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1

A large deviation principle and wave front propagation for a reaction-diffusion equation  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we consider an asymptotic problem for the propagation of wave front for a reaction-diffusion equation depending on a small parameter {epsilon} > 0, as well as some generalizations. First we analyze the asymptotic behavior as {epsilon} {down_arrow} 0 of the solution of a initial-boundary value problem in the region {l_brace}(t, x, y): t > 0, x {element_of} IR, {vert_bar}y{vert_bar} {<=} b{r_brace} formulated by means of a reaction-diffusion equation. This differential equation is characterized by a fast diffusion (coefficient of order 1/{epsilon}) in y-direction, a slow diffusion (coefficient of order {epsilon}) in x-direction, and a nonlinear term. In this analysis we use the same approach as in Freidlin (285a, 1991) where we study the generalized KPP (Kolomogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov) equation. The main tools are the Feynman-Kac formula and a Large Deviation Principle for a class of random processes. The main result is the explicit description of the limit wave front as {epsilon} {down_arrow} 0 for the solution of the problem under consideration. Secondly, some generalizations of the above mixed problem are considered. The motion in y-direction (fast motion) is described by a more geral Markov process in a compact subset D of IR{sup tau}. This process satisfies some suitable conditions formulated in terms of the semigroup of bounded operators associated with its transition probability function. The motion in x-direction (slow motion) can be a locally infinitely divisible process in IR, with frequent small jumps. Under certain assumptions, this class of processes obeys a Large Deviation Principle. Using the new fast and slow motions, a Cauchy problem analogous to the above mixed problem is studied. Again, in the analysis of the limit behavior of the solution of this problem, the Feynman-Kac formula and probabilities of Large Deviations for certain class of random processes are used.

Carmona, S.I.C.

1992-12-31

2

GENERIC formalism of a Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation and connection to large-deviation principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the connections between a Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation and an underlying microscopic particle system, and we interpret those connections in the context of the GENERIC framework (Öttinger 2005 Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics (New York: Wiley-Interscience)). This interpretation provides (a) a variational formulation for GENERIC systems, (b) insight into the origin of this variational formulation, and (c) an explanation of the origins of the conditions that GENERIC places on its constitutive elements, notably the so-called degeneracy or non-interaction conditions. This work shows how the general connection between large-deviation principles on one hand and gradient-flow structures on the other hand extends to non-reversible particle systems.

Duong, Manh Hong; Peletier, Mark A.; Zimmer, Johannes

2013-11-01

3

Averaging and large deviation principles for fully-coupled piecewise deterministic Markov processes and applications to molecular motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes (PDMPs) with a finite set of discrete states. In the regime of fast jumps between discrete states, we prove a law of large number and a large deviation principle. In the regime of fast and slow jumps, we analyze a coarse-grained process associated to the original one and prove its convergence to a new

A. Faggionato; D. Gabrielli; M. Ribezzi Crivellari

2008-01-01

4

Evaluation of bacterial motility from non-Gaussianity of finite-sample trajectories using the large deviation principle.  

PubMed

Motility of bacteria is usually recognized in the trajectory data and compared with Brownian motion, but the diffusion coefficient is insufficient to evaluate it. In this paper, we propose a method based on the large deviation principle. We show that it can be used to evaluate the non-Gaussian characteristics of model Escherichia coli motions and to distinguish combinations of the mean running duration and running speed that lead to the same diffusion coefficient. Our proposed method does not require chemical stimuli to induce the chemotaxis in a specific direction, and it is applicable to various types of self-propelling motions for which no a priori information of, for example, threshold parameters for run and tumble or head/tail direction is available. We also address the issue of the finite-sample effect on the large deviation quantities, but we propose to make use of it to characterize the nature of motility. PMID:24129194

Hanasaki, Itsuo; Kawano, Satoyuki

2013-10-15

5

Evaluation of bacterial motility from non-Gaussianity of finite-sample trajectories using the large deviation principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motility of bacteria is usually recognized in the trajectory data and compared with Brownian motion, but the diffusion coefficient is insufficient to evaluate it. In this paper, we propose a method based on the large deviation principle. We show that it can be used to evaluate the non-Gaussian characteristics of model Escherichia coli motions and to distinguish combinations of the mean running duration and running speed that lead to the same diffusion coefficient. Our proposed method does not require chemical stimuli to induce the chemotaxis in a specific direction, and it is applicable to various types of self-propelling motions for which no a priori information of, for example, threshold parameters for run and tumble or head/tail direction is available. We also address the issue of the finite-sample effect on the large deviation quantities, but we propose to make use of it to characterize the nature of motility.

Hanasaki, Itsuo; Kawano, Satoyuki

2013-11-01

6

Asymptotically Efficient Simulation Of Large Deviation Probabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consider a family of probabilities for which the decay is governed by a large deviation principle. To find an estimate for a fixed member of this family, one is often forced to use simulation techniques. Direct Monte Carlo simulation, however, is often im...

A. B. Dieker M. R. H. Mandjes

2003-01-01

7

Large deviations of Lyapunov exponents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generic dynamical systems have ‘typical’ Lyapunov exponents, measuring the sensitivity to small perturbations of almost all trajectories. A generic system also has trajectories with exceptional values of the exponents, corresponding to unusually stable or chaotic situations. From a more mathematical point of view, large deviations of Lyapunov exponents characterize phase-space topological structures such as separatrices, homoclinic trajectories and degenerate tori. Numerically sampling such large deviations using the Lyapunov Weighted Dynamics allows one to pinpoint, for example, stable configurations in celestial mechanics or collections of interacting chaotic ‘breathers’ in nonlinear media. Furthermore, we show that this numerical method allows one to compute the topological pressure of extended dynamical systems, a central quantity in the thermodynamic of trajectories of Ruelle. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.

Laffargue, Tanguy; Nguyen Thu Lam, Khanh-Dang; Kurchan, Jorge; Tailleur, Julien

2013-06-01

8

Large deviations for ideal quantum systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a general d-dimensional quantum system of non-interacting particles in a very large (formally infinite) container. We prove that, in equilibrium, the fluctuations in the density of particles in a subdomain Lambda of the container are described by a large deviation function related to the pressure of the system. That is, untypical densities occur with a probability exponentially small

Joel L. Lebowitz; Marco Lenci; Herbert Spohn

2000-01-01

9

Large Deviations of Infinite Intersections of Events in Gaussian Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The large deviations principle for Gaussian measures in Banach space is given by the generalized Schilder's theorem. After assigning a norm (vertical bar, vertical bar)f(vertical bar, vertical bar) to paths f in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space of the...

I. Norros M. J. G. Van Uitert M. R. H. Mandjes P. Mannersalo

2004-01-01

10

Cluster Analysis Based on the Central Tendency Deviation Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our main goal is to introduce three clustering functions based on the central tendency deviation principle. According to this\\u000a approach, we consider to cluster two objects together providing that their similarity is above a threshold. However, how to\\u000a set this threshold ? This paper gives some insights regarding this issue by extending some clustering functions designed for\\u000a categorical data to

Julien Ah-pine

2009-01-01

11

Large Deviations for Expanding Transformations with Additive White Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-deviations estimates for the autocorrelations of order kof the random process Z n= ?( X n)+ ? n, n?0, are obtained. The processes ( X n) n?0and ( ? n) n?0are independent, ? n, n?0, are i.i.d. bounded random variables, X n= T n( X 0), n?{N}, T: M? Mis expanding leaving invariant a Gibbs measure on a compact set M, and ?: M?{R}is a continuous function. A possible application of this result is the case where Mis the unit circle and the Gibbs measure is the one absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure on the circle. The case when Tis a uniquely ergodic map was studied in Carmona et al.(1998). In the present paper Tis an expanding map. However, it is possible to derive large-deviations properties for the autocorrelations samples (1/ n) ? n-1 j=0 Z j Z j+ k . But the deviation function is quite different from the uniquely ergodic case because it is necessary to take into account the entropy of invariant measures for Tas an important information. The method employed here is a combination of the variational principle of the thermodynamic formalism with Donsker and Varadhan's large-deviations approach.

Carmona, S. C.; Lopes, A.

2000-03-01

12

Large deviations of cascade processes on graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple models of irreversible dynamical processes such as bootstrap percolation have been successfully applied to describe cascade processes in a large variety of different contexts. However, the problem of analyzing nontypical trajectories, which can be crucial for the understanding of out-of-equilibrium phenomena, is still considered to be intractable in most cases. Here we introduce an efficient method to find and analyze optimized trajectories of cascade processes. We show that for a wide class of irreversible dynamical rules, this problem can be solved efficiently on large-scale systems.

Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Dall'Asta, L.; Zecchina, R.

2013-06-01

13

Random Trees, Heights, and Large Deviations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a general framework to devise a law of large numbers for the height of random trees. Our model unifies the treatment of many examples of the literature such as binary search trees, median-of-(2k + 1) trees, random recursive trees, plane oriented trees, digital search trees, scale-free trees, and all polynomial families of increasing trees, among others. The

Nicolas Broutin

14

Large Deviation Theorems Revisited: Information-Spectrum Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we show some new look at large deviation theorems from the viewpoint of the information-spectrum (IS) methods, which has been first exploited in information theory, and also demonstrate a new basic formula for the large deviation rate function in general, which is expressed as a pair of the lower and upper IS rate functions. In particular, we are interested in establishing the general large deviation rate functions that are derivable as the Fenchel-Legendre transform of the cumulant generating function. The final goal is to show, under some mild condition, a necessary and sufficient condition for the IS rate function to be derivable as the Fenchel-Legendre transform of the cumulant generating function, i. e., to be a rate function of Gärtner-Ellis type.

Han, Te-Sun

15

Large Deviations for Stochastic Tamed 3D Navier-Stokes Equations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, using weak convergence method, we prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for the stochastic tamed 3D Navier-Stokes equations driven by multiplicative noise, which was investigated in (Roeckner and Zhang in Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 145(1-2), 211-267, 2009).

Roeckner, Michael, E-mail: roeckner@math.uni-bielefeld.d [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik (Germany); Zhang, Tusheng, E-mail: tzhang@maths.man.ac.u [University of Manchester, School of Mathematics (United Kingdom); Zhang Xicheng, E-mail: XichengZhang@gmail.co [University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics (Australia)

2010-04-15

16

Large Deviations for the Fermion Point Process Associated with the Exponential Kernel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the fermion point process on the whole complex plane associated with the exponential kernel e^{zbar{w}}, we show the central limit theorem for the random variable ?( D r , the number of points inside the ball D r of radius r, as r ? ? and we establish the large deviation principle for the random variables { r -2? ( D r ), r > 0}.

Shirai, Tomoyuki

2006-05-01

17

Large Deviations of Sums of Independent Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with numerous variants of bounds for probabilities of large deviations of sums of independent random variables in terms of ordinary and generalized moments of individual summands. A great deal of attention is devoted to the study of the precision of these bounds. In this connection comparisons are made with precise asymptotic results. At the end of the

S. V. Nagaev

1979-01-01

18

Large deviations for stochastic nonlinear Schrodinger equations and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present hereafter some results on stochastic nonlinear Schrodinger with a power law nonlinearity, when the noise enters either as an additive random force or as a linear multi- plicative random potential. The noise is white in time and colored in space. We present in the additive case, support results and large deviations at the level of the paths when

Eric Gautier

2005-01-01

19

Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

Kushner, Harold J., E-mail: hjk@dam.brown.ed [Brown University, Applied Math (United States)

2010-12-15

20

Large Deviations in Weakly Interacting Boundary Driven Lattice Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-dimensional, boundary-driven lattice gases with local interactions are studied in the weakly interacting limit. The density profiles and the correlation functions are calculated to first order in the interaction strength for zero-range and short-range processes differing only in the specifics of the detailed-balance dynamics. Furthermore, the effective free-energy (large-deviation function) and the integrated current distribution are also found to this

Frédéric van Wijland; Zoltán Rácz

2005-01-01

21

Large deviations and Chernoff bound for certain correlated states on a spin chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we extend the results of Lenci and Rey-Bellet [J. Stat. Phys. 119, 715 (2005)] on the large deviation upper bound of the distribution measures of local Hamiltonians with respect to a Gibbs state in the setting of translation-invariant finite-range interactions. We show that a certain factorization property of the reference state is sufficient for a large deviation upper bound to hold and that this factorization property is satisfied by Gibbs states of the above kind as well as finitely correlated states. As an application of the methods, the Chernoff bound for correlated states with factorization property is studied. In the specific case of the distributions of the ergodic averages of a one-site observable with respect to an ergodic finitely correlated state, the spectral theory of positive maps is applied to prove the full large deviation principle.

Hiai, Fumio; Mosonyi, Milán; Ogawa, Tomohiro

2007-12-01

22

Large-deviation achromatic Risley prisms pointing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Infrared Eye project, this article describes the design of large-deviation, achromatic Risley prisms scanning systems operating in the 0.5 - 0.92 and 8 - 9.5 microns spectral regions. Designing these systems is challenging due to the large deviation required (zero - 25 degrees), the large spectral bandwidth and the mechanical constraints imposed by the need to rotate the prisms to any position in 1/30 second. A design approach making extensive use of the versatility of optical design softwares is described. Designs consisting of different pairs of optical materials are shown in order to illustrate the trade-off between chromatic aberration, mass and vignetting. Control of chromatic aberration and reasonable prism shape is obtained over 8 - 9.5 microns with zinc sulfide and germanium. The design is more difficult for the 0.5 - 0.92 microns band. Trade-offs consist in using sapphire with Cleartran over a reduced bandwidth (0.75 - 0.9 microns) or acrylic singlets with the Infrared Eye in active mode (0.85 - 0.86 microns). Non-sequential ray-tracing is used to study the effects of fresnelizing one element of the achromat to reduce its mass, and to evaluate detector narcissus in the 8 - 9.5 microns region.

Lacoursiere, Jean; Doucet, Michel; Curatu, Eugene O.; Savard, Maxime; Verreault, Sonia; Thibault, Simon; Chevrette, Paul C.; Ricard, Benoit

2002-06-01

23

Stochastic 2D Hydrodynamical Type Systems: Well Posedness and Large Deviations  

SciTech Connect

We deal with a class of abstract nonlinear stochastic models, which covers many 2D hydrodynamical models including 2D Navier-Stokes equations, 2D MHD models and the 2D magnetic Benard problem and also some shell models of turbulence. We state the existence and uniqueness theorem for the class considered. Our main result is a Wentzell-Freidlin type large deviation principle for small multiplicative noise which we prove by a weak convergence method.

Chueshov, Igor, E-mail: chueshov@univer.kharkov.u [Kharkov National University, Department of Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Millet, Annie, E-mail: amillet@univ-paris1.f [Universites Paris 6-Paris 7, Boite Courrier 188, Laboratoire de Probabilites et Modeles Aleatoires (France)

2010-06-15

24

The inverse fallacy: An account of deviations from Bayes’s theorem and the additivity principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In judging posterior probabilities, people often answer with the inverse conditional probability—a tendency named theinverse fallacy. Participants (N=45) were given a series of probability problems that entailed estimating bothp(H\\\\vbD) andp(?,H\\\\vbD). The findings revealed that deviations of participants’ estimates from Bayesian calculations and from the additivity\\u000a principle could be predicted by the corresponding deviations of the inverse probabilities from these relevant

Gaëlle Villejoubert; David R. Mandel

2002-01-01

25

Large Deviations, Dynamics and Phase Transitions in Large Stochastic and Disordered Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neuronal networks are characterized by highly heterogeneous connectivity, and this disorder was recently related experimentally to qualitative properties of the network. The motivation of this paper is to mathematically analyze the role of these disordered connectivities on the large-scale properties of neuronal networks. To this end, we analyze here large-scale limit behaviors of neural networks including, for biological relevance, multiple populations, random connectivities and interaction delays. Due to the randomness of the connectivity, usual mean-field methods (e.g. coupling) cannot be applied, but, similarly to studies developed for spin glasses, we will show that the sequences of empirical measures satisfy a large deviation principle, and converge towards a self-consistent non-Markovian process. From a mathematical viewpoint, the proof differs from previous works in that we are working in infinite-dimensional spaces (interaction delays) and consider multiple cell types. The limit obtained formally characterizes the macroscopic behavior of the network. We propose a dynamical systems approach in order to address the qualitative nature of the solutions of these very complex equations, and apply this methodology to three instances in order to show how non-centered coefficients, interaction delays and multiple populations networks are affected by disorder levels. We identify a number of phase transitions in such systems upon changes in delays, connectivity patterns and dispersion, and particularly focus on the emergence of non-equilibrium states involving synchronized oscillations.

Cabana, Tanguy; Touboul, Jonathan

2013-10-01

26

A Linear Method for Deviation Detection in Large Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the problem of finding deviations in largedata bases. Normally, explicit information outside thedata, like integrity constraints or predefined patterns,is used for deviation detection. In contrast, we approachthe problem from the inside of the data, usingthe implicit redundancy of the data.We give a formal description of the problem andpresent a linear algorithm for detecting deviations.Our solution simulates a mechanism

Andreas Arning; Rakesh Agrawal; Prabhakar Raghavan

1996-01-01

27

Large deviations of ergodic counting processes: a statistical mechanics approach.  

PubMed

The large-deviation method allows to characterize an ergodic counting process in terms of a thermodynamic frame where a free energy function determines the asymptotic nonstationary statistical properties of its fluctuations. Here we study this formalism through a statistical mechanics approach, that is, with an auxiliary counting process that maximizes an entropy function associated with the thermodynamic potential. We show that the realizations of this auxiliary process can be obtained after applying a conditional measurement scheme to the original ones, providing is this way an alternative measurement interpretation of the thermodynamic approach. General results are obtained for renewal counting processes, that is, those where the time intervals between consecutive events are independent and defined by a unique waiting time distribution. The underlying statistical mechanics is controlled by the same waiting time distribution, rescaled by an exponential decay measured by the free energy function. A scale invariance, shift closure, and intermittence phenomena are obtained and interpreted in this context. Similar conclusions apply for nonrenewal processes when the memory between successive events is induced by a stochastic waiting time distribution. PMID:21867147

Budini, Adrián A

2011-07-27

28

Large deviation functions in a system of diffusing particles with creation and annihilation.  

PubMed

Large deviation functions for an exactly solvable lattice gas model of diffusing particles on a ring, subject to pair annihilation and creation, are obtained analytically using exact free-fermion techniques. Our findings for the large deviation function for the current are compared to recent results of Appert-Rolland et al. [Phys. Rev. E 78, 021122 (2008)] for diffusive systems with conserved particle number. Unlike conservative dynamics, our nonconservative model has no universal finite-size corrections for the cumulants. However, the leading Gaussian part has the same variance as in the conservative case. We also elucidate some properties of the large deviation functions associated with particle creation and annihilation. PMID:21928973

Popkov, V; Schütz, G M

2011-08-19

29

Large deviations and heterogeneities in driven or non-driven glassy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a short overview of the results for large deviations of dynamical quantities obtained for models of glassy systems. We introduce the paper with the study of kinetically constrained models (KCMs), first without external forcing. In these models, it has been shown using the thermodynamic formalism for histories, that there is a coexistence between an active and an inactive phase. Later, it has been found that adding a driving field to a KCM model leads to a singularity in the large deviation function of the current at large fields. Finally we report on recent studies on realistic glassy systems, and open directions for future research.

Pitard, Estelle

2013-03-01

30

Large Deviations of the Maximum Eigenvalue for Wishart and Gaussian Random Matrices  

SciTech Connect

We present a Coulomb gas method to calculate analytically the probability of rare events where the maximum eigenvalue of a random matrix is much larger than its typical value. The large deviation function that characterizes this probability is computed explicitly for Wishart and Gaussian ensembles. The method is general and applies to other related problems, e.g., the joint large deviation function for large fluctuations of top eigenvalues. Our results are relevant to widely employed data compression techniques, namely, the principal components analysis. Analytical predictions are verified by extensive numerical simulations.

Majumdar, Satya N. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vergassola, Massimo [Institut Pasteur, CNRS URA 2171, F-75724 Paris 15 (France)

2009-02-13

31

Simulation of the gas temperature deviation in large-scale tangential coal fired utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For tangential coal fired boilers, the gas temperature deviation at the exit of the furnace will occur when boiler capacity becomes large. In this paper, the flow, heat transfer and combustion process in a boiler of 300 MWe unit at Shiheng Power Plant, Shandong, China and a boiler of 600 MWe unit at Shidongkou Power Plant, Shanghai are simulated. The

Minghou Xu; Jianwei Yuan; Shifa Ding; Handing Cao

1998-01-01

32

Ruelle-Lanford Functions and Large Deviations for Asymptotically Decoupled Quantum Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recover, expand, and unify quantum (and classical) large deviation results for lattice Gibbs states. The main new ingredient in this paper is a control on the overlap of spectral projections for non-commutative observables. Our proof of large deviations is based on Ruelle-Lanford functions [20, 34] which establishes the existence of a rate function directly by subadditivity arguments, as done in the classical case in [23, 32], instead of relying on Gärtner-Ellis theorem, and cluster expansion or transfer operators as done in the quantum case in [21, 13, 27, 22, 16, 28]. We assume that the Gibbs states are asymptotically decoupled [23, 32], which controls the dependence of observables localized at different spatial locations. In the companion paper [29], we discuss the characterization of rate functions in terms of relative entropies.

Ogata, Yoshiko; Rey-Bellet, Luc

33

Topology Trivialization and Large Deviations for the Minimum in the Simplest Random Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding the global minimum of a cost function given by the sum of a quadratic and a linear form in N real variables over (N-1)-dimensional sphere is one of the simplest, yet paradigmatic problems in Optimization Theory known as the "trust region subproblem" or "constraint least square problem". When both terms in the cost function are random this amounts to studying the ground state energy of the simplest spherical spin glass in a random magnetic field. We first identify and study two distinct large-N scaling regimes in which the linear term (magnetic field) leads to a gradual topology trivialization, i.e. reduction in the total number {N}_{tot} of critical (stationary) points in the cost function landscape. In the first regime {N}_{tot} remains of the order N and the cost function (energy) has generically two almost degenerate minima with the Tracy-Widom (TW) statistics. In the second regime the number of critical points is of the order of unity with a finite probability for a single minimum. In that case the mean total number of extrema (minima and maxima) of the cost function is given by the Laplace transform of the TW density, and the distribution of the global minimum energy is expected to take a universal scaling form generalizing the TW law. Though the full form of that distribution is not yet known to us, one of its far tails can be inferred from the large deviation theory for the global minimum. In the rest of the paper we show how to use the replica method to obtain the probability density of the minimum energy in the large-deviation approximation by finding both the rate function and the leading pre-exponential factor.

Fyodorov, Yan V.; Le Doussal, Pierre

2013-09-01

34

Analytical Mechanics in Stochastic Dynamics: Most Probable Path, Large-Deviation Rate Function and Hamilton-Jacobi Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical (rational) mechanics is the mathematical structure of Newtonian deterministic dynamics developed by D'Alembert, Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi, and many other luminaries of applied mathematics. Diffusion as a stochastic process of an overdamped individual particle immersed in a fluid, initiated by Einstein, Smoluchowski, Langevin and Wiener, has no momentum since its path is nowhere differentiable. In this exposition, we illustrate how analytical mechanics arises in stochastic dynamics from a randomly perturbed ordinary differential equation dXt = b(Xt)dt+?dWt, where Wt is a Brownian motion. In the limit of vanishingly small ?, the solution to the stochastic differential equation other than ? {x} = b(x) are all rare events. However, conditioned on an occurrence of such an event, the most probable trajectory of the stochastic motion is the solution to Lagrangian mechanics with L = \\Vert ? {q}-b(q)\\Vert 2/4 and Hamiltonian equations with H(p, q) = \\dvbr p\\dvbr2+b(q)?p. Hamiltonian conservation law implies that the most probable trajectory for a "rare" event has a uniform "excess kinetic energy" along its path. Rare events can also be characterized by the principle of large deviations which expresses the probability density function for Xt as f(x, t) = e-u(x, t)/?, where u(x, t) is called a large-deviation rate function which satisfies the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation. An irreversible diffusion process with ?×b?0 corresponds to a Newtonian system with a Lorentz force ? {q} = (? × b)× ? {q}+({1}/{2})? \\Vert b\\Vert 2. The connection between stochastic motion and analytical mechanics can be explored in terms of various techniques of applied mathematics, for example, singular perturbations, viscosity solutions and integrable systems.

Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

2012-09-01

35

Mechanical principles of large mirror supports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large thin meniscus mirrors use force-controlled shape actuators to obtain the required optical performance. The shape actuators can be interpreted as an advancement of classical mirror supports as whiffle trees or iso-static levers, which worked purely mechanical. The paper develops, after a short historical overview, the theoretical background of mirror mechanics. Different combinations of force-controlled shape actuators with mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic whiffle trees or iso-static levers are analyzed in regard of their impact on optical performance, dynamic and control behavior. The investigations were the basis for the choice of the shape actuator system for the E-ELT M2, executed by MT Mechatronics under an ESO contract in 2008-09.

Kärcher, Hans J.; Eisenträger, Peter; Süss, Martin

2010-07-01

36

Annual Rainfall Maxima: Practical Estimation Based on Large-Deviation Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a separate communication (Veneziano et al., "Annual Rainfall Maxima: Large-deviation Alternative to Extreme-Value and Extreme-Excess Methods," EGU 2009), we show that, at least for scale-invariant rainfall models, classical extreme value analysis based on Gumbel's extreme value (EV) theory and peak-over-threshold (PoT) analysis based on Pickands' extreme excess (EE) theory do not apply to annual rainfall maxima (AM). A more appropriate theoretical setting is provided by large-deviation (LD) theory. This paper delves with some practical implications of these findings. All above theories predict that, as the averaging durations d â?? 0, (1) the annual maximum rainfall intensity in d, Iyear(d), has generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution, (2) the excess of the average intensity in d, I(d), above a level u on the order of the annual maximum has generalized Pareto (GP) distribution, and (3) the GEV and GP distributions have the same shape parameter k. The value of k depends on the theory used. According to EV and EE theories, k is determined by the upper tail of I(d), whereas LD theory shows that k is determined by less extreme regions of the distribution of I(d). The LD parameter kLD is always in the EV2 range and is larger than the value kEV?EE predicted by EV and EE theories. Since all theories predict that the annual maxima have GEV distribution and the corresponding excesses have GP distribution, methods that directly fit GEV and GP distributions to the data without reference to its asymptotic value should not be affected by which theory is correct. However, the theoretical results have other significant practical implications: Accurate estimation of k from at-site data is difficult. For this reason, k is often estimated regionally. The estimate of k from LD theory is much more robust than that from EV and EE theories and relies on the scaling of the moments of rainfall of order 2.5-3.5. This scaling is nearly universal for rainfall, providing a good "prior" value of k (around 0.3-0.4), which can be used also at un-gauged sites. The shift of focus to regions of the marginal distribution of I(d) below the extreme upper tail, and the recognition that in practice one needs extreme rainfall estimates over a range of finite durations dfor which Iyear(d) does not have GEV distribution make non-asymptotic methods more attractive. These methods fit marginal distributions to the order statistics of I(d) or to PoT values above thresholds not much below the level of the annual maxima and estimate the distribution of Iyear(d) as P [Iyear(d) > x] ? {P [I(d) > x]}n(d) (1) P [Iyear(d) > x] ? e-λd,uP[IPoT(d;u)>x-u] (2) where n(d) is a parameter that gives the effective number of independent I(d) variables in one year, λd,u is the annual rate at which I(d) up-crosses level u, and IPoT(d;u) is the PoT intensity for averaging duration d and threshold u. We have implemented procedures based on these non-asymptotic approaches, with the following specific characteristics: The distributions of I(d) (in the upper region) and IPoT(d;u) are taken to have scaled lognormal shape, with 3 parameters (the mean value m, the variance 2, and a scaling factor c >0 on the probability density). This choice of distribution is based on both empirical evidence and asymptotic multifractal results; The unknown parameters {m, 2, c, n(d)} or {m, 2, c, λd,u} are estimated simultaneously from marginal or PoT and AM data (the latter data mainly constrain n(d) and λd,u) using maximum likelihood. The upper region for I(d) is chosen such that the predicted AM distribution from Eq. 1 closely matches the empirical AM distribution. Application to several actual and simulated rainfall records shows that this approach is superior in accuracy and robustness to conventional AM and PoT methods. This work is funded by project RISK (High Speed Rail) of the M.I.T.-Portugal Program.

Lepore, C.; Veneziano, D.; Langousis, A.

2009-04-01

37

A large deviations principle for small perturbations of random evolution equation in Hölder norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

For ~ :> 0, Let X' = {X'(t),t ~ 0} be random processes governed by the following random evolution equation dX'(t) = v\\/-i-a(X'(t))dW( t) + b(X'(t),Y(t))dt X'(0) = 0 where W(t) be the Brown motion on the general probability space (12,9, P) , Y(t) is a random process which is independent of W(t) . In this paper, we discuss the

Jin Wenze; Liu Jingjun; Hu Yijun

1999-01-01

38

Unification of Small and Large Time Scales for Biological Evolution: Deviations from Power Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a unified model that describes both “micro” and “macro” evolutions within a single theoretical framework. The ecosystem is described as a dynamic network; the population dynamics at each node of this network describes the “microevolution” over ecological time scales (i.e., birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms), while the appearance of new nodes, the slow changes of the links, and the disappearance of existing nodes accounts for the “macroevolution” over geological time scales (i.e., the origination, evolution, and extinction of species). In contrast to several earlier claims in the literature, we observe strong deviations from power law in the regime of long lifetimes.

Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kunwar, Ambarish

2003-02-01

39

Extending the Principles of Intensive Writing to Large Macroeconomics Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors report on the design and implementation of a pilot program to extend the principles of intensive writing outlined by W. Lee Hansen (1998), Murray S. Simpson and Shireen E. Carroll (1999) and David Carless (2006) to large macroeconomics classes. The key aspect of this program was its collaborative nature, with staff from two specialist…

Docherty, Peter; Tse, Harry; Forman, Ross; McKenzie, Jo

2010-01-01

40

Extending the Principles of Intensive Writing to Large Macroeconomics Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report on the design and implementation of a pilot program to extend the principles of intensive writing outlined by W. Lee Hansen (1998), Murray S. Simpson and Shireen E. Carroll (1999) and David Carless (2006) to large macroeconomics classes. The key aspect of this program was its collaborative nature, with staff from two specialist…

Docherty, Peter; Tse, Harry; Forman, Ross; McKenzie, Jo

2010-01-01

41

Typical and large-deviation properties of minimum-energy paths on disordered hierarchical lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform numerical simulations to study the optimal path problem on disordered hierarchical graphs with effective dimension d eff ? 2.32. Therein, edge energies are drawn from a disorder distribution that allows for positive and negative energies. This induces a behavior which is fundamentally different from the case where all energies are positive, only. Upon changing the subtleties of the distribution, the scaling of the minimum energy path length exhibits a transition from self-affine to self-similar. We analyze the precise scaling of the path length and the associated ground-state energy fluctuations in the vicinity of the disorder critical point, using a decimation procedure for huge graphs. Further, using an importance sampling procedure in the disorder we compute the negative-energy tails of the ground-state energy distribution up to 12 standard deviations away from its mean. We find that the asymptotic behavior of the negative-energy tail is in agreement with a Tracy-Widom distribution. Further, the characteristic scaling of the tail can be related to the ground-state energy flucutations, similar as for the directed polymer in a random medium.

Melchert, O.; Hartmann, A. K.

2013-07-01

42

Sample-Path Large Deviations for Tandem and Priority Queues with Gaussian Inputs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper considers Gaussian flows multiplexed in a queueing network. A single node being a useful but often incomplete setting, we examine more advanced models. We focus on a (two-node) tandem queue, fed by a large number of Gaussian inputs. With servic...

M. J. G. Van Uitert M. R. H. Mandjes

2004-01-01

43

LYAPOUNOV EXPONENTS AND QUENCHED LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR MULTIDIMENSIONAL RANDOM WALK IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

tors z, z e whose entries take values in the open unit interval e1 Ž. and add up to one. Given a realization of this environment, let X nn 0 be a Markov chain on d which, when at z, moves one step to its neighbor Ž. z e with transition probability z, z e . We derive a large

MARTIN P. W. ZERNER; Zurich ETH

1997-01-01

44

[Penis deviation].  

PubMed

Penile deviation has been gaining in importance as a symptom of several diseases. There are congenital forms (congenital penile deviation, hypo- and epispadias) as well as acquired forms (induratio penis plastica, traumatic deviation, urethral manipulation syndrome). History and autophotography are the most important diagnostic procedures. The therapeutic procedure is corporaplasty according to Nesbit-Kelâmi. PMID:4012944

Kelâmi, A

1985-05-01

45

First-principles investigation of deviations from Matthiessen's rule due to the interplay of phonon and spin disorder scattering in iron and gadolinium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic materials contain an anomalous contribution to the electrical resistivity due to thermal spin fluctuations, which saturates in the disordered phase and is called the spin-disorder resistivity (SDR). Experimental determination of the SDR involves fitting to high-temperature resistivity data and extrapolating to T=0 K. Recent calculations of the SDR of the heavy rare-earth metals revealed strong underestimations of this quantity, particularly for Gd, while the results for transition metals were in good agreement with experiments. In order to understand this discrepancy, here we evaluate the mutual effects of phonon and spin-disorder scattering in Fe and Gd. Calculations are performed using the supercell approach within the linear muffin-tin orbital method. The atomic positions are displaced according to the Gaussian distribution, and the resistivity is evaluated as a function of the mean-square displacement 2?T. The deviations from Matthiessen's rule (DMR) are large in Gd and moderate in Fe. Fitting the linear region of ? vs 2? in Gd yields an intercept ˜2.5 times larger than the ``bare'' SDR, significantly improving the agreement with experiment. Large DMR suggest large variations of the relaxation time on the anisotropic Fermi surface.

Glasbrenner, James; Belashchenko, Kirill

2013-03-01

46

Principles for Organizing Semantic Relations in Large Knowledge Bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defines principles for organizing semantic relations represented by slots in frame-structured knowledge bases. We organize slots based on the knowledge-level semantics of relations and the symbol-level function of slots that implement the representation language. The symbol-level organization of slots depends on the inferencing and expressive capabilities of the knowledge representation system. At the knowledge level, two entirely different organizational schemes

Larry M. Stephens; Yufeng F. Chen

1996-01-01

47

Applying person-centred principles to teaching large classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was carried out of final-year undergraduate responses to innovations in a seminar class of 54 students to determine whether positive learning outcomes in large classes can be made possible by increasing the range of work in which students are involved. Relatively straightforward adjustments to approach and style produced positive learning outcomes, enabling students to acquire enthusiastically and effectively

John Barkham; Frances Elender

1995-01-01

48

Particle multiplicities at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and deviations from limiting fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

The pseudorapidity density of charged particles produced at collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are predicted by using two complementary production mechanisms with a set of consistent integrated and unintegrated parton distributions. We discuss the limiting fragmentation hypothesis and its possible violation, and we compare our model with other partonic models.

Ruan Jianhong; Zhu Wei [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

2010-05-15

49

A variational principle for ascent shapes of large scientific balloons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascent shapes of large scientific balloons possess a number of well-defined features, including (F1) a spherical top, (F2) a lobe pattern surrounding the gas bubble, (F3) internally folded material within the gas bubble, and (F4) flat wing-like structures in the lower portion of the balloon. The standard ?-shape model for a balloon assumes an axisymmetric solution and is inadequate for

F. Baginski

1996-01-01

50

Large deviations from the polarization-analyzing power equality and implied breakdown of time reversal invariance. [14 MeV  

SciTech Connect

The first test that compares the polarization (P) and the analyzing power (A) from measurements in a nuclear reaction and its inverse is reported. The reactions chosen for the P-A comparisons were the two-nucleon transfers /sup 7/Li(/sup 3/He,p)/sup 9/Be and /sup 9/Be(/sup 3/He,p)/sup 11/B, with 14-MeV incident /sup 3/He ions, and their inverses studied at the same CM energies. An astonishingly large P-A difference is found. The clear implication is that time-reversal invariance (TRI) is broken in some component of the nuclear interaction, since the polarization-analyzing power equality follows directly from TRI. 5 figures. (RWR)

Conzett, H.E.

1980-09-01

51

Implementing the "Marketing You" Project in Large Sections of Principles of Marketing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is mounting pressure on business education to increase experiential learning at the same time that budget constraints are forcing universities to increase class size. This article explains the design and implementation of the "Marketing You" project in two large sections of Principles of Marketing to bring experiential learning into the…

Smith, Karen H.

2004-01-01

52

Implementing the "Marketing You" Project in Large Sections of Principles of Marketing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is mounting pressure on business education to increase experiential learning at the same time that budget constraints are forcing universities to increase class size. This article explains the design and implementation of the "Marketing You" project in two large sections of Principles of Marketing to bring experiential learning into the…

Smith, Karen H.

2004-01-01

53

Discrete conservation principles in large-eddy simulation with application to separation control over an airfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unstructured-grid large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is used to investigate the turbulent flow separation over an airfoil with and without synthetic-jet control. Numerical accuracy and stability on arbitrary shaped mesh elements at high Reynolds numbers are achieved using a finite-volume discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations based on higher-order conservation principles-i.e., in addition to mass and momentum conservation, kinetic energy

Donghyun You; Frank Ham; Parviz Moin

2008-01-01

54

Evaluation of variational principle based model for LDPE large scale film blowing process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, variational principle based film blowing model combined with Pearson and Petrie formulation, considering non-isothermal processing conditions and novel generalized Newtonian model allowing to capture steady shear and uniaxial extensional viscosities has been validated by using experimentally determined bubble shape and velocity profile for LDPE sample on large scale film blowing line. It has been revealed that the minute change in the flow activation energy can significantly influence the film stretching level.

Kolarik, Roman; Zatloukal, Martin

2013-04-01

55

Quantum electrodynamics at large distances. I. Extracting the correspondence-principle part  

SciTech Connect

In quantum electrodynamics a classical or correspondence-principle part of the {ital S} matrix is normally factored out in order to obtain a remainder that can be treated perturbatively without the occurrence of infrared divergences. However, this separation, as usually performed, introduces spurious large-distance effects that produce an apparent breakdown of the important correspondence between stable particles and poles of the {ital S} matrix, and, in fact, lead to violations of the correspondence principle and to incorrent results for computations in the mesoscopic domain lying between the atomic and classical regimes. A computational technique is developed here that allows valid results to be calculated in this domain. It is shown in this article, and in paper II, in the context of a special example, how to extract a distinguished part of the {ital S} matrix that meets the requirements of the correspondence principle, of the pole-particle correspondence, and of infrared finiteness. In paper III the terms of the perturbatively treated remainder are shown to vanish, relative to this distinguished part, in the appropriate macroscopic limits. Thus this work provides both a needed computational technique and a confirmation in quantum electrodynamics of the validity of the correspondence principle and of the pole-particle correspondence, at least in the special case treated here in detail.

Kawai, T. [Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); Stapp, H.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1995-08-15

56

Coarse graining approach to First principles modeling of radiation cascade in large Fe super-cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First principles techniques employed to understand systems at an atomistic level are not practical for large systems consisting of millions of atoms. We present an efficient coarse graining approach to bridge the first principles calculations of local electronic properties to classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of large structures. Local atomic magnetic moments in crystalline Fe are perturbed by radiation generated defects. The effects are most pronounced near the defect core and decay with distance. We develop a coarse grained technique based on the Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) method that exploits the near-sightedness of the electron Green function. The atomic positions were determined by MD with an embedded atom force field. The local moments in the neighborhood of the defect cores are calculated with first-principles based on full local structure information. Atoms in the rest of the system are modeled by representative atoms with approximated properties. This work was supported by the Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Nicholson, Don; Rusanu, Aurelian; Wang, Yang; Stoller, Roger; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Stocks, George

2012-02-01

57

Principles of arthroscopic repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive arthroscopic techniques for rotator cuff tears have been greatly advanced during the past decade. It is important to review the clinical presentation and common physical findings of a large or massive rotator cuff tear, essential preoperative imaging, and the principles and technical aspects of all-arthroscopic repair. An anatomic repair of the footprint must begin with an understanding of the three-dimensional morphology of the rotator cuff tear and an accurate reduction of the tear. A contracted, immobile massive rotator cuff tear is challenging. Advanced arthroscopic mobilization techniques and margin convergence principles may allow repair of an otherwise irreparable tear. Failure of tendon healing is common but can be minimized by using dual-row, transosseous-equivalent techniques. A relatively slow rehabilitation program is paramount to protect the repair. The result of using arthroscopic techniques for a large or massive rotator cuff tear is comparable to that of a traditional open repair. Pain relief has been a far more reliable result than gains in function or strength. PMID:20415385

MacDonald, Peter B; Altamimi, Sahal

2010-01-01

58

Generalized deviations in risk analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

General deviation measures are introduced and studied sys- tematically for their potential applications to risk management in areas like portfolio optimization and engineering. Such measures include standard de- viation as a special case but need not be symmetric with respect to ups and downs. Their properties are explored with a mind to generating a large assortment of examples and assessing

R. Tyrrell Rockafellar; Stan Uryasev; Michael Zabarankin

2006-01-01

59

Large magnetocrystalline anisotropy in bilayer transition metal phases from first-principles full-potential calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational framework of this study is based on the local-spin-density approximation with first-principles full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital calculations including orbital polarization (OP) correction. We have studied the magnetic anisotropy for a series of bilayer CuAu(I)-type materials such as FeX, MnX (X=Ni,Pd,Pt), CoPt, NiPt, MnHg, and MnRh in a ferromagnetic state using experimental structural parameters to understand the microscopic origin of magnetic-anisotropy energy (MAE) in magnetic multilayers. Except for MnRh and MnHg, all these phases show perpendicular magnetization. We have analyzed our results in terms of angular momentum-, spin- and site-projected density of states, magnetic-angular-momentum-projected density of states, orbital-moment density of states, and total density of states. The orbital-moment number of states and the orbital-moment anisotropy for FeX (X=Ni,Pd,Pt) are calculated as a function of band filling to study its effect on MAE. The total and site-projected spin and orbital moments for all these systems are calculated with and without OP when the magnetization is along or perpendicular to the plane. The results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical results. Our calculations show that OP always enhances the orbital moment in these phases and brings them closer to experimental values. The changes in MAE are analyzed in terms of exchange splitting, spin-orbit splitting, and tetragonal distortion/crystal-field splitting. The calculated MAE is found to be in good agreement with experimental values when the OP correction is included. Some of the materials considered here show large magnetic anisotropy of the order of meV. In particular we found that MnPt will have a very large MAE if it could be stabilized in a ferromagnetic configuration. Our analysis indicates that apart from large spin-orbit interaction and exchange interaction from at least one of the constituents, a large crystal-field splitting originating from the tetragonal distortion is also a necessary condition for having large magnetic anisotropy in these materials. Our calculation predicts large orbital moment in the hard axis in the case of FePt, MnRh, and MnHg against expectation.

Ravindran, P.; Kjekshus, A.; Fjellvåg, H.; James, P.; Nordström, L.; Johansson, B.; Eriksson, O.

2001-04-01

60

Aspect and Deviation Angle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, an attempt is made to define aspect angle and deviation angle in a logical and acceptable manner; second, a graphical calculator is supplied in the hope that it will make the calculation of these angles so simp...

T. A. Croft

1964-01-01

61

Clickenomics: Using a Classroom Response System to Increase Student Engagement in a Large-Enrollment Principles of Economics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the most important challenges facing college instructors of economics is helping students engage. Engagement is particularly important in a large-enrollment Principles of Economics course, where it can help students achieve a long-lived understanding of how economists use basic economic ideas to look at the world. The author reports how…

Salemi, Michael K.

2009-01-01

62

Clickenomics: Using a Classroom Response System to Increase Student Engagement in a Large-Enrollment Principles of Economics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most important challenges facing college instructors of economics is helping students engage. Engagement is particularly important in a large-enrollment Principles of Economics course, where it can help students achieve a long-lived understanding of how economists use basic economic ideas to look at the world. The author reports how…

Salemi, Michael K.

2009-01-01

63

Application of layer-by-layer solidification principle to optimization of large chain wheel foundry technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to get a sound casting of the alloy with a solidification range, the principle of directional solidification (DS)\\u000a and the layer-by-layer solidification(LBLS) should be followed, especially in designing foundry process of steel casting.\\u000a Using the principles, the reasons for the forming of the defects on the surface of the chain wheels teeth and groove and the\\u000a forming of

Ri Li; Xie-Min Mao; Bai-Cheng Liu; Wen-Zhen Li

2003-01-01

64

Biological Product Deviation Guidances & Rules  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Biological Product Deviation Guidances & Rules. ... (301) 827-6220. bp_deviations@fda.hhs.gov. Biological Product Deviation Reporting (CBER) ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/reportaproblem

65

Quantum electrodynamics at large distances. III. Verification of pole factorization and the correspondence principle  

SciTech Connect

In papers I and II it was shown how to separate out from a scattering function in quantum electrodynamics a distinguished part that meets the correspondence-principle and pole-factorization requirements. The integrals that define the terms of the remainder are here shown to have singularities on the pertinent Landau singularity surface that are weaker than those of the distinguished part. These remainder terms therefore vanish, relative to the distinguished term, in the appropriate macroscopic limits. This shows, in each order of the perturbative expansion, that quantum electrodynamics does indeed satisfy the pole-factorization and correspondence-principle requirements in the case treated here. It also demonstrates the efficacy of the computational techniques developed here to calculate the consequences of the principles of quantum electrodynamics in the macroscopic and mesoscopic regimes.

Kawai, T. [Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); Stapp, H.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1995-08-15

66

Between same-sex marriages and the Large Hadron Collider: making sense of the precautionary principle.  

PubMed

The Precautionary Principle is a guide to coping with scientific uncertainties in the assessment and management of risks. In recent years, it has moved to the forefront of debates in policy and applied ethics, becoming a key normative tool in policy discussions in such diverse areas as medical and scientific research, health and safety regulation, environmental regulation, product development, international trade, and even judicial review. The principle has attracted critics who claim that it is fundamentally incoherent, too vague to guide policy, and makes demands that are logically and scientifically impossible. In this paper we will answer these criticisms by formulating guidelines for its application that ensure its coherence as a useful normative guide in applied and policy ethics debates. We will also provide analyses of cases that demonstrate how our version of the principle functions in practice. PMID:19757190

Petrenko, Anton; McArthur, Dan

2009-09-12

67

Power fluctuations, large deviations and turbulence  

SciTech Connect

We study local power fluctuations in numerical simulations of stationary, homogenous, isotropic turbulence in two and three dimensions with Gaussian forcing. Due to the near-Gaussianity of the one-point velocity distribution, the probability distribution function (pdf) of the local power is well modeled by the pdf of the product of two joint normally distributed variables. In appropriate units, this distribution is calculated exactly and shown to satisfy a Fluctuation Relation (FR) with a coefficient which depends on {epsilon}.

Bandi, Mahesh M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chumakov, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Connaughton, Colm P [U OF WARWICK, UK

2008-01-01

68

Large labour wards live up to 'best practice' principle and record fewer medical claims.  

PubMed

Large labour wards handling 3,000 to 3,999 deliveries annually have lower rates of successful obstetric injury claims from patients compared to smaller or very large obstetric units, reveals a study from Denmark. PMID:24063462

2013-09-25

69

On managing large scale projects: Some simple principles for developing complex systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly changing technologies, increased competitive and environmental pressures, and more complex organizational missions have placed enormous challenges on today's software and hardware systems developers to produce their systems in a timely and cost effective manner. Regrettably, in our haste to respond to this challenge, we have tended to focus more on symptoms than causes. The results have generally been unsatisfying, producing a set of often complicated, impractical, and sometimes disappointing or even unsatisfactory development methods and tools. The nature of complexity is examined in the context of the hurdles faced by the developers of more sophisticated and higher performing computer-based systems. The pathological effects of complexity on system development are explored through a general model. With this discussion as a basis, we adduce a set of simple principles and offer examples of development methods from the aerospace and computer industries, which have proven highly effective in managing system development at the ``complexity frontier''.

Manzo, John

1987-08-01

70

Spatio-temporal spike train analysis for large scale networks using the maximum entropy principle and Monte Carlo method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dynamics of neural networks is a major challenge in experimental neuroscience. For that purpose, a modelling of the recorded activity that reproduces the main statistics of the data is required. In the first part, we present a review on recent results dealing with spike train statistics analysis using maximum entropy models (MaxEnt). Most of these studies have focused on modelling synchronous spike patterns, leaving aside the temporal dynamics of the neural activity. However, the maximum entropy principle can be generalized to the temporal case, leading to Markovian models where memory effects and time correlations in the dynamics are properly taken into account. In the second part, we present a new method based on Monte Carlo sampling which is suited for the fitting of large-scale spatio-temporal MaxEnt models. The formalism and the tools presented here will be essential to fit MaxEnt spatio-temporal models to large neural ensembles.

Nasser, Hassan; Marre, Olivier; Cessac, Bruno

2013-03-01

71

Large scale atomistic first principles study of adsorption and surface diffusion  

SciTech Connect

Computer simulation of atomistic processes is an important tool in understanding the properties of condensed matter at a microscopic level. The best way to reproduce the rich variety of experimentally observed effects in the simulation is to use the quantum mechanical description of the ion-electron interactions in a solid. Such calculations although increasingly popular make high demands on the computing power available. The systems of practical interest to surface physics include at least hundreds (or even thousands) of atoms, and their ab initio study inevitably requires parallel supercomputers. In this paper the authors describe the total energy calculations of the adsorption and migration properties of a single Ge adatom on the Si(100) surface. This system is typical in complexity for modern large scale simulations and presents a good test case to show the methodology and its application to surface science problems.

Milman, V.; Pennycook, S.J.; Jesson, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Payne, M.C.; Stich, I.; Lee, M.H. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

1994-02-01

72

AN EXTENSION OF SANOV'S THEOREM. APPLICATION TO THE GIBBS CONDITIONING PRINCIPLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large deviation principle is proved for the empirical mea- sures of independent identically distributed random variables with a topol- ogy based on functions having only some exponential moments. The rate function diers from the usual relative entropy: It involves linear forms which are no longer measures. Following D.W. Stroock and O. Zeitouni, the Gibbs Conditioning Principle (GCP) is then

CHRISTIAN L ´; JAMAL NAJIM; Batiment G

2000-01-01

73

48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and the nature of the deviation. (d) The DSPE may authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR when an individual deviation is in the best interest of the Government. When the DSPE authorizes a deviation, the contracting...

2011-10-01

74

48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and the nature of the deviation. (d) The DSPE may authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR when an individual deviation is in the best interest of the Government. When the DSPE authorizes a deviation, the contracting...

2012-10-01

75

Reflected beam's direction deviation induced by the corner cube retroreflector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direction deviation of the reflected beam induced by the corner cube retroreflector (CCR) is respectively discussed by geometrical optics approach and the principle of physical optics in this paper. A mathematical model was built to calculate the beam's aberration due to the fabrication errors of the CCR. It can be concluded that the centroid direction error of far field spot is much more appropriate to describe the reflection beam's direction deviation for a broad incident beam, and the beam with even intensity distribution should be used to reduce its direction deviation.

Huang, Jian; Xian, Hao; Jang, Wenhan

2008-12-01

76

Standard Deviation for Small Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

2006-01-01

77

48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...deviations. 1301.403 Section 1301.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations....

2011-10-01

78

48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations....

2011-10-01

79

48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations....

2012-10-01

80

48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Individual deviations. 3001.403 Section 3001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations...

2012-10-01

81

48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Class deviations. 3001.404 Section 3001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations...

2011-10-01

82

Electronic Submission of Biological Product Deviation Reports ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Electronic Submission of Biological Product Deviation Reports (eBPDR). Biological Product Deviation Reports can now ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/reportaproblem

83

Development of a first-principles code based on the screened KKR method for large super-cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The procedures of performing first-principles electronic structure calculation using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) and the screened KKR methods are reviewed with an emphasis put on their numerical efficiency. It is shown that an iterative matrix inversion combined with a suitable preconditioning greatly improves the computational time of screened KKR method. The method is well parallelized and also has an O(N) scaling property.

Doi, S.; Ogura, M.; Akai, H.

2013-08-01

84

Surgical Management of Dissociated Deviations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Dissociated deviation (DD) manifests as a slow, intermittent, and variable vertical (DVD), horizontal (DHD), and torsional\\u000a (DTD) movement. It is usually found in patients with early onset strabismus and profound sensorial anomalies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The treatment for patients with DD requires a specific surgical approach to improve the vertical, horizontal, and torsional\\u000a misalignment simultaneously.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DVD neither disappears nor improves

Susana Gamio

85

Mental disorders and public safety of the community at large--does the Tarasoff principle apply in Singapore?  

PubMed

The Tarasoff Principle is a legal ruling arising out of the Tarasoff case in California, in which 2 therapists were found by a court to be negligent for not warning an intended victim of a threat to her by their mentally disordered patient, and she was subsequently killed. The 2 therapists were deemed to have an obligation to protect an intended victim of a patient who presented a serious danger of violence. The question is whether this would apply under Singapore law, and whether an act of disclosure to protect a victim would be a breach of confidentiality and the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:12161895

Kok, L P; Yap, H L; Cheang, M

2002-07-01

86

48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual...

2012-10-01

87

48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual...

2011-10-01

88

48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

2012-10-01

89

48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

2012-10-01

90

48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

2011-10-01

91

48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

2011-10-01

92

Phonon-isotope scattering and thermal conductivity in materials with a large isotope effect: A first-principles study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interplay between phonon-isotope and phonon-phonon scattering in determining lattice thermal conductivities in semiconductors and insulators is examined using an ab initio Boltzmann transport equation approach. We identify materials with large enhancements to their thermal conductivities with isotopic purification, known as the isotope effect, and we focus in particular on results for beryllium-VI compounds and cubic germanium carbide. We find that germanium carbide and beryllium selenide have very large room temperature isotope effects of 450%, far larger than in any other material. Thus, isotopic purification in these materials gives surprisingly high intrinsic room temperature thermal conductivities, over 1500 Wm?1 K?1 for germanium carbide and over 600 Wm?1 K?1 for beryllium selenide, well above those of the best metals. In compound semiconductors, a large mass ratio of the constituent atoms and large isotope mixture for the heavier atom gives enhanced isotope scattering. A frequency gap between acoustic and optic phonons (also due to a large mass ratio) and bunching of the acoustic phonon branches give weak anharmonic scattering. Combined, weak anharmonic phonon scattering and strong isotope scattering give a large isotope effect in the materials examined here. The physical insights discussed in this work will help guide the efficient manipulation of thermal transport properties of compound semiconductors through isotopic modification.

Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Reinecke, T. L.

2013-10-01

93

48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e)...

2012-10-01

94

48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e)...

2011-10-01

95

48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...deviation is submitted through the Director, DAMS. (b) Requests for deviations under...For a FAR class deviation the Director, DAMS will consult with the Chair of the CAAC...to the FAR Secretariat by the Director, DAMS as required in FAR...

2012-10-01

96

48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...deviation is submitted through the Director, DAMS. (b) Requests for deviations under...For a FAR class deviation the Director, DAMS will consult with the Chair of the CAAC...to the FAR Secretariat by the Director, DAMS as required in FAR...

2011-10-01

97

Resist hardening without surface deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a novel technique for hardening micro-optical resist elements, like beam-shaping elements or micro lenses, with large profile depths before proportional transfer into the fused silica substrate. This technique allows to harden the resist with only small distorsions of the height profile. For demonstration a refractive beam shaper was designed and fabricated in photo-resist using gray-tone lithography. This

Holger Hartung; Matthias Cumme; Mike Thieme; Ernst-Bernhard Kley; Andreas Tünnermann

2003-01-01

98

High sensitivity of 17O NMR to p-d hybridization in transition metal perovskites: First principles calculations of large anisotropic chemical shielding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first principles embedded cluster approach is used to calculate O chemical shielding tensors, ??, in prototypical transition metal oxide ABO3 perovskite crystals. Our principal findings are (1) a large anisotropy of ?? between deshielded ?x~=?y and shielded ?z components (z along the Ti-O bond); (2) a nearly linear variation, across all the systems studied, of the isotropic ?iso and uniaxial ?ax components, as a function of the B-O-B bond asymmetry. We show that the anisotropy and linear variation arise from large paramagnetic contributions to ?x and ?y due to virtual transitions between O(2p) and unoccupied B(nd) states. The calculated isotropic ?iso and uniaxial ?ax chemical shifts are in good agreement with recent BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 single crystal 17O NMR measurements. In PbTiO3 and PbZrO3, calculated ?iso are also in good agreement with NMR powder spectrum measurements. In PbZrO3, ?iso calculations of the five chemically distinct sites indicate a correction of the experimental assignments. The strong dependence of ?? on covalent O(2p)-B(nd) interactions seen in our calculations indicates that 17O NMR spectroscopy, coupled with first principles calculations, can be an especially useful tool to study the local structure in complex perovskite alloys.

Pechkis, Daniel L.; Walter, Eric J.; Krakauer, Henry

2009-11-01

99

Prediction of a large number of electron pockets near the band edges in type-VIII clathrate Si46 and its physical properties from first principles.  

