A General Conditional Large Deviation Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Cour, Brian R.; Schieve, William C.
2015-10-01
Given a sequence of Borel probability measures on a Hausdorff space which satisfy a large deviation principle (LDP), we consider the corresponding sequence of measures formed by conditioning on a set B. If the large deviation rate function I is good and effectively continuous, and the conditioning set has the property that (1) and (2) for all , then the sequence of conditional measures satisfies a LDP with the good, effectively continuous rate function , where if and otherwise.
The large deviation principle for the Erdos-Renyi random graph
Durrett, Richard
The large deviation principle for the Erdos-RÂ´enyi random graph Sourav Chatterjee (Courant Institute, NYU) joint work with S. R. S. Varadhan Sourav Chatterjee Large deviations for random graphs #12;Main objective: how to count graphs with a given property Only consider finite undirected graphs
Large Deviations and Gallavotti-Cohen Principle for Dissipative PDEs with Rough Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakši?, V.; Nersesyan, V.; Pillet, C.-A.; Shirikyan, A.
2015-05-01
We study a class of dissipative PDEs perturbed by an unbounded kick force. Under some natural assumptions, the restrictions of solutions to integer times form a homogeneous Markov process. Assuming that the noise is rough with respect to the space variables and has a non-degenerate law, we prove that the system in question satisfies a large deviation principle (LDP) in ?-topology. Under some additional hypotheses, we establish a Gallavotti-Cohen type symmetry for the rate function of an entropy production functional and the strict positivity and finiteness of the mean entropy production rate in the stationary regime. The latter result is applicable to PDEs with strong nonlinear dissipation.
Large deviations and Gallavotti-Cohen principle for dissipative PDE's with rough noise
Vojkan Jaksic; Vahagn Nersesyan; Claude-Alain Pillet; Armen Shirikyan
2014-10-17
We study a class of dissipative PDE's perturbed by an unbounded kick force. Under some natural assumptions, the restrictions of solutions to integer times form a homogeneous Markov process. Assuming that the noise is rough with respect to the space variables and has a non-degenerate law, we prove that the system in question satisfies a large deviation principle in tau-topology. Under some additional hypotheses, we establish a Gallavotti-Cohen type symmetry for the rate function of an entropy production functional and the strict positivity and finiteness of the mean entropy production in the stationary regime. The latter result is applicable to PDE's with strong nonlinear dissipation.
A large deviation principle and wave front propagation for a reaction-diffusion equation
Carmona, S.I.C.
1992-12-31
In this thesis we consider an asymptotic problem for the propagation of wave front for a reaction-diffusion equation depending on a small parameter {epsilon} > 0, as well as some generalizations. First we analyze the asymptotic behavior as {epsilon} {down_arrow} 0 of the solution of a initial-boundary value problem in the region {l_brace}(t, x, y): t > 0, x {element_of} IR, {vert_bar}y{vert_bar} {<=} b{r_brace} formulated by means of a reaction-diffusion equation. This differential equation is characterized by a fast diffusion (coefficient of order 1/{epsilon}) in y-direction, a slow diffusion (coefficient of order {epsilon}) in x-direction, and a nonlinear term. In this analysis we use the same approach as in Freidlin (285a, 1991) where we study the generalized KPP (Kolomogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov) equation. The main tools are the Feynman-Kac formula and a Large Deviation Principle for a class of random processes. The main result is the explicit description of the limit wave front as {epsilon} {down_arrow} 0 for the solution of the problem under consideration. Secondly, some generalizations of the above mixed problem are considered. The motion in y-direction (fast motion) is described by a more geral Markov process in a compact subset D of IR{sup tau}. This process satisfies some suitable conditions formulated in terms of the semigroup of bounded operators associated with its transition probability function. The motion in x-direction (slow motion) can be a locally infinitely divisible process in IR, with frequent small jumps. Under certain assumptions, this class of processes obeys a Large Deviation Principle. Using the new fast and slow motions, a Cauchy problem analogous to the above mixed problem is studied. Again, in the analysis of the limit behavior of the solution of this problem, the Feynman-Kac formula and probabilities of Large Deviations for certain class of random processes are used.
Large Deviation Principle for Empirical Fields of Log and Riesz Gases
Thomas Leblé; Sylvia Serfaty
2015-02-23
We study the Gibbs measure associated to a system of N particles with logarithmic, Coulomb or Riesz pair interactions under a fairly general confining potential, in the limit N tends to infinity. After rescaling we examine a microscopic quantity, the associated empirical point process, for which we prove a large deviation principle whose rate function is the sum of a specific relative entropy weighted by the temperature and of a "renormalized energy" which measures the disorder of a configuration. This indicates that the configurations should cristallize as the temperature vanishes and behave microscopically like Poisson point processes as the temperature tends to infinity. We deduce a variational characterization of the sine-beta and Ginibre point processes which arise in random matrix theory. We also give a next-to-leading order expansion of the free energy of the system, thus proving the existence of a thermodynamic limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanasaki, Itsuo; Kawano, Satoyuki
2013-11-01
Motility of bacteria is usually recognized in the trajectory data and compared with Brownian motion, but the diffusion coefficient is insufficient to evaluate it. In this paper, we propose a method based on the large deviation principle. We show that it can be used to evaluate the non-Gaussian characteristics of model Escherichia coli motions and to distinguish combinations of the mean running duration and running speed that lead to the same diffusion coefficient. Our proposed method does not require chemical stimuli to induce the chemotaxis in a specific direction, and it is applicable to various types of self-propelling motions for which no a priori information of, for example, threshold parameters for run and tumble or head/tail direction is available. We also address the issue of the finite-sample effect on the large deviation quantities, but we propose to make use of it to characterize the nature of motility.
Eric Smith
2011-02-18
The meaning of thermodynamic descriptions is found in large-deviations scaling of the fluctuations probabilities. The primary large-deviations rate function is the entropy, which is the basis for both fluctuation theorems and for characterizing the thermodynamic interactions of systems. Freidlin-Wentzell theory provides a general formulation of large-deviations scaling for non-equilibrium stochastic processes, through a representation in terms of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. A number of related methods now exist to construct the Freidlin-Wentzell Hamiltonian for many kinds of stochastic processes; one method due to Doi and Peliti, appropriate to integer counting statistics, is widely used in reaction-diffusion theory. Using these tools together with a path-entropy method due to Jaynes, we show how to construct entropy functions that both express large-deviations scaling of fluctuations, and describe system-environment interactions, for discrete stochastic processes either at or away from equilibrium. A collection of variational methods familiar within quantum field theory, but less commonly applied to the Doi-Peliti construction, is used to define a "stochastic effective action", which is the large-deviations rate function for arbitrary non-equilibrium paths. We show how common principles of entropy maximization, applied to different ensembles of states or of histories, lead to different entropy functions and different sets of thermodynamic state variables. Yet the relations of among all these levels of description may be constructed explicitly and understood in terms of information conditions. The example systems considered introduce methods that may be used to systematically construct descriptions with all the features familiar from equilibrium thermodynamics, for a much wider range of systems describable by stochastic processes.
Large deviations and rain showers
Wilkinson, Michael
2015-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
Large deviations of Lyapunov exponents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laffargue, Tanguy; Nguyen Thu Lam, Khanh-Dang; Kurchan, Jorge; Tailleur, Julien
2013-06-01
Generic dynamical systems have ‘typical’ Lyapunov exponents, measuring the sensitivity to small perturbations of almost all trajectories. A generic system also has trajectories with exceptional values of the exponents, corresponding to unusually stable or chaotic situations. From a more mathematical point of view, large deviations of Lyapunov exponents characterize phase-space topological structures such as separatrices, homoclinic trajectories and degenerate tori. Numerically sampling such large deviations using the Lyapunov Weighted Dynamics allows one to pinpoint, for example, stable configurations in celestial mechanics or collections of interacting chaotic ‘breathers’ in nonlinear media. Furthermore, we show that this numerical method allows one to compute the topological pressure of extended dynamical systems, a central quantity in the thermodynamic of trajectories of Ruelle. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Evolution Equations with Small Multiplicative Noise
Liu Wei, E-mail: weiliu0402@yahoo.com.c [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik (Germany)
2010-02-15
The Freidlin-Wentzell large deviation principle is established for the distributions of stochastic evolution equations with general monotone drift and small multiplicative noise. As examples, the main results are applied to derive the large deviation principle for different types of SPDE such as stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, stochastic porous media equations and fast diffusion equations, and the stochastic p-Laplace equation in Hilbert space. The weak convergence approach is employed in the proof to establish the Laplace principle, which is equivalent to the large deviation principle in our framework.
Large deviation estimates involving deformed exponential functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naudts, Jan; Suyari, Hiroki
2015-10-01
We study large deviation properties of probability distributions with either a compact support or a fat tail by comparing them with q-deformed exponential distributions. Our main result is a large deviation property for probability distributions with a fat tail.
Large Deviations for Nonlocal Stochastic Neural Fields
2014-01-01
We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers’ law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20. PMID:24742297
Perturbative Large Deviation Analysis of Non-Equilibrium Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Ferraro, Gino; Aurell, Erik
2014-08-01
Macroscopic fluctuation theory has shown that a wide class of non-equilibrium stochastic dynamical systems obey a large deviation principle, but except for a few one-dimensional (1D) examples these large deviation principles are in general not known in closed form. We consider the problem of constructing successive approximations to an (unknown) large deviation functional and show that the non-equilibrium probability distribution then takes a Gibbs–Boltzmann form with a set of auxiliary (non-physical) energy functions. The expectation values of these auxiliary energy functions and their conjugate quantities satisfy a closed system of equations which can imply a considerable reduction of dimensionality of the dynamics. We show that the accuracy of the approximations can be tested self-consistently without solving the full non-equilibrium dynamical equations. We test the general procedure on the simple model problem of a relaxing 1D Ising chain.
On large deviations for ensembles of distributions
Khrychev, D A [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2013-11-30
The paper is concerned with the large deviations problem in the Freidlin-Wentzell formulation without the assumption of the uniqueness of the solution to the equation involving white noise. In other words, it is assumed that for each ?>0 the nonempty set P{sub ?} of weak solutions is not necessarily a singleton. Analogues of a number of concepts in the theory of large deviations are introduced for the set (P{sub ?}, ?>0), hereafter referred to as an ensemble of distributions. The ensembles of weak solutions of an n-dimensional stochastic Navier-Stokes system and stochastic wave equation with power-law nonlinearity are shown to be uniformly exponentially tight. An idempotent Wiener process in a Hilbert space and idempotent partial differential equations are defined. The accumulation points in the sense of large deviations of the ensembles in question are shown to be weak solutions of the corresponding idempotent equations. Bibliography: 14 titles.
Large deviations and universality in quantum quenches.
Gambassi, Andrea; Silva, Alessandro
2012-12-21
We study the large deviation statistics of the intensive work done by globally changing a control parameter in a thermally isolated quantum many-body system. We show that, upon approaching a critical point, large deviations well below the mean work display universal features related to the critical Casimir effect in the corresponding classical system. Large deviations well above the mean are, instead, of quantum nature and not captured by the quantum-to-classical correspondence. For a bosonic system we show that in this latter regime a transition from exponential to power-law statistics, analogous to the equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation, may occur depending on the parameters of the quench and on the spatial dimensionality. PMID:23368442
Direct evaluation of large-deviation functions
Cristian Giardina'; Jorge Kurchan; Luca Peliti
2006-03-03
We introduce a numerical procedure to evaluate directly the probabilities of large deviations of physical quantities, such as current or density, that are local in time. The large-deviation functions are given in terms of the typical properties of a modified dynamics, and since they no longer involve rare events, can be evaluated efficiently and over a wider ranges of values. We illustrate the method with the current fluctuations of the Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Process and with the work distribution of a driven Lorentz gas.
Large Deviations: Advanced Probability for Undergrads
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rolls, David A.
2007-01-01
In the branch of probability called "large deviations," rates of convergence (e.g. of the sample mean) are considered. The theory makes use of the moment generating function. So, particularly for sums of independent and identically distributed random variables, the theory can be made accessible to senior undergraduates after a first course in…
Large Deviations for Expanding Transformations with Additive White Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmona, S. C.; Lopes, A.
2000-03-01
Large-deviations estimates for the autocorrelations of order kof the random process Z n= ?( X n)+ ? n, n?0, are obtained. The processes ( X n) n?0and ( ? n) n?0are independent, ? n, n?0, are i.i.d. bounded random variables, X n= T n( X 0), n?{N}, T: M? Mis expanding leaving invariant a Gibbs measure on a compact set M, and ?: M?{R}is a continuous function. A possible application of this result is the case where Mis the unit circle and the Gibbs measure is the one absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure on the circle. The case when Tis a uniquely ergodic map was studied in Carmona et al.(1998). In the present paper Tis an expanding map. However, it is possible to derive large-deviations properties for the autocorrelations samples (1/ n) ? n-1 j=0 Z j Z j+ k . But the deviation function is quite different from the uniquely ergodic case because it is necessary to take into account the entropy of invariant measures for Tas an important information. The method employed here is a combination of the variational principle of the thermodynamic formalism with Donsker and Varadhan's large-deviations approach.
Large-deviation properties of resilience of transportation networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Alexander K.
2014-05-01
Distributions of the resilience of transport networks are studied numerically, in particular the large-deviation tails. Thus, not only typical quantities like average or variance but the distributions over the (almost) full support can be studied. For a proof of principle, a simple transport model based on the edge-betweenness and three abstract yet widely studied random network ensembles are considered here: Erd?s-Rényi random networks with finite connectivity, small world networks and spatial networks embedded in a two-dimensional plane. Using specific numerical large-deviation techniques, probability densities as small as 10-80 are obtained here. This allows to study typical but also the most and the least resilient networks. The resulting distributions fulfill the mathematical large-deviation principle, i.e., can be well described by rate functions in the thermodynamic limit. The analysis of the limiting rate function reveals that the resilience follows an exponential distribution almost everywhere. An analysis of the structure of the network shows that the most-resilient networks can be obtained, as a rule of thumb, by minimizing the diameter of a network. Also, trivially, by including more links a network can typically be made more resilient. On the other hand, the least-resilient networks are very rare and characterized by one (or few) small core(s) to which all other nodes are connected. In total, the spatial network ensemble turns out to be most suitable for obtaining and studying resilience of real mostly finite-dimensional networks. Studying this ensemble in combination with the presented large-deviation approach for more realistic, in particular dynamic transport networks appears to be very promising.
Distributed Detection via Gaussian Running Consensus: Large Deviations Asymptotic
Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica
1 Distributed Detection via Gaussian Running Consensus: Large Deviations Asymptotic Analysis, by large deviations analysis, the asymptotic performance of Gaussian running consensus based distributed error probability. With running consensus, at each time step, each sensor averages its decision variable
Exponential Moments of Solutions for Nonlinear Equations with Catalytic Noise and Large Deviation
Isamu Dôku
2000-01-01
Nonlinear equation with catalytic noise is considered. We discuss the existence of catalytic superprocess associated with the equation and derive the exponential moment formula. Moreover, we prove the large deviation principle for catalytic superprocesses.
LARGE DEVIATIONS OF THE EMPIRICAL CURRENT IN INTERACTING PARTICLE SYSTEMS
Landim, Claudio
of particles in the time interval [0, t], associated to a trajectory . We shall prove a large deviationLARGE DEVIATIONS OF THE EMPIRICAL CURRENT IN INTERACTING PARTICLE SYSTEMS L. BERTINI, A. DE SOLE, D, interacting particle systems have become a main subject of research in physics for the insight they provide
On large deviations of sums of independent random variables
Sydney, University of
the one-sided or two-sided Cram'er's condition. The large deviation x-region under consideration is broader than in the classical Cram'er's theorem, and the estimate of the remainder is uniform variables; large deviation; Cram'er's condition; asymptotic expansions. Mathematics Subject
Large Deviations in the Spherical Model: The Rate Functions
Patrick, Anatoly E
2012-01-01
We study the spherical model of a ferromagnet in $d$-dimensional cubes $\\Omega_n$ of volume $|\\Omega_n|=n^d$ and investigate large deviations of the magnetization of various domains $D_k\\subset \\Omega_n$. We focus our attention on the low-temperature regime, $Tblocks. In the case of layers the large-deviation probabilities decay exponentially with $n^{d-2}$, and we obtain an explicit expression for the corresponding rate function. When the layer width $k\\ll n$, the large-deviation probabilities are virtually independent of $k$. In the case of rods the probabilities of large deviations exhibit similar exponential decay, but this time it is distorted by $\\log n$ corrections. In the case of Kadanoff blocks of size $k$ the large-deviation probabilities decay exponentially with $k^{d-2}$.
Large deviations for two scale chemical kinetic processes
Li, Tiejun
2015-01-01
We formulate the large deviations for a class of two scale chemical kinetic processes motivated from biological applications. The result is successfully applied to treat a genetic switching model with positive feedbacks. The corresponding Hamiltonian is convex with respect to the momentum variable as a by-product of the large deviation theory. This property ensures its superiority in the rare event simulations compared with the result obtained by formal WKB asymptotics. The result is of general interest to understand the large deviations for multiscale problems.
Effective interactions and large deviations in stochastic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jack, R. L.; Sollich, P.
2015-06-01
We discuss the relationships between large deviations in stochastic systems, and "effective interactions" that induce particular rare events. We focus on the nature of these effective interactions in physical systems with many interacting degrees of freedom, which we illustrate by reviewing several recent studies. We describe the connections between effective interactions, large deviations at "level 2.5", and the theory of optimal control. Finally, we discuss possible physical applications of variational results associated with those theories.
Path integrals and large deviations in stochastic hybrid systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.
2014-04-01
We construct a path-integral representation of solutions to a stochastic hybrid system, consisting of one or more continuous variables evolving according to a piecewise-deterministic dynamics. The differential equations for the continuous variables are coupled to a set of discrete variables that satisfy a continuous-time Markov process, which means that the differential equations are only valid between jumps in the discrete variables. Examples of stochastic hybrid systems arise in biophysical models of stochastic ion channels, motor-driven intracellular transport, gene networks, and stochastic neural networks. We use the path-integral representation to derive a large deviation action principle for a stochastic hybrid system. Minimizing the associated action functional with respect to the set of all trajectories emanating from a metastable state (assuming that such a minimization scheme exists) then determines the most probable paths of escape. Moreover, evaluating the action functional along a most probable path generates the so-called quasipotential used in the calculation of mean first passage times. We illustrate the theory by considering the optimal paths of escape from a metastable state in a bistable neural network.
Non-equilibrium steady states: fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current
Bernard Derrida
2007-01-01
These lecture notes give a short review of methods such as the matrix ansatz, the additivity principle or the macroscopic fluctuation theory, developed recently in the theory of non-equilibrium phenomena. They show how these methods allow us to calculate the fluctuations and large deviations of the density and the current in non-equilibrium steady states of systems like exclusion processes. The
Large deviation approach to non equilibrium processes in stochastic lattice gases
L. Bertini; A. De Sole; D. Gabrielli; G. Jona-Lasinio; C. Landim
2006-02-24
We present a review of recent work on the statistical mechanics of non equilibrium processes based on the analysis of large deviations properties of microscopic systems. Stochastic lattice gases are non trivial models of such phenomena and can be studied rigorously providing a source of challenging mathematical problems. In this way, some principles of wide validity have been obtained leading to interesting physical consequences.
large deviations for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes without tears
Di Girolami, Cristina
Explosive Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process 4 Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with shift 5 Conclusion Bernard Bercu Stable Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process 2 Unstable Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process 3 Explosive Ornstein function if its level sets are compact. Bernard Bercu Large deviations for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes 4
Large deviations for rough paths of fractional Brownian motion
Millet, Annie
Large deviations for rough paths of the fractional Brownian motion Annie Millet, Marta Sanz: Starting from the construction of a geometric rough path asso- ciated with a fractional Brownian motion in the space of geometric rough paths, extending classical results on Gaussian pro- cesses. As a by
A LARGE DEVIATION PROPERTY VIA THE RENEWAL THEOREM
Carmona, Philippe
A LARGE DEVIATION PROPERTY VIA THE RENEWAL THEOREM PHILIPPE CARMONA Abstract. In this note we prove + = 0. Date: November 23, 2005. 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification. 1 #12;2 PHILIPPE CARMONA From. Philippe Carmona, Laboratoire Jean Leray, UMR 6629, Universit´e de Nantes, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes Cedex
Small shape deviations causes complex dynamics in large electric generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundström, Niklas L. P.; Grafström, Anton; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
2014-05-01
We prove that combinations of small eccentricity, ovality and/or triangularity in the rotor and stator can produce complex whirling motions of an unbalanced rotor in large synchronous generators. It is concluded which structures of shape deviations that are more harmful, in the sense of producing complex whirling motions, than others. For each such structure, we derive simplified equations of motions from which we conclude analytically the relation between shape deviations and mass unbalance that yield non-smooth whirling motions. Finally we discuss validity of our results in the sense of modeling of the unbalanced magnetic pull force.
Deviations From Newton's Law in Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions
P. Callin; C. P. Burgess
2005-11-17
Deviations from Newton's Inverse-Squared Law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the Cosmological Constant Problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the Dark Energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from General Relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's Law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case.
Exact Moderate and Large Deviations for Linear Processes
Peligrada, Magda; Zhong, Yunda; Wu, Wei Biao
2011-01-01
Large and moderate deviation probabilities play an important role in many applied areas, such as insurance and risk analysis. This paper studies the exact moderate and large deviation asymptotics in non-logarithmic form for linear processes with independent innovations. The linear processes we analyze are general and therefore they include the long memory case. We give an asymptotic representation for probability of the tail of the normalized sums and specify the zones in which it can be approximated either by a standard normal distribution or by the marginal distribution of the innovation process. The results are then applied to regression estimates, moving averages, fractionally integrated processes, linear processes with regularly varying exponents and functions of linear processes. We also consider the computation of value at risk and expected shortfall, fundamental quantities in risk theory and finance.
Milos, Piotr
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider two related stochastic models. The first one is a branching system consisting of particles moving according to a Markov family in R^d and undergoing subcritical branching with a constant rate of V>0. New particles immigrate to the system according to a homogeneous space time Poisson random field. The second model is the superprocess corresponding to the branching particle system. We study rescaled occupation time process and the process of its fluctuations with very mild assumptions on the Markov family. In the general setting a functional central limit theorem as well as large and moderate deviations principles are proved. The subcriticality of the branching law determines the behaviour in large time scales and in "overwhelms" the properties of the particles' motion. For this reason the results are the same for all dimensions and can be obtained for a wide class of Markov processes (both properties are unusual for systems with critical branching).
Large-deviation properties of Brownian motion with dry friction.
Chen, Yaming; Just, Wolfram
2014-10-01
We investigate piecewise-linear stochastic models with regard to the probability distribution of functionals of the stochastic processes, a question that occurs frequently in large deviation theory. The functionals that we are looking into in detail are related to the time a stochastic process spends at a phase space point or in a phase space region, as well as to the motion with inertia. For a Langevin equation with discontinuous drift, we extend the so-called backward Fokker-Planck technique for non-negative support functionals to arbitrary support functionals, to derive explicit expressions for the moments of the functional. Explicit solutions for the moments and for the distribution of the so-called local time, the occupation time, and the displacement are derived for the Brownian motion with dry friction, including quantitative measures to characterize deviation from Gaussian behavior in the asymptotic long time limit. PMID:25375433
Condensation transition in joint large deviations of linear statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szavits-Nossan, Juraj; Evans, Martin R.; Majumdar, Satya N.
2014-11-01
Real space condensation is known to occur in stochastic models of mass transport in the regime in which the globally conserved mass density is greater than a critical value. It has been shown within models with factorized stationary states that the condensation can be understood in terms of sums of independent and identically distributed random variables: these exhibit condensation when they are conditioned to a large deviation of their sum. It is well understood that the condensation, whereby one of the random variables contributes a finite fraction to the sum, occurs only if the underlying probability distribution (modulo exponential) is heavy-tailed, i.e. decaying slower than exponential. Here we study a similar phenomenon in which condensation is exhibited for non-heavy-tailed distributions, provided random variables are additionally conditioned on a large deviation of certain linear statistics. We provide a detailed theoretical analysis explaining the phenomenon, which is supported by Monte Carlo simulations (for the case where the additional constraint is the sample variance) and demonstrated in several physical systems. Our results suggest that the condensation is a generic phenomenon that pertains to both typical and rare events.
From the Law of Large Numbers to Large Deviation Theory in Statistical Physics: An Introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecconi, Fabio; Cencini, Massimo; Puglisi, Andrea; Vergni, Davide; Vulpiani, Angelo
This contribution aims at introducing the topics of this book. We start with a brief historical excursion on the developments from the law of large numbers to the central limit theorem and large deviations theory. The same topics are then presented using the language of probability theory. Finally, some applications of large deviations theory in physics are briefly discussed through examples taken from statistical mechanics, dynamical and disordered systems.
Large-deviation properties of resilience of power grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dewenter, Timo; Hartmann, Alexander K.
2015-01-01
We study the distributions of the resilience of power flow models against transmission line failures via a so-called backup capacity. We consider three ensembles of random networks, and in addition, the topology of the British transmission power grid. The three ensembles are Erd?s–Rényi random graphs, Erd?s–Rényi random graphs with a fixed number of links, and spatial networks where the nodes are embedded in a two-dimensional plane. We numerically investigate the probability density functions (pdfs) down to the tails to gain insight into very resilient and very vulnerable networks. This is achieved via large-deviation techniques, which allow us to study very rare values that occur with probability densities below 10?160. We find that the right tail of the pdfs towards larger backup capacities follows an exponential with a strong curvature. This is confirmed by the rate function, which approaches a limiting curve for increasing network sizes. Very resilient networks are basically characterized by a small diameter and a large power sign ratio. In addition, networks can be made typically more resilient by adding more links.
Large deviations for quasi-periodic cocycles with singularities
Pedro Duarte; Silvius Klein
2015-07-10
We derive large deviations type (LDT) estimates for linear cocycles over an ergodic multifrequency torus translation. These models are called quasi-periodic cocycles. We make the following assumptions on the model: the translation vector satisfies a generic Diophantine condition, and the fiber action is given by a matrix valued analytic function of several variables which is not identically singular. The LDT estimates obtained here depend on some uniform measurements on the cocycle. Our general results derived in [9] regarding the continuity properties of the Lyapunov exponents (LE) and of the Oseledets filtration and decompositions are then applicable, and we obtain local weak-Holder continuity of these quantities in the presence of gaps in the Lyapunov spectrum. The main new feature of this work is allowing a cocycle depending on several variables to have singularities, i.e. points of non invertibility. This requires a careful analysis of the set of zeros of certain analytic functions of several variables and of the singularities (i.e. negative infinity values) of pluri-subharmonic functions related to the iterates of the cocycle. A refinement of this method in the one variable case leads to a stronger LDT estimate and in turn to a stronger, nearly-Holder modulus of continuity of the LE, Oseledets filtration and Oseledets decomposition. This is a draft of a chapter in our forthcoming research monograph [9].
Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loiseau, Patrick; Médigue, Claire; Gonçalves, Paulo; Attia, Najmeddine; Seuret, Stéphane; Cottin, François; Chemla, Denis; Sorine, Michel; Barral, Julien
2012-11-01
In the realm of multiscale signal analysis, multifractal analysis provides a natural and rich framework to measure the roughness of a time series. As such, it has drawn special attention of both mathematicians and practitioners, and led them to characterize relevant physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding these considerable progresses, multifractal analysis almost exclusively developed around the concept of Legendre singularity spectrum, for which efficient and elaborate estimators exist, but which are structurally blind to subtle features like non-concavity or, to a certain extent, non scaling of the distributions. Large deviations theory allows bypassing these limitations but it is only very recently that performing estimators were proposed to reliably compute the corresponding large deviations singularity spectrum. In this article, we illustrate the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate signals from the Physionet public database. As conjectured, we verify that large deviations principles reveal significant information that otherwise remains hidden with classical approaches, and which can be reminiscent of some physiological characteristics. In particular we quantify the presence/absence of scale invariance of RR signals.
Large Deviations and Importance Sampling for Systems of Slow-Fast Motion
Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos, E-mail: kspiliop@dam.brown.edu [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)] [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)
2013-02-15
In this paper we develop the large deviations principle and a rigorous mathematical framework for asymptotically efficient importance sampling schemes for general, fully dependent systems of stochastic differential equations of slow and fast motion with small noise in the slow component. We assume periodicity with respect to the fast component. Depending on the interaction of the fast scale with the smallness of the noise, we get different behavior. We examine how one range of interaction differs from the other one both for the large deviations and for the importance sampling. We use the large deviations results to identify asymptotically optimal importance sampling schemes in each case. Standard Monte Carlo schemes perform poorly in the small noise limit. In the presence of multiscale aspects one faces additional difficulties and straightforward adaptation of importance sampling schemes for standard small noise diffusions will not produce efficient schemes. It turns out that one has to consider the so called cell problem from the homogenization theory for Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations in order to guarantee asymptotic optimality. We use stochastic control arguments.
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR INTERACTING PROCESSES IN THE STRONGTOPOLOGY
Del Moral , Pierre
@math.carleton.ca Pierre Del Moral Lab. Stat. Probab. C.N.R.S. UMR5583 University Paul Sabatier, 118 Rt. de Narbonne measure valued processes arise in various scientific disciplines, including in biology and physics, and has some theoretical and applied basis, we shall briefly review the impact of these deviations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filiasi, Mario; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Peressi, Maria; Vesselli, Erik; Zarinelli, Elia
2014-09-01
Large deviations for fat tailed distributions, i.e. those that decay slower than exponential, are not only relatively likely, but they also occur in a rather peculiar way where a finite fraction of the whole sample deviation is concentrated on a single variable. The regime of large deviations is separated from the regime of typical fluctuations by a phase transition where the symmetry between the points in the sample is spontaneously broken. For stochastic processes with a fat tailed microscopic noise, this implies that, while typical realizations are well described by a diffusion process with continuous sample paths, large deviation paths are typically discontinuous. For eigenvalues of random matrices with fat tailed distributed elements, a large deviation where the trace of the matrix is anomalously large concentrates on just a single eigenvalue, whereas in the thin tailed world the large deviation affects the whole distribution. These results find a natural application to finance. Since the price dynamics of financial stocks are characterized by fat tailed increments, large fluctuations in stock prices are expected to be realized by discrete jumps. Interestingly, we find that large excursions of prices are more likely realized by continuous drifts rather than by discontinuous jumps. Indeed, auto correlations suppress the concentration of large deviations. Financial covariance matrices also exhibit an anomalously large eigenvalue, the market mode, as compared to the prediction of random matrix theory. We show that this is explained by a large deviation with excess covariance rather than by one with excess volatility.
The Semi-Infinite Asymmetric Exclusion Process: Large Deviations via Matrix Products
Horacio González Duhart; Peter Mörters; Johannes Zimmer
2015-07-07
We study the totally asymmetric exclusion process on the positive integers with a single particle source at the origin. Liggett (1975) has shown that the long term behaviour of this process has a phase transition: If the particle production rate at the source is below a critical value, the stationary measure is a product measure, otherwise the stationary measure is spatially correlated. Following the approach of Derrida et al. (1993) it was shown by Gro{\\ss}kinsky (2004) that these correlations can be described by means of a matrix product representation. In this paper we derive a large deviation principle with explicit rate function for the particle density in a macroscopic box based on this representation. The novel and rigorous technique we develop for this problem combines spectral theoretical and combinatorial ideas and has the potential to be applicable to other models described by matrix products.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teodorescu, Razvan
2009-10-01
Systems of oscillators coupled non-linearly (stochastically or not) are ubiquitous in nature and can explain many complex phenomena: coupled Josephson junction arrays, cardiac pacemaker cells, swarms or flocks of insects and birds, etc. They are know to have a non-trivial phase diagram, which includes chaotic, partially synchronized, and fully synchronized phases. A traditional model for this class of problems is the Kuramoto system of oscillators, which has been studied extensively for the last three decades. The model is a canonical example for non-equilibrium, dynamical phase transitions, so little understood in physics. From a stochastic analysis point of view, the transition is described by the large deviations principle, which offers little information on the scaling behavior near the critical point. I will discuss a special case of the model, which allows a rigorous analysis of the critical properties of the model, and reveals a new, anomalous scaling behavior in the vicinity of the critical point.
Large deviations for many Brownian bridges with symmetrised initial-terminal condition
Stefan Adams; Wolfgang König
2006-03-30
Consider a large system of $N$ Brownian motions in $\\mathbb{R}^d$ with some non-degenerate initial measure on some fixed time interval $[0,\\beta]$ with symmetrised initial-terminal condition. That is, for any $i$, the terminal location of the $i$-th motion is affixed to the initial point of the $\\sigma(i)$-th motion, where $\\sigma$ is a uniformly distributed random permutation of $1,...,N$. Such systems play an important role in quantum physics in the description of Boson systems at positive temperature $1/\\beta$. In this paper, we describe the large-N behaviour of the empirical path measure (the mean of the Dirac measures in the $N$ paths) and of the mean of the normalised occupation measures of the $N$ motions in terms of large deviations principles. The rate functions are given as variational formulas involving certain entropies and Fenchel-Legendre transforms. Consequences are drawn for asymptotic independence statements and laws of large numbers. In the special case related to quantum physics, our rate function for the occupation measures turns out to be equal to the well-known Donsker-Varadhan rate function for the occupation measures of one motion in the limit of diverging time. This enables us to prove a simple formula for the large-N asymptotic of the symmetrised trace of ${\\rm e}^{-\\beta \\mathcal{H}_N}$, where $\\mathcal{H}_N$ is an $N$-particle Hamilton operator in a trap.
