-order magnetostructural transition from ferromagnetic austenite to antiferromagnetic martensite, which is accompanied by a spin-flip transition upon cooling. As a result, a large magnetization drop and giant inverse magnetocaloric effect can be achieved of ? Tad?10 K in a 2 T field across the magnetostructural phase transition.
SpatioTemporal Network Anomaly Detection by Assessing Deviations of Empirical Measures #
Smaragdakis, Georgios
SpatioTemporal Network Anomaly Detection by Assessing Deviations of Empirical Measures # Ioannis Terms---Network security, statistical anomaly detection, method of types, Markov processes, large instrumentation, automated online traf fic anomaly detection is still a missing component of modern network
Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1 Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament B able to divert the spark without contact between laser and electrodes at large distance from the laser in the atmosphere, it is also one of the most dangerous. This spark discharge of several kilometers can cause severe
On Deviations between Observed and Theoretically Estimated Values on Additivity-Law Failures
Yoshinobu Nayatani; Hiroaki Sobagaki
2003-01-01
The authors have reported in the previous studies that the average observed results are about a half of the corresponding predictions on the experiments with large additivity-law failures. One of the reasons of the deviations is studied and clarified by using the original observed data on additivity-law failures in the Nakano experiment. The conclusion from the observations and their analyses
Understanding the Standard Deviation: What Makes it Larger or Smaller?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Roseth, Cary J.
2009-07-16
Using cooperative learning methods, this activity helps students develop a better intuitive understanding of what is meant by variability in statistics. Emphasis is placed on the standard deviation as a measure of variability. This lesson also helps students to discover that the standard deviation is a measure of the density of values about the mean of a distribution. As such, students become more aware of how clusters, gaps, and extreme values affect the standard deviation.
Results of stress-oriented and aligned perforating in fracturing deviated wells
Pearson, C.M.; Bond, A.J.; Eck, M.E.; Schmidt, J.H. (Arco Alaska Inc. (US))
1992-01-01
This paper reports the first results of stress-oriented and aligned perforation of deviated wells at the Kuparuk River field, Alaska. Preferred perforation alignment and spacing are calculated for each well so the fractures from individual perforations link to produce a single zipper fracture plane along the deviated wellbore. Results of the first application of this technique are presented from the 26-well development of Drillsite 2K. The results from use of three different oriented-casing-gun systems and pertinent data from Drillsite 2K fracture stimulation treatments are discussed. Comparisons to drillsite where nonaligned perforating strategies were used show a significant reduction in perforation friction, enabling the placement of large, more productive fracture treatments. Application of this technique to deviated and vertical wells and its use at Kuparuk on developments after Drillsite 2K are discussed.
Inverse Portfolio Problem with Mean-Deviation Model Bogdan Grechuk
Inverse Portfolio Problem with Mean-Deviation Model Bogdan Grechuk Department of Mathematics-type portfolio selection problem is to minimize a deviation measure of portfolio rate of re- turn subject to constraints on portfolio budget and on desired expected return. In this context, the in- verse portfolio
Data Sets Having Integer Means and Standard Deviations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dudek, Frank J.
1981-01-01
Reviews the recent suggestion (by McGown and Spencer) that construction of tests for introductory statistics is facilitated if data sets have means and standard deviations that are integers. Maintains that it is fairly easy to devise data sets with integer means and standard deviations for larger samples. Explains advantages and describes…
Chi Square Test of Deviations from Expected Frequencies
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Lane, David M.
The applet allows users to sample from a normal distribution or from a uniform distribution. It shows the expected values and the observed values and computes the deviation. Then, a chi-square test shows if the deviations are significant for both the normal and uniform distributions.
The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance
Shoichi Hisa
2008-01-01
Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1990-01-01
Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy because of the large anisotropy. The angle of deviation is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of deviation is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux deviation for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis fiber axis) and the x1 axis for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as large as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.
Raymond C. Parks; David P. Duggan
2011-01-01
This paper proposes some principles of cyber- warfare. The principles of warfare are well documented, but are not always applicable to cyber-warfare. Differences between cyberspace and the real world suggest some additional principles. This is not intended to be a comprehensive listing of such principles but suggestions leading toward discussion and dialogue. The current candidate list of principles of cyber-warfare
Equivalence principles and electromagnetism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ni, W.-T.
1977-01-01
The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.
Quantum mechanics and geodesic deviation in the brane world
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasouli, S. M. M.; Bahrehbakhsh, A. F.; Jalalzadeh, S.; Farhoudi, M.
2009-08-01
We investigate the induced geodesic deviation equations in the brane world models, in which all the matter forces except gravity are confined on the 3-brane. Also, the Newtonian limit of induced geodesic deviation equation is studied. We show that in the first Randall-Sundrum model the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule is as a result of consistency between the geodesic and geodesic deviation equations. This indicates that the path of test particle is made up of integral multiples of a fundamental Compton-type unit of length h/mc.
A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth
2010-01-01
Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.
Recognizing deviations from normalcy for brain tumor segmentation
Gering, David T. (David Thomas), 1971-
2003-01-01
A framework is proposed for the segmentation of brain tumors from MRI. Instead of training on pathology, the proposed method trains exclusively on healthy tissue. The algorithm attempts to recognize deviations from normalcy ...
33 CFR 155.5012 - Deviation from response plan.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Nontank Vessel Response Plans § 155.5012 Deviation from...
Buckling analysis in deviated wells: A practical method
Mitchell, R.F.
1996-12-31
Current helical buckling models are valid for vertical wells, but provide only approximate solutions for horizontal wells. Solutions of the non-linear buckling equations for arbitrary well deviation have been developed, but are too complex for practical use. This paper presents a set of correlations that match the exact solutions extremely well, but are simple to use. These correlations show the effects of well deviation on buckling shape, tubing length change, contact force and bending stress.
Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.
Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.
1982-01-01
Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors
Earliest Gait Deviations During Slips: Implications For Recovery
Kurt E. Beschorner; Mark S. Redfern; Rakié Cham
2012-01-01
This study identified that deviations in vertical force and knee angle\\/angular velocity of the slipping leg occur earlier in stance and with greater magnitude than other lower-body motions when a person experiences an unexpected slip. Deviations in the ankle angle\\/angular velocity and hip angular velocity occurred soon after the knee angle and with smaller magnitudes. These results suggest that foot
Dissociated vertical deviation: evidence of abnormal visual pathway projection.
Fitzgerald, B. A.; Billson, F. A.
1984-01-01
Abnormalities in visually evoked responses have been used to demonstrate abnormal optic nerve fibre projections in human albinos, who have anomalous nystagmoid movements. Using visually evoked potentials we tested the hypothesis that patients with dissociated vertical deviation (another group with anomalous nystagmoid movements) may have abnormal visual evoked responses similar to those of albinos. Patients with dissociated vertical deviation (both unilateral and alternating), patients with congenital esotropia without dissociated vertical deviation, and normal subjects were investigated. The results showed a very high incidence of abnormal visual evoked responses in patients with dissociated vertical deviation, while recordings from the other groups were normal. As well as suggesting the possibility of abnormalities of optic nerve fibre projections, the visual evoked responses showed a marked increase in latency in all patients with dissociated vertical deviation. These results occurred regardless of the visual acuity or amblyopia of the eyes tested. The possible existence of abnormal pathway projection in the presence of dissociated vertical deviation is discussed. PMID:6498135
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.
[Surgical treatment of nasal septal deviation (septoplasty) in children].
Baljosevi?, Ivan; Milovanovi, Jovica; Novkovi?, Mladen; Stankovi?, Katarina; Baljosevi?, Zlata
2011-01-01
The aim of this study was to indicate the importance of surgical treatment of nasal septal deviation in children as early correction of functional and cosmetic nose deformities. In this study, we presented 76 children, from age of 7 to 15, who were surgical treated for the reason of nasal septal deviation starting from January 2001. to December 2009. There were 48 (63%) male and 28 (37%) female patients. The lowest number of patients were between 7 and 9 years old--5 (6.5%), between 10 and 12 years--28 (37%) and 43--(56.5%) between 13 and 15 years. Only 7 (9%) patients indicated genetics inheritance, and 11 of them (14%) could not determine the exact cause of deviation origin. References taken from the parents showed that nasal septal deviation developed like consequence of injury in 58 (76%) cases. We used closed technique of septoplasty with hemitransfictional incision and sub mucosal resection. Deviated portion of septum was completely removed. Patients felt improvement in nose breathing in 65 (85%) cases. The most often complication was nasal obstruction in 6 (8%) cases which occurred due to the insufficient removal of deviated portion. We also had a septal perforation in one and abscess of nasal septum in another case. There were no esthetic deformities.Surgical treatment of nasal septal deviation in children must to be conservative and limited on injured part of septum. After the operation nose breathing significantly improved, without consequences on esthetic appearance or the growth of central part of a face. PMID:22369019
Principles and Parameters of Molecular Robustness David C. Krakauer & Joshua B. Plotkin
Plotkin, Joshua B.
. A theory of robustness is proposed in which mechanisms are classified into those that purge damage on phenotypes. Three distinct albeit closely related principles have arisen in an effort to understand the evolu the cumulative cost of deviations from a locally optimal trajectory. Waddington conceived of deviations
14 CFR 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...2012-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...
14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...2013-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...
14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...2014-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...
14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...
14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...
Why historical east deviation experiments are so difficult to perform?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Cohen, Caroline; Quere, David; Clanet, Christophe
2012-11-01
From the 17th to the 19th century, a big deal was to prove Earth rotation existence. For this purpose, numerous experimental physicists from Borelli in 1668 to Reich in 1832 tried to measure an eastward deviation of a falling sphere. Reich performed 106 falling experiments on a 158.5 m deep mine pit. The mean eastward deviation of its experiments is 2.8 cm. This value corresponds exactly with the theoretical one predicted by Laplace and Gauss expression at Freiberg latitude where experiments were conducted. While Reich took extreme precautions to perform its experiments, the dispersion on its results is very important. Actually aerodynamic lift forces on a smooth sphere made its free fall non perfectly straight. We understand Reich's results dispersion considering fluctuating lift forces intensity on a smooth sphere at those Reynolds numbers (Re ~104 -105). This study provides a criterion above which we can distinguish between lift force and Coriolis deviation during a free fall experiment.
High septal osteotomy in rhinoplasty for the deviated nose.
Jameson, John J; Perry, Adam D; Ritter, Edmond F
2006-01-01
When attempting to straighten a patient's healed, deviated bony nasal dorsum, deviation of the central structure (high dorsal septum and medial nasal bones) must be addressed following the completion of medial and lateral osteotomies. When hump resection is not performed, blunt fracture (digitally or with forceps) of the deviated central structure is not a reliable method of mobilization, often leading to postoperative nasal drift. An intranasal osteotomy technique to mobilize the central structure of the nose is described, called "high septal osteotomy." Review of 25 cases suggests high septal osteotomy, supplemented as needed by resection of overlapping septal elements, can be performed safely and efficaciously, permitting stable midline reduction of the nasal pyramid. The technique is not advocated when hump resection is performed, as it is unnecessary and could destabilize the dorsum. Even aggressive maneuvers to mobilize the bony dorsum may fail if not performed properly with meticulous attention to completion of all osteotomies. PMID:16374094
H. F. Harmuth; N. J. Mohamed
1992-01-01
The paper presents several simple designs of large-current radiators for nonsinusoidal waves, which produce low distortions but can efficiently radiate large powers. The principles of the large-current radiator are discussed, and the characteristics of several design schemes are examined. A circuit diagram of a low-power driver for large-current radiators is presented.
Estimating local backbone structural deviation in homology models.
Cardozo, T; Batalov, S; Abagyan, R
2000-01-01
After the atomic coordinates themselves, the most important data in a homology model are the spatial reliability estimates associated with each of the atoms (atom annotation). Recent blind homology modeling predictions have demonstrated that principally correct sequence-structure alignments are achievable to sequence identities as low as 25% [Martin, A.C., MacArthur, M.W., Thornton, J.M., 1997. Assessment of comparative modeling in CASP2. Proteins Suppl(1), 14-28]. The locations and extent of spatial deviations in the backbone between correctly aligned homologous protein structures remained very poorly estimated however, and these errors were the cause of errant loop predictions [Abagyan, R., Batalov, S., Cardozo, T., Totrov, M., Webber, J., Zhou, Y., 1997. Homology modeling with internal coordinate mechanics: deformation zone mapping and improvements of models via conformational search. Proteins Suppl(1), 29-37]. In order to derive accurate measures for local backbone deviations, we made a systematic study of static local backbone deviations between homologous pairs of protein structures. We found that 'through space' proximity to gaps and chain termini, local three-dimensional 'density', three-dimensional environment conservation, and B-factor of the template contribute to local deviations in the backbone in addition to local sequence identity. Based on these finding, we have identified the meaningful ranges of values within which each of these parameters correlates with static local backbone deviation and produced a combined scoring function to greatly improve the estimation of local backbone deviations. The optimized function has more than twice the accuracy of local sequence identity or B-factor alone and was validated in a recent blind structure prediction experiment. This method may be used to evaluate the utility of a preliminary homology model for a particular biological investigation (e.g. drug design) or to provide an improved starting point for molecular mechanics loop prediction methods. PMID:10642877
Vertex deviation maps to bracked the Milky Way resonant radius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roca-Fàbrega, S.; Antoja, T.; Figueras, F.; Valenzuela, O.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Pichardo, B.
2015-05-01
We map the kinematics of stars in simulated galaxy disks with spiral arms using the velocity ellipsoid vertex deviation (l_v). We use test particle simulations, and for the first time, fully self-consistent high resolution N-body models. We compare our maps with the Tight Winding Approximation model analytical predictions. We see that for all barred models spiral arms rotate closely to a rigid body manner and the vertex deviation values correlate with the density peaks position bounded by overdense and underdense regions. In such cases, vertex deviation sign changes from negative to positive when crossing the spiral arms in the direction of disk rotation, in regions where the spiral arms are in between corotation (CR) and the Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR). By contrast, when the arm sections are inside the CR and outside the OLR, l_v changes from negative to positive.We propose that measurements of the vertex deviations pattern can be used to trace the position of the main resonances of the spiral arms. We propose that this technique might exploit future data from Gaia and APOGEE surveys. For unbarred N-body simulations with spiral arms corotating with disk material at all radii, our analysis suggests that no clear correlation exists between l_v and density structures.
Points & Deviations A pattern language for fire alarm systems
Schmidt, Douglas C.
Page 1 Points & Deviations A pattern language for fire alarm systems Peter Molin and Lennart the architecture embedded in the framework. The result of this effort was a small pattern language which. Keywords : objectoriented framework, design pattern, pattern language, fire alarm system. 1 Introduction
The Effect of Type of Punishment on Resistance to Deviation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LaVoie, Joseph C.
The comparative effectiveness of an aversive stimulus, withholding of resources, withdrawal of love and reasoning, when used alone and combined with praise, was assessed in the standard laboratory punishment paradigm using 120 first and second graders as subjects. Resistance to deviation was used as the measure of punishment effectiveness. Sex of…
Laser beam directional deviation and noise stabilization device
Mcmahan
1982-01-01
A laser beam directional deviation and noise stabilization device is disclosed as incorporating a laser which broadcast a monochromatic laser light beam along a predetermined optical path , and a plurality of optical elements which eliminate from the laser light beam any beam wander, and power level fluctuations inherent within the laser light beam.
Deviations from Matthiessen's rule in nitrogen doped niobium
J. Fuss; K. Schulze; H. Schultz
1978-01-01
The deviations from Matthiessen's rule (DMR) were measured between 10K and 320K for high-purity niobium doped with interstitial nitrogen. At temperatures where the residual resistivity is comparable to the ideal resistivity due to electron-phonon scattering, DMR reached a maximum. The results can be described by a 'two-band model'.
Paul Withers Were slopes on Mars once flat? -Systematic Deviations
Withers, Paul
Paul Withers Were slopes on Mars once flat? - Systematic Deviations of "Flat" Martian Features from thought to be flat. New data has shown them to have a systematic slope with respect to an equipotential found in Venus, Earth, and the Moon [Bindschadler and Schubert, 1993]. Various hypotheses have been
Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bonett, Douglas G.
2006-01-01
Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…
24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ...
24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ROW OF INTACT COLUMNS, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST. (NOTE BOLTED BLOCK SCABBED TO COLUMN AS JOIST/TRUSS SUPPORT) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.
Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M
1975-01-01
Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed. PMID:1184490
41 CFR 102-2.70 - What are individual and class deviations?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...102-2.70 What are individual and class deviations? An individual deviation is intended to affect only one action. A class deviation is intended to affect more than one action (e.g., multiple actions, the...
41 CFR 102-2.70 - What are individual and class deviations?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...102-2.70 What are individual and class deviations? An individual deviation is intended to affect only one action. A class deviation is intended to affect more than one action (e.g., multiple actions, the...
41 CFR 102-2.70 - What are individual and class deviations?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...102-2.70 What are individual and class deviations? An individual deviation is intended to affect only one action. A class deviation is intended to affect more than one action (e.g., multiple actions, the...