PubMed

The material design of type-VIII clathrate Si46 is presented based on first principles. The structural, electronic, elastic, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of this hypothetical material are presented. Our results predict that type-VIII clathrate Si46 is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.24 eV. The band structure revealed an interestingly large number of electron pockets near both conduction and valance band edges. Such a large density of states near the band edges, which is higher than that of the best thermoelectric materials discovered so far, can result in a large thermoelectric power factor (>0.004 W m(-1) K(-2)) making it a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications. The elastic properties as well as the vibrational modes and the phonon state densities of this material were also calculated. Our calculations predict that the heat capacity at constant volume (isochoric) of this clathrate increases smoothly with temperature and approaches the Dulong-Petit value near room temperature. The electronic band structure shows a large number of valleys closely packed around the valance band edge, which is rare among the known semiconducting materials. These valleys can contribute to transport at high temperature resulting in a possibly high performance (ZT > 1.5) p-type thermoelectric material. PMID:24172765

Norouzzadeh, Payam; Myles, Charles W; Vashaee, Daryoosh

2013-10-31

100

Biological Product Deviation Reporting - Blood Product Codes  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. ... Biological Product Deviation Reporting - Blood Product Codes. DB01 - Whole Blood DB05 ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/reportaproblem

101

Large Deviations of Square Root Insensitive Random Sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

? x and have zero relative decrease in intervals of length ?x, hence square root insensitive. Using this result we derive the asymptotic characterization of the busy period distribution in the stable GI\\/G\\/1 queue with square root insensitive service times; this characterization further implies that the tail behavior of the busy period exhibits a functional change for distributions that are

Predrag R. Jelenkovic; Petar Momcilovic

2004-01-01

102

Ray path deviation in a nonhemispherical dome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calculation is presented for meridional rays of the ray path deviation in a conformal dome in which both the shape of the inner and outer surfaces are specified in detail so as to examine under what conditions the ray path deviation might be minimized by independently adjusting the shape of the inner surface. Specific results are given for the

Richard I. Joseph; Michael E. Thomas

2001-01-01

103

Bernoulli's Principle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

Hewitt, Paul G.

2004-01-01

104

48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...304(4). (2) Contracting officers outside the United States may deviate from prescribed nonstatutory FAR and...as described in 10 U.S.C. 2341(2)), or with United Nations or NATO organizations; and (ii) Such...

2012-10-01

105

15 CFR 14.4 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 14.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes of...

2012-01-01

106

49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 19.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes of...

2012-10-01

107

14 CFR 1260.104 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations General § 1260.104 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes of...

2012-01-01

108

36 CFR 1210.4 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 1210.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes of...

2012-07-01

109

45 CFR 2543.4 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 2543.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes of...

2011-10-01

110

49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 19.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes of...

2011-10-01

111

43 CFR 12.904 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations...Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...Assistant Secretary-Policy, Management, and Budget. Federal awarding...

2012-10-01

112

45 CFR 2543.4 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 2543.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes of...

2012-10-01

113

43 CFR 12.904 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations...Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions...Assistant Secretary-Policy, Management, and Budget. Federal awarding...

2011-10-01

114

36 CFR 1210.4 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 1210.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes of...

2011-07-01

115

41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When...containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with this...HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle control should take into...

2013-01-01

116

Static ocular counterroll reflex in skew deviation  

PubMed Central

Objective: The static ocular counterroll (OCR) reflex generates partially compensatory torsional eye movements during head roll. It is mediated by the utricle in the inner ear. Skew deviation is a vertical strabismus thought to be caused by imbalance in the utriculo-ocular pathway. We hypothesized that if skew deviation is indeed caused by damage to this reflex pathway, patients with skew deviation would show abnormal OCR. Methods: Eighteen patients with skew deviation caused by brainstem or cerebellar lesions and 18 normal participants viewed a target at 1 m. Ocular responses to static passive head roll-tilts of approximately 20° were recorded using search coils. Static OCR gain was calculated as the change in torsional eye position divided by the change in head position during sustained head roll. Perception of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) was also measured. Results: Group mean OCR gain was reduced by 45% in patients. At an individual level, OCR gains were asymmetric between eyes and between torsional directions in 90% of patients. In addition, the hypotropic eye incyclotorting gain was lower than the hypertropic eye excyclotorting gain during head roll toward the hypotropic eye in 94% of patients. No consistent pattern of gain asymmetry was found during head roll toward the hypertropic eye. The SVV was tilted toward the hypotropic eye. Conclusion: Static OCR gain is significantly reduced in skew deviation. Interocular and directional gain asymmetries are also prevalent. The asymmetries provide further evidence that disruption of the utriculo-ocular pathway is a mechanism for skew deviation.

Chandrakumar, M.; Blakeman, A.; Goltz, H.C.; Sharpe, J.A.

2011-01-01

117

Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift  

SciTech Connect

We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.

Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Peters, Achim [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2011-04-15

118

Variability of gait characterized by normalized deviation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sport, age and different orthopeadical diseases on the variability of gait. 45 healthy, young subjects, 11 professional hand ball players, 24 patients after medial meniscectomy, 20 elderly, healthy subjects, and 20 patients with hip osteoarthritis were examined. The average, the standard deviation and the normalized deviation of spatial and temporal parameters were calculated for each person examined and in each group. Our data suggested that the normalized deviation of parameters enables the modelling of dynamic perception, because it is independent of parameter values due to normalization. Our tests show that the size of the parameter is independent of lateral dominance in healthy subjects. The magnitude of the coefficient of the variation of parameters depends on age, on the intensity of sports activities, and on orthopaedical diseases. PMID:20653320

Kiss, Rita

2010-01-01

119

The Standard Deviation in Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard deviation (SD) in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has been mostly neglected in applications. However, the knowledge of the correct SD is necessary for an accurate data evaluation, especially when fitting theoretical models to experimental data. In this work, an algorithm is presented that considers the essential features of FCS. It allows prediction of the performance of FCS measurements

Thorsten Wohland; Rudolf Rigler; Horst Vogel

2001-01-01

120

Manifestations of Deviation in the Adolescent Subculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article the authors look at questions relating to school students' attitudes toward types of deviation such as smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotics. The empirical material is divided into the following topics: how widespread these forms of behavior are; motives that cause adolescents to start smoking, using alcohol, and taking…

Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.

2005-01-01

121

Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

2012-01-01

122

Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

2012-01-01

123

48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the FAR and the EPAAR shall be submitted to the Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) for approval. Requests submitted shall cite the specific part of the FAR or EPAAR from which it is desired to deviate, shall set forth the nature of the...

2011-10-01

124

Relativistic epicycles: another approach to geodesic deviations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve the geodesic deviation equations for the orbital motions in the Schwarzschild metric which are close to a circular orbit. It turns out that in this particular case the equations reduce to a linear system, which after diagonalization describes just a collection of harmonic oscillators with two characteristic frequencies. The new geodesic obtained by adding this solution to the

R. Kerner; J. W. van Holten; R. Colistete J

2001-01-01

125

The LARGE Principle of Cellular Reprogramming: Lost, Acquired and Retained Gene Expression in Foreskin and Amniotic Fluid-Derived Human iPS Cells  

PubMed Central

Human amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) are routinely obtained for prenatal diagnostics procedures. Recently, it has been illustrated that these cells may also serve as a valuable model system to study developmental processes and for application in regenerative therapies. Cellular reprogramming is a means of assigning greater value to primary AFCs by inducing self-renewal and pluripotency and, thus, bypassing senescence. Here, we report the generation and characterization of human amniotic fluid-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (AFiPSCs) and demonstrate their ability to differentiate into the trophoblast lineage after stimulation with BMP2/BMP4. We further carried out comparative transcriptome analyses of primary human AFCs, AFiPSCs, fibroblast-derived iPSCs (FiPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This revealed that the expression of key senescence-associated genes are down-regulated upon the induction of pluripotency in primary AFCs (AFiPSCs). By defining distinct and overlapping gene expression patterns and deriving the LARGE (Lost, Acquired and Retained Gene Expression) Principle of Cellular Reprogramming, we could further highlight that AFiPSCs, FiPSCs and ESCs share a core self-renewal gene regulatory network driven by OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. Nevertheless, these cell types are marked by distinct gene expression signatures. For example, expression of the transcription factors, SIX6, EGR2, PKNOX2, HOXD4, HOXD10, DLX5 and RAXL1, known to regulate developmental processes, are retained in AFiPSCs and FiPSCs. Surprisingly, expression of the self-renewal-associated gene PRDM14 or the developmental processes-regulating genes WNT3A and GSC are restricted to ESCs. Implications of this, with respect to the stability of the undifferentiated state and long-term differentiation potential of iPSCs, warrant further studies.

Wolfrum, Katharina; Wang, Ying; Prigione, Alessandro; Sperling, Karl; Lehrach, Hans; Adjaye, James

2010-01-01

126

Fast Computation of Time Deviation and Modified Allan Deviation for Telecommunications Clock Stability Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time and frequency characterization of precision clocks and oscillators is an important task in the maintenance of time and frequency standards. Recently, time domain signal characterization of clocks is generally preferred and several performance measures of clocks and oscillators are defined in ITU-T Recommendation G.810. Among these measures, maximum time interval error (MTIE), time deviation (TDEV) and modified Allan deviation

Mingfu Li; Hsin-min Peng; Chia-shu Liao

2000-01-01

127

Predicting deviations in software quality by using relative critical value deviation metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new metric, relative critical value deviation (RCVD), for classifying and predicting software quality. The RCVD is based on the concept that the extent to which a metric's value deviates from its critical value, normalized by the scale of the metric, indicates the degree to which the item being measured does not conform to a specified norm. For

Norman F. Schneidewind; A. P. Nikora

1999-01-01

128

High sensitivity of ^17O NMR to p-d hybridization in transition metal perovskites: first principles calculations of large anisotropic chemical shielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

First principles calculations are used to show that O chemical shielding tensors, sigma, are a sensitive indicator of local structure in transition metal ABO3 perovskites, due to their strong dependence on covalent O(2p)-B(nd) interactions.footnotetextPechkis et al., JCP 131, 184511 (2009); references therein. This indicates that ^17O NMR spectroscopy, coupled with first principles calculations, can be an especially useful tool to

Daniel L. Pechkis; Eric J. Walter; Henry Krakauer

2010-01-01

129

Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary, suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, here we report a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of a subbasin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We generalize this relationship to a joint probability density, and provide observations and explanations of deviations from scaling. We show that fluctuations about scaling are substantial, and grow with system size. We find strong deviations from scaling at small scales which can be explained by the existence of a linear network structure. At intermediate scales, we find slow drifts in exponent values, indicating that scaling is only approximately obeyed and that universality remains indeterminate. At large scales, we observe a breakdown in scaling due to decreasing sample space and correlations with overall basin shape. The extent of approximate scaling is significantly restricted by these deviations, and will not be improved by increases in network resolution.

Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.

2001-01-01

130

Geodesic deviation equation in f ( R) gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the Geodesic Deviation Equation (GDE) in metric f ( R) gravity. We start giving a brief introduction of the GDE in General Relativity in the case of the standard cosmology. Next we generalize the GDE for metric f ( R) gravity using again the FLRW metric. A generalization of the Mattig relation is also obtained. Finally we give and equivalent expression to the Dyer-Roeder equation in General Relativity in the context of f ( R) gravity.

Guarnizo, Alejandro; Castañeda, Leonardo; Tejeiro, Juan M.

2011-10-01

131

Deviation from ?CDM with cosmic strings networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we consider a network of cosmic strings to explain a possible deviation from ?CDM behaviour. We use different observational data to constrain the model and show that a small but non-zero contribution from the string network is allowed by the observational data, which can result in a reasonable departure from ?CDM evolution. But by calculating the Bayesian evidence, we show that the present data still strongly favour the concordance ?CDM model irrespective of the choice of the prior.

Kumar, Sumit; Nautiyal, Akhilesh; Sen, Anjan A.

2013-09-01

132

Pascal's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from HyperPhysics provides a description of Pascal's Principle, which explains how pressure is transmitted in an enclosed fluid. Drawings and sample calculations are provided. Examples illustrating the principle include a hydraulic press and an automobile hydraulic lift.

Nave, Carl R.

2011-11-28

133

Principles for Large-Scale Classroom-Based Teacher Assessment of English Learners' Language: An Initial Framework from School-Based Assessment in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Davison and Leung (this issue) describe the field of teacher-based English language assessment as having "much variability, a lack of systematic principles and procedures and a dearth of information as to the impact of teacher-based assessments on learning and teaching" (p. 389). In this article, the author briefly explores an example of…

Hamp-Lyons, Liz

2009-01-01

134

Geodesic deviation equation in Bianchi cosmologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Geodesic Deviation Equation (GDE) for the Friedmann Robertson Walker(FRW) universe and we compare it with the equation for Bianchi type I model. We justify consider this cosmological model due to the recent importance the Bianchi Models have as alternative models in cosmology. The main property of these models, solutions of Einstein Field Equations (EFE) is that they are homogeneous as the FRW model but they are not isotropic. We can see this because they have a non-null Weyl tensor, which is zero for FRW model. We study some consequences of this Weyl tensor in the GDE.

Cáceres, D. L.; Castañeda, L.; Tejeiro, J. M.

2010-05-01

135

Nasal septal deviation in a mediaeval population.  

PubMed

In modern populations, there is evidence that nasal septal deviation (NSD) may be associated with maxillary sinusitis, and that those with NSD may differ in craniofacial morphology from those without or with less severe NSD. Whether these associations hold true for earlier populations has yet to be investigated. The current work is a step toward remedying this. The study group comes from a mediaeval English archaeological site. NSD was quantified using image analysis. Maxillary sinusitis was identified from new bone formation in the antrum. Cranial morphology was assessed using standard craniometric measurements. The results provided no evidence for a relationship between NSD and maxillary sinus disease. NSD was associated with reduced measures of upper facial height, suggesting decoupling of growth in vertical height of the nasal septum and the bony structures surrounding it. PMID:22565652

Mays, Simon

2012-05-04

136

DEVIATIONS IN INFLUENZA SEASONALITY: ODD COINCIDENCE OR OBSCURE CONSEQUENCE?  

PubMed Central

In temperate regions, influenza typically arrives with the onset of colder weather. Seasonal waves travel over large spaces covering many climatic zones in a relatively short period of time. The precise mechanism for this striking seasonal pattern is still not well understood and the interplay of factors that influence the spread of infection and the emergence of new strains is largely unknown. The study of influenza seasonality has been fraught with problems. One of these is the ever shifting description of illness due to influenza and the use of both the historical definitions and new definitions based on actual isolation of the virus. The compilation of records describing influenza oscillations on a local and global scale is massive, but the value of these data is a function of the definitions used. In this review we argue that both observations of seasonality and deviation from the expected pattern stem from the nature of this disease. Heterogeneity in seasonal patterns may arrive from differences in behavior of specific strains, emergence of a novel strain or cross-protection from previously observed strains. Most likely the seasonal patterns emerge from interactions of individual factors behaving as coupled resonators. We emphasize that both seasonality and deviations from it may merely be a reflection of our inability to disentangle signal from noise, be it due to ambiguity in measurement and/or terminology. We conclude the review with suggestions for new promising and realistic directions with tangible consequences to model complex influenza dynamics in order to effectively control infection.

Moorthy, Mahesh; Castronovo, Denise; Abraham, Asha; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Gradus, Steve; Gorski, Jack; Naumov, Yuri N.; Fefferman, Nina H.; Naumova, Elena N.

2012-01-01

137

A strategy to objectively evaluate the necessity of correcting detected target deviations in image guided radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup verification and were used to determine potential target deviations. To derive the detected CTV geometry from the planning CTV based on the locations of the gold markers, the CTV was approximated with an elastic semirigid body model. The derived CTV geometry and shape were confirmed with CBCT imaging. The evaluation results and the related mathematical equations and computational algorithm are presented. It is concluded that the proposed strategy is potentially useful in establishing objective criteria for the necessity of correction of the target deviations. PMID:18072499

Yue, Ning J; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Narra, Venkat; Haffty, Bruce G

2007-11-01

138

A strategy to objectively evaluate the necessity of correcting detected target deviations in image guided radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup verification and were used to determine potential target deviations. To derive the detected CTV geometry from the planning CTV based on the locations of the gold markers, the CTV was approximated with an elastic semirigid body model. The derived CTV geometry and shape were confirmed with CBCT imaging. The evaluation results and the related mathematical equations and computational algorithm are presented. It is concluded that the proposed strategy is potentially useful in establishing objective criteria for the necessity of correction of the target deviations.

Yue, Ning J.; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Narra, Venkat; Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States)

2007-11-15

139

Principles of dataspace systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most acute information management challenges today stem from organizations relying on a large number of diverse, inter- related data sources, but having no means of managing them in a convenient, integrated, or principled fashion. These chal- lenges arise in enterprise and government data management, digital libraries, ìsmartî homes and personal information man- agement. We have proposed dataspaces as a

Alon Y. Halevy; Michael J. Franklin; David Maier

2006-01-01

140

Large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulations: application to the microsolvation of biologically-relevant ions in aqueous clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-principles molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate the solvation structure of the biologically-relevant paradigm guanidinium-ion in water clusters, Gdn+(H2O)n. In these simulations, the intermolecular interactions are evaluated along the trajectories with the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) model with the on-site third-order correction and modified effective Coulomb interaction, an approximate model of density-functional theory. For Gdn+(H2O)21, the simulated probability distribution of the ion-to-water cluster centre-of-mass distances and water angular coordinates suggests that Gdn+ is primarily localised at the surface of the water cluster, with the surface of the ion relatively devoid of water molecules. Estimates of the computational resources required for first-principles molecular dynamics simulations of larger Gdn+(H2O)n (n<=100) indicate that, with a modern supercomputer, such simulations can readily be performed in a matter of days.

Mak, Chun C.; Koch, Denise M.; Peslherbe, Gilles H.

2012-02-01

141

Bernoulli's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bernoulli's principle relates the pressure of a fluid to its elevation and its speed. Bernoulli's equation can be used to approximate these parameters in water, air or any fluid that has very low viscosity. Students learn about the relationships between the components of the Bernoulli equation through real-life engineering examples and practice problems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory

142

Bernoulli's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab, students will use a little background information about Bernoulli's principle to figure out how the spinning of a moving ball affects its trajectory. The activity is inquiry in that students will be discovering this relationship on their own.

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

143

The standard deviation in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.  

PubMed Central

The standard deviation (SD) in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has been mostly neglected in applications. However, the knowledge of the correct SD is necessary for an accurate data evaluation, especially when fitting theoretical models to experimental data. In this work, an algorithm is presented that considers the essential features of FCS. It allows prediction of the performance of FCS measurements in various cases, which is important for finding optimal experimental conditions. The program calculates the SD of the experimental autocorrelation function online. This procedure leads to improved parameter estimation, compared to currently used theoretical approximations for the SD. Three methods for the calculation of the SD are presented and compared to earlier analytical solutions (D. E. Koppel. 1974. Phys. Rev. A. 10:1938-1945.), calculation directly from fluorescence intensity values, by averaging several FCS measurements, or by dividing one measurement into a set of shorter data packages. Although the averaging over several measurements yields accurate estimates for the SD, the other two methods are considerably less time consuming, can be run online, and yield comparable results.

Wohland, T; Rigler, R; Vogel, H

2001-01-01

144

Deviation from homeoviscous adaptation in Escherichia coli membranes.  

PubMed Central

The process by which an organism changes the composition of its membranal fatty acids in response to growth temperature, so as to maintain optimal membrane functioning, is known as homeoviscous adaptation (HA). One expression of HA is the constancy of the fluorescence polarization (P) of the lipophilic probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) in membranes of cells grown at various temperatures. The P of DPH in the membranes of Escherichia coli was shown by us to be inversely proportional to bacterial growth rate on different carbon sources. This result, implying failure of HA, is now complemented by measurements of DPH lifetimes, which indicate that the dominant variables contributing to the drop in P are (a) the order parameter of the membrane, which goes down, and (b) the fluidity, which may slightly increase. These are then the changes induced by enhanced growth rate. Two additional effects, cell membrane permeability and sensitivity to thermal shock, determined by the diffusion of o-nitrophenylgalactoside (ONPG) and by exposure to 52 degrees C, respectively, are reported to increase with growth rate. We can now conclude that there is a deviation from the principle of HA in E. coli grown at various rates, brought about by controlling the growth media at constant temperatures.

Parola, A H; Ibdah, M; Gill, D; Zaritsky, A

1990-01-01

145

33 CFR 150.40 - Deviating from the operations manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Deviating from the operations manual. 150.40 Section 150.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS General § 150.40 Deviating from the operations manual. If,...

2013-07-01

146

40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing Compliance Requirements § 63...deviation is defined in § 63.1990. For the purposes of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations...

2012-07-01

147

48 CFR 2901.403 - Individual deviations from the FAR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...contracting action, unless FAR 1.405(e) is applicable. Requests for deviations shall be submitted through the Director, DAMS. (b) Requests for deviations under paragraph (a) of this section must be submitted by the HCA and include...

2011-10-01

148

48 CFR 2901.403 - Individual deviations from the FAR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...contracting action, unless FAR 1.405(e) is applicable. Requests for deviations shall be submitted through the Director, DAMS. (b) Requests for deviations under paragraph (a) of this section must be submitted by the HCA and include...

2012-10-01

149

Psychosomatic Principles  

PubMed Central

There are four lines of development that might be called psychosomatic principles. The first represents the work initiated by Claude Bernard, Cannon, and others, in neurophysiology and endocrinology in relationship to stress. The second is the application of psychoanalytic formulations to the understanding of illness. The third is in the development of the social sciences, particularly anthropology, social psychology and sociology with respect to the emotional life of man, and, fourth, there is an increased application of epidemiological techniques to the understanding and incidence of disease and its causes. These principles can be applied to the concepts of comprehensive medicine and they bid fair to be unifying and helpful in its study. This means that future practitioners, as well as those working in the field of psychosomatic medicine, are going to have to have a much more precise knowledge of the influence of emotions on bodily processes.

Cleghorn, R. A.

1965-01-01

150

Overall governance, firm value and deviation from one share: one vote principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objective of this study is to investigate further the interplay between corporate governance and firm performance with special focus on a situation expected to bring larger agency costs to the firm, that is, when voting rights of the dominant shareholder exceed his\\/her cash flow rights. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research is conducted in Canada over a four-year period

Yves Bozec; Richard Bozec; Mohamed Dia

2010-01-01

151

Frequency deviation of thermal power plants due to wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a study on the frequency deviation of the utility grid due to wind power fluctuations. The deviation is estimated by a deterministic method based on the transfer functions of system components. As the grid frequency is regulated, the deviation can limit high wind power penetration. The research identifies speed governors as one key component

Changling Luo; Boon-Teck Ooi

2006-01-01

152

OPTIMALITY CONDITIONS IN PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS WITH GENERALIZED DEVIATION MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimality conditions are derived for problems of minimizing a generalized measure of deviation of a random variable, with special attention to situations where the random variable could be the rate of return from a portfolio of financial instruments. Generalized measures of deviation go beyond standard deviation in satisfying axioms that do not demand symmetry between ups and downs. The optimality

R. Tyrrell Rockafellar; Stan Uryasev; Michael Zabarankin

153

A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.

Orris, J. B.

2011-01-01

154

Optimality conditions in portfolio analysis with general deviation measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimality conditions are derived for problems of minimizing a general measure of deviation of a random variable, with special attention to situations where the random variable could be the rate of return from a portfolio of financial instruments. General measures of deviation go beyond standard deviation in satisfying axioms that do not demand symmetry between ups and downs. The optimality

R. Tyrrell Rockafellar; Stan Uryasev; Michael Zabarankin

2006-01-01

155

A truncated Floquet wave diffraction method for the full wave analysis of large phased arrays. I. Basic principles and 2-D cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part sequence deals with the formulation of an efficient method for the full wave analysis of large phased array antennas. This is based on the method of moments (MoM) solution of a fringe integral equation (IE) in which the unknown function is the difference between the exact solution of the finite array and that of the associated infinite array.

Andrea Neto; Stefano Maci; Giuseppe Vecchi; Marco Sabbadini

2000-01-01

156

Inspirational airflow patterns in deviated noses: a numerical study.  

PubMed

This study attempts to evaluate the effects of deviation of external nose to nasal airflow patterns. Four typical subjects were chosen for model reconstruction based on computed tomography images of undeviated, S-shaped deviated, C-shaped deviated and slanted deviated noses. To study the hypothetical influence of deviation of external nasal wall on nasal airflow (without internal blockage), the collapsed region along the turbinate was artificially reopened in all the three cases with deviated noses. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were carried out in models of undeviated, original deviated and reopened nasal cavities at both flow rates of 167 and 500 ml/s. The shape of the anterior nasal roof was found to be collapsed on one side of the nasal airways in all the deviated noses. High wall shear stress region was found around the collapsed anterior nasal roof. The nasal resistances in cavities with deviated noses were considerably larger than healthy nasal cavity. Patterns of path-line distribution and wall shear stress distribution were similar between original deviated and reopened models. In conclusion, the deviation of an external nose is associated with the collapse of one anterior nasal roof. The crooked external nose induced a larger nasal resistance compared to the undeviated case, while the internal blockage of the airway along the turbinates further increased it. PMID:22515677

Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Lee, Shu Jin; Teo Li San, Lynette; Wang, De Yun

2012-04-19

157

Limits on deviations from the inverse-square law on megaparsec scales  

SciTech Connect

We present an attempt to constrain deviations from the gravitational inverse-square law on large-scale structure scales. A perturbed law modifies the Poisson equation, which implies a scale-dependent growth of overdensities in the linear regime and thus modifies the power spectrum shape. We use two large-scale structure surveys (the Sloan Digital Sky survey and the Anglo-Australian two-degree field galaxy redshift survey) to constrain the parameters of two simple modifications of the inverse-square law. We find no evidence for deviations from normal gravity on the scales probed by these surveys ({approx}10{sup 23} m)

Sealfon, Carolyn; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2005-04-15

158

Design and Diagnosis of Deviated Rod-Pumped Wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commonly used methods for designing rod-pumping installations presume vertical wells. This paper introduces a wave equation methodology that applies to deviated wells, whether they are deviated intentionally or unintentionally. Restrictions on surface locations and interest in horizontal drilling are increasing the need for deviated wells. Together with long-standing crooked-hole problems, these are promising subjects for further study. This paper describes

S. G. Gibbs

1992-01-01

159

On Deviations between Observed and Theoretically Estimated Values on Additivity-Law Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have reported in the previous studies that the average observed results are about a half of the corresponding predictions on the experiments with large additivity-law failures. One of the reasons of the deviations is studied and clarified by using the original observed data on additivity-law failures in the Nakano experiment. The conclusion from the observations and their analyses

Yoshinobu Nayatani; Hiroaki Sobagaki

2003-01-01

160

Multi-source deviation analysis and rapid correction of locating points  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the Automatic Drilling\\/Riveting (ADR) System realizes automation of the wing panel riveting assembly. However, a major obstacle to the ADR of wing assembly in the past has been an inability to rapidly reduce locating deviation that usually existed between the upper-riveting head and actual locating points. This case largely influences actual production. To increasing locating accuracy and

Liu Ping; Zhang Kai-fu; LI Yuanl; Liu Zhen-xing

2010-01-01

161

Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

Goldberg, Fred M.

1985-01-01

162

Robust Algorithm for Least Absolute Deviations Curve Fitting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The least absolute deviations criterion, or the l1 norm, is frequently used for approximation where the data may contain outliers or wild points'. One of the most popular methods for solving the least absolute deviations data fitting problem is the Barrod...

D. Lei I. J. Anderson M. G. Cox

2001-01-01

163

Chi Square Test of Deviations from Expected Frequencies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The applet allows users to sample from a normal distribution or from a uniform distribution. It shows the expected values and the observed values and computes the deviation. Then, a chi-square test shows if the deviations are significant for both the normal and uniform distributions.

Lane, David M.

2009-02-06

164

A comparison of patient dosage deviation reports with pill counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report of a comparison between patient verbal reports of dosage deviation during a drug study and pill counts. Pill counts are much more reliable, but verbal reports are of some value, since when there are statements of major deviations they tend to be correct.

Lee C. Park; Ronald S. Lipman

1964-01-01

165

On the elastic model for the deviations from Vegard's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elastic model used by Friedel (1954, 1955) to account for the deviations from Vegard's law is developed to study the influence of second-order terms of the elastic theory. These deviations depend on the change of volume of the matrix and the solute, which are calculated as limit cases of the change of volume of an elastic shell. The results

R. Muñoz

1966-01-01

166

Principlism and moral dilemmas: a new principle  

PubMed Central

Moral conflicts occur in theories that involve more than one principle. I examine basic ways of dealing with moral dilemmas in medical ethics and in ethics generally, and propose a different approach based on a principle I call the "mutuality principle". It is offered as an addition to Tom Beauchamp and James Childress' principlism. The principle calls for the mutual enhancement of basic moral values. After explaining the principle and its strengths, I test it by way of an examination of three responses—in the recent Festschrift for Dr Raanon Gillon—to a case involving parental refusal of a blood transfusion. The strongest response is the one that comes closest to the requirements of the mutuality principle but yet falls short. I argue that the mutuality principle provides an explicit future orientation in principlism and gives it greater moral coherence.

DeMarco, J

2005-01-01

167

Results of stress-oriented and aligned perforating in fracturing deviated wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the first results of stress-oriented and aligned perforation of deviated wells at the Kuparuk River field, Alaska. Preferred perforation alignment and spacing are calculated for each well so the fractures from individual perforations link to produce a single zipper fracture plane along the deviated wellbore. Results of the first application of this technique are presented from the 26-well development of Drillsite 2K. The results from use of three different oriented-casing-gun systems and pertinent data from Drillsite 2K fracture stimulation treatments are discussed. Comparisons to drillsite where nonaligned perforating strategies were used show a significant reduction in perforation friction, enabling the placement of large, more productive fracture treatments. Application of this technique to deviated and vertical wells and its use at Kuparuk on developments after Drillsite 2K are discussed.