Uniform Large Deviations for Heavy-Tailed Queues under Heavy Jose Blanchet and Henry Lam
Lam, Henry
Uniform Large Deviations for Heavy-Tailed Queues under Heavy TraÂ¢ c Jose Blanchet and Henry Lam and Lam (2012)). Other projects that we pursue relate to classical analysis in probability, such as asymptotic approximations, large deviations, and heavy-traÂ¢ c limits (Blanchet and Glynn (2006) and Lam et al
Garrido, Pedro L.
Current fluctuations and statistics during a large deviation event in an exactly solvable transport+17$30.00 #12;J.Stat.Mech.(2009)P02032 Current fluctuations and statistics during a large deviation event of Statistical Mechanics: An IOP and SISSA journalJ Theory and Experiment Current fluctuations and statistics
A note on convergence rates for posterior distributions via large deviations techniques
Andrea Martinelli; Matteo Ruggiero; Stephen G. Walker
2010-01-01
This paper provides rates of convergence for a class of posterior distributions which are exchangeable with respect to a tree\\u000a of partitions. The derivations rely on large deviations techniques.
Large Deviations of the Free Energy in the O'Connell-Yor Polymer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janjigian, Chris
2015-08-01
We investigate large deviations of the free energy in the O'Connell-Yor polymer through a variational representation of the positive real moment Lyapunov exponents of the associated parabolic Anderson model. Our methods yield an exact formula for all real moment Lyapunov exponents of the parabolic Anderson model and a dual representation of the large deviation rate function with normalization for the free energy.
A Formal View on Level 2.5 Large Deviations and Fluctuation Relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barato, Andre C.; Chetrite, Raphael
2015-09-01
We obtain the rate function for the level 2.5 of large deviations for pure jump and diffusion processes. This result is proved by two methods: tilting, for which a tilted process with an appropriate typical behavior is considered, and a spectral method, for which the scaled cumulant generating function is used. We also briefly discuss fluctuation relations, pointing out their connection with large deviations at the level 2.5.
Large deviation for diffusions and Hamilton-Jacobi equation in Hilbert spaces
Feng, Jin
2006-01-01
The Annals of Probability 2006, Vol. 34, No. 1, 321–385 DOI: 10.1214/009117905000000567 © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2006 LARGE DEVIATION FOR DIFFUSIONS AND HAMILTON–JACOBI EQUATION IN HILBERT SPACES BY JIN FENG University... of Massachusetts–Amherst Large deviation for Markov processes can be studied by Hamilton– Jacobi equation techniques. The method of proof involves three steps: First, we apply a nonlinear transform to generators of the Markov processes, and verify that limit...
Large Deviations of the Maximum Eigenvalue for Wishart and Gaussian Random Matrices
Majumdar, Satya N. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vergassola, Massimo [Institut Pasteur, CNRS URA 2171, F-75724 Paris 15 (France)
2009-02-13
We present a Coulomb gas method to calculate analytically the probability of rare events where the maximum eigenvalue of a random matrix is much larger than its typical value. The large deviation function that characterizes this probability is computed explicitly for Wishart and Gaussian ensembles. The method is general and applies to other related problems, e.g., the joint large deviation function for large fluctuations of top eigenvalues. Our results are relevant to widely employed data compression techniques, namely, the principal components analysis. Analytical predictions are verified by extensive numerical simulations.
Large deviation functions in a system of diffusing particles with creation and annihilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popkov, V.; Schütz, G. M.
2011-08-01
Large deviation functions for an exactly solvable lattice gas model of diffusing particles on a ring, subject to pair annihilation and creation, are obtained analytically using exact free-fermion techniques. Our findings for the large deviation function for the current are compared to recent results of Appert-Rolland [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.78.021122 78, 021122 (2008)] for diffusive systems with conserved particle number. Unlike conservative dynamics, our nonconservative model has no universal finite-size corrections for the cumulants. However, the leading Gaussian part has the same variance as in the conservative case. We also elucidate some properties of the large deviation functions associated with particle creation and annihilation.
Computation of Large Deviation Statistics via Iterative Measurement-and-Feedback Procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemoto, Takahiro; Sasa, Shin-ichi
2014-03-01
We propose a computational method for large deviation statistics of time-averaged quantities in general Markov processes. In our proposed method, we repeat a response measurement against external forces, where the forces are determined by the previous measurement as feedback. Consequently, we obtain a set of stationary states corresponding to an exponential family of distributions, each of which shows rare events in the original system as the typical behavior. As a demonstration of our method, we study large deviation statistics of one-dimensional lattice gas models.
Large deviations of the current in a two-dimensional diffusive system
Garrido, Pedro L.
-Lasinio, and Landim have introduced a hydrodynamic fluctuation theory (HFT) which describes large dynamic fluctuations. However, if supplemented with a recently-introduced conjecture named additivity principle [5], HFT can
Two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction kinetics through second quantization path integral
Tiejun Li; Feng Lin
2015-08-26
Motivated by the study of the rare event for a typical genetic switching model in systems biology, we aim to establish the general two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction kinetic systems in this paper. We build a formal approach to explicitly obtain the large deviation rate functionals of the considered two-scale processes based upon the second-quantization path integral technique. This approach is shown to be superior than the well-known WKB asymptotics in giving the correct large deviation rate functionals rather than a non-unique Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the quasi-potential. We get three important types of large deviation results when the underlying two times scales are in three different regimes. This is realized by singular perturbation analysis to the rate functionals obtained by path integral. We find that the three regimes correspond to the same mean-field deterministic limit but completely different chemical Langevin approximations. The obtained results are natural extensions of the classical large volume limit in chemical reaction kinetics. Our framework and results can be applied to understand general multi-scale systems including diffusion processes.
Large Deviations for Random Walks on Galton-Watson Trees: Averaging and Uncertainty
Dembo, Amir
Large Deviations for Random Walks on Galton-Watson Trees: Averaging and Uncertainty A. Dembo #3 over environments. In this paper we consider a simple random walk fXng on a Galton-Watson tree T, i ratio under the \\annealed measure" (averaging on T according to the Galton-Watson distribution
Costas Courcoubetis; Vasilios A. Siris; George D. Stamoulis
1998-01-01
Accurate yet simple methods for traffic engineering are important for efficient dimensioning of broadband networks. The goal of this paper is to apply and evaluate large deviation techniques for traffic engineering. In particular, we employ the recently developed theory of . We show that this effective bandwidth definition can accurately quantify resource usage. Furthermore, we estimate and interpret values of
Hofstad, Remco van der
Linear Interference Cancellation in CDMA Systems and Large Deviations of the Correlation Matrix Interference Cancellation (PIC) decod- ing schemes in the infinite stage limit, for moderately loaded CDMA-PIC. 1 Introduction In Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) communication systems, each user multiplies
Regular Banach Spaces and Large Deviations of Random Sums Arkadi Nemirovski
Nemirovski, Arkadi
Regular Banach Spaces and Large Deviations of Random Sums Arkadi Nemirovski Working paper, version (E, Â· ) be a Banach space, and let 1. (i) Space (E, Â· ) is called -smooth, if the function p(x) = x to follow were announced in [3]. 2 Regular Banach spaces 2.1 Basic examples Example 2.1 Let 2 p
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jack, Robert L.; Sollich, Peter
2014-01-01
We consider large deviations of the dynamical activity in the East model. We bias this system to larger than average activity and investigate the structure that emerges. To best characterize this structure, we exploit the fact that there are effective interactions that would reproduce the same behaviour in an equilibrium system. We combine numerical results with linear response theory and variational estimates of these effective interactions, giving the first insights into such interactions in a many-body system, across a wide range of biases. The system exhibits a hierarchy of responses to the bias, remaining quasi-equilibrated on short length scales, but deviating far from equilibrium on large length scales. We discuss the connection between this hierarchy and the hierarchical ageing behaviour of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovchegov, Yevgeniy; Otto, Peter T.
2015-08-01
In this paper, we present a novel extension to the classical path coupling method to statistical mechanical models which we refer to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, we use this aggregate path coupling method to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The parameter region for rapid mixing for the generalized Curie-Weiss-Potts model is derived as a new application of the aggregate path coupling method.
Top eigenvalue of a random matrix: large deviations and third order phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory
2014-01-01
We study the fluctuations of the largest eigenvalue ?max of N × N random matrices in the limit of large N. The main focus is on Gaussian ? ensembles, including in particular the Gaussian orthogonal (? = 1), unitary (? = 2) and symplectic (? = 4) ensembles. The probability density function (PDF) of ?max consists, for large N, of a central part described by Tracy-Widom distributions flanked, on both sides, by two large deviation tails. While the central part characterizes the typical fluctuations of ?max—of order {O}(N^{-2/3}) —the large deviation tails are instead associated with extremely rare fluctuations—of order {O}(1). Here we review some recent developments in the theory of these extremely rare events using a Coulomb gas approach. We discuss in particular the third order phase transition which separates the left tail from the right tail, a transition akin to the so-called Gross-Witten-Wadia phase transition found in 2-d lattice quantum chromodynamics. We also discuss the occurrence of similar third order transitions in various physical problems, including non-intersecting Brownian motions, conductance fluctuations in mesoscopic physics and entanglement in a bipartite system.
Top eigenvalue of a random matrix: large deviations and third order phase transition
Satya N. Majumdar; Gregory Schehr
2015-05-28
We study the fluctuations of the largest eigenvalue $\\lambda_{\\max}$ of $N \\times N$ random matrices in the limit of large $N$. The main focus is on Gaussian $\\beta$-ensembles, including in particular the Gaussian orthogonal ($\\beta=1$), unitary ($\\beta=2$) and symplectic ($\\beta = 4$) ensembles. The probability density function (PDF) of $\\lambda_{\\max}$ consists, for large $N$, of a central part described by Tracy-Widom distributions flanked, on both sides, by two large deviations tails. While the central part characterizes the typical fluctuations of $\\lambda_{\\max}$ -- of order ${\\cal O}(N^{-2/3})$ --, the large deviations tails are instead associated to extremely rare fluctuations -- of order ${\\cal O}(1)$. Here we review some recent developments in the theory of these extremely rare events using a Coulomb gas approach. We discuss in particular the third-order phase transition which separates the left tail from the right tail, a transition akin to the so-called Gross-Witten-Wadia phase transition found in 2-d lattice quantum chromodynamics. We also discuss the occurrence of similar third-order transitions in various physical problems, including non-intersecting Brownian motions, conductance fluctuations in mesoscopic physics and entanglement in a bipartite system.
Large deviations associated with Poisson--Dirichlet distribution and Ewens sampling formula
Feng, Shui
2007-01-01
Several results of large deviations are obtained for distributions that are associated with the Poisson--Dirichlet distribution and the Ewens sampling formula when the parameter $\\theta$ approaches infinity. The motivation for these results comes from a desire of understanding the exact meaning of $\\theta$ going to infinity. In terms of the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem, the limiting procedure of $\\theta$ going to infinity in a Poisson--Dirichlet distribution corresponds to a finite allele model where the mutation rate per individual is fixed and the number of alleles going to infinity. We call this the finite allele approximation. The first main result of this article is concerned with the relation between this finite allele approximation and the Poisson--Dirichlet distribution in terms of large deviations. Large $\\theta$ can also be viewed as a limiting procedure of the effective population size going to infinity. In the second result a comparison is done between the sample size and the...
Cram ertype large deviations for samples from a nite by Zhishui Hu, John Robinson and Qiying Wang
Sydney, University of
Cramâ?? erÂtype large deviations for samples from a Â£nite population by Zhishui Hu, John Robinson and Qiying Wang USTC, University of Sydney and University of Sydney January 20, 2006 Abstract. Cramâ?? er random variables. Cramâ?? erÂtype large deviations for Â£nite population Student t Âstatistic are also
Quadratic and rate-independent limits for a large-deviations functional
Giovanni A. Bonaschi; Mark A. Peletier
2014-09-15
We construct a stochastic model showing the relationship between noise, gradient flows and rate-independent systems. The model consists of a one-dimensional birth-death process on a lattice, with rates derived from Kramers' law as an approximation of a Brownian motion on a wiggly energy landscape. Taking various limits we show how to obtain a whole family of generalized gradient flows, ranging from quadratic to rate-independent ones, connected via '$L \\log L$' gradient flows. This is achieved via Mosco-convergence of the renormalized large-deviations rate functional of the stochastic process.
How T-cells use large deviations to recognize foreign antigens
Natali Zint; Ellen Baake; Frank den Hollander
2008-05-15
A stochastic model for the activation of T-cells is analysed. T-cells are part of the immune system and recognize foreign antigens against a background of the body's own molecules. The model under consideration is a slight generalization of a model introduced by Van den Berg, Rand and Burroughs in 2001, and is capable of explaining how this recognition works on the basis of rare stochastic events. With the help of a refined large deviation theorem and numerical evaluation it is shown that, for a wide range of parameters, T-cells can distinguish reliably between foreign antigens and self-antigens.
How T-cells use large deviations to recognize foreign antigens
Zint, Natali; Hollander, Frank den
2008-01-01
A stochastic model for the activation of T-cells is analysed. T-cells are part of the immune system and recognize foreign antigens against a background of the body's own molecules. The model under consideration is a slight generalization of a model introduced by Van den Berg, Rand and Burroughs in 2001, and is capable of explaining how this recognition works on the basis of rare stochastic events. With the help of a refined large deviation theorem and numerical evaluation it is shown that, for a wide range of parameters, T-cells can distinguish reliably between foreign antigens and self-antigens.
Large Deviations, Guerra's and A.S.S. Schemes, and the Parisi Hypothesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talagrand, Michel
2007-03-01
We investigate the problem of computing lim_{N to infty}1/aNlog EZ_N^a for any value of a, where Z N is the partition function of the celebrated Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, or of some of its natural generalizations. This is a natural "large deviation" problem. Its study helps to get a fresh look at some of the recent ideas introduced in the area, and raises a number of natural questions. We provide a complete solution for a ? 0.
Multifractal analysis of the irregular set for almost-additive sequences via large deviations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bomfim, Thiago; Varandas, Paulo
2015-10-01
In this paper we introduce a notion of free energy and large deviations rate function for asymptotically additive sequences of potentials via an approximation method by families of continuous potentials. We provide estimates for the topological pressure of the set of points whose non-additive sequences are far from the limit described through Kingman’s sub-additive ergodic theorem and give some applications in the context of Lyapunov exponents for diffeomorphisms and cocycles, and the Shannon-McMillan-Breiman theorem for Gibbs measures.
Dispersion in rectangular networks: effective diffusivity and large-deviation rate function
Tzella, Alexandra
2015-01-01
We investigate the dispersion of a passive scalar released in a fluid flowing within a rectangular, Manhattan-style network. We use large-deviation theory to approximate the scalar concentration as it evolves under the combined action of advection and diffusion and derive an expression for the rate function that controls the form of the concentration at large times $t$. For moderately large distances $O(t^{1/2})$ from the centre of mass, this form reduces to a Gaussian parameterised by a (tensorial) effective diffusivity given in closed form. Further away, at distances $O(t)$, a more complex form reveals the strong imprint of the network geometry. Our theoretical predictions are verified against Monte Carlo simulations of Brownian particles.
Topology trivialization and large deviations for the minimum in the simplest random optimization
Yan V Fyodorov; Pierre Le Doussal
2013-08-01
Finding the global minimum of a cost function given by the sum of a quadratic and a linear form in N real variables over (N-1)- dimensional sphere is one of the simplest, yet paradigmatic problems in Optimization Theory known as the "trust region subproblem" or "constraint least square problem". When both terms in the cost function are random this amounts to studying the ground state energy of the simplest spherical spin glass in a random magnetic field. We first identify and study two distinct large-N scaling regimes in which the linear term (magnetic field) leads to a gradual topology trivialization, i.e. reduction in the total number N_{tot} of critical (stationary) points in the cost function landscape. In the first regime N_{tot} remains of the order $N$ and the cost function (energy) has generically two almost degenerate minima with the Tracy-Widom (TW) statistics. In the second regime the number of critical points is of the order of unity with a finite probability for a single minimum. In that case the mean total number of extrema (minima and maxima) of the cost function is given by the Laplace transform of the TW density, and the distribution of the global minimum energy is expected to take a universal scaling form generalizing the TW law. Though the full form of that distribution is not yet known to us, one of its far tails can be inferred from the large deviation theory for the global minimum. In the rest of the paper we show how to use the replica method to obtain the probability density of the minimum energy in the large-deviation approximation by finding both the rate function and the leading pre-exponential factor.
Exact large-deviation statistics for a nonequilibrium quantum spin chain.
Znidari?, Marko
2014-01-31
We consider a one-dimensional XX spin chain in a nonequilibrium setting with a Lindblad-type boundary driving. By calculating large-deviation rate function in the thermodynamic limit, a generalization of free energy to a nonequilibrium setting, we obtain a complete distribution of current, including closed expressions for lower-order cumulants. We also identify two phase-transition-like behaviors in either the thermodynamic limit, at which the current probability distribution becomes discontinuous, or at maximal driving, when the range of possible current values changes discontinuously. In the thermodynamic limit the current has a finite upper and lower bound. We also explicitly confirm nonequilibrium fluctuation relation and show that the current distribution is the same under mapping of the coupling strength ??1/?. PMID:24580430
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes, Artur; Neumann, Adriana; Thieullen, Philippe
2013-09-01
Through this paper we analyze the ergodic properties of continuous time Markov chains with values on the one-dimensional spin lattice (also known as the Bernoulli space). Initially, we consider as the infinitesimal generator the operator [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], where [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is a discrete time Ruelle operator (transfer operator), and is a given fixed Lipschitz function. The associated continuous time stationary Markov chain will define the a priori probability. Given a Lipschitz interaction , we are interested in Gibbs (equilibrium) state for such V. This will be another continuous time stationary Markov chain. In order to analyze this problem we will use a continuous time Ruelle operator (transfer operator) naturally associated to V. Among other things we will show that a continuous time Perron-Frobenius Theorem is true in the case V is a Lipschitz function. We also introduce an entropy, which is negative (see also Lopes et al. in Entropy and Variational Principle for one-dimensional Lattice Systems with a general a-priori probability: positive and zero temperature. Arxiv, 2012), and we consider a variational principle of pressure. Finally, we analyze large deviations properties for the empirical measure in the continuous time setting using results by Y. Kifer (Tamsui Oxf. J. Manag. Sci. 321(2):505-524, 1990). In the last appendix of the paper we explain why the techniques we develop here have the capability to be applied to the analysis of convergence of a certain version of the Metropolis algorithm.
Large-deviation joint statistics of the finite-time Lyapunov spectrum in isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Perry L.; Meneveau, Charles
2015-08-01
One of the hallmarks of turbulent flows is the chaotic behavior of fluid particle paths with exponentially growing separation among them while their distance does not exceed the viscous range. The maximal (positive) Lyapunov exponent represents the average strength of the exponential growth rate, while fluctuations in the rate of growth are characterized by the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs). In the last decade or so, the notion of Lagrangian coherent structures (which are often computed using FTLEs) has gained attention as a tool for visualizing coherent trajectory patterns in a flow and distinguishing regions of the flow with different mixing properties. A quantitative statistical characterization of FTLEs can be accomplished using the statistical theory of large deviations, based on the so-called Cramér function. To obtain the Cramér function from data, we use both the method based on measuring moments and measuring histograms and introduce a finite-size correction to the histogram-based method. We generalize the existing univariate formalism to the joint distributions of the two FTLEs needed to fully specify the Lyapunov spectrum in 3D flows. The joint Cramér function of turbulence is measured from two direct numerical simulation datasets of isotropic turbulence. Results are compared with joint statistics of FTLEs computed using only the symmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor, as well as with joint statistics of instantaneous strain-rate eigenvalues. When using only the strain contribution of the velocity gradient, the maximal FTLE nearly doubles in magnitude, highlighting the role of rotation in de-correlating the fluid deformations along particle paths. We also extend the large-deviation theory to study the statistics of the ratio of FTLEs. The most likely ratio of the FTLEs ?1 : ?2 : ?3 is shown to be about 4:1:-5, compared to about 8:3:-11 when using only the strain-rate tensor for calculating fluid volume deformations. The results serve to characterize the fundamental statistical and geometric structure of turbulence at small scales including cumulative, time integrated effects. These are important for deformable particles such as droplets and polymers advected by turbulence.
Large deviations of the maximum of independent and identically distributed random variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vivo, Pierpaolo
2015-09-01
A pedagogical account of some aspects of extreme value statistics (EVS) is presented from the somewhat non-standard viewpoint of large deviation theory. We address the following problem: given a set of N independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables \\{{X}1,\\ldots ,{X}N\\} drawn from a parent probability density function (pdf) p(x), what is the probability that the maximum value of the set {X}{max}={{max}}i{X}i is ‘atypically larger’ than expected? The cases of exponential and Gaussian distributed variables are worked out in detail, and the right rate function for a general pdf in the Gumbel basin of attraction is derived. The Gaussian case convincingly demonstrates that the full rate function cannot be determined from the knowledge of the limiting distribution (Gumbel) alone, thus implying that it indeed carries additional information. Given the simplicity and richness of the result and its derivation, its absence from textbooks, tutorials and lecture notes on EVS for physicists appears inexplicable.
The structure of glass as revealed by dynamical large deviation methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrahan, Juan P.
2015-03-01
The dynamics of many-body systems is often richer than what one can directly infer from their static properties. This dynamical richness is revealed by considering strictly dynamical observables. The full statistical characteristics of such quantities encode the dynamical properties of the system at hand. By considering their large deviations it is possible to derive a statistical mechanics of trajectories, which is to trajectories of the dynamics what equilibrium statistical mechanics is to configurations of the statics. In this talk I will describe this approach and how it can be applied to the glass transition problem. I will show how the underlying kinetic phenomenon of glass formation is a novel class of order-disorder transitions in trajectory, rather than configuration, space. I will consider the connection between the inactive dynamical phases this approach reveals and glasses prepared by more standard means. A significant prediction from this approach is the emergence of non-trivial correlations that distinguish glass from its reversible melt. Time permitting I will discuss how these ideas extend to the area of quantum glasses.
Fluctuation theorem and large deviation function for a solvable model of a molecular motor
D. Lacoste; A. W. C. Lau; K. Mallick
2008-07-01
We study a discrete stochastic model of a molecular motor. This discrete model can be viewed as a \\emph{minimal} ratchet model. We extend our previous work on this model, by further investigating the constraints imposed by the Fluctuation Theorem on the operation of a molecular motor far from equilibrium. In this work, we show the connections between different formulations of the Fluctuation Theorem. One formulation concerns the generating function of the currents while another one concerns the corresponding large deviation function, which we have calculated exactly for this model. A third formulation of FT concerns the ratio of the probability of making one forward step to the probability of making one backward step. The predictions of this last formulation of the Fluctuation Theorem adapted to our model are in very good agreement with the data of Carter and Cross [Nature, {\\bf 435}, 308 (2005)] on single molecule measurements with kinesin. Finally, we show that all the formulations of FT can be understood from the notion of entropy production.
Annual Rainfall Maxima: Large-Deviation Alternative to Extreme-Value and Extreme-Excess Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veneziano, D.; Langousis, A.; Lepore, C.
2009-04-01
Contrary to common belief, Gumbel's extreme value (EV) and Pickands' extreme excess (EE) theories do not generally apply to rainfall maxima at the annual level. This is true not just for long averaging durations d, as one would expect, but also in the high-resolution limit as d â?? 0. We reach these conclusions by studying the annual maxima of scale-invariant rainfall models with a multiplicative structure. We find that for d â?? 0 the annual maximum rainfall intensity in d, Iyear(d), has a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution with a shape parameter k that is significantly higher than that predicted by Gumbel's theory and is always in the EV2 range. Under the same conditions, the excess above levels close to the annual maximum has generalized Pareto (GP) distribution with a parameter k that is always higher than that predicted by Pickands' theory. The proper tool to obtain these results is large deviation (LD) theory, a branch of probability that has been largely ignored in stochastic hydrology. In the classic EV and EE settings one considers a single random variable X and studies either the distribution of the maximum of n independent copies of X as n â??? or the distribution of the excess Xu = (X - u|X â?¥ u) as the threshold u â???. A well known result is that, if under renormalization these distributions approach non-degenerate limits, then the distribution of the maximum is GEV(k), the distribution of the excess above u is GP(k), and the common shape parameter k depends on the tail behavior of X. When applied to rainfall extremes, X is typically taken to be I(d), the rainfall intensity in a generic d interval. The problem with the EV approach is that the number of d intervals in one year, n(d) = 1yr?d, may be too small for convergence of Iyear(d) to the asymptotic GEV distribution. Likewise, in the EE approach, thresholds u on the order of the annual maximum may be too low for convergence of the excess to the asymptotic GP distribution. This is indeed what happens in multifractal (and likely other multiplicative) models of rainfall. In contrast to EV and EE theories, LD theory considers a sequence of random variables {Xn = i=1nY i, n = 1, 2, â?¦} where Y 1, Y 2,... are independent copies of a non-negative random variable Y and evaluates the probability P[Xn > eÎ³n] for given Î³ > 0 as n â???. For application to scale-invariant rainfall one writes I(d) = I(D)Xn=ln(D?d), where D is the outer limit of the scale-invariant behavior. By using LD results, one finds that as d â?? 0 the distribution of Iyear(d) is EV2(k) with k that depends on the body (not the tail) of the distribution of Y . One can use LD theory also to extend Pickands' EE results. In this case one considers the excess Xn,eÎ³n = (Xn - eÎ³n|Xn â?¥ eÎ³n) where the threshold u is made to vary with n as u = eÎ³n for some Î³ > 0. One finds that, when the threshold is set to values on the order of the annual maximum and d â?? 0, the excess of I(d) = I(D)Xn=ln(D?d) approaches a GP(k) distribution where k is the same as in the EV2(k) distribution of Iyear(d). For d finite, Iyear(d) does not have a GEV distribution, but one can use LD theory to find the best-fitting EV2(k) distribution within a given range of quantiles. The use of large-deviation theory rather than extreme-value or extreme-excess theories represents a significant conceptual change in the way annual rainfall maxima are viewed and evaluated. There are also practical implications. Use of LD theory to calculate the distribution of the annual maximum does not require knowledge of the upper tail behavior of I(d). Rather one needs to know the distribution of I(d) in a less extreme region with significant gains in estimation accuracy and robustness. Some of the practical implications are considered in a companion study (Lepore et al., "Annual Rainfall Maxima: Practical Estimation Based on Large-deviation Results," EGU 2009). This
arXiv:cond-mat/0511248v23Mar2006 Direct evaluation of large-deviation functions
Giardinà, Cristian
, this difficulty is often overcome by introducing biased (non-Boltzmann) sam- pling [20]. Here we show Monte Carlo method [21] of quantum mechanics. In the present work, after deriving the general formalism allows to compute the probability of obtaining a temporary large deviation (compared to the typical
Stefan Adams
2007-01-01
Abstract. Motivated by the Bose gas we introduce certain combinatorial structures. We analyse the asymptotic behaviour of empirical shape measures and of empirical path measures of N Brownian motions with large deviations techniques. The rate functions are given as variational problems which we analyse. A symmetrised system of Brownian motions, that is, for any i, the terminal location of the
Kontoyiannis, Ioannis
compression, centered around a lossy version of the asymptotic equipartition property (AEP). This treatment in an important paper of Wyner and Ziv in 1989. In the lossless case, we review how the AEP un- derlies- ment of the generalized AEP and we outline the general method- ology of its proof via large deviations
Mechanical principles of large mirror supports
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kärcher, Hans J.; Eisenträger, Peter; Süss, Martin
2010-07-01
Large thin meniscus mirrors use force-controlled shape actuators to obtain the required optical performance. The shape actuators can be interpreted as an advancement of classical mirror supports as whiffle trees or iso-static levers, which worked purely mechanical. The paper develops, after a short historical overview, the theoretical background of mirror mechanics. Different combinations of force-controlled shape actuators with mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic whiffle trees or iso-static levers are analyzed in regard of their impact on optical performance, dynamic and control behavior. The investigations were the basis for the choice of the shape actuator system for the E-ELT M2, executed by MT Mechatronics under an ESO contract in 2008-09.
A Large Deviation Principle for m{variate von Mises{Statistics and U{Statistics
LÃ¶we, Matthias
. and 4.. In this case we will shortly write P (X n #24; a) #25; e nI(a) : Already in 1938 Cram#19;er [9 in the proofs of Cram#19;er's and Sanov's theorem are basic for the further results, especially the use
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itami, Masato; Sasa, Shin-ichi
2015-08-01
We study the friction coefficient of a macroscopic sphere in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. First, Kirkwood's formula for the friction coefficient is reviewed on the basis of the Hamiltonian description of particle systems. According to this formula, the friction coefficient is expressed in terms of the stress correlation on the surface of the macroscopic sphere. Then, with the aid of large deviation theory, we relate the surface stress correlation to the stress correlation in the bulk of the fluid, where the latter is characterized by the viscosity in the Green-Kubo formula. By combining Kirkwood's formula and the Green-Kubo formula in large deviation theory, we derive Stokes' law without explicitly employing the hydrodynamic equations.
Principles for Organizing Semantic Relations in Large Knowledge Bases *
Stephens, Larry M.
Principles for Organizing Semantic Relations in Large Knowledge Bases * Larry M. Stephensstructured knowledge bases. We consider not only the ways that slots are used in reasoning about a given domain but also the features of the representation language of the knowledgebased system in which the slots
Principle of a new kind of large acceptance mass separator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chabert, A.; Ricaud, Ch.; Bru, B.
1994-12-01
We propound the principle of a new kind of mass separator devoted to the selection of a given ion species (a given ? = {q}/{m} ratio) mixed in a composite beam of large emittance. The numerical simulation of the simplest design we can think about is presented and discussed to illustrate our proposal.
Extending the Principles of Intensive Writing to Large Macroeconomics Classes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Docherty, Peter; Tse, Harry; Forman, Ross; McKenzie, Jo
2010-01-01
The authors report on the design and implementation of a pilot program to extend the principles of intensive writing outlined by W. Lee Hansen (1998), Murray S. Simpson and Shireen E. Carroll (1999) and David Carless (2006) to large macroeconomics classes. The key aspect of this program was its collaborative nature, with staff from two specialist…
Cocco, Simona
Restarts and exponential acceleration of the Davis{ Putnam{Loveland{Logemann algorithm: a large. Abstract. An analysis of the hardness of resolution of random 3-SAT instances us- ing the Davis-Putnam, exponentially large computational resources. One of these algorithms is the ubiquitous Davis{Putnam
Large deviations for empirical path measures in cycles of integer partitions
Stefan Adams
2007-01-01
Consider a large system of $N$ Brownian motions in $\\\\mathbb{R}^d$ on some fixed time interval $[0,\\\\beta]$ with symmetrised initial-terminal condition. That is, for any $i$, the terminal location of the $i$-th motion is affixed to the initial point of the $\\\\sigma(i)$-th motion, where $\\\\sigma$ is a uniformly distributed random permutation of $1,...,N$. In this paper, we describe the large-N behaviour
Queueing Systems 0 (1997) ?--? 1 Large Deviations Ordering of Point Processes in some
MassouliÃ©, Laurent
1997-01-01
To an ATM multiplexer, assimilated to a FIFO queue with service rate c and buffer capacity B, assign on them, at the network input only. Indeed, for large enough buffers, the traffic streams within the network of finite buffer queues are close to the streams within the network of infinite buffer queues
Large deviations for ideal quantum Joel L. Lebowitz 1;2; \\Lambda Marco Lenci 1;y
08854, U.S.A. 3 Zentrum Mathematik and Physik Department Technische UniversitÂ¨at 80290 MÂ¨unchen, GermanyÂdimensional quantum system of nonÂinterÂ acting particles, with suitable statistics, in a very large (formally infi Statistical mechanics is the bridge between the microscopic world of atoms and the macroscopic world of bulk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbari, M. R.; Nimafar, M.; Ganji, D. D.; Akbarzade, M. M.
2014-12-01
The kinematic assumptions upon which the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is founded allow it to be extended to more advanced analysis. Simple superposition allows for three-dimensional transverse loading. Using alternative constitutive equations can allow for viscoelastic or plastic beam deformation. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory can also be extended to the analysis of curved beams, beam buckling, composite beams and geometrically nonlinear beam deflection. In this study, solving the nonlinear differential equation governing the calculation of the large rotation deviation of the beam (or column) has been discussed. Previously to calculate the rotational deviation of the beam, the assumption is made that the angular deviation of the beam is small. By considering the small slope in the linearization of the governing differential equation, the solving is easy. The result of this simplification in some cases will lead to an excessive error. In this paper nonlinear differential equations governing on this system are solved analytically by Akbari-Ganji's method (AGM). Moreover, in AGM by solving a set of algebraic equations, complicated nonlinear equations can easily be solved and without any mathematical operations such as integration solving. The solution of the problem can be obtained very simply and easily. Furthermore, to enhance the accuracy of the results, the Taylor expansion is not needed in most cases via AGM manner. Also, comparisons are made between AGM and numerical method (Runge-Kutta 4th). The results reveal that this method is very effective and simple, and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.