41 CFR 102-2.70 - What are individual and class deviations?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...102-2.70 What are individual and class deviations? An individual deviation is intended to affect only one action. A class deviation is intended to affect more than one action (e.g., multiple actions, the...
41 CFR 102-2.70 - What are individual and class deviations?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...102-2.70 What are individual and class deviations? An individual deviation is intended to affect only one action. A class deviation is intended to affect more than one action (e.g., multiple actions, the...
Principles of administration revisited
John Donaldson; Irene Fafaliou
2007-01-01
Purpose – To explore the assumptions underlying the traditional “principles of administration” in the light of the rise of interest in corporate social responsibility, business ethics and corporate governance and to link revised principles to practical stakeholder models, using, for example, modern communications media. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using concepts of “fit” between traditional administrative principles and common problems of business administration,
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beim, George
This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…
Chemical Principles Exemplified
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Plumb, Robert C.
1970-01-01
This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…
The certainty principle (review)
D. A. Arbatsky
2006-08-17
The certainty principle (2005) allowed to conceptualize from the more fundamental grounds both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (1927) and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation (1945). In this review I give detailed explanation and discussion of the certainty principle, oriented to all physicists, both theorists and experimenters.
Principles of plasma diagnostics
Ian H. Hutchinson
1987-01-01
Principles of Plasma Diagnostics provides a detailed derivation and discussion of the plasma physics principles on which diagnostics are base, including magnetic measurements, electric probes, refractive index, radiation emission and scattering, and ionic processes. The text is based on first-principles development of the required concepts and includes examples of diagnostics in action taken from fusion research.
Driving Toward Guiding Principles
Buckovich, Suzy A.; Rippen, Helga E.; Rozen, Michael J.
1999-01-01
As health care moves from paper to electronic data collection, providing easier access and dissemination of health information, the development of guiding privacy, confidentiality, and security principles is necessary to help balance the protection of patients' privacy interests against appropriate information access. A comparative review and analysis was done, based on a compilation of privacy, confidentiality, and security principles from many sources. Principles derived from ten identified sources were compared with each of the compiled principles to assess support level, uniformity, and inconsistencies. Of 28 compiled principles, 23 were supported by at least 50 percent of the sources. Technology could address at least 12 of the principles. Notable consistencies among the principles could provide a basis for consensus for further legislative and organizational work. It is imperative that all participants in our health care system work actively toward a viable resolution of this information privacy debate. PMID:10094065
Higher-order geodesic deviations applied to the Kerr metric
R. Colistete Jr.; C. Leygnac; R. Kerner
2002-05-06
Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations within a General Relativistic setting, without using Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We apply this method to the problem of closed orbital motion of test particles in the Kerr metric space-time. With a simple circular orbit in the equatorial plane taken as the initial geodesic we obtain finite eccentricity orbits in the form of Taylor series with the eccentricity playing the role of small parameter. The explicit expressions of these higher-order geodesic deviations are derived using successive systems of linear equations with constant coefficients, whose solutions are of harmonic oscillator type. This scheme gives best results when applied to the orbits with low eccentricities, but with arbitrary values of $(GM/Rc^2)$, smaller than 1/6 in the Schwarzschild limit.
Deviations from Liquidlike Behaviorinmolten Polymer Films at Interfaces
Seo,Y.; Koga, T.; Sokolov, J.; Rafailovich, M.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.
2005-01-01
We have performed x-ray specular and diffuse scattering on liquid polymer films and analyzed the spectra as a function of film thickness and molecular weight. The results show that films whose molecular weight is close to the entanglement length behave as simple liquids except that the shortest wavelength is determined by the radius of gyration (Rg) rather than the monomer-monomer distance. When the molecular weight is higher than the entanglement length, the strong deviations from liquidlike behavior are observed. We find that the long wavelength cutoff vector, ql, c, scales with film thickness, d as d{sup -1.1{+-}0.1} rather than the usual d{sup -2} expected for simple liquids. If we assume that these deviations are due to surface pinning of the polymer chains, then our results are consistent with the formalism developed by Fredrickson et al. to explain the capillary wave spectrum that can propagate in a polymer brush.
Geodesic Deviation Equation in $f(T)$ gravity
F. Darabi; M. Mousavi; K. Atazadeh
2015-04-14
In this work, we show that it is possible to study the notion of geodesic deviation equation in $f(T)$ gravity, in spite of the fact that in teleparallel gravity there is no notion of geodesics, and the torsion is responsible for the appearance of gravitational interaction. In this regard, we obtain the GR equivalent equations for $f(T)$ gravity which are in the modified gravity form such as $f(R)$ gravity. Then, we obtain the GDE within the context of this modified gravity. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the $f(T)$ gravity. Eventually, we extend the calculations to obtain the modification of Matting relation.
Dissociated vertical deviation-a clinical and laboratory study.
Helveston, E M
1980-01-01
The previously reported nomenclature and clinical characteristics of dissociated vertical deviation have been recorded. The incidence and characteristics of DVD have been determined by evaluation of 1,000 consecutive strabismus or nystagmus patients, and with selected chart study carried out on the 111 DVD patients found in this series. Electro-oculographic studies of selected patients with DVD provided objective evidence of the speed and amplitude of the ocular movements in DVD. Bell phenomenon, strabismus sursoadductorius and the Bielschowsky phenomenon were recorded and compared to clinical findings of strabismus patients with DVD. The technique for the results of surgery for DVD were described. Dissociated vertical deviation was characterized as a component of the overall strabismus picture. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 3 C FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B PMID:7020216
The effect of semantic information on saccade trajectory deviations.
Weaver, Matthew D; Lauwereyns, Johan; Theeuwes, Jan
2011-05-25
In recent years, many studies have explored the conditions in which irrelevant visual distractors affect saccades trajectories. These previous studies mainly focused on the low-level stimulus characteristics and how they affect the magnitude of curvature. The present study explored the possible effect of high level semantic information on saccade curvature. Semantic saliency was manipulated by presenting irrelevant peripheral taboo versus neutral cue words in a spatial cuing paradigm that allowed for the measurement of trajectory deviations. Findings showed larger saccade trajectory deviations away from taboo (versus neutral) cue words when making a saccade towards another location. This indicates that due to their high semantic saliency, more inhibition was necessarily applied to taboo cue locations to effectively suppress their competing as saccade targets. PMID:21402093
Deviation of Yukawa Coupling in Gauge-Higgs Unification
Yuki Adachi; Nobuhito Maru
2015-01-26
We study the deviation of yukawa coupling in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario from the Standard Model one. Taking into account the brane mass terms necessary for generating the flavor mixing and removing the exotic massless fermions, we derive an analytic formula determining the KK mass spectrum and yukawa coupling. Applying the obtained results to the tau and bottom yukawa couplings, we numerically calculate the ratio of the yukawa couplings in the gauge-Higgs unification and in the Standard Model.
OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.
Olsen, Harold W.
1985-01-01
This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.
Singularly perturbed feedback linearization with linear attitude deviation dynamics realization
Abdulrahman H. Bajodah
2008-01-01
A new approach for feedback linearization of attitude dynamics for rigid gas jet-actuated spacecraft control is introduced.\\u000a The approach is aimed at providing global feedback linearization of the spacecraft dynamics while realizing a prescribed linear\\u000a attitude deviation dynamics. The methodology is based on nonuniqueness representation of underdetermined linear algebraic\\u000a equations solution via nullspace parametrization using generalized inversion. The procedure is
Visual evoked potentials in dissociated vertical deviation: a reappraisal.
Kriss, A; Timms, C; Elston, J; Taylor, D; Gresty, M
1989-01-01
Pattern reversal and flash evoked potentials were recorded in 13 children with dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). No electrophysiological evidence was found to support the notion that patients with DVD have an anomalous (albinoid) projection of visual fibres originating from the temporal retina of each eye. However, DVD patients had significantly smaller monocular and binocular pattern evoked responses than age matched controls. Explanations are given for this finding and for the occipital VEP asymmetries reported by other workers. PMID:2713304
Explorations in statistics: standard deviations and standard errors
NSDL National Science Digital Library
PhD Douglas Curran-Everett (National Jewish Medical and Research Center Div. Biostatistics, Depts. Prev. Med./Biometrics, Physiology/Biophys)
2008-05-06
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in Advances in Physiology Education provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle with which to explore basic concepts in statistics, I provide the requisite R commands. In this inaugural paper we explore the essential distinction between standard deviation and standard error: a standard deviation estimates the variability among sample observations whereas a standard error of the mean estimates the variability among theoretical sample means. If we fail to report the standard deviation, then we fail to fully report our data. Because it incorporates information about sample size, the standard error of the mean is a misguided estimate of variability among observations. Instead, the standard error of the mean provides an estimate of the uncertainty of the true value of the population mean.
Correlation study between nasal septal deviation and rhinosinusitis.
Prasad, Sumit; Varshney, Saurabh; Bist, S S; Mishra, Sarita; Kabdwal, Namita
2013-12-01
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a major cause of concern worldwide. Nasal septal deviation (NSD) may either cause osteomeatal obstruction or may interfere with proper airflow and potentially predispose to sinusitis. Due to the lack of a universally accepted classification on NSD it has not been established whether NSD influences the development of sinusitis or not. Mladina in 1987 proposed a classification in which he classified NSD into seven different categories. The aims and objectives of this study are to observe the correlation between NSD and CRS and to study the relation of different grades of NSD with sinusitis as per Mladina's classification. Patients above 18 years of age presenting to ENT OPD with complaint of nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and headache were subjected to CT scan (nose and paranasal sinuses) coronal section with contiguous 5 mm thickness slice perpendicular to the hard palate in prone position. Presence of NSD and sinusitis was observed. 120 cases were studied. The mean age was 28.7 ± 9.37 years with age range 18-58 years. There were 92 (76.6 %) males and 28 (23.3 %) females with a M:F ratio of 3:1. Out of 120 cases, 114 (95 %) cases had NSD. Sinusitis was present in 63 (52.5 %) cases on CT scan. Out of 57 (50.0 %) cases with NSD and sinusitis, 13 (11.4 %) cases had sinusitis on the same side of NSD, 14 (12.28 %) cases had sinusitis on the side opposite to NSD and 30 (26.31 %) cases had sinusitis on both sides of NSD. There was no statistically significant relationship between NSD and sinusitis. As per Mladina's classification vertical deviations accounted for majority of patient's septal deviations with 31 (27.1 %) cases of type II NSD and 24 (21.1 %) cases of type I NSD. The maximum number of cases with sinusitis had vertical deviations with type I NSD in 17 (27.0 %) cases and type II NSD in 18 (28.5 %) cases. The present study reveals that there is no correlation between NSD and sinusitis. Vertical deviations type I and type II are more prone to sinusitis as they involve the nasal valve area. PMID:24427600
Vegard's law deviation in band gap and bowing parameter of AlxIn1-xN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liou, B.-T.; Yen, S.-H.; Kuo, Y.-K.
2005-08-01
Numerical simulation based on first-principle calculations is applied to study the wurtzite AlxIn1-xN. Simulation results suggest that the Vegard’s law deviation parameter is 0.063 ± 0.014 Å for the a lattice constant, and -0.160 ± 0.015 Å for the c lattice constant. The band gap bowing parameter is 3.668 ± 0.147 eV with the lattice constants by means of the minimized equilibrium energy, and 3.457 ± 0.152 eV with the lattice constants derived from Vegard’s law.
B. Derrida; J. L. Lebowitz; E. R. Speer
2002-01-01
We consider the asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP) in one dimension on sites\\u000a$i = 1,..., N$, in contact at sites $i=1$ and $i=N$ with infinite particle\\u000areservoirs at densities $\\\\rho_a$ and $\\\\rho_b$. As $\\\\rho_a$ and $\\\\rho_b$ are\\u000avaried, the typical macroscopic steady state density profile $\\\\bar \\\\rho(x)$,\\u000a$x\\\\in[a,b]$, obtained in the limit $N=L(b-a)\\\\to\\\\infty$, exhibits shocks and\\u000aphase transitions. Here we
HYDROSTATICS AND DYNAMICAL LARGE DEVIATIONS OF BOUNDARY DRIVEN GRADIENT SYMMETRIC EXCLUSION
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
of boundary driven interacting particles systems has attracted attention recently as a first step et al. in the context of boundary driven interacting particles systems [3], we present a proof/2) · D() , (0, ·) = (·) , (t, ·) = b(·) on , where D is the diffusivity of the system, the gradient, b
B. Derrida; J. L. Lebowitz; E. R. Speer
2003-01-01
We consider the asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP) in one dimension on sites i=1,...,N, in contact at sites i=1 and i=N with infinite particle reservoirs at densities ?a and ?b. As ?a and ?b are varied, the typical macroscopic steady state density profile ¯?(x), x?[a,b], obtained in the limit N=L(b-a)?8, exhibits shocks and phase transitions. Here we derive an exact asymptotic
LARGE DEVIATIONS OF EMPIRICAL ZERO POINT MEASURES ON RIEMANN SURFACES, I: g = 0
Zelditch, Steve
a Gaussian measure on the space PN = H0 (CP1 , O(N)) determined by inner products GN (h, ) induced by any smooth Hermitian metric h on O(1) CP1 and any probability measure d on CP1 satisfying the weighted to the weighted energy of probability measures on CP1 , and in particular its unique minimizer is the weighted
Exponential growth rates & large deviations for a typed branching di#usion
Bath, University of
of particles, D(#, #), which are found simul taneously with spatial positions near #t and type positions near . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3 A birthdeath process
Large deviations of max-weight scheduling policies on convex rate regions
Vijay G. Subramanian
2008-01-01
We consider a single server discrete-time system with K users where the server picks operating points from a compact, convex and co-ordinate convex set in R+ K. For this system we analyse the performance of a stablising policy that at any given time picks operating points from the allowed rate region that maximise a weighted sum of rate, where the
Large deviation probabilities for the number of vertices of random polytopes in the ball
Calka, Pierre
strong localization of the extreme points in an annulus near the boundary of the ball. Introduction and main results Let us denote by U1, Â· Â· Â· , Un, n N, n independent and uniformly distributed variables the dimension-dependent constant cd is known explicitly, see Wieacker [13] (for d = 3), BÂ´arÂ´any [1], Sch
Large Deviations for Small Noise Di usions with Discontinuous Michelle Boue
equations and on weak convergence methods. AMS 1991 subject classi cations. Primary: 60F10; secondary: 60J60 conditions. More recently, Chiang and Sheu 4] considered d{dimensional di usions with drift
Large deviations results for subexponential tails, with applications to insurance risk
Søren Asmussen; Claudia Klüppelberg
1996-01-01
Consider a random walk or Lévy process {St} and let ?(u) = inf {t?0 : St > u}, P(u)(·) = P(· | ?(u) < ?). Assuming that the upwards jumps are heavy-tailed, say subexponential (e.g. Pareto, Weibull or lognormal), the asymptotic form of the P(u)-distribution of the process {St} up to time ?(u) is described as u ? ?. Essentially,
Large-deviation analysis and applications Of learning tree-structured graphical models
Tan, Vincent Yan Fu
2011-01-01
The design and analysis of complexity-reduced representations for multivariate data is important in many scientific and engineering domains. This thesis explores such representations from two different perspectives: deriving ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Weirui; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Cao, Genrui
2014-05-01
The stitching interferometry for the surface profile measurement of a large aperture component is studied. To analyze the overlapping region interferogram of the adjacent subapertures with Scale Invariant Feature Transform(SIFT) algorithm, the stitching parameters of the adjacent subapertures and then overall surface information of the tested component can be obtained. SIFT algorithm of subaperture positioning, interferogram processing, phase unwrapping, Zernike polynomials wavefront fitting and subaperture wavefront stitching programs are written. A principle experiment has been carried out. Compared with the measurement results between the stitching interferometry and full caliber testing, the deviation of RMS is less than 2nm.
On the superposition principle in interference experiments
Sinha, Aninda; H. Vijay, Aravind; Sinha, Urbasi
2015-01-01
The superposition principle is usually incorrectly applied in interference experiments. This has recently been investigated through numerics based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods as well as the Feynman path integral formalism. In the current work, we have derived an analytic formula for the Sorkin parameter which can be used to determine the deviation from the application of the principle. We have found excellent agreement between the analytic distribution and those that have been earlier estimated by numerical integration as well as resource intensive FDTD simulations. The analytic handle would be useful for comparing theory with future experiments. It is applicable both to physics based on classical wave equations as well as the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. PMID:25973948
On the superposition principle in interference experiments
Aninda Sinha; Aravind H. Vijay; Urbasi Sinha
2015-04-22
The superposition principle is usually incorrectly applied in interference experiments. This has recently been investigated through numerics based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods as well as the Feynman path integral formalism. In the current work, we have derived an analytic formula for the Sorkin parameter which can be used to determine the deviation from the application of the principle. We have found excellent agreement between the analytic distribution and those that have been earlier estimated by numerical integration as well as resource intensive FDTD simulations. The analytic handle would be useful for comparing theory with future experiments. It is applicable both to physics based on classical wave equations as well as the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation.