Pearson, C.M.; Bond, A.J.; Eck, M.E.; Schmidt, J.H. (Arco Alaska Inc. (US))

1992-01-01

168

Principles of Seismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principles of Seismology is targeted for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in seismology. It is quite good as an intermediate-level theoretical seismology text, and it may also serve as a general reference book for seismologists. The author intended to make this book “student-friendly,” and to a large degree he has accomplished this purpose. Compared to other recent seismology texts at a similar level, this text explains the fundamental aspects of theoretical seismology more thoroughly, and the traditional core topics are well presented.

Wu, Francis T.

169

21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.100 Written procedures; deviations. (a) There...

2013-04-01

170

Effect of Density Deviation on Concrete Attenuation Effectiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the work, the influence of concrete density deviation on shield thickness and total dose ratio outside the reactor shield, has - on the basis of numerical analysis - been considered. The possibility of introducing flexible corrections - without additio...

L. Szymendera K. Wincel S. Blociszewski D. Kordyasz I. Sobolewska

1975-01-01

171

[Case of hepatic coma with lateral conjugate deviation of gaze].  

PubMed

The forced horizontal deviation of gaze, persisting more then 48 hours, has been observed during a rapidly developing hepatic coma in a patient whose post mortem examination did not reveal any structural lesion involving the central nervous system. PMID:6505544

Cammarata, S; De Merra, F; Pasquali, G F; Bertolotti, M G

172

Spin-geodesic deviations in the Schwarzschild spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deviation of the path of a spinning particle from a circular geodesic in the Schwarzschild spacetime is studied by an extension of the idea of geodesic deviation. Within the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model and assuming the spin parameter to be sufficiently small so that it makes sense to linearize the equations of motion in the spin variables as well as in the geodesic deviation, the spin-curvature force adds an additional driving term to the second order system of linear ordinary differential equations satisfied by nearby geodesics. Choosing initial conditions for geodesic motion leads to solutions for which the deviations are entirely due to the spin-curvature force, and one finds that the spinning particle position for a given fixed total spin oscillates roughly within an ellipse in the plane perpendicular to the motion, while the azimuthal motion undergoes similar oscillations plus an additional secular drift which varies with spin orientation.

Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

2011-04-01

173

Soliton propagation in a dispersion map with deviation from periodicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solitons in dispersion-managed fibers are a particular case of a periodically perturbed nonlinear system. Since in practice random deviations from strict periodicity of the dispersion alternation are unavoidable, we consider such deviations and study their impact on the soliton’s stability with a view to optical telecommunications. We find a range over which solitons remain stable in a specified sense; this range is sufficient for technical application.

Böhm, M.; Mitschke, F.

2005-11-01

174

Earliest Gait Deviations During Slips: Implications For Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identified that deviations in vertical force and knee angle\\/angular velocity of the slipping leg occur earlier in stance and with greater magnitude than other lower-body motions when a person experiences an unexpected slip. Deviations in the ankle angle\\/angular velocity and hip angular velocity occurred soon after the knee angle and with smaller magnitudes. These results suggest that foot

Kurt E. Beschorner; Mark S. Redfern; Rakié Cham

2012-01-01

175

Master funds in portfolio analysis with general deviation measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized measures of deviation are considered as substitutes for standard deviation in a framework like that of classical portfolio theory for coping with the uncertainty inherent in achieving rates of return beyond the risk-free rate. Such measures, derived for example from conditional value-at-risk and its variants, can reflect the different attitudes of different classes of investors. They lead nonetheless to

R. Tyrrell Rockafellar; Stan Uryasev; Michael Zabarankin

2006-01-01

176

Nasal septal deviation in the pediatric and adult populations.  

PubMed

A significant proportion of the population has nasal septal deviation of varying degrees. Recent reports of such deviation occurring at younger ages suggest a congenital etiology. To the best of our knowledge, no previous clinical studies have compared the septal deviation of adult and pediatric populations with a uniform measure that focuses on the degree of deviation. We retrospectively analyzed computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans obtained from 81 patients who had undergone head and neck imaging for a variety of reasons. These subjects were divided into four age groups: younger than 4 months; 4 months to less than 5 years; 5 to 15 years; and more than 15 years. We used a measure of tortuosity to examine and compare nasal septal deviation among the different age groups. The tortuosity of the septum was measured at four precise points along the length of the septum on thin-section sinus CT and MRI. Tortuosity was defined as the ratio of the "actual" length of the septum to the "ideal" length of the septum, which was defined as the length of a straight line drawn from the superior to the inferior aspect of the septum. We found that subjects younger than 5 years of age exhibited significantly less tortuosity (p ? 0.017459) than did the older children and the adults. Therefore, we conclude that nasal septal deviation occurs at a higher frequency in older children and in adults when calculations of tortuosity are used as a measure. Our data may suggest that a noncongenital etiology is responsible for nasal septal deviation. However, given that the growth of the septum continues throughout childhood, our results do not preclude the possibility of a genetic predisposition to the later development of a deviated nasal septum. PMID:21412740

Reitzen, Shari D; Chung, Wayne; Shah, Anil R

2011-03-01

177

[Surgical treatment of nasal septal deviation (septoplasty) in children].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to indicate the importance of surgical treatment of nasal septal deviation in children as early correction of functional and cosmetic nose deformities. In this study, we presented 76 children, from age of 7 to 15, who were surgical treated for the reason of nasal septal deviation starting from January 2001. to December 2009. There were 48 (63%) male and 28 (37%) female patients. The lowest number of patients were between 7 and 9 years old--5 (6.5%), between 10 and 12 years--28 (37%) and 43--(56.5%) between 13 and 15 years. Only 7 (9%) patients indicated genetics inheritance, and 11 of them (14%) could not determine the exact cause of deviation origin. References taken from the parents showed that nasal septal deviation developed like consequence of injury in 58 (76%) cases. We used closed technique of septoplasty with hemitransfictional incision and sub mucosal resection. Deviated portion of septum was completely removed. Patients felt improvement in nose breathing in 65 (85%) cases. The most often complication was nasal obstruction in 6 (8%) cases which occurred due to the insufficient removal of deviated portion. We also had a septal perforation in one and abscess of nasal septum in another case. There were no esthetic deformities.Surgical treatment of nasal septal deviation in children must to be conservative and limited on injured part of septum. After the operation nose breathing significantly improved, without consequences on esthetic appearance or the growth of central part of a face. PMID:22369019

Baljosevi?, Ivan; Milovanovi, Jovica; Novkovi?, Mladen; Stankovi?, Katarina; Baljosevi?, Zlata

2011-01-01

178

Measuring instrument for radial composite deviations of high-precision master gear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During double flank rolling composite detection, the radial composite deviations of master gears has been existed and transferred to the measured gear by the primary harmonic curve. In order to improve measurement accuracy, a measuring instrument is developed for radial composite deviations of high-precision master gear in the paper. This instrument uses the structure of spring-suspend swing span to overcome the shortcomings of large rotation errors, low sensitivity, low resolution and large measuring force appearing in the traditional combination-type gear inspection instrument. Artificial intelligence technology is used to improve the efficiency and accuracy of this instrument. The result is that the measuring apparatus is able to meet the requirement and improve efficiency through the measuring experiments on master gears of precision grade 2 with modulus 2 mm and 3 mm, respectively.

Ma, Yong; Wang, Tongxiang; Lou, Zhifeng; Wang, Liding; Zhang, Yuling

2010-08-01

179

EduMedia: Superposition principle+-  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet illustrates the principle of superposition as applied to two oppositely charged electric charges. It has learning objectives and instructions on how to use the animation. These flash images are a shareware version that times out after 3 minutes. Reloading the page starts the animations again. This animation is part of a large collection of similar animations.

2007-09-04

180

The missing ingredient in effective-medium theories: standard deviations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective-medium theories for electromagnetic constitutive parameters of particulate composite materials are theories of averages. Standard deviations are absent because of the lack of rigorous theories. But ensemble averages and standard deviations can be calculated from a rigorous theory of reflection by planar multilayers. Average reflectivities at all angles of incidence and two orthogonal polarization states for a multilayer composed of two kinds of electrically thin layers agree well with reflectivities for a single layer with the same overall thickness and a volume-weighted average of the relative permittivities of these two components. But the relative standard deviation can be appreciable depending on the angle of incidence and the polarization state of the incident illumination, and increases with increasing difference between the constitutive parameters of the two layers. This suggests that average constitutive parameters obtained from effective-medium theories do not have uniform validity for all calculations in which they might be used.

Bohren, Craig F.; Xiao, Xuerong; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2012-09-01

181

Spin-geodesic deviations in the Kerr spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of extended spinning bodies in the Kerr spacetime is investigated in the pole-dipole particle approximation and under the assumption that the spin-curvature force only slightly deviates the particle from a geodesic path. The spin parameter is thus assumed to be very small and the back reaction on the spacetime geometry neglected. This approach naturally leads to solve the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations linearized in the spin variables as well as in the deviation vector, with the same initial conditions as for geodesic motion. General deviations from generic geodesic motion are studied, generalizing previous results limited to the very special case of an equatorial circular geodesic as the reference path.

Bini, D.; Geralico, A.

2011-11-01

182

Hook and loop fastener on loose prisms assists in measuring ocular deviation.  

PubMed

It is difficult to hold a pair of loose prisms in one hand. Doing so can lead to inaccuracy, which worsens with large-angle exotropia or vertical deviations. The authors applied a self-adhesive hooked Velcro (Velcro Sticky Back Tape, Velcro USA Inc., Manchester, NH) strip to the base and the top of loose prisms. They applied the complementary looped Velcro to a wooden bar. As a result, a pair of prisms could be suspended horizontally and/or vertically while being held in one hand. Forty consecutive patients undergoing strabismus surgery without adjustable sutures were retrospectively studied to evaluate the accuracy of this method. Clinical use confirmed its ease and convenience. Of 19 patients with exotropia and 15 patients with esotropia (mean ages 41.9 and 15.7 years, respectively; mean deviations 44.7 and 49.8 D, respectively), 4 patients with abducens paralysis, and 2 patients with trochlear palsies, 1 surgery achieved less than 10 D of residual deviation in all but 2 (5.9%). This simple, inexpensive system can assist with the clinical evaluation of ocular deviation. PMID:9760618

Wessels, I F; Thomas, S; Wessels, D A

1998-09-01

183

Intuitions, principles and consequences  

PubMed Central

Some approaches to the assessment of moral intuitions are discussed. The controlled ethical trial isolates a moral issue from confounding factors and thereby clarifies what a person's intuition actually is. Casuistic reasoning from situations, where intuitions are clear, suggests or modifies principles, which can then help to make decisions in situations where intuitions are unclear. When intuitions are defended by a supporting principle, that principle can be tested by finding extreme cases, in which it is counterintuitive to follow the principle. An approach to the resolution of conflict between valid moral principles, specifically the utilitarian and justice principles, is considered. It is argued that even those who justify intuitions by a priori principles are often obliged to modify or support their principles by resort to the consideration of consequences. Key Words: Intuitions • principles • consequences • utilitarianism

Shaw, A

2001-01-01

184

24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ROW OF INTACT COLUMNS, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST. (NOTE BOLTED BLOCK SCABBED TO COLUMN AS JOIST/TRUSS SUPPORT) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

185

Regulation on radial position deviation for vertical AMB systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a source of model uncertainty, gyroscopic effect, depending on rotor speed, is studied for the vertical active magnetic bearing (VAMB) systems which are increasingly used in various industries such as clean rooms, compressors and satellites. This research applies H? controller to regulate the rotor position deviations of the VAMB systems in four degrees of freedom. The performance of H?

Nan-Chyuan Tsai; Chien-Hsien Kuo; Rong-Mao Lee

2007-01-01

186

Null geodesic deviation. I. Conformally flat space–times  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equation of geodesic deviation is solved in conformally flat space–time in a covariant manner. The solution is given as an integral equation for general geodesics. The solution is then used to evaluate second derivatives of the world function and derivatives of the parallel propagator, which need to be known in order to find the Green’s function for wave equations

P. C. Peters

1975-01-01

187

Mini-muddling: learning from project plan deviations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the informal and incidental learning that takes place in project work among individuals who must adapt to deviations from project plans. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Reflections in the study are built on four power plant projects found in an integrated provider of projects of this type. The projects were followed by

Markus Hällgren; Timothy L. Wilson

2007-01-01

188

Some Posterior Standard Deviations in Item Response Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The procedures required to obtain the approximate posterior standard deviations of the parameters in the three commonly used item response models for dichotomous items are described and used to generate values for some common situations. The results were compared with those obtained from maximum likelihood estimation. It is shown that the use of…

Kim, Seock-Ho

2007-01-01

189

Small deviations for a family of smooth Gaussian processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the small deviation probabilities of a family of very smooth self-similar Gaussian processes. The canonical process from the family has the same scaling property as standard Brownian motion and plays an important role in the study of zeros of random polynomials. Our estimates are based on the entropy method, discovered in Kuelbs and Li (1992) and developed further

Frank Aurzada; Fuchang Gao; Thomas Kühn; Wenbo V. Li; Qi-Man Shao

2010-01-01

190

Effect of Density Deviations of Concrete on Its Attenuation Efficiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the work, the influence of concrete density deviation on shield thickness and total dose ratio outside the reactor shield, has--on the basis of numerical analysis--been considered. It has been noticed the possibility of introducing flexible corrections...

L. Szymendera K. Wincel S. Blociszewski D. Kordyasz I. Sobolewska

1975-01-01

191

Immersion Fluid Refractive Indices Using Prism Minimum Deviation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion fluids for 157 nm and 193 nm immersion lithography have been measured over the spectral range from 156 nm to 1700 nm in a nitrogen purged environment. The refractive index n and k of several candidate fluids have been measured using the prism minimum deviation technique implemented on a commercial Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (VASE®) system. For measurement the

Roger H. French; Min K. Yang; M. F. Lemon; R. A. Synowicki; Greg K. Pribil; Gerald T. Cooney; Craig M. Herzinger; Steven E. Green; John H. Burnett; Simon Kaplan

192

Deviation-Amplifying Processes and Individual Human Growth and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to inquire into the relation of intellectual and/or psycho-linguistic development and apparent improvement in other behavior factors such as affective and social behavior and development. Thus consideration is given to the second cybernetics (i.e. the concept of positive feedback or deviation-amplifying relationships…

Steg, Doreen Ray; And Others

193

Hand deviations away from visual cues: indirect evidence for inhibition.  

PubMed

Previous research has demonstrated that when a stimulus is to be ignored, the path of motion towards a target (saccade or manual reach) deviates away from the to-be-ignored stimulus. Path deviations in saccade and reaching tasks have, however, been observed in very different situations. In the saccade tasks subjects initially attended to a cue, then disengaged attention while saccading to a target. By contrast, in the selective reaching tasks attention was continuously withdrawn from the to-be-ignored stimulus, as this was irrelevant throughout the experiment. In the two experiments reported here, cues similar to those studied in saccade tasks are examined with selective reaching procedures. Experiment 1 shows that when a coloured light-emitting diode cue, upon which subjects engage and then subsequently disengage attention, is close to the responding hand, the hand deviates away from the cue. Experiment 2 confirms this cue avoidance by showing that, compared with central fixation alone, the hand veers away from a central cue. These results confirm that the path deviations observed in saccades can also be obtained in manual reaching movements. Such findings support the notion that eye and hand movements are both affected by inhibitory mechanisms of attention. PMID:9028783

Howard, L A; Tipper, S P

1997-01-01

194

Developmental dyslexia, neurolinguistic theory and deviations in brain morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some form of central nervous system involvement is presumed, evidence establishing a relationship between dyslexia and neurological dysfunction has been correlational. Recently, neuroimaging and postmortem studies have begun to provide direct evidence implicating neuropathological structures in dyslexia. This article reviews computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies examining deviations in brain morphology which appear to be associated

George W. Hynd; Richard M. Marshall; Margaret Semrud-Clikeman

1991-01-01

195

Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.  

PubMed Central

Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed.

Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M

1975-01-01

196

A three-dimensional correction factor equation for deviated wells  

SciTech Connect

The size of a fault cut as determined by log correlation is defined as the true vertical thickness of the missing or repeated section. Likewise, sand thicknesses determined from well logs and used for net sand or net hydrocarbon isopach mapping are also defined in terms of true vertical thickness. Therefore, the size of a fault or the thickness of a sand determined by log correlation with a deviated well, exhibiting a measured log thickness, must be converted to true vertical thickness. The authors have derived a three-dimensional correction factor equation applicable to deviated wells. The equation is used to correct the size of fault cuts for use in fault surface mapping and structure map integration, and the thickness of sand applicable to isopach mapping. This equation is more accurate than any previously published two- or three-dimensional equation. Although two-dimensional equations are simple to use, they lack application in three dimensions. They consider the three-dimensional equation preferable because: (1) this one equation can be used to calculate a correction factor regardless of the direction of wellbore deviation, and (2) the true dip of the beds is used in the equation instead of the apparent dip, which is used in the two-dimensional equations. They introduce a three-dimensional coordinate system, derive the new equation, and illustrate the application of the equation to several deviated wells.

Pousson, H. (Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette (USA)); Tearpock, D.J.

1990-09-01

197

Mini-Muddling: Learning from Project Plan Deviations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the informal and incidental learning that takes place in project work among individuals who must adapt to deviations from project plans. Design/methodology/approach: Reflections in the study are built on four power plant projects found in an integrated provider of projects of this…

Hallgren, Markus; Wilson, Timothy L.

2007-01-01

198

Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A…

Bonett, Douglas G.

2006-01-01

199

Higher-order geodesic deviations applied to the Kerr metric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations within a general relativistic setting, without using Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We apply this method to the problem of closed orbital motion of test particles in the Kerr metric spacetime. With a simple circular orbit in the equatorial plane taken as the initial

R. Colistete J; C. Leygnac; R. Kerner

2002-01-01

200

Pilot error in automated systems shown by altitude deviation reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 8000 altitude deviations are reported to NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System each year. This is almost one an hour. The narratives of pilot incidents relate how errors made in the automation-assisted altitude change task are caused by the difficulty pilots are having interacting with automatic systems. This paper discusses the impact of increased automation in glass-cockpit airliners on the

R. D. Ritter

1993-01-01

201

Sonoelastography imaging: Principles and practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration amplitude sonoelastography imaging is an ultrasound imaging technique in which low frequency (100-500 Hz), low amplitude shear waves are propagated deep into tissue, while real time color Doppler techniques are used to image the resulting vibration field. A radio frequency ultrasound signal is phase modulated by a vibrating particle such that the peak vibration amplitude is directly proportional to the spread (standard deviation) of its power spectrum. A key application for this technique is the detection and imaging of small lesions. Finite element studies predict that a discrete hard inhomogeneity present within a larger region of soft tissue will cause a decrease in the vibration field at the location of the inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity is made visible as a region of low vibration in the color Doppler image. The principles and practices of this technique are reviewed and results are shown for the detection and imaging of stiff thermal lesions induced in bovine calf liver.

Taylor, Lawrence S.; Rubens, Deborah J.; Parker, Kevin J.

2001-05-01

202

New Robotics: Design Principles for Intelligent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Robotics designates an approach to robotics that, in contrast to traditional robotics, employs ideas and principles from biology. While in the traditional approach there are generally accepted methods (e.g. from control theory), designing agents in the New Robotics approach is still largely considered an art. In recent years, we have been developing a set of heuristics or design principles,

Rolf Pfeifer; Fumiya Iida; Josh C. Bongard

2005-01-01

203

The heliometer principle and some modern applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heliometer principle, an autocalibration technique based on the double-image method for the measurement of angular distances and diameters of celestial bodies is discussed. Some historical notes about Bouguer's minimum-distance heliometer built in 1748, Dollond's heliometer head built in 1755, and the large Fraunhofer's heliometer used by Bessel in 1829 are presented. The basic principle has applications for the geometrical

E. H. Geyer

1985-01-01

204

14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2013-01-01

205

Deviations from Scale-Invariance in Extreme Event Phenomena: A Theoretical Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power-law distribution has been shown to describe a broad spectrum of hazardous extreme events that span a prominent range of energies and spatial scales from micro-cracks in laboratory samples to earthquakes, land- slides, and forest-fires, to star-quakes. Notably, the pure power law is only a first-order approximation to the observed distributions. Even in paradigmatic models such as percolation and sand-pile the pure power-laws can only be observed for infinite systems. Moreover, laboratory experiments, observations, and numerical modeling of seismicity suggest that certain deviations of earthquake sizes from a pure power-law distribution (a.k.a. Gutenberg-Richter law) signal approach of a large regional earthquake. This motivates exploration of general mechanisms for origin and development of deviations from a pure power-law distribution. We approach this problem by analyzing branching diffusion with immigration -- a classical generic model for spatially distributed processes that involve direct cascade of energy redistribution and permanent external driving. Our analytical results show how event size distribution depends on spatio-temporal averaging; we establish a) pure power law under global spatio-temporal averaging, b) upward deviations from a pure power law emerging at a right side of the distribution as a large event approaches.

Zaliapin, I.; Keilis-Borok, V.; Gabrielov, A.

2006-12-01

206

Missing Principle of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nine principles of war have guided American military doctrine since 1921. However, these principles since their formulation eighty years ago, have not accounted for the human dimension of war. Major military operations and campaigns are not won or los...

B. E. Kulifay

2000-01-01

207

Principles of Political Ecology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are the concepts and principles of political ecology, i.e., the application of ecological principles to public affairs. The public issues of direct concern in political ecology are environmental quality; energy, materials, and other natural reso...

R. L. Shelton

1976-01-01

208

Chemical Principls Exemplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)|

Plumb, Robert C.

1973-01-01

209

Follicle deviation and intrafollicular and systemic estradiol concentrations in mares.  

PubMed

By definition, follicle deviation begins on the day the two largest follicles of a wave begin to differ in growth rates. The relationships between follicle deviation and intrafollicular and systemic estradiol concentrations were studied in ponies, using a two-follicle model in which all but the two largest follicles were ablated. A 20-microliter sample of follicular fluid was obtained from each of the two follicles by transvaginal ultrasonography. In experiment 1, the two follicles were sampled when the larger follicle reached 15 mm. No differences (p > 0.05) in post-sampling follicle characteristics were found between control (n = 6) and sampled (n = 8) groups except that the growth rate was slower (p < 0.01) in the larger follicle between the day of sampling and the next day (0.7 +/- 0.7 mm per day) than in the controls (3.3 +/- 0.3 mm per day). The growth rates between 2 and 5 days after sampling were not different between groups. Follicular fluid estradiol-17beta concentrations were higher (p < 0.007) in the larger follicle (460 +/- 67 ng/ml; diameter, 16.4 +/- 0.4 mm) than in the smaller follicle (322 +/- 50 ng/ml; diameter, 14.6 +/- 0.6 mm). In experiment 2, the pair of follicles was sampled when the larger follicle reached 15 mm, 20 mm, or 25 mm (n = 5 per group). There were no significant differences among the three groups for day of deviation and diameters of larger and smaller follicles at deviation. The difference in diameter between the larger and smaller follicles was similar for the 15-mm (2.2 +/- 0.9 mm) and 20-mm (3.1 +/- 1.0 mm) groups, but the difference between follicles for the 25-mm group (7.9 +/- 1.2 mm) was greater (p < 0.004) than for the other two groups. In contrast, the differences in estradiol concentrations between the larger and smaller follicles increased (p < 0.0001) progressively for the 15-mm (13.0 +/- 86.8 ng/ml), 20-mm (722.0 +/- 173.8 ng/ml), and 25-mm (1873.5 +/- 310.3 ng/ml) groups. The first significant (p < 0.007) increase in systemic estradiol occurred between the day before and the day of the beginning of deviation. Detection of an increased difference in estradiol concentrations between the two follicles before the detection of a change in differences in diameter suggests, on a temporal basis, that estradiol is a candidate for involvement in the mechanism that leads to follicle-diameter deviation in mares. PMID:10377028

Gastal, E L; Gastal, M O; Wiltbank, M C; Ginther, O J

1999-07-01

210

Lateral and axial resolutions of an angle-deviation microscope for different numerical apertures: experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study of the lateral and axial resolutions of a transmission laser-scanning angle-deviation microscope (TADM) with different numerical aperture (NA) values. The TADM is based on geometric optics and surface plasmon resonance principles. The surface height is proportional to the phase difference between two marginal rays of the test beam, which is passed through the test medium. We used common-path heterodyne interferometry to measure the phase difference in real time, and used a personal computer to calculate and plot the surface profile. The experimental results showed that the best lateral and axial resolutions for NA = 0.41 were 0.5 ?m and 3 nm, respectively, and the lateral resolution breaks through the diffraction limits.

Chiu, Ming-Hung; Lai, Chin-Fa; Tan, Chen-Tai; Lin, Yi-Zhi

2011-03-01

211

Pauli's Exclusion Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. The exclusion principle: a philosophical overview; 2. The origins of the exclusion principle: an extremely natural prescriptive rule; 3. From the old quantum theory to the new quantum theory: reconsidering Kuhn's incommensurability; 4. How Pauli's rule became the exclusion principle: from the Fermi-Dirac statistics to the spin-statistics theorem; 5. The exclusion principle opens up new avenues: from the eightfold way to quantum chromodynamics.

Massimi, Michela

2012-10-01

212

Towards richer process principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's and tomorrow's complex, interdependent, dynamic systems require richer process principles than the simplistic principles in the Agile Manifesto or in simplistic sequential waterfall or Vee models. The resulting principles should capitalize on the strengths of these while avoiding their weaknesses.

Barry Boehm

2011-01-01

213

Chemical Principles Exemplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

Plumb, Robert C.

1970-01-01

214

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations,

Paul Busch; Teiko Heinonen; Pekka Lahti

2007-01-01

215

ONLINE COLLABORATION PRINCIPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the community of inquiry model to describe the principles of collaboration. The principles describe social and cognitive presence issues associated with the three functions of teaching presence—design, facilitation and direction. Guidelines are discussed for each of the principles.

D. R. Garrison

216

How Marginal Deviations Sometimes Grow Into Serious Aggression  

PubMed Central

We offer a theory of marginal deviations that articulates the processes through which initial behavior that is only slightly deviant from the norm gets transformed into more serious antisocial outcomes. We present evidence that, of the one third of the population that is marginally deviant, about one fourth (or 8% of the total population) becomes seriously deviant over time. Hypothesized factors in this transformation involve the child actor, peer observer-judges, and social transactions between them in processes that derive from self-fulfilling prophecies and dynamic systems theory. Hypotheses and studies are proposed to address the circumstances and processes that determine whether a marginal deviation will be bought back to the norm (through assimilation and attenuation) or accelerated to severe deviance (through accommodation and amplification).

Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zelli, Arnaldo

2009-01-01

217

Method for improving cuttings transport in deviated wells  

SciTech Connect

An improved method of drilling a deviated well is effected by injecting a slug or series of slugs of a shear thickening fluid down the drill string ahead of the drilling fluid and into the annulus formed about the drill string to displace cuttings that accumulate in the annular regions where the drill string lies near the lower side of the deviated portion of the borehole thereby increasing cuttings transport efficiency. The shear thickening fluid has characteristics that enable it to dislodge and disperse the accumulated cuttings in that it undergoes a reversible, isothermal, increase in viscosity when subjected to an increasing shear rate. Slug volumes vary between 0.05 and 5 percent of the annulus volume between the drill string and the wellbore wall.

Savins, J. G.

1985-01-29

218

Large Deviations for Complex Buffer Architectures: the Short-Range Dependent Case.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper considers Gaussian flows multiplexed in a queueing network, where the underlying correlation structure is assumed to be short-range dependent. Whereas previous work mainly focused on the FIFO setting, this paper addresses overflow characteristi...

M. R. H. Mandjes

2004-01-01

219

Large deviations and importance sampling for a tandem network with slow-down  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a variant of the two node tandem Jackson network where the upstream server reduces its service rate when the down- stream queue exceeds some prespecified threshold. The rare event of interest is the overflow of the downstream queue. Based on a game\\/subsolution approach, we rigorously identify the exponential de- cay rate of the rare event probabilities and construct

Paul Dupuis; Kevin Leder; Hui Wang

2007-01-01

220

Theorems of Large Deviations for Polynomial Forms, Multiple Stochastic Integrals and Statistical Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Consider a polynomial form \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000az<\\/font\\u000a>n(p) = \\\\mathop S<\\/font\\u000a>1 \\\\leqslant a<\\/font\\u000a>1 \\\\leqslant a<\\/font\\u000a>p \\\\leqslant n aa<\\/font\\u000a>1 , ¼<\\/font\\u000a>a<\\/font\\u000a>1 Xa<\\/font\\u000a>1 . ¼<\\/font\\u000a>.Xa<\\/font\\u000a>p \\u000a\\\\zeta _n^{(p)} = \\\\mathop \\\\Sigma \\\\limits_{1 \\\\leqslant \\\\alpha _1 \\\\leqslant \\\\alpha _p \\\\leqslant n} a_{\\\\alpha _1 } , \\\\ldots _{\\\\alpha _1 } X_{\\\\alpha _1 } . \\\\ldots .X_{\\\\alpha _p }

L. Saulis; V. A. Statulevi?ius

221

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR RANDOM WALK IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENT WITH HOLDING TIMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that the integers are assigned the random variables {?x ,µ x } (taking values in the unit interval times the space of probability measures on R+), which serve as an environment. This environment defines a random walk {Xt } (called a RWREH) which, when at x, waits a random time distributed according to µx and then, after one unit

AMIR DEMBO; NINA GANTERT; OFER ZEITOUNI

2002-01-01

222

Large deviations for random walk in random environment with holding times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that the integers are assigned the random variables $\\\\{\\\\omega_x,\\\\mu_x\\\\}$ (taking values in the unit interval times the space of probability measures on $\\\\reals_+$), which serve as an environment. This environment defines a random walk $\\\\{X_t\\\\}$ (called a RWREH) which, when at x, waits a random time distributed according to $\\\\mu_x$ and then, after one unit of time, moves one

Amir Dembo; Nina Gantert; Ofer Zeitouni

2004-01-01

223

Deviations from predictions of the metabolic theory of ecology can be explained by violations of assumptions.  