Moderate deviations for Poisson-Dirichlet distribution
Feng, Shui
2007-01-01
Poisson-Dirichlet distribution arises in many different areas. The parameter $\\theta$ in the distribution is the scaled mutation rate of a population in the context of population genetics. The limiting procedure of $\\theta$ approaching infinity is practically motivated and has led to new interesting mathematical structures. Results of law of large numbers, fluctuation theorems and large deviations have been successfully established. In this paper moderate deviation principles are established for Poisson-Dirichlet distribution, GEM distribution, the homozygosity, and Dirichlet process when parameter $\\theta$ approaches infinity. These results, combined with earlier work, not only provide a relatively complete picture of the asymptotic behavior of Poisson-Dirichlet distribution for large $\\theta$ but also lead to a better understanding of the large deviation problem associated with the scaled homozygosity. They also reveal some new structures that are not observed in existing results of large deviations.
Nitin Kumar; Sriram Ramaswamy; A. K. Sood
2010-12-23
A geometrically polar granular rod confined in 2-D geometry, subjected to a sinusoidal vertical oscillation, undergoes noisy self-propulsion in a direction determined by its polarity. When surrounded by a medium of crystalline spherical beads, it displays substantial negative fluctuations in its velocity. We find that the large deviation function (LDF) for the normalized velocity is strongly non-Gaussian with a kink at zero velocity, and that the antisymmetric part of the LDF is linear, resembling the fluctuation relation known for entropy production, even when the velocity distribution is clearly non-Gaussian. We extract an analogue of the phase space contraction rate and find that it compares well with an independent estimate based on the persistence of forward and reverse velocities.
Herb, S.W.
1983-01-01
An experiment measuring large momentum transfer inelastic scatters of muons from an iron target is described. The data are analyzed for deviations from the Bjorken scaling prediction that the nucleon structure function nuW/sub 2/(omega) be independent of the four-momentum transfer Q/sup 2/. Significant deviations are observed: as absolute value Q/sup 2/ increases, nuW/sub 2/ increases for omega > 6 and decreases for omega < 6. These deviations are parameterized and compared with qualitative expectations from scale-breaking in asymptotically free field theories and from the turn-on of a charm contribution to the scatters.
Lebedev, Vladimir
Tail-constraining stochastic linearquadratic control: a large deviation and statistical physics of Statistical Mechanics: J Theory and Experiment Tail-constraining stochastic linearquadratic control: a large and statistical physics approach Contents 1. Introduction 2 2. The deterministic case and LQ optimal control 6 3
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Niles, Robert
This resource, by journalist Robert Niles, defines and explains standard deviation and the normal distribution. Graphs and a clear list of terms you need to know are given, and links to more of Niles' sites can be found by visitors on the right side of the screen.
Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L
2010-04-01
Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems. PMID:20481672
Large impurity effects in rubrene crystals: First-principles calculations
Tsetseris, L.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.
2008-01-01
Carrier mobilities of rubrene films are among the highest values reported for any organic semiconductor. Here, we probe with first-principles calculations the sensitivity of rubrene crystals on impurities. We find that isolated oxygen impurities create distinct peaks in the electronic density of states consistent with observations of defect levels in rubrene and that increased O content changes the position and shape of rubrene energy bands significantly. We also establish a dual role of hydrogen as individual H species and H impurity pairs create and annihilate deep carrier traps, respectively. The results are relevant to the performance and reliability of rubrene-based devices.
Ruan Jianhong; Zhu Wei
2010-05-15
The pseudorapidity density of charged particles produced at collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are predicted by using two complementary production mechanisms with a set of consistent integrated and unintegrated parton distributions. We discuss the limiting fragmentation hypothesis and its possible violation, and we compare our model with other partonic models.
A variational principle for ascent shapes of large scientific balloons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baginski, F.
Ascent shapes of large scientific balloons possess a number of well-defined features, including (F_1) a spherical top, (F_2) a lobe pattern surrounding the gas bubble, (F_3) internally folded material within the gas bubble, and (F_4) flat wing-like structures in the lower portion of the balloon. The standard Sigma-shape model for a balloon assumes an axisymmetric solution and is inadequate for handling shapes with these features. The energy E of a balloon shape S is modeled as the sum of the gravitational potentials of the lifting gas and the balloon fabric. Our approach is to minimizeE [S] over a class of shapes that satisfy certain constraints and are invariant under the dihedral group D_kappa. A solution computed in this fashion is called an Energy Minimizing Shape or EM-shape. EM-shapes are found to possess features (F_1)-(F_4). In this paper, we introduce a structure called apseudo-gore into our mathematical model. Numerical solutions of EM-shapes with square-shaped and hexagaonal symmetries are included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosi, G. A.; la Bastide, B.; Gaebler, J.; Kinzel, M.; Rival, D. E.
2014-12-01
The following study proposes a two-dimensional large-scale particle tracking velocimetry (LS-PTV) system to characterize coherent wind structures. Seven minutes of LS-PTV data is collected via an apparatus that seeds fog-filled soap bubbles into the wind at a height of 6m from the ground. The LS-PTV data is compared to 20 minutes of data collected concurrently from a wind mast at the same site. The LS-PTV system recorded a mean streamwise velocity of 1.35m/s with a standard deviation of 0.23m/s at a mean height of 2.50m with a standard deviation of 0.7m, which agrees well with the velocity profile measured by the wind mast. Furthermore, the Reynolds stresses measured by the LS-PTV system are found to compare to those measured by the wind mast and by Klebanoff [1] for a canonical turbulent boundary layer. The current study assumes that the centre-of-curvature trajectories of the particle pathlines are representative of the trajectories followed by the spanwise vortices. As a proof-of-principle study, this work has been successful in accurately describing the vortex distribution very near to the ground. However, the trajectories followed by the centres-of- curvat.ure belonging to pathlines concurrently passing through the field-of-view were sporadic and uncorrelated.
Dupuis, Paul [Brown University] [Brown University
2014-03-14
This proposal is concerned with applications of Monte Carlo to problems in physics and chemistry where rare events degrade the performance of standard Monte Carlo. One class of problems is concerned with computation of various aspects of the equilibrium behavior of some Markov process via time averages. The problem to be overcome is that rare events interfere with the efficient sampling of all relevant parts of phase space. A second class concerns sampling transitions between two or more stable attractors. Here, rare events do not interfere with the sampling of all relevant parts of phase space, but make Monte Carlo inefficient because of the very large number of samples required to obtain variance comparable to the quantity estimated. The project uses large deviation methods for the mathematical analyses of various Monte Carlo techniques, and in particular for algorithmic analysis and design. This is done in the context of relevant application areas, mainly from chemistry and biology.
Bioinspired Principles for Large-Scale Networked Sensor Systems: An Overview
Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Zhang, Qi; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg
2011-01-01
Biology has often been used as a source of inspiration in computer science and engineering. Bioinspired principles have found their way into network node design and research due to the appealing analogies between biological systems and large networks of small sensors. This paper provides an overview of bioinspired principles and methods such as swarm intelligence, natural time synchronization, artificial immune system and intercellular information exchange applicable for sensor network design. Bioinspired principles and methods are discussed in the context of routing, clustering, time synchronization, optimal node deployment, localization and security and privacy. PMID:22163841
Implementing the "Marketing You" Project in Large Sections of Principles of Marketing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Karen H.
2004-01-01
There is mounting pressure on business education to increase experiential learning at the same time that budget constraints are forcing universities to increase class size. This article explains the design and implementation of the "Marketing You" project in two large sections of Principles of Marketing to bring experiential learning into the…
Karton, Amir; Goerigk, Lars
2015-04-01
Accurate barrier heights are obtained for the 26 pericyclic reactions in the BHPERI dataset by means of the high-level Wn-F12 thermochemical protocols. Very often, the complete basis set (CBS)-type composite methods are used in similar situations, but herein it is shown that they in fact result in surprisingly large errors with root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of about 2.5 kcal mol(-1). In comparison, other composite methods, particularly G4-type and estimated coupled cluster with singles, doubles, and quasiperturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)/CBS] approaches, show deviations well below the chemical-accuracy threshold of 1 kcal mol(-1). With the exception of SCS-MP2 and the herein newly introduced MP3.5 approach, all other tested Møller-Plesset perturbative procedures give poor performance with RMSDs of up to 8.0 kcal mol(-1). The finding that CBS-type methods fail for barrier heights of these reactions is unexpected and it is particularly troublesome given that they are often used to obtain reference values for benchmark studies. Significant differences are identified in the interpretation and final ranking of density functional theory (DFT) methods when using the original CBS-QB3 rather than the new Wn-F12 reference values for BHPERI. In particular, it is observed that the more accurate Wn-F12 benchmark results in lower statistical errors for those methods that are generally considered to be robust and accurate. Two examples are the PW6B95-D3(BJ) hybrid-meta-general-gradient approximation and the PWPB95-D3(BJ) double-hybrid functionals, which result in the lowest RMSDs of the entire DFT study (1.3 and 1.0 kcal mol(-1), respectively). These results indicate that CBS-QB3 should be applied with caution in computational modeling and benchmark studies involving related systems. PMID:25649643
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jauregui, Max; Tsallis, Constantino
2015-02-01
We consider correlated random variables X1, …, Xn taking values in {0, 1} such that, for any permutation ? of {1, …, n}, the random vectors (X1, …, Xn) and (X?(1), …, X?(n)) have the same distribution. This distribution, which was introduced by Rodríguez et al. [J. Stat. Mech. 2008, P09006] and then generalized by Hanel et al. [Eur. Phys. J. B 72, 263 (2009)], is scale-invariant and depends on a real parameter ? > 0 (? ? ? implies independence). Putting Sn = X1 + ⋯ + Xn, the distribution of Sn - n/2 approaches a Q-Gaussian distribution with compact support (Q = 1 - 1/(? - 1) < 1) as n increases, after appropriate scaling. In the present article, we show that the distribution of Sn/n converges, as n ? ?, to a beta distribution with both parameters equal to ?. In particular, the law of large numbers does not hold since, if 0 ? x < 1/2, then ?(Sn/n ? x), which is the probability of the event {Sn/n ? x} (large deviation), does not converge to zero as n ? ?. For x = 0 and every real ? > 0, we show that ?(Sn = 0) decays to zero like a power law of the form 1/n? with a subdominant term of the form 1/n?+1. If 0 < x ? 1 and ? > 0 is an integer, we show that we can analytically find upper and lower bounds for the difference between ?(Sn/n ? x) and its (n ? ?) limit. We also show that these bounds vanish like a power law of the form 1/n with a subdominant term of the form 1/n2.
The force-from-lipid (FFL) principle of mechanosensitivity, at large and in elements.
Teng, Jinfeng; Loukin, Stephen; Anishkin, Andriy; Kung, Ching
2015-01-01
Focus on touch and hearing distracts attention from numerous subconscious force sensors, such as the vital control of blood pressure and systemic osmolarity, and sensors in nonanimals. Multifarious manifestations should not obscure invariant and fundamental physicochemical principles. We advocate that force from lipid (FFL) is one such principle. It is based on the fact that the self-assembled bilayer necessitates inherent forces that are large and anisotropic, even at life's origin. Functional response of membrane proteins is governed by bilayer force changes. Added stress can redirect these forces, leading to geometric changes of embedded proteins such as ion channels. The FFL principle was first demonstrated when purified bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) remained mechanosensitive (MS) after reconstituting into bilayers. This key experiment has recently been unequivocally replicated with two vertebrate MS K2p channels. Even the canonical Kv and the Drosophila canonical transient receptor potentials (TRPCs) have now been shown to be MS in biophysical and in physiological contexts, supporting the universality of the FFL paradigm. We also review the deterministic role of mechanical force during stem cell differentiation as well as the cell-cell and cell-matrix tethers that provide force communications. In both the ear hair cell and the worm's touch neuron, deleting the cadherin or microtubule tethers reduces but does not eliminate MS channel activities. We found no evidence to distinguish whether these tethers directly pull on the channel protein or a surrounding lipid platform. Regardless of the implementation, pulling tether tenses up the bilayer. Membrane tenting is directly visible at the apexes of the stereocilia. PMID:24888690
On the performance of maximum-principle enforcing methods applied to large-scale subsurface problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karra, S.; Chang, J.; Nakshatrala, K.
2014-12-01
It is well known that numerical formulations (either finite element, finite volume or finite difference) do not meet maximum principles and the non-negative constraint for anisotropic diffusion equations. But these mathematical properties and physical constraints are important for predictive simulations in subsurface modeling. Recently, optimization-based methodologies have been proposed for diffusion-type equations that respect maximum principles and meet the non-negative constraint on general computational grids. Till date these methodologies have been tested only on small-scale academic problems with few thousands of degrees-of-freedom. But for practical problems in subsurface modeling, the degrees-of-freedom easily run into millions and sometimes into billions. The purpose of this research is to systematically study the performance of the non-negative methodologies for large-scale problems and in a parallel setting. We shall use PETSc for parallel environment, and TAO for parallel optimization solvers. Numerical simulations on real sites using our methodologies will be presented.
Integration of human factors principles in LARG organizations--a conceptual model.
Figueira, Sara; Machado, V Cruz; Nunes, Isabel L
2012-01-01
Nowadays many companies are undergoing organizational transformations in order to meet the changing market demands. Thus, in order to become more competitive, supply chains (SC) are adopting new management paradigms to improve SC performance: lean, agile, resilient and green (LARG paradigms). The implementation of new production paradigms demands particular care with the issues related with Human Factors to avoid health and safety problems to workers and losses to companies. Thus, the successful introduction of these new production paradigms depends among others on a Human Factors oriented approach. This work presents a conceptual framework that allows integrating ergonomic and safety design principles during the different implementation phases of lean, agile, resilient and green practices. PMID:22316960
Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Gleyzes, Jérôme; Vernizzi, Filippo [CEA, Institut de Physique Théorique, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 France (France); Hui, Lam [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027 (United States); Simonovi?, Marko, E-mail: creminel@ictp.it, E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr, E-mail: lhui@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it, E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)
2014-06-01
The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10{sup ?3}÷10{sup ?4} on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.
A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations
Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke
2014-06-28
An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF{sub 4})
Variance and Standard Deviation
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Lane, David M.
This source, created by David M. Lane of Hyperstat Online, defines and explains variance and standard deviation. The page intertwines mathematical formulas with text to best introduce the topic. While brief, it still provides a nice introduction to these methods.
Standard deviation Chebychev's inequality
Adler, Robert J.
, H with mean ÂµH = 178cm and standard deviation H = 6cm. Australians have IQs with mean ÂµIQ = 100 and standard deviation IQ = 15. An Australian male chosen at random is 2m tall, and has an IQ of 83. What is more unusual, his height or his IQ? H = (H - ÂµH)/H = (200 - 178)/6 = 3.667, IQ = (IQ - ÂµIQ)/IQ = (83
Principles for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams
Krinitzsky, E.L.; Marcuson, William F.
1983-01-01
This report gives a synopsis of the various tools and techniques used in selecting earthquake ground motion parameters for large dams. It presents 18 charts giving newly developed relations for acceleration, velocity, and duration versus site earthquake intensity for near- and far-field hard and soft sites and earthquakes having magnitudes above and below 7. The material for this report is based on procedures developed at the Waterways Experiment Station. Although these procedures are suggested primarily for large dams, they may also be applicable for other facilities. Because no standard procedure exists for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams, a number of precautions are presented to guide users. The selection of earthquake motions is dependent on which one of two types of engineering analyses are performed. A pseudostatic analysis uses a coefficient usually obtained from an appropriate contour map; whereas, a dynamic analysis uses either accelerograms assigned to a site or specified respunse spectra. Each type of analysis requires significantly different input motions. All selections of design motions must allow for the lack of representative strong motion records, especially near-field motions from earthquakes of magnitude 7 and greater, as well as an enormous spread in the available data. Limited data must be projected and its spread bracketed in order to fill in the gaps and to assure that there will be no surprises. Because each site may have differing special characteristics in its geology, seismic history, attenuation, recurrence, interpreted maximum events, etc., as integrated approach gives best results. Each part of the site investigation requires a number of decisions. In some cases, the decision to use a 'least ork' approach may be suitable, simply assuming the worst of several possibilities and testing for it. Because there are no standard procedures to follow, multiple approaches are useful. For example, peak motions at a site may be obtained from several methods that involve magnitude of earthquake, distance from source, and corresponding motions; or, alternately, peak motions may be assigned from other correlations based on earthquake intensity. Various interpretations exist to account for duration, recurrence, effects of site conditions, etc. Comparison of the various interpretations can be very useful. Probabilities can be assigned; however, they can present very serious problems unless appropriate care is taken when data are extrapolated beyond their data base. In making deterministic judgments, probabilistic data can provide useful guidance in estimating the uncertainties of the decision. The selection of a design ground motion for large dams is based in the end on subjective judgments which should depend, to an important extent, on the consequences of failure. Usually, use of a design value of ground motion representing a mean plus one standard deviation of possible variation in the mean of the data puts one in a conservative position. If failure presents no hazard to life, lower values of design ground motion may be justified, providing there are cost benefits and the risk is acceptable to the owner. Where a large hazard to life exists (i.e., a dam above an urbanized area) one may wish to use values of design ground motion that approximate the very worst case. The selection of a design ground motion must be appropriate for its particular set of circumstances.
Guelpa, Valérian; Laurent, Guillaume J; Sandoz, Patrick; Zea, July Galeano; Clévy, Cédric
2014-01-01
This paper presents a visual measurement method able to sense 1D rigid body displacements with very high resolutions, large ranges and high processing rates. Sub-pixelic resolution is obtained thanks to a structured pattern placed on the target. The pattern is made of twin periodic grids with slightly different periods. The periodic frames are suited for Fourier-like phase calculations-leading to high resolution-while the period difference allows the removal of phase ambiguity and thus a high range-to-resolution ratio. The paper presents the measurement principle as well as the processing algorithms (source files are provided as supplementary materials). The theoretical and experimental performances are also discussed. The processing time is around 3 µs for a line of 780 pixels, which means that the measurement rate is mostly limited by the image acquisition frame rate. A 3-? repeatability of 5 nm is experimentally demonstrated which has to be compared with the 168 µm measurement range. PMID:24625736
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salemi, Michael K.
2009-01-01
One of the most important challenges facing college instructors of economics is helping students engage. Engagement is particularly important in a large-enrollment Principles of Economics course, where it can help students achieve a long-lived understanding of how economists use basic economic ideas to look at the world. The author reports how…
Bodnar, Richard J; Stellar, James R; Kraft, Tamar T; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo
2013-01-01
In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20-25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first and last pages. A draft of the first page, collected early in the term, was returned to each student by graduate TAs to provide individual feedback on scientific writing. Overall the course has run three times at ful or near enrollment capacity despite being held at an 8:00 AM time slot. Student-generated teaching evaluations place it well within the normal range, while this format importantly contributes to budget efficiency permitting the teaching of more required small-format courses (e.g., freshman writing). The demographics of the course have changed to one in which the vast majority of the students are now outside the disciplines of neuroscience or psychology and are taking the course to fulfill a General Education requirement. This pattern allows the wide dissemination of basic neuroscientific knowledge to a general college audience. PMID:24319388
Bodnar, Richard J.; Stellar, James R.; Kraft, Tamar T.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M.; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo
2013-01-01
In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20–25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first and last pages. A draft of the first page, collected early in the term, was returned to each student by graduate TAs to provide individual feedback on scientific writing. Overall the course has run three times at ful or near enrollment capacity despite being held at an 8:00 AM time slot. Student-generated teaching evaluations place it well within the normal range, while this format importantly contributes to budget efficiency permitting the teaching of more required small-format courses (e.g., freshman writing). The demographics of the course have changed to one in which the vast majority of the students are now outside the disciplines of neuroscience or psychology and are taking the course to fulfill a General Education requirement. This pattern allows the wide dissemination of basic neuroscientific knowledge to a general college audience. PMID:24319388
Jaykov Foukzon
2015-05-30
In this article we proved so-called strong reflection principles corresponding to formal theories Th which has omega-models. An posible generalization of the Lob's theorem is considered.Main results is: (1) let $k$ be an inaccessible cardinal and $H_k$ is a set of all sets having hereditary size less then k, then $\
Power fluctuations, large deviations and turbulence
Bandi, Mahesh M; Chumakov, Sergei; Connaughton, Colm P
2008-01-01
We study local power fluctuations in numerical simulations of stationary, homogenous, isotropic turbulence in two and three dimensions with Gaussian forcing. Due to the near-Gaussianity of the one-point velocity distribution, the probability distribution function (pdf) of the local power is well modeled by the pdf of the product of two joint normally distributed variables. In appropriate units, this distribution is calculated exactly and shown to satisfy a Fluctuation Relation (FR) with a coefficient which depends on {epsilon}.
Strong Large Deviations for Composite Hypothesis Testing
Moulin, Pierre
being a product of n probability distributions. We consider the set of achievable false-positive error- . This is called the Neyman-Pearson (NP) test [1, Sec. 3.2] and denoted by NP. The false-positive probability EQ1: The set of achievable false-positive error vec- tors for power (1 - ) tests is the following subset of [0
Large Deviation Strategy for Inverse Problem
Izumi Ojima; Kazuya Okamura
2011-01-01
Taken traditionally as a no-go theorem against the theorization of inductive processes, Duhem-Quine thesis may interfere with the essence of statistical inference. This difficulty can be resolved by Micro-Macro duality \\\\cite{Oj03, Oj05} which clarifies the importance of specifying the pertinent aspects and accuracy relevant to concrete contexts of scientific discussions and which ensures the matching between what to be described
From Large Deviations to Statistical Mechanics
Ellis, Richard S.
of existing would keep us all in a contented dazzlement of sur- prise. We are alive against the stupendous this systemically, and in such wild varieties of form, from viruses to whales, is extremely unlikely; to have, by Any Reasonable Measure, Is Impossible" Art is a way of saying what it means to be alive, and the most
Large Deviations for Stochastic Volterra Equations
Nualart, David; Rovira, Carles
2000-04-01
with N â :? T 1ÿâ K 2 Z ? T áÿâ C Z and ø(x) ? exp(x 2 =4), x 2 R. Let B ? ? T 0 ? T 0 ø I(t)ÿ I(r) r(jt ÿ rj) #18; #19; dt dr: For ®xed r , t, we consider the continuous F u -martingale de®ned by M u ? ? u 0 g t,r (s) r(jt ÿ rj) dW s , with quadratic... ? x 0 ? ? R z ã z (ç)fa 3 (ç, X ç ) dW ç ? a 4 (ç, X ç ) dçg, where ç ? (u, v), z ? (s, t), R z denotes the rectangle [0, s] 3 [0, t] and ã z (ç) is the Green function associated with the second-order differential operator I f (s, t) ? @ 2 f (s, t) @s...
Software engineering principles applied to large healthcare information systems--a case report.
Nardon, Fabiane Bizinella; de A Moura, Lincoln
2007-01-01
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil and one of the largest cities in the world. In 2004, São Paulo City Department of Health decided to implement a Healthcare Information System to support managing healthcare services and provide an ambulatory health record. The resulting information system is one of the largest public healthcare information systems ever built, with more than 2 million lines of code. Although statistics shows that most software projects fail, and the risks for the São Paulo initiative were enormous, the information system was completed on-time and on-budget. In this paper, we discuss the software engineering principles adopted that allowed to accomplish that project's goals, hoping that sharing the experience of this project will help other healthcare information systems initiatives to succeed. PMID:17911673
Nasser, Hassan; Cessac, Bruno
2012-01-01
Understanding the dynamics of neural networks is a major challenge in experimental neuroscience. For that purpose, a modelling of the recorded activity that reproduces the main statistics of the data is required. In a first part, we present a review on recent results dealing with spike train statistics analysis using maximum entropy models (MaxEnt). Most of these studies have been focusing on modelling synchronous spike patterns, leaving aside the temporal dynamics of the neural activity. However, the maximum entropy principle can be generalized to the temporal case, leading to Markovian models where memory effects and time correlations in the dynamics are properly taken into account. In a second part, we present a new method based on Monte-Carlo sampling which is suited for the fitting of large-scale spatio-temporal MaxEnt models. The formalism and the tools presented here will be essential to fit MaxEnt spatio-temporal models to large neural ensembles.
Schubert, Walter
2014-01-01
Understanding biological systems at the level of their relational (emergent) molecular properties in functional protein networks relies on imaging methods, able to spatially resolve a tissue or a cell as a giant, non-random, topologically defined collection of interacting supermolecules executing myriads of subcellular mechanisms. Here, the development and findings of parameter-unlimited functional super-resolution microscopy are described-a technology based on the fluorescence imaging cycler (IC) principle capable of co-mapping thousands of distinct biomolecular assemblies at high spatial resolution and differentiation (<40?nm distances). It is shown that the subcellular and transcellular features of such supermolecules can be described at the compositional and constitutional levels; that the spatial connection, relational stoichiometry, and topology of supermolecules generate hitherto unrecognized functional self-segmentation of biological tissues; that hierarchical features, common to thousands of simultaneously imaged supermolecules, can be identified; and how the resulting supramolecular order relates to spatial coding of cellular functionalities in biological systems. A large body of observations with IC molecular systems microscopy collected over 20?years have disclosed principles governed by a law of supramolecular segregation of cellular functionalities. This pervades phenomena, such as exceptional orderliness, functional selectivity, combinatorial and spatial periodicity, and hierarchical organization of large molecular systems, across all species investigated so far. This insight is based on the high degree of specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity of molecular recognition processes for fluorescence imaging beyond the spectral resolution limit, using probe libraries controlled by ICs. PMID:24375580
Applying the principle of integrated navigation systems to estimating the motion of large vehicles
Jörg F Wagner; Günther Kasties
2004-01-01
Combining inertial sensors and GPS has led to integrated navigation systems of a performance surpassing classical navigation requirements. A utilisation of this technology suggests itself which considers not only the classical movement of a small, rigid body but expands the application range also to large aircraft, space stations and suchlike. The signals generated on this basis are usable both for vehicle
Caudrelier, J M; Vermandel, M; Betrouni, N; Nyiri, B; Cameron, I; Rousseau, J
2009-03-01
The authors have previously evaluated a new method of volume reconstruction and quantification from MR images, based on fuzzy logic (FL) principles. The technique is evaluated here for larger and more complex structures by investigating its accuracy and robustness using MR and CT images. Four large (50-71 cm(3)) and complex (e.g. mimicking a prostate) structures were created and imaged on MR and CT scanners, both with increasing slice thickness. Contours were delineated to generate 112 volumes. MR and CT images were processed using the FL method and a "classical" method of reconstruction on research software. In addition, the CT images were also processed on commercial virtual simulation software. Calculated volumes were compared with actual volumes. The mean +/- standard deviation of the relative variations in calculated target volume using the FL method was found to be 4.4%+/-2.8%, whereas with the "classical" method it was 23.7%+/-6% from axial MR images and 23.3%+/-9.8% from CT images. With the "classical" method, the relative variations in calculated volumes rise with increasing slice thickness, and the displayed volumes show deformations in the longitudinal direction. With the FL method, the volume calculation is not sensitive to the slice thickness and so the deformations are minimal. When used with MR images, our FL method of volume reconstruction is accurate and robust with respect to changes in slice thickness. For CT images, the results are encouraging but some work is still needed to improve the accuracy of the FL method. PMID:19001469
Large-scale oligonucleotide synthesizers. I. Basic principles and system design.
Anderson, N G; Anderson, N L; Taylor, J; Goodman, J
1995-01-01
The central problem in scaling up oligonucleotide synthesis is to expose each element of a large bed to the same conditions obtaining in very small ones, for the same intervals of time. Our analysis suggests that scale-up is chiefly limited by fluid path length through the bed. By using annular beds in zonal centrifuge rotors of unique design, with fluid flow controlled by combining centrifugal force with differences in physical density between reagents, reagent fronts may be kept exactly perpendicular to the direction of flow in each bed element. Under these conditions, bed volume may be increased by increasing rotor length and diameter. The rotor is lined with polypropylene or Teflon, and has a thick tempered glass end window. Transparent rotary valves of a unique design allow any of 47 reagents to be selected and the direction of flow through the rotor to be controlled. A photodiode spectrophotometer provides complete absorption spectra on fluid in the rotor inlet and outlet lines every 4 s, and a large balance weighs effluent from the synthesizer continuously. The entire operation is controlled by a work station, and steps may be programmed by time, absorbance, or reagent mass. Reagents are identified by spectra, and trityls are integrated on line. A detailed time-stamped log file provides a complete record of each synthesis. PMID:7486979
Schubert, Walter
2013-01-01
Understanding biological systems at the level of their relational (emergent) molecular properties in functional protein networks relies on imaging methods, able to spatially resolve a tissue or a cell as a giant, non-random, topologically defined collection of interacting supermolecules executing myriads of subcellular mechanisms. Here, the development and findings of parameter-unlimited functional super-resolution microscopy are described—a technology based on the fluorescence imaging cycler (IC) principle capable of co-mapping thousands of distinct biomolecular assemblies at high spatial resolution and differentiation (<40?nm distances). It is shown that the subcellular and transcellular features of such supermolecules can be described at the compositional and constitutional levels; that the spatial connection, relational stoichiometry, and topology of supermolecules generate hitherto unrecognized functional self-segmentation of biological tissues; that hierarchical features, common to thousands of simultaneously imaged supermolecules, can be identified; and how the resulting supramolecular order relates to spatial coding of cellular functionalities in biological systems. A large body of observations with IC molecular systems microscopy collected over 20?years have disclosed principles governed by a law of supramolecular segregation of cellular functionalities. This pervades phenomena, such as exceptional orderliness, functional selectivity, combinatorial and spatial periodicity, and hierarchical organization of large molecular systems, across all species investigated so far. This insight is based on the high degree of specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity of molecular recognition processes for fluorescence imaging beyond the spectral resolution limit, using probe libraries controlled by ICs. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Molecular Recognition published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24375580
Boyer, Edmond
MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR THE DURBIN-WATSON STATISTIC RELATED TO THE FIRST-ORDER AUTOREGRESSIVE of this paper is to investigate moderate deviations for the Durbin- Watson statistic associated with the stable with the driven noise. It enables us to provide a moderate deviation principle for the Durbin- Watson statistic
Immune deviation: a historical perspective.
Parish, C R
1996-10-01
In this paper I have reviewed my early studies, between 1966 and 1976, on the phenomenon of immune deviation. Initially summarized are experiments with different forms of the flagellin antigen from Salmonella adelaide which established the inverse relationship between delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody formation. Based on the flagellin studies, many of the key factors which determine whether an antigen will induce either DTH or antibody formation were delineated. These factors are just as relevant today as they were 25 years ago. Subsequent analyses at the cellular level demonstrated that different T cell subsets mediate DTH and T cell help and maintain immune deviation by suppressor mechanisms. A number of fundamental questions raised by this early work remain unanswered and are discussed. These include the nature of the primary signalling events which initiate immune deviation, the role of B cells in the deviating process and the mechanism by which CD8+T cells suppress antibody production. PMID:8912008
Liu, Huanxiang; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola
2006-11-01
A large number of environmental chemicals, known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, are suspected of disrupting endocrine functions by mimicking or antagonizing natural hormones, and such chemicals may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. They are thought to act through a variety of mechanisms, mainly estrogen-receptor-mediated mechanisms of toxicity. However, it is practically impossible to perform thorough toxicological tests on all potential xenoestrogens, and thus, the quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) provides a promising method for the estimation of a compound's estrogenic activity. Here, QSAR models of the estrogen receptor binding affinity of a large data set of heterogeneous chemicals have been built using theoretical molecular descriptors, giving full consideration to the new OECD principles in regulation for QSAR acceptability, during model construction and assessment. An unambiguous multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithm was used to build the models, and model predictive ability was validated by both internal and external validation. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validation paths indicate that the proposed QSAR model is robust and satisfactory, and can provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of the estrogen activity of organic compounds. PMID:17112243
Compositeness effects, Pauli's principle and entanglement
Pedro Sancho
2006-09-19
We analyse some compositeness effects and their relation with entanglement. We show that the purity of a composite system increases, in the sense of the expectation values of the deviation operators, with large values of the entanglement between the components of the system. We also study the validity of Pauli's principle in composite systems. It is valid within the limits of application of the approach presented here. We also present an example of two identical fermions, one of them entangled with a distinguishable particle, where the exclusion principle cannot be applied. This result can be important in the description of open systems.
Fox, Stephen J; Pittock, Chris; Tautermann, Christofer S; Fox, Thomas; Christ, Clara; Malcolm, N O J; Essex, Jonathan W; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton
2013-08-15
Schemes of increasing sophistication for obtaining free energies of binding have been developed over the years, where configurational sampling is used to include the all-important entropic contributions to the free energies. However, the quality of the results will also depend on the accuracy with which the intermolecular interactions are computed at each molecular configuration. In this context, the energy change associated with the rearrangement of electrons (electronic polarization and charge transfer) upon binding is a very important effect. Classical molecular mechanics force fields do not take this effect into account explicitly, and polarizable force fields and semiempirical quantum or hybrid quantum-classical (QM/MM) calculations are increasingly employed (at higher computational cost) to compute intermolecular interactions in free-energy schemes. In this work, we investigate the use of large-scale quantum mechanical calculations from first-principles as a way of fully taking into account electronic effects in free-energy calculations. We employ a one-step free-energy perturbation (FEP) scheme from a molecular mechanical (MM) potential to a quantum mechanical (QM) potential as a correction to thermodynamic integration calculations within the MM potential. We use this approach to calculate relative free energies of hydration of small aromatic molecules. Our quantum calculations are performed on multiple configurations from classical molecular dynamics simulations. The quantum energy of each configuration is obtained from density functional theory calculations with a near-complete psinc basis set on over 600 atoms using the ONETEP program. PMID:23841453
Deviation differential equations. Jacobi fields
G. Sardanashvily
2013-04-02
Given a differential equation on a smooth fibre bundle Y, we consider its canonical vertical extension to that, called the deviation equation, on the vertical tangent bundle VY of Y. Its solutions are Jacobi fields treated in a very general setting. In particular, the deviation of Euler--Lagrange equations of a Lagrangian L on a fibre bundle Y are the Euler-Lagrange equations of the canonical vertical extension of L onto VY. Similarly, covariant Hamilton equations of a Hamiltonian form H are the Hamilton equations of the vertical extension VH of H onto VY.