On the superposition principle in interference experiments.
Sinha, Aninda; H Vijay, Aravind; Sinha, Urbasi
2015-01-01
The superposition principle is usually incorrectly applied in interference experiments. This has recently been investigated through numerics based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods as well as the Feynman path integral formalism. In the current work, we have derived an analytic formula for the Sorkin parameter which can be used to determine the deviation from the application of the principle. We have found excellent agreement between the analytic distribution and those that have been earlier estimated by numerical integration as well as resource intensive FDTD simulations. The analytic handle would be useful for comparing theory with future experiments. It is applicable both to physics based on classical wave equations as well as the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. PMID:25973948
Intercardial deviation of a gyrocompass with a dynamically tunable gyroscope
V. V. Avrutov
1991-01-01
Utilization of the principle of dynamic tuning for gyroscopic stabilization and the orientation of moving objects has been one of the goals pursued in gyrocompass engineering. The use of a dynamically tunable gyroscope (DTG) as the main sensitive element of correctable gyrocompasses has made it possible to reduce the size, weight, and power rating of the instrument, increase its reliability
Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug
2010-01-01
First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…
Bateman's principle and immunity.
Rolff, Jens
2002-01-01
The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) of Folstad and Karter has inspired a large number of studies that have tried to understand the causal basis of parasite-mediated sexual selection. Even though this hypothesis is based on the double function of testosterone, a hormone restricted to vertebrates, studies of invertebrates have tended to provide central support for specific predictions of the ICHH. I propose an alternative hypothesis that explains many of the findings without relying on testosterone or other biochemical feedback loops. This alternative is based on Bateman's principle, that males gain fitness by increasing their mating success whilst females increase fitness through longevity because their reproductive effort is much higher. Consequently, I predict that females should invest more in immunity than males. The extent of this dimorphism is determined by the mating system and the genetic correlation between males and females in immune traits. In support of my arguments, I mainly use studies on insects that share innate immunity with vertebrates and have the advantage that they are easier to study. PMID:11958720
A Principled Approach to the Origin Problem.
Aono, Masashi; Kitadai, Norio; Oono, Yoshi
2015-09-01
The key issue of the origin of life is the origin of a complex system rather than the abiotic formation of various organic substances, small and large. To consider this "origin problem" it is advantageous to abstract some principles from biology and statistical physics to guide our approach. Referring to these principles, we aim to construct a chemical system called "protometabolism," which would be a precursor of metabolism. PMID:26177711
Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva Ribeiro, A.; Costa Santos, A.; Alves Sousa, J.; Forbes, A. B.
2015-02-01
Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment.
Classi?cation of Ceres HST albedo deviation map
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zambon, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Tosi, F.; McFadden, L. A.; Blewett, T. D.; Scipioni, F.; Longobardo, A.; Li, Y. J.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.
2014-04-01
With a mean diameter of 952 km, dwarf planet Ceres is the largest object in the main asteroid belt. Here we classify Hubble Space Telescope (HST) albedo deviation map of Ceres calculated in three bands, using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classification method. The data are available in the PDS Small Bodies Node and are described in [1]. Our classification allows the identification of regions of interest on Ceres, and to distinguish areas with similar spectral characteristics. Our work is in support of the arrival of the Dawn spacecraft at Ceres in 2015.
What Metadata Principles Apply to Scientific Data?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayernik, M. S.
2014-12-01
Information researchers and professionals based in the library and information science fields often approach their work through developing and applying defined sets of principles. For example, for over 100 years, the evolution of library cataloging practice has largely been driven by debates (which are still ongoing) about the fundamental principles of cataloging and how those principles should manifest in rules for cataloging. Similarly, the development of archival research and practices over the past century has proceeded hand-in-hand with the emergence of principles of archival arrangement and description, such as maintaining the original order of records and documenting provenance. This project examines principles related to the creation of metadata for scientific data. The presentation will outline: 1) how understandings and implementations of metadata can range broadly depending on the institutional context, and 2) how metadata principles developed by the library and information science community might apply to metadata developments for scientific data. The development and formalization of such principles would contribute to the development of metadata practices and standards in a wide range of institutions, including data repositories, libraries, and research centers. Shared metadata principles would potentially be useful in streamlining data discovery and integration, and would also benefit the growing efforts to formalize data curation education.
Principles for system level electrochemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thaller, L. H.
1986-01-01
The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.
On Deviations between Observed and Theoretically Estimated Values on Additivity-Law Failures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Sobagaki, Hiroaki
The authors have reported in the previous studies that the average observed results are about a half of the corresponding predictions on the experiments with large additivity-law failures. One of the reasons of the deviations is studied and clarified by using the original observed data on additivity-law failures in the Nakano experiment. The conclusion from the observations and their analyses clarified that it was essentially difficult to have a good agreement between the average observed results and the corresponding theoretical predictions in the experiments with large additivity-law failures. This is caused by a kind of unavoidable psychological pressure existing in subjects participated in the experiments. We should be satisfied with the agreement in trend between them.
The Earth's inner core deviation to plate movement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, D.
2007-12-01
Under the premise of the Earth's spherical structure and mass distribution, the solid inner core cannot be stable in the center of the Earth. Thus, the deviation of the inner core is towards the sphere's barycenter and the liquid outer core must be brought about asymmetrical thermal convection. Based on the two suggestions, a concise and self-consistent global motion model can be built. The model consists of the following cycle: an asymmetrial thermal convection structure in the outer core led by the dislocation of the inner core¡úthe plume is in special upwell position because of differencial activation¡úthe formation and split of lithosphere¡úthe split plates drift and assemble in a new location, the mass of which causes the inner core to deviate towards the direction again¡úthe new asymmetry is formed. As this circulation continues, a definite and periodical motion emerges/forms. Its nonlinear features result in the Earth's motion with simple mechanisms but complex behavior. Ultraterrestrial events may disturb or even interrupt this movement but would not significantly affect the cycle forever.
Principles of control thermodynamics
P. Salamon; J. D. Nulton; G. Siragusa; T. R. Andersen; A. Limon
2001-01-01
The article presents a partial synthesis of progress in control thermodynamics by laying out the main results as a sequence of principles. We state and discuss nine general principles (0–8) for finding bounds on the effectiveness of energy conversion in finite-time.
Government Information Policy Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hernon, Peter
1991-01-01
Analyzes the utility of policy principles advanced by professional associations for public access to government information. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS), the Information Industry Association (IIA), and the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) urge the adoption of principles for the dissemination of public…
Hamilton's Principle for Beginners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brun, J. L.
2007-01-01
I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Dr. Rod Nave
This tutorial provides instruction on Pauli's exclusion principle, formulated by physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, which states that no two electrons in an atom can have identical quantum numbers. Topics include a mathematical statement of the principle, descriptions of some of its applications, and its role in ionic and covalent bonding, nuclear shell structure, and nuclear binding energy.
Analysis of the deviations from the "average" curve of sediment transport vs water flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nones, Michael; di Silvio, Giampaolo; Bisiacco, Mauro
2010-05-01
Recent studies about analytical solutions of the 1-D morphodynamic model (Fasolato et al., 2009) have shown that any river reach maintains an equilibrium configuration (namely a stationary morphological situation) under the hypothesis that the boundaries of the river reach are in equilibrium as far as solid and liquid inputs are concerned. This hypothesis means that the bottom profile of the river and the grainsize composition of the bed should, in principle, remain constant in time, provided that sediments and water entering the reach are related by an equilibrium relation (transport formula). Obviously, this condition is not always satisfied, especially in the mountain rivers, as the formation mechanisms of water and sediment inputs are quite different and seasonally delayed. These initial perturbations give place to important deviations from the "average" curve of sediment transport vs water flow, namely from the curve calculated in equilibrium conditions. This study presents a general approach that can be used to explain and possibly predict these deviations. The approach is based on the deterministic analytical solution of the harmonic river (Fasolato et al., 2009), combined with a recursive model of ARMA type, with unknown parameters, which can be estimated by minimizing a suitable mean square error, in order to obtain the best ARMA model from two different points of view: its performances both in fitting the available (measured) data and in providing a prediction algorithm for the future evolutions. The recursive model for a synthetic river reach will provide the instantaneous sediment discharge as a function of the instantaneous water flow (namely equilibrium conditions) and the water flow measured at one or more previous time (non-equilibrium conditions). This model is calibrated against a relatively small dataset of measurements about an important Italian water course: the Adige River, which flows from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea south of Venice. The analysis is limited to two gauge stations: Trento (typical mountain river reach) and Boara Pisani (typical lowland river reach).
GOCE: Its principles and science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rummel, R.; Gruber, T.; Albertella, W.; Yi, A.
2012-12-01
GOCE is the first satellite mission with a gravity gradiometer. It is very successful in delivering the global geoid and gravity anomaly field with rather high spatial resolution. The gradiometer measurements are based on the principle of differential accelerometry. It is the centre piece of a sensor system comprising in addition GPS, star tracking, angular control by magnetic torquing, drag free control in flight direction by ion thrusting and calibration via shaking with cold gas thrusters. Gravity field sensitivity is enhanced by the satellite's extremely low orbit altitude of only 265 km. GOCE science and application is primarily about "dynamic topography". In geophysics dynamic topography is referred to as that part of surface deformation which is not in isostatic balance but supported by vertical stresses at the base of the lithosphere. Gravity and geoid anomalies reflect the gravitational effect of dynamic topography. In oceanography dynamic topography is the deviation of the actual mean ocean surface, as measured by satellite altimetry, from the geoid which is the hypothetical ocean surface at rest. The uses of mean dynamic ocean topography range from ocean circulation studies via mass and heat transport in the oceans to the unification of height systems and levelling by GPS. Full exploitation of GOCE requires its combination with GRACE and with satellite laser ranging and GPS. The considered measurements and techniques must all refer consistently to the same set of geodetic standards such as those defined by the IERS.
On the deviations of the classical von Zeipel's theorem at the upper layers of rotating stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claret, A.
2012-02-01
Aims: In this paper we investigate the deviations from von Zeipel's theorem at the upper layers of a distorted star. In addition, we derive an analytic expression for the gravity-darkening exponent ?1. Methods: We introduce two different methods to derive the theoretical gravity-darkening exponents. In the first one we use a perturbation theory to derive an analytical expression for the gravity-darkening exponent for slow rotating stars as a function of the rotation law, colatitude, and opacity derivatives. In the second procedure we explore the validity of the mentioned theorem in the upper layers of a distorted star by adapting grey and non-grey atmosphere models to our numerical method, designed originally for stellar envelopes. Results: We have found significant deviations from von Zeipel's theorem when we compute gravity-darkening exponents at the upper layers of a distorted star using our modified numerical method. This is a consequence of using a transfer equation that is more elaborated than the diffusion approach, therefore such a theorem is not strictly valid at lower optical depths. The shifts depend on the optical depth, on the effective temperature, and on the adopted atmosphere models. For large depths, we restore the classical value of ?1, say, 1.0 for hotter stars. Taking such deviations into account, it may be possible to explain the scattering around the theoretical predictions for double-lined eclipsing binaries, as well as the low value of ?1 (0.75), recently inferred for the very fast rotating star ? Leo for which the classical von Zeipel's theorem predicts ?1 = 1.0.
Low-energy magnetic radiation: Deviations from GOE
Frauendorf, S. [University Notre Dame, IN 46557 (United States); Schwengner, R. [IRP, HZDR, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Wimmer, K. [Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)
2014-10-15
A pronounced spike at low energy in the strength function for magnetic radiation (LEMAR) is found by means of Shell Model calculations, which explains the experimentally observed enhancement of the dipole strength. LEMAR originates from statistical low-energy M1-transitions between many excited complex states. Re-coupling of the proton and neutron high-j orbitals generates the strong magnetic radiation. LEMAR is closely related to Magnetic Rotation. LEMAR is predicted for nuclides participating in the r-process of element synthesis and is expected to change the reaction rates. An exponential decrease of the strength function and a power law for the size distribution of the B(M1) values are found, which strongly deviate from the ones of the GOE of random matrices, which is commonly used to represent complex compound states.
Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model
Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong [National Chiao Tung Univ., Taiwan (China)
1996-12-31
The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt`s Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Local hardness equalization and the principle of maximum hardness.
Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto; Chattaraj, Pratim K
2013-06-01
The chemical potential, hardness, and hyperhardnesses equalization principles are used to show that the leading term associated with charge transfer in the total interaction energy among the fragments in which a molecule is divided is directly proportional to minus the hardness of the molecule in its ground state, as established by the principle of maximum hardness. The additional terms in the interaction energy, associated with the changes in the external potential of the fragments, provide explanation for deviations between the point of maximum hardness and the point of minimum energy. It is also found that the dual descriptor plays a very important role in hardness equalization. PMID:23758354
Spine deviations and orthodontic treatment of asymmetric malocclusions in children
2012-01-01
Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept). The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3?years, SD 2.1?years). After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy?=?37, control?=?40); 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2). The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1?years (SD 0.2?years). Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test). Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study). This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:22906114
Well tractors for highly deviated and horizontal wells
Hallundbaek, J.
1994-12-31
This paper introduces the oil industry to a new type of downhole tools--the Well Tractors with modular power source designed for running in open hole and inside the completions of horizontal and highly deviated wells. The Well Tractors are used for cleaning, setting and pulling of plugs, operating sliding sleeves, open hole logging, running of production logs, drilling, perforation guns, cement bond logs, etc. Horizontally the Well Tractors pull coiled tubing and/or wireline beyond 10,000 ft. The Well Tractors are capable of pulling more than 25,000 ft of coiled tubing and/or wireline into a highly deviated well. Furthermore the tools are designed for pushing other tools into the hole, e.g., logging tools, video cameras, etc. The Well Tractors with modular power source are designed in two versions: A fluid driven version for coiled tubing operations, powered by brine, water, mud, etc., which is pumped down through standard coiled tubing. The tool is controlled from the surface via a wireline running inside the tubing. Through the wireline measurements can be transmitted to the surface. Alternatively the tool can also operate without the wireline which enables it to run with a smaller size of coiled tubing or have a higher flow rate for cleaning jobs. An electric driven version of the Well Tractor for wireline operations, powered and controlled through the wireline. The Well Tractors are designed in 3 different sizes. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 3 1/8 in. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 4 3/4 in. and a Tractor with an outside diameter of 2 1/8 in.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Tao; Mao, Tian; Wang, Yungang; Zeng, Zhongcao; Xia, Chunliang; Wu, Fenglei; Wang, Le
2014-08-01
With the rapid increase of GPS/GNSS receivers being deployed and operated in China, real-time GPS data from nearly a thousand sites are available at the National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorology Administration. However, it is challenging to generate a high-quality regional total electron content (TEC) map with the traditional two-dimensional (2-D) retrieval scheme because a large horizontal gradient has been reported over east-south Asia due to the northern equatorial ionization anomaly. We developed an Ionosphere Data Assimilation Analysis System (IDAAS), which is described in this study, using an International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model as the background and applying a Kalman filter for updated observations. The IDAAS can reconstruct a three-dimensional ionosphere with the GPS slant TEC. The inverse slant TEC correlates well with observations both for GPS sites involved in the reconstruction and sites that are not involved. Based on the IDAAS, simulations were performed to investigate the deviation relative to the slant-to-vertical conversion (STV). The results indicate that the relative deviation induced by slant-to-vertical conversion may be significant in certain instances, and the deviation varies from 0% to 40% when the elevation decreases from 90° to 15°, while the relative IDAAS deviation is much smaller and varies from -5% to 15% without an elevation dependence. Compared with ‘true TEC’ map derived from the model, there is large difference in STV TEC map but no obvious discrepancy in IDAAS map. Generally, the IDAAS TEC map is much closer to the “true TEC” than is STV TEC map is. It is suggested that three-dimensional inversion technique is necessary for GPS observations of low elevation at an equatorial anomaly region, wherein the high horizontal electron density gradient may produce significant slant-to-vertical deviations using the two-dimensional STV inversion method.
A model for the transport of cuttings in highly deviated wells
Gavignet, A.A.; Sobey, I.J.
1986-01-01
At present, drilling of highly deviated wells is complicated by the possibility of the formation of a thick bed of cuttings at low flow rates. The bed of cuttings can cause large torque loads on drill pipe and can fall back around the bit resulting in a stuck bit. Previous investigators have made experimental observations which show that bed formation is characterized by a relatively rapid increase in bed thickness as either the flow rate is lowered past some critical value, or as the deviation from the vertical increases. The authors present a simple model which explains these observations. The model shows that the bed thickness is controlled by the interfacial stress caused by the different velocities of the mud and the cuttings layer. The results confirm previous observations that bed formation is relatively insensitive to mud rheology. Eccentricity of the drill pipe in the hole is an important factor. The model is used to determine critical flow rate needed to prevent the formation of a thick bed of cuttings and the inclination, hole size and rate of penetration are varied.