PubMed

The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) is based on models derived from the first principles of thermodynamics and biochemical kinetics. The MTE predicts that the relationship between temperature and species richness of ectotherms should show a specific slope. Testing the validity of this model, however, depends on whether empirical data do not violate assumptions and are obtained within contour conditions. When dealing with richness gradients, the MTE must be empirically tested only for ectothermic organisms at high organization levels and when their body size as well as abundance does not vary with temperature gradients. Here we evaluate whether the magnitude of the deviations in slope expected from the MTE to empirical data for New World amphibians is due to the violations of model assumptions and to lack of generality due to restricting contour conditions. We found that the MTE correctly predicted biodiversity patterns only at higher levels of organization and when assumptions of the basic model were not violated. Approximately 60% of the deviations from the MTE-predicted slope across amphibian families were due to violations of the model assumptions. The hypothesis that richness patterns are a function of environmental temperature is too restrictive and does not take complex environmental and ecological processes into account. However, our results suggest that it may be possible to obtain multiple derivations of the MTE equation if idiosyncrasies in spatial and biological/ecological issues that are essential to understanding biodiversity patterns are considered. PMID:21302843

Cassemiro, Fernanda A S; Diniz-Filho, Jose Alexandre Felizola

2010-12-01

224

Deviations from scale invariance near a general conformal background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deviations from scale invariance resulting from small perturbations of a general two-dimensional conformal field theory are studied. They are expressed in terms of beta-functions for the renormalization of general couplings under a local change of scale. The beta-functions for a homogeneous background are given perturbatively in terms of the data of the original conformal theory without any specific assumptions on

A. Babichenko; S. Elitzur

1994-01-01

225

Gait deviations induced by visual stimulation in roll  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locomotion control uses proprioceptive, visual, and vestibular signals. The vestibular contribution has been analyzed previously\\u000a with galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which constitutes mainly a virtual head-fixed rotation in the roll plane that\\u000a causes polarity-specific deviations of gait. In this study we examined whether a visual disturbance has similar effects on\\u000a gait when it acts in the same direction as GVS,

Erich Schneider; Klaus Jahn; Marianne Dieterich; Thomas Brandt; Michael Strupp

2008-01-01

226

Developmental Dyslexia, Neurolinguistic Theory and Deviations in Brain Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although some form of central nervous system involvement is presumed, evidence establishing a relationship between dyslexia\\u000a and neurological dysfunction has been correlational. Recently, neuroimaging and postmortem studies have begun to provide direct\\u000a evidence implicating neuropathological structures in dyslexia. This article reviews computed tomography (CT) and magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging (MRI) studies examining deviations in brain morphology which appear to be associated

George W. Hynd; Richard M. Marshall; Margaret Semrud-Clikeman

227

Pilot error in automated systems shown by altitude deviation reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 8,000 altitude deviations are reported to NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System each year. This is almost one an hour. The narratives of pilot incidents relate how errors made in the automation-assisted altitude change task are caused by the difficulty pilots are having interacting with automatic systems. This paper discusses the impact of increased automation in glass-cockpit airliners on the

R. D. Ritter

1994-01-01

228

Standard deviation, standard error. Which 'standard' should we use?  

PubMed

Standard deviation (SD) and standard error (SE) are quietly but extensively used in biomedical publications. These terms and notations are used as descriptive statistics (summarizing numerical data), and they are used as inferential statistics (estimating population parameters from samples). I review the use and misuse of SD and SE in several authoritative medical journals and make suggestions to help clarify the usage and meaning of SD and SE in biomedical reports. PMID:7124681

Brown, G W

1982-10-01

229

Deriving Acquisition Principles from Tutoring Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our analysis of the literature on tutorial dialogues and presents a compilation of useful principles\\u000a that students and teachers typically follow in making tutoring interactions successful. The compilation is done in the context\\u000a of making use of those principles in building knowledge acquisition interfaces since acquisition interfaces can be seen as\\u000a students acquiring knowledge from the user.

Jihie Kim; Yolanda Gil

2002-01-01

230

Intercardial deviation of a gyrocompass with a dynamically tunable gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of the principle of dynamic tuning for gyroscopic stabilization and the orientation of moving objects has been one of the goals pursued in gyrocompass engineering. The use of a dynamically tunable gyroscope (DTG) as the main sensitive element of correctable gyrocompasses has made it possible to reduce the size, weight, and power rating of the instrument, increase its reliability

V. V. Avrutov

1991-01-01

231

Meristem temperature substantially deviates from air temperature even in moderate environments: is the magnitude of this deviation species-specific?  

PubMed

Meristem temperature (Tmeristem ) drives plant development but is hardly ever quantified. Instead, air temperature (Tair ) is usually used as its approximation. Meristems are enclosed within apical buds. Bud structure and function may differ across species. Therefore, Tmeristem may deviate from Tair in a species-specific way. Environmental variables (air temperature, vapour pressure deficit, radiation, and wind speed) were systematically varied to quantify the response of Tmeristem . This response was related to observations of bud structure and transpiration. Tomato and cucumber plants were used as model plants as they are morphologically distinct and usually growing in similar environments. Tmeristem substantially deviated from Tair in a species-specific manner under moderate environments. This deviation ranged between -2.6 and 3.8?°C in tomato and between -4.1 and 3.0?°C in cucumber. The lower Tmeristem observed in cucumber was linked with the higher transpiration of the bud foliage sheltering the meristem when compared with tomato plants. We here indicate that for properly linking growth and development of plants to temperature in future applications, for instance in climate change scenarios studies, Tmeristem should be used instead of Tair , as a species-specific trait highly reliant on various environmental factors. PMID:23509944

Savvides, Andreas; van Ieperen, Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A; Marcelis, Leo F M

2013-04-15

232

Geodesic Deviation Equation, Gödel Metric and Inverse Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equations for geodesic deviation (GDE) are deduced for the space-time metric of Gödel type. The equation turns out to be a matrix Schrödinger problem. It is then demonstrated that one can generate nonlinear equations for the coefficient functions of the metric if a “time” evolution equation is adjoined to the GDE. Soliton like solutions for the metric functions can be obtained through an inverse scattering transform of the matrix Schrödinger problem. Thereby a solution of the GDE equation is also determined by the wave function of the IST.

Saha, Mousumi; Chowdhury, A. Roy

233

Trial Construction of Continuously Variable Deviation Angle Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

A prototype continuously variable deviation angle mechanism for a beam-line monochromator is constructed and demonstrated to have a repeatability of measurement of better than {+-}0.15 sec in one direction. The differences in positioning from opposite directions are 1.4 sec for the grating and 0.15 sec for the tilting plane mirror. Positioning should therefore be conducted from one direction for exact positioning, although the rotation angles measured by the rotary encoder are coupled directly with the rotation axis of the optical components.

Fujisawa, M. [Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8581 (Japan); Kinoshita, T.; Takata, Y. [Soft X-ray Spectroscopy Laboratory, Riken Harima Institute, Kouto 1-1-1, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5143 (Japan); Shin, S. [Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8581 (Japan); Soft X-ray Spectroscopy Laboratory, Riken Harima Institute, Kouto 1-1-1, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5143 (Japan); Suzuki, S. [Graduate School/Faculty of Science, Tohoku University Aoba, Sendai-shi, Miyagi, 980-8578 (Japan); Yagishita, A. [Photon Factory, Institute of Material Structure Science, KEK, Oho, 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaragi 305-0801 (Japan); Saitoh, Y. [Syncrotron Radiation Research Center, JAERI, Spring-8, Kouto 1-1-1, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5143 (Japan); Hara, H.; Akiyama, K.; Endo, K. [Toyama Co. Ltd., Hibarigaoka, 4-6236, Zama, Kanagawa, 228 (Japan)

2004-05-12

234

Sources of behavioral deviation modeled by early color preferences in quail. II. diathetic genes and the leftover variance “ V e ”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sources of deviation from population-typical norms of variability were studied in relation to early approach preferences between colors in newly hatched Japanese quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Subjects were drawn from an unselected genetic control line, two genetic lines that were artificially selected for extreme blue and red preferences, their hybrids, and a large set of backcross and assortatively

Joseph K. Kovach

1992-01-01

235

A fuzzy based control method for isolated power utility connected PV-diesel hybrid system to reduce frequency deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Photovoltaic (PV) systempsilas power output is not constant and fluctuates depending on weather conditions. Fluctuating power causes frequency deviations in the power utilities when PV power penetration is large. Using a battery is the common practice to smooth PV output power fluctuations. In this paper, we propose a new and simple fuzzy based control method for PV-diesel hybrid system

Manoj Datta; Tomonobu Senjyu; Atsushi Yona; Toshihisa Funabashi; Chul-Hwan Kim

2008-01-01

236

Determinants of intention to deviate from clinical practice guidelines.  

PubMed

The volitional nature of procedural violations in work systems creates a challenge for human factors research and practice. In order to understand how violations are caused and what can be done to mitigate them, there is a need to determine the influence of workers' beliefs about rules and guidelines. This study demonstrates the use of a social psychological approach to investigate the beliefs of anaesthetists about clinical practice guidelines. A survey was completed by 629 consultant anaesthetists, who rated their beliefs about deviation from three guidelines (performing pre-operative visits; checking anaesthetic equipment; handling intravenous fluid bags). Regression analysis indicated that the belief ratings predicted self-rated intention to deviate from the guidelines. Implications for understanding anaesthetists' adherence to guidelines are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study builds upon previous work by the authors, presenting a more detailed insight into potential causes of procedural violations in healthcare. The study also demonstrates the use of a social psychological method to the investigation of violations. Hence, it is of interest to researchers and practitioners interested in human reliability, especially in healthcare. PMID:20191414

Phipps, Denham L; Parker, Dianne; Meakin, George H; Beatty, Paul C W

2010-03-01

237

The relationship between middle ear pressure and deviated nasal septum.  

PubMed

The deviated nasal septum may be associated with middle ear problems, particularly on the side of nasal obstruction. This study aims to find out whether middle ear pressure (MEP) correlates with the degree of nasal obstruction secondary to a deviated nasal septum, and to examine changes in MEP following septal surgery. Patencies of the nasal passages (measured with a peak nasal inspiratory flowmeter) and MEP (measured with a tympanometer) of 55 patients were obtained prior to surgery and 7.5 (6-10) months post-operatively [median (range)]. Forty patients completed the study. Results were analysed by linear regression. In the ear on the side of nasal blockage, MEP was -25.7 +/- 28.4 mm water pre-operatively, and following surgery increased significantly to -2.9 +/- 30.4 mm water (mean +/- SD) (P < 0.001). Pre-operatively, it was inversely related to the difference in patencies between the two nasal passages (r = -0.32, P < 0.02). Post-operatively, its improvement correlated with the degree of reduction of asymmetry of airway patency (r = 0.56, P < 0.001). PMID:8877192

Low, W K; Willatt, D J

1993-08-01

238

How to optimize motor drilling in non-deviated wells  

SciTech Connect

Since the introduction of drilling with positive displacement motors (PDM) in the 1960s, considerable effort has been devoted to increasing motor life, reliability, power and efficiency. Nabors Drilling has studied vertical drilling with downhole motors extensively, and has found that a detailed hydraulics analysis combined with optimized motor-bit selection can improve the economics markedly. Many tangible and intangible benefits have been documented. To reduce bottomhole assembly (BHA) failures and improve deviation control, Nabors Drilling implemented PDMs in the 9 7/8-in. upper hole section during a recent 1-year drilling program. This interval consisted of a sandstone formation to be drilled with a tooth type bit and a shale to be drilled with a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit. BHA failures were eliminated and in turn, fishing time and costs were reduced. Deviation control was also improved.The penetration rate increased significantly, reducing operating time from 12 days to 8 days. In addition, PDMs eliminated a trip when stabilizers were used while drilling out of the casing shoe, and extended PDC bit life.

Alexander, W.; Pool, R. (Dresser Security, Houston, TX (United States)); Hamm, G. (Nabors Drilling, Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-01

239

Physical interpretation of Kundt spacetimes using geodesic deviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the fully general class of non-expanding, non-twisting and shear-free D-dimensional geometries using the invariant form of geodesic deviation equation which describes the relative motion of free test particles. We show that the local effect of such gravitational fields on the particles basically consists of isotropic motion caused by the cosmological constant ?, Newtonian-type tidal deformations typical for spacetimes of algebraic type D or II, longitudinal motion characteristic for spacetimes of type III, and type N purely transverse effects of exact gravitational waves with D(D ? 3)/2 polarizations. We explicitly discuss the canonical forms of the geodesic deviation motion in all algebraically special subtypes of the Kundt family for which the optically privileged direction is a multiple Weyl aligned null direction, namely D(a), D(b), D(c), D(d), III(a), III(b), IIIi, IIi, II(a), II(b), II(c) and II(d). We demonstrate that the key invariant quantities determining these algebraic types and subtypes also directly determine the specific local motion of test particles, and are thus measurable by gravitational detectors. As an example, we analyze an interesting class of type N or II gravitational waves which propagate on backgrounds of type O or D, including Minkowski, Bertotti–Robinson, Nariai and Pleba?ski–Hacyan universes.

Podolský, J.; Švarc, R.

2013-10-01

240

The anthropic principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthropic principle states that the fact of existence of intelligent beings may be a valid explanation of why the universe and laws of physics are as they are. The origin and some of the deeper implications of the principle are investigated. The discussion involves considerations of physics and metaphysics, unified schemes and holism, the nature of physical explanation, realism and idealism, and symmetry.

Rosen, Joe

1985-04-01

241

The genetic difference principle.  

PubMed

In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice. PMID:15186680

Farrelly, Colin

2004-01-01

242

Principles of Paleogeography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broad general principles of paleogeography, which I would cite as most fundamental, are as follows: 1. Ocean basins are permanent hollows of the earth's surface and have occupied their present sites since an early date in the development of geographic features. This principle does not exclude notable changes in the positions of their margins, which on the whole have

Bailey Willis

1910-01-01

243

Principles of Sports Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To measure if nutrition course work enhances athletes’ knowledge of sports nutrition principles.The objectives of this study were to determine if nutrition course work enhances athletes’ knowledge of sports nutrition principles and to identify athletes’ resources for nutrition information. Questionnaires were distributed to 40 athletes at a state university. Seventeen completed surveys were returned and included members from

L. D. Tartamella; D. S. Kemler

1996-01-01

244

On teaching about descriptive statistics in criminal justice: Mean, variance, and standard deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles relevant to descriptive statistics differ both intuitively and statistically from the principles relevant to inferential statistics. Pedagogically, however, these principles are often taught in an interspersed fashion. This approach may confuse students. As they struggle to learn the principles of descriptive statistics, and before these principles have been mastered, the principles of inferential statistics are often overlaid. This

Richard A. Zeller

1999-01-01

245

Single-Point Mutations and Protein Structure Deviations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The V4 proteins, LmcA and LmcB, in the social amoeba Dictyostelium are believed to play an important role in the growth to development transition of the organism. Whether or not a normal transition occurs depends on whether one or the other or both of the proteins is expressed. The proteins only differ by one non-conserved residue. In order to understand the possible differences in protein structure and function we performed an ab initio structure calculation for each protein using the Monte Carlo fragment insertion method implemented by Rosetta. The predicted structures were found to be dramatically different. This result inspired a comprehensive survey of all the Protein Data Bank structures related by a single-point mutation. The distribution of mutations with respect to the resulting rms deviation in atomic coordinates was found to have a simple exponential behavior.

Campbell, Roy

2008-03-01

246

The Effects of Marginal Deviations on Behavioral Development  

PubMed Central

This investigation was conceptually framed within the theory of marginal deviations (Caprara & Zimbardo, 1996) and sought evidence for the general hypothesis that some children who initially show marginal behavioral problems may, over time, develop more serious problems depending partly on other personal and behavioral characteristics. To this end, the findings of two studies conducted, respectively, with American elementary school children and Italian middle school students are reviewed. These two studies show that hyperactivity, cognitive difficulties, low special preference, and lack of prosocial behavior increase a child’s risk for growth in aggressive behavior over several school years. More importantly, they also show that equivalent levels of these risk factors have a greater impact on the development of children who, early on, were marginally aggressive.

Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zelli, Arnaldo

2009-01-01

247

Deviations from scale invariance near a general conformal background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deviations from scale invariance resulting from small perturbations of a general two-dimensional conformal field theory are studied. They are expressed in terms of ?-functions for the renormalization of general couplings under a local change of scale. The ?-functions for a homogeneous background are given perturbatively in terms of the data of the original conformal theory without any specific assumptions on its nature. The renormalization of couplings to primary operators and to first descendents is considered as well as that of a dilatonic type which involve explicit dependence on world sheet curvature. The first descendent couplings are interpreted as gauge degrees of freedom in the string field action and the corresponding gauge transformation is spelled out. Supported by the Israeli Academy for Sciences.

Babichenko, A.; Elitzur, S.

1994-02-01

248

Probing deviations from tribimaximal mixing through ultrahigh energy neutrino signals  

SciTech Connect

We investigate deviation from the tribimaximal mixing in the case of ultrahigh energy neutrino using the ICECUBE detector. We consider the ratio of the number of muon tracks to the shower generated due to eletrons and hadrons. Our analysis shows that for tribimaximal mixing the ratio comes out around 4.05. Keeping {theta}{sub 12} and {theta}{sub 23} fixed at tribimaximal value, we have varied the angle {theta}{sub 13}=3 deg. , 6 deg. , 9 deg. and the value of the ratio gradually decreases. The variation of ratio lies within 8% to 18% from the tribimaximal mixing value and it is very difficult to detect such a small variation by the ICECUBE detector.

Majumdar, Debasish; Ghosal, Ambar [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2007-06-01

249

Patterns of Consistency and Deviation in Therapists' Countertransference Feelings  

PubMed Central

The author addressed the question of consistency in psychotherapists' countertransference feelings. Research findings have indicated that the therapist's own personal feeling style may be more important than the patient's impact on the therapist's feelings. In this study, the feelings of 9 psychotherapists toward 28 patients were followed by using checklist self-report after each session during moderately long psychotherapies. ANOVAs and discriminant analyses showed that the therapists were very consistent in their feeling style over different patients and over time. The consistency in feelings toward the individual patients was smaller. Deviations from consistency are analyzed, and their importance for the understanding of different aspects of the countertransference is discussed. It is suggested that a meaningful use of the countertransference concept ought to be based on systematic identifications of recurrent and deviant patterns in the therapist's reactions.

Holmqvist, Rolf

2001-01-01

250

Principlism and communitarianism.  

PubMed

The decline in the interest in ethical theory is first outlined, as a background to the author's discussion of principlism. The author's own stance, that of a communitarian philosopher, is then described, before the subject of principlism itself is addressed. Two problems stand in the way of the author's embracing principlism: its individualistic bias and its capacity to block substantive ethical inquiry. The more serious problem the author finds to be its blocking function. Discussing the four scenarios the author finds that the utility of principlism is shown in the two scenarios about Jehovah's Witnesses but that when it comes to selling kidneys for transplantation and germline enhancement, principlism is of little help. PMID:14519838

Callahan, D

2003-10-01

251

Spine deviations and orthodontic treatment of asymmetric malocclusions in children  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept). The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3?years, SD 2.1?years). After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy?=?37, control?=?40); 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2). The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1?years (SD 0.2?years). Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test). Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study). This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS

2012-01-01

252

Exciton dispersion from first principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a scheme to calculate exciton dispersions in real materials that is based on the first-principles many-body Bethe-Salpeter equation. We assess its high level of accuracy by comparing our results for LiF with recent inelastic x-ray scattering experimental data on a wide range of energy and momentum transfer. We show its great analysis power by investigating the role of the different electron-hole interactions that determine the exciton band structure and the peculiar “exciton revival” at large momentum transfer. Our calculations for solid argon are a prediction and a suggestion for future experiments. These results demonstrate that the first-principles Bethe-Salpeter equation is able to describe the dispersion of localized and delocalized excitons on equal footing and represent a key step for the ab initio study of the exciton mobility.

Gatti, Matteo; Sottile, Francesco

2013-10-01

253

[Genetics and the precautionary principle].  

PubMed

It is very important to follow the Precautionary Principles with regard to genetics because of its fast development and of its impact in the public imaginer. In that regard gene grafts, OGM or recombinant drugs are pre-eminently be suspected to transmit human or animal viruses and/or to induce severe allergies. Pharmaceutical Industry has conducted large reflexions on such problems and are using drastic rules to prevent them. By contrast, academic research laboratories are handicapped by the problem of fund seeking. At the genetic disease level and mainly because the fast development of Predictive Medicine, patient and family councelling requires a great lot of reflexion and carefulness. Memorization of the presence of abnormal genes in the history of families also constitutes an important problem. We believe that, to be in accordance with the Precautionary Principles, an important work of formation and information is required. PMID:11077717

Rosa, J

2000-01-01

254

Anthropic Fluctuations vs. Weak Anthropic Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern assessment of the classical Boltzmann-Schuetz argument for large-scale entropy fluctuations as the origin of our observable cosmological domain is given.The emphasis is put on the central implication of this picture which flatly contradicts the weak anthropic principle as an epistemological statement about the universe. Therefore, to associate this picture with the anthropic principle as it is usually done

Milan M. ?irkovi?

2002-01-01

255

On Deviations between Observed and Theoretically Estimated Values on Additivity-Law Failures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have reported in the previous studies that the average observed results are about a half of the corresponding predictions on the experiments with large additivity-law failures. One of the reasons of the deviations is studied and clarified by using the original observed data on additivity-law failures in the Nakano experiment. The conclusion from the observations and their analyses clarified that it was essentially difficult to have a good agreement between the average observed results and the corresponding theoretical predictions in the experiments with large additivity-law failures. This is caused by a kind of unavoidable psychological pressure existing in subjects participated in the experiments. We should be satisfied with the agreement in trend between them.

Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Sobagaki, Hiroaki

256

Physical Principles of Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical biology is incomplete without a comprehensive theory of evolution, since evolution is at the core of biological thought. Evolution is visualized as a migration process in genotype or sequence space that is either an adaptive walk driven by some fitness gradient or a random walk in the absence of (sufficiently large) fitness differences. The Darwinian concept of natural selection consisting in the interplay of variation and selection is based on a dichotomy: All variations occur on genotypes whereas selection operates on phenotypes, and relations between genotypes and phenotypes, as encapsulated in a mapping from genotype space into phenotype space, are central to an understanding of evolution. Fitness is conceived as a function of the phenotype, represented by a second mapping from phenotype space into nonnegative real numbers. In the biology of organisms, genotype-phenotype maps are enormously complex and relevant information on them is exceedingly scarce. The situation is better in the case of viruses but so far only one example of a genotype-phenotype map, the mapping of RNA sequences into RNA secondary structures, has been investigated in sufficient detail. It provides direct information on RNA selection in vitro and test-tube evolution, and it is a basis for testing in silico evolution on a realistic fitness landscape. Most of the modeling efforts in theoretical and mathematical biology today are done by means of differential equations but stochastic effects are of undeniably great importance for evolution. Population sizes are much smaller than the numbers of genotypes constituting sequence space. Every mutant, after all, has to begin with a single copy. Evolution can be modeled by a chemical master equation, which (in principle) can be approximated by a stochastic differential equation. In addition, simulation tools are available that compute trajectories for master equations. The accessible population sizes in the range of 10^7le Nle 10^8 molecules are commonly too small for problems in chemistry but sufficient for biology.

Schuster, Peter

257

Principles of animal extrapolation  

SciTech Connect

Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

Calabrese, E.J.

1991-01-01

258

The equivalence principle  

SciTech Connect

For the example of the motion of an accelerated charge it is shown that an inertial frame of reference in which there is a homogeneous static gravitational field with strength g is physically inequivalent to a uniformly accelerated frame of reference moving with acceleration -g with respect to the intertial frame of reference. It follows from this that the equivalence principle does not hold in the usual formulation. The widely held opinion that such a principle is the basis of the general theory of relativity is not entirely correct. Einstein`s theory of gravitation is based on an equivalence principle of a deeper content, which takes the form that the metric field g{sub uv} of a Riemannian space is declared to be a gravitational field. Such is the {open_quotes}natural formulation of the equivalence principle{close_quotes} at which Einstein subsequently arrived.

Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Chugreev, Yu.V.

1994-10-01

259

Principles of Radio Navigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The textbook for radio engineering higher institutions of learning and departments explains the operating principles of radio navigational aids used to navigate flying vehicles. General questions concerned with the accuracy of navigational fixes obtained ...

O. V. Belavin

1970-01-01

260

Chemical Principles Exemplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)

Plumb, Robert C.

1972-01-01

261

Chemical Principles Exemplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)|

Plumb, Robert C.

1972-01-01

262

Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed ``cookbook'' instructions are given. Recent studies indicate that this approach leaves students with a poor conceptual understanding of one of the most important features of laboratory physics and of the real world of science, in general: the development of an understanding of the nature of measurement and its attendant uncertainty1. While students might be able to reproduce certain technical manipulations of data, as novice thinkers they lack the mental scaffolding that allows an expert to organize and apply this knowledge.2,3 Our goal is to put novices on the path to expertise, so that they will be able to transfer their knowledge to novel situations.

Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

2010-11-01

263

Gait deviations induced by visual stimulation in roll.  

PubMed

Locomotion control uses proprioceptive, visual, and vestibular signals. The vestibular contribution has been analyzed previously with galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which constitutes mainly a virtual head-fixed rotation in the roll plane that causes polarity-specific deviations of gait. In this study we examined whether a visual disturbance has similar effects on gait when it acts in the same direction as GVS, i.e., when roll vection is induced by head-fixed visual roll motion stimulation. Random dot patterns were constantly rotated in roll at +/-15 degrees /s on a computer-driven binocular head-mounted display that was worn by eight healthy participants. Their gait trajectories were tracked while they walked a distance of 6 m. A stimulation effect was observed only for the first three to four steps, but not for the whole walking distance. These results are similar to the results of previous GVS studies, suggesting that in terms of the direction of action visual motion stimulations in the roll plane are similar to GVS. Both kinds of stimulation cause only initial balance responses in the roll plane but do not contribute to the steering of gait in the yaw plane. PMID:17909767

Schneider, Erich; Jahn, Klaus; Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas; Strupp, Michael

2007-10-02

264

A generalized KKMF principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in this paper a generalized version of the celebrated Knaster-Kuratowski-Mazurkiewicz-Fan's principle on the intersection of a family of closed sets subject to a classical geometric condition and a weakened compactness condition. The fixed point formulation of this generalized principle extends the Browder-Fan fixed point theorem to set-valued maps of non-compact convex subsets of topological vector spaces.

Ben-El-Mechaiekh, Hichem; Chebbi, Souhail; Florenzano, Monique

2005-09-01

265

Buoyancy: Archimedes Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes bouyancy (the difference between the upward and downward forces acting on the bottom and the top of an object) and the Archimedes Principle, which states that the buoyant force on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced by it. It consists of text descriptions of these principles, using the examples of metal cubes suspended in water and hot air baloons in the atmosphere. Mathematical word problems are included.

266

Spectral Relative Standard Deviation: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...

267

21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...14 Reporting of biological product deviations...manufacturer who holds the biological product license and who had control over the product...should report a biological product deviation...step under your control, acquire...

2009-04-01

268

21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...14 Reporting of biological product deviations...manufacturer who holds the biological product license and who had control over the product...should report a biological product deviation...step under your control, acquire...

2010-04-01

269

78 FR 58546 - State System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single-Case Deviation From Competition...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single- Case Deviation From Competition Requirements AGENCY: Health Resources...Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of Single-Case Deviation from Competition Requirements for the Maternal...

2013-09-24

270

COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS FOR CALCULATING THE STANDARD DEVIATION OF THE WIND DIRECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Three methods to calculate wind direction standard deviation are evaluated. Although eight hours of wind data show no significant differences between the methods, synthetically generated data having standard deviations near the maximum possible, show the Yamartino method to perfo...