Standard Deviation for Small Samples
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.
2006-01-01
Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…
48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...
48 CFR 1301.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...COMMERCE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.404 Class deviations. The designee authorized to approve class deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...
48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...
48 CFR 1301.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...COMMERCE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.404 Class deviations. The designee authorized to approve class deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...
48 CFR 1301.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...COMMERCE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.404 Class deviations. The designee authorized to approve class deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...
48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...
48 CFR 1301.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...COMMERCE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.404 Class deviations. The designee authorized to approve class deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...
48 CFR 1301.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...COMMERCE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.404 Class deviations. The designee authorized to approve class deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...
48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 3001.403 Individual deviations. Unless precluded by...authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to...requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards board rules and regulations...the justification for the deviation (See HSAM...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF...WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority...Headquarters. Each request for deviation shall contain the...
48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.403 Individual deviations. (1) Individual deviations, except those described in...organizations will not agree to the standard clauses. [65 FR 6552,...
14 CFR 125.3 - Deviation authority.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... (b) A Letter of Deviation Authority may be terminated... (c) A request for deviation authority must be submitted to the nearest Flight Standards District Office, not...operations. A request for deviation authority must...
Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles
M. Heydari-Fard; M. Mohseni; H. R. Sepangi
2005-09-28
The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.
Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra
2005-01-01
To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.
Structure of deviations from optimality in biological systems
Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; Rivera-Alba, Marta; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.
2009-01-01
Optimization theory has been used to analyze evolutionary adaptation. This theory has explained many features of biological systems, from the genetic code to animal behavior. However, these systems show important deviations from optimality. Typically, these deviations are large in some particular components of the system, whereas others seem to be almost optimal. Deviations from optimality may be due to many factors in evolution, including stochastic effects and finite time, that may not allow the system to reach the ideal optimum. However, we still expect the system to have a higher probability of reaching a state with a higher value of the proposed indirect measure of fitness. In systems of many components, this implies that the largest deviations are expected in those components with less impact on the indirect measure of fitness. Here, we show that this simple probabilistic rule explains deviations from optimality in two very different biological systems. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this rule successfully explains the experimental deviations of the position of neurons from the configuration of minimal wiring cost. In Escherichia coli, the probabilistic rule correctly obtains the structure of the experimental deviations of metabolic fluxes from the configuration that maximizes biomass production. This approach is proposed to explain or predict more data than optimization theory while using no extra parameters. Thus, it can also be used to find and refine hypotheses about which constraints have shaped biological structures in evolution. PMID:19918070
Allan deviation analysis of financial return series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández-Pérez, R.
2012-05-01
We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.
Fang, H. Z.; Shang, S. L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K.; Alfonso, D.; Alman, D. E.; Shin, Y. K.; Zou, C. Y.; Duin, A. C. T. van; Lei, Y. K.; Wang, G. F.
2014-01-28
This paper is concerned with the prediction of oxygen diffusivities in fcc nickel from first-principles calculations and large-scale atomic simulations. Considering only the interstitial octahedral to tetrahedral to octahedral minimum energy pathway for oxygen diffusion in fcc lattice, greatly underestimates the migration barrier and overestimates the diffusivities by several orders of magnitude. The results indicate that vacancies in the Ni-lattice significantly impact the migration barrier of oxygen in nickel. Incorporation of the effect of vacancies results in predicted diffusivities consistent with available experimental data. First-principles calculations show that at high temperatures the vacancy concentration is comparable to the oxygen solubility, and there is a strong binding energy and a redistribution of charge density between the oxygen atom and vacancy. Consequently, there is a strong attraction between the oxygen and vacancy in the Ni lattice, which impacts diffusion.
48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1901.403...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...
Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gorard, Stephen
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…
48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...HSAR 3001.404 Class deviations. (a) Unless precluded...authorized to approve FAR class deviations, except (FAR) 48 CFR 30...requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards Board); 48 CFR Chapter...to authorizing a FAR class deviation, the CPO shall...
The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yunis, Isam
2005-01-01
Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.
Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc
2014-01-01
We present the first truly scalable first-principles molecular dynamics algorithm with O(N) complexity and controllable accuracy, capable of simulating systems with finite band gaps of sizes that were previously impossible with this degree of accuracy. By avoiding global communications, we provide a practical computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic wave functions are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the components of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected elements of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to 101 952 atoms on 23 328 processors, with a wall-clock time of the order of 1 min per molecular dynamics time step and numerical error on the forces of less than 7x10^{-4} Ha/Bohr.
A Scalable O(N) Algorithm for Large-Scale Parallel First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fattebert, Jean-Luc [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2014-01-01
Traditional algorithms for first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations only gain a modest capability increase from current petascale computers, due to their O(N^{3}) complexity and their heavy use of global communications. To address this issue, we are developing a truly scalable O(N) complexity FPMD algorithm, based on density functional theory (DFT), which avoids global communications. The computational model uses a general nonorthogonal orbital formulation for the DFT energy functional, which requires knowledge of selected elements of the inverse of the associated overlap matrix. We present a scalable algorithm for approximately computing selected entries of the inverse of the overlap matrix, based on an approximate inverse technique, by inverting local blocks corresponding to principal submatrices of the global overlap matrix. The new FPMD algorithm exploits sparsity and uses nearest neighbor communication to provide a computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic orbitals are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the entries of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected entries of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to O(100K) atoms on O(100K) processors, with a wall-clock time of O(1) minute per molecular dynamics time step.
Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of single Co atom on MgO monolayer: A first-principles study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Bin; Shi, Wu-Jun; Feng, Min; Zuo, Xu
2015-05-01
Realizing the magnetic bit with a single atom is the ultimate goal for magnetic storage. Based on density functional theory, the magnetic anisotropy (MA) of single Co atom on MgO monolayer has been investigated. Results show that this two dimensional system possesses a large perpendicular MA, about 5.8 meV per Co atom. Besides, there exists remarkable unquenched orbital moments for different magnetization directions, which can be attributed to the reduction of coordination number in two dimensional system and is responsible for the enhanced MA. The Bloch pseudo-wavefunction and band structure of Co d-orbitals have been calculated to elucidate the origin of the perpendicular MA.
Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan
2005-01-01
This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…
Standard Deviation and Schatten Class Hankel Operators
Zheng, Dechao
Standard Deviation and Schatten Class Hankel Operators on the Segal-Bargmann Space JINGBO XIA measure on Cn centered at 0 and normalized so that Âµ(Cn ) = 1. In terms of the standard volume measure d standard deviation with respect to the probabili
Small Deviation Estimates for Some Additive Processes
Chen, Xia
Small Deviation Estimates for Some Additive Processes Xia Chen and Wenbo V. Li Abstract. We study the small deviation probabilities for real valued additive processes. This naturally leads to the small. As an application, limit inf type LIL are proved for additive stable processes. 1. Introduction Let Xj(t), 1 j d
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim
2015-03-01
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
Shihan Sajeed; Igor Radchenko; Sarah Kaiser; Jean-Philippe Bourgoin; Anna Pappa; Laurent Monat; Matthieu Legre; Vadim Makarov
2015-03-30
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD, we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle, and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems, and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Asymmetric Potentials and Motor Effect: A Large Deviation Approach
Benoît Perthame; Panagiotis E. Souganidis
2009-01-01
We provide a mathematical analysis for the appearance of concentrations (as Dirac masses) in the solutions to Fokker–Planck\\u000a systems with asymmetric potentials. This problem has been proposed as a model to describe motor proteins moving along molecular\\u000a filaments. The components of the system describe the densities of the different conformations of the proteins. Our results\\u000a are based on the study
Large deviations of Rouse polymer chain: First passage problem
Jing Cao; Jian Zhu; Zuowei Wang; Alexei E. Likhtman
2015-08-24
The purpose of this paper is to investigate several analytical methods of solving first passage (FP) problem for the Rouse model, a simplest model of a polymer chain. We show that this problem has to be treated as a multi-dimensional Kramers' problem, which presents rich and unexpected behavior. We first perform direct and forward-flux sampling (FFS) simulations, and measure the mean first-passage time $\\tau(z)$ for the free end to reach a certain distance $z$ away from the origin. The results show that the mean FP time is getting faster if the Rouse chain is represented by more beads. Two scaling regimes of $\\tau(z)$ are observed, with transition between them varying as a function of chain length. We use these simulations results to test two theoretical approaches. One is a well known asymptotic theory valid in the limit of zero temperature. We show that this limit corresponds to fully extended chain when each chain segment is stretched, which is not particularly realistic. A new theory based on the well known Freidlin-Wentzell theory is proposed, where dynamics is projected onto the minimal action path. The new theory predicts both scaling regimes correctly, but fails to get the correct numerical prefactor in the first regime. Combining our theory with the FFS simulations lead us to a simple analytical expression valid for all extensions and chain lengths. One of the applications of polymer FP problem occurs in the context of branched polymer rheology. In this paper, we consider the arm-retraction mechanism in the tube model, which maps exactly on the model we have solved. The results are compared to the Milner-McLeish theory without constraint release, which is found to overestimate FP time by a factor of 10 or more.
Large Deviations for Brownian Motion on the Sierpinski Gasket
-diffusive behavior in the sense that Ex[d(X(t), x)] t1=dwfor small t > 0 where dw = log5= log2 > 2 and f(t) g.1 For each z 2 [2=5, 1), A x, - OinfE2IntAIzx(OE)limninf!1((2=5)nz)1=(dw-1)logP(x2=5)nz(A) lim sup((2=5)nz)1=(dw-1)logP(x2=5)nz(A) - inf Izx(OE). n!1
NEW LARGE DEVIATION RESULTS FOR SOME SUPER-BROWNIAN PROCESSES
Serlet, Laurent
([AW]). Super-Brownian motion (SBM) with (constant) drift can be seen as the scaling limit of a system ([DP]) or rescaled Lotka- Volterra competing species models ([CP]). SBM with drift can also be seen as a SBM conditioned to survive a killing procedure of the trajectories. All these super-processes can
Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory
properties of the astroids, like their shrink- ing and sharpening as the number of applied pulses-pulse astroid in the thin film limit 8 4 Multiple-pulse astroids and action minimization 12 4.1 Action minimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2 Multiple-pulse astroids
Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory
Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH)
can be used to explain some properties of the astroids, like their shrink- ing and sharpening, New York University, USA, email: eve2@cims.nyu.edu 1 #12;2 Modeling 6 3 Single-pulse astroid in the thin film limit 8 4 Multiple-pulse astroids and action minimization 13 4.1 Action minimization
Large Deviations for a Class of Anticipating Stochastic Differential Equations
Millet, A.; Nualart, David; Sanz, M.
1992-10-02
Consider the family of perturbed stochastic differential equations on Rd, X?t=X?0+???t0?(X?s)?dWs+?t0b(X?s)ds, ?>0, defined on the canonical space associated with the standard k-dimensional Wiener process W. We assume that {X?0,?>0} is a family...
Large deviations for Branching Processes in Random Environment
Berestycki, Julien
#12;1 Introduction Let P be the space of probability measures on the integer, that is P := {p : N [0 a population of plants which have a one year life-cycle (so generations are discrete and non-overlapping). Each of the plant. Given the climate, all the plants reproduce according to the same given mechanism
Source Coding, Large Deviations, and Approximate Pattern Matching
Kontoyiannis, Ioannis
- totic Equipartition Property (AEP). This treatment closely parallels the corresponding development. In the lossless case we review how the AEP underlies the analysis of the Lempel-Ziv algorithm by viewing. In the lossy case we give various versions of the statement of the generalized AEP and we outline the general
Sample path large deviations for super-Brownian motion
Schied, Alexander
super-Brownian motion. This process arises as a high-density limit of a system of branching particles, where each particle moves according to a time-scaled Brownian motion Bt := B t (t 0), for some 0 of those positive Radon measures µ on IRd for which R p(x) µ(dx)
LARGE DEVIATION APPROACH TO NON EQUILIBRIUM PROCESSES IN STOCHASTIC
Gabrielli, Davide
means flip at i. We call #- =left creation rate, #+ =right creation rate, #- =left annihilation rate, # x,Â± creation/annihilation of a particle at x and # is a regular function. Prove that the invariant
Blank, Lars M; Kuepfer, Lars; Sauer, Uwe
2005-01-01
Background Quantification of intracellular metabolite fluxes by 13C-tracer experiments is maturing into a routine higher-throughput analysis. The question now arises as to which mutants should be analyzed. Here we identify key experiments in a systems biology approach with a genome-scale model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism, thereby reducing the workload for experimental network analyses and functional genomics. Results Genome-scale 13C flux analysis revealed that about half of the 745 biochemical reactions were active during growth on glucose, but that alternative pathways exist for only 51 gene-encoded reactions with significant flux. These flexible reactions identified in silico are key targets for experimental flux analysis, and we present the first large-scale metabolic flux data for yeast, covering half of these mutants during growth on glucose. The metabolic lesions were often counteracted by flux rerouting, but knockout of cofactor-dependent reactions, as in the adh1, ald6, cox5A, fum1, mdh1, pda1, and zwf1 mutations, caused flux responses in more distant parts of the network. By integrating computational analyses, flux data, and physiological phenotypes of all mutants in active reactions, we quantified the relative importance of 'genetic buffering' through alternative pathways and network redundancy through duplicate genes for genetic robustness of the network. Conclusions The apparent dispensability of knockout mutants with metabolic function is explained by gene inactivity under a particular condition in about half of the cases. For the remaining 207 viable mutants of active reactions, network redundancy through duplicate genes was the major (75%) and alternative pathways the minor (25%) molecular mechanism of genetic network robustness in S. cerevisiae. PMID:15960801
Path Deviation Equations in AP-Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wanas, M. I.; Kahil, M. E.
2006-02-01
Recently, it has been shown that Absolute Parallelism (AP) geometry admits paths that are naturally quantized. These paths have been used to describe the motion of spinning particles in a background gravitational field. In case of a weak static gravitational field limits, the paths are applied successfully to interpret the discrepancy in the motion of thermal neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field (COW-experiment). The aim of the present work is to explore the properties of the deviation equations corresponding to these paths. In the present work the deviation equations are derived and compared to the geodesic deviation equation of the Riemannian geometry.
Path Deviation Equations in AP-Geometry
M. I. Wanas; M. E. Kahil
2006-05-06
Recently, it has been shown that Absolute Parallelism (AP) geometry admits paths that are naturally quantized. These paths have been used to describe the motion of spinning particles in a background gravitational field. In case of a weak static gravitational field limits, the paths are applied successfully to interpret the discrepancy in the motion of thermal neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field (COW-experiment). The aim of the present work is to explore the properties of the deviation equations corresponding to these paths. In the present work the deviation equations are derived and compared to the geodesic deviation equation of the Riemannian geometry.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.18 Deviations. To the extent that such requirements are not specified by the Act or other...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.18 Deviations. To the extent that such requirements are not specified by the Act or other...
Ion Density Deviations in Semipermeable Ionic Microcapsules
Qiyun Tang; Alan R. Denton
2015-07-07
By implementing the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory in a cell model, we theoretically investigate the influence of polyelectrolye gel permeability on ion densities and pH deviations inside the cavities of ionic microcapsules. Our calculations show that variations in permeability of a charged capsule shell cause a redistribution of ion densities within the capsule, which ultimately affects the pH deviation and Donnan potential induced by the electric field of the shell. We find that semipermeable capsules can induce larger pH deviations inside their cavities that can permeable capsules. Furthermore, with increasing capsule charge, the influence of permeability on pH deviations progressively increases. Our theory, while providing a self-consistent method for modeling the influence of permeability on fundamental properties of ionic microgels, makes predictions of practical significance for the design of microcapsules loaded with fluorescent dyes, which can serve as biosensors for diagnostic purposes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 84.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...113 Section 139.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED...emergency conditions requiring immediate action for the protection of life or property, the certificate holder may deviate from any...
On geodesic deviation in Schwarzschild spacetime
Philipp, Dennis; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Deshpande, Kaustubh
2015-01-01
For metrology, geodesy and gravimetry in space, satellite based instruments and measurement techniques are used and the orbits of the satellites as well as possible deviations between nearby ones are of central interest. The measurement of this deviation itself gives insight into the underlying structure of the spacetime geometry, which is curved and therefore described by the theory of general relativity (GR). In the context of GR, the deviation of nearby geodesics can be described by the Jacobi equation that is a result of linearizing the geodesic equation around a known reference geodesic with respect to the deviation vector and the relative velocity. We review the derivation of this Jacobi equation and restrict ourselves to the simple case of the spacetime outside a spherically symmetric mass distribution and circular reference geodesics to find solutions by projecting the Jacobi equation on a parallel propagated tetrad as done by Fuchs. Using his results, we construct solutions of the Jacobi equation for...
41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When...containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with this...HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle control should take into...
41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When...containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with this...HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle control should take into...
41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When...containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with this...HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle control should take into...
41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When...containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with this...HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle control should take into...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT...
Role of Extracorporeal Septoplasty in Deviated Noses.
Ghaisas, Virendra; Parab, Sapna Ramkrishna
2015-09-01
Severe gross septal deviations present big surgical challenges for operating surgeon. Septal deviations has direct effect on aesthetic and functional part of nose. Correcting septal deviations during rhinoplasty is basic procedure. Extreme deviations of septum especially on dorsal and caudal end of cartilaginous septum are difficult to treat. The classical septoplasty approach becomes unsuitable for such severe deviations. Gubisch has first reported in 1995 about extracorporeal septoplasty. To report the experience of Extracorporeal septoplasty and the complication rates with the technique. Retrospective study of 112 patients who underwent extracorporeal septoplasty in primary rhinoplasty from May 2009 to June 2014. Patient's pre and postoperatively evaluation was done by photographs, nasal endoscopy and subjective by symptoms evaluation satisfaction scale 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Nasal endoscopy revealed significant improvement in nasal airway and nasal valve and subjective evaluation satisfaction score was very encouraging. Complications like septal perforation, bleeding, aesthetic complications were minimal (9 %) On basis of results obtained, shows that this technique, increases patients nasal airway and aesthetic look of the patients. Irrespective of extreme nasal deviations. PMID:26405652
Management of the Deviated Nasal Dorsum.
Loyo, Myriam; Wang, Tom D
2015-06-01
The deviated nasal dorsum veers off the ideal straight vertical orientation at midline. Deviations in the dorsum lead to functional and aesthetic consequences that frequently prompt the patient to seek consultation with a rhinoplasty surgeon. Inability to breathe through the nose and self-image perception significantly detracts from the patient's quality of life. Correction of the deviated nasal dorsum represents a challenge for the rhinoplasty surgeon. Anatomic correction of deviations is the goal. Straightening a deviated nasal dorsum will require maneuvers to realign the nose distinct from traditional aesthetic rhinoplasty techniques. The nasal dorsum is formed by the three-dimensional structures of the septum, the bony nasal pyramid, and the cartilaginous nasal midvault. Restoring the position of the septum at midline is the first step in providing adequate support to the nasal architecture. Extracorporeal septoplasty and anterior septal transplant are often necessary techniques to correct the septum and achieve dorsal correction. Subsequently, asymmetric maneuvers to bony dorsum and midvault are performed to restore symmetry. Asymmetric hump reduction and nasal osteotomies are often necessary. Supporting the midvault to avoid nasal collapse often requires asymmetric maneuvers to the upper lateral cartilages and asymmetric spreader grafts. Finally, camouflaging grafts to the nasal dorsum may be necessary. Significant rigidity and memory of the native tissues must be overcome to successfully straighten a nose. The surgeon who can master the deviated dorsum will significantly improve the appearance and quality of life of the patients he or she treats. PMID:26126218
Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift
Michael A. Hohensee; Steven Chu; Achim Peters; Holger Mueller
2011-04-07
We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter wave, microwave, optical, and M\\"ossbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the $10^{-6}$ level.
Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift
Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Peters, Achim [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)
2011-04-15
We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI
1991-01-01
A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.
Geodesic deviation equation in f (T ) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darabi, F.; Mousavi, M.; Atazadeh, K.
2015-04-01
In this work, we show that it is possible to study the notion of a geodesic deviation equation in f (T ) gravity, in spite of the fact that in teleparallel gravity there is no notion of geodesics, and the torsion is responsible for the appearance of gravitational interaction. In this regard, we obtain the general relativity equivalent equations for f (T ) gravity, which are in the modified gravity form such as f (R ) gravity. Then, we obtain the geodesic deviation equation within the context of this modified gravity. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the f (T ) gravity. Eventually, we extend the calculations to obtain the modification of the Mattig relation.
Online Deviation Detection for Medical Processes
Christov, Stefan C.; Avrunin, George S.; Clarke, Lori A.
2014-01-01
Human errors are a major concern in many medical processes. To help address this problem, we are investigating an approach for automatically detecting when performers of a medical process deviate from the acceptable ways of performing that process as specified by a detailed process model. Such deviations could represent errors and, thus, detecting and reporting deviations as they occur could help catch errors before harm is done. In this paper, we identify important issues related to the feasibility of the proposed approach and empirically evaluate the approach for two medical procedures, chemotherapy and blood transfusion. For the evaluation, we use the process models to generate sample process executions that we then seed with synthetic errors. The process models describe the coordination of activities of different process performers in normal, as well as in exceptional situations. The evaluation results suggest that the proposed approach could be applied in clinical settings to help catch errors before harm is done. PMID:25954343
Least Action Principle in Gait
Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu; Luo, Donglin
2009-01-01
We apply the laws of human gait vertical ground reaction force and discover the existence of the phenomenon of least action principle in gait. Using a capacitive mat transducer system, we obtain the variations of human gait vertical ground reaction force and establish a structure equation for the resultant of such a force. Defining the deviation of vertical force as an action function, we observe from our gait optimization analysis the least action principle at half of the stride time. We develop an evaluation index of mechanical energy consumption based upon the least action principle in gait. We conclude that these observations can be employed to enhance the accountability of gait evaluation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Areshkin, Denis A.; Nikoli?, Branislav K.
2010-04-01
The recent fabrication of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) field-effect transistors poses a challenge for first-principles modeling of carbon nanoelectronics due to many thousand atoms present in the device. The state of the art quantum transport algorithms, based on the nonequilibrium Green function formalism combined with the density-functional theory (NEGF-DFT), were originally developed to calculate self-consistent electron density in equilibrium and at finite bias voltage (as a prerequisite to obtain conductance or current-voltage characteristics, respectively) for small molecules attached to metallic electrodes where only a few hundred atoms are typically simulated. Here we introduce combination of two numerically efficient algorithms which make it possible to extend the NEGF-DFT framework to device simulations involving large number of atoms. Our first algorithm offers an alternative to the usual evaluation of the equilibrium part of electron density via numerical contour integration of the retarded Green function in the upper complex half-plane. It is based on the replacement of the Fermi function f(E) with an analytic function f˜(E) coinciding with f(E) inside the integration range along the real axis, but decaying exponentially in the upper complex half-plane. Although f˜(E) has infinite number of poles, whose positions and residues are determined analytically, only a finite number of those poles have non-negligible residues. We also discuss how this algorithm can be extended to compute the nonequilibrium contribution to electron density, thereby evading cumbersome real-axis integration (within the bias voltage window) of NEGFs which is very difficult to converge for systems with large number of atoms while maintaining current conservation. Our second algorithm combines the recursive formulas with the geometrical partitioning of an arbitrary multiterminal device into nonuniform segments in order to reduce the computational complexity of the retarded Green function evaluation by extracting only its submatrices required for electron density and transmission function. We illustrate fusion of these two algorithms into the NEGF-DFT-type code by computing charge transfer, charge redistribution and conductance in zigzag- GNR?variable -width-armchair- GNR?zigzag -GNR two-terminal device covered with a gate electrode made of graphene layer as well. The total number of carbon and edge-passivating hydrogen atoms within the simulated central region of this device is ?7000 . Our self-consistent modeling of the gate voltage effect suggests that rather large gate voltage ?3eV might be required to shift the band gap of the proposed AGNR interconnect and switch the transport from insulating into the regime of a single open conducting channel.
Evaluating Optical Fiber Links with Data Filtering and Allan Deviation
Calosso, Claudio Eligio; Micalizio, Salvatore
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose a simple method to reject the high-frequency noise in the evaluation of statistical uncertainty of coherent optical fiber links. Specifically, we propose a preliminary data filtering, separated from the frequency stability computation. In this way, it is possible to use the Allan deviation as estimator of stability, to get unbiased data, which are representative of the noise process affecting the delivered signal. Our approach is alternative to the use of the modified Allan deviation, which is largely adopted in this field. We apply this processing to the experimental data we obtained on a 1284 km coherent optical link for frequency dissemination, which we realized in Italy. We also show how the so-called Lambda-type commercial phase/frequency counters can be used to this purpose.
Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.
2012-01-01
Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…
Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy
Ming-Hung Chiu; Chih-Wen Lai; Chen-Tai Tan; Chin-Fa Lai
2008-01-01
We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardo, Enric; Šouc, Ján; Frolek, Lubomir
2015-04-01
Many large-scale applications require electromagnetic modelling with extensive numerical computations, such as magnets or three-dimensional (3D) objects like transposed conductors or motors and generators. Therefore, it is necessary to develop computationally time-efficient but still accurate numerical methods. This article develops a general variational formalism for any {E}({J}) relation and applies it to model coated-conductor coils containing up to thousands of turns, taking magnetization currents fully into account. The variational principle, valid for any 3D situation, restricts the computations to the sample volume, reducing the computation time. However, no additional magnetic materials interacting with the superconductor are taken directly into account. Regarding the coil modelling, we use a power law E(J) relation with magnetic field-dependent critical current density, Jc, and power law exponent, n. We test the numerical model by comparing the results to analytical formulas for thin strips and experiments for stacks of pancake coils, finding a very good agreement. Afterwards, we model a magnet-size coil of 4000 turns (stack of 20 pancake coils of 200 turns each). We found that the ac loss is mainly due to magnetization currents. We also found that for an n exponent of 20, the magnetization currents are greatly suppressed after 1 h relaxation. In addition, in coated conductor coils magnetization currents have an important impact on the generated magnetic field; which should be taken into account for magnet design. In conclusion, the presented numerical method fulfills the requirements for electromagnetic design of coated conductor windings.
40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 true What is a deviation? 63.1965 Section 63.1965...CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...Requirements § 63.1965 What is a deviation? A deviation is defined...
Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.
1979-01-01
Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1976-01-01
The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prins, Steven L.; Blatchford, James; Olubuyide, Oluwamuyiwa; Riley, Deborah; Chang, Simon; Hong, Qi-Zhong; Kim, T. S.; Borges, Ricardo; Lin, Li
2009-03-01
As design rules and corresponding logic standard cell layouts continue to shrink node-on-node in accordance with Moore's law, complex 2D interactions, both intra-cell and between cells, become much more prominent. For example, in lithography, lack of scaling of ?/NA implies aggressive use of resolution enhancement techniques to meet logic scaling requirements-resulting in adverse effects such as 'forbidden pitches'-and also implies an increasing range of optical influence relative to cell size. These adverse effects are therefore expected to extend well beyond the cell boundary, leading to lithographic marginalities that occur only when a given cell is placed "in context" with other neighboring cells in a variable design environment [1]. This context dependence is greatly exacerbated by increased use of strain engineering techniques such as SiGe and dual-stress liners (DSL) to enhance transistor performance, both of which also have interaction lengths on the order of microns. The use of these techniques also breaks the formerly straightforward connection between lithographic 'shapes' and end-of-line electrical performance, thus making the formulation of design rules that are robust to process variations and complex 2D interactions more difficult. To address these issues, we have developed a first-principles-based simulation flow to study contextdependent electrical effects in layout, arising not only from lithography, but also from stress and interconnect parasitic effects. This flow is novel in that it can be applied to relatively large layout clips- required for context-dependent analysis-without relying on semi-empirical or 'black-box' models for the fundamental electrical effects. The first-principles-based approach is ideal for understanding contextdependent effects early in the design phase, so that they can be mitigated through restrictive design rules. The lithographic simulations have been discussed elsewhere [1] and will not be presented in detail. The stress calculations are based on a finite-element method, extrapolated to mobility using internal algorithms. While these types of calculations are common in '1D' TCAD space, we have modified them to handle ~10 ?m X 10 ?m clips in reasonable runtime based on advances in software and optimization of computing resources, structural representations and simulation grids. In this paper, we discuss development and validation of the simulation flow, and show representative results of applying this flow to analyze context-dependent problems in a 32-nm low-power CMOS process. Validation of the flow was accomplished using a well-characterized 40/45-nm CMOS process incorporating both DSL and SiGe. We demonstrate the utility of this approach not only to establishing restrictive design rules for avoiding catastrophic context-dependent effects, but also to flag individual cells and identify cell design practices that exhibit unacceptable levels of context-dependent variability. We further show how understanding the sources of stress variation is vital to appropriately anchoring SPICE models to capture the impact of context-dependent electrical effects. We corroborate these simulations with data from electrical test structures specifically targeted to elucidate these effects.
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis
2013-01-01
A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971
Distance deviation measure of contouring variability
Rogelj, Peter; Hudej, Robert; Petric, Primoz
2013-01-01
Background Several methods that are currently used for contouring analysis have problems providing reliable and/or meaningful results. In this paper a solution to these problems is proposed in a form of a novel measure, which was developed based on requirements defined for contouring studies. Materials and methods The proposed distance deviation measure can be understood as an extension of the closest point measures in such a way that it does not measure only distances between points on contours but rather analyse deviation of distances to both/all contours from each image point/voxel. The obtained result is information rich, reliable and provided in a form of an image, enabling detailed topographic analysis. In addition to image representation, results can be further processed into angular representation for compact topographic analysis or into overall scalar estimates for quick assessment of contour disagreement. Results Distance deviation method is demonstrated on a multi observer contouring example with complex contour shapes, i.e., with pronounced extremes and void interior. The results are presented using the three proposed methods. Conclusions The proposed method can detect and measure contour variation irrespective of contour complexity and number of contour segments, while the obtained results are easy to interpret. It can be used in various situations, regarding the presence of reference contour or multiple test contours. PMID:23450669
Cerveny, Vlastislav
Borehole deviation surveys are necessary for hydraulic fracture monitoring Leo Eisner, Schlumberger Not performing accurate borehole deviation surveys for hydraulic fracture monitoring (HFM) and neglecting fracture parameters. Introduction Recently a large number of hydraulic fracture treatments have been
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamport, Leslie
2012-08-01
Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.
Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischer, R. E.
1972-01-01
The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.
Global temperature deviations as a random walk
Karner, O. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Toravere (Estonia). Inst. of Astrophysics and Atmospheric Physics
1996-12-31
Surface air temperature is the main parameter to represent the earth`s contemporary climate. Several historical temperature records on a global/monthly basis are available. Time-series analysis shows that they can be modelled via autoregressive moving average models closely connected to the classical random walk model. Fitted models emphasize a nonstationary character of the global/monthly temperature deviation from a certain level. The nonstationarity explains all trends and periods, found in the last century`s variability of global mean temperature. This means that the short-term temperature trends are inevitable and may have little in common with a currently increasing carbon dioxide amount. The calculations show that a reasonable understanding of the contemporary global mean climate is attainable, assuming random forcing to the climate system and treating temperature deviation as a response to it. The forcings occur due to volcanic eruptions, redistribution of cloudiness, variations in snow and ice covered areas, changes in solar output, etc. Their impact can not be directly estimated from changes of the earth`s radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, because actual measurements represent mixture of the forcings and responses. Thus, it is impossible empirically to separate the impact of one particular forcing (e.g., that due to increase of CO{sub 2} amount) from the sequence of all existing forcings in the earth climate system. More accurate modelling involving main feedback loops is necessary to ease such a separation.
Perception via the Deviated Eye in Strabismus
Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.
2012-01-01
Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color (“red” or “blue”) revealed which eye’s image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus. PMID:22836262
Effect of stress on energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in GR/EP composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1990-01-01
Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy because of the large anisotropy. The angle of deviation is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of deviation is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux deviation for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis (fiber axis) and the x1 for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as large as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers a new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.
Comparison of the haptic and visual deviations in a parallelity task.