The Principles of Accreditation
Boyce, Richard L.
#12;The Principles of Accreditation: Foundations for Quality Enhancement Commission on Colleges..........................................................................................2 Organization of the Commission and the Association ............4 The Process of Accreditation Policies ....................31 3.14 Representation of Accreditation Status
Archimedes' Principle and Applications Objectives
Yu, Jaehoon
Lab 9 Archimedes' Principle and Applications Objectives: Upon successful completion of this exercise you will have ... 1. ... utilized Archimedes' principle to determine the density and specific gravity of a variety of substances. 2. ... utilized Archimedes' principle to determine the density
Principles of Information Assurance
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This course on the Principles of Information Assurance is provided by the Cyber Security Education Consortium (CSEC). The course includes introductory security principles and gives students "an understanding of the current threats and vulnerabilities of the cyber landscape, plus other topics relating to the information assurance field." Links are provided to learn more about the Major Topics Covered, Course Learning Objectives, and Course Outline. The Course Outline includes a list of careers that require the knowledge from this course and related textbooks.
Principles of Forecasting Project
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Directed by J. Scott Armstrong at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, the Principles of Forecasting Project seeks to "develop a comprehensive and structured review of the state of knowledge in the field of forecasting" in order to aid future research. The project will lead to a book entitled Principles of Forecasting: A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners, and sample chapters, contact information, updates, and links to forecasting resources add value to this expanding compilation.
Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity
Sun, Qingqing; Shahriar, M. Selim; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2010-01-01
We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-01-05
...FDA-2008-N-0119] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard...as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Lili; Chen, Zekuan; Li, Zhijing
2013-10-01
The working characteristic of the Hall current sensor CSM025A was studied in the paper. The "modeling-deviation compensation" algorithm of adopting to compensate the deviation by the software way was proposed according to the deviation problem between actual working characteristic and ideal working characteristic of the output signal in current measurement. Experiments showed that the measurement result was accurate and the "modeling-deviation compensation" algorithm effect was good.
Two universal physical principles shape the power-law statistics of real-world networks
Lorimer, Tom; Stoop, Ruedi
2015-01-01
The study of complex networks has pursued an understanding of macroscopic behavior by focusing on power-laws in microscopic observables. Here, we uncover two universal fundamental physical principles that are at the basis of complex networks generation. These principles together predict the generic emergence of deviations from ideal power laws, which were previously discussed away by reference to the thermodynamic limit. Our approach proposes a paradigm shift in the physics of complex networks, toward the use of power-law deviations to infer meso-scale structure from macroscopic observations.
Quantum measurement theory and the uncertainty principle
Masanao Ozawa
2015-07-08
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle states that canonically conjugate observables can only be simultaneously measured under the constraint that the product of their mean errors should be no less than a limit set by Planck's constant. Heisenberg claimed that this is a straightforward mathematical consequence of basic postulates for quantum mechanics. However, Heisenberg with the subsequent completion by Kennard has long been credited only with a well-known constraint for the product of the standard deviations. Here we examine Heisenberg's original derivation of the uncertainty principle and show that Heisenberg actually derived the above mentioned constraint for simultaneous measurements but using an obsolete postulate for quantum mechanics. This assumption, known as the repeatability hypothesis, or its approximate measurement version, formulated explicitly by von Neumann and Schr\\"{o}dinger, was broadly accepted until the 1970s, whereas it was abandoned in the 1980s, when completely general quantum measurement theory was established. We also survey recent investigations to establish the universally valid reformulation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle under this general theory of quantum measurement.
The August Krogh principle applies to plants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.
1996-01-01
The Krogh principle refers to the use of a large number of animals to study the large number of physiological problems, rather than limiting study to a particular organism for all problems. There may be organisms that are more suited to study of a particular problem than others. This same principle applies to plants. The authors are concerned with the recent trend in plant biology of using Arabidopsis thaliana as the "organism of choice." Arabidopsis is an excellent organism for molecular genetic research, but other plants are superior models for other research areas of plant biology. The authors present examples of the successful use of the Krogh principle in plant cell biology research, emphasizing the particular characteristics of the selected research organisms that make them the appropriate choice.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-06-23
...of Availability of Class Deviation; Disputes...Related to Enforcement Actions Associated With Leaking...Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability...availability of a Class Deviation from EPA's...timely enforcement action and reallocation...therefore issued a Class Deviation under...
Standard deviation and standard error of the mean
2015-01-01
In most clinical and experimental studies, the standard deviation (SD) and the estimated standard error of the mean (SEM) are used to present the characteristics of sample data and to explain statistical analysis results. However, some authors occasionally muddle the distinctive usage between the SD and SEM in medical literature. Because the process of calculating the SD and SEM includes different statistical inferences, each of them has its own meaning. SD is the dispersion of data in a normal distribution. In other words, SD indicates how accurately the mean represents sample data. However the meaning of SEM includes statistical inference based on the sampling distribution. SEM is the SD of the theoretical distribution of the sample means (the sampling distribution). While either SD or SEM can be applied to describe data and statistical results, one should be aware of reasonable methods with which to use SD and SEM. We aim to elucidate the distinctions between SD and SEM and to provide proper usage guidelines for both, which summarize data and describe statistical results. PMID:26045923
Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review
Kindregan, Deirdre; Gallagher, Louise; Gormley, John
2015-01-01
In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning. PMID:25922766
Gait deviations in children with autism spectrum disorders: a review.
Kindregan, Deirdre; Gallagher, Louise; Gormley, John
2015-01-01
In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords "gait" and "autism," and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning. PMID:25922766
Design Principles of the ESCOT Math Environments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Underwood, Jody S.; Hoadley, Chris; DiGiano, Chris; Stohl, Hollylynne; Hollebrands, Karen
This paper describes the Educational Software Components of Tomorrow (ESCOT) project. The focus of the project was on principles that support problem-solving and learner-centered design issues, and the purpose was to garner lessons from a large educational software development project to share with the learning sciences and other interested…
THE PRINCIPLE OF NEGLECTING UPSTREAM REACTIONS
Árpád Á
This paper presents a practical principle, which states that in the case of modifying a flow boundary (e.g. adjusting a blade angle), upstream of the modi- fication the flow is affected to a very small extent, what is usually negligible, while the downstream effect of the modification is large, usually not negligible. This is not a new statement; in special
Comprehensive Program Review: Applying TQM Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ostroth, D. David
1996-01-01
Reviews one system successfully used to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) principles and techniques in a student affairs department at a large public university. Discusses TQM applications and argues that implementation of TQM requires both planned staff training and an organization-wide culture change. (RJM)
Nurses's knowledge of heart failure education principles
Nancy M. Albert; Susan Collier; Veronica Sumodi; Sandra Wilkinson; Jeffrey P. Hammel; Linda Vopat; Cindy Willis; Barb Bittel
2002-01-01
Objective: The goal of this study was to determine nurses' knowledge of heart failure (HF) self-management education principles. Design: The study was exploratory and descriptive and included a convenience sample. Setting: Research took place in a large midwestern health care system that included a university-based hospital, community hospitals, and home or palliative care. Subjects: Subjects included 300 nurses who provide
The principle of material frame indifference and the covarianee principle
L. J. T. M. Kempers
1989-01-01
Summary A comparison between the formulations of the principle of material frame indifference in continuum mechanics, which principle\\u000a refers to stress-strain relations without inertial forces, and the covariance principle in the theory of general relativity\\u000a indicates that a relationship between them can be established. It is shown that the principle of material frame indifference\\u000a follows from the covariance principle in the
Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stacey, J. M.
1984-01-01
The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.
Basic Principles of Chromatography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne
Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.
The Box Principle Dragos Hrimiuc
Bowman,John C.
The Box Principle Dragos Hrimiuc There are different versions of the Box Principle (or Pi- geonhole Principle). Essentially it says: It n+1 balls are distributed in n boxes then at least one box has more than are distributed in n boxes, then at least one box has more than m balls. This elementary principle, used first
Deviation from LTE conditions in high pressure mercury discharge lamps
Elloumi, H.; Zissis, G. [Centre de Physique des Plasmas et de Leurs Applications, Toulouse (France); Charrada, K. [ESSTT, Tunis (Tunisia)
1998-12-31
Up to now the positive column of high light sources have been investigated mainly as a system in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Recent measurements in mercury arcs suggest the existence of departures from equilibrium in the axis and in the periphery in such an arc. The deviation from equilibrium leads to complicated distributions such that the plasma cannot be described by a single temperature. In these conditions, the only practical way of investigations is the direct the measurements of the neutral atom densities. In a recent paper the authors have proposed a method allowing the determination of the ground state density in a high pressure mercury discharge from the broadening of the red wing of the 253.7 nm self reversed resonance line. This method, which does not require the LTE assumption, has proved to be very convenient for measuring the ground state density in a wide range of pressure (from 0.2 to 5 bar in the authors` case). From spatially resolved line intensity measurements, local densities are inferred by Abel inversion. The experiment was described previously. Mercury discharge lamps, having the same internal diameter (18.2 mm) and inter-electrode distance (72 mm), operated vertically through a current invertor (current equal to 3.2 A). In the present work the authors investigate the same range of pressure as in Ref. 1. They compare the experimental results by those calculated using a two temperature model. The opportunity to compare such densities gave as a lot of additional information. Therefore, the results are interpreted in term of non equilibrium. Results for the lowest pressure (0.2 bar) show that the discrepancy are very pronounced in the arc core and in the periphery of the discharge (the axial density is 0.25 {times} 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}), while the departure from equilibrium becomes insignificant for high pressure (the axial density is 6.5 {times} 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}).
Petrothermal heat extraction using a single deviated well (Horstberg, revisited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Vogt, Esther; Bartetzko, Anne; Sauter, Martin
2013-04-01
The single-well tracer test conducted (Behrens et al. 2006) in conjunction with waterfrac experiments at Horstberg is re-examined with a view at four basic issues: why single-well? why fracturing? why tracers? does this only work at Horstberg, or can it work almost anywhere else in the Northern-German sedimentary basin? Heat and tracer transport within a composite reservoir (impermeable matrix + waterfrac + permeable layer), as accessed by a single deviated well, turn out to fit into a surprisingly simple description, as the plain (arithmetic) sum of certain petrothermal-type and aquifer-type contributions, whose weighting relative to each other can vary from site to site, depending upon stratigraphy and upon wellbore geometry. At Horstberg, within the particular formations tested ('Volpriehausen', 'Detfurth', 'Solling', comprising mainly claystone and sandstone layers), thermal lifetime results to be petrothermally-dominated, while tracer residence times prove to be 'aquifer'-dominated. Despite this disparity, the reservoir's thermal lifetime can reliably be predicted from tracer test results. What cannot be determined from waterfrac flow-path tracing is the very waterfrac's aperture. Aperture uncertainty, however, does not impede upon thermal lifetime predictability. The results of the semi-analytical approach are confirmed by numerical simulations using a FE model that includes more details of hydrogeological heterogeneity for the Horstberg site. They are complemented by a parameter sensitivity analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit G6 of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').
Probing deviations from General Relativity with the Euclid spectroscopic survey
Elisabetta Majerotto; Luigi Guzzo; Lado Samushia; Will J. Percival; Yun Wang; Sylvain de la Torre; Bianca Garilli; Paolo Franzetti; Emanuel Rossetti; Andrea Cimatti; Carmelita Carbone; Nathan Roche; Giovanni Zamorani
2012-05-28
We discuss the ability of the planned Euclid mission to detect deviations from General Relativity using its extensive redshift survey of more than 50 Million galaxies. Constraints on the gravity theory are placed measuring the growth rate of structure within 14 redshift bins between z=0.7 and z=2. The growth rate is measured from redshift-space distortions, i.e. the anisotropy of the clustering pattern induced by coherent peculiar motions. This is performed in the overall context of the Euclid spectroscopic survey, which will simultaneously measure the expansion history of the universe, using the power spectrum and its baryonic features as a standard ruler, accounting for the relative degeneracies of expansion and growth parameters. The resulting expected errors on the growth rate in the different redshift bins, expressed through the quantity f\\sigma_8, range between 1.3% and 4.4%. We discuss the optimisation of the survey configuration and investigate the important dependence on the growth parameterisation and the assumed cosmological model. We show how a specific parameterisation could actually drive the design towards artificially restricted regions of the parameter space. Finally, in the framework of the popular "\\gamma -parameterisation", we show that the Euclid spectroscopic survey alone will already be able to provide substantial evidence (in Bayesian terms) if the growth index differs from the GR value \\gamma=0.55 by at least \\sim 0.13. This will combine with the comparable inference power provided by the Euclid weak lensing survey, resulting in Euclid's unique ability to provide a decisive test of modified gravity.
Bong H. Lian; Kefeng Liu; S. T. Yau
1997-01-01
We propose and study the following Mirror Principle: certain sequences of multiplicative equivariant characteristic classes on Kontsevich's stable map moduli spaces can be computed in terms of certain hypergeometric type classes. As applications, we compute the equivariant Euler classes of obstruction bundles induced by any concavex bundles -- including any direct sum of line bundles -- on $\\\\P^n$. This includes
RADAR PRINCIPLES I Introduction
Sato, Toru
) bands. Antenna size of weather radarsis a few to about ten metersin diameter, but an} atmospheric radar atmospheric radars have antennas witli dialneter of 10- 300 in. Weather radars cover a wide horizontal areaRADAR PRINCIPLES I Introduction Radar is a general technique, willcli has a wide range
Basic Comfort Heating Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dempster, Chalmer T.
The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Jerry Staiger, Keith Carlson, Jim Laver, Ray Arntson (University of Minnesota; )
2008-04-11
This workshop covers major principles and regulations pertinent to working in laboratories with hazardous materials. It is divided into 45 minute segments dealing with: Radioactive Materials (Staiger); Toxic, Reactive, Carcinogenic, and Teratogenic Chemicals (Carlson); Infectious Agents (Laver); and Fire Safety Concepts and Physical Hazards (Arnston).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martz, Carlton
1999-01-01
This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at individuals who have stood on principle against authority or popular opinion. The first article investigates John Adams and his defense of British soldiers at the Boston Massacre trials. The second article explores Archbishop Thomas Becket's fatal conflict with England's King Henry II. The final…
Principles for Professional Ethics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
School Psychology Review, 1997
1997-01-01
Reviews principles based on assumptions that school psychologists will act as advocates for their clients and will do no harm. Includes sections on professional competency, relationships and responsibilities, and practice in public and private settings. Presents extensive information on procedural guidelines for adjudication of ethical complaints.…
Sandra Barkman; Bryon S. Marks
With contacts throughout the supply chain, who better than the Supply Chain professional to implement Lean principles? This paper explores Supply Chain Management's (SCM) strategic use of Lean as a business philosophy. Defining the value stream from raw material to finished product delivery, SCM links with multiple functions throughout the product life cycle. Using these contacts, the SCM function ideally
Principles of Software Testing
Meyer, Bertrand
testing is the process used to assess the quality of computer software. Software testing is an empiricalSeven Principles of Software Testing Bertrand Meyer, ETH Zürich and Eiffel Software W hile everyone knows the theoret- ical limitations of software testing, in practice we devote considerable effort
Principles of Applied Mathematics
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Kasimov, Aslan
This course, presented by MIT and taught by professor Aslan Kasimov, describes basic principles of applied mathematics. Specifically, the material looks at mathematical analysis of continuum models of various natural phenomena. The course materials include student assignments and exams. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.
Identifying Product Scaling Principles
Perez, Angel 1986-
2011-06-02
-by-analogy and bioinspired design. Despite various scaling laws for specific systems, there are no global principles for scaling systems, for example from a biological nano scale to macro scale. This is likely one of the reasons that bioinspired design is difficult. Very...
Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti
2015-06-01
Quantum theory was discovered in an adventurous way, under the urge to solve puzzles-like the spectrum of the blackbody radiation-that haunted the physics community at the beginning of the 20th century. It soon became clear, though, that quantum theory was not just a theory of specific physical systems, but rather a new language of universal applicability. Can this language be reconstructed from first principles? Can we arrive at it from logical reasoning, instead of ad hoc guesswork? A positive answer was provided in Refs. [1, 2], where we put forward six principles that identify quantum theory uniquely in a broad class of theories. We first defined a class of "theories of information", constructed as extensions of probability theory in which events can be connected into networks. In this framework, we formulated the six principles as rules governing the control and the accessibility of information. Directly from these rules, we reconstructed a number of quantum information features, and eventually, the whole Hilbert space framework. In short, our principles characterize quantum theory as the theory of information that allows for maximal control of randomness.