271

2-D Fourier domain SAR raw signal simulation accounting for sensor trajectory deviations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extended scene SAR raw signal simulator accounting for sensor trajectory deviation is here presented. A general Fourier Domain formulation of the SAR raw signal in presence of arbitrary trajectory deviations is obtained, and it is shown that, under the assumption that the radar beam is sufficiently small and the trajectory deviations are sufficiently slow, a very efficient full 2-D

Giorgio Franceschetti; Antonio Iodice; S. Perna; D. Riccio

2005-01-01

272

The angular deviation of ultra high energy cosmic rays in intergalactic magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The angular deviation associated with the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons through turbulent intergalactic magnetic fields is examined including the effect of interactions with the cosmic microwave background. It is found that the deviation of the particles is consistent with diffusion ideas but the magnitude of the deviation is appreciably less than suggested by simple models for

R. W. Clay; S. Cook; B. R. Dawson; A. G. K. Smith; R. Lampard

1998-01-01

273

The angle mouse: target-agnostic dynamic gain adjustment based on angular deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel method of dynamic C-D gain adaptation that improves target acquisition for users with motor impairments. Our method, called the Angle Mouse, adjusts the mouse C-D gain based on the deviation of angles sampled during movement. When angular deviation is low, the gain is kept high. When angular deviation is high, the gain is dropped, making the

Jacob O. Wobbrock; James Fogarty; Shunichi Kimuro

2009-01-01

274

Categorizing moving objects into film genres: the effect of animacy attribution, emotional response, and the deviation from non-fiction.  

PubMed

The reported study follows the footsteps of Heider, and Simmel (1944) [Heider, F., & Simmel, M. (1944). An experimental study of apparent behavior. American Journal of Psychology, 57, 243-249] and Michotte (1946/1963) [Michotte, A. (1963). The perception of causality (T.R. Miles & E. Miles, Trans.). London: Methuen (Original work published 1946)] who demonstrated the role of object movement in attributions of life-likeness to figures. It goes one step further in studying the categorization of film scenes as to genre as a function of object movements. In an animated film scene portraying a chase, movements of the chasing object were systematically varied as to parameters: velocity, efficiency, fluency, detail, and deformation. The object movements were categorized by viewers into genres: non-fiction, comedy, drama, and action. Besides this categorization, viewers rated their animacy attribution and emotional response. Results showed that non-expert viewers were consistent in categorizing the genres according to object movement parameters. The size of its deviation from the unmanipulated movement scene determined the assignment of any target scene to one of the fiction genres: small and moderate deviations resulted in categorization as drama and action, and large deviations as comedy. The results suggest that genre classification is achieved by, at least, three distinct cognitive processes: (a) animacy attribution, which influences the fiction versus non-fiction classification; (b) emotional responses, which influences the classification of a specific fiction genre; and (c) the amount of deviation from reality, at least with regard to movements. PMID:19118823

Visch, Valentijn T; Tan, Ed S

2008-12-31

275

Basic Principles of Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

276

Plastic variational principle based on the least work consumption principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic variational principles are foundation to solve the boundary-value problems of plastic mechanics with the variational\\u000a method (or energy method) and finite element method. The most convenient way of establishing different kinds of variational\\u000a principles is to set up the extreme principle related to the studied problem. Based on a general new extreme principle-the\\u000a Least work consumption principle, the variational

Song-hua Tang; Ying-she Luo; Zhu-bao Zhou; Zhi-chao Wang

2008-01-01

277

Dimensions of the Precautionary Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay attempts to provide an analytical apparatus which may be used for finding an authoritative formulation of the Precautionary Principle. Several formulations of the Precautionary Principle are examined. Four dimensions of the principle are identified: (1) the threat dimension, (2) the uncertainty dimension, (3) the action dimension, and (4) the command dimension. It is argued that the Precautionary Principle

Per Sandin

1999-01-01

278

Geometry of River Networks I: Scaling, Fluctuations, and Deviations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the first in a series of three papers investigating the\\u000adetailed geometry of river networks. Large-scale river networks mark an\\u000aimportant class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of\\u000aintrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description\\u000aof river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported\\u000avalues of scaling exponents vary suggesting

Peter Sheridan Dodds; Daniel H. Rothman

2000-01-01

279

First Principles Models for Ferroelectricity and Piezoelectricity in Solid Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest piezoelectric coefficients are observed not in pure compounds, but in solid solutions such as Pb(Zr_1-xTi_x)O3 and Pb(A_1/3Nb_2/3)O_3--PbTiO_3, (A = Zn, Mg)(S.-E. Park and T. R. Strout, J. Appl. Phys.) 82, 1804 (1997).. In this talk, we describe our first-principles approach to modeling ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity in solid solutions(E. Cockayne and K. M. Rabe, Phys. Rev. B) 56, 7947 (1997)., and apply it to Pb_1-xGe_xTe. By exploiting the microscopic information available from first principles calculations, we can identify factors that enhance piezoelectricity. For Pb_1-xGe_xTe, detailed ab initio calculations on various ordered supercells show significant differences in the low-temperature piezoelectric response of different ordered configurations, even at fixed composition. We have identified the following trends: (1) The highest piezoelectricity is often associated with the greatest deviation of local structure from average structure. Local relaxation occurs due to size mismatch between the substituting ions. Locally, this relaxation can have an effect similar to applying a large positive or negative local pressure to the corresponding pure system, driving it into a regime of large response. (2) As the strength of instability of the high symmetry prototype structure decreases, the piezoelectric response increases. Fitting of the ab initio results to double-well potentials explains the latter trend, showing that in the limit of marginal instability piezoelectricity diverges. Our results suggest the possibility of tuning ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties through controlling configurations. Typically, the piezoelectric response of a ferroelectric is sharply peaked near the paraelectric-ferroelectric transition temperature. In solid solutions, it becomes possible to obtain a large response over a range of temperatures, which is desirable for applications. We present an effective Hamiltonian approach to modeling the temperature dependence of the polarization and piezoelectricity in Pb_1-xGe_xTe.

Cockayne, Eric

1998-03-01

280

Design Principles of the ESCOT Math Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the Educational Software Components of Tomorrow (ESCOT) project. The focus of the project was on principles that support problem-solving and learner-centered design issues, and the purpose was to garner lessons from a large educational software development project to share with the learning sciences and other interested…

Underwood, Jody S.; Hoadley, Chris; DiGiano, Chris; Stohl, Hollylynne; Hollebrands, Karen

281

Nurses's knowledge of heart failure education principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this study was to determine nurses' knowledge of heart failure (HF) self-management education principles. Design: The study was exploratory and descriptive and included a convenience sample. Setting: Research took place in a large midwestern health care system that included a university-based hospital, community hospitals, and home or palliative care. Subjects: Subjects included 300 nurses who provide

Nancy M. Albert; Susan Collier; Veronica Sumodi; Sandra Wilkinson; Jeffrey P. Hammel; Linda Vopat; Cindy Willis; Barb Bittel

2002-01-01

282

EduMedia: Principle of superposition ++  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet illustrates the Principle of superposition as applied to two positive electric charges. The page has learning objectives and instructions on how to use the animation. These flash images are a shareware version that times out after 3 minutes. Reloading the page starts the animations again. This animation is part of a large collection of similar animations

2007-09-04

283

Comprehensive Program Review: Applying TQM Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews one system successfully used to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) principles and techniques in a student affairs department at a large public university. Discusses TQM applications and argues that implementation of TQM requires both planned staff training and an organization-wide culture change. (RJM)|

Ostroth, D. David

1996-01-01

284

Dual Processes and Training in Statistical Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical training study is reported which demonstrates that analytic responding on everyday reasoning problems can be increased after instruction in statistical principles. Participants were given training on the Law of Large Numbers (Fong, Krantz and Nisbett, 1986). Bias was eliminated, but only on written justifications of their responses. Belief-based responding was still utilized when participants were asked for a

Helen L. Neilens; Drake Circus; Stephen E. Newstead

285

Walter Fendt Physics Applets: Lever Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates the principle of lever and torque. Wieghts can be added or removed from different points on a balanced beam and the resultant tipping of the beam can be studied. This applet is ais a part of a large collection of physics applets, vailable in a wide range of languages.

Fendt, Walter

2007-02-05

286

Giant magnetoresistance calculated from first principles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Layer Korringa Kohn Rostoker-Coherent Potential Approximation technique was used to calculate the low temperature Giant Magnetoresistance from first principles for Co(vert bar)Cu and permalloy(vert bar)Cu superlattices. Our calculations predict large ...

W. H. Butler J. M. MacLaren X. G. Zhang

1994-01-01

287

Costly Sanctions and the Maximum Penalty Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of deterring undesirable behavior in a moral hazard framework with risk averse individuals, noisy information and costly sanctions. We find that, if sanctions are a pure loss, a utilitarian society should use a bang-bang penalty scheme satisfying the maximum penalty principle. If sanctions are monetary but imposing sanctions involves a sufficiently large resource cost, the maximum

Dominique Demougin; Claude Fluet

1999-01-01

288

Principles of Biomedical Ethics  

PubMed Central

In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making.

Athar, Shahid

2012-01-01

289

Basic principles of stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the principles of degradation, as well as the statistical tools for measuring product stability, is essential to management of product quality. Key to this is management of vaccine potency. Vaccine shelf life is best managed through determination of a minimum potency release requirement, which helps assure adequate potency throughout expiry. Use of statistical tools such a least

William Egan; Timothy Schofield

2009-01-01

290

Principles of Object Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on human infants has begun to shed light on early-developing processes for segmenting perceptual arrays into objects. Infants appear to perceive obiects by analyzing three-dlmensional surface arrangements and motions. Their per- ception does not accord with a general tendency to maximize figural goodness or to attend to nonaccldentol geometric relations in visual arrays. Object perceptlan does accord with principles

Elizabeth S. Spelke

1990-01-01

291

Principles of Corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of corrosion have been reviewed from two aspects: Thermodynamics and kinetics. Thermodynamic considerations yield the relative corrosion tendencies ofthe elements. Three types of corrosion cells have also been mentioned: Galvanic, concentration and simple anodic. Kinetics attempts to explain and predict the actual corrosion behavior of materials. The relative corrosion tendencies, the metallurgical aspects and the environmental conditions must

Stephen C. Kolesar

1974-01-01

292

The Principles of Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Pilot's Web website contains introductory information on various flight related physical principles. Topics include Newton's laws of motion and force, airfoils, lift and drag, forces acting on an airplane, speed, flight maneuvers, the effects of roll, and more. Each topic contains good illustrations, descriptions, and equations.

2003-10-10

293

Principles of remote attestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote attestation is the activity of making a claim about properties of a target by supplying evidence to an appraiser over a net- work. We identify ve central principles to guide development of attes- tation systems. We argue that (i) attestation must be able to deliver temporally fresh evidence; (ii) comprehensive information about the tar- get should be accessible; (iii)

George Coker; Joshua D. Guttman; Peter Loscocco; Amy L. Herzog; Jonathan Millen; Brian O’Hanlon; John D. Ramsdell; Ariel Segall; Justin Sheehy; Brian T. Sniffen

2011-01-01

294

Principles of nuclear geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate

Aswathanarayana

1985-01-01

295

Matters of Principle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at individuals who have stood on principle against authority or popular opinion. The first article investigates John Adams and his defense of British soldiers at the Boston Massacre trials. The second article explores Archbishop Thomas Becket's fatal conflict with England's King Henry II. The final…

Martz, Carlton

1999-01-01

296

Laboratory Safety Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workshop covers major principles and regulations pertinent to working in laboratories with hazardous materials. It is divided into 45 minute segments dealing with: Radioactive Materials (Staiger); Toxic, Reactive, Carcinogenic, and Teratogenic Chemicals (Carlson); Infectious Agents (Laver); and Fire Safety Concepts and Physical Hazards (Arnston).

Jerry Staiger, Keith Carlson, Jim Laver, Ray Arntson (University of Minnesota;); Keith Carlson (University of Minnesota;); Jim Lauer (University of Minnesota;); Ray Amtson (University of Minnesota;)

2008-04-11

297

Fermat's Principle Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

Kamat, R. V.

1991-01-01

298

Addendum to 'Time-dependent variational principle with constraints for parametrized wave functions'  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity analysis for the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP) with constraints for parametrized wave functions [K. Ohta, Phys. Rev. A 70, 022503 (2004)] is investigated to assess the geodesic deviation caused by external parameters. The constraints for the sensitivity functions, inherited from the TDVP, are dealt with their consistency conditions. As an example of the sensitivity analysis, the geodesic deviation in the neighborhood of stationary states is investigated for general wave functions.

Ohta, Katsuhisa [Department of Applied Chemistry, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan)

2006-04-15

299

Oxidation photochemistry in the Southern Atlantic boundary layer: unexpected deviations of photochemical steady state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant, an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas. As the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) it strongly affects the oxidation power of the atmosphere. The remote marine boundary layer (MBL) is considered an important region in terms of chemical O3 loss; however surface-based atmospheric observations are sparse and the photochemical processes are not well understood. To investigate the photochemistry under the clean background conditions of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, ship measurements of NO, NO2, O3, JNO2, J(O1D), HO2, OH, ROx and a range of meteorological parameters were carried out. The concentrations of NO and NO2 measured on board the French research vessel Marion-Dufresne (28° S-57° S, 46° W-34° E) in March 2007, are among the lowest yet observed. The data is evaluated for consistency with photochemical steady state (PSS) conditions, and the calculations indicate substantial deviations from PSS (?>1). The deviations observed under low NOx conditions (5-25 pptv) demonstrate a remarkable upward tendency in the Leighton ratio (used to characterize PSS) with increasing NOx mixing ratio and JNO2 intensity. It is a paradigm in atmospheric chemistry that OH largely controls the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere. However, evidence is growing that for unpolluted low-NOx (NO + NO2) conditions the atmospheric oxidant budget is poorly understood. Nevertheless, for the very cleanest conditions, typical for the remote marine boundary layer, good model agreement with measured OH and HO2 radicals has been interpreted as accurate understanding of baseline photochemistry. Here we show that such agreement can be deceptive and that a yet unidentified oxidant is needed to explain the photochemical conditions observed at 40°-60° S over the Atlantic Ocean.

Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H. D.; Martinez, M.; Sander, R.; Williams, J.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2011-03-01

300

Oxidation photochemistry in the Southern Atlantic boundary layer: unexpected deviations of photochemical steady state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant, an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas. As the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) it strongly affects the oxidation power of the atmosphere. The remote marine boundary layer (MBL) is considered an important region in terms of chemical O3 loss; however surface-based atmospheric observations are sparse and the photochemical processes are not well understood. To investigate the photochemistry under the clean background conditions of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, ship measurements of NO, NO2, O3, JNO2, J(O1D), HO2, OH, ROx and a range of meteorological parameters were carried out. The concentrations of NO and NO2 measured on board the French research vessel Marion-Dufresne (28° S-57° S, 46° W-34° E) in March 2007, are among the lowest yet observed. The data is evaluated for consistency with photochemical steady state (PSS) conditions, and the calculations indicate substantial deviations from PSS (?>1). The deviations observed under low NOx conditions (5-25 pptv) demonstrate a remarkable upward tendency in the Leighton ratio (used to characterize PSS) with increasing NOx mixing ratio and JNO2 intensity. It is a paradigm in atmospheric chemistry that OH largely controls the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere. However, evidence is growing that for unpolluted low-NOx (NO + NO2) conditions the atmospheric oxidant budget is poorly understood. Nevertheless, for the very cleanest conditions, typical for the remote marine boundary layer, good model agreement with measured OH and HO2 radicals has been interpreted as accurate understanding of baseline photochemistry. Here we show that such agreement can be deceptive and that a yet unidentified oxidant is needed to explain the photochemical conditions observed at 40°-60° S over the Atlantic Ocean.

Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H. D.; Martinez, M.; Sander, R.; Williams, J.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2011-08-01

301

Principles of Semiconductor Devices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Home page of an online and interactive textbook, Principles of Semiconductor Devices., written by Bart J. Van Zeghbroeck, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The goal of this text is to provide the basic principles of common semiconductor devices, with a special focus on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs). A browser environment was chosen so that text, figures and equations can be linked for easy reference. A table of contents, a glossary, active figures and some study aids are integrated with the text with the intention to provide a more effective reference and learning environment. Chapter titles include: Semiconductor Fundamentals, Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, p-n Junctions, Bipolar Transistors, MOS Capacitors, and MOSFET.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart J.

2011-06-13

302

Basic Principles of Ultrasound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.

2004-01-01

303

White coat principles.  

PubMed

The White Coat Ceremony, which many dental schools use to mark the transition to patient care, is an opportunity to reflect on the values of dental practice. Eight principles are offered for consideration: 1 ) patient care is the point of practice; 2) the doctor-patient relationship is essential; 3) discuss options and possibilities; 4) mistakes will be made; 5) tell the truth; be assertive; 7 ) consult; and 8) manage your stress and your life. PMID:15948496

Peltier, Bruce N

2004-01-01

304

Principles of lake sedimentology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

Janasson, L.

1983-01-01

305

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF MAMMOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outline is given of the underlying physical principles that govern the selection and use of systems for X-ray mammography.\\u000a Particular attention is paid to screen-film mammography as some aspects of digital mammography are considered in another lecture.\\u000a The size and composition of the compressed female breast and of calcifications are described and the magnitude of photon interaction\\u000a processes in

DAVID R. DANCE

306

Principles of nuclear geology  

SciTech Connect

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

Aswathanarayana, U.

1985-01-01

307

Principles of Geriatric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The world population is aging and the conditions that require cardiothoracic surgery – atherosclerosis, lung and esophageal\\u000a cancer, degenerative valve disease, dysrhythmia, and others – increase in incidence with increasing age. What do we know about\\u000a surgery in the elderly that will help us improve our care of these conditions? Six general principles are useful for teaching\\u000a purposes. These include

Mark R. Katlic

308

A Correlational Study of Scoliosis and Trunk Balance in Adult Patients with Mandibular Deviation  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an “S” type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p<0.01). The trunk balance of patients with mandibular deviation was disturbed (imbalance angle >1°), while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°). There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation.

Yang, Yang; Wang, Na; Wang, Wenyong; Ding, Yin; Sun, Shiyao

2013-01-01

309

Coupling between wrist flexion–extension and radial–ulnar deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Conventional wrist joint goniometry evaluates range of motion in isolated directions. The coupling between wrist flexion–extension and radial–ulnar deviation was investigated.Methods. Ten healthy young male subjects performed wrist flexion–extension, radial–ulnar deviation, and circumduction motions. Flexion–extension and radial–ulnar deviation angles were computed from the coordinates of surface markers attached to the forearm and hand. A motion analysis system recorded marker

Zong-Ming Li; Laurel Kuxhaus; Jesse A. Fisk; Thomas H. Christophel

2005-01-01

310

The analysis of variance and the correlations between relatives with respect to deviations from an optimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The formulae for the mean and variance of squared deviations from an optimum are given for the cases of no dominance and of\\u000a complete dominance, first assuming no environmental complications but later removing this restriction. The variance in each\\u000a case is analysed into contributions due to (1) additive gene effects, (2) dominance deviations, (3) epistatic deviations,\\u000a (4) environmental effects and

Sewall Wright

1935-01-01

311

Relation of branching angles to optimality for four cost principles.  

PubMed

The literature has suggested that branching angles depend on some principle of optimality. Most often cited are the minimization of lumen surface, volume, power and drag. The predicted angles depend on the principle applied, chi and alpha. Assuming flow o r chi, chi can be determined from r chi 0 = r chi 1 + r chi 2 when the radii of the parent (r0) major (r1) and minor (r2) daughters are known. The term alpha = r2/r1. Using different values for chi and alpha, we present graphs for the major and minor branching angles theta 1 and theta 2 and psi = theta 1 + theta 2 for each of the four optimization principles. Because psi is almost independent of alpha for values of chi and alpha found in 198 junctions taken from a human pulmonary artery, we are able to produce a plot of psi versus chi for each of the four principles on one graph. A junction can be provisionally classified as optimizing for a given principle if, knowing chi, the psi obs - psi pred is least for that principle. We find that this nomographic classification agrees almost perfectly with a previous classification based on a more exacting measure, the percent cost index I, where I = observed cost/minimum cost. We explain why this is to be expected in most but not all cases. First we generate a contoured percent cost surface of c = I - 100 around the optimally located junction, J, and superimpose a surface of equal angular deviations a = psi pred-psi obs. We find that c increases and a usually increases with distance from J as the actual junction moves along a straight line away from J. We then produce a plot of c versus a for two competing principles. A comparison of the principles demonstrates that, for most cases, a is smaller for the principle which has the smaller c value. PMID:3796010

Woldenberg, M J; Horsfield, K

1986-09-21

312

Observable signature of a background deviating from the Kerr metric  

SciTech Connect

By detecting gravitational wave signals from extreme mass ratio inspiraling sources (EMRIs) we will be given the opportunity to check our theoretical expectations regarding the nature of supermassive bodies that inhabit the central regions of galaxies. We have explored some qualitatively new features that a perturbed Kerr metric induces in its geodesic orbits. Since a generic perturbed Kerr metric does not possess all the special symmetries of a Kerr metric, the geodesic equations in the former case are described by a slightly nonintegrable Hamiltonian system. According to the Poincare-Birkhoff theorem, this causes the appearance of the so-called Birkhoff chains of islands on the corresponding surfaces of section in between the anticipated KAM curves of the integrable Kerr case, whenever the intrinsic frequencies of the system are at resonance. The chains of islands are characterized by finite width, i.e. there is a finite range of initial conditions that correspond to a particular resonance and consequently to a constant rational ratio of intrinsic frequencies. Thus while the EMRI changes adiabatically by radiating energy and angular momentum, by monitoring the frequencies of a signal we can look for a transient pattern, in the form of a plateau, in the evolution of their ratio. We have shown that such a plateau is anticipated to be apparent in a quite large fraction of possible orbital characteristics if the central gravitating source is not a Kerr black hole. Moreover, the plateau in the ratio of frequencies is expected to be more prominent at specific rational values that correspond to the strongest resonances. This gives a possible observational detection of such non-Kerr exotic objects.

Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy, Soranou Efesiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece); Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos GR15783, Athens (Greece); Apostolatos, Theocharis A. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos GR15783, Athens (Greece); Contopoulos, George [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy, Soranou Efesiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece)

2010-06-15

313

Guiding Principles for Diabetes Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) has developed these Guiding Principles for Diabetes Care to help the health care team manage the disease effectively. The principles outline seven essential components of quality diabetes care that form the b...

2004-01-01

314

Administrative Process. Principles of Organization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a training outline for a presentation for students which includes lecture, class discussion, and film. The purpose is to introduce the students to the basic principles of organization, and to relate these principles to housing management and...

1973-01-01

315

LYMPH NODES AS A SOURCE OF NEUTRALIZING PRINCIPLE FOR VACCINIA  

PubMed Central

An antiviral principle is elaborated within the regional lymph nodes draining skin into which vaccinia is injected. The immunity conferred by clinical Jennerian vaccination may be largely of lymph node origin.

McMaster, Philip D.; Kidd, John G.

1937-01-01

316

Principles of "Metrological Statistics"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

That portion of applied statistics which is used for the treatment of experimental data is essentially founded on unbiased estimators - notwithstanding the fact that any real measurement process implies so-called unknown systematic errors. Until now, those perturbations giving rise to unknown deviations from the true values have been formally randomized, i.e. they are treated as if they were of random origin. Biased estimators thus again become fictitiously unbiased. However, the associated procedures suffer from two disadvantages: they are too complicated and, in the author's opinion, they generate uncertainties which are not sufficiently reliable. The submitted paper attempts to establish "Metrological Statistics" which, being based on biased estimators, is much simpler to handle and which, in particular, yields safe estimates for measurement uncertainties.

Grabe, M.

1987-01-01

317

CONSENSUS ON GLOBAL GOVERNANCE PRINCIPLES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is there a consensus on governance principles beyond national borders? There seems to be a converging trend towards widely accepted Global Governance Principles as expressed in the OECD Principles for example. This paper argues that formal and informal governance mechanisms should be integrated. The latter focuses on relationship-based enabling access to scarce resources - so typical in Asia - whereas

Peter Verhezen; Paul Morse

2009-01-01

318

The Sidetracking Meta-Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sidetracking principle is nothing but an instance of the well-known principle of procrastination, advising postponement of the problematic until the inevitable has been dealt with, in the hope that the problematic will either be no longer an issue or becomes less problematic. The aim of this paper is to show how the sidetracking principle as a method and technique

Luís Moniz Pereira; José Júlio Alferes; Carlos Damásio

319

Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

Ridgely, Charles T.

2010-01-01

320

Eccentric eye and head positions in darkness induce deviation from the intended path.  

PubMed

Head and gaze are aligned with the actual path during locomotion. Before a turn is made, gaze changes in the direction of the planned trajectory. We investigated whether eccentric horizontal head and/or eye position without vision causes deviations from the intended straight path. Twenty blindfolded healthy volunteers were asked to walk toward a previously seen target 10 m straight ahead. Various combinations of head and eye positions were tested (eye-in-head gaze straight ahead or 35 degrees left or right with head straight ahead or 70 degrees left or right). Head rotation to the left caused a gait deviation to the right (3.7 degrees ) and head rotation to the right caused a deviation to the left (2.7 degrees ; F(2,40) = 34.966; P < 0.00001). Eye position also showed a tendency to cause gait deviations opposite in direction to gaze, which was, however, not significant. Deviations from the intended straight path were largest with head rotation and eyes straight ahead (gaze 70 degrees off target) or eyes opposite to head rotation (gaze 35 degrees off target). Notably, when lateral eye deviation added to head rotation (gaze 105 degrees off target), i.e., gaze is directed backward, mean deviations decreased (2.3 degrees to the right and 1.2 degrees to the left). Thus, we show that (1) eccentric head positions induce direction-specific gait deviations that are independent of concurrent environmental visual information, and (2) that gait deviations are contraversive to eye-head gaze rather than ipsiversive as reported by others for visually controlled locomotion. The direction of deviation may reflect the compensation of an expected or perceived deviation in the direction of gaze. PMID:16604319

Jahn, Klaus; Kalla, Roger; Karg, Sonja; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas

2006-04-08

321

Complex Correspondence Principle  

SciTech Connect

Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Hook, Daniel W. [Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wang Qinghai [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2010-02-12

322

Principles of smile design  

PubMed Central

An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile.

Bhuvaneswaran, Mohan

2010-01-01

323

Remote Sensing Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introduction to Earth observation includes definitions of several terms, examples taken from real situations, and questions, answers, and exercises. A simple example of traditional chorological mapping methods and is used to show some fundamental principles of satellite images. Histogram, pixel and classification are introduced. There are discussions about remote sensing, the history of Earth observation, and geostationary and solar synchronous orbits. In addition, the basic physical concepts underlying remote sensing are explained, with the help of some relatively simple viewgraphs. This site is also available in German, French, Italian and Spanish.

324

A growable packet (ATM) switch architecture: design principles and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider the generic problem of designing a large N×N(N>1000) high-performance, broadband packet (or asynchronous transfer mode) switch. They provide ways to construct arbitrarily large switches out of modest-size packet switches, without sacrificing overall delay\\/throughput performance. They propose and study a growable switch architecture based on three key principles: (a) a generalized knockout principle which exploits the statistical behavior

Kai Y. Eng; Mark J. Karol; Y. S. Yeh

1989-01-01

325

Wet-End Deviations from Scaling of the Water Retention Characteristics of Fractal Porous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous investigation demonstrated that dry-end deviations from fractal scaling of the water retention of USDOE Hanford site soils set on at a moisture content closely related to the moisture content at which solute diffusion vanishes. This result was interpreted in terms of a minimum water content for percolation of filled capillaries. We now find that wet-end deviations from fractal

Allen G. Hunt; Glendon W. Gee

2003-01-01

326

FY10: Number of HCT/P Deviation Reports by Type of 361 ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Deviation Code Cellular HCT/P Non-Cellular HCT/P TOTAL Donor Eligibility 26 9.1% ... Deviation Code Cellular HCT/P Non-Cellular HCT/P TOTAL ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability

327

A novel method of measuring phase deviation signal for Coriolis mass flow meter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new phase deviation signal detecting method based on signal capture technology is presented to deal with the signals of double u-shaped Coriolis mass flow meter. By using the method, MCU (micro control unit) can get the whole oscillating information of the flow sensor, including normal phase deviation signal being proportional to mass flow rate and signal draft caused by

Jiang Yang

2004-01-01

328

75 FR 67093 - Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2010-P-0517] Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market...deviates from the U.S. standard of identity for bottled water. The purpose of the...the requirements of the standards of identity issued under section 401 of the...

2010-11-01

329

75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit...deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension...on a petition to amend the standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon that was...

2010-01-05

330

78 FR 2273 - Canned Tuna Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2012-P-1189] Canned Tuna Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market...deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned tuna. The purpose of the...from the requirements of standards of identity issued under section 401 of the...