Kappers, Astrid M L; Schakel, Wouter B
2011-02-01
Deviations in both haptic and visual spatial experiments are thought to be caused by a biasing influence of an egocentric reference frame. The strength of this influence is strongly participant-dependent. By using a parallelity test, it is studied whether this strength is modality-independent. In both haptic and visual conditions, large, systematic and participant-dependent deviations were found. However, although the correlation between the haptic and visual deviations was significant, the explained variance due to a common factor was only 20%. Therefore, the degree to which a participant is "egocentric" depends on modality and possibly even more generally, on experimental condition. PMID:21132493
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svenson, Eric Johan
Participants on the Invincible America Assembly in Fairfield, Iowa, and neighboring Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa, practicing Maharishi Transcendental Meditation(TM) (TM) and the TM-Sidhi(TM) programs in large groups, submitted written experiences that they had had during, and in some cases shortly after, their daily practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs. Participants were instructed to include in their written experiences only what they observed and to leave out interpretation and analysis. These experiences were then read by the author and compared with principles and phenomena of modern physics, particularly with quantum theory, astrophysics, quantum cosmology, and string theory as well as defining characteristics of higher states of consciousness as described by Maharishi Vedic Science. In all cases, particular principles or phenomena of physics and qualities of higher states of consciousness appeared qualitatively quite similar to the content of the given experience. These experiences are presented in an Appendix, in which the corresponding principles and phenomena of physics are also presented. These physics "commentaries" on the experiences were written largely in layman's terms, without equations, and, in nearly every case, with clear reference to the corresponding sections of the experiences to which a given principle appears to relate. An abundance of similarities were apparent between the subjective experiences during meditation and principles of modern physics. A theoretic framework for understanding these rich similarities may begin with Maharishi's theory of higher states of consciousness provided herein. We conclude that the consistency and richness of detail found in these abundant similarities warrants the further pursuit and development of such a framework.
Relationships between observed and perceived deviations from normative work procedures.
Lindroos, Ola
2009-12-01
Deviations from anticipated courses of events are often associated with accidents, while the effects of deviations that decrease productivity but do not obviously lead to human injury are less clear. A systemic approach to production and safety is introduced, and it is proposed that production deviations have effects that may lead to safety violations and personal injury. In addition, the relationship between observed and perceived production deviations from 12 senior (60-79 years old) males' routine work using three firewood processing machines is analysed. For simple machine work, perceived deviations were positively related to observed deviations per work cycle and inversely correlated to the perception of work efficiency. For more complex machine work it was more difficult to match observers' and operators' perceptions of deviations. Despite challenges in the production deviation concept, this approach offers a holistic understanding of the performance of human-machine-environment systems and complements assessments of deviations from safe working practice. PMID:19941182
10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Overview § 1017.5 Requesting a deviation. (a) Any person may request a deviation, or condition that diverges from the norm and that is categorized as: (1) A variance (i.e., an approved condition that technically varies from a...
7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204 Section 400.204...Agency Sales and Service Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall...
14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...AND PARTS Technical Standard Order Authorizations § 21.609 Approval for deviation. (a) Each manufacturer...from any performance standard of a TSO shall show that the standards from which a deviation is requested are...
The Role of Burden and Deviation in Ostracizing Others.
Wesselmann, Eric D; Wirth, James H; Pryor, John B; Reeder, Glenn D; Williams, Kipling D
2015-01-01
Ostracism (being excluded and ignored) is a painful experience, so why do individuals ostracize others? Previous research suggests individuals often ostracize those who are deviate, but not always. We posit that there may be two types of deviation, burdensome and non-burdensome, and the former is most likely to be ostracized. Study 1 manipulated burdensome deviation by programming a group member to perform more slowly (8 or 16 sec.) than others (4 sec.) in a virtual ball-toss game. Participants perceived slower players as more burdensome and deviate than normal speed players. Additionally, participants ostracized (gave fewer ball tosses to) the slowest player. Study 2 examined participant responses to both burdensome deviation (8- and 16-sec. players) and non-burdensome deviation (goth appearance). Participants again perceived the slower players to be burdensome and deviate, and ostracized them. They perceived the goth player to be deviate but not burdensome and did not ostracize this player. PMID:26267129
21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food...CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89 Deviations from scheduled processes. Whenever any process...
Frequency deviation of thermal power plants due to wind farms
Changling Luo; Boon-Teck Ooi
2006-01-01
This paper presents the results of a study on the frequency deviation of the utility grid due to wind power fluctuations. The deviation is estimated by a deterministic method based on the transfer functions of system components. As the grid frequency is regulated, the deviation can limit high wind power penetration. The research identifies speed governors as one key component
A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orris, J. B.
2011-01-01
This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.
REDUCTION NUMBER BOUNDS ON ANALYTIC DEVIATION 2 IDEALS AND
REDUCTION NUMBER BOUNDS ON ANALYTIC DEVIATION 2 IDEALS AND COHENÂMACAULAYNESS OF ASSOCIATED GRADED] and SimisÂUlrichÂVasconcelos [16] in the case of analytic deviation 2 ideals, and to extend to analytic and relation type bounds on analytic deviation 2 ideals. The reduction number bounds are 1 partially supported
Detecting Deviations from Usual Medical Care James Mezger1
Hauskrecht, Milos
in medication administration. Preliminary results show that plausible deviations can be identified, the clinicalDetecting Deviations from Usual Medical Care James Mezger1 , Gregory F. Cooper1 MD, PhD, Milos, PA Abstract Detecting deviations from usual medical care is valuable in identifying interesting
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...2013-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...2014-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...2012-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...
Deviations in influenza seasonality: odd coincidence or obscure consequence?
Moorthy, M; Castronovo, D; Abraham, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Gradus, S; Gorski, J; Naumov, Y N; Fefferman, N H; Naumova, E N
2012-10-01
In temperate regions, influenza typically arrives with the onset of colder weather. Seasonal waves travel over large spaces covering many climatic zones in a relatively short period of time. The precise mechanism for this striking seasonal pattern is still not well understood, and the interplay of factors that influence the spread of infection and the emergence of new strains is largely unknown. The study of influenza seasonality has been fraught with problems. One of these is the ever-shifting description of illness resulting from influenza and the use of both the historical definitions and new definitions based on actual isolation of the virus. The compilation of records describing influenza oscillations on a local and global scale is massive, but the value of these data is a function of the definitions used. In this review, we argue that observations of both seasonality and deviation from the expected pattern stem from the nature of this disease. Heterogeneity in seasonal patterns may arise from differences in the behaviour of specific strains, the emergence of a novel strain, or cross-protection from previously observed strains. Most likely, the seasonal patterns emerge from interactions of individual factors behaving as coupled resonators. We emphasize that both seasonality and deviations from it may merely be reflections of our inability to disentangle signal from noise, because of ambiguity in measurement and/or terminology. We conclude the review with suggestions for new promising and realistic directions with tangible consequences for the modelling of complex influenza dynamics in order to effectively control infection. PMID:22958213
Limits on deviations from the inverse-square law on megaparsec scales
Carolyn Sealfon; Licia Verde; Raul Jimenez
2005-06-29
We present an attempt to constrain deviations from the gravitational inverse-square law on large-scale structure scales. A perturbed law modifies the Poisson equation, which implies a scale-dependent growth of overdensities in the linear regime and thus modifies the power spectrum shape. We use two large-scale structure surveys (the Sloan Digital Sky survey and the Anglo-Australian Two-degree field galaxy redshift survey) to constrain the parameters of two simple modifications of the inverse-square law. We find no evidence for deviations from normal gravity on the scales probed by these surveys (~ 10^(23) m.)
Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN1-xSbx from first principles
Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Lisenkov, Sergey; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Mahendra K.; Menon, Madhu
2011-08-01
Applicability of the Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting water under visible light irradiation.
Moderate Deviations in Queueing Theory Damon Wischik
Wischik, Damon
only in the most likely way. For example, to estimate the probability that a large buffer overflows, we need only consider the probability of the most likely way for the buffer to fill up. This clearly for buffers with Gaussian input traffic" [1]. Tempting, but dangerous1 . The central limit theorem involves
Cleghorn, R. A.
1965-01-01
There are four lines of development that might be called psychosomatic principles. The first represents the work initiated by Claude Bernard, Cannon, and others, in neurophysiology and endocrinology in relationship to stress. The second is the application of psychoanalytic formulations to the understanding of illness. The third is in the development of the social sciences, particularly anthropology, social psychology and sociology with respect to the emotional life of man, and, fourth, there is an increased application of epidemiological techniques to the understanding and incidence of disease and its causes. These principles can be applied to the concepts of comprehensive medicine and they bid fair to be unifying and helpful in its study. This means that future practitioners, as well as those working in the field of psychosomatic medicine, are going to have to have a much more precise knowledge of the influence of emotions on bodily processes. PMID:14259334
Tanaka, Sho
2014-01-01
In confrontation with serious and fundamental problems towards ultimate theory of quantum gravity and physics of Planck scale, we emphasize the importance of underlying noncommutative space-time such as Snyder's or Yang's Lorentz-covariant quantized space-time. The background of Bekenstein-Hawking's Area-entropy law and Holographic principle is now substantially understood in terms of {\\it Kinematical} Holographic Relation [KHR], which holds in Yang's quantized space-time as the result of the kinematical reduction of spatial degrees of freedom caused by its own nature of noncommutative geometry. [KHR] implies a definite proportional relation, $ n^L_{\\rm dof} (V_d^L)= {\\cal A} (V_d^L) / G_d$, between the number of spatial degrees of freedom $n^L_{\\rm dof} (V_d^L)$ inside of any $d-$dimensional spherical volume $V_d^L$ with radius $L $ and its boundary area ${\\cal A} (V_d^L).$ It provides a substantial basis for our new area-entropy law of black hole and further enables us to connect "The First Law of Black Hol...
Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1992-01-01
In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave deviates from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux deviation and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux deviation. The energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite large because of their high anisotropy. The flux deviation angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux deviation was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1).
Protocol Development — Policy on the Issuance of Waivers for Protocol Deviation(s)
Staff in the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) occasionally receive calls from investigators requesting that certain criteria in a CTEP-approved protocol be waived so a particular patient can be entered or modifications be made to the original treatment plan. In most cases, these waivers relate to the initial eligibility criteria or treatment plans established when the protocol was written and before patient recruitment begins. Granting waivers for protocol deviations has been handled different at CTEP depending on which program staff is contacted.
The Influence of Motor Parameter Deviations in Feedforward Field Orientation Drive Systems
Kamarudin B. Nordin; Donald W. Novotny; Donald S. Zinger
1985-01-01
If the value of the time constant used in the slip calculator of a feedforward field orientation drive system deviates from the correct value, the decoupling of flux and torque is lost, and both steady-state and transient response is degraded. An analysis of detuned operation shows that the amount of performance degradation is strongly dependent on machine parameters. The large
Understanding the Standard Deviation: What Makes it Larger or Smaller?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2009-07-16
Using cooperative learning methods, this activity helps students develop a better intuitive understanding of what is meant by variability in statistics. Emphasis is placed on the standard deviation as a measure of variability. This lesson also helps students to discover that the standard deviation is a measure of the density of values about the mean of a distribution. As such, students become more aware of how clusters, gaps, and extreme values affect the standard deviation.
On Deviation from the Einstein Relation in Silver Chalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomoyose, Tomozo
1985-11-01
The ion hopping dressed by conduction electrons is investigated to describe the temperature dependence of the deviation from the Einstein relation in silver chalcogenides. The ratio of the averaged diffusion coefficient \\bar{D} to the tracer diffusion coefficient D* has led to the deviation and shown the power-law dependence on temperature T. The deviation numerically calculated is in good agreement with that of the experiments.
Middlemiss, Derek S., E-mail: derekmiddlemiss@gmail.com, E-mail: R.J.Deeth@warwick.ac.uk; Deeth, Robert J., E-mail: derekmiddlemiss@gmail.com, E-mail: R.J.Deeth@warwick.ac.uk [Inorganic Computational Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2014-04-14
The dielectric response of spin-crossover (SCO) materials is a key property facilitating their use in next-generation information processing technologies. Solid state hybrid density functional theory calculations show that the temperature-induced and strongly hysteretic SCO transition in the Cs{sup +}Fe{sup 2+}[Cr{sup 3+}(CN{sup ?}){sub 6}] Prussian blue analogue (PBA) is associated with a large change (?) in both the static, ??{sup 0}(HS ? LS), and high frequency, ??{sup ?}(HS ? LS) dielectric constants. The SCO-induced variation in CsFe[Cr(CN){sub 6}] is significantly greater than the experimental ?? values observed previously in other SCO materials. The phonon contribution, ??{sup phon}(HS ? LS), determined within a lattice dynamics approach, dominates over the clamped nuclei term, ??{sup ?}(HS ? LS), and is in turn dominated by the low-frequency translational motions of Cs{sup +} cations within the cubic voids of the Fe[Cr(CN){sub 6}]{sup ?} framework. The Cs{sup +} translational modes couple strongly to the large unit cell volume change occurring through the SCO transition. PBAs and associated metal-organic frameworks emerge as a potentially fruitful class of materials in which to search for SCO transitions associated with large changes in dielectric response and other macroscopic properties.
Reflector design for large-size spherical surface sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Liangliang; Luo, Yi; Han, Yanjun; Feng, Zexin
2011-02-01
We propose a novel method for designing reflectors with large-size spherical surface sources. The center portion of the reflector is designed using the edge-ray principle, while the rim portion is designed based on the variable-separation mapping method. Step discontinuities are introduced during rim surface construction to control the deviation caused by error in normal vectors, and a feedback modification is adopted to compensate for the illuminance deviation produced by the large size of sources. As an example, a streetlamp with a desired rectangular illuminance distribution on the road is designed using a spherical surface source (10 cm diam) and a compact reflector. It has an illuminance uniformity of 60.2% and utilance of 66.9%, considerably improved from the traditional values of 35 and 40%, respectively.
Modeling propagating heat pulses in the Large Helical Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Hao; Dendy, Richard; Chapman, Sandra; Inagaki, Shigeru
2014-10-01
Rapid edge cooling induced by pellet injection in Large Helical Device plasmas generates inward propagating pulses with either large positive or negative deviations of the electron temperature at the core. By applying a traveling wave transformation, we extend a recent model for local temporal evolution, to include also spatial dependence. The extended model comprises two coupled nonlinear first order differential equations for the (x,t) evolution of the deviation from steady state of two variables, the temperature gradient and heat flux. It also defines the pulse velocity in terms of plasma quantities. This enables us to model spatiotemporal pulse evolution, from first principles, in terms of the electron temperature. We have tested the model against LHD datasets using appropriate initial and boundary conditions. We find that this model can match experimental data for pulse peaks, shapes and propagation velocities within a broad radial range from plasma edge to core.
21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.100 Written procedures; deviations. (a) There...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.
2013-12-01
Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. Calibration on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for calibration are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian principles. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model reduction. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of calibrated model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of accurate filtering become very feasible for our suggested aPC-based calibration framework. However, the power of aPC-based Bayesian updating strongly depends on the accuracy of prior information. In the current study, the prior assumptions on the model parameters were not satisfactory and strongly underestimate the reservoir pressure. Thus, the aPC-based response surface used in Bootstrap filtering is fitted to a distant and poorly chosen region within the parameter space. Thanks to the iterative procedure suggested in [2] we overcome this drawback with small computational costs. The iteration successively improves the accuracy of the expansion around the current estimation of the posterior distribution. The final result is a calibrated model of the site that can be used for further studies, with an excellent match to the data. References [1] Oladyshkin S. and Nowak W. Data-driven uncertainty quantification using the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 106:179-190, 2012. [2] Oladyshkin S., Class H., Nowak W. Bayesian updating via Bootstrap filtering combined with data-driven polynomial chaos expansions: methodology and application to history matching for carbon dioxide storage in geological formations. Computational Geosciences, 17 (4), 671-687, 2013.
Predicting leptonic CP phase by considering deviations in charged lepton and neutrino sectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sruthilaya, M.; Soumya, C.; Deepthi, K. N.; Mohanta, R.
2015-08-01
Recently, the reactor mixing angle {? }13 has been measured precisely by Daya Bay, RENO, and T2K experiments with a moderately large value. However, the standard form of neutrino mixing patterns such as bimaximal, tri-bimaximal, golden ratio of types A and B, hexagonal, etc., which are based on certain flavor symmetries, predict vanishing {? }13. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix can be represented as {V}{PMNS}={U}l\\dagger {U}? {P}? , where Ul and {U}? result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices and {P}? is a diagonal matrix containing Majorana phases, we explore the possibility of accounting for the large reactor mixing angle by considering deviations both in the charged lepton and neutrino sector. In the charged lepton sector we consider the deviation as an additional rotation in the (12) and (13) planes, whereas in the neutrino sector we consider deviations to various neutrino mixing patterns through (13) and (23) rotations. We find that with the inclusion of these deviations it is possible to accommodate the observed large reactor mixing angle {? }13, and one can also obtain limits on the charge-conjugation parity-violating Dirac phase{? }{CP} and Jarlskog invariant JCP for most of the cases. We then explore whether our findings can be tested in the currently running NuMI Off-axis ve Appearance experiment with three years of data taking in neutrino mode followed by three years with the anti-neutrino mode.
Downhole control of deviation with steerable straight-hole turbodrills
Gaynor, T.M.
1988-03-01
Advances in directional drilling have until recently been confined to issues that are peripheral to the central problem of controlling assembly behavior downhole. Examples of these advances are measurement while drilling (MWD) and the increasing use of computer assistance in well planning. These were significant steps forward, but the major problem remained. Changes in formation deviation tendencies led to trips to change bottomhole assemblies (BHA's) to cope with the new conditions. There is almost no direct control of deviation behavior. The steerable straight-hole turbodrill (SST) addresses this problem directly, allowing alteration of the well course without the need to trip. The availability of such a system radically changes the way in which directional well planning may be approached. This paper describes the equipment used and the equipment's construction and operational requirements. It discusses the capabilities and current limitation of the systems. Field results are presented for some 300,000 ft (91 500 m) of deviated drilling carried out over 2 years in Alaska and the North Sea. A series of four highly deviated wells totaling 35,000 ft (10 700m) with only three deviation trips is included. The SST is the first deviation drilling system to achieve deviation control over long sections without tripping to change BHA's. Bits and downhole equipment are now more reliable and long-lived than ever, therefore, deviation trips are becoming a major target for well cost saving.
Deviational analyses for validating regulations on real systems
Kelly, Tim
Deviational analyses for validating regulations on real systems Fiona Polack, Thitima Srivatanakul to the validation of reg- ulations, in the sense of their application of regulations to real systems. Keyword: deviational analysis, dependability, regulation validation 1 Background Regulations are intended to control
Cooperative Games with General Deviation Measures Bogdan Grechuk
Banaji,. Murad
Cooperative Games with General Deviation Measures Bogdan Grechuk Department of Mathematics Cooperative games with players using different law-invariant deviation measures as numerical represen- tations of the cooperative portfolio expected gain, belonging to the core of a corresponding cooperative game, is suggested
Standard Errors of Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation Estimators
Fessler, Jeffrey A.
1 Standard Errors of Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation Estimators Sangtae Ahn and Jeffrey A the mean, variance, or standard deviation from a sample of elements and present the estimates with standard errors or error bars (in plots) as well. A standard error of a statistic (or estimator
Preschool Children's Memory for Deviations in a Routine Event.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hudson, Judith A.; Krackow, Elisa
This study investigated the possibility that episodes that deviate from a routine event script are retained in memory, tagged by their unique characteristics. Three groups of 9 preschool children experienced one of three deviations in their normal snack routine: (1) a puppet handed out the snack; (2) a puppet taught the children to play a game…
The Relationship Between Inhibition of Return and Saccade Trajectory Deviations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Godijn, Richard; Theeuwes, Jan
2004-01-01
After presentation of a peripheral cue, a subsequent saccade to the cued location is delayed (inhibition of return: IOR). Furthermore, saccades typically deviate away from the cued location. The present study examined the relationship between these inhibitory effects. IOR and saccade trajectory deviations were found after central (endogenous) and…
Developmental Dyslexia, Neurolinguistic Theory and Deviations in Brain Morphology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hynd, George W.; And Others
1991-01-01
Reviews computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies examining deviations in brain morphology. Discusses methodological and technical issues. Concludes that dyslexics show variations in specific brain regions. Suggests that neuroimaging procedures appear to provide direct evidence supporting the importance of deviations in normal…
40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...of this section. (a) A deviation occurs when the control device operating parameter boundaries described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more of the hours during the...
40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...of this section. (a) A deviation occurs when the control device operating parameter boundaries described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more of the hours during the...
40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...of this section. (a) A deviation occurs when the control device operating parameter boundaries described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more of the hours during the...
40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...of this section. (a) A deviation occurs when the control device operating parameter boundaries described in 40 CFR 60.758(c)(1) of subpart WWW are exceeded. (b) A deviation occurs when 1 hour or more of the hours during the...
Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldberg, Fred M.
1985-01-01
Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)
O the Standard Vector-Deviation Wind Rose
Harold L. Crutcher
1957-01-01
Wind-data presentations are varied. Some serve one purpose better than another. A relatively new type of wind rose is presented in order that its potential may be exploited. This is the standard vector-deviation wind rose. It is an easily reproduced rose and may be constructed from values of the vector mean wind, standard deviations of the latitudinal and meridional wind
9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Canning and Canned Products § 318...Whenever the actual process is less than the...processing (or process deviations) must...HACCP plan for canned product that...Procedures for handling process deviations where...does not address food safety...
9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Canning and Canned Products § 318...Whenever the actual process is less than the...processing (or process deviations) must...HACCP plan for canned product that...Procedures for handling process deviations where...does not address food safety...
9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Canning and Canned Products § 381...Whenever the actual process is less than the...processing (or process deviations) must...HACCP plan for canned product that...Procedures for handling process deviations where...does not address food safety...
9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Canning and Canned Products § 381...Whenever the actual process is less than the...processing (or process deviations) must...HACCP plan for canned product that...Procedures for handling process deviations where...does not address food safety...
Histopathological changes in nasal mucosa with nasal septum deviation.
Kamani, Tawakir; Y?lmaz, Taner; Sürücü, Selçuk; Bajin, Münir Demir; Günayd?n, R?za Önder; Ku?çu, O?uz
2014-11-01
Histopathological changes in septal and nasal mucosa of patients with nasal septum deviation are not well known. Biopsies of septal and lateral nasal mucosae from both sides of nose were obtained from 20 patients undergoing septoplasty and control group of 10 patients undergoing head and neck surgery. Histopathological changes including lymphocytic infiltration and squamous metaplasia were compared. This study determined significantly higher rate of squamous metaplasia and lymphocytic infiltration in septal mucosa opposite the deviation compared to control group. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher rate of lymphocytic infiltration in the lateral nasal wall mucosa opposite the deviation when compared to control group. Increased lymphocytic infiltration and squamous metaplasia are observed on both sides of nasal mucosa; however, they are more severe on the side opposite the deviation. Septal deviation predisposes to chronic mucosal inflammation and squamous metaplasia, both of which may render patients susceptible to chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:24647493
Constraints on deviations from {\\Lambda}CDM within Horndeski gravity
Bellini, Emilio; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia
2015-01-01
Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard {\\Lambda}CDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from {\\Lambda}CDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time {\\alpha}_i(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy {\\Omega}_DE(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Bac...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1990-01-01
Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy because of the large anisotropy. The angle of deviation is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of deviation is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux deviation for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis fiber axis) and the x1 axis for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as large as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.
Girgis, A.A.; Peterson, W.L. (Clemson Univ., SC (USA). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)
1990-04-01
A new Kalman filtering-based technique is presented for estimating power system frequency deviation and its average rate of change during emergency operating conditions that may require load shedding. This method obtains the optimal estimate of the power system frequency deviation from noisy voltage samples and the best estimate of the mean system frequency deviation and its rate of change while accounting for low frequency synchronizing oscillations which occur during large disturbances. The proposed technique is a two stage algorithm which uses an adaptive extended Kalman filter in series with an adaptive linear Kalman filter.
Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini
2014-10-01
A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (?) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO (<1 ppbv to a peak of 295 ppbv), NO2 (<2 ppbv-47 ppbv) and O3 (4 ppbv-95 ppbv) mixing ratios, all of which showed strong diurnal variation. The ? values showed large deviations from unity over the measurement period, with mostly negative deviations (? < 1), showing that the air masses were dominated by local sources of NOx and that the PSS was not achieved. Positive deviations (? > 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.
Quantum mechanics and geodesic deviation in the brane world
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasouli, S. M. M.; Bahrehbakhsh, A. F.; Jalalzadeh, S.; Farhoudi, M.
2009-08-01
We investigate the induced geodesic deviation equations in the brane world models, in which all the matter forces except gravity are confined on the 3-brane. Also, the Newtonian limit of induced geodesic deviation equation is studied. We show that in the first Randall-Sundrum model the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule is as a result of consistency between the geodesic and geodesic deviation equations. This indicates that the path of test particle is made up of integral multiples of a fundamental Compton-type unit of length h/mc.
Quantum mechanics and geodesic deviation in the brane world
S. M. M. Rasouli; A. F. Bahrehbakhsh; S. Jalalzadeh; M. Farhoudi
2009-11-16
We investigate the induced geodesic deviation equations in the brane world models, in which all the matter forces except gravity are confined on the 3-brane. Also, the Newtonian limit of induced geodesic deviation equation is studied. We show that in the first Randall-Sundrum model the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule is as a result of consistency between the geodesic and geodesic deviation equations. This indicates that the path of test particle is made up of integral multiples of a fundamental Compton-type unit of length $h/mc$.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhifeng, Lou; Liding, Wang; Xiaodong, Wang; Yong, Ma
2011-11-01
A double-disc instrument for measuring an involute is introduced, whose measuring principle is the same as the 'rolling artifact method' developed by PTB. In this paper, measurement error and generation length deviation caused by radius deviation of the base disc are analyzed. In order to simplify the error compensation model and increase compensation accuracy, a new method, called the coordinate transformation method, is used to analyze measurement data, which can remove measurement errors caused by radius deviation of the base disc in theory. Two measurement experiments with different base discs prove the feasibility of the coordinate transformation method, and the consistency error of the measurements is 0.2 µm when the same involute tooth profile was measured.
Gravity as a Higgs Field. III. Nongravitional Deviations of Gravitational Fields
G. Sardanashvily
1994-11-06
In Parts I and II of the work (gr-qc/9405013, 9407032), we have shown that gravity is {\\it sui generis} a Higgs field corresponding to spontaneous symmetry breaking when the fermion matter admits only the Lorentz subgroup of world symmetries of the geometric arena. From the mathematical viewpoint, the Higgs nature of gravity issues from the fact that different gravitational fields are responsible for nonequivalent representations of cotangent vectors to a world manifold by $\\gamma$-matrices on spinor bundles. It follows that gravitational fields fail to form an affine space modelled on a linear space of deviations of some background field. In other words, even weak gravitational fields do not satisfy the superposition principle and, in particular, can not be quantized by usual methods. At the same time, one can examine superposable deviations $\\sigma$ of a gravitational field $h$ so that $h+\\sigma$ fails to be a gravitational field. These deviations are provided with the adequate mathematical description in the framework of the affine group gauge theory in dislocated manifolds, and their Lagrangian densities differ from the familiar gravitational ones. They make contribution to the standard gravitational effects, e.g., modify Newton's gravitational potential.
Recognizing deviations from normalcy for brain tumor segmentation
Gering, David T. (David Thomas), 1971-
2003-01-01
A framework is proposed for the segmentation of brain tumors from MRI. Instead of training on pathology, the proposed method trains exclusively on healthy tissue. The algorithm attempts to recognize deviations from normalcy ...
Progressive mixture rules are deviation suboptimal Jean-Yves Audibert
Audibert, Jean-Yves
Progressive mixture rules are deviation suboptimal Jean-Yves Audibert Willow Project - Certis Lab ParisTech, Ecole des Ponts 77455 Marne-la-Vall´ee, France audibert@certis.enpc.fr Abstract We consider
A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth
2010-01-01
Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.
33 CFR 161.5 - Deviations from the rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...from the rules. 161.5 Section 161.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... General Rules § 161.5 Deviations from the rules...based on vessel handling characteristics, traffic density,...
33 CFR 161.5 - Deviations from the rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...from the rules. 161.5 Section 161.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... General Rules § 161.5 Deviations from the rules...based on vessel handling characteristics, traffic density,...
Star Library: What Makes the Standard Deviation Larger or Smaller?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
delMas, Robert C.
2001-01-01
The activity is designed to help students develop a better intuitive understanding of what is meant by variability in statistics. Emphasis is placed on the standard deviation as a measure of variability. As they learn about the standard deviation, many students focus on the variability of bar heights in a histogram when asked to compare the variability of two distributions. For these students, variability refers to the Â?Â?variationÂ?Â in bar heights. Other students may focus only on the range of values, or the number of bars in a histogram, and conclude that two distributions are identical in variability even when it is clearly not the case. This activity can help students discover that the standard deviation is a measure of the density of values about the mean of a distribution and to become more aware of how clusters, gaps, and extreme values affect the standard deviation.
33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR...Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage....
33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR...Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage....
33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR...Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage....
40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions General § 35.6025 Deviation from this subpart. On a...
40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions General § 35.6025 Deviation from this subpart. On a...
41 CFR 109-1.110-50 - Deviation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 109-1.110-50 Deviation...Any pertinent background information which will contribute to...
Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.
Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.
1982-01-01
Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors
Computerized inspection of real surfaces and minimization of their deviations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Y.; Kuan, Chihping; Handschuh, R. F.
1991-01-01
A method is developed for the minimization of gear tooth surface deviations between theoretical and real surfaces for the improvement of precision of surface manufacture. Coordinate measurement machinery is used to determine a grid of surface coordinates. Theoretical calculations are made for the grid points. A least-square method is used to minimize the deviations between real and theoretical surfaces by altering the manufacturing machine-tool settings. An example is given for a hypoid gear.
Raymond C. Parks; David P. Duggan
2011-01-01
This paper proposes some principles of cyber- warfare. The principles of warfare are well documented, but are not always applicable to cyber-warfare. Differences between cyberspace and the real world suggest some additional principles. This is not intended to be a comprehensive listing of such principles but suggestions leading toward discussion and dialogue. The current candidate list of principles of cyber-warfare
Testing the equivalence principle with unstable particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonder, Y.; Fischbach, E.; Hernandez-Coronado, H.; Krause, D. E.; Rohrbach, Z.; Sudarsky, D.
2013-06-01
We develop a framework to test the equivalence principle under conditions where the quantum aspects of nature cannot be neglected, specifically in the context of interference phenomena with unstable particles. We derive the nonrelativistic quantum equation that describes the evolution of the wave function of unstable particles under the assumption of the validity of the equivalence principle and when small deviations are assumed to occur. As an example, we study the propagation of unstable particles in a COW experiment, and we briefly discuss the experimental implications of our formalism.
Strong deviations from jellium behavior in the valence electron dynamics of potassium
Huotari, Simo; Sternemann, Christian; Troparevsky, M Claudia; Eguiluz, Adolfo G; Volmer, Martin
2009-01-01
We present experimental and ab initio theoretical determination of the dynamics of valence electrons in potassium by investigating the dynamical structure factor at nonvanishing momentum transfers. The spectra show large deviations from a jellium-type behavior due to the presence of d-type states above the Fermi level. In particular, we identify two well-defined interband excitations that have a direct correspondence with the density of states above the Fermi level.
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Kerr spacetime
Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico
2014-08-21
The dynamics of extended spinning bodies in the Kerr spacetime is investigated in the pole-dipole particle approximation and under the assumption that the spin-curvature force only slightly deviates the particle from a geodesic path. The spin parameter is thus assumed to be very small and the back reaction on the spacetime geometry neglected. This approach naturally leads to solve the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations linearized in the spin variables as well as in the deviation vector, with the same initial conditions as for geodesic motion. General deviations from generic geodesic motion are studied, generalizing previous results limited to the very special case of an equatorial circular geodesic as the reference path.
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Kerr spacetime
Bini, Donato
2014-01-01
The dynamics of extended spinning bodies in the Kerr spacetime is investigated in the pole-dipole particle approximation and under the assumption that the spin-curvature force only slightly deviates the particle from a geodesic path. The spin parameter is thus assumed to be very small and the back reaction on the spacetime geometry neglected. This approach naturally leads to solve the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations linearized in the spin variables as well as in the deviation vector, with the same initial conditions as for geodesic motion. General deviations from generic geodesic motion are studied, generalizing previous results limited to the very special case of an equatorial circular geodesic as the reference path.
Superior laryngeal neuralgia associated with deviation of the hyoid bone.
Kodama, Satoru; Oribe, Kanako; Suzuki, Masashi
2008-09-01
Superior laryngeal neuralgia is a rare condition. We report a case of superior laryngeal neuralgia with deviated hyoid bone. A 50-year-old woman presented with paroxysmal and lancing pain localized to the area around the thyrohyoid membrane. Pain was induced and worsened by swallowing. A three-dimensional image showed deviation of the hyoid bone. General and neurological examinations were normal. After spraying of the larynx with 4% lidocaine, the pain improved. Superior laryngeal neuralgia was diagnosed, and the condition was treated with carbamazepine. Superior laryngeal neuralgia is rare but should be considered, particularly if no other pathologic findings are identified. PMID:17890033
A study of course deviations during cross-country soaring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sliwa, S. M.; Sliwa, D. J.
1979-01-01
Several models are developed for studying the impact of deviations from course during cross country soaring flights. Analyses are performed at the microstrategy and macrostrategy levels. Two types of lift sources are considered: concentrated thermals and thermal streets. The sensitivity of the optimum speed solutions to various model, piloting and performance parameters is evaluated. Guides are presented to provide the pilot with criterions for making in-flight decisions. In general, course deviations are warranted during weak lift conditions, but are less justifiable with moderate to strong lift conditions.
Gulf Stream model. [which considers surface elevation deviations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
Surface elevation deviations in the Gulf Stream region off the eastern coast of the United States between Wallops Island, Virginia and Miami, Florida were investigated. The main causes of surface elevation deviations are geoid perturbations due to the continental shelf and the geostrophic adjustment of the density field due to the Gulf Stream. Quantitative surface elevation profiles were calculated based on geophysical measurements of gravity anomalies and hydrographic data. The results are presented graphically along with contemporaneous weather data. Comparisons are made between the profiles based on hydrographic data and a mean theoretical model. The theory of geostrophic flows including some classical Gulf Stream models is also presented briefly.