Principles of Plasma Diagnostics
I. H. Hutchinson
2002-01-01
This book provides a systematic introduction to the physics of plasma diagnostics measurements. It develops from first principles the concepts needed to plan, execute and interpret plasma measurements, making it a suitable book for graduate students and professionals with little plasma physics background. The book will also be a valuable reference for seasoned plasma physicists, both experimental and theoretical, as
Principles of Plasma Diagnostics
I. H. Hutchinson
2005-01-01
This book provides a systematic introduction to the physics of plasma diagnostics measurements. It develops from first principles the concepts needed to plan, execute and interpret plasma measurements, making it a suitable book for graduate students and professionals with little plasma physics background. The book will also be a valuable reference for seasoned plasma physicists, both experimental and theoretical, as
Principles of Biomedical Ethics
Athar, Shahid
2012-01-01
In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498
Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations
Peter Sheridan Dodds; Daniel H. Rothman
2001-01-01
This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river
Geometry of River Networks I: Scaling, Fluctuations, and Deviations
Peter Sheridan Dodds; Daniel H. Rothman
2000-01-01
This article is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary suggesting
30 CFR 585.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...2012-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations § 585.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...
30 CFR 585.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...2014-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations § 585.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...
30 CFR 285.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations § 285.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...
30 CFR 285.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations § 285.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...
30 CFR 585.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...2013-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations § 585.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...
Phase transitions and postural deviations during bimanual kinesthetic tracking.
Stinear, J W; Byblow, W D
2001-04-01
Upper limb coordination was studied by examining pattern stability of between-hand rhythmical coordination. In the first of two experiments, relative phase of rhythmical wrist flexion-extension was examined within a kinesthetic tracking paradigm. Eight right-handed subjects actively tracked a driven hand being flexed and extended by a computer-controlled AC servo-motor. Hand movements were constrained in flexion or extension. The simultaneous contraction of wrist flexors and extensors was defined as inphase (IP) and the alternating contraction of wrist flexors and extensors as antiphase (AP). Phase transitions (from AP to IP) were observed in 16% of trials prepared in AP. Fewer phase transitions occurred when the right wrist was constrained in flexion, and also when the left wrist was constrained in extension. IP patterns were performed with greater stability than AP patterns. These effects were explored further in a second experiment with the addition of a secondary probe reaction time task to assess demands on central capacity, and the analysis of wrist flexor and extensor electromyographic activity. Subjects returned longer reaction times for AP than IP movement, suggesting the AP movement pattern placed a greater demand on central capacity than the IP movement pattern. During this kinesthetic tracking task, similar dynamic principles emerged as those observed during bilaterally active bimanual rhythmical coordination. The greater stability of the hand-posture combination where the driven left hand was constrained in extension and the active right hand was constrained in flexion may be a demonstration of unique central control of coupled activity. PMID:11355391
Geometry of River Networks I: Scaling, Fluctuations, and Deviations
Peter Sheridan Dodds; Daniel H. Rothman
2000-01-01
This article is the first in a series of three papers investigating the\\u000adetailed geometry of river networks. Large-scale river networks mark an\\u000aimportant class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of\\u000aintrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description\\u000aof river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported\\u000avalues of scaling exponents vary suggesting
Sassen, D. S.; Peterson, J. E.
2010-03-15
Significant errors related to poor time zero estimation, well deviation or mislocation of the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) stations can render even the most sophisticated modeling and inversion routine useless. Previous examples of methods for the analysis and correction of data errors in geophysical tomography include the works of Maurer and Green (1997), Squires et al. (1992) and Peterson (2001). Here we follow the analysis and techniques of Peterson (2001) for data quality control and error correction. Through our data acquisition and quality control procedures we have very accurate control on the surface locations of wells, the travel distance of both the transmitter and receiver within the boreholes, and the change in apparent zero time. However, we often have poor control on well deviations, either because of economic constraints or the nature of the borehole itself prevented the acquisition of well deviation logs. Also, well deviation logs can sometimes have significant errors. Problems with borehole deviations can be diagnosed prior to inversion of travel-time tomography data sets by plotting the apparent velocity of a straight ray connecting a transmitter (TX) to a receiver (RX) against the take-off angle of the ray. Issues with the time-zero pick or distances between wells appear as symmetric smiles or frown in these QC plots. Well deviation or dipping-strong anisotropy will result in an asymmetric correlation between apparent velocity and take-off angle (Figure 1-B). In addition, when a network of interconnected GPR tomography data is available, one has the additional quality constraint of insuring that there is continuity in velocity between immediately adjacent tomograms. A sudden shift in the mean velocity indicates that either position deviations are present or there is a shift in the pick times. Small errors in well geometry may be effectively treated during inversion by including weighting, or relaxation, parameters into the inversion (e.g. Bautu et al., 2006). In the technique of algebraic reconstruction tomography (ART), which is used herein for the travel time inversion (Peterson et al., 1985), a small relaxation parameter will smooth imaging artifacts caused by data errors at the expense of resolution and contrast (Figure 2). However, large data errors such as unaccounted well deviations cannot be adequately suppressed through inversion weighting schemes. Previously, problems with tomograms were treated manually. However, in large data sets and/or networks of data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Mislocation of the transmitter and receiver stations of GPR cross-well tomography data sets can lead to serious imaging artifacts if not accounted for prior to inversion. Previously, problems with tomograms have been treated manually prior to inversion. In large data sets and/or networks of tomographic data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Our approach is to use cross-well data quality checks and a simplified model of borehole deviation with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to automatically correct for source and receiver locations prior to tomographic inversion. We present a simple model of well deviation, which is designed to minimize potential corruption of actual data trends. We also provide quantitative quality control measures based on minimizing correlations between take-off angle and apparent velocity, and a quality check on the continuity of velocity between adjacent wells. This methodology is shown to be accurate and robust for simple 2-D synthetic test cases. Plus, we demonstrate the method on actual field data where it is compared to deviation logs. This study shows the promise for automatic correction of well deviations in GPR tomographic data. Analysis of synthetic data shows that very precise estimates of well deviation can be made for small deviations, even in the presence of static data errors. However, the analysis of the synthetic data and the application of
Principles of Semiconductor Devices
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Van Zeghbroeck, Bart Jozef
Home page of an online and interactive textbook, Principles of Semiconductor Devices., written by Bart J. Van Zeghbroeck, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The goal of this text is to provide the basic principles of common semiconductor devices, with a special focus on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs). A browser environment was chosen so that text, figures and equations can be linked for easy reference. A table of contents, a glossary, active figures and some study aids are integrated with the text with the intention to provide a more effective reference and learning environment. Chapter titles include: Semiconductor Fundamentals, Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, p-n Junctions, Bipolar Transistors, MOS Capacitors, and MOSFET.
Uncertainty Principle Respects Locality
Dongsheng Wang
2015-04-19
The notion of nonlocality implicitly implies there might be some kind of spooky action at a distance in nature, however, the validity of quantum mechanics has been well tested up to now. In this work it is argued that the notion of nonlocality is physically improper, the basic principle of locality in nature is well respected by quantum mechanics, namely, the uncertainty principle. We show that the quantum bound on the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality can be recovered from the uncertainty relation in a multipartite setting. We further argue that the super-quantum correlation demonstrated by the nonlocal box is not physically comparable with the quantum one. The origin of the quantum structure of nature still remains to be explained, some post-quantum theory which is more complete in some sense than quantum mechanics is possible and might not necessarily be a hidden variable theory.
Principles of Chemical Science
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Drennan, Catherine
2008-01-01
The basic principles behind chemical science are the bedrock of a number of scientific endeavors, and this remarkable course from MIT's OpenCourseWare initiative is quite a find. Professor Catherine Drennan and Dr. Elizabeth Vogel Taylor created the materials for this course, and the site includes video lectures, lecture notes, and exams. Visitors will note that these materials can be found on the left-hand side of the page, and they can also be downloaded en masse via the "Download Course Materials" link. The topics covered here include the basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, and chemical kinetics. Also, visitors are encouraged to offer their own feedback on the course, or even provide a donation to help out with this initiative.
The Equivalence Principle Revisited
R. Aldrovandi; P. B. Barros; J. G. Pereira
2002-12-07
A precise formulation of the strong Equivalence Principle is essential to the understanding of the relationship between gravitation and quantum mechanics. The relevant aspects are reviewed in a context including General Relativity, but allowing for the presence of torsion. For the sake of brevity, a concise statement is proposed for the Principle: "An ideal observer immersed in a gravitational field can choose a reference frame in which gravitation goes unnoticed". This statement is given a clear mathematical meaning through an accurate discussion of its terms. It holds for ideal observers (time-like smooth non-intersecting curves), but not for real, spatially extended observers. Analogous results hold for gauge fields. The difference between gravitation and the other fundamental interactions comes from their distinct roles in the equation of force.
Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1992-01-01
The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Principle's of Flight Web site is offered by the Pilot's Web Aviation Journal and contains an excellent introduction to the physics of flight. Topics include Newton's laws of motion and force, airfoils, lift and drag, forces acting on an airplane, speed, flight maneuvers, the effects of roll, and more. Each topic contains good illustrations, descriptions, and equations. Overall, the site is an interesting and informative look behind the science of flight.
Principles of lake sedimentology
Janasson, L.
1983-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.
Max Born; Emil Wolf
1999-01-01
Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous
A biomechanical inactivation principle
Jean-Paul Gauthier; Bastien Berret; Frédéric Jean
2010-01-01
This paper develops the mathematical side of a theory of inactivations in human biomechanics. This theory has been validated\\u000a by practical experiments, including zero-gravity experiments. The theory mostly relies on Pontryagin’s maximum principle on\\u000a the one side and on transversality theory on the other side. It turns out that the periods of silence in the activation of\\u000a muscles that are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Annila, Arto
2012-06-01
The principle of least action in its original form á la Maupertuis is used to explain geodetic and frame-dragging precessions which are customarily accounted for a curved space-time in general relativity. The least-time equations of motion agree with observations and are also in concert with general relativity. Yet according to the least-time principle, gravitation does not relate to the mathematical metric of space-time, but to a tangible energy density embodied by photons. The density of free space is in balance with the total mass of the Universein accord with the Planck law. Likewise, a local photon density and its phase distribution are in balance with the mass and charge distribution of a local body. Here gravitational force is understood as an energy density difference that will diminish when the oppositely polarized pairs of photons co-propagate from the energy-dense system of bodies to the energy-sparse system of the surrounding free space. Thus when the body changes its state of motion, the surrounding energy density must accommodate the change. The concurrent resistance in restructuring the surroundings, ultimately involving the entire Universe, is known as inertia. The all-around propagating energy density couples everything with everything else in accord with Mach’s principle.
Masanori Sato
2007-03-12
Incompatibility between the principle of the constancy of the speed of light and the Lorentz contraction in the global positioning system (GPS) is discussed. The GPS works precisely in the earth-centered locally inertial (ECI) coordinate system on the condition that the speed of light c is assumed to be constant regardless of the inertial motion of the GPS satellites and the earth. The inertial system of the earth travels not only in the solar system at the velocity 30 km/s but also in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at the velocity 700 km/s. The deviation on the car navigation system by the Lorentz contraction of 700 km/s is maximally estimated as 54 m. However, such a large deviation is not observed: that is, the Lorentz contraction is not observed in the gravitational field of the earth. If there is a Lorentz contraction, the GPS cannot work so precisely. The GPS satellites are in the gravitational field of the earth, therefore the system should be interpreted by the theory of general relativity as well as special relativity.
Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)
2012-08-15
Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning deviations. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity deviations (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional deviations of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional deviations produce large intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of {>=}5% in {approx}1 mm{sup 2} areas and {>=}2% in {approx}20 mm{sup 2} areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences ({<=}2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero
2015-04-01
Future sea level rise (SL), which represents today one of the major threats that are caused by climate change, will not be uniform. Regional differences are crucial for 40% of the world population, which is located in the coastal zone. To explore the mechanisms linking regional SL to climate variables is very important in order to provide reliable future projections. This study focuses on two semi-enclosed basins, the Adriatic and Baltic Sea and investigates the deviation of their SL from the mean global value. In fact, past deviations of the SL of these two basins from the global value have been observed and can be attributed to large scale factors (such as teleconnections) and regional factors, such as the inverse barometric effect, the wind stress, the thermosteric and halosteric effects. The final goal of this work is to assess to which extent the Adriatic and Baltic SL will depart from the mean global value in the next decades and at the end of 21st century. This is achieved by analyzing deviations of the mean SL of the Baltic and Adriatic Sea from the global mean SL during the 20th century and investigating which factors can explain such deviations. A multivariate linear regression model is built and used to describe the link between three large scale climate variables which are used as predictors (mean sea level pressure, surface air temperature and precipitation), and the regional SL deviation (the predictand), computed as the difference between the regional and the global SL. At monthly scale this linear regression model provides a good reconstruction of the past variability in the cold season during which it explains 60%-70% of the variance. Summer reconstruction is substantially less successful and it represents presently the main limit of the model skill. This linear regression model, forced by predictors extracted from CMIP5 multi-model simulations, is used to provide projections of SL in the Adriatic and Baltic Sea. On the basis of the projections until 2100, the Baltic Sea will rise faster than the global SL. Adriatic SL, on the contrary, shows a substantial agreement with the global trend. This study is part of the activities of RISES-AM project (FP7-EU-603396).
Principles of climate service development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buontempo, Carlo; Liggins, Felicity; Newton, Paula
2015-04-01
In November 2014, a group of 30 international experts in climate service development gathered in Honiton, UK, to discuss and identify the key principles that should be considered when developing new climate services by all the actors involved. Through an interactive and dynamic workshop the attendees identified seven principles. This contribution summarises these principles.
Vegard's law deviation in lattice constant and band gap bowing parameter of zincblende In xGa 1- xN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, Yen-Kuang; Liou, Bo-Ting; Yen, Sheng-Horng; Chu, Han-Yi
2004-07-01
Numerical simulation based on first-principles calculations is applied to study the structural characteristics and band-energy properties of the zincblende In xGa 1- xN. The deviation parameter of the lattice constant is determined to be -0.004 Å. A band gap bowing parameter of 1.890 ± 0.097 eV is obtained with the equilibrium lattice constant and 1.857 ± 0.093 eV is obtained with the lattice constant derived from Vegard's law.
SHEWHART CONTROL CHARTS TO DETECT MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION SHIFTS BASED ON GROUPED DATA
STEFAN H. STEINER; P. LEE GEYER; GEORGE O. WESOLOWSKY
1996-01-01
We propose a Shewhart control chart based on gauging theoretically continuous observations into multiple groups. This chart is designed to monitor the process mean and standard deviation for deviations from stability. By assuming an underlying normal distribution, we derive the optimal grouping criteria that maximizes the expected statistical information available in a sample. Control charts based on grouped observations are
Automatic setup deviation measurements with electronic portal images for pelvic fields
Pouliot, Jean
Automatic setup deviation measurements with electronic portal images for pelvic fields L. M of setup deviation for small pelvic fields using, in external beam radiotherapy, an electronic portal imaging device EPID . The algorithm processes electronic portal images of prostate cancer patients
Research on automatic rectifying-deviation technique for drilling oil well
Zhang Bing Yi; Luan Ju Li; Feng Gui Hong; Gu Zhao Dan
2007-01-01
The paper discussed an automatic rectifying- deviation system, it is a downhole closed-loop automatic device based on SCM (Single Chip Micyoco) control, whose information receive, treatment and control are absolutely accomplished under well, it represents the development direction of rectifying- deviation technology at home and abroad, with a higher level of automation. The paper mainly described the components of drilling-system
Michel, Carine; Cruz, Remy
2015-03-17
The main objective of the present study was to determine the minimal optical deviation responsible for cognitive after-effects in healthy individuals and to explore whether there was a relationship between the degree of optical deviation and cognitive after-effects. Therefore different leftward optical deviations (8°, 10° and 15°) were used in three different groups of healthy participants. Sensorimotor after-effects (evaluating the visuo-manual realignment) were assessed using an open-loop pointing task and cognitive after-effects (evaluating changes in spatial representation) were assessed using manual and perceptual (landmark) line bisection tasks. Results revealed that exposure to 8°, 10° and 15° optical shifts produced sensorimotor after-effects. In contrast, the occurrence of cognitive after-effects depended on the optical deviation. Adaptation to an 8° leftward optical deviation did not produce cognitive after-effects. Adaptation to a 10° leftward optical deviation was responsible for after-effects in the manual line bisection task only. Adaptation to a 15° leftward optical deviation produced after-effects in both the manual and perceptual line bisection tasks. All cognitive after-effects were rightward and were similar to mild, neglect-like manifestations. Both sensorimotor and cognitive after-effects were correlated with the degree of optical deviation. Our results are of methodological and theoretical interest to those interested in sensorimotor plasticity and spatial cognition. PMID:25660233
A. Shirayori; S. Fuchizawa; H. Ishigure; M. Narazaki
2003-01-01
The influence of the initial thickness deviation of the tube wall on the deformation behavior during free hydraulic bulging was studied. The experimental study was performed with tubes that had an initial thickness deviation of approximately 1–4%. FEM simulation and theoretical speculation were also carried out in order to examine the experimental results. It was clarified that the cross sectional
75 FR 67093 - Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-11-01
...designated as ``GLACE Rare Iceberg Water'' that deviates from the U...standard of identity for bottled water. The purpose of the temporary...and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park...identified as ``GLACE Rare Iceberg Water'' that deviate from the...
Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson
Leveson, Nancy
Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson be a mixture of humans, hardware, and software. This paper describes one of the Safeware hazard analysis techniques, Software Deviation Analysis, that incorporates the beneficial fea tures of HAZOP (such
Two cases of hypotropia and dissociated vertical deviation treated with oblique muscle surgery.
Niyaz, Leyla; Gursoy, Haluk Huseyin; Basmak, Hikmet
2014-01-01
The authors report two cases with vertical deviations. The first patient had right exotropia and hypotropia and left inferior oblique overaction and was treated with left inferior oblique muscle weakening and bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession. The second patient had chin-up posture and right dissociated vertical deviation and was treated with bilateral superior oblique posterior tenotomy. PMID:25490238
Robust Estimation of Straight Line Regression Coefficients by Minimizing pth Power Deviations
Alan B. Forsythe
1972-01-01
It is well known that the mean is very sensitive to deviations from normality, especially due to outliers or long tails. We propose the use of an estimator which has been demonstrated to be more robust than least squares for estimating the simple mean, that is, the estimator which minimizes the pth power of the deviations for a power of
17 CFR 230.260 - Insignificant deviations from a term, condition or requirement of Regulation A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insignificant deviations from a term, condition...Small Issues Exemption § 230.260 Insignificant deviations from a term, condition... (2) The failure to comply was insignificant with respect to the offering as...
17 CFR 230.508 - Insignificant deviations from a term, condition or requirement of Regulation D.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insignificant deviations from a term, condition...Securities Act of 1933 § 230.508 Insignificant deviations from a term, condition...and (2) The failure to comply was insignificant with respect to the offering as...
17 CFR 230.508 - Insignificant deviations from a term, condition or requirement of Regulation D.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insignificant deviations from a term, condition...Securities Act of 1933 § 230.508 Insignificant deviations from a term, condition...and (2) The failure to comply was insignificant with respect to the offering as...
17 CFR 230.260 - Insignificant deviations from a term, condition or requirement of Regulation A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insignificant deviations from a term, condition...Small Issues Exemption § 230.260 Insignificant deviations from a term, condition... (2) The failure to comply was insignificant with respect to the offering as...
Brian L. Betker
1995-01-01
The author examines the determinants of equity's absolute priority deviation in seventy-five bankruptcies. Previous research emphasizes the shareholders' option to delay a reorganization. In practice, managers control this option, and agency problems between managers and shareholders can be severe in bankruptcy. Equity's bargaining power should depend on managers' incentives and creditor control over managers. Empirical evidence indicates that priority deviations
PRINCIPLE OF INTERACTION REGION LOCAL CORRECTION
WEI,J.
1999-09-07
For hadron storage rings like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the machine performance at collision is usually limited by the field quality of the interaction region (IR) magnets. A robust local correction for the IR region is valuable in improving the dynamic aperture with practically achievable magnet field quality. The authors present in this paper the action-angle kick minimization principle on which the local IR correction for both RHIC and the LHC are based.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Shinan; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Idir, Mourad; Wu, Xuehui
2015-06-01
Since the development of the Nano-Optic-Measuring Machine (NOM), the accuracy of measuring the profile of an optical surface has been enhanced to the 100-nrad rms level or better. However, to update the accuracy of the NOM system to sub-50 nrad rms, the large saw-tooth deviation (269 nrad rms) of an existing electronic autocollimator, the Elcomat 3000/8, must be resolved. We carried out simulations to assess the saw-tooth-like deviation. We developed a method for setting readings to reduce the deviation to sub-50 nrad rms, suitable for testing plane mirrors. With this method, we found that all the tests conducted in a slowly rising section of the saw-tooth show a small deviation of 28.8 to <40 nrad rms. We also developed a dense-measurement method and an integer-period method to lower the saw-tooth deviation during tests of sphere mirrors. Further research is necessary for formulating a precise test for a spherical mirror. We present a series of test results from our experiments that verify the value of the improvements we made.
Bhuvaneswaran, Mohan
2010-01-01
An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile. PMID:21217950
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This introduction to Earth observation includes definitions of several terms, examples taken from real situations, and questions, answers, and exercises. A simple example of traditional chorological mapping methods and is used to show some fundamental principles of satellite images. Histogram, pixel and classification are introduced. There are discussions about remote sensing, the history of Earth observation, and geostationary and solar synchronous orbits. In addition, the basic physical concepts underlying remote sensing are explained, with the help of some relatively simple viewgraphs. This site is also available in German, French, Italian and Spanish.
Nonequilibrium quantum Landauer principle.
Goold, John; Paternostro, Mauro; Modi, Kavan
2015-02-13
Using the operational framework of completely positive, trace preserving operations and thermodynamic fluctuation relations, we derive a lower bound for the heat exchange in a Landauer erasure process on a quantum system. Our bound comes from a nonphenomenological derivation of the Landauer principle which holds for generic nonequilibrium dynamics. Furthermore, the bound depends on the nonunitality of dynamics, giving it a physical significance that differs from other derivations. We apply our framework to the model of a spin-1/2 system coupled to an interacting spin chain at finite temperature. PMID:25723198
Detection and compensation of basis deviation in satellite-to-ground quantum communications.
Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jincai; Yang, Shiji; Wan, Xiong; He, Zhiping; Jia, Jianjun; Citrin, D S; Wang, Jianyu
2014-04-21
Basis deviation is the reference-frame deviation between a sender and receiver caused by satellite motion in satellite-to-ground quantum communications. It increases the quantum-bit error ratio of the system and must be compensated for to guarantee reliable quantum communications. We present a new scheme for compensating for basis deviation that employs a BB84 decoding module to detect basis deviation and half-wave plate to provide compensation. Based on this detection scheme, we design a basis-deviation compensation approach and test its feasibility in a voyage experiment. Unlike other polarization-correction schemes, this compensation scheme is simple, convenient, and can be easily implemented in satellite-to-ground quantum communications without increased burden to the satellite. PMID:24787870
75 FR 25844 - Class Deviation From FAR 52.219-7, Notice of Partial Small Business Set-Aside
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-05-10
...Secretary Class Deviation From FAR 52.219-7, Notice of Partial Small Business Set-Aside...approval of a class deviation to FAR 52.219-7, to revise an existing class deviation to...class deviation from FAR Clause 52.219-7, Notice of Partial Small Business...
Principles of Enterprise Systems
Nightingale, Deborah
2009-06-15
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) through its Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) research team has been conducting research and facilitating enterprise-level transformations in large complex sociotechnical ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zink, B. L.; Avery, A. D.; Sultan, R.; Bassett, D.; Cotteril, G.
2011-03-01
As electronic and spintronic systems continue to shrink, exploration of the fundamental physics affecting thermal transport in prospective materials becomes increasingly essential. For example, the potential use of spin-torque driven domain wall motion in ferromagnetic nanowires as a memory element requires application of large current densities to these tiny structures. The resulting heating could have both helpful and harmful effects, and is in general not yet well-understood. This is partly due to a gap in the fundamental knowledge of thermal properties of nanoscale systems that is due to the challenging nature of the necessary measurements. We have recently developed a micromachined thermal isolation platform that allows measurement of thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and thermopower (or Seebeck effect) in thin film systems. In this talk we present our recent data on thermal conductivity, resistivity, and Seebeck coefficient, for Ni-Fe alloy films with thicknesses varying from 25-100 nm. We compare our results to the predictions of the Wiedemann-Franz law and discuss variations represented by deviations from the Sommerfeld value of the Lorenz number, and conclude with our plans to extend the technique to yet smaller structures. We thank the NRI-WIN and the NSF CAREER program for support.
Deviation of Long-Period Tides from Equilibrium: Kinematics and Geostrophy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egbert, Gary D.; Ray, Richard D.
2003-01-01
New empirical estimates of the long-period fortnightly (Mf) tide obtained from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter data confirm significant basin-scale deviations from equilibrium. Elevations in the low-latitude Pacific have reduced amplitude and lag those in the Atlantic by 30 deg or more. These interbasin amplitude and phase variations are robust features that are reproduced by numerical solutions of the shallow-water equations, even for a constant-depth ocean with schematic interconnected rectangular basins. A simplified analytical model for cooscillating connected basins also reproduces the principal features observed in the empirical solutions. This simple model is largely kinematic. Zonally averaged elevations within a simple closed basin would be nearly in equilibrium with the gravitational potential, except for a constant offset required to conserve mass. With connected basins these offsets are mostly eliminated by interbasin mass flux. Because of rotation, this flux occurs mostly in a narrow boundary layer across the mouth and at the western edge of each basin, and geostrophic balance in this zone supports small residual offsets (and phase shifts) between basins. The simple model predicts that this effect should decrease roughly linearly with frequency, a result that is confirmed by numerical modeling and empirical T/P estimates of the monthly (Mm) tidal constituent. This model also explains some aspects of the anomalous nonisostatic response of the ocean to atmospheric pressure forcing at periods of around 5 days.
[Difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). Part I].
Loba, Piotr; Broniarczyk-Loba, Anna
2007-01-01
Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is a poorly understood eye motility disorder of unexplained etiology. It occurs as a common hyperdeviation present in most cases of congenital esotropia, but also appears in patients with normal binocular vision and exotropia. DVD is a bilateral condition, often with distinct asymmetry. Its clinical characteristics includes elevation, extorsion and abduction of the nonfixating eye, with fixating eye incyclotorting concomitantly. Commonly it is associated with a compensatory head tilt. Main problem of DVD diagnostics of DVD is quantification of its magnitude due to large variability of various measurements during one eye examination, and usually one fails trying to obtain reproducible measurements in one patient. Therefore, establishing of a proper treatment plan is often unfeasible. Differential diagnosis is occasionally difficult in individuals with inferior and superior oblique overaction with or without co-existing DVD. Primary goal of DVD management is to improve patients' physical looks so that the upward turning of the eye is hardly noticeable. Both conservative as well as surgical treatment should be considered. Planning and performing the effective surgery is extremely difficult in DVD; and various surgical approaches to DVD are used worldwide. PMID:18260298
Observable signature of a background deviating from the Kerr metric
Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy, Soranou Efesiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece); Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos GR15783, Athens (Greece); Apostolatos, Theocharis A. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos GR15783, Athens (Greece); Contopoulos, George [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy, Soranou Efesiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece)
2010-06-15
By detecting gravitational wave signals from extreme mass ratio inspiraling sources (EMRIs) we will be given the opportunity to check our theoretical expectations regarding the nature of supermassive bodies that inhabit the central regions of galaxies. We have explored some qualitatively new features that a perturbed Kerr metric induces in its geodesic orbits. Since a generic perturbed Kerr metric does not possess all the special symmetries of a Kerr metric, the geodesic equations in the former case are described by a slightly nonintegrable Hamiltonian system. According to the Poincare-Birkhoff theorem, this causes the appearance of the so-called Birkhoff chains of islands on the corresponding surfaces of section in between the anticipated KAM curves of the integrable Kerr case, whenever the intrinsic frequencies of the system are at resonance. The chains of islands are characterized by finite width, i.e. there is a finite range of initial conditions that correspond to a particular resonance and consequently to a constant rational ratio of intrinsic frequencies. Thus while the EMRI changes adiabatically by radiating energy and angular momentum, by monitoring the frequencies of a signal we can look for a transient pattern, in the form of a plateau, in the evolution of their ratio. We have shown that such a plateau is anticipated to be apparent in a quite large fraction of possible orbital characteristics if the central gravitating source is not a Kerr black hole. Moreover, the plateau in the ratio of frequencies is expected to be more prominent at specific rational values that correspond to the strongest resonances. This gives a possible observational detection of such non-Kerr exotic objects.
Principles of Safety Pharmacology
Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J
2008-01-01
Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.). PMID:18604233
Great Lakes Literacy Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey
2011-03-01
Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.
Principle of relative locality
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita 'La Sapienza', and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P. le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2Y5 (Canada); Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Pl. Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)
2011-10-15
We propose a deepening of the relativity principle according to which the invariant arena for nonquantum physics is a phase space rather than spacetime. Descriptions of particles propagating and interacting in spacetimes are constructed by observers, but different observers, separated from each other by translations, construct different spacetime projections from the invariant phase space. Nonetheless, all observers agree that interactions are local in the spacetime coordinates constructed by observers local to them. This framework, in which absolute locality is replaced by relative locality, results from deforming energy-momentum space, just as the passage from absolute to relative simultaneity results from deforming the linear addition of velocities. Different aspects of energy-momentum space geometry, such as its curvature, torsion and nonmetricity, are reflected in different kinds of deformations of the energy-momentum conservation laws. These are in principle all measurable by appropriate experiments. We also discuss a natural set of physical hypotheses which singles out the cases of energy-momentum space with a metric compatible connection and constant curvature.
Giant magnetoresistance calculated from first principles
Butler, W.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); MacLaren, J.M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Zhang, X.G. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Computational Sciences
1994-09-01
The Layer Korringa Kohn Rostoker-Coherent Potential Approximation technique was used to calculate the low temperature Giant Magnetoresistance from first principles for Co{vert_bar}Cu and permalloy{vert_bar}Cu superlattices. Our calculations predict large giant magnetoresistance ratios for Co{vert_bar}Cu and extremely large ratios for permalloy{vert_bar}Cu for current perpendicular to the layers. Mechanisms such as spin-orbit coupling which mix spin channels are expected to greatly reduce the GMR effect for permalloy{vert_bar}Cu.
Principle of maximal randomness and parity violation in turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adzhemyan, L. Ts.; Hnatich, M.; Kompaniets, M. V.
2013-07-01
We show that in the self-consistent equations for equal-time correlation functions of velocity fluctuations obtained in the model of developed turbulence based on the maximal randomness principle, infrared divergences are absent from all orders of the perturbation theory. We analyze the additional ultraviolet (UV) divergences that appear in the two-loop approximation of the self-consistent equations. We show that in the system with conserved parity, these divergences can be eliminated using the existing ambiguity in the solution. In the case of parity violation in the system, the UV divergences have a logarithmic form, which can indicate a deviation from the Kolmogorov scaling.
Asymptotic approach to Special Relativity compatible with a relativistic principle
J. M. Carmona; J. L. Cortes; D. Mazon
2010-07-19
We propose a general framework to describe Planckian deviations from Special Relativity (SR) compatible with a relativistic principle. They are introduced as the leading corrections in an asymptotic approach to SR going beyond the energy power expansion of effective field theories. We discuss the conditions in which these Planckian effects might be experimentally observable in the near future, together with the non-trivial limits of applicability of this asymptotic approach that such a situation would produce, both at the very high (ultraviolet) and the very low (infrared) energy regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiskoot, H.
2013-12-01
A multidecadal review of glacier fluctuations and case-studies of glacier processes and environments in central East Greenland will be used to demonstrate Mechanisms that Amplify, Attenuate and Deviate glacier response to climate forcings (MAAD). The different spatial and temporal scales at which MAAD affect mass balance and ice flow may complicate interpretation and longterm extrapolation of glacier response to climate change. A framework of MAAD characterisation and best-practice for interpreting climate signals while taking into account MAAD will be proposed. Glaciers in the Watkins Bjerge, Geikie Plateau and Stauning Alps regions of central East Greenland (68°-72°N) contain about 50000 km2 of glacierized area peripheral to the Greenland Ice Sheet. Within the region, large north-south and coast-inland climatic gradients, as well as complicated topography and glacier dynamics, result in discrepant glacier behaviour. Average retreat rates have doubled from about 2 to 4 km2 a-1 between the late 20th and early 21st centuries. However, glaciers terminating along the Atlantic coast display two times the retreat, thinning, and acceleration rates compared to glaciers terminating in inland fjords or on land. Despite similar climatic forcing variable glacier behaviour is apparent: individual glacier length change ranges from +57 m a-1 to -428 m a-1, though most retreat -20 to -100 m a-1. Interacting dynamic, mass balance and glacio-morphological mechanisms can amplify, attenuate or deviate glacier response (MAAD) to climate change, thus complicating the climatological interpretation of glacier length, area, and thickness changes. East Greenland MAAD include a range of common positive and negative feedback mechanisms in surface mass balance and terminus and subglacial boundary conditions affecting ice flow, but also mechanisms that have longterm or delayed effects. Certain MAAD may affect glacier change interpretation on multiple timescales: e.g. surging glaciers do not only pose problems for the direct interpretation of climate change from length and volume changes due to their dynamically-driven advance and retreat regimes, but also for the reconstruction of LIA extents from trimlines and moraines, and the reconstruction of surface mass balance due to crevasses, potholes or debris-cover. This presentation will address a range of MAAD, including thermal regime transitions; ocean influences on tidewater-terminating glaciers; glacier fragmentation and tributary-trunk interaction; glacier surging and tidewater behaviour; seasonal variations; glacier hypsometry and morphology; terrain and substrate; melt-albedo and melt-ice flow feedbacks; and ice marginal lakes.