2013-01-10

331

Clinical study of the factors affecting radioulnar deviation of the wrist joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The radioulnar carpal joint is critical for hand and wrist function. Radioulnar deviation indicates distal radioulnar joint flexibility and reflects the structure and function of the carpal bones, ulna, radius and ligaments. The present study examined whether radioulnar deviation is affected by gender, manual labor, playing a musical instrument, playing sport, handedness, previous fracture or prior inflammation. The study

Panagiotis Kitsoulis; Georgios Paraskevas; Kalliopi Iliou; Panagiotis Kanavaros; Aikaterini Marini

2010-01-01

332

Generation scheduling methodology for thermal units with wind energy system considering unexpected load deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology of short term generation scheduling (unit commitment) for thermal units integrated with wind energy system considering the unexpected deviation on load demand. The deviation in load demand occurs mainly due to variation in temperature which in turns yields error in load forecasting. Since the usual unit commitment (UC) scheduling as well as economic power dispatch

Tomonobu Senjyu; Shantanu Chakraborty; Ahmed Yousuf Saber; Hirofumi Toyama; Naomitsu Urasaki; Toshihisa Funabashi

2008-01-01

333

Basal shear and normal stresses of dry and wet snow avalanches after a slope deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal shear and normal force measurements of dry and wet snow avalanches and slush flows from the Weissfluhjoch snow chute are presented. This chute contains two slope angle transitions in order to measure the effect of slope deviations on the normal and shear force distributions. Slope deviations are typically encountered near snow sheds and the dynamic forces resulting from them

K. Platzer; P. Bartelt; C. Jaedicke

2007-01-01

334

Influence of Response Consequences to a Social Model on Resistance to Deviation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a study of the influence of films showing response consequences to a model for resistance to deviation, children were assigned to one of four conditions: film model rewarded for deviation; model punished; no consequence to model; and no film. They were...

R. H. Walters R. D. Parke

1964-01-01

335

The Incidence of Concha Bullosa and Its Relationship to Nasal Septal Deviation and Paranasal Sinus Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The incidence of middle turbinate pneumatization, or concha bullosa, has been well described in the literature. However, to our knowledge, no study has evaluated concha bullosa in relation to nasal septal deviation. We sought to analyze the incidence of concha bullosa and any correlation with nasal septal deviation and paranasal sinus disease. METHODS: Three neuroradiologists retrospectively reviewed

Jamie S. Stallman; Joao N. Lobo; Peter M. Som

336

Ballistic deviations of a compensated gyrocompass, caused by faulty external information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ballistic deviations of a compensated fluid-rotor gyroscope are analyzed in the case where the corrective moments possess errors caused by faulty external information on the velocity of the vehicle and the local latitude. It is shown that, during a maneuver, errors due to faulty external information cause an insignificant ballistic deviation that is directly proportional to the value of

M. V. Chichinadze

1975-01-01

337

Reliable detection of fluence anomalies in EPID-based IMRT pretreatment quality assurance using pixel intensity deviations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning deviations. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity deviations (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional deviations of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional deviations produce large intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of {>=}5% in {approx}1 mm{sup 2} areas and {>=}2% in {approx}20 mm{sup 2} areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences ({<=}2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.

Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

2012-08-15

338

Principles of Safety Pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

2008-01-01

339

Principle of relative locality  

SciTech Connect

We propose a deepening of the relativity principle according to which the invariant arena for nonquantum physics is a phase space rather than spacetime. Descriptions of particles propagating and interacting in spacetimes are constructed by observers, but different observers, separated from each other by translations, construct different spacetime projections from the invariant phase space. Nonetheless, all observers agree that interactions are local in the spacetime coordinates constructed by observers local to them. This framework, in which absolute locality is replaced by relative locality, results from deforming energy-momentum space, just as the passage from absolute to relative simultaneity results from deforming the linear addition of velocities. Different aspects of energy-momentum space geometry, such as its curvature, torsion and nonmetricity, are reflected in different kinds of deformations of the energy-momentum conservation laws. These are in principle all measurable by appropriate experiments. We also discuss a natural set of physical hypotheses which singles out the cases of energy-momentum space with a metric compatible connection and constant curvature.

Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita 'La Sapienza', and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P. le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2Y5 (Canada); Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Pl. Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

2011-10-15

340

Great Lakes Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

2011-03-01

341

Analysis of wavelength deviation of guided waves with electromagnetic acoustic transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is usually considered that the wavelength of guided waves propagating in plates is equal to the double spacing interval of the meander-line coil of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). However, the actual value of the wavelength might deviate from the double spacing. This paper takes Shear Horizontal (SH) waves for instance to study the relationship between the wavelength deviation and the parameters of EMATs. It is shown that the wavelength deviation occurs when the operating point of EMATs does not locate on the dispersion curves of a certain SH mode. A wavelength measurement method is proposed to evaluate the deviation by the time-frequency analysis of detected wave signals. Experiments are set up to study the phenomenon of wavelength deviation and verify the validity of the proposed method.

Zhai, Guofu; Jiang, Tao; Kang, Lei

2012-10-01

342

Providing Runtime Clock Synchronization With Minimal Node-to-Node Time Deviation on XT4s and XT5s  

SciTech Connect

We present a new high precision clock synchronization algorithm designed for large XT4 and XT5 leadership-class machines. The algorithm, which is designed to support OS noise reduction through co-scheduling, is suitable for usage cases requiring low overhead and minimal time deviation between nodes. Unlike most high-precision algorithms which reach their precision in a post-mortem analysis after the application has completed, the new ORNL developed algorithm rapidly provides precise results during runtime. Previous to our work, the leading high-precision clock synchronization algorithms that made results available during runtime relied on probabilistic schemes that are not guaranteed to result in an answer.

Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Koenig, Gregory A [ORNL

2011-01-01

343

The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches.

Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)], E-mail: lawrence.marks@duke.edu; Light, Kim L.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Georgas, Debra L.; Jones, Ellen L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, C (United States); Wright, Melanie C. [Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Willett, Christopher G.; Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2007-12-01

344

Determination of Ensemble-Average Pairwise Root Mean-Square Deviation from Experimental B-Factors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Root mean-square deviation (RMSD) after roto-translational least-squares fitting is a measure of global structural similarity of macromolecules used commonly. On the other hand, experimental x-ray B-factors are used frequently to study local structural heterogeneity and dynamics in macromolecules by providing direct information about root mean-square fluctuations (RMSF) that can also be calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. We provide a mathematical derivation showing that, given a set of conservative assumptions, a root mean-square ensemble-average of an all-against-all distribution of pairwise RMSD for a single molecular species, 1/2, is directly related to average B-factors () and 1/2. We show this relationship and explore its limits of validity on a heterogeneous ensemble of structures taken from molecular dynamics simulations of villin headpiece generated using distributed-computing techniques and the Folding@Home cluster. Our results provide a basis for quantifying global structural diversity of macromolecules in crystals directly from x-ray experiments, and we show this on a large set of structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. In particular, we show that the ensemble-average pairwise backbone RMSD for a microscopic ensemble underlying a typical protein x-ray structure is ?1.1 Å, under the assumption that the principal contribution to experimental B-factors is conformational variability.

Kuzmanic, Antonija; Zagrovic, Bojan

2010-01-01

345

Impact of septoplasty on mean platelet volume levels in patients with marked nasal septal deviation.  

PubMed

Nasal septal deviation (NSD) is a very common cause of recurrent and chronic nasal obstruction. Chronic nasal obstruction leads to increased upper respiratory tract resistance, and also upper respiratory tract resistance leads to chronic hypoxia and hypercarbic because of alveolar hypoventilation. Chronic hypoxia and hypercarbia show tendency for hypercoagulopathy.Mean platelet volume (MPV), the most commonly used measure of platelet size, is a potential marker of platelet reactivity. Large platelets that contain more dense granules are enzymatically and metabolically more active and have greater prothrombotic potential. In previous studies, increased MPV was demonstrated in hypertension, unstable angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, and obstructive sleep apnea.We aimed to determine whether MPV levels are elevated in patients with marked NSD (MNSD) compared with healthy controls. In addition, we tried to find out the effect of nasal septoplasty on MPV levels. We found that the MPV levels were significantly higher in the MNSD group than in the control healthy group, and also we found that MPV levels were significantly decreased in the MNSD group after septoplasty operation.In conclusion, in our knowledge, this is the first study investigating MPV levels in patients with MNSD. Increased platelet activation may be related to increase the cardiovascular risk in patients with MNSD. Our results suggest that MPV, a determinant of platelet activation, is elevated in patients with MNSD, and the increase in MPV levels of the cases with MNSD could be treated by septoplasty. PMID:22777441

Sagit, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Ferhat; Kavugudurmaz, Mustafa; Somdas, Mehmet Akif

2012-07-01

346

First-principles Study On Dielectric Properties Of Nano-Scale Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric constants of Si, GaAs, and ZnSe (001) and (111) nano-size films are studied by the first-principles calculations. We found that the dielectric constant deviates from the bulk value with decreasing the film thickness and such variation shows characteristic dependences on material kinds, polarization directions, and film orientations.

Ishikawa, Masato; Nii, Harumichi; Nakayama, Takashi

2007-04-01

347

The vibrating-membrane problem - based on basic principles and simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectangular and circular membranes have been modelled as discrete arrays of mass points connected by mass- less springs. Based on Newton's principles and Hooke's law, the movement of such membranes has been simu- lated. All vibrational modes, as known from closed form solutions of the corresponding wave equations, can be excited, with deviations from theoretical values of no more than

Hermann Härtel; Ernesto Martin

348

Principles to minimize scars.  

PubMed

Principles to minimize scars include attention to a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic patient factors preoperatively, operatively, and postoperatively. Preoperatively the goal is to maximize the treatment of patient specific comorbidities and limit the usage of medications that can have negative effects on healing. Operatively, the focus is on proper incisional planning, meticulous surgical technique and hemostasis, judicious use of prophylactic antibiotics, and focus on tensionless closures. Postoperatively, we must maximize the healing environment by keeping the wound well hydrated and closely monitoring and intervening early in high-risk wounds. We also have the responsibility to provide evidence-based recommendations, to the best of our ability, regarding the myriad of over-the-counter products. The field of scar prevention is ever changing and the new frontier focuses on controlling the microenvironment of wounds and altering signaling molecules to promote near scarless healing. PMID:23027213

Gantwerker, Eric Alan; Hom, David B

2012-10-01

349

The Anthropic Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The questions that were purely in the realms of philosophy are now beginning to be answered by science. The second Venice Conference on Cosmology and Philosophy explores the anthropic principle which states that the Universe has the conditions we observe because we are here. Out of all possible universes we can only experience the restricted class that permits observers. This realization has profound implications for cosmology, philosophy and theology; all of which are explored in this book by thirteen contributors who gathered to discuss and share their theories within the context of science. The result is a unique collection of papers of great value to professional astronomers and philosophers interested in the role of observers in the Universe.

Bertola, F.; Curi, U.

1993-07-01

350

Dynamical principles in neuroscience  

SciTech Connect

Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?.

Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I. [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States) and GNB, Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States) and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States); Department of Physics and Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)

2006-10-15

351

Black hole thermodynamics with generalized uncertainty principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the generalized uncertainty principle to the thermodynamics of a small black hole. Here we have a black hole system with the UV cutoff. It is shown that the minimal length induced by the GUP interrupts the Gross Perry Yaffe phase transition for a small black hole. In order to see whether the black hole remnant takes place a transition to a large black hole, we introduce a black hole in a cavity (IR system). However, we fail to show the phase transition of the remnant to the large black hole.

Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

2007-02-01

352

Giant magnetoresistance calculated from first principles  

SciTech Connect

The Layer Korringa Kohn Rostoker-Coherent Potential Approximation technique was used to calculate the low temperature Giant Magnetoresistance from first principles for Co{vert_bar}Cu and permalloy{vert_bar}Cu superlattices. Our calculations predict large giant magnetoresistance ratios for Co{vert_bar}Cu and extremely large ratios for permalloy{vert_bar}Cu for current perpendicular to the layers. Mechanisms such as spin-orbit coupling which mix spin channels are expected to greatly reduce the GMR effect for permalloy{vert_bar}Cu.

Butler, W.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); MacLaren, J.M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Zhang, X.G. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Computational Sciences

1994-09-01

353

Risk Management Principles for Nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk management of nanotechnology is challenged by the enormous uncertainties about the risks, benefits, properties, and future\\u000a direction of nanotechnology applications. Because of these uncertainties, traditional risk management principles such as acceptable\\u000a risk, cost–benefit analysis, and feasibility are unworkable, as is the newest risk management principle, the precautionary\\u000a principle. Yet, simply waiting for these uncertainties to be resolved before undertaking

Gary E. Marchant; Douglas J. Sylvester; Kenneth W. Abbott

2008-01-01

354

Inventory Control for Supply Chains with Service Level Constraints: A Synergy between Large Deviations and Perturbation Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a model of a supply chain consisting of n production facilities in tandem and producing a single product class. External demand is met from the finished goods inventory maintained in front of the most downstream facility (stage 1); unsatisfied demand is backlogged. We adopt a base-stock production policy at each stage of the supply chain, according to which

Ioannis Ch. Paschalidis; Yong Liu; Christos G. Cassandras; Christos G. Panayiotou

2004-01-01

355

The Le Châtelier Principle: How Much a Principle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Principle of Le Châtelier is analyzed for the case of reactions taking place with real gases. The Principle, as usually stated in textbooks, is true only for ideal gas mixtures, and may be violated when the nonideal behavior of a gas is taken into consideration.

Jaime Wisniak

1999-01-01

356

NANOMETER PRECISION IN LARGE SURFACE PROFILOMETRY.  

SciTech Connect

The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is in use at many synchrotron radiation (SR) laboratories throughout the world and by a number of manufacturers who specialize in fabricating grazing incidence mirrors for SR and x-ray telescope applications. Recent improvements in the design and operation of the LTP system have reduced the statistical error in slope profile measurement to the 1 standard deviation level of 0.3 microradian for 0.5 meter long mirrors. This corresponds to a height error on the order of 10-20 nanometers. This level of performance allows one to measure with confidence the absolute shape of large cylindrical aspheres and spheres that have kilometer radii of curvature in the axial direction. The LTP is versatile enough to make measurements of a mirror in the face up, sideways, and face down configurations. We will illustrate the versatility of the current version of the instrument, the LTP II, and present results from two new versions of the instrument: the in situ LTP (ISLTP) and the Vertical Scan LTP (VSLTP). Both of them are based on the penta prism LTP (ppLTP) principle that utilizes a stationary optical head and moving penta prism. The ISLTP is designed to measure the distortion of high heat load mirrors during actual operation in SR beam lines. The VSLTP is designed to measure the complete 3-dimensional shape of x-ray telescope cylinder mirrors and mandrels in a vertical configuration. Scans are done both in the axial direction and in the azimuthal direction.

TAKACS,P.Z.

1999-08-30

357

49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals? (a) Waiver...

2009-10-01

358

Two-dimensional magnetic sensitivity to asymmetric and symmetric deviations for SSC quadrupole magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic multipole sensitivity to asymmetric and symmetric deviations is analyzed in the two-dimensional cross-section of SSC quadrupole magnets. Deviations in the 2-D cross-section caused by variations in the superconducting cable locations due to changes in the thickness of the pole sheet, mid plane insulation, inter-layer spacer, backing sheet, and copper wedges have direct impact on the magnetic field gradient and multipoles in the straight section of the magnets. Asymmetric deviations due to different coil sizes in a cross-section are also analyzed. The analyses are performed mainly with the software package AHARM(1). SSCMAG(1) and finite element software PE2D(2) were also used to obtain baselines and to verify the results. The results provide information essential to an understanding of the deviations of the multipoles resulting from manufacturing processes, and suggest possibilities for tuning the multipoles to meet the magnetic requirements.

Xu, Minfeng; Waynert, Joseph A.

1994-07-01

359

40 CFR 60.2780 - What must I include in the deviation report?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2780 What must I include in the deviation...

2013-07-01

360

A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry.  

PubMed

A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded (137)Cs and (241)Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPGe). The deviation display enhances positive significant changes while suppressing the natural background fluctuations. After an initialization time of about 10min this technique leads to a homogeneous display dominated by the background colour, where even small changes in spectral data are easy to discover. As this paper shows, the deviation display method works well for all tested gamma energies and natural background radiation levels and with both tested detector systems. PMID:20456962

Kock, Peder; Finck, Robert R; Nilsson, Jonas M C; Ostlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer

2010-04-24

361

Estimation of the Standard Deviation of the Logistic Distribution by the Use of Selected Order Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique is applied to obtain unbiased estimators with minimum variance among the class of linear estimators for the standard deviation of a logistic population with known mean. Coefficients for multiplying ordered observations are developed for comple...

J. N. Beyer A. H. Moore H. L. Harter

1972-01-01

362

Preference Threshold Procedure for Statistical Selection: Robustness against Deviations from Normality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we investigate the robustness of the preference threshold procedure, introduced by Verheijen, Coolen and Van der Laan (PB97-191498), with respect to deviations from the normality assumption. The preference threshold procedure is a combinatio...

F. P. A. Coolen J. H. M. Verheijen P. van der Laan

1996-01-01

363

21 CFR 113.89 - Deviations in processing, venting, or control of critical factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...no significant potential for public health hazard exists, that portion of the product involved may be shipped in normal distribution. Otherwise, the portion of the product involved shall be destroyed. All process deviations involving a...

2013-04-01

364

46 CFR 69.13 - Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system. 69.13 Section 69.13 Shipping...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.13...

2012-10-01

365

46 CFR 69.13 - Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Deviating from the provisions of a measurement system. 69.13 Section 69.13 Shipping...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.13...

2011-10-01

366

Analysis of using the tongue deviation angle as a warning sign of a stroke  

PubMed Central

Background The symptom of tongue deviation is observed in a stroke or transient ischemic attack. Nevertheless, there is much room for the interpretation of the tongue deviation test. The crucial factor is the lack of an effective quantification method of tongue deviation. If we can quantify the features of the tongue deviation and scientifically verify the relationship between the deviation angle and a stroke, the information provided by the tongue will be helpful in recognizing a warning of a stroke. Methods In this study, a quantification method of the tongue deviation angle was proposed for the first time to characterize stroke patients. We captured the tongue images of stroke patients (15 males and 10 females, ranging between 55 and 82 years of age); transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients (16 males and 9 females, ranging between 53 and 79 years of age); and normal subjects (14 males and 11 females, ranging between 52 and 80 years of age) to analyze whether the method is effective. In addition, we used the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for the sensitivity analysis, and determined the threshold value of the tongue deviation angle for the warning sign of a stroke. Results The means and standard deviations of the tongue deviation angles of the stroke, TIA, and normal groups were: 6.9?±?3.1, 4.9?±?2.1 and 1.4?±?0.8 degrees, respectively. Analyzed by the unpaired Student’s t-test, the p-value between the stroke group and the TIA group was 0.015 (>0.01), indicating no significant difference in the tongue deviation angle. The p-values between the stroke group and the normal group, as well as between the TIA group and the normal group were both less than 0.01. These results show the significant differences in the tongue deviation angle between the patient groups (stroke and TIA patients) and the normal group. These results also imply that the tongue deviation angle can effectively identify the patient group (stroke and TIA patients) and the normal group. With respect to the visual examination, 40% and 32% of stroke patients, 24% and 16% of TIA patients, and 4% and 0% of normal subjects were found to have tongue deviations when physicians “A” and “B” examined them. The variation showed the essentiality of the quantification method in a clinical setting. In the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the Area Under Curve (AUC, = 0.96) indicates good discrimination. The tongue deviation angle more than the optimum threshold value (= 3.2°) predicts a risk of stroke. Conclusions In summary, we developed an effective quantification method to characterize the tongue deviation angle, and we confirmed the feasibility of recognizing the tongue deviation angle as an early warning sign of an impending stroke.

2012-01-01

367

Vedic principles of therapy.  

PubMed

This paper introduces Vedic principles of therapy as a holistic integration of healing and human development. The most integrative aspect is a "consciousness-based" approach in which the bottom line of the mind is consciousness itself, accessed by transcending mental activity to its simplest ground state. This directly contrasts with "unconscious-based" approaches that hold the basis of conscious mind is the unconscious, such as analytic, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Although not presented as a specific therapeutic approach, interventions associated with this Vedic approach have extensive support in the applied research literature. A brief review of experimental research toward a general model of mind-and cutting-edge developments in quantum physics toward nonlocal mind-shows a convergence on the ancient Vedic model of mind. Comparisons with contemporary therapies further show that the simplicity, subtlety, and holistic nature of the Vedic approach represent a significant advance over approaches which have overlooked the fundamental ground state of the mind. PMID:22225931

Boyer, R W

368

Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium deviations in high-intensity discharge lamps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.

Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.

2013-04-01

369

Is happiness inequality immune to income inequality? New evidence through instrument-effect-corrected standard deviations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found that a nation’s income inequality does not affect its happiness inequality. This article questions the appropriateness of the standard deviation as measure of happiness inequality used in these studies. Our main criticism concerns structural dependency, i.e. the technical dependency of the standard deviation on a nation’s mean happiness which is induced by measuring happiness with limited

Jan Delhey; Ulrich Kohler

2011-01-01

370

Diagnostic data evaluation. Part III. Collaborative study evaluation: standard deviation considered to be a constant.  

PubMed

The diagnostic evaluation of the crude protein collaborative study identified possible problems with a standardized interval for the Kjeldahl digestion, with sample preparation, and with excess sample weights. The standard deviations for the ham and the beef samples cannot be considered to be representative of the method because of these problems. The standard deviations for the frankfurter and the pork sausage samples for all analysts met the performance standard of 0.24. There was no evidence of analyst bias. PMID:2376544

Malanoski, A J

371

Deviation of longitudinal and shear waves in austenitic stainless steel weld metal  

SciTech Connect

One of the difficulties associated with the ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel weld metal is the deviation of the ultrasonic beams. This can lead to errors in determining both the location and size of reflectors. The present paper compares experimental and theoretical data related to beam steering for longitudinal and shear waves in a sample of 308 SS weld metal. Agreement between predicted and measured beam deviations is generally good. Reasons for discrepancies are discussed.

Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.

1980-01-01

372

Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can be controlled with an accuracy of 10{sup -4}. The laser phase noise decreases the dispersion magnitude while the amplitude noise increases it. Although we can always adjust the parameters to satisfy the white light condition, both types of noise make the cavity transmission curve uneven.

Sun Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail [Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Shahriar, M. Selim [Departments of EECS and Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3118 (United States)

2010-03-15

373

Real time basis-deviation measurement system based on BB84 module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to present a real time basis-deviation measurement system based on BB84 module. As BB84 module is the essential module in QKD receiver system, the basis-deviation measurement system can be directly implanted into the QKD receiver system to detect the polarization of photon current in real time during quantum key distribution. BB84 module distributes the incident photon current into four photon currents with the polarization of H (Horizontal), V (Vertical), + (+45°) and - (-45°). Their energies can be detected by four APD photon-detectors. Basis-deviation compute equation is deduced with the Stocks-vector of the optical devices path in BB84 module. The energies of the four distributed photon currents are collected in real time and then input to basis-deviation compute equation to calculate the basis-deviation. There is error bears on the effects produced by the optical elements in the BB84 module, so we built a set of software module to foundation the process of the real time polarization measurement system working. Thus we can see how all the parameters of the optical elements effects the calculation results. At last, we built a polarization photon current generator which can produce photon current with continuous changing polarization and a real time basis-deviation measurement system based on BB84 module in laboratory.

Zhang, Ming; Wu, Jin-cai; Zhang, Liang; Jia, Jian-jun; He, Zhi-pin; Yang, Shi-ji; Qian, Feng; Wang, Jian-yu

2013-08-01

374

Asymptotic approach to special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle  

SciTech Connect

We propose a general framework to describe Planckian deviations from special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle. They are introduced as the leading corrections in an asymptotic approach to special relativity going beyond the energy power expansion of effective field theories. We discuss the conditions in which these Planckian effects might be experimentally observable in the near future, together with the nontrivial limits of applicability of this asymptotic approach that such a situation would produce, both at the very high (ultraviolet) and the very low (infrared) energy regimes.

Carmona, J. M.; Cortes, J. L.; Mazon, D. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)

2010-10-15

375

Architectural Principles of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data stream management systems (DSMSs) receive large overheads when queries directly access the serial non-indexed incoming stream. Our novel architecture, presented in this work, addresses this problem by indexing the incoming dataflow based on a specially designed data structure. The role of this data structure is as fundamental for our DSMS as the role of a relation in a relational

Panayiotis Adamos Michael; Douglas Stott Parker Jr.

2008-01-01

376

Principles of Enterprise Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) through its Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) research team has been conducting research and facilitating enterprise-level transformations in large complex sociotechnical enterprises for over fifteen years. These enterprises have spanned a broad base of industries and governmental organizations including aerospace, automotive, electronics, health care, transportation, construction, defense acquisition and logistics, research labs and many others.

Deborah Nightingale

2009-01-01

377

The effect of nasal septal deviation on maxillary sinus volumes and development of maxillary sinusitis.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the possible role of nasal septal deviation on volume of maxillary sinuses and its relationship with development of maxillary sinusitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May 2010 and September 2012, paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) findings of 825 patients (470 males, 355 females), who admitted to Ear Nose and Throat Department of Bozok University Medical Faculty were retrospectively analyzed. By excluding the other co-existent sino nasal pathologies, 109 consecutive patients (47 males, 62 females mean age 36 ± 13.4 years; range 18-71 years) with isolated nasal septal deviations were recruited for the study. The convex side of the septal curvature was accepted as the direction of deviation. The findings were grouped according to the radiologically measured angle of nasal septal deviations. The deviation angle of the nasal septum was described as; mild (<9°), moderate (the angle between 9° and 15°), or severe (15° and up). The volume of each maxillary sinus (ipsi- and contralateral to the deviation side) was also calculated using the computer program. Sinusitis was defined as any evident thickening of the maxillary sinus mucosa. RESULTS: There were 62 females and 47 males with a mean age of 36 ± 13.4. Nasal septal deviation angles were found to range between 5° and 27.2° (mean 13° ± 3.4°). The right sided deviations included 19 mild (<9°, Group I), 16 moderate (9°-15°, Group II), and 16 severe (15° and up, Group III) cases. The left sided deviations included 19 mild (<9°, Group I), 19 moderate (9°-15°, Group II), and 20 severe (15° and up, Group III) subjects. Maxillary sinus volumes were compared between right and left sided deviation groups. We could not demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the right maxillary sinus volumes of Groups I and II in left sided deviation cases (p = 0.77). In the same side, comparison of Groups I-III and Groups II-III, the maxillary sinus volume differences were found to be significantly meaningful (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013, respectively). Identical results were yielded in the right sided septal deviation group related to the maxillary sinus volumes of Groups I and II and Groups I-III and Groups II-III compartments (p = 0.99, p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively). In both right and left deviation groups, ipsi and contralateral maxillary sinus volume comparements produced statistically significant results (p = 0.002 and p = 0.04, respectively). The presence of maxillary sinusitis findings were significantly increased in both group (p = 0.00). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that maxillary sinus volumes tend to be higher at the contralateral side of the severe septum deviations. In addition, the chance of finding maxillary sinusitis findings on ipsilateral to the severe septum deviation was significantly increased. PMID:23512432

Kapusuz Gencer, Zeliha; Ozk?r??, Mahmut; Okur, Aylin; Karaçavu?, Seyhan; Saydam, Levent

2013-03-20

378

Lateralized olfactory difference in patients with a nasal septal deviation before and after septoplasty*.  

PubMed

Background: Patients with a smell disorder and less often, healthy people, exhibit an olfactory difference between the two sides of the nose. Higher olfactory thresholds are correlated with the obstructed side of a nasal septal deviation (NSD). With this prospective study we sought to investigate if a NSD compromises the olfactory identification. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with nasal obstruction due to a NSD were recruited. The patients were listed for primary septoplasty with or without radiofrequency reduction of the inferior turbinates. Pre- and postoperatively, patients were assessed by visual analogue scales for symptoms and by the bilateral nasal spirometry (nasal partitioning ratio-NPR) for the side/degree of obstruction. Olfactory identification was tested separately for each nasal cavity by means of the 12 item Sniffin Sticks test (12-SS test) and a 3-point difference between the nasal sides was considered significant. Results: The mean age of patients (25 males/5 females) was 33 years (range 17-52). No complications or anosmia were reported postoperatively. Subjective hyposmia, nasal obstruction and the NPR were reduced (p<0.001). Significant lateralized differences were present in 20% and 13% of patients before and after septoplasty respectively; the change was not significant (p=0.754). Patients with a significant lateralized olfactory difference had a greater NPR pre- (p=0.031) but not postoperatively (p=0.783). The sides of obstruction and worst olfactory performance did not differ in these patients before surgery. Conclusions: Olfactory identification may be compromised on the convex side of a large NSD. Post-operatively, patients exhibit a lateralised smell identification difference as often as healthy people. The effect of a clinically significant NSD on the different aspects of olfactory performance warrants further study. PMID:23935274

Fyrmpas, G; Tsalighopoulos, M; Constantinidis, J

2012-04-01

379

Protein structure validation by generalized linear model root-mean-square deviation prediction  

PubMed Central

Large-scale initiatives for obtaining spatial protein structures by experimental or computational means have accentuated the need for the critical assessment of protein structure determination and prediction methods. These include blind test projects such as the critical assessment of protein structure prediction (CASP) and the critical assessment of protein structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance (CASD-NMR). An important aim is to establish structure validation criteria that can reliably assess the accuracy of a new protein structure. Various quality measures derived from the coordinates have been proposed. A universal structural quality assessment method should combine multiple individual scores in a meaningful way, which is challenging because of their different measurement units. Here, we present a method based on a generalized linear model (GLM) that combines diverse protein structure quality scores into a single quantity with intuitive meaning, namely the predicted coordinate root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value between the present structure and the (unavailable) “true” structure (GLM-RMSD). For two sets of structural models from the CASD-NMR and CASP projects, this GLM-RMSD value was compared with the actual accuracy given by the RMSD value to the corresponding, experimentally determined reference structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The correlation coefficients between actual (model vs. reference from PDB) and predicted (model vs. “true”) heavy-atom RMSDs were 0.69 and 0.76, for the two datasets from CASD-NMR and CASP, respectively, which is considerably higher than those for the individual scores (?0.24 to 0.68). The GLM-RMSD can thus predict the accuracy of protein structures more reliably than individual coordinate-based quality scores.