14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...
14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...
Deviations of stochastic bandit regret Antoine Salomon1
Audibert, Jean-Yves
Deviations of stochastic bandit regret Antoine Salomon1 and Jean-Yves Audibert1,2 1 Imagine ´Ecole des Ponts ParisTech Universit´e Paris Est salomona@imagine.enpc.fr audibert@imagine.enpc.fr 2 Sierra multi-armed bandit problem. When the total number of plays n is known beforehand by the agent, Audibert
Some Posterior Standard Deviations in Item Response Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Seock-Ho
2007-01-01
The procedures required to obtain the approximate posterior standard deviations of the parameters in the three commonly used item response models for dichotomous items are described and used to generate values for some common situations. The results were compared with those obtained from maximum likelihood estimation. It is shown that the use of…
Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bonett, Douglas G.
2006-01-01
Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…
Laser beam directional deviation and noise stabilization device
Mcmahan, R.K.
1982-11-30
A laser beam directional deviation and noise stabilization device is disclosed as incorporating a laser which broadcast a monochromatic laser light beam along a predetermined optical path , and a plurality of optical elements which eliminate from the laser light beam any beam wander, and power level fluctuations inherent within the laser light beam.
DRL interresponse-time distributions: quantification by peak deviation analysis.
Richards, J B; Sabol, K E; Seiden, L S
1993-01-01
Peak deviation analysis is a quantitative technique for characterizing interresponse-time distributions that result from training on differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedules of reinforcement. It compares each rat's obtained interresponse-time distribution to the corresponding negative exponential distribution that would have occurred if the rat had emitted the same number of responses randomly in time, at the same rate. The comparison of the obtained distributions with corresponding negative exponential distributions provides the basis for computing three standardized metrics (burst ratio, peak location, and peak area) that quantitatively characterize the profile of the obtained interresponse-time distributions. In Experiment 1 peak deviation analysis quantitatively described the difference between the interresponse-time distributions of rats trained on variable-interval 300-s and differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 72-s schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 2 peak deviation analysis differentiated between the effects of the psychomotor stimulant d-amphetamine, the anxiolytic compound chlordiazepoxide, and the antidepressant desipramine. The results suggest that peak deviation analysis of interresponse-time distributions may provide a useful behavioral assay system for characterizing the effects of drugs. PMID:8409824
Vertex deviation maps to bracked the Milky Way resonant radius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roca-Fàbrega, S.; Antoja, T.; Figueras, F.; Valenzuela, O.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Pichardo, B.
2015-05-01
We map the kinematics of stars in simulated galaxy disks with spiral arms using the velocity ellipsoid vertex deviation (l_v). We use test particle simulations, and for the first time, fully self-consistent high resolution N-body models. We compare our maps with the Tight Winding Approximation model analytical predictions. We see that for all barred models spiral arms rotate closely to a rigid body manner and the vertex deviation values correlate with the density peaks position bounded by overdense and underdense regions. In such cases, vertex deviation sign changes from negative to positive when crossing the spiral arms in the direction of disk rotation, in regions where the spiral arms are in between corotation (CR) and the Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR). By contrast, when the arm sections are inside the CR and outside the OLR, l_v changes from negative to positive.We propose that measurements of the vertex deviations pattern can be used to trace the position of the main resonances of the spiral arms. We propose that this technique might exploit future data from Gaia and APOGEE surveys. For unbarred N-body simulations with spiral arms corotating with disk material at all radii, our analysis suggests that no clear correlation exists between l_v and density structures.
Downhole Control of Deviation With Steerable Straight-Hole Turbodrills
T. M. Gaynor
1988-01-01
Advances in directional drilling have until recently been confined to issues that are peripheral to the central problem of controlling assembly behavior downhole. Examples of these advances are measurement while drilling (MWD) and the increasing use of computer assistance in well planning. These were significant steps forward, but the major problem remained. Changes in formation deviation tendencies led to trips
Mini-Muddling: Learning from Project Plan Deviations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hallgren, Markus; Wilson, Timothy L.
2007-01-01
Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the informal and incidental learning that takes place in project work among individuals who must adapt to deviations from project plans. Design/methodology/approach: Reflections in the study are built on four power plant projects found in an integrated provider of projects of this…
The Deviation of the Vacuum Refractive Index Induced by a Static Gravitational Field
Xing-Hao Ye; Qiang Lin
2007-04-10
We analyzed the influence of static gravitational field on the vacuum and proposed the concept of inhomogeneous vacuum. According to the observational result of the light deflection in solar gravitational field as well as the corresponding Fermat's principle in the general relativity, we derived an analytical expression of the refractive index of vacuum in a static gravitational field. We found that the deviation of the vacuum refractive index is composed of two parts: one is caused by the time dilation effect, the other is caused by the length contraction effect. As an application, we simulated the effect of the gravitational lensing through computer programming and found that the missing central imaging could be interpreted in a reasonable way.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-02-25
...document. The Class Deviation and this action only...therefore issued a Class Deviation to streamline the 40...procedures. The Class Deviation will allow the Agency...not involve technical standards; thus, the...
1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of the Code...Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code...Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal...
1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. 21.14 Section...Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations...
1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. 21.14 Section...Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations...
7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...false Notification of deviation from financial standards. 400.174 Section...Reinsurance Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations...174 Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer...
Higher-order geodesic deviations applied to the Kerr metric
R. Colistete Jr.; C. Leygnac; R. Kerner
2002-05-06
Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations within a General Relativistic setting, without using Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We apply this method to the problem of closed orbital motion of test particles in the Kerr metric space-time. With a simple circular orbit in the equatorial plane taken as the initial geodesic we obtain finite eccentricity orbits in the form of Taylor series with the eccentricity playing the role of small parameter. The explicit expressions of these higher-order geodesic deviations are derived using successive systems of linear equations with constant coefficients, whose solutions are of harmonic oscillator type. This scheme gives best results when applied to the orbits with low eccentricities, but with arbitrary values of $(GM/Rc^2)$, smaller than 1/6 in the Schwarzschild limit.
Solar radiation pressure and deviations from Keplerian orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.
2009-05-01
Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, potentially rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.
Geodesic Deviation Equation in $f(T)$ gravity
F. Darabi; M. Mousavi; K. Atazadeh
2015-04-14
In this work, we show that it is possible to study the notion of geodesic deviation equation in $f(T)$ gravity, in spite of the fact that in teleparallel gravity there is no notion of geodesics, and the torsion is responsible for the appearance of gravitational interaction. In this regard, we obtain the GR equivalent equations for $f(T)$ gravity which are in the modified gravity form such as $f(R)$ gravity. Then, we obtain the GDE within the context of this modified gravity. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the $f(T)$ gravity. Eventually, we extend the calculations to obtain the modification of Matting relation.
Solar Radiation Pressure and Deviations from Keplerian Orbits
Kezerashvili, Roman Ya
2009-01-01
Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.
Deviation of Yukawa coupling in gauge-Higgs unification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adachi, Yuki; Maru, Nobuhito
2015-08-01
We study the deviation of the Yukawa coupling in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario from the Standard Model one. Taking into account the brane mass terms necessary for generating the flavor mixing and removing the exotic massless fermions, we derive an analytic formula determining the KK mass spectrum and Yukawa coupling. Applying the obtained results to the tau and bottom Yukawa couplings, we numerically calculate the ratio of the Yukawa couplings in the gauge-Higgs unification and in the Standard Model.
Geodesic Deviation Equation in $f (R,T)$ Gravity
Baffou, E H; Rodrigues, M E; Kpadonou, A V; Tossa, J
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the modified Geodesic Deviation Equation (GDE) in the framework of $f(R,T)$ theory of gravity where $R$ and $T$ are the curvature scalar and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively, using the FLRW background. In this way, we obtain the GR equivalent (GDE) in $f(R,T)$ metric formalism. We also extend our work to the generalization of the Matting relation and perform the numerical analysis with GDE for null vector.
Laser beam deviation as a local density probe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mombo-Caristan, J. C.; Philippe, L. C.; Perrin, M. Y.; Martin, J. P.
1989-04-01
In axisymmetric flows, we show that the laser beam deviation technique can be associated with an Abel inversion calculation in order to give the local density and its gradients. We report density profile measurements in the different regions (zone of silence and barrel shock) of nitrogen and argon supersonic free jets near the nozzle exit. Three different nozzle geometries have been tested at different stagnation pressures. Results are compared to calculations obtained by the method of characteristics.
Episodic conjugated upward deviation of gaze during early infancy
H. Wörle; K. Marquard; R. Keimer; B. Köhler
1997-01-01
Summary \\u000a Two infants presented with isolated paroxysmal dysfunction of eye movements. Both children had developed normally until they\\u000a suffered from episodic conjugated upward deviation of gaze. The duration and the frequency of these episodes increased and\\u000a were exacerbated by tiredness and often ameliorated by sleep. Horizontal eye movements were not disturbed. A constant nystagmus\\u000a was not present, although one infant
OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.
Olsen, Harold W.
1985-01-01
This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.
Deviation of Yukawa Coupling in Gauge-Higgs Unification
Yuki Adachi; Nobuhito Maru
2015-01-26
We study the deviation of yukawa coupling in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario from the Standard Model one. Taking into account the brane mass terms necessary for generating the flavor mixing and removing the exotic massless fermions, we derive an analytic formula determining the KK mass spectrum and yukawa coupling. Applying the obtained results to the tau and bottom yukawa couplings, we numerically calculate the ratio of the yukawa couplings in the gauge-Higgs unification and in the Standard Model.
Geometric deviation modeling by kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Weidong; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Yu; Dai, Wanyi
2015-09-01
Typical representation of dimension and geometric accuracy is limited to the self-representation of dimension and geometric deviation based on geometry variation thinking, yet the interactivity affection of geometric variation and gesture variation of multi-rigid body is not included. In this paper, a kinematic matrix model based on Lagrangian coordinate is introduced, with the purpose of unified model for geometric variation and gesture variation and their interactive and integrated analysis. Kinematic model with joint, local base and movable base is built. The ideal feature of functional geometry is treated as the base body; the fitting feature of functional geometry is treated as the adjacent movable body; the local base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the ideal geometry, and the movable base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the fitting geometry. Furthermore, the geometric deviation is treated as relative location or rotation variation between the movable base and the local base, and it's expressed by the Lagrangian coordinate. Moreover, kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate for different types of geometry tolerance zones is constructed, and total freedom for each kinematic model is discussed. Finally, the Lagrangian coordinate library, kinematic matrix library for geometric deviation modeling is illustrated, and an example of block and piston fits is introduced. Dimension and geometric tolerances of the shaft and hole fitting feature are constructed by kinematic matrix and Lagrangian coordinate, and the results indicate that the proposed kinematic matrix is capable and robust in dimension and geometric tolerances modeling.
Explorations in statistics: standard deviations and standard errors
NSDL National Science Digital Library
PhD Douglas Curran-Everett (National Jewish Medical and Research Center Div. Biostatistics, Depts. Prev. Med./Biometrics, Physiology/Biophys)
2008-05-06
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in Advances in Physiology Education provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle with which to explore basic concepts in statistics, I provide the requisite R commands. In this inaugural paper we explore the essential distinction between standard deviation and standard error: a standard deviation estimates the variability among sample observations whereas a standard error of the mean estimates the variability among theoretical sample means. If we fail to report the standard deviation, then we fail to fully report our data. Because it incorporates information about sample size, the standard error of the mean is a misguided estimate of variability among observations. Instead, the standard error of the mean provides an estimate of the uncertainty of the true value of the population mean.
Complementary Quark and Lepton Deviation from Mass-Degeneracy Hierarchies
E. M. Lipmanov
2009-11-02
Near magnitudes of Dirac particle mass-ratios, mixing hierarchy-quantities and electroweak charges against the background of highly successful flavor-universal one-generation EW theory is a puzzle in need of diverse inclusive research. In this paper I study the problem in proper terms of lepton and quark Deviation-from-Mass-Degeneracy (DMD) hierarchies at tree EW approximation. As primary are considered not discrete flavor symmetry but rather the deviations from mass-degeneracy-symmetry without inventing exact particular symmetry. Empirically suggested benchmark flavor patterns (zero approximation) and deviations from benchmarks caused by emergence of a small related to EW charges parameter are considered two sources of realistic flavor quantities. Physically interesting mass and mixing flavor quantities are obtained as solutions of linear and quadratic DMD-hierarchy equation-pairs with complementary patterns of quark and lepton DMD-hierarchies. Dual relations between DMD-quantities of quarks and charged leptons (Dirac particles), on the one hand, and neutrinos (likely Majorana particles), on the other hand, are inferences. Considered in the literature approximate quark-neutrino mixing angle complementarity appears naturally from the violation of benchmark patterns by the emergent small parameter.
Deviated nasal septum hinders intranasal sprays: A computer simulation study
Frank, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Cannon, Daniel; Pawar, Sachin S.; Rhee, John S.
2013-01-01
Background This study investigates how deviated nasal septum affects the quantity and distribution of spray particles, and examines the effects of inspiratory airflow and head position on particle transport. Methods Deposition of spray particles was analysed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model created from a computed tomography scan of a human nose with leftward septal deviation and a right inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Five simulations were conducted using Fluent™ software, with particle sizes ranging from 20-110?m, a spray speed of 3m/s, plume angle of 68°, and with steady state inspiratory airflow either present (15.7L/min) or absent at varying head positions. Results With inspiratory airflow present, posterior deposition on the obstructed side was approximately four times less than the contralateral side, regardless of head position, and was statistically significant (p<0.05). When airflow was absent, predicted deposition beyond the nasal valve on the left and right sides were between 16% and 69% lower and positively influenced by a dependent head position. Conclusions Simulations predicted that septal deviation significantly diminished drug delivery on the obstructed side. Furthermore, increased particle penetration was associated with presence of nasal airflow. Head position is an important factor in particle deposition patterns when inspiratory airflow is absent. PMID:22888490
Principles of project management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1982-01-01
The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.
Chemical Principls Exemplified
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Plumb, Robert C.
1973-01-01
Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)
Addendum to: large deviations asymptotics for spherical integrals ALICE GUIONNET*, OFER ZEITOUNI y
Guionnet, Alice
] corresp* *onds to the definition of IPfiDNgiven in (1.2) rather than (1.1) as stated in [3].To prove* *traction at time one becomes trivial. We emphasize that with the details provided below, Theorem 1.1 of [3 Let us first note that the definition of the spherical integrals in [3] should * *be
Hausdorff and Packing Spectra, Large Deviations, and Free Energy for Branching Random Walks in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attia, Najmeddine; Barral, Julien
2014-10-01
Consider an -valued branching random walk (BRW) on a supercritical Galton Watson tree. Without any assumption on the distribution of this BRW we compute, almost surely and simultaneously, the Hausdorff and packing dimensions of the level sets E( K) of infinite branches in the boundary of the tree (endowed with its standard metric) along which the averages of the BRW have a given closed connected set of limit points K. This goes beyond multifractal analysis, which only considers those level sets when K ranges in the set of singletons . We also give a 0-? law for the Hausdorff and packing measures of the level sets E({ ?}), and compute the free energy of the associated logarithmically correlated random energy model in full generality. Moreover, our results complete the previous works on multifractal analysis by including the levels ? which do not belong to the range of the gradient of the free energy. This covers in particular a situation that was until now badly understood, namely the case where a first order phase transition occurs. As a consequence of our study, we can also describe the whole singularity spectrum of Mandelbrot measures, as well as the associated free energy function (or L q -spectrum), when a first order phase transition occurs.
Large deviation function of the partially asymmetric exclusion process Deok-Sun Lee and Doochul Kim
Kim, Doochul
recently for a ring of N sites with P particles under a periodic boundary condition 4,5 . The LDF also universality class. Since the LDF has been obtained in 4,5 for the totally asymmetric exclusion process TASEP to the TASEP considered in 4,5 and we work in the region 0 1. Interpreting j 1 as the local slope
SAMPLE PATH LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR A CLASS OF MARKOV CHAINS RELATED TO
. In this paper we study a class of Markov processes with discrete state space which have the property of Mogulskii's theorem were studied in a series of paper by Wentzell [W14]. A partial account of this work and coworkers (see e.g. [DEW,DE,DE1,DE2,DR,AD,SW] and references therein). The main thrust of this line
Siris, Vasilios A.
of the traffic input, of the link parameters (capacity and buffer), and of traffic control mechanisms on the staÂ tistical characteristics of the traffic stream, but also on a link's operating point through two), recent work [16, 8] has shown that these implications can be of secondary importance to the buffer
Detecting large-scale deviations from a FRW geometry with future CMB observations
G. Dautcourt
1999-06-04
We discuss the question to what degree the geometrical structure and the matter content of the universe at scales exceeding the present Hubble horizon is constrained by cosmological observations, in particular by measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation. For an answer, a simple formalism is described, which goes back to a paper by Kristian and Sachs in 1966.
A Large-Deviation Analysis of the Maximum-Likelihood Learning of Markov Tree Structures
Tan, Vincent Yan Fu
The problem of maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation of discrete tree-structured distributions is considered. Chow and Liu established that ML-estimation reduces to the construction of a maximum-weight spanning tree using the ...
Unification of Small and Large Time Scales for Biological Evolution: Deviations from Power Law
Debashish Chowdhury; Dietrich Stauffer; Ambarish Kunwar
2003-01-01
We develop a unified model that describes both ``micro'' and ``macro'' evolutions within a single theoretical framework. The ecosystem is described as a dynamic network; the population dynamics at each node of this network describes the ``microevolution'' over ecological time scales (i.e., birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms), while the appearance of new nodes, the slow changes of
Dimitrios G. Konstantinides; Thomas Mikosch
2005-01-01
In this paper we consider the stochastic recurrence equation Y_{t<\\/sub>=At<\\/sub>Yt?1<\\/sub>+Bt<\\/sub> for an i.i.d. sequence of pairs (At<\\/sub>,Bt<\\/sub>) of nonnegative random variables, where we assume that Bt<\\/sub> is regularly varying with index ?>0 and EAt<\\/sub>?<\\/sup><1. We show that the stationary solution (Yt<\\/sub>) to this equation has regularly varying finite-dimensional distributions with index ?. This implies that the partial sums Sn<\\/sub>=Y1<\\/sub>+?+Yn<\\/sub> of}
Large deviations for random walk in a space–time product environment
Atilla Yilmaz
2009-01-01
We consider random walk (X_{n<\\/sub>)n?0<\\/sub> on ?d<\\/sup> in a space–time product environment ???. We take the point of view of the particle and focus on the environment Markov chain (Tn,?Xn<\\/sub><\\/sub>?)n?0<\\/sub> where T denotes the shift on ?. Conditioned on the particle having asymptotic mean velocity equal to any given ?, we show that the empirical process of the environment Markov}
Lattice gases, large deviations, and the incompressible NavierStokes equations
; it should itself be derived as a scaling limit of a more basic model. Furthermore, the Boltzmann equation of simplified models are the lattice gases or cellular automata, in which the particles are confined. However, the discrete nature does not really simplify the analysis. The lattice structure tends to impose
Large-deviation analysis and applications Of learning tree-structured graphical models
Tan, Vincent Yan Fu
2011-01-01
The design and analysis of complexity-reduced representations for multivariate data is important in many scientific and engineering domains. This thesis explores such representations from two different perspectives: deriving ...
On Large Deviation Analysis of Sampling from Typical D.Krithivasan and S.S.Pradhan
Pradhan, Sandeep
of Michigan ITA 2007, San Diego D.Krithivasan and S.S.Pradhan (U of M) Sampling from Typical Sets ITA 2007, San Diego 1 / 28 #12;Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank ITA organizing committee.Krithivasan and S.S.Pradhan (U of M) Sampling from Typical Sets ITA 2007, San Diego 2 / 28 #12;Presentation Outline
Deviations from piecewise linearity in the solid-state limit with approximate density functionals.
Vl?ek, Vojt?ch; Eisenberg, Helen R; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Kronik, Leeor; Baer, Roi
2015-01-21
In exact density functional theory, the total ground-state energy is a series of linear segments between integer electron points, a condition known as "piecewise linearity." Deviation from this condition is indicative of poor predictive capabilities for electronic structure, in particular of ionization energies, fundamental gaps, and charge transfer. In this article, we take a new look at the deviation from linearity (i.e., curvature) in the solid-state limit by considering two different ways of approaching it: a large finite system of increasing size and a crystal represented by an increasingly large reference cell with periodic boundary conditions. We show that the curvature approaches vanishing values in both limits, even for functionals which yield poor predictions of electronic structure, and therefore cannot be used as a diagnostic or constructive tool in solids. We find that the approach towards zero curvature is different in each of the two limits, owing to the presence of a compensating background charge in the periodic case. Based on these findings, we present a new criterion for functional construction and evaluation, derived from the size-dependence of the curvature, along with a practical method for evaluating this criterion. For large finite systems, we further show that the curvature is dominated by the self-interaction of the highest occupied eigenstate. These findings are illustrated by computational studies of various solids, semiconductor nanocrystals, and long alkane chains. PMID:25612689
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beim, George
This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…
Barton, Gabor J; Hawken, Malcolm B; Holmes, Gill; Schwartz, Michael H
2015-01-01
The ability of the Movement Deviation Profile (MDP) and Gait Deviation Index (GDI) to detect gait changes was compared in a child with cerebral palsy who underwent game training. Conventional gait analysis showed that sagittal plane angles became mirrored about normality after training. Despite considerable gait changes, the GDI showed minimal change, while the MDP detected a difference equal to a shift between 10-9 on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire scale. Responses of the GDI and MDP were examined during a synthetic transition of the patient's curves from before intervention to a state mirrored about normality. The GDI showed a symmetric response on the two opposite sides of normality but the neural network based MDP gave an asymmetric response reflecting faithfully the unequal biomechanical consequences of joint angle changes. In conclusion, the MDP can detect altered gait even if the changes are missed by the GDI. PMID:23521124
Nonequivalence of equivalence principles
Eolo Di Casola; Stefano Liberati; Sebastiano Sonego
2015-03-18
Equivalence principles played a central role in the development of general relativity. Furthermore, they have provided operative procedures for testing the validity of general relativity, or constraining competing theories of gravitation. This has led to a flourishing of different, and inequivalent, formulations of these principles, with the undesired consequence that often the same name, "equivalence principle", is associated with statements having a quite different physical meaning. In this paper we provide a precise formulation of the several incarnations of the equivalence principle, clarifying their uses and reciprocal relations. We also discuss their possible role as selecting principles in the design and classification of viable theories of gravitation.
Driving Toward Guiding Principles
Buckovich, Suzy A.; Rippen, Helga E.; Rozen, Michael J.
1999-01-01
As health care moves from paper to electronic data collection, providing easier access and dissemination of health information, the development of guiding privacy, confidentiality, and security principles is necessary to help balance the protection of patients' privacy interests against appropriate information access. A comparative review and analysis was done, based on a compilation of privacy, confidentiality, and security principles from many sources. Principles derived from ten identified sources were compared with each of the compiled principles to assess support level, uniformity, and inconsistencies. Of 28 compiled principles, 23 were supported by at least 50 percent of the sources. Technology could address at least 12 of the principles. Notable consistencies among the principles could provide a basis for consensus for further legislative and organizational work. It is imperative that all participants in our health care system work actively toward a viable resolution of this information privacy debate. PMID:10094065
Thermal load deviation model for superheater and reheater of a utility boiler
Lijun Xu; Jamil A. Khan; Zhihang Chen
2000-01-01
The extreme steam temperature deviation experienced in the superheater and reheater of a utility boiler can seriously affect its economic and safe operation. This temperature deviation is one of the root causes of boiler tube failures (BTF), which causes about 40% of the forced power station outages. The steam temperature deviation is mainly due to the thermal load deviation in
Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug
2010-01-01
First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…
Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva Ribeiro, A.; Costa Santos, A.; Alves Sousa, J.; Forbes, A. B.
2015-02-01
Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Weirui; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Cao, Genrui
2014-05-01
The stitching interferometry for the surface profile measurement of a large aperture component is studied. To analyze the overlapping region interferogram of the adjacent subapertures with Scale Invariant Feature Transform(SIFT) algorithm, the stitching parameters of the adjacent subapertures and then overall surface information of the tested component can be obtained. SIFT algorithm of subaperture positioning, interferogram processing, phase unwrapping, Zernike polynomials wavefront fitting and subaperture wavefront stitching programs are written. A principle experiment has been carried out. Compared with the measurement results between the stitching interferometry and full caliber testing, the deviation of RMS is less than 2nm.
Geodesics and geodesic deviation for impulsive gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinbauer, R.
1998-04-01
The geometry of impulsive pp-waves is explored via the analysis of the geodesic and geodesic deviation equation using the distributional form of the metric. The geodesic equation involves formally ill-defined products of distributions due to the nonlinearity of the equations and the presence of the Dirac ?-distribution in the space-time metric. Thus, strictly speaking, it cannot be treated within Schwartz's linear theory of distributions. To cope with this difficulty we proceed by first regularizing the ?-singularity, then solving the regularized equation within classical smooth functions and, finally, obtaining a distributional limit as solution to the original problem. Furthermore, it is shown that this limit is independent of the regularization without requiring any additional condition, thereby confirming earlier results in a mathematically rigorous fashion. We also treat the Jacobi equation which, despite being linear in the deviation vector field, involves even more delicate singular expressions, like the "square" of the Dirac ?-distribution. Again the same regularization procedure provides us with a perfectly well behaved smooth regularization and a regularization-independent distributional limit. Hence it is concluded that the geometry of impulsive pp-waves can be described consistently using distributions as long as careful regularization procedures are used to handle the ill-defined products.
Altitude deviations: Breakdowns of an error-tolerant system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palmer, Everett A.; Hutchins, Edwin L.; Ritter, Richard D.; Vancleemput, Inge
1993-01-01
Pilot reports of aviation incidents to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) provide a window on the problems occurring in today's airline cockpits. The narratives of 10 pilot reports of errors made in the automation-assisted altitude-change task are used to illustrate some of the issues of pilots interacting with automatic systems. These narratives are then used to construct a description of the cockpit as an information processing system. The analysis concentrates on the error-tolerant properties of the system and on how breakdowns can occasionally occur. An error-tolerant system can detect and correct its internal processing errors. The cockpit system consists of two or three pilots supported by autoflight, flight-management, and alerting systems. These humans and machines have distributed access to clearance information and perform redundant processing of information. Errors can be detected as deviations from either expected behavior or as deviations from expected information. Breakdowns in this system can occur when the checking and cross-checking tasks that give the system its error-tolerant properties are not performed because of distractions or other task demands. Recommendations based on the analysis for improving the error tolerance of the cockpit system are given.
The relationship between middle ear pressure and deviated nasal septum.
Low, W K; Willatt, D J
1993-08-01
The deviated nasal septum may be associated with middle ear problems, particularly on the side of nasal obstruction. This study aims to find out whether middle ear pressure (MEP) correlates with the degree of nasal obstruction secondary to a deviated nasal septum, and to examine changes in MEP following septal surgery. Patencies of the nasal passages (measured with a peak nasal inspiratory flowmeter) and MEP (measured with a tympanometer) of 55 patients were obtained prior to surgery and 7.5 (6-10) months post-operatively [median (range)]. Forty patients completed the study. Results were analysed by linear regression. In the ear on the side of nasal blockage, MEP was -25.7 +/- 28.4 mm water pre-operatively, and following surgery increased significantly to -2.9 +/- 30.4 mm water (mean +/- SD) (P < 0.001). Pre-operatively, it was inversely related to the difference in patencies between the two nasal passages (r = -0.32, P < 0.02). Post-operatively, its improvement correlated with the degree of reduction of asymmetry of airway patency (r = 0.56, P < 0.001). PMID:8877192
Deviations from the local field approximation in negative streamer heads
Li Chao; Brok, W. J. M.; Ebert, Ute; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M. [Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI), P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI), P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam. Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven. Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2007-06-15
Negative streamer ionization fronts in nitrogen under normal conditions are investigated both in a particle model and in a fluid model in local field approximation. The parameter functions for the fluid model are derived from swarm experiments in the particle model. The front structure on the inner scale is investigated in a one-dimensional setting, allowing reasonable run time and memory consumption and high numerical accuracy without introducing superparticles. If the reduced electric field immediately before the front is {<=}50 kV/(cm bar), solutions of fluid and particle model agree very well. If the field increases up to 200 kV/(cm bar), the solutions of particle and fluid model deviate, in particular, the ionization level behind the front becomes up to 60% higher in the particle model while the velocity is rather insensitive. Particle and fluid model deviate because electrons with high energies do not yet fully run away from the front, but are somewhat ahead. This leads to increasing ionization rates in the particle model at the very tip of the front. The energy overshoot of electrons in the leading edge of the front actually agrees quantitatively with the energy overshoot in the leading edge of an electron swarm or avalanche in the same electric field.
On the superposition principle in interference experiments
Sinha, Aninda; H. Vijay, Aravind; Sinha, Urbasi
2015-01-01
The superposition principle is usually incorrectly applied in interference experiments. This has recently been investigated through numerics based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods as well as the Feynman path integral formalism. In the current work, we have derived an analytic formula for the Sorkin parameter which can be used to determine the deviation from the application of the principle. We have found excellent agreement between the analytic distribution and those that have been earlier estimated by numerical integration as well as resource intensive FDTD simulations. The analytic handle would be useful for comparing theory with future experiments. It is applicable both to physics based on classical wave equations as well as the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. PMID:25973948
Analysis of the deviations from the "average" curve of sediment transport vs water flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nones, Michael; di Silvio, Giampaolo; Bisiacco, Mauro
2010-05-01
Recent studies about analytical solutions of the 1-D morphodynamic model (Fasolato et al., 2009) have shown that any river reach maintains an equilibrium configuration (namely a stationary morphological situation) under the hypothesis that the boundaries of the river reach are in equilibrium as far as solid and liquid inputs are concerned. This hypothesis means that the bottom profile of the river and the grainsize composition of the bed should, in principle, remain constant in time, provided that sediments and water entering the reach are related by an equilibrium relation (transport formula). Obviously, this condition is not always satisfied, especially in the mountain rivers, as the formation mechanisms of water and sediment inputs are quite different and seasonally delayed. These initial perturbations give place to important deviations from the "average" curve of sediment transport vs water flow, namely from the curve calculated in equilibrium conditions. This study presents a general approach that can be used to explain and possibly predict these deviations. The approach is based on the deterministic analytical solution of the harmonic river (Fasolato et al., 2009), combined with a recursive model of ARMA type, with unknown parameters, which can be estimated by minimizing a suitable mean square error, in order to obtain the best ARMA model from two different points of view: its performances both in fitting the available (measured) data and in providing a prediction algorithm for the future evolutions. The recursive model for a synthetic river reach will provide the instantaneous sediment discharge as a function of the instantaneous water flow (namely equilibrium conditions) and the water flow measured at one or more previous time (non-equilibrium conditions). This model is calibrated against a relatively small dataset of measurements about an important Italian water course: the Adige River, which flows from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea south of Venice. The analysis is limited to two gauge stations: Trento (typical mountain river reach) and Boara Pisani (typical lowland river reach).
Instructional Software Design Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hazen, Margret
1985-01-01
Discusses learner/computer interaction, learner control, sequencing of instructional events, and graphic screen design as effective principles for the design of instructional software, including tutorials. (MBR)
Principles and Methods Chromatography
Lebendiker, Mario
-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Ion Exchange Chromatography Principles and Methods 18 ................................................................. 12 Custom Designed Media and Columns
Physical principles of hearing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Pascal
2015-10-01
The following sections are included: * Psychophysical properties of hearing * The cochlear amplifier * Mechanosensory hair cells * The "critical" oscillator as a general principle of auditory detection * Bibliography
A Principled Approach to the Origin Problem.
Aono, Masashi; Kitadai, Norio; Oono, Yoshi
2015-09-01
The key issue of the origin of life is the origin of a complex system rather than the abiotic formation of various organic substances, small and large. To consider this "origin problem" it is advantageous to abstract some principles from biology and statistical physics to guide our approach. Referring to these principles, we aim to construct a chemical system called "protometabolism," which would be a precursor of metabolism. PMID:26177711
A Principled Approach to the Origin Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aono, Masashi; Kitadai, Norio; Oono, Yoshi
2015-09-01
The key issue of the origin of life is the origin of a complex system rather than the abiotic formation of various organic substances, small and large. To consider this "origin problem" it is advantageous to abstract some principles from biology and statistical physics to guide our approach. Referring to these principles, we aim to construct a chemical system called "protometabolism," which would be a precursor of metabolism.
The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene
2014-01-01
An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310?/? and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately. PMID:25364316
Electrocardiographic axis deviation in Navajo and Apache indians.