Dynamic sealing principles. [design configurations for fluid leakage control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1976-01-01
The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function. They are: (1) selection and control of seal geometry, (2) control of leakage fluid properties, and (3) control of forces acting on leakage fluids. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin-film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbour, Julian
The definitive ideas that led to the creation of general relativity crystallized in Einstein's thinking during 1912 while he was in Prague. At the centenary meeting held there to mark the breakthrough, I was asked to talk about earlier great work of relevance to dynamics done at Prague, above all by Kepler and Mach. The main topics covered in this chapter are: some little known but basic facts about the planetary motions; the conceptual framework and most important discoveries of Ptolemy and Copernicus; the complete change of concepts that Kepler introduced and their role in his discoveries; the significance of them in Newton's work; Mach's realization that Kepler's conceptual revolution needed further development to free Newton's conceptual world of the last vestiges of the purely geometrical Ptolemaic world view; and the precise formulation of Mach's principle required to place GR correctly in the line of conceptual and technical evolution that began with the ancient Greek astronomers.
Polydimensional Supersymmetric Principles
William M. Pezzaglia
1999-09-22
Systems of equations are invariant under "polydimensional transformations" which reshuffle the geometry such that what is a line or a plane is dependent upon the frame of reference. This leads us to propose an extension of Clifford calculus in which each geometric element (vector, bivector) has its own coordinate. A new classical action principle is proposed in which particles take paths which minimize the distance traveled plus area swept out by the spin. This leads to a solution of the 50 year old conundrum of `what is the correct Lagrangian' in which to derive the Papapetrou equations of motion for spinning particles in curved space (including torsion). Based on talk given at: 5th International Conference on Clifford Algebras and their Applications in Mathematical Physics, Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo, Mexico, June 27-July 4, 1999.
Dynamical principles in neuroscience
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.
2006-10-01
Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?
Fault Management Guiding Principles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan
2011-01-01
Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.
Towards first-principles electrochemistry
Dabo, Ismaila
2008-01-01
This doctoral dissertation presents a comprehensive computational approach to describe quantum mechanical systems embedded in complex ionic media, primarily focusing on the first-principles representation of catalytic ...
49 CFR 213.332 - Combined track alinement and surface deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...inward is negative). AL = allowable alinement limit as per § 213.327(c) (always positive) for the class of track. Sm = measured profile deviation from uniformity (down is positive, up is negative). SL = allowable profile limit as...
49 CFR 213.65 - Combined track alinement and surface deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...inward is negative). AL = allowable alinement limit as per § 213.55(b) (always positive) for the class of track. Sm = measured profile deviation from uniformity (down is positive, up is negative). SL = allowable profile limit as...
49 CFR 213.332 - Combined track alinement and surface deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...inward is negative). AL = allowable alinement limit as per § 213.327(c) (always positive) for the class of track. Sm = measured profile deviation from uniformity (down is positive, up is negative). SL = allowable profile limit as...
49 CFR 213.65 - Combined track alinement and surface deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...inward is negative). AL = allowable alinement limit as per § 213.55(b) (always positive) for the class of track. Sm = measured profile deviation from uniformity (down is positive, up is negative). SL = allowable profile limit as...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
...deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171... BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171... BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...
46 CFR 69.13 - Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... false Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system. 69.13 Section 69.13 Shipping...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.13...
46 CFR 69.13 - Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... false Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system. 69.13 Section 69.13 Shipping...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.13...
46 CFR 69.13 - Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... false Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system. 69.13 Section 69.13 Shipping...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.13...
46 CFR 69.13 - Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... false Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system. 69.13 Section 69.13 Shipping...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.13...
Estimation of deviation angle for axial-flow compressor blade sections using inviscid-flow solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, M. J.
1974-01-01
Development of a method of estimating deviation angles by analytical procedures was begun. Solutions for inviscid, irrotational flow in the blade-to-blade plane were obtained with a finite-difference calculation method. Deviation angles for a plane cascade with a rounded trailing edge were estimated by using the inviscid-flow solutions and three trailing-edge hypotheses. The estimated deviation angles were compared with existing experimental data over a range of incidence angles at inlet flow angles of 30 deg and 60 deg. The results indicate that deviation angles can be estimated accurately (within 1 deg) by using one of the three trailing-edge hypotheses, but only when pressure losses are low. A new trailing-edge hypotheses is presented which is suitable (for the cascade considered) for both low- and high-loss operating points.
A test of the Copernican principle.
Caldwell, R R; Stebbins, A
2008-05-16
The blackbody nature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation spectrum is used in a modern test of the Copernican principle. The reionized universe serves as a mirror to reflect CMB photons, thereby permitting a view of ourselves and the local gravitational potential. By comparing with measurements of the CMB spectrum, a limit is placed on the possibility that we occupy a privileged location, residing at the center of a large void. The Hubble diagram inferred from lines of sight originating at the center of the void may be misinterpreted to indicate cosmic acceleration. Current limits on spectral distortions are shown to exclude the largest voids which mimic cosmic acceleration. More sensitive measurements of the CMB spectrum could prove the existence of such a void or confirm the validity of the Copernican principle. PMID:18518434
The role of impurities on the deviation from Paschen's law of SF6
G. Berger; B. Senouci
1986-01-01
Deviations to Paschen's law for SF6 at high pressures are commonly explained by field enhancement due to protrusions supposed to exist at the surface of the electrodes. New experiments for positive polarity allow the authors to draw a different conclusion, i.e. to ascribe these deviations to the impurities of the gas, especially to the combined effect of O2 and H2O.
Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan, Monastir (Tunisia)
2013-04-15
The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.
Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity
Sun Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail [Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Shahriar, M. Selim [Departments of EECS and Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3118 (United States)
2010-03-15
We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can be controlled with an accuracy of 10{sup -4}. The laser phase noise decreases the dispersion magnitude while the amplitude noise increases it. Although we can always adjust the parameters to satisfy the white light condition, both types of noise make the cavity transmission curve uneven.
NONLINEAR ELASTIC EFFECTS ON THE ENERGY FLUX DEVIATION OF ULTRASONIC WAVES IN GR\\/EP COMPOSITES
William H. Prosser; Dale W. Fitting
1992-01-01
This document was created with FrameMaker 4.0.2absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detectednondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift [6].In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity onenergy flux deviation in unidirectional gr\\/ep composites werestudied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energyflux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress.This shift in
Trajectory deviations in spatial compatibility tasks with peripheral and central stimuli.
Welsh, Timothy N; Pacione, Sandra M; Neyedli, Heather F; Ray, Matthew; Ou, Jerry
2015-07-01
It is widely held that the spatial compatibility effect emerges because the irrelevant spatial dimension of the target stimulus activates a response simultaneous to the activation of a response to the relevant stimulus dimension. The non-target response facilitates response planning on compatible trials, but interferes with response planning on incompatible trials. In support of this hypothesis, the trajectories of aiming movements executed on incompatible trials deviate in the direction of the stimulus location. These deviations are thought to occur because the characteristics of the simultaneously active target and non-target responses merge. Previously, target stimuli were presented at the target locations leaving open the possibility that the response activation and subsequent deviations were dependent on the stimulus-driven attentional capture associated with the dynamic change of stimulus onset. The present research was conducted to determine if attention capturing events at the target locations were necessary for the movement deviations to emerge by investigating if trajectory deviations are also observed when the spatial dimension is presented centrally. Participants in the Central condition aimed to left and right target locations based on the color of a ring worn on a finger that pointed toward the response locations. Similar to results from a Peripheral condition, trajectory deviations were observed in the Central condition. Although it is unclear if the deviations in the Central condition occurred because of attentional shifts driven by the cue or response preplanning, these results demonstrate that dynamic changes at target locations are sufficient, but not necessary, to generate trajectory deviations. PMID:25009311
A liquid-independent volume flow measurement principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geers, L. F. G.; Volker, A. W. F.; Hunter, T. P. M.
2010-07-01
A novel flow measurement principle is presented enabling non-intrusive volume flow measurements of liquids in the ml/min range. It is based on an opto-acoustical time-of-flight principle, where the time interval is recorded in which a thermal label travels a known distance through a flow channel. Big advantages are the insensitivity to temperature drift and the fact that user calibration is unnecessary. The paper presents a set of physics-based criteria that define the working range of the measurement principle. A prototype of a flow meter was developed and evaluated in a test rig with flows of water, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and mixtures of both liquids. Pure water and IPA flows of 0.1 to 2 ml min-1 were measured and found to coincide with the reference flows within 4%. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of the fluctuations did not exceed 3%. For flows of 2 ml min-1 the limited power of the laser source caused deviations of 7% with 5% fluctuations. Finally, flow measurements were done in water-IPA mixtures with concentrations between 10% and 90%-w/w at a flow rate of 15 g h-1 (?0.3 ml min-1). The ratio of measured and reference flow appeared to be 4% to 5% below the theoretical value, but it was hardly a function of mixture composition. Hence, liquid independence of the measurement principle was proven.
1992-03-27
Planned Parenthood says that rather than accept the Bush administration's gag rule it will give up federal funding of its operations. The gag rule forbids professionals at birth control clinics from even referring to abortion as an option to a pregnant woman, much less recommending one. President Bush has agreed to a policy which allows physicians but no one else at clinics to discuss abortion in at least some cases. In his view, according to White House officials, this was an admitted attempt to straddle the issue. Why he would want to straddle is understandable. The right wing of his party, which has always been suspicious of Mr. Bush, is pushing him to uphold what it regards as the Reagan legacy on this issue. The original gag rule, which prevented even physicians from discussing abortion as an option in almost all cases, was issued in the last presidents's 2nd term and upheld last year by the Supreme Court. Give Planned Parenthood credit for sticking to its principles. A lot of recipients of all sorts of federal funds want it both ways, take the money but not accept federal policy guidelines. When they find they can't, many "rise above principle," take the money and adjust policy accordingly. It is not going to be easy for Planned Parenthood now. Federal funds account for a significant portion of the organizations's budgets. Planned Parenthood of Maryland, for example, gets about $500,000 a year from the federal government, or about 12-13% of its total budget. It will either have to cut back on its services or increase its fundraising from other sources or charge women more for services--or all of those things. This is not the end of the story. It is certainly not the end of the political story. Pat Buchanan said of the new regulations, "I like the old position, to be quite candid." Thank goodness he never won a primary. George Bush would not have moved even as far as he hid on the gag rule. There will be a lot of agreement with the Buchanan view at the Republican national convention. We can only hope that by then the president will be looking to the general election campaign and a Democratic opponent who will be appealing to Republican women on this issue. Perhaps then he will relax the gag order a little more. PMID:12317218
Gait deviations and compensations in pediatric patients with increased femoral torsion.
Bruderer-Hofstetter, Marina; Fenner, Verena; Payne, Erika; Zdenek, Katja; Klima, Harry; Wegener, Regina
2015-02-01
Coxa antetorta describes an abnormal torsion of the femur. It is commonly considered a cosmetic problem and is treated surgically only in severe cases and the presence of physical complaints. The purpose of this study was to identify deviations in gait kinematics and kinetics in pediatric patients caused by coxa antetorta and to categorize these deviations into primary and secondary deviations. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis study to detect gait deviations in adolescents (n = 18; age range 10.5-17.5 years) with coxa antetorta compared to age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 17). Principal component (PC) analysis was used for data reduction. Linear mixed models applied to PC-scores were used to estimate the main effects within retained PCs followed by a post-hoc subgroup analysis. Patients walked with smaller external foot progression angle, greater knee adduction, more internally rotated and flexed hips and greater anterior pelvic tilt. Subgroup analysis revealed that-depending on knee alignment-patients had higher knee and hip adduction moments. These deviations in joint kinematics and kinetics may be associated with physical complaints and accelerated development of osteoarthritis. Assessment of gait deviations related to coxa antetorta using 3D gait analysis may be an additional tool in individual clinical decision-making. PMID:25284013
Role of N defects in paramagnetic CrN at finite temperatures from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozafari, E.; Alling, B.; Steneteg, P.; Abrikosov, Igor A.
2015-03-01
Simulations of defects in paramagnetic materials at high temperature constitute a formidable challenge to solid-state theory due to the interaction of magnetic disorder, vibrations, and structural relaxations. CrN is a material where these effects are particularly large due to a strong magnetolattice coupling and a tendency for deviations from the nominal 1:1 stoichiometry. In this work, we present a first-principles study of nitrogen vacancies and nitrogen interstitials in CrN at elevated temperature. We report on formation energetics, the geometry of interstitial nitrogen dimers, and the impact on the electronic structure caused by the defects. We find a vacancy formation energy of 2.28 eV with a small effect of temperature, i.e., a formation energy for N interstitial in the form of a <111 > -oriented split bond of 3.77 eV with an increase to 3.97 at 1000 K. Vacancies are found to add three electrons, while split-bond interstitial adds one electron to the conduction band. The band gap of defect-free CrN is smeared out due to vibrations, although it is difficult to draw a conclusion about the exact temperature at which the band gap closes from our calculations. However, it is clear that at 900 K there is a nonzero density of electronic states at the Fermi level. At 300 K, our results indicate a border case where the band gap is about to close.
B. Lian; K. Liu; S. T. Yau
1997-12-11
We propose and study the following Mirror Principle: certain sequences of multiplicative equivariant characteristic classes on Kontsevich's stable map moduli spaces can be computed in terms of certain hypergeometric type classes. As applications, we compute the equivariant Euler classes of obstruction bundles induced by any concavex bundles -- including any direct sum of line bundles -- on $\\P^n$. This includes proving the formula of Candelas-de la Ossa-Green-Parkes hence completing the program of Candelas et al, Kontesevich, Manin, and Givental, to compute rigorously the instanton prepotential function for the quintic in $\\P^4$. We derive, among many other examples, the multiple cover formula for Gromov-Witten invariants of $\\P^1$, computed earlier by Morrison-Aspinwall and by Manin in different approaches. We also prove a formula for enumerating Euler classes which arise in the so-called local mirror symmetry for some noncompact Calabi-Yau manifolds. At the end we interprete an infinite dimensional transformation group, called the mirror group, acting on Euler data, as a certain duality group of the linear sigma model.
Boyer, R W
2012-01-01
This paper introduces Vedic principles of therapy as a holistic integration of healing and human development. The most integrative aspect is a "consciousness-based" approach in which the bottom line of the mind is consciousness itself, accessed by transcending mental activity to its simplest ground state. This directly contrasts with "unconscious-based" approaches that hold the basis of conscious mind is the unconscious, such as analytic, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Although not presented as a specific therapeutic approach, interventions associated with this Vedic approach have extensive support in the applied research literature. A brief review of experimental research toward a general model of mind-and cutting-edge developments in quantum physics toward nonlocal mind-shows a convergence on the ancient Vedic model of mind. Comparisons with contemporary therapies further show that the simplicity, subtlety, and holistic nature of the Vedic approach represent a significant advance over approaches which have overlooked the fundamental ground state of the mind. PMID:22225931
Magnetism: Principles and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craik, Derek J.
2003-09-01
If you are studying physics, chemistry, materials science, electrical engineering, information technology or medicine, then you'll know that understanding magnetism is fundamental to success in your studies and here is the key to unlocking the mysteries of magnetism....... You can: obtain a simple overview of magnetism, including the roles of B and H, resonances and special techniques take full advantage of modern magnets with a wealth of expressions for fields and forces develop realistic general design programmes using isoparametric finite elements study the subtleties of the general theory of magnetic moments and their dynamics follow the development of outstanding materials appreciate how magnetism encompasses topics as diverse as rock magnetism, chemical reaction rates, biological compasses, medical therapies, superconductivity and levitation understand the basis and remarkable achievements of magnetic resonance imaging In his new book, Magnetism, Derek Craik throws light on the principles and applications of this fascinating subject. From formulae for calculating fields to quantum theory, the secrets of magnetism are exposed, ensuring that whether you are a chemist or engineer, physicist, medic or materials scientist Magnetism is the book for our course.
[Principles of wound treatment].