Bagaria, Anurag; Jaravine, Victor; Huang, Yuanpeng J; Montelione, Gaetano T; Guntert, Peter

2012-01-01

380

Basic principles of celestial navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celestial navigation is a technique for determining one's geographic position by the observation of identified stars, identified planets, the Sun, and the Moon. This subject has a multitude of refinements which, although valuable to a professional navigator, tend to obscure the basic principles. I describe these principles, give an analytical solution of the classical two-star-sight problem without any dependence on

James A. van Allen

2004-01-01

381

A variational principle of hydromechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the part played in variational principles of hydromechanics by a certain group of infinitesimal transformations of the fields of density and velocity. This group, called here the hydromechanical variation and originating from some elementary requirement concerning variation of matter, seems to be essential in variational principles of hydromechanic,4, iaot only in

S. Drobot; A. Rybarski

1958-01-01

382

Binding Principles in Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experiment designed to tap into knowledge of Binding in individuals with Down syndrome (DS), it was found that subjects had specific difficulties assigning appropriate interpretation to reflexives, traditionally claimed to be governed by Principle A of standard Binding Theory, as opposed to pronouns, constrained by Principle B in the same framework. This pattern, not previously evidenced in the

ALEXANDRA PEROVIC

2001-01-01

383

Principles of canonical action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing prominence of canonical action research (CAR) in the information systems discipline, a paucity of methodological guidance contin- ues to hamper those conducting and evaluating such studies. This article elicits a set of five principles and associated criteria to help assure both the rigor and the relevance of CAR in information systems. The first principle relates to the

Robert M. Davison; Maris G. Martinsons; Ned Kock

2004-01-01

384

Data Anlaysis: Fundamental Counting Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan presents an activity where students use charts and tree diagrams to show the possible outcomes of probability experiments and the likelihood of each event. In the plan the teacher guides the class to understand and apply the fundamental counting principle. Two independent worksheets provide students with more practice creating sample spaces and applying the fundamental counting principle.

2012-01-01

385

Some principles for youth learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes some principles for youth learning developed from a major research project. Specific parts of the project have been published in other literature, and this paper summarises key findings before proposing a set of principles to support their learning. The findings of the research about youth learners and how they learn were analysed in the context of adult

Sarojni Choy; Brian Delahaye

386

Principles for Participatory Action Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

For serious practitioners of participatory action research, it is helpful to identify its principles. This paper outlines some principles of participatory action research in Australia that have been derived from theory and practice in both Western and cross-cultural contexts. Participatory action research is identified with critical social theory and is exemplified with two perspectives from participatory action research in Northern

Robin McTaggart

1991-01-01

387

Principles of Play for Soccer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soccer coaches must understand the principles of play if they want to succeed. The principles of play are the rules of action that support the basic objectives of soccer and the foundation of a soccer coaching strategy. They serve as a set of permanent criteria that coaches can use to evaluate the efforts of their team. In this article, the author…

Ouellette, John

2004-01-01

388

PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works. The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal

Morar Ioan Dan

2011-01-01

389

Principles, Practices, and Social Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider two current controversies in American law and politics: the first is whether the expansion of copyright, trademark, and other forms of intellectual property conflicts with the free speech principle; the second is whether government collection and use of racial data (in the census or in law enforcement) violates the antidiscrimination principle. What do these controversies have in common? Both

Jack M Balkin; Reva B Siegel

2006-01-01

390

Optic eikonal, Fermat's principle and the least action principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalized refractive index in the form of optic eikonal is defined through comparing frame definitions of left-handed and right-handed sets and indicates the sign of the refractive index covered by the quadratic form of the eikonal equation. Fermat’s principle is generalized, and the general refractive law is derived directly. Under this definition, the comparison between Fermat’s principle and the least action principle is made through employing path integral and analogizing L. de Broglie’s theory.

Tan, Kangbo; Liang, Changhong; Shi, Xiaowei

2008-12-01

391

Principles of antimicrobial therapy.  

PubMed

We have discussed important factors involved in choosing appropriate antimicrobial regimens for the treatment of bacterial meningitis and brain abscess to illustrate common themes relevant to the treatment of these diseases. We have limited this review to these conditions for two main reasons: (1) the principles involved in optimal antimicrobial therapy for these diseases likely apply to others CNS infections, such as viral and fungal diseases; and (2) little pharmacological information is currently available for other types of CNS infections. Many of the studies addressing the relevant pharmacological and microbiological aspects of antimicrobial therapy for CNS infections have been performed in experimental animal models and, as a result, the information derived from these studies may be different when examined in appropriate human studies. Our current understanding of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for CNS infections may be summarized as follows: 1. Choose bactericidal antimicrobials that effectively cross the BBB to achieve CSF concentrations well above the MBC (? 10-fold) for the suspected bacterial pathogen(s). 2. Take into consideration the relevant PD parameters the bactericidal activity of the antimicrobials used to treat bacterial meningitis, such as t > MBC or AUC/MBC. 3. Tailor the antimicrobial regimen based on microbiological information, once available. However, with respect to brain abscess therapy, keep in mind that anaerobes are commonly involved, but difficult to culture, and consider including antianaerobic therapy even if the bacterial cultures do not grow anaerobes. 4. Treat bacterial meningitis caused by nonmeningococcal pathogens for 7-10 days, but monitor clinical progress to determine whether the patient should continue on a more prolonged antimicrobial course. Meningococcal meningitis may be treated with 3-4 days of effective antimicrobial therapy, again with the caveat that the patients clinical course should dictate duration of therapy. 5. Treat brain abscess, preferably after aspiration/drainage, for at least 6 weeks with intravenous antimicrobials for brain abscess on the clinical response (e.g., improved symptoms, lack of new neurological findings) and radiographic changes (e.g., reduction in cavity size). PMID:20109672

Tessier, Jeffrey M; Scheld, W Michael

2010-01-19

392

A liquid-independent volume flow measurement principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel flow measurement principle is presented enabling non-intrusive volume flow measurements of liquids in the ml/min range. It is based on an opto-acoustical time-of-flight principle, where the time interval is recorded in which a thermal label travels a known distance through a flow channel. Big advantages are the insensitivity to temperature drift and the fact that user calibration is unnecessary. The paper presents a set of physics-based criteria that define the working range of the measurement principle. A prototype of a flow meter was developed and evaluated in a test rig with flows of water, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and mixtures of both liquids. Pure water and IPA flows of 0.1 to 2 ml min-1 were measured and found to coincide with the reference flows within 4%. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of the fluctuations did not exceed 3%. For flows of 2 ml min-1 the limited power of the laser source caused deviations of 7% with 5% fluctuations. Finally, flow measurements were done in water-IPA mixtures with concentrations between 10% and 90%-w/w at a flow rate of 15 g h-1 (?0.3 ml min-1). The ratio of measured and reference flow appeared to be 4% to 5% below the theoretical value, but it was hardly a function of mixture composition. Hence, liquid independence of the measurement principle was proven.

Geers, L. F. G.; Volker, A. W. F.; Hunter, T. P. M.

2010-07-01

393

Principles of Electromigration Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromigration techniques provide the separation of analyzed sample components owing to external voltage generating electrokinetic phenomena—electrophoresis and electroosmosis. Taking into account the relatively large number of parameters dealt with during electrophoretic analyses, it is essential to know their influence on the achieved separation of analytes. In this chapter the theoretical and practical aspects of a resolution optimization, as well as the effect of different separation parameters on the migration behavior are described. These, among others, include migration time, efficiency, selectivity, and resolution. The influence of electrods polarization, applied voltage, temperature, capillary, background electrolyte, and various additives on the separation is also discussed.

Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

394

There Is No Structural Relationship between Nasal Septal Deviation, Concha Bullosa, and Paranasal Sinus Fungus Balls  

PubMed Central

This study aims to determine the relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and chronic rhinosinusitis by using a definitive pathological and simplified model. Fifty-two consecutive sinus computed tomography scans were performed on patients who received endoscopic sinus surgery and whose final diagnosis was paranasal sinus fungus balls. The incidences of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa for patients diagnosed with paranasal sinus fungus balls among the study group were 42.3% and 25%, respectively. About 63.6% sinuses with fungus balls were located on the ipsilateral side of the nasal septal deviation, and 46.2% were located on the ipsilateral side of the concha bullosa. When examined by Pearson's chi-square test and the chi-squared goodness-of-fit test, no significant statistical difference for the presence of paranasal sinus fungus balls between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa was noted (P = 0.292 and P = 0.593, resp.). In conclusion, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant correlation between the location of infected paranasal sinus, the direction of nasal septal deviation, and the location of concha bullosa, in location-limited rhinosinusitis lesions such as paranasal sinus fungal balls. We conclude that the anatomical variants discussed herein do not predispose patients to rhinosinusitis.

Tsai, Tung-Lung; Lan, Ming-Ying; Ho, Ching-Yin

2012-01-01

395

Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems  

SciTech Connect

In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-12-15

396

Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnár.

Hamhalter, Jan

2012-12-01

397

There is no structural relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and paranasal sinus fungus balls.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine the relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and chronic rhinosinusitis by using a definitive pathological and simplified model. Fifty-two consecutive sinus computed tomography scans were performed on patients who received endoscopic sinus surgery and whose final diagnosis was paranasal sinus fungus balls. The incidences of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa for patients diagnosed with paranasal sinus fungus balls among the study group were 42.3% and 25%, respectively. About 63.6% sinuses with fungus balls were located on the ipsilateral side of the nasal septal deviation, and 46.2% were located on the ipsilateral side of the concha bullosa. When examined by Pearson's chi-square test and the chi-squared goodness-of-fit test, no significant statistical difference for the presence of paranasal sinus fungus balls between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa was noted (P = 0.292 and P = 0.593, resp.). In conclusion, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant correlation between the location of infected paranasal sinus, the direction of nasal septal deviation, and the location of concha bullosa, in location-limited rhinosinusitis lesions such as paranasal sinus fungal balls. We conclude that the anatomical variants discussed herein do not predispose patients to rhinosinusitis. PMID:23326212

Tsai, Tung-Lung; Lan, Ming-Ying; Ho, Ching-Yin

2012-12-26

398

Subfamily logos: visualization of sequence deviations at alignment positions with high information content  

PubMed Central

Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.

Beitz, Eric

2006-01-01

399

a Scaling Law for Nondestructive Evaluation of Shot Peening Induced Surface Material Property Deviations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shot peening is frequently used to improve mechanical characteristics of metallic components' surfaces. The physical properties of shot peened surfaces exhibit deviations from their bulk values. This paper shows that there exists a scaling law (universality) among seemingly unrelated material property deviations and among different peening conditions. We present examples and support for scaling behaviors based on experimental data on Almen strip deflection, cold work and residual stress profiles of a shot peened nickel-base superalloy (Waspaloy), and swept frequency eddy current signals used for NDE studies of another shot peened nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718). In addition, a fast impedance calculation formula for a coil placed on a metal with small, continuous conductivity deviation is presented and used for analytical and numerical study of eddy current signals.

Frishman, A. M.; Lo, C. C. H.; Shen, Y.; Nakagawa, N.

2009-03-01

400

Design Principles for Learning Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews the major aspects of human learning, and discusses several learning mechanisms and some of the design principles for learning systems. A comparison is made between human learning and machine learning. Some aspects of human learning are c...

J. T. Tou

1965-01-01

401

Get Provoked: Applying Tilden's Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This address given to the Division of Interpretation, Yellowstone National Park, Interpretive Training, June 1993, examines successes and failures in interpretive programs for adults and children in light of Tilden's principles. (LZ)

Shively, Carol A.

1995-01-01

402

Questionnaire Design Principles - Applied Research  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Questionnaire Design & Testing: Questionnaire Design Principles Cognitive Testing Item Response Theory Modeling Guides & Reports International Collaboration Areas of Research Tools Surveys

403

The contribution of anisotropic conductivity in the ionosphere to lightning flash bearing deviations in the ELF\\/ULF range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning flash bearing deviations in the ELF\\/ULF range are monitored at two independently operating measurement instruments in Hollister, California, and Silberborn, Germany. The lightning flash bearing deviation at Hollister exhibits a rotational dependence ~12°, associated with the conductivity contrast between the Earth's crust and the nearby Pacific Ocean. The bearing deviations at both stations exhibit a pronounced diurnal local time

Martin Füllekrug; Alexander I. Sukhorukov

1999-01-01

404

Accounting for body size deviations when reporting bone mineral density variables in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a child, bone mineral density (BMD) may differ from an age-expected normal value, not only because of the presence of disease,\\u000a but also because of deviations of height or weight from population averages. Appropriate adjustment for body size deviations\\u000a simplifies interpretation of BMD measurements.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  For children, a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is normally expressed as a Z score.

C. E. Webber; A. Sala; R. D. Barr

2009-01-01

405

Design of soft x-ray wide-band multilayer gratings for constant deviation monochromators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constant deviation condition performing scanning energy by the rotation of grating around itself is the one of the most practical mounting for grating monochromators. Conventional multilayer coating can obtain high diffraction efficiency merely in a narrow band width. It is found that a new modified multilayer structure on the laminar-type grating intended to enhance the diffraction efficiency for constant deviation condition shows the diffraction efficiency over 5% in a wide band range of 1.5-2.5 keV in calculation.

Koike, Masato; Imazono, Takashi

2012-07-01

406

Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.

2006-01-01

407

Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging.  

PubMed

The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe. PMID:23618745

Son, Joo-Hiuk

2013-04-25

408

Principles of Scanning Probe Microscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a beautifully illustrated introduction to the principles of scanning probe microscopy. The text is interspersed with links to additional information, much of it from the Interface Physics Group at Leiden University. There are several animations included and links to visual galleries which illustrate both principles and utilization of scanning probe microscopy. An additional "links" page takes the user to sites of research groups involved in ongoing developmental work in surface science.

Frenken, Joost

2011-04-07

409

Developmental principles: fact or fiction.  

PubMed

While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them. PMID:22489210

Durston, A J

2012-02-15

410

Modified scaling principle for rotational relaxation in a model for suspensions of rigid rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed simulations of the model of infinitely thin rigid rods undergoing rotational and translational diffusion, subject to the restriction that no two rods can cross one another, for various concentrations well into the semidilute regime. We used a modification of the algorithm of Doi et al. [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, 3000 (1984)] that simulates diffusive dynamics using a Monte Carlo method and a nonzero time step. In the limit of zero time step, this algorithm is an exact description of diffusive dynamics subject to the noncrossing restriction. For a wide range of concentrations in the semidilute regime, we report values of the long time rotational diffusion constant of the rods, extrapolated to the limit of zero time step, for various sets of values of the infinite dilution (bare) diffusion constants. These results are compared with the results of a previous simulation of the model by Doi et al. and of previous simulations of rods with finite aspect ratio by Fixman and by Cobb and Butler that had been extrapolated to the limit of infinitely thin rods. The predictions of the Doi-Edwards (DE) scaling law do not hold for this model for the concentrations studied. The simulation data for the model display two deviations from the predictions of the DE theory that have been observed in experimental systems in the semidilute regime, namely, the very slow approach toward DE scaling behavior as the concentration is increased and the large value of the prefactor in the DE scaling law. We present a modified scaling principle for this model that is consistent with the simulation results for a broad range of concentrations in the semidilute regime. The modified scaling principle takes into account two physical effects, which we call ``leakage'' and ``drift,'' that were found to be important for the transport properties of a simpler model of nonrotating rods on a lattice [Y.-L. S. Tse and H. C. Andersen, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024904 (2012)].

Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Andersen, Hans C.

2013-07-01

411

Design, construction, and operation of an apparatus for detecting short-length-scale deviations from Newtonian gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of recent theories of physics beyond the standard model would, if true, lead to deviations from Newtonian gravity on experimentally accessible length scales. A few of the most important theoretical proposals along these lines are large extra spatial dimensions, string theoretic dilatons and moduli, and scalar particles in hidden supersymmetric sectors. This list is not exhaustive---there are many reasons to investigate the behavior of gravity at small length scales, perhaps the most compelling of which is the fact that it is largely unexplored territory. To detect or constrain deviations from Newtonian gravity, we have constructed a second-generation cantilever-based probe to directly measure the force between two masses separated by tens of microns. The drive mass in our experiment consists of a metal disc with trenches machined in its face. The trenches are filled with a lighter material and covered with gold so that only the density (and not the conductivity or height) is modulated with the proper periodicity. This mass is rotated by a cryogenic helium gas bearing, producing an AC force on a gold test mass. The test mass sits on a silicon nitride cantilever enclosed in a sealed micromachined cavity maintained at low pressure by an integrated cryopump. The cantilever's displacement is recorded by a focused fiber interferometer and correlated with the rotation of the drive mass. This signal can be averaged over many drive mass rotations and used as a measurement of the force between the drive mass and the test mass. This measured force can be compared to calculations of the predicted force from various Yukawa-type interactions. This dissertation describes the design and construction of the apparatus, presents the first data from it, and discusses the prospects for increased precision in constraint or detection of non-Newtonian effects using this probe.

Weld, David Minot

412

32 CFR 203.6 - Cost principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Cost principles. 203.6 ...PARTICIPATION (TAPP) IN DEFENSE ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION ACTIVITIES § 203.6 Cost principles. (a) Non-profit...contractors must comply with the cost principles in OMB...

2013-07-01

413

Ferroelectric Phase Transitions from First Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a deeper understanding of structural phase transitions in perovskite-structure oxides, first-principles calculations offer valuable access to microscopic information. With recent advances in algorithms and computational capabilities, structural energetics has been largely met, and high-accuracy density-functional studies for a wide range of perovskite compounds have been presented in the literature. The practical application of these methods to temperature-driven structural transitions involves the construction of an effective Hamiltonian with parameters determined from first-principles calculations. The lattice Wannier function method(K. M. Rabe and U. V. Waghmare, Phys. Rev. B52), 13236 (1995). offers a systematic approach for the construction of first-principles effective Hamiltonians applicable to complex structural transitions involving multiple unstable modes at arbitrary points in the Brillouin zone. The parameters appearing in the LWF effective Hamiltonians for ferroelectric PbTiO3 and antiferroelectric PbZrO3 are obtained from density-functional-theory linear response calculations of phonon frequencies, Z and ?_?, and total-energy calculations using the conjugate-gradients method with optimized pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis set. The finite-temperature behavior of the model systems is studied using mean field theory and Monte Carlo simulation to yield values of the transition temperature, latent heat and various distribution functions for comparison with experiment. The role of strain coupling in producing the observed transition behavior is investigated. Recent work on the extension to mixed systems will be illustrated by results on Pb_1-xGe_xTe. The use of first-principles effective Hamiltonians to study the temperature dependence of dielectric and piezoelectric response, as well as phonon and domain wall dynamics, will be discussed.

Rabe, Karin M.

1997-03-01

414

Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models  

SciTech Connect

Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in voids.

Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W. [Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2009-11-15

415

Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches in nanometrology will be required in the near future and the existing ones will have to be improved in terms of better resolution and sensitivity for elements and molecular species. Finally, the development of specific guidance for the safety evaluation of nanotechnology products is strongly recommended.

Logothetidis, S.

416

Abnormal postural reflex activity and voice usage deviations in cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

A relationship is considered between abnormal postural reflex activity and its effect on vocal processes in infants and very young children having cerebral palsy. Neurodevelopmental treatment concepts are interpreted as they may apply to evaluation and intiial management of hypertonic children who exhibit voice usage deviations. Interdisciplinary team function in the areas of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology is suggested. PMID:996091

Keesee, P D

1976-12-01

417

GIS-Based Quantitative Analysis of Orientation Anisotropy of Contaminant Barrier Particles Using Standard Deviational Ellipse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clayey soil is an essential component of waste containment systems. The orientation of soil particles relative to gradients of heat, hydraulic pressure and stress is a significant factor as regards the stability and hydraulic conductivity of waste containment barriers. In this paper, an analytical method called Standard Deviational Ellipse Method, which is often used for point set distribution analysis in

Wang Baojun; Shi Bin; Hilary I. Inyang

2008-01-01

418

Counselor response to female clients with deviate and conforming career goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempted to determine whether secondary school counselors respond more positively to female clients with traditionally feminine (conforming) goals than those with traditionally masculine (deviate) goals. 18 female and 44 male practicing counselors served as Ss. 5 stimulus interviews with high school girls elicited information concerning their home, school, self-description, and personal values. These were presented on audiotape to Ss and

Arthur H. Thomas; Norman R. Stewart

1971-01-01

419

The equation of deviation in a conformally invariant theory of gravitation and electromagnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equation of deviation is derived for a conformally invariant theory of gravitation and electromagnetism in which scale is generated by a topological constraint. Compared with its counterpart in the Einstein-Maxwell theory, the equation contains some extra terms proportional to the electromagnetic potential indicating the existence of linear and nonlinear Bohm-Aharonov effects. These are present also in the related theories

Y. Q. Cai; G. Papini

1988-01-01

420

Subjective and Objective Evaluation of Pitch Extractors for LPC and Harmonic Deviations Vocoders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the work performed on subjective and objective evaluation of pitch extractors for use in 2.4 kbit/s LPC and harmonic deviations (HDV) speech coders. From a review of the available pitch extractors, five algorithms were chosen and imp...

V. R. Viswanathan W. H. Russell

1984-01-01

421

Wave deviations from the Rytov law of the polarization ellipse rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equations that describe the propagation of electromagnetic waves in three dimensionally inhomogeneous layers are obtained. Bending of rays, polarization rotation, diffraction, and volume Fresnel reflection are taken into account. The area of phenomena that cause deviations from the Rytov law is determined. The roles played by diffraction effects, quasi-rays, and quasi-ray tubes are discussed.

Rautian, S. G.

2008-07-01

422

Great-Circle and Deviated-Path Observations on CW Signals Using a Simple Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A modification of the Pinwheel techniques of observing HF signals propagated over deviated paths was used over Pacific paths on 12, 18 and 30 Mc. Strip-chart records made of CW signals with directive receiving antennas rotating ten times as fast as simili...

F. H. Dickson R. Silberstein

1964-01-01

423

Use of a Dental Composite to Correct Beak Deviation in Psittacine Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beak deviation and abnormal beak occlusion are common presentations of parrot species to veterinary hospitals. There have been many published descriptions of techniques that have been used to treat abnormal beak occlusion in parrot species. Many of these techniques are difficult to apply and often result in iatrogenic beak trauma. The technique described in this article uses state-of-the-art dental cold

Rodney W. Schnellbacher; Alfred G. Stevens; Mark A. Mitchell; Hugues Beaufrere; Thomas N. Tully

2010-01-01

424

Bi and three-dimensional CT study of carpal bone motion occuring in lateral deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A computed tomography (CT) study of the right wrists of 15 volunteers and of 5 anatomical preparations in neutral position, radial (15°) and ulnar (30°) deviation enables to tackle the qualitative analysis of carpal bone motion. The CT Scans were analyzed and reconstructed in three dimensions by means of the Philips CAMRA S100 computer program. The results show that

V Feipel; M Rooze; S Louryan; M Lemort

1992-01-01

425

Screening for musculoskeletal deviations--a challenge for the physical therapist. The Utah Study.  

PubMed

We conducted an on-site examination in selected middle and junior high schools in Utah to determine the incidence of selected musculoskeletal deviations. During a regular school year, we screened 4,670 children. The students we examined represented a random sample of students in the sixth through the ninth grades from a population of 81,047 students. Among the 2,192 boys and 2,478 girls examined, we noted a total of 10,551 postural deviations. Eighteen categories of deviations of the musculoskeletal system were examined visually. Lordosis was the most common postural deviation seen (45%), and torticollis was noted least commonly (0%). Scoliosis was noted in 7% of the total population, with a girl-boy ratio of 2:1. Both the lack of body postural awareness we observed among the children and the significant findings of this study should warrant initiation of more responsible educational programs in the public schools. An apparent need for a uniform statewide screening program was demonstrated. PMID:3615591

Francis, R S; Bryce, G R

1987-08-01

426

ON THE DEVIATIONS FROM THE ALLOWED SHAPE IN THE ALLOWED \\/cap beta\\/DECAY SPECTRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deviations from the allowed shape are discussed, and correction factors ; for the spectrum and longitudinal polarization are calculated including possible ; high-order correction. Allowed beta decay is separated into the groups log ft ; approximately 3, 3 < log ft < 5, and log ft approximately 6. The beta -decay ; interaction Hamiltonian is modified; the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian constructed

B. Eman; D. Tadic

1961-01-01

427

Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…

Carlson, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

428

Deviation of xenogeneic immune response and bystander suppression in rats fed porcine blood mononuclear cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing or deviating xenogeneic immune response prior to xenotransplantation may enhance the efficacy of conventional immunosuppressive therapies in prolonging xenograft survival. The potential to suppress or steer immune responses by oral administration of xenoantigens was evaluated. Based on knowledge of oral tolerance, hypotheses tested were that feeding xenoantigens would inhibit cell-mediated immune response (CMIR) and production of antibodies associated with

Byram W. Bridle; Bruce N. Wilkie; Anthony M. Jevnikar; Bonnie A. Mallard

2007-01-01

429

Timbre-Induced Pitch Deviations of Musical Sounds Müzik Seslerinde Tini Kaynakli Ses Perdesi Sapmalari  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with timbre- induced pitch deviations and their magnitude in environments designed to resemble those that performing musicians encounter in their daily practice. Two experiments were con- ducted. In the first experiment classically trained singers matched the pitch of synthe- sized sounds of the piano and oboe. The fun- damental frequency of vocal sounds was on average 7

Allan Vurma; Jaan Ross

430

Genre-deviating artist entry: the role of authenticity and fuzziness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to conceptually elaborate two important mechanisms, authenticity and fuzziness, that affect how audiences react to deviations from existing genres by artists that are making their first entry. In cultural industries such as music, social categorization systems play an important role in the success of actors. Audience members evaluate entering artists vis-à-vis the

Juha T. Mattsson; Mirva Peltoniemi; Petri M. T. Parvinen

2010-01-01

431

Analysis of drill strings in vertical and deviated holes using the Galerkin technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analytical investigation into the use of Galerkin's technique for the analysis of oil field drill strings in vertical and deviated holes. The technique is used to present results for drill string dynamic stability in vertical holes and drill string static deflection in curved and straight inclined holes. In the first case, the critical loads and natural

M. A. Vaz; M. H. Patel

1995-01-01

432

Bulk service queues with deviations from departure schedules: The problem of correlated headways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual approach to studying bulk service queues is to assume that successive headways are independent. This assumption is frequently violated in systems where vehicles depart according to a fixed schedule, but where deviations from the schedule may occur. A late departure implies there is one long headway followed by a shorter one. This problem is solved exactly using both

Warren B. Powell

1983-01-01

433

Mean–Standard Deviation Representation of Sonar Images for Echo Detection: Application to SAS Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the detection of underwater mines echoes with application to synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) imaging. A detection method based on local first- and second-order statistical properties of the sonar images is proposed. It consists of mapping the data onto the mean-standard deviation plane highlighting these properties. With this representation, an adaptive thresholding of the data enables the separation

Jocelyn Chanussot; Alain Hétet; Maud Amate

2007-01-01

434

41 CFR 102-33.10 - May we request approval to deviate from these rules?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1992. You should consult with GSA's Aircraft Management Policy Division (MTA) before you request a deviation. Also, you should fax a copy of your letter of request to MTA at 202-501-6742 at the same time you mail it to GSA's Regulatory...

2013-01-01

435

GTA weld penetration and the effects of deviations in machine variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical models for predicting the temperature distribution during GTA welding are reviewed with the purpose of developing a procedure for investigating the effects of deviations in machine parameters. The objective was to determine the accuracy required in machine settings to obtain reproducible results. This review revealed a wide range of published values (21 to 90%) for the arc heating efficiency.

Giedt

1987-01-01

436

Spectral diffusion in low temperature polymers: Deviation from logarithmic temporal hole broadening  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deviation from the logarithmic temporal behavior of the inverse dephasing time 1\\/T2 found recently in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) at low temperature in time scale ranging from nanoseconds to milliseconds and that of spectral hole width found in time scale ranging from minutes to weeks