Ewy, G A; Okada, R D; Marcus, F I; Goldberg, S J; Phibbs, B P
1979-01-01
It has been our clinical impression that the range of the mean frontal-plane electrocardiographic QRS axis was greater than might have been anticipated in healthy Navajo and Apache Indians. To determine whether this clinical impression was correct, electrocardiograms were obtained from 146 Navajo, 144 Apache, and 159 non-Navajo non-Apache schoolchildren with normal findings on cardiovascular examinations. A mean frontal-plane QRS axis between -1 degrees and -90 degrees was present in 19 percent of the Navajo, 12 percent of the Apache, and 2 percent of the control schoolchildren. A mean frontal-plane QRS axis between +91 degrees and +180 degrees was present in 18 percent of the Navajo, 19 percent of the Apache, and 5 percent of the control schoolchildren. There is a high incidence of electrocardiographic mean frontal-plane QRS axis deviation in healthy Navajo and Apache schoolchildren. PMID:421525
Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model
Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong [National Chiao Tung Univ., Taiwan (China)
1996-12-31
The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt`s Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Low-energy magnetic radiation: Deviations from GOE
Frauendorf, S. [University Notre Dame, IN 46557 (United States); Schwengner, R. [IRP, HZDR, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Wimmer, K. [Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)
2014-10-15
A pronounced spike at low energy in the strength function for magnetic radiation (LEMAR) is found by means of Shell Model calculations, which explains the experimentally observed enhancement of the dipole strength. LEMAR originates from statistical low-energy M1-transitions between many excited complex states. Re-coupling of the proton and neutron high-j orbitals generates the strong magnetic radiation. LEMAR is closely related to Magnetic Rotation. LEMAR is predicted for nuclides participating in the r-process of element synthesis and is expected to change the reaction rates. An exponential decrease of the strength function and a power law for the size distribution of the B(M1) values are found, which strongly deviate from the ones of the GOE of random matrices, which is commonly used to represent complex compound states.
Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.
The Principle of Energetic Consistency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohn, Stephen E.
2009-01-01
A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of energetic consistency implies that, to precisely the extent that growing modes are important in data assimilation, this term is also important.
Principles for system level electrochemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thaller, L. H.
1986-01-01
The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.
Regulation on radial position deviation for vertical AMB systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Kuo, Chien-Hsien; Lee, Rong-Mao
2007-10-01
As a source of model uncertainty, gyroscopic effect, depending on rotor speed, is studied for the vertical active magnetic bearing (VAMB) systems which are increasingly used in various industries such as clean rooms, compressors and satellites. This research applies H? controller to regulate the rotor position deviations of the VAMB systems in four degrees of freedom. The performance of H? controller is examined by experimental simulations to inspect its closed-loop stiffness, rise time and capability to suppress the high frequency disturbances. Although the H? is inferior to the LQR in position deviation regulation, the required control current in the electromagnetic bearings is much less than that for LQR or PID and the performance robustness is well retained. In order to ensure the stability robustness of H? controller, two approaches, by Kharitonov polynomials and TITO (two inputs & two outputs) Nyquist Stability Criterion, are employed to synthesize the control feedback loop. A test rig is built to further verify the efficacy of the proposed H? controller experimentally. Two Eddy-current types of gap sensors, perpendicular to each other, are included to the realistic rotor-bearing system. A four-pole magnetic bearing is used as the actuator for generation of control force. The commercial I/O module unit with A/D and D/A converters, dSPACE DS1104, is integrated to the VAMB, gap sensors, power amplifiers and signal processing circuits. The H? is designed on the basis of rotor speed 10 K rpm but in fact it is significantly robust with respect to the rotor speed, varying from 6.5 to 13.5 K rpm.
[Main principles of radiobiology].
Kudriashov, Iu B
2001-01-01
During all the history of the development of radiation biology a problem of "energy paradox"--low consumption of energy of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in realization of irradiation effect--has been in the focus. The first principle, which contributed much to quantitative concepts of radiation biology, is a hit principle. The hit principle, as is well known, is based on physical properties of ionizing radiations: their discontinuity, quantization and probabilistic distribution in space. Hits, i.e. acts of energy interaction with substance elements, do not depend on each other and are obeyed to Poisson distribution. The other well-known principle--a target principle--is based on the understanding that a living system has some peculiarities: a structure of elements as well as their functions are heterogeneous, unequal and differ in response to the same hits. Along with a unique DNA macromolecule, a critical target structure, biological membranes (BM) with their barrier-matrix, energy and regulatory functions, which make a basis of living processes, are also can be considered as a sensitive target structure. One more principle--a principle of amplification of primary radiation lesions in critical target structures is based on the radiation post-effect, a well-known phenomenon in radiation biology. The fourth principle is a principle of target damage recovery (regulations of cell homeostasis) that means a system response to irradiation involving mechanisms of protection and reparation of lesions in DNA and BM. The progress in molecular biology and radiation biophysics achieved for the last two decades provided an especially powerful impetus to the development of those principles, which are based on the analysis of the radio-biological effects developing in time. The main principles of radiation biology consider peculiarities of physical and biological action of ionizing radiation. PMID:11721348
Fundamental Principles FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES INFORMING SPONSORED PROGRAMS
McConnell, Terry
inconsistent with these fundamental principles, require the approval of the Vice President for Research. Normally, a "reasonable delay" is defined as 60 days. Student Participation An important part. See Faculty Manual Section 3.23. Data and Property Rights The ownership of these items may be retained
Quantum Properties of a General Path Deviation Equation in the Pap-Geometry
M. I. Wanas
2004-12-04
A path deviation equation in the Parameterized Absolute Parallelism (PAP) geometry is derived. This equation includes curvature and torsion terms. These terms are found to be naturally quantized. The equation represents the deviation from a general path equation, in the PAP-geometry, derived by the author in a previous work. It is shown that, as the effect of the torsion, on the deviation, increases, the effect of the curvature decreases. It is also shown that the general path deviation equation can be reduced to the geodesic deviation equation if PAP-geometry becomes Riemannian. The equation can be used to study the deviation from the trajectories of spinning elementary particles.
Hamilton's Principle for Beginners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brun, J. L.
2007-01-01
I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…
Principles of Software Testing
Meyer, Bertrand
Seven Principles of Software Testing Bertrand Meyer, ETH Zürich and Eiffel Software W hile everyone knows the theoret- ical limitations of software testing, in practice we devote considerable effort of testing and per- form it right. The principles that follow emerged from experience studying software
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Dr. Rod Nave
This tutorial provides instruction on Pauli's exclusion principle, formulated by physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, which states that no two electrons in an atom can have identical quantum numbers. Topics include a mathematical statement of the principle, descriptions of some of its applications, and its role in ionic and covalent bonding, nuclear shell structure, and nuclear binding energy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Batstone, Rob; Ellis, Rod
2009-01-01
A key aspect of the acquisition of grammar for second language learners involves learning how to make appropriate connections between grammatical forms and the meanings which they typically signal. We argue that learning form/function mappings involves three interrelated principles. The first is the Given-to-New Principle, where existing world…
Principles of engineering geology
P. B. Attewell; I. W. Farmer
1976-01-01
This book discusses basic principles as well as the practical applications of geological survey and analysis. Topics covered include the mechanical and physical response of rocks, rock masses and soils to changes in environmental conditions, and the principles of groundwater flow. The core of the book deals with the collection of geological and technical data, its subsequent analysis, and application
Khoury, Justin [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Center for Particle Cosmology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Parikh, Maulik [Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Pune 411007 (India)
2009-10-15
Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Tao; Mao, Tian; Wang, Yungang; Zeng, Zhongcao; Xia, Chunliang; Wu, Fenglei; Wang, Le
2014-08-01
With the rapid increase of GPS/GNSS receivers being deployed and operated in China, real-time GPS data from nearly a thousand sites are available at the National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorology Administration. However, it is challenging to generate a high-quality regional total electron content (TEC) map with the traditional two-dimensional (2-D) retrieval scheme because a large horizontal gradient has been reported over east-south Asia due to the northern equatorial ionization anomaly. We developed an Ionosphere Data Assimilation Analysis System (IDAAS), which is described in this study, using an International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model as the background and applying a Kalman filter for updated observations. The IDAAS can reconstruct a three-dimensional ionosphere with the GPS slant TEC. The inverse slant TEC correlates well with observations both for GPS sites involved in the reconstruction and sites that are not involved. Based on the IDAAS, simulations were performed to investigate the deviation relative to the slant-to-vertical conversion (STV). The results indicate that the relative deviation induced by slant-to-vertical conversion may be significant in certain instances, and the deviation varies from 0% to 40% when the elevation decreases from 90° to 15°, while the relative IDAAS deviation is much smaller and varies from -5% to 15% without an elevation dependence. Compared with ‘true TEC’ map derived from the model, there is large difference in STV TEC map but no obvious discrepancy in IDAAS map. Generally, the IDAAS TEC map is much closer to the “true TEC” than is STV TEC map is. It is suggested that three-dimensional inversion technique is necessary for GPS observations of low elevation at an equatorial anomaly region, wherein the high horizontal electron density gradient may produce significant slant-to-vertical deviations using the two-dimensional STV inversion method.
GOCE: Its principles and science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rummel, R.; Gruber, T.; Albertella, W.; Yi, A.
2012-12-01
GOCE is the first satellite mission with a gravity gradiometer. It is very successful in delivering the global geoid and gravity anomaly field with rather high spatial resolution. The gradiometer measurements are based on the principle of differential accelerometry. It is the centre piece of a sensor system comprising in addition GPS, star tracking, angular control by magnetic torquing, drag free control in flight direction by ion thrusting and calibration via shaking with cold gas thrusters. Gravity field sensitivity is enhanced by the satellite's extremely low orbit altitude of only 265 km. GOCE science and application is primarily about "dynamic topography". In geophysics dynamic topography is referred to as that part of surface deformation which is not in isostatic balance but supported by vertical stresses at the base of the lithosphere. Gravity and geoid anomalies reflect the gravitational effect of dynamic topography. In oceanography dynamic topography is the deviation of the actual mean ocean surface, as measured by satellite altimetry, from the geoid which is the hypothetical ocean surface at rest. The uses of mean dynamic ocean topography range from ocean circulation studies via mass and heat transport in the oceans to the unification of height systems and levelling by GPS. Full exploitation of GOCE requires its combination with GRACE and with satellite laser ranging and GPS. The considered measurements and techniques must all refer consistently to the same set of geodetic standards such as those defined by the IERS.
Outline Overview Design Principles Key Points Design Principles
Almulhem, Ahmad
;Outline Overview Design Principles Key Points Outline 1 Overview 2 Design Principles Least Privilege Fail Principles Key Points Least Privilege Fail-Safe Defaults Economy of Mechanism Com Least Privilege Principle#1 Design Principles Key Points Least Privilege Fail-Safe Defaults Economy of Mechanism Com Fail
Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity
Sun, Qingqing; Shahriar, M. Selim; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2010-01-01
We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can...
COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS FOR CALCULATING THE STANDARD DEVIATION OF THE WIND DIRECTION
Three methods to calculate wind direction standard deviation are evaluated. Although eight hours of wind data show no significant differences between the methods, synthetically generated data having standard deviations near the maximum possible, show the Yamartino method to perfo...
78 FR 2273 - Canned Tuna Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-01-10
...permitted under the current standard; and (3) deviating from the fill requirements of the standard without including on the product...all the requirements of the standard with the exception of these three deviations. The purpose of this...
40 CFR 60.2220 - What must I include in the deviation report?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...false What must I include in the deviation report? 60.2220 Section 60... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...2220 What must I include in the deviation report? In each report...
Automatic setup deviation measurements with electronic portal images for pelvic fields
Pouliot, Jean
Automatic setup deviation measurements with electronic portal images for pelvic fields L. M contours were delineated manually. For the phantom images, the setup deviations were measured imaging device EPID . The algorithm processes electronic portal images of prostate cancer patients
Deviation from Power Law Behavior in Landslide Phenomenon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L.; Lan, H.; Wu, Y.
2013-12-01
Power law distribution of magnitude is widely observed in many natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, floods, tornadoes, and forest fires). Landslide is unique as the size distribution of landslide is characterized by a power law decrease with a rollover in the small size end. Yet, the emergence of the rollover, i.e., the deviation from power law behavior for small size landslides, remains a mystery. In this contribution, we grouped the forces applied on landslide bodies into two categories: 1) the forces proportional to the volume of failure mass (gravity and friction), and 2) the forces proportional to the area of failure surface (cohesion). Failure occurs when the forces proportional to volume exceed the forces proportional to surface area. As such, given a certain mechanical configuration, the failure volume to failure surface area ratio must exceed a corresponding threshold to guarantee a failure. Assuming all landslides share a uniform shape, which means the volume to surface area ratio of landslide regularly increase with the landslide volume, a cutoff of landslide volume distribution in the small size end can be defined. However, in realistic landslide phenomena, where heterogeneities of landslide shape and mechanical configuration are existent, a simple cutoff of landslide volume distribution does not exist. The stochasticity of landslide shape introduce a probability distribution of the volume to surface area ratio with regard to landslide volume, with which the probability that the volume to surface ratio exceed the threshold can be estimated regarding values of landslide volume. An experiment based on empirical data showed that this probability can induce the power law distribution of landslide volume roll down in the small size end. We therefore proposed that the constraints on the failure volume to failure surface area ratio together with the heterogeneity of landslide geometry and mechanical configuration attribute for the deviation from power law behavior in landslide phenomenon. Figure shows that a rollover of landslide size distribution in the small size end is produced as the probability for V/S (the failure volume to failure surface ratio of landslide) exceeding the mechanical threshold applied to the power law distribution of landslide volume.
Visch, Valentijn T; Tan, Ed S
2009-02-01
The reported study follows the footsteps of Heider, and Simmel (1944) [Heider, F., & Simmel, M. (1944). An experimental study of apparent behavior. American Journal of Psychology, 57, 243-249] and Michotte (1946/1963) [Michotte, A. (1963). The perception of causality (T.R. Miles & E. Miles, Trans.). London: Methuen (Original work published 1946)] who demonstrated the role of object movement in attributions of life-likeness to figures. It goes one step further in studying the categorization of film scenes as to genre as a function of object movements. In an animated film scene portraying a chase, movements of the chasing object were systematically varied as to parameters: velocity, efficiency, fluency, detail, and deformation. The object movements were categorized by viewers into genres: non-fiction, comedy, drama, and action. Besides this categorization, viewers rated their animacy attribution and emotional response. Results showed that non-expert viewers were consistent in categorizing the genres according to object movement parameters. The size of its deviation from the unmanipulated movement scene determined the assignment of any target scene to one of the fiction genres: small and moderate deviations resulted in categorization as drama and action, and large deviations as comedy. The results suggest that genre classification is achieved by, at least, three distinct cognitive processes: (a) animacy attribution, which influences the fiction versus non-fiction classification; (b) emotional responses, which influences the classification of a specific fiction genre; and (c) the amount of deviation from reality, at least with regard to movements. PMID:19118823
Principles of animal extrapolation
Calabrese, E.J.
1991-01-01
Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.
40 CFR 60.2958 - What must I include in the deviation report?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...What must I include in the deviation report? 60.2958 Section...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...What must I include in the deviation report? In each report...Durations and causes of each deviation from the emission...
40 CFR 60.2780 - What must I include in the deviation report?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...What must I include in the deviation report? 60.2780 Section...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...What must I include in the deviation report? In each report...Duration and causes of each deviation from the emission...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-06-23
...6(d) to approve class deviations from EPA program specific...has therefore issued a Class Deviation under 40 CFR 31.6(d...70 procedures. The Class Deviation will allow the Agency to comply...does not involve technical standards; thus, the...
14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...warning-glide slope deviation alerting system. ...performance and environmental standards of TSO-C92 (available...warning/glide slope deviation alerting system that...performance and environmental standards contained in TSO-C92a...warning-glide slope deviation alerting...
40 CFR 60.3053 - What must I include in the deviation report?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...What must I include in the deviation report? 60.3053 Section...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...What must I include in the deviation report? In each report...Durations and causes of each deviation from the emission...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 false Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions...General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions...may deviate from the filed IFR flight plan when operating an aircraft...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 false Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions...General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions...may deviate from the filed IFR flight plan when operating an aircraft...
Maintaining Standards: Differences between the Standard Deviation and Standard Error, and
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Maintaining Standards: Differences between the Standard Deviation and Standard Error, and When to Use Each David L Streiner, PhD1 Many people confuse the standard deviation (SD) and the standard error of the findings. (Can J Psychiatry 1996;41:498502) Key Words: statistics, standard deviation, standard error
Revisiting a 90-Year-Old Debate: The Advantages of the Mean Deviation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gorard, Stephen
2005-01-01
This paper discusses the reliance of numerical analysis on the concept of the standard deviation, and its close relative the variance. It suggests that the original reasons why the standard deviation concept has permeated traditional statistics are no longer clearly valid, if they ever were. The absolute mean deviation, it is argued here, has many…
Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José
2008-01-01
Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences. PMID:18402229
Standard deviation and standard error of the mean.
Lee, Dong Kyu; In, Junyong; Lee, Sangseok
2015-06-01
In most clinical and experimental studies, the standard deviation (SD) and the estimated standard error of the mean (SEM) are used to present the characteristics of sample data and to explain statistical analysis results. However, some authors occasionally muddle the distinctive usage between the SD and SEM in medical literature. Because the process of calculating the SD and SEM includes different statistical inferences, each of them has its own meaning. SD is the dispersion of data in a normal distribution. In other words, SD indicates how accurately the mean represents sample data. However the meaning of SEM includes statistical inference based on the sampling distribution. SEM is the SD of the theoretical distribution of the sample means (the sampling distribution). While either SD or SEM can be applied to describe data and statistical results, one should be aware of reasonable methods with which to use SD and SEM. We aim to elucidate the distinctions between SD and SEM and to provide proper usage guidelines for both, which summarize data and describe statistical results. PMID:26045923
The Stanford equivalence principle program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Worden, Paul W., Jr.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Bye, M.
1989-01-01
The Stanford Equivalence Principle Program (Worden, Jr. 1983) is intended to test the uniqueness of free fall to the ultimate possible accuracy. The program is being conducted in two phases: first, a ground-based version of the experiment, which should have a sensitivity to differences in rate of fall of one part in 10(exp 12); followed by an orbital experiment with a sensitivity of one part in 10(exp 17) or better. The ground-based experiment, although a sensitive equivalence principle test in its own right, is being used for technology development for the orbital experiment. A secondary goal of the experiment is a search for exotic forces. The instrument is very well suited for this search, which would be conducted mostly with the ground-based apparatus. The short range predicted for these forces means that forces originating in the Earth would not be detectable in orbit. But detection of Yukawa-type exotic forces from a nearby large satellite (such as Space Station) is feasible, and gives a very sensitive and controllable test for little more effort than the orbiting equivalence principle test itself.
Geodesic deviations: modeling extreme mass-ratio systems and their gravitational waves
Koekoek, G
2011-01-01
The method of geodesic deviations has been applied to derive accurate analytic approximations to geodesics in Schwarzschild space-time. The results are used to construct analytic expressions for the source terms in the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli-Moncrief equations, which describe the propagation of gravitational waves emitted by a compact massive object moving in the Schwarzschild background space-time. The wave equations are solved numerically to provide the asymptotic form of the wave at large distances for a series of non-circular bound orbits with periastron distances up to the ISCO radius, and the power emitted in gravitational waves by the extreme-mass ratio binary system is computed. The results compare well with those of purely numerical approaches.
Geodesic deviations: modeling extreme mass-ratio systems and their gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koekoek, G.; van Holten, J. W.
2011-11-01
The method of geodesic deviations has been applied to derive accurate analytic approximations to geodesics in Schwarzschild spacetime. The results are used to construct analytic expressions for the source terms in the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli-Moncrief equations, which describe the propagation of gravitational waves emitted by a compact massive object moving in the Schwarzschild background spacetime. The wave equations are solved numerically to provide the asymptotic form of the wave at large distances for a series of non-circular bound orbits with periastron distances up to the ISCO radius, and the power emitted in gravitational waves by the extreme mass-ratio binary system is computed. The results compare well with those of purely numerical approaches.
Geodesic deviations: modeling extreme mass-ratio systems and their gravitational waves
G. Koekoek; J. W. van Holten
2011-03-29
The method of geodesic deviations has been applied to derive accurate analytic approximations to geodesics in Schwarzschild space-time. The results are used to construct analytic expressions for the source terms in the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli-Moncrief equations, which describe the propagation of gravitational waves emitted by a compact massive object moving in the Schwarzschild background space-time. The wave equations are solved numerically to provide the asymptotic form of the wave at large distances for a series of non-circular bound orbits with periastron distances up to the ISCO radius, and the power emitted in gravitational waves by the extreme-mass ratio binary system is computed. The results compare well with those of purely numerical approaches.
Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug
2010-11-01
First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed "cookbook" instructions are given. Recent studies indicate that this approach leaves students with a poor conceptual understanding of one of the most important features of laboratory physics and of the real world of science, in general: the development of an understanding of the nature of measurement and its attendant uncertainty . While students might be able to reproduce certain technical manipulations of data, as novice thinkers they lack the mental scaffolding that allows an expert to organize and apply this knowledge.2,3 Our goal is to put novices on the path to expertise, so that they will be able to transfer their knowledge to novel situations.
Spectral Relative Standard Deviation: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics
Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Porter, J. D.
This paper provides a brief history of computers. It explains basic computer principles and compares computer capabilities. Subjects such as input/output, binary logic, storage, and cost are also discussed. (Author)
Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Summary Buoyancy is based on Archimedes' Principle which states that the buoyant force acting upward on an object completely or partially immersed in a fluid equals the weight of the fluid displaced by the ...
Global ethics and principlism.
Gordon, John-Stewart
2011-09-01
This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together. PMID:22073817
Chemical Principles Exemplified
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Plumb, Robert C.
1972-01-01
Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)
Archimedes' Principle in Action
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kires, Marian
2007-01-01
The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)
Two universal physical principles shape the power-law statistics of real-world networks
Lorimer, Tom; Stoop, Ruedi
2015-01-01
The study of complex networks has pursued an understanding of macroscopic behavior by focusing on power-laws in microscopic observables. Here, we uncover two universal fundamental physical principles that are at the basis of complex networks generation. These principles together predict the generic emergence of deviations from ideal power laws, which were previously discussed away by reference to the thermodynamic limit. Our approach proposes a paradigm shift in the physics of complex networks, toward the use of power-law deviations to infer meso-scale structure from macroscopic observations.
Two universal physical principles shape the power-law statistics of real-world networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorimer, Tom; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi
2015-07-01
The study of complex networks has pursued an understanding of macroscopic behaviour by focusing on power-laws in microscopic observables. Here, we uncover two universal fundamental physical principles that are at the basis of complex network generation. These principles together predict the generic emergence of deviations from ideal power laws, which were previously discussed away by reference to the thermodynamic limit. Our approach proposes a paradigm shift in the physics of complex networks, toward the use of power-law deviations to infer meso-scale structure from macroscopic observations.
Two universal physical principles shape the power-law statistics of real-world networks
Lorimer, Tom; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi
2015-01-01
The study of complex networks has pursued an understanding of macroscopic behaviour by focusing on power-laws in microscopic observables. Here, we uncover two universal fundamental physical principles that are at the basis of complex network generation. These principles together predict the generic emergence of deviations from ideal power laws, which were previously discussed away by reference to the thermodynamic limit. Our approach proposes a paradigm shift in the physics of complex networks, toward the use of power-law deviations to infer meso-scale structure from macroscopic observations. PMID:26202858
The August Krogh principle applies to plants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.
1996-01-01
The Krogh principle refers to the use of a large number of animals to study the large number of physiological problems, rather than limiting study to a particular organism for all problems. There may be organisms that are more suited to study of a particular problem than others. This same principle applies to plants. The authors are concerned with the recent trend in plant biology of using Arabidopsis thaliana as the "organism of choice." Arabidopsis is an excellent organism for molecular genetic research, but other plants are superior models for other research areas of plant biology. The authors present examples of the successful use of the Krogh principle in plant cell biology research, emphasizing the particular characteristics of the selected research organisms that make them the appropriate choice.
Observables for Characterizing Deviations from the Kerr Metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brink, Jeandrew
In the next 10 years, ground and space based gravitational wave experiments in addition to sensitive radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array and high energy flare measurements will permit us to probe the strong field region around black holes and experimentally determine the extent to which the spacetime is Kerr-like. To date a number authors have explored possible phenomenon that could be observed if the Kerr hypothesis is not valid and have provided proofs of principle that such a measurement can be made. As the experimental realization of tests of the No-Hair theorems draws closer, it is becoming increasingly important to approach the problem from the observer's perspective and to clarify a strategy for concretely and unambiguously categorizing the nature of a particular black hole given a particular measurement tool. Several formalisms have been suggested. I give a brief overview and in each case I note their region of validity and other assumptions made. Detecting electromagnetic and possibly gravitational waves of a pulsar around Sgr A* would allow us to characterize the spacetime of the closest supermassive ''black hole'' with exquisite accuracy. Using this Sgr A* as an example I explore what measurements can be made, how they than be translated into the multipole moments that characterize the spacetime and interpreted within the context of various competing alternative theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alarco, J. A.; Talbot, P. C.
2012-06-01
A simple phenomenological model for the relationship between structure and composition of the high Tc cuprates is presented. The model is based on two simple crystal chemistry principles: unit cell doping and charge balance within unit cells. These principles are inspired by key experimental observations of how the materials accommodate large deviations from stoichiometry. Consistent explanations for significant HTSC properties can be explained without any additional assumptions while retaining valuable insight for geometric interpretation. Combining these two chemical principles with a review of Crystal Field Theory (CFT) or Ligand Field Theory (LFT), it becomes clear that the two oxidation states in the conduction planes (typically d8 and d9) belong to the most strongly divergent d-levels as a function of deformation from regular octahedral coordination. This observation offers a link to a range of coupling effects relating vibrations and spin waves through application of Hund’s rules. An indication of this model’s capacity to predict physical properties for HTSC is provided and will be elaborated in subsequent publications. Simple criteria for the relationship between structure and composition in HTSC systems may guide chemical syntheses within new material systems.
Principles of multisensory behavior.
Otto, Thomas U; Dassy, Brice; Mamassian, Pascal
2013-04-24
The combined use of multisensory signals is often beneficial. Based on neuronal recordings in the superior colliculus of cats, three basic rules were formulated to describe the effectiveness of multisensory signals: the enhancement of neuronal responses to multisensory compared with unisensory signals is largest when signals occur at the same location ("spatial rule"), when signals are presented at the same time ("temporal rule"), and when signals are rather weak ("principle of inverse effectiveness"). These rules are also considered with respect to multisensory benefits as observed with behavioral measures, but do they capture these benefits best? To uncover the principles that rule benefits in multisensory behavior, we here investigated the classical redundant signal effect (RSE; i.e., the speedup of response times in multisensory compared with unisensory conditions) in humans. Based on theoretical considerations using probability summation, we derived two alternative principles to explain the effect. First, the "principle of congruent effectiveness" states that the benefit in multisensory behavior (here the speedup of response times) is largest when behavioral performance in corresponding unisensory conditions is similar. Second, the "variability rule" states that the benefit is largest when performance in corresponding unisensory conditions is unreliable. We then tested these predictions in two experiments, in which we manipulated the relative onset and the physical strength of distinct audiovisual signals. Our results, which are based on a systematic analysis of response time distributions, show that the RSE follows these principles very well, thereby providing compelling evidence in favor of probability summation as the underlying combination rule. PMID:23616552
The traveltime holographic principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.
2015-01-01
Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes ?pq from exterior transmission traveltimes ?sp and ?sq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times ?pq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes ?pq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes ?pq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.
Wang, Jian; Shete, Sanjay
2008-01-01
For assessment of genetic association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease status, the logistic-regression model or generalized linear model is typically employed. However, testing for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportion in a patient group could be another approach for genetic-association studies. The Hardy-Weinberg proportion is one of the most important principles in population genetics. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportion among cases (patients) could provide additional evidence for the association between SNPs and diseases. To develop a more powerful statistical test for genetic-association studies, we combined evidence about deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportion in case subjects and standard regression approaches that use case and control subjects. In this paper, we propose two approaches for combining such information: the mean-based tail-strength measure and the median-based tail-strength measure. These measures integrate logistic regression and Hardy-Weinberg-proportion tests for the study of the association between a binary disease outcome and an SNP on the basis of case- and control-subject data. For both mean-based and median-based tail-strength measures, we derived exact formulas to compute p values. We also developed an approach for obtaining empirical p values with the use of a resampling procedure. Results from simulation studies and real-disease studies demonstrate that the proposed approach is more powerful than the traditional logistic-regression model. The type I error probabilities of our approach were also well controlled. PMID:18589394
Deviations from Hubble Flow in the Local Universe
Riccardo Giovanelli
1996-10-16
Reviews observational situation in the measurement of peculiar velocities in the local universe. Emphasis is placed on such topics as: Do spirals and ellipticals yield the same peculiar velocity field? What is the cluster velocity distribution function? What is the convergence depth of the local universe, as seen by inspection of motions of clusters and of field galaxies? Are there large-scale bulk flows? A reconstruction of the density field and an estimate of the Hubble constant are also given.
Dimensions of the Precautionary Principle
Per Sandin
1999-01-01
This essay attempts to provide an analytical apparatus which may be used for finding an authoritative formulation of the Precautionary Principle. Several formulations of the Precautionary Principle are examined. Four dimensions of the principle are identified: (1) the threat dimension, (2) the uncertainty dimension, (3) the action dimension, and (4) the command dimension. It is argued that the Precautionary Principle
Challenging Proteins Principles and Methods
Jacobsen, Steve
Purifying Challenging Proteins Principles and Methods GE Healthcare #12;2 Handbook 28-9095-31 AA & Chromatofocusing Principles and Methods 11-0004-21 Purifying Challenging Proteins Principles and Methods 28-9095-31 Handbooks from GE Healthcare #12;Purifying Challenging Proteins Principles and Methods #12;2 Handbook 28
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...an executive agency request a deviation from the provisions of this part...information on how to obtain a deviation from this part. However, waivers which are distinct from the standard deviation process and specific to...
Differential Landauer's principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granger, Léo; Kantz, Holger
2013-03-01
Landauer's principle states that the erasure of information must be a dissipative process. In this paper, we carefully analyze the recording and erasure of information on a physical memory. On the one hand, we show that, in order to record some information, the memory has to be driven out of equilibrium. On the other hand, we derive a differential version of Landauer's principle: We link the rate at which entropy is produced at every time of the erasure process to the rate at which information is erased.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.
1981-01-01
The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Born, Max; Wolf, Emil
1999-10-01
Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.
Design Principles in the Open Compute Project Eitan Frachtenberg
Frachtenberg, Eitan
. This paper summarizes them in the areas of electrical, thermal, building, and server design. © 2011 Optical. The computation and storage burdens of these applications have largely shifted from personal computers down to 208Vac. 3. Thermal Design Principles The guiding principle in designing the thermal management
Sassen, D. S.; Peterson, J. E.
2010-03-15
Significant errors related to poor time zero estimation, well deviation or mislocation of the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) stations can render even the most sophisticated modeling and inversion routine useless. Previous examples of methods for the analysis and correction of data errors in geophysical tomography include the works of Maurer and Green (1997), Squires et al. (1992) and Peterson (2001). Here we follow the analysis and techniques of Peterson (2001) for data quality control and error correction. Through our data acquisition and quality control procedures we have very accurate control on the surface locations of wells, the travel distance of both the transmitter and receiver within the boreholes, and the change in apparent zero time. However, we often have poor control on well deviations, either because of economic constraints or the nature of the borehole itself prevented the acquisition of well deviation logs. Also, well deviation logs can sometimes have significant errors. Problems with borehole deviations can be diagnosed prior to inversion of travel-time tomography data sets by plotting the apparent velocity of a straight ray connecting a transmitter (TX) to a receiver (RX) against the take-off angle of the ray. Issues with the time-zero pick or distances between wells appear as symmetric smiles or frown in these QC plots. Well deviation or dipping-strong anisotropy will result in an asymmetric correlation between apparent velocity and take-off angle (Figure 1-B). In addition, when a network of interconnected GPR tomography data is available, one has the additional quality constraint of insuring that there is continuity in velocity between immediately adjacent tomograms. A sudden shift in the mean velocity indicates that either position deviations are present or there is a shift in the pick times. Small errors in well geometry may be effectively treated during inversion by including weighting, or relaxation, parameters into the inversion (e.g. Bautu et al., 2006). In the technique of algebraic reconstruction tomography (ART), which is used herein for the travel time inversion (Peterson et al., 1985), a small relaxation parameter will smooth imaging artifacts caused by data errors at the expense of resolution and contrast (Figure 2). However, large data errors such as unaccounted well deviations cannot be adequately suppressed through inversion weighting schemes. Previously, problems with tomograms were treated manually. However, in large data sets and/or networks of data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Mislocation of the transmitter and receiver stations of GPR cross-well tomography data sets can lead to serious imaging artifacts if not accounted for prior to inversion. Previously, problems with tomograms have been treated manually prior to inversion. In large data sets and/or networks of tomographic data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Our approach is to use cross-well data quality checks and a simplified model of borehole deviation with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to automatically correct for source and receiver locations prior to tomographic inversion. We present a simple model of well deviation, which is designed to minimize potential corruption of actual data trends. We also provide quantitative quality control measures based on minimizing correlations between take-off angle and apparent velocity, and a quality check on the continuity of velocity between adjacent wells. This methodology is shown to be accurate and robust for simple 2-D synthetic test cases. Plus, we demonstrate the method on actual field data where it is compared to deviation logs. This study shows the promise for automatic correction of well deviations in GPR tomographic data. Analysis of synthetic data shows that very precise estimates of well deviation can be made for small deviations, even in the presence of static data errors. However, the analysis of the synthetic data and the application of
Periodic deviations about the Schottky line for polyethylene
Davis, Michael Kent
1967-01-01
region. -'. ' i'igure ' 6 a ccmpsrison is made betweer. tne tneoretica nos'tion of tie maxima and minima of the pcr"odic dev'"tions as taken fror. . Figure 5 and the experi ental positions as taken from 1"igures 1$-15. From this chart we cari see... sian the position of the maxima, and minima. agree very well with tne theoretical curve with a 9O' phase snift, . Xs mientioned before, it only takes a sm''1 charige in sne potential barrier to make a large ch' ngc ini the phiasc of the waves, so...
Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Dark Matter
Pisin Chen
2003-05-01
There have been proposals that primordial black hole remnants (BHRs) are the dark matter, but the idea is somewhat vague. Recently we argued that the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) may prevent black holes from evaporating completely, in a similar way that the standard uncertainty principle prevents the hydrogen atom from collapsing. We further noted that the hybrid inflation model provides a plausible mechanism for production of large numbers of small black holes. Combining these we suggested that the dark matter might be composed of Planck-size BHRs. In this paper we briefly review these arguments, and discuss the reheating temperature as a result of black hole evaporation.
The scope of modelling the behavior of pollutants in the aquatic environment is now immense. n many practical applications, there are effectively no computational constraints on what is possible. here is accordingly an increasing need for a set of principles of modelling that in ...
Pattern recognition principles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.
1974-01-01
The present work gives an account of basic principles and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.
Principles of Cancer Screening.
Pinsky, Paul F
2015-10-01
Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. PMID:26315516
PRINCIPLES OF WATER FILTRATION
This paper reviews principles involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...
Functional Principles of Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Humphreys, Lloyd G.
In order of importance, curriculum, motivation, academic ability, and teaching methods are described in this paper as principles affecting classroom learning that can lead to more effective instruction. Curriculum simply exposes students to appropriate content and subject matter. Educational research should concentrate on the evaluation of…
Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti
2015-09-11
Quantum theory was discovered in an adventurous way, under the urge to solve puzzles-like the spectrum of the blackbody radiation-that haunted the physics community at the beginning of the 20th century. It soon became clear, though, that quantum theory was not just a theory of specific physical systems, but rather a new language of universal applicability. Can this language be reconstructed from first principles? Can we arrive at it from logical reasoning, instead of ad hoc guesswork? A positive answer was provided in Refs. [1, 2], where we put forward six principles that identify quantum theory uniquely in a broad class of theories. We first defined a class of "theories of information", constructed as extensions of probability theory in which events can be connected into networks. In this framework, we formulated the six principles as rules governing the control and the accessibility of information. Directly from these rules, we reconstructed a number of quantum information features, and eventually, the whole Hilbert space framework. In short, our principles characterize quantum theory as the theory of information that allows for maximal control of randomness.
Principles of Teaching. Module.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhoades, Joseph W.
This module on principles of teaching is 1 in a series of 10 modules written for vocational education teacher education programs. It is designed to enable the teacher to do the following: (1) identify subject matter and integrate that subject matter with thought-provoking questions; (2) organize and demonstrate good questioning techniques; and (3)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kamat, R. V.
1991-01-01
A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)
First Principles of Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merrill, M. David
2002-01-01
Examines instructional design theories and elaborates principles about when learning is promoted, i.e., when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems, when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge, and when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner, applied by the learner, and integrated into the learner's…
Putting Principles into Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jamieson, Joan; Chapelle, Carol A.; Preiss, Sherry
2004-01-01
CALL evaluation might ideally draw on principles from fields such as second language acquisition, language pedagogy, instructional design, and testing and measurement in order to make judgments about criteria such as elaborated input, feedback, collaborative learning, authentic tasks, navigation, screen design, reliability, validity, impact, and…
Identifying Product Scaling Principles
Perez, Angel 1986-
2011-06-02
) ........................................................................................ 53 Figure 19: Manual push cart Black Box model ................................................................ 61 Figure 20: Electric push cart Black Box model ............................................................... 61 Figure 21: A. Manual... and B. Electric push cart activity diagrams with highlighted boxes that represent possible activities that can be simplified or combined through the application of the ?simplify system? and ?combine functions? principles...
Principles of Wildlife Conservation
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Dan Edge
Principles of Wildlife Conservation is a course that was developed to fulfill requirements in the curriculum of Forest Resource Technology students at Chemeketa Community College in Salem, Oregon. It is an introductory course that presents a diversity of issues relating to wildlife conservation and management and is open to the general student population.
Basic Comfort Heating Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dempster, Chalmer T.
The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…
The Proposal Design Principles
Flynn, E. Victor
satisfactory connections with Worcester Place, Walton Street and the broader community. #12;49 Urban Design Architects consider Exeter College's Walton Street Quad as an urban design project. With its very longThe Proposal 5.0 #12;48 Design Principles 5.1 Existing ground floor plan showing extent of retained
Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1992-01-01
The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.
Geodesics and geodesic deviation in a two-dimensional black hole
Ratna Koley; Supratik Pal; Sayan Kar
2003-02-17
We introduce an exactly solvable example of timelike geodesic motion and geodesic deviation in the background geometry of a well-known two-dimensional black hole spacetime. The effective potential for geodesic motion turns out to be either a harmonic oscillator or an inverted harmonic oscillator or a linear function of the spatial variable, corresponding to the three different domains of a constant of the motion. The geodesic deviation equation also is exactly solvable. The corresponding deviation vector is obtained and the nature of the deviation is briefly discussed by highlighting a specific case.
Minimization of deviations of gear real tooth surfaces determined by coordinate measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litvin, F. L.; Kuan, C.; Wang, J.-C.; Handschuh, R. F.; Masseth, J.; Maruyama, N.
1992-01-01
The deviations of a gear's real tooth surface from the theoretical surface are determined by coordinate measurements at the grid of the surface. A method was developed to transform the deviations from Cartesian coordinates to those along the normal at the measurement locations. Equations are derived that relate the first order deviations with the adjustment to the manufacturing machine-tool settings. The deviations of the entire surface are minimized. The minimization is achieved by application of the least-square method for an overdetermined system of linear equations. The proposed method is illustrated with a numerical example for hypoid gear and pinion.
Systematic deviation between COSMO-EU precipitation forecast and measured precipitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinbrich, Andreas; Weiler, Markus
2013-04-01
The Flood Forecast Agency of Baden-Württemberg (HVZ) uses the precipitation forecast from COSMO-EU forecast by the German Weather Survey (DWD) for flood forecasting of major rivers in Baden-Württemberg. Differences between forecasted and measured precipitation has been observed for a number of larger precipitation events in the past. Since event based investigation is not sufficient for detecting systematic errors a longer time period was systematically investigated. We compared precipitation forecasted by COSMO-EU with measured precipitation between January 2007and March 2012 for the area of Baden-Württemberg and the upper Rhine basin in Austria and Switzerland. For each day within the investigated period two 72-hour forecasts, one issued at 00:00 and one at 12:00 pm, were analysed. Measured and forecasted precipitation was interpolated to a 1 km input grid used for the flood-forecast model. In order to focus on flood relevant precipitation events a selection was made among the forecast periods. Only forecasts that at least predict a mean 24-hour sum over the whole investigation area of 5 mm or a local maximum 24-h our sum of at least 15 mm were considered. The resulting data set was investigated as a whole and in subsets. Subsets where build with the aim to gain information on possible processes specific errors. One subset took only forecasts into account that predict locally high maximum 24-sums (at least 15 mm) but only comparatively small mean values (less then 5 mm). We assumed that this subset focuses on convective rain events. Alternatively a subset was selected with at least 5 mm mean 24-h-sum over the whole investigation area focusing on advective rain events. Furthermore the dataset was spitted in different seasons and according to circulation patterns. Specific deviation patterns between predicted and measured precipitation were found, that are highly correlated with the topography. The analysis showed that there are pronounced differences of the direction of deviation among the different subsets. For the convective events precipitation was underestimated in large areas of Baden-Württemberg and the upper Rhine basin but also overestimated in some regions. For the subset of convective events precipitation was significantly overestimated almost over the whole investigation areas, with very high deviations especially in the luv of the mountain chains. The separation of the data in summer and winter season shows equal patterns as the respective periods for convective and advective events. Also for the different weather patterns distinctive deviation patterns could be observed. We will test in future if the observed patterns could be used directly for a regional bias correction to reduce the uncertainty in precipitation forecast for flood forecast in this topographically complex region.
Violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle in Bekenstein's theory
L. Kraiselburd; H. Vucetich
2009-02-24
Bekenstein has shown that violation of Weak Equivalence Principle is strongly supressed in his model of charge variation. In this paper, it is shown that nuclear magnetic energy is large enough to produce observable effects in Eotvos experiments.
Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles Part II. Polymer Formation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rodriguez, F.; And Others
1987-01-01
This is part two in a series on classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Described is how large molecules can be assembled from subunits (the process of polymerization). Examples chosen include both linear and branched or cross-linked molecules. (RH)
Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)
2012-08-15
Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning deviations. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity deviations (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional deviations of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional deviations produce large intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of {>=}5% in {approx}1 mm{sup 2} areas and {>=}2% in {approx}20 mm{sup 2} areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences ({<=}2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero
2015-04-01
Future sea level rise (SL), which represents today one of the major threats that are caused by climate change, will not be uniform. Regional differences are crucial for 40% of the world population, which is located in the coastal zone. To explore the mechanisms linking regional SL to climate variables is very important in order to provide reliable future projections. This study focuses on two semi-enclosed basins, the Adriatic and Baltic Sea and investigates the deviation of their SL from the mean global value. In fact, past deviations of the SL of these two basins from the global value have been observed and can be attributed to large scale factors (such as teleconnections) and regional factors, such as the inverse barometric effect, the wind stress, the thermosteric and halosteric effects. The final goal of this work is to assess to which extent the Adriatic and Baltic SL will depart from the mean global value in the next decades and at the end of 21st century. This is achieved by analyzing deviations of the mean SL of the Baltic and Adriatic Sea from the global mean SL during the 20th century and investigating which factors can explain such deviations. A multivariate linear regression model is built and used to describe the link between three large scale climate variables which are used as predictors (mean sea level pressure, surface air temperature and precipitation), and the regional SL deviation (the predictand), computed as the difference between the regional and the global SL. At monthly scale this linear regression model provides a good reconstruction of the past variability in the cold season during which it explains 60%-70% of the variance. Summer reconstruction is substantially less successful and it represents presently the main limit of the model skill. This linear regression model, forced by predictors extracted from CMIP5 multi-model simulations, is used to provide projections of SL in the Adriatic and Baltic Sea. On the basis of the projections until 2100, the Baltic Sea will rise faster than the global SL. Adriatic SL, on the contrary, shows a substantial agreement with the global trend. This study is part of the activities of RISES-AM project (FP7-EU-603396).
Deviations in cortex sulcation associated with visual hallucinations in schizophrenia.
Cachia, A; Amad, A; Brunelin, J; Krebs, M-O; Plaze, M; Thomas, P; Jardri, R
2015-09-01
Hallucinations, and auditory hallucinations (AH) in particular, constitute the most typical and disabling schizophrenia symptoms. Although visual hallucinations (VH) have been largely neglected in psychiatric disorders, a recent review reported a 27% mean prevalence of VH in schizophrenia patients. The pathophysiology underlying VH in schizophrenia remains elusive. Several schizophrenia studies reported a significant effect of age on VH; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia may explain VH occurrence. We analyzed cortex sulcation, a marker of brain development, in healthy controls (HCs) and two subgroups of carefully selected schizophrenia patients suffering from hallucinations: patients with only AH (that is, patients who never reported VH) and patients with audio-visual hallucinations (A+VH). Different cortical sulcation and left-right sulcal asymmetry were found between A+VH and AH patients, with decreased sulcation in both A+VH and AH patients in comparison with the HCs. Although a specific association between VH and neurodegenerative mechanisms, for example, in Body-Lewy Dementia or Parkinson's Disease, has previously been reported in the literature, the current study provides the first neuroimaging evidence of an association between VH and neurodevelopmental mechanisms. PMID:25349166
An Upper Bound on Standard Deviation as a Function of Range
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petocz, Peter
2005-01-01
This article disproves a conjecture that the ratio of the maximum standard deviation to the range of a set of data decreases as the number of data points increases. It also provides an alternative and more general approach for examining the standard deviation as a function of the range.
Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson
Leveson, Nancy
Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson be a mixture of humans, hardware, and software. This paper describes one of the Safeware hazard analysis techniques, Software Deviation Analysis, that incorporates the beneficial fea tures of HAZOP (such
Common Principles and Multiculturalism
Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher
2009-01-01
Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720
Uncertainty Principle Respects Locality
Dongsheng Wang
2015-04-19
The notion of nonlocality implicitly implies there might be some kind of spooky action at a distance in nature, however, the validity of quantum mechanics has been well tested up to now. In this work it is argued that the notion of nonlocality is physically improper, the basic principle of locality in nature is well respected by quantum mechanics, namely, the uncertainty principle. We show that the quantum bound on the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality can be recovered from the uncertainty relation in a multipartite setting. We further argue that the super-quantum correlation demonstrated by the nonlocal box is not physically comparable with the quantum one. The origin of the quantum structure of nature still remains to be explained, some post-quantum theory which is more complete in some sense than quantum mechanics is possible and might not necessarily be a hidden variable theory.
Applied optical principles: keratometry.
Sampson, W G
1979-03-01
The optical correction of the aphakic eye requires the addition of a significant amount of vergence power to the corneal interface by one of three modalities: spectacle, contact lens, or intraocular lens. No matter which modality is chosen, based upon Gullstrand's parameters, the corneal interface provides approximately 74% of the effective vergence power of the eye; therefore, it is essential to understand the principles underlying the clinical assessment of the refracting power of the cornea. This presentation briefly reviews selected principles underlying the determination of corneal curvature and toricity by keratometry, as well as their relationship to the correcting spectacle lenses, and emphasizes the necessity of surveying the topography of the cornea for the greatest accuracy in these measurements. PMID:530586
Common principles and multiculturalism.
Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher
2009-01-01
Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720
Basic Principles of Ultrasound
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2004-01-01
Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.
Principles of gravitational biology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, A. H.
1975-01-01
Physical principles of gravitation are enumerated, including gravitational and inertial forces, weight and mass, weightlessness, size and scale effects, scale limits of gravitational effects, and gravity as biogenic factor. Statocysts, otolithic organs of vertebrates, gravity reception in plants, and clinostat studies for gravitation orientation are reviewed. Chronic acceleration is also studied, as well as physiology of hyper and hypodynamic fields. Responses of animals to a decreased acceleration field are examined, considering postural changes, work capacity, growth, and physiologic deadaptation.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Principle's of Flight Web site is offered by the Pilot's Web Aviation Journal and contains an excellent introduction to the physics of flight. Topics include Newton's laws of motion and force, airfoils, lift and drag, forces acting on an airplane, speed, flight maneuvers, the effects of roll, and more. Each topic contains good illustrations, descriptions, and equations. Overall, the site is an interesting and informative look behind the science of flight.
Benkler, Erik; Sterr, Uwe
2015-01-01
The power spectral density in Fourier frequency domain, and the different variants of the Allan deviation (ADEV) in dependence on the averaging time are well established tools to analyse the fluctuation properties and frequency instability of an oscillatory signal. It is often supposed that the statistical uncertainty of a measured average frequency is given by the ADEV at a well considered averaging time. However, this approach requires further mathematical justification and refinement, which has already been done regarding the original ADEV for certain noise types. Here we provide the necessary background to use the modified Allan deviation (modADEV) and other two-sample deviations to determine the uncertainty of weighted frequency averages. The type of two-sample deviation used to determine the uncertainty depends on the method used for determination of the average. We find that the modADEV, which is connected with $\\Lambda$-weighted averaging, and the two sample deviation associated to a linear phase regr...
Secondary flow spanwise deviation model for the stators of NASA middle compressor stages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, W. B.; Sandercock, D. M.
1984-01-01
A model of the spanwise variation of deviation for stator blades is presented. Deviation is defined as the difference between the passage mean flow angle and the metal angle at the outlet of a blade element of an axial compressor stage. The variation of deviation is taken as the difference above or below that predicted by blade element, (i.e., two-dimensional) theory at any spanwise location. The variation of deviation is dependent upon the blade camber, solidity and inlet boundary layer thickness at the hub or tip end-wall, and the blade channel aspect ratio. If these parameters are known or can be calculated, the model provides a reasonable approximation of the spanwise variation of deviation for most compressor middle stage stators operating at subsonic inlet Mach numbers.
Observable signature of a background deviating from the Kerr metric
Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios; Apostolatos, Theocharis A.; Contopoulos, George
2010-06-15
By detecting gravitational wave signals from extreme mass ratio inspiraling sources (EMRIs) we will be given the opportunity to check our theoretical expectations regarding the nature of supermassive bodies that inhabit the central regions of galaxies. We have explored some qualitatively new features that a perturbed Kerr metric induces in its geodesic orbits. Since a generic perturbed Kerr metric does not possess all the special symmetries of a Kerr metric, the geodesic equations in the former case are described by a slightly nonintegrable Hamiltonian system. According to the Poincare-Birkhoff theorem, this causes the appearance of the so-called Birkhoff chains of islands on the corresponding surfaces of section in between the anticipated KAM curves of the integrable Kerr case, whenever the intrinsic frequencies of the system are at resonance. The chains of islands are characterized by finite width, i.e. there is a finite range of initial conditions that correspond to a particular resonance and consequently to a constant rational ratio of intrinsic frequencies. Thus while the EMRI changes adiabatically by radiating energy and angular momentum, by monitoring the frequencies of a signal we can look for a transient pattern, in the form of a plateau, in the evolution of their ratio. We have shown that such a plateau is anticipated to be apparent in a quite large fraction of possible orbital characteristics if the central gravitating source is not a Kerr black hole. Moreover, the plateau in the ratio of frequencies is expected to be more prominent at specific rational values that correspond to the strongest resonances. This gives a possible observational detection of such non-Kerr exotic objects.
An observable signature of a background deviating from Kerr
Georgios Lukes-Gerakopoulos; Theocharis A. Apostolatos; George Contopoulos
2010-03-16
By detecting gravitational wave signals from extreme mass ratio inspiraling sources (EMRIs) we will be given the opportunity to check our theoretical expectations regarding the nature of supermassive bodies that inhabit the central regions of galaxies. We have explored some qualitatively new features that a perturbed Kerr metric induces in its geodesic orbits. Since a generic perturbed Kerr metric does not possess all the special symmetries of a Kerr metric, the geodesic equations in the former case are described by a slightly nonintegrable Hamiltonian system. According to the Poincar\\'{e}-Birkhoff theorem this causes the appearance of the so-called Birkhoff chains of islands on the corresponding surfaces of section in between the anticipated KAM curves of the integrable Kerr case, whenever the intrinsic frequencies of the system are at resonance. The chains of islands are characterized by finite width, i.e. there is a finite range of initial conditions that correspond to a particular resonance and consequently to a constant rational ratio of intrinsic frequencies. Thus while the EMRI changes adiabatically by radiating energy and angular momentum, by monitoring the frequencies of a signal we can look for a transient pattern, in the form of a plateau, in the evolution of their ratio. We have shown that such a plateau is anticipated to be apparent in a quite large fraction of possible orbital characteristics if the central gravitating source is not a Kerr black hole. Moreover the plateau in the ratio of frequencies is expected to be more prominent at specific rational values that correspond to the strongest resonances. This gives a possible observational detection of such non-Kerr exotic objects.
Observable signature of a background deviating from the Kerr metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios; Apostolatos, Theocharis A.; Contopoulos, George
2010-06-01
By detecting gravitational wave signals from extreme mass ratio inspiraling sources (EMRIs) we will be given the opportunity to check our theoretical expectations regarding the nature of supermassive bodies that inhabit the central regions of galaxies. We have explored some qualitatively new features that a perturbed Kerr metric induces in its geodesic orbits. Since a generic perturbed Kerr metric does not possess all the special symmetries of a Kerr metric, the geodesic equations in the former case are described by a slightly nonintegrable Hamiltonian system. According to the Poincaré-Birkhoff theorem, this causes the appearance of the so-called Birkhoff chains of islands on the corresponding surfaces of section in between the anticipated KAM curves of the integrable Kerr case, whenever the intrinsic frequencies of the system are at resonance. The chains of islands are characterized by finite width, i.e. there is a finite range of initial conditions that correspond to a particular resonance and consequently to a constant rational ratio of intrinsic frequencies. Thus while the EMRI changes adiabatically by radiating energy and angular momentum, by monitoring the frequencies of a signal we can look for a transient pattern, in the form of a plateau, in the evolution of their ratio. We have shown that such a plateau is anticipated to be apparent in a quite large fraction of possible orbital characteristics if the central gravitating source is not a Kerr black hole. Moreover, the plateau in the ratio of frequencies is expected to be more prominent at specific rational values that correspond to the strongest resonances. This gives a possible observational detection of such non-Kerr exotic objects.
Principles of Public Paul Tabbush
Principles of Public Engagement Paul Tabbush Bianca Ambrose-Oji #12;Principles of Public Engagement This is a document was produced in association with: Paul Tabbush Forestry and Social Research Services Farnham
Principles of Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landé, Alfred
2013-10-01
Preface; Introduction: 1. Observation and interpretation; 2. Difficulties of the classical theories; 3. The purpose of quantum theory; Part I. Elementary Theory of Observation (Principle of Complementarity): 4. Refraction in inhomogeneous media (force fields); 5. Scattering of charged rays; 6. Refraction and reflection at a plane; 7. Absolute values of momentum and wave length; 8. Double ray of matter diffracting light waves; 9. Double ray of matter diffracting photons; 10. Microscopic observation of ? (x) and ? (p); 11. Complementarity; 12. Mathematical relation between ? (x) and ? (p) for free particles; 13. General relation between ? (q) and ? (p); 14. Crystals; 15. Transition density and transition probability; 16. Resultant values of physical functions; matrix elements; 17. Pulsating density; 18. General relation between ? (t) and ? (?); 19. Transition density; matrix elements; Part II. The Principle of Uncertainty: 20. Optical observation of density in matter packets; 21. Distribution of momenta in matter packets; 22. Mathematical relation between ? and ?; 23. Causality; 24. Uncertainty; 25. Uncertainty due to optical observation; 26. Dissipation of matter packets; rays in Wilson Chamber; 27. Density maximum in time; 28. Uncertainty of energy and time; 29. Compton effect; 30. Bothe-Geiger and Compton-Simon experiments; 31. Doppler effect; Raman effect; 32. Elementary bundles of rays; 33. Jeans' number of degrees of freedom; 34. Uncertainty of electromagnetic field components; Part III. The Principle of Interference and Schrödinger's equation: 35. Physical functions; 36. Interference of probabilities for p and q; 37. General interference of probabilities; 38. Differential equations for ?p (q) and Xq (p); 39. Differential equation for ?? (q); 40. The general probability amplitude ??' (Q); 41. Point transformations; 42. General theorem of interference; 43. Conjugate variables; 44. Schrödinger's equation for conservative systems; 45. Schrödinger's equation for non-conservative systems; 46. Pertubation theory; 47. Orthogonality, normalization and Hermitian conjugacy; 48. General matrix elements; Part IV. The Principle of Correspondence: 49. Contact transformations in classical mechanics; 50. Point transformations; 51. Contact transformations in quantum mechanics; 52. Constants of motion and angular co-ordinates; 53. Periodic orbits; 54. De Broglie and Schrödinger function; correspondence to classical mechanics; 55. Packets of probability; 56. Correspondence to hydrodynamics; 57. Motion and scattering of wave packets; 58. Formal correspondence between classical and quantum mechanics; Part V. Mathematical Appendix: Principle of Invariance: 59. The general theorem of transformation; 60. Operator calculus; 61. Exchange relations; three criteria for conjugacy; 62. First method of canonical transformation; 63. Second method of canonical transformation; 64. Proof of the transformation theorem; 65. Invariance of the matrix elements against unitary transformations; 66. Matrix mechanics; Index of literature; Index of names and subjects.
Deviation of Long-Period Tides from Equilibrium: Kinematics and Geostrophy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egbert, Gary D.; Ray, Richard D.
2003-01-01
New empirical estimates of the long-period fortnightly (Mf) tide obtained from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter data confirm significant basin-scale deviations from equilibrium. Elevations in the low-latitude Pacific have reduced amplitude and lag those in the Atlantic by 30 deg or more. These interbasin amplitude and phase variations are robust features that are reproduced by numerical solutions of the shallow-water equations, even for a constant-depth ocean with schematic interconnected rectangular basins. A simplified analytical model for cooscillating connected basins also reproduces the principal features observed in the empirical solutions. This simple model is largely kinematic. Zonally averaged elevations within a simple closed basin would be nearly in equilibrium with the gravitational potential, except for a constant offset required to conserve mass. With connected basins these offsets are mostly eliminated by interbasin mass flux. Because of rotation, this flux occurs mostly in a narrow boundary layer across the mouth and at the western edge of each basin, and geostrophic balance in this zone supports small residual offsets (and phase shifts) between basins. The simple model predicts that this effect should decrease roughly linearly with frequency, a result that is confirmed by numerical modeling and empirical T/P estimates of the monthly (Mm) tidal constituent. This model also explains some aspects of the anomalous nonisostatic response of the ocean to atmospheric pressure forcing at periods of around 5 days.
Galaxy clustering constraints on deviations from Newtonian gravity at cosmological scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirata, Akihito; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Naoki; Suto, Yasushi
2005-03-01
In spite of the growing observational evidence for dark matter and dark energy in the universe, their physical nature is largely unknown. In fact, several authors have proposed modifications of Newton’s law of gravity at cosmological scales to account for the apparent acceleration of the cosmic expansion. Inspired by such suggestions, we attempt to constrain possible deviations from Newtonian gravity by means of the clustering of SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) galaxies. To be specific, we assume a simple modification of Newton’s law with an additional Yukawa-type term characterized by the amplitude ? and the length scale ?. Adopting spatially-flat universes dominated by cold dark matter and/or dark energy, we solve a linear perturbation equation for the growth of density fluctuations. In particular, we find an exact analytic solution for the Einstein-de Sitter case. Following the Peacock-Dodds prescription, we compute the nonlinear power spectra of mass fluctuations, perform a statistical comparison with the SDSS galaxy data, and derive constraints in the ?-? plane; for instance, we obtain the constraints of -0.5
Academic Principles: A Brief Introduction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Association of American Universities, 2013
2013-01-01
For many decades certain core principles have guided the conduct of teaching, research, and scholarship at American universities, as well as the ways in which these institutions are governed. There is ample evidence that these principles have strongly contributed to the quality of American universities. The principles have also made these…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiskoot, H.
2013-12-01
A multidecadal review of glacier fluctuations and case-studies of glacier processes and environments in central East Greenland will be used to demonstrate Mechanisms that Amplify, Attenuate and Deviate glacier response to climate forcings (MAAD). The different spatial and temporal scales at which MAAD affect mass balance and ice flow may complicate interpretation and longterm extrapolation of glacier response to climate change. A framework of MAAD characterisation and best-practice for interpreting climate signals while taking into account MAAD will be proposed. Glaciers in the Watkins Bjerge, Geikie Plateau and Stauning Alps regions of central East Greenland (68°-72°N) contain about 50000 km2 of glacierized area peripheral to the Greenland Ice Sheet. Within the region, large north-south and coast-inland climatic gradients, as well as complicated topography and glacier dynamics, result in discrepant glacier behaviour. Average retreat rates have doubled from about 2 to 4 km2 a-1 between the late 20th and early 21st centuries. However, glaciers terminating along the Atlantic coast display two times the retreat, thinning, and acceleration rates compared to glaciers terminating in inland fjords or on land. Despite similar climatic forcing variable glacier behaviour is apparent: individual glacier length change ranges from +57 m a-1 to -428 m a-1, though most retreat -20 to -100 m a-1. Interacting dynamic, mass balance and glacio-morphological mechanisms can amplify, attenuate or deviate glacier response (MAAD) to climate change, thus complicating the climatological interpretation of glacier length, area, and thickness changes. East Greenland MAAD include a range of common positive and negative feedback mechanisms in surface mass balance and terminus and subglacial boundary conditions affecting ice flow, but also mechanisms that have longterm or delayed effects. Certain MAAD may affect glacier change interpretation on multiple timescales: e.g. surging glaciers do not only pose problems for the direct interpretation of climate change from length and volume changes due to their dynamically-driven advance and retreat regimes, but also for the reconstruction of LIA extents from trimlines and moraines, and the reconstruction of surface mass balance due to crevasses, potholes or debris-cover. This presentation will address a range of MAAD, including thermal regime transitions; ocean influences on tidewater-terminating glaciers; glacier fragmentation and tributary-trunk interaction; glacier surging and tidewater behaviour; seasonal variations; glacier hypsometry and morphology; terrain and substrate; melt-albedo and melt-ice flow feedbacks; and ice marginal lakes.
Quantifying fundamental mode Rayleigh waves great-circle deviations by broadband array analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedersen, Helle; Boué, Pierre; Poli, Piero
2015-04-01
The deviation of propagating surface waves from the great-circle path between seismic source and receiver is indicative of complex propagation effects, and may bias the results of some surface wave tomography techniques. We quantify these effects based on the analysis of almost 300 seismic events recorded by the temporary broadband network LAPNET, located in northern Finland. The deviations of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, as indicated by the difference of observed back azimuths with the great-circle, have systematic variations with source location. These frequency dependent variations are spatially coherent on length scales that are wavelength dependent. Deviations at short period (10-50s) peak to more than 20 degrees at 10-30s period, but are also significant at long periods (>50s). The average absolute deviation at 50s period and above is approximately constant at a level of 3-4 degrees, possibly part of this value being due to random errors. The comparison with deviations observed on seismic records created by noise correlations shows that the amplitudes of the deviations and their frequency dependence is well reproduced. The two types of observations are remarkably similar in the cases where earthquakes are located close to seismic stations. This agreement confirms that the noise correlations do indeed capture the diffraction phenomena associated with surface wave propagation. It also indicates that at least in the cases for which we have data, the earthquake depth, mechanism and slip history have only limited impact on the deviations.
Equivalence principle in scalar-tensor gravity
Dirk Puetzfeld; Yuri N. Obukhov
2015-05-06
We present a direct confirmation of the validity of the equivalence principle for unstructured test bodies in scalar tensor gravity. Our analysis is complementary to previous approaches and valid for a large class of scalar-tensor theories of gravitation. A covariant approach is used to derive the equations of motion in a systematic way and allows for the experimental test of scalar-tensor theories by means of extended test bodies.
Principles of Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goody, Richard
1995-12-01
This text is an introduction to the basic principles of atmospheric physics and chemistry. All aspects of the lower and middle atmospheres, except for large-scale dynamics, are treated in a connected account as ultimate consequences of the solar radiation falling on the planet. Several appendices deal with climate data, and background material, such as the Navier-Stokes equations. Problem sets accompany each chapter.
Proton spin and the cheshire cat principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, B.-Y.; Vento, V.
1991-08-01
We discuss the proton matrix element of the flavor-singlet axial current (FSAC), often referred to as proton spin, in terms of the chiral bag model with due account of the axial anomaly and quantum number fractionation. We conclude that the contribution due to gluons is significant for large bag radii and that it is crucial in order to establish the Cheshire cat principle.
Proton spin and the Cheshire cat principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, B.-Y.; Vento, V.
1991-09-01
We discuss the proton matrix element of the flavor-singlet axial current (FSAC), often referred to as proton spin, in terms of the chiral bag model with due account of the axial anomaly and quantum number fractionation. We conclude that the contribution due to gluons is significant for large bag radii and that it is crucial in order to establish the Cheshire cat principle.
Complex Correspondence Principle
Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Hook, Daniel W. [Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wang Qinghai [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)
2010-02-12
Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.
Principles of cryopreservation by vitrification.
Fahy, Gregory M; Wowk, Brian
2015-01-01
Vitrification is an alternative approach to cryopreservation that enables hydrated living cells to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures in the absence of ice. Vitrification simplifies and frequently improves cryopreservation because it eliminates mechanical injury from ice, eliminates the need to find optimal cooling and warming rates, eliminates the importance of differing optimal cooling and warming rates for cells in mixed cell type populations, eliminates the need to find a frequently imperfect compromise between solution effects injury and intracellular ice formation, and enables cooling to be rapid enough to "outrun" chilling injury, but it complicates the osmotic effects of adding and removing cryoprotective agents and introduces a greater risk of cryoprotectant toxicity during the addition and removal of cryoprotectants. Fortunately, a large number of remedies for the latter problem have been discovered over the past 30+ years, and the former problem can in most cases be eliminated or adequately controlled by careful attention to technique. Vitrification is therefore beginning to realize its potential for enabling the superior and convenient cryopreservation of most types of biological systems (including molecules, cells, tissues, organs, and even some whole organisms), and vitrification is even beginning to be recognized as a successful strategy of nature for surviving harsh environmental conditions. However, many investigators who employ vitrification or what they incorrectly imagine to be vitrification have only a rudimentary understanding of the basic principles of this relatively new and emerging approach to cryopreservation, and this often limits the practical results that can be achieved. A better understanding may therefore help to improve present results while pointing the way to new strategies that may be yet more successful in the future. To assist this understanding, this chapter describes the basic principles of vitrification and indicates the broad potential biological relevance of vitrification. PMID:25428002
Hawking temperature for various kinds of black holes from Heisenberg uncertainty principle
Fabio Scardigli
2006-07-04
Hawking temperature is computed for a large class of black holes (with spherical, toroidal and hyperboloidal topologies) using only laws of classical physics plus the "classical" Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. This principle is shown to be fully sufficient to get the result, and there is no need to this scope of a Generalized Uncertainty Principle.
Principles of Enterprise Systems
Nightingale, Deborah
2009-06-15
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) through its Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) research team has been conducting research and facilitating enterprise-level transformations in large complex sociotechnical ...