Bruhin, A; Metzger, J
2007-09-01
New techniques and devices have revolutionized the treatment of wounds during the last years. For the treatment of wounds we have nowadays a great variety of new gadgets, tools and methods. Complex wounds require specific skills, given the fact that a great number of different promising methods are on the market to enable an optimal wound management. Well educated "wound experts" are required to overcome the problems of very complicated and chronic wound problems. The importance of an interdisciplinary team increases while facing the problems of special wound disorders such as a diabetic food, food ulcers or the problems of open abdomen in case of severe peritonitis. In this overview the main principles of modern wound treatment are outlined. The aim of this article is to present a good summary of wound judgement and treatment for the practioner. Increasingly important is it to point out the situation of complexe wounds which should be judgded and treated with the help of a "wound expert". PMID:18075140
Naeimi, Mohammad; Garkaz, Maria; Naeimi, Mohammad Reza
2013-01-01
Introduction: Disorders of the nose and paranasal sinuses are among the most common chronic illnesses. Although considerable progress has been made in the medical and surgical control of these diseases, a large number of questions relating to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of these conditions remain unanswered. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in the frequency of symptoms and disease severity in patients with nasal septal deviation (NSD) compared with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Materials and Methods: A total of 156 patients, divided into NSD and CRS groups, were studied in relation to symptoms and disease severity. Patients were selected from those referred to the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Wards of the Imam Reza and Ghaem Hospitals, who had not responded to a variety of treatments. Depending on the type of disease, patients were candidates for either septoplasty or endoscopic sinus surgery. The Rhinosinusitis Symptom Inventory was administered to measure the severity of symptoms, with scores assigned based on the answers given by patients (Likert scale). Scores were compared between the CRS and NSD groups. Results: A total of 156 patients (78 with NDS and 78 with CRS) entered the study in overall sinonasal symptoms were more prevalent in CRS group. Nasal congestion, runny nose, earache, toothache, and smelling disorder were significantly more common in the CRS group (P<0.001); while there were no significant differences in symptoms such as facial pressure, fever, or headache between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Patients with CRS manifested statistically significantly greater sinonasal symptom scores than patients with NSD. PMID:24303413
Meaty Principles for Environmental Educators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rockcastle, V. N.
1985-01-01
Suggests that educated persons should be exposed to a body of conceptual knowledge which includes basic principles of the biological and physical sciences. Practical examples involving force, sound, light, waves, and density of water are cited. A lesson on animal tracks using principles of force and pressure is also described. (DH)
[Ethical principles in psychiatric action].
Rüther, Eckart
2014-07-01
There is no specific psychiatric ethic. The ethical principles for practical actions in psychiatry have to be adapted on the basis of the generally accepted ethical principles, which are based on psychobiologically developed ethic of love: honesty, discretion, empathy, patience, distance, consistency, accountability, tolerance, economic neutrality. PMID:24983582
Children's Understanding of Conversational Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Conti, Daniel J.; Camras, Linda A.
1984-01-01
Investigates the development of awareness of conversational principles in preschool, first-, and third-grade children by presenting them with short stories ending with a verbal statement by a story character. Results suggest that children's understanding of conversational principles improves considerably between preschool and first grade.…
A variational principle of hydromechanics
S. Drobot; A. Rybarski
1958-01-01
1. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the part played in variational principles of hydromechanics by a certain group of infinitesimal transformations of the fields of density and velocity. This group, called here the hydromechanical variation and originating from some elementary requirement concerning variation of matter, seems to be essential in variational principles of hydromechanic,4, iaot only in
The strong Ekeland variational principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Tomonari
2006-08-01
In this paper, we consider the strong Ekeland variational principle due to Georgiev [P.G. Georgiev, The strong Ekeland variational principle, the strong drop theorem and applications, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 131 (1988) 1-21]. We discuss it for functions defined on Banach spaces and on compact metric spaces. We also prove the [tau]-distance version of it.
Principles of Public Paul Tabbush
-making 3. Managing public access in forests is very often about service delivery rather than environmental access for recreation or health initiatives, using forests and woodlands as the sites for public eventsPrinciples of Public Engagement Paul Tabbush Bianca Ambrose-Oji #12;Principles of Public Engagement
Principles of Instructed Language Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellis, Rod
2005-01-01
This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…
Challenging Proteins Principles and Methods
Lebendiker, Mario
Gel Filtration Principles and Methods 18-1022-18 Recombinant Protein Purification Handbook Principles and Methods 18-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Hydrophobic Interaction and Reversed Phase....................................................................................................................10 Purification of integral membrane proteins for structural and functional studies
Multimedia Principle in Teaching Lessons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad
2012-01-01
Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ouellette, John
2004-01-01
Soccer coaches must understand the principles of play if they want to succeed. The principles of play are the rules of action that support the basic objectives of soccer and the foundation of a soccer coaching strategy. They serve as a set of permanent criteria that coaches can use to evaluate the efforts of their team. In this article, the author…
Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A.
2013-01-01
When the value of a quantity for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems’ averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty. PMID:24205158
Kontoyiannis, Ioannis
closely parallels the corresponding development in lossless compression, a point of view that was advanced) analyze the performance of pattern-matching algorithms for lossy compression (including LempelZiv schemes. INTRODUCTION A. Lossless Data Compression IT is probably only a slight exaggeration to say that the cen- tral
Journal of Statistical Physics. Vol. 74. Nos. I/2, 1994 Large Deviations for the 2D Ising Model
, Evanston, Illinois 60208. 411 0022-4715/94/0100-0411507.00/0 9 1994 Plenum Publishing Corporation #12 in doing so, and all missing details can be found either in ref. 6 or in ref. 12; in fact this paper
Ioannis Ch. Paschalidis; Yong Liu; Christos G. Cassandras; Christos G. Panayiotou
2004-01-01
We consider a model of a supply chain consisting of n production facilities in tandem and producing a single product class. External demand is met from the finished goods inventory maintained in front of the most downstream facility (stage 1); unsatisfied demand is backlogged. We adopt a base-stock production policy at each stage of the supply chain, according to which
Nabben, Reinhard
Optical spectra of ZnO in the far ultraviolet: First-principles calculations and ellipsometric ZnO in a wide energy range 2.5-32 eV . The ordinary and extraordinary components show a strong anisotropy above 10 eV, a feature for which ZnO deviates from the other II-VI wurtzite compounds
The Conditional Uncertainty Principle
Gilad Gour; Varun Narasimhachar; Andrzej Grudka; Micha? Horodecki; Waldemar K?obus; Justyna ?odyga
2015-06-23
The uncertainty principle, which states that certain sets of quantum-mechanical measurements have a minimal joint uncertainty, has many applications in quantum cryptography. But in such applications, it is important to consider the effect of a (sometimes adversarially controlled) memory that can be correlated with the system being measured: The information retained by such a memory can in fact diminish the uncertainty of measurements. Uncertainty conditioned on a memory was considered in the past by Berta et al. (Ref. 1), who found a specific uncertainty relation in terms of the von Neumann conditional entropy. But this entropy is not the only measure that can be used to quantify conditional uncertainty. In the spirit of recent work by several groups (Refs. 2--6), here we develop a general operational framework that formalizes the concept of conditional uncertainty in a measure-independent form. Our formalism is built around a mathematical relation that we call conditional majorization. We define and characterize conditional majorization, and use it to develop tools for the construction of measures of the conditional uncertainty of individual measurements, and also of the joint conditional uncertainty of sets of measurements. We demonstrate the use of this framework by deriving measure-independent conditional uncertainty relations of two types: (1) A lower bound on the minimal joint uncertainty that two remote parties (Bob and Eve) have about the outcome of a given pair of measurements performed by a third remote party (Alice), conditioned on arbitrary measurements that Bob and Eve make on their own systems. This lower bound is independent of the initial state shared by the three parties; (2) An initial state--dependent lower bound on the minimal joint uncertainty that Bob has about Alice's pair of measurements in a bipartite setting, conditioned on Bob's quantum system.
Vegard's law deviation in band gaps and bowing parameters of the wurtzite III-nitride ternary alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liou, Bo-Ting; Yen, Sheng-Horng; Kuo, Yen-Kuang
2005-01-01
The wurtzite AlxGa1-xN, InxGa1-xN, and AlxIn1-xN alloys are studied by numerical simulation based on first-principles calculations. For AlxGa1-xN the Vegard's law deviation parameter is 0.018 +/- 0.001 Å for the a lattice constant and -0.036 +/- 0.005 Å for the c lattice constant. For InxGa1-xN that is 0.047 +/- 0.011 Å for the a lattice constant and -0.117 +/- 0.026 Ê for the c lattice constant. For AlxIn1-xN that is 0.063 +/- 0.014 Å for the a lattice constant and -0.160 +/- 0.015 Å for the c lattice constant The results indicate that the band gap bowing parameters obtained with the equilibrium lattice constant and with the lattice constants derived from the Vegard's law are 0.341 +/- 0.035 eV and 0.351 +/- 0.043 eV respectively for AlxGa1-xN, 1.782 +/- 0.076 eV and 1.916 +/- 0.068 eV respectively for InxGa1-xN, and 3.668 +/- 0.147 eV and 3.457 +/- 0.152 eV respectively for AlxIn1-xN.
Principles of Insect Locomotion
H. Cruse; V. Dürr; M. Schilling; J. Schmitz
Walking animals can deal with large range of difficult terrain and can use their legs for other purposes as sensing or object\\u000a manipulation. This is possible although the underlying control system is based on neurons which are considered to be quite\\u000a sloppy and slow computational elements. Important aspects of this control system are error tolerance and the capability of\\u000a self-organization.
Giovanni Vulpetti; Les Johnson; Gregory L. Matloff
The romantic-sounding term solar sail evokes an image of a majestic vessel (similar to the great sailing ships of the 18th century) cruising the depths of interplanetary\\u000a space (Fig. 6.1). In a very literal sense, this imagery is very close to the anticipated reality of solar sails. Very large\\u000a and diaphanous sail-propelled ships will traverse our solar system and perhaps,
A. G. Abdul-Ghani Al-Baali; Mohammed M. Farid
Food preservation remains to be one of the important food processing industries. Early approaches to food preservation applied\\u000a the methods of preservation naturally available, such as sun drying, salting, and fermentation, which were used to provide\\u000a food in periods when fresh foods were not available. As civilization developed, demand for large quantities of better quality\\u000a processed food also increased. This
Progress in classical and quantum variational principles
C. G. Gray; G. Karl; V. A. Novikov
2004-01-01
We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler-Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are
Progress in classical and quantum variational principles
C. G. Gray; G. Karl; V. A. Novikov
2004-01-01
We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler–Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are
Improvement of a large negative ion source for the Large Helical Device neutral beam injector
Y. Takeiri; K. Ikeda; M. Hamabe; M. Osakabe; O. Kaneko; Y. Oka; K. Tsumori; E. Asano; T. Kawamoto; M. Sato
2002-01-01
For compensation of the magnetically deflected beamlets, a new type of grid system has been applied to a large negative ion source of a negative-ion-based neutral beam injector in the Large Helical Device (LHD) fusion experimental machine. Corresponding to deviation of the negative ion beamlet trajectory due to the electron suppression magnetic field at the extraction grid, the exit aperture
Squeezed States, Uncertainty Relations and the Pauli Principle in Composite and Cosmological Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Terazawa, Hidezumi
1996-01-01
The importance of not only uncertainty relations but also the Pauli exclusion principle is emphasized in discussing various 'squeezed states' existing in the universe. The contents of this paper include: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear Physics in the Quark-Shell Model; (3) Hadron Physics in the Standard Quark-Gluon Model; (4) Quark-Lepton-Gauge-Boson Physics in Composite Models; (5) Astrophysics and Space-Time Physics in Cosmological Models; and (6) Conclusion. Also, not only the possible breakdown of (or deviation from) uncertainty relations but also the superficial violation of the Pauli principle at short distances (or high energies) in composite (and string) models is discussed in some detail.
Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems
Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)
2012-12-15
In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.
A New Principle of Sound Frequency Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theodorsen, Theodore
1932-01-01
In connection with the study of aircraft and propeller noises, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has developed an instrument for sound-frequency analysis which differs fundamentally from previous types, and which, owing to its simplicity of principle, construction, and operation, has proved to be of value in this investigation. The method is based on the well-known fact that the Ohmic loss in an electrical resistance is equal to the sum of the losses of the harmonic components of a complex wave, except for the case in which any two components approach or attain vectorial identity, in which case the Ohmic loss is increased by a definite amount. The principle of frequency analysis has been presented mathematically and a number of distinct advantages relative to previous methods have been pointed out. An automatic recording instrument embodying this principle is described in detail. It employs a beat-frequency oscillator as a source of variable frequency. A large number of experiments have verified the predicted superiority of the method. A number of representative records are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
At the end of the XIXth century, physics was dominated by two main theories: classical (or Newtonian) mechanics and electromagnetism. To be entirely correct, we should add thermodynamics, which seemed to be grounded on different principles, but whose links with mechanics were progressively better understood thanks to the work of Maxwell and Boltzmann, among others. Classical mechanics, born with Galileo and Newton, claimed to explain the motion of lumps of matter under the action of forces. The paradigm for a lump of matter is a particle, or a corpuscle, which one can intuitively think of as a billiard ball of tiny dimensions, and which will be dubbed a micro-billiard ball in what follows. The second main component of XIXth century physics, electromagnetism, is a theory of the electric and magnetic fields and also of optics, thanks to the synthesis between electromagnetism and optics performed by Maxwell, who understood that light waves are nothing other than a particular case of electromagnetic waves. We had, on the one hand, a mechanical theory where matter exhibiting a discrete character (particles) was carried along well localized trajectories and, on the other hand, a wave theory describing continuous phenomena which did not involve transport of matter. The two theories addressed different domains, the only obvious link being the law giving the force on a charged particle submitted to an electromagnetic field, or Lorentz force. In 1905, Einstein put an end to this dichotomic wave/particle view and launched two revolutions of physics: special relativity and quantum physics. First, he showed that Newton's equations of motion must be modified when the particle velocities are not negligible with respect to that of light: this is the special relativity revolution, which introduces in mechanics a quantity characteristic of optics, the velocity of light. However, this is an aspect of the Einsteinian revolution which will not interest us directly, with the exception of Chapter 7. Then Einstein introduced the particle aspect of light: in modern language, he introduced the quantum properties of the electromagnetic field, epitomized by the concept of photon. After briefly recalling the main properties of waves in classical physics, this chapter will lead us to the heart of the quantum world, elaborating on an example which is studied in some detail, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This apparatus is widely used today in physics laboratories, but we shall limit ourselves to a schematic description, at the level of what my experimental colleagues would call "a theorist's version of an interferometer".
OECD Principles of Corporate Governance
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Principles of Corporate Governance" sets out a structure for directing and controlling corporate businesses. This document (html or .pdf) consists of five sections detailing the principles: "The rights of shareholders," "The equitable treatment of shareholders," "The role of stakeholders in corporate governance," "Disclosure and transparency," and "The responsibilities of the board," as well as annotations for each of the sections. Be sure to visit the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance Q&A page, linked at the top of the page.
Evidence of a Metal Rich Galactic Bar from the Vertex Deviation of the Velocity Ellipsoid
Soto, M; Kuijken, K; Soto, Mario; Kuijken, Konrad
2006-01-01
We combine radial velocities, proper motions, and low resolution abundances for a sample of 315 K and M giants in the Baade's Window (l,b)=(0.9,-4) Galactic bulge field. The velocity ellipsoid of stars with [Fe/H]>-0.5 dex shows a vertex deviation in the plot of radial versus transverse velocity, consistent with that expected from a population with orbits supporting a bar. We demonstrate that the significance of this vertex deviation using non-parametric rank correlation statistic is >99%. The velocity ellipsoid for the metal poor ([FeH]<-0.5) part of the population shows no vertex deviation and is consistent with an isotropic, oblate rotating population. We find no evidence for kinematic subgroups, but there is a mild tendency for the vertical velocity dispersion sigma_b to decrease with increasing metallicity.
Evidence of a Metal Rich Galactic Bar from the Vertex Deviation of the Velocity Ellipsoid
Mario Soto; R. Michael Rich; Konrad Kuijken
2006-11-14
We combine radial velocities, proper motions, and low resolution abundances for a sample of 315 K and M giants in the Baade's Window (l,b)=(0.9,-4) Galactic bulge field. The velocity ellipsoid of stars with [Fe/H]>-0.5 dex shows a vertex deviation in the plot of radial versus transverse velocity, consistent with that expected from a population with orbits supporting a bar. We demonstrate that the significance of this vertex deviation using non-parametric rank correlation statistic is >99%. The velocity ellipsoid for the metal poor ([FeH]<-0.5) part of the population shows no vertex deviation and is consistent with an isotropic, oblate rotating population. We find no evidence for kinematic subgroups, but there is a mild tendency for the vertical velocity dispersion sigma_b to decrease with increasing metallicity.
Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Patients with Markedly Deviated Septum Candidate for Septorhinoplasty
Hassanpour, Seyed Esmail; Moosavizadeh, Seyed Mehdi; Fadaei Araghi, Mohsen; Eshraghi, Bahram
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND The nasal septal deviation (NSD) is one of the major causes of nasal obstruction. This condition increases upper airway resistance. In This study we evaluated the mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) in patients with markedly deviated septum. METHODS Sixty two patients with NSD (Age range: 26-45 years, 34 men and 28 women) were included in the study. Mean pulmonary artery pressure was measured in preoperative period by Doppler echocardiography with the assistance of an expert cardiologist. RESULTS The mean preoperative MPAP value (22.5 mmHg in men and 20.03 mmHg in women) of the patients in this study was higher than normal population (20 mmHg). The MPAP of nine patients (14.5%) was greater than 25 mmHg. This value was significantly higher than values for normal population. CONCLUSION Markedly deviated septum had improper effects in cardiovascular system due to increase in MPAP. PMID:25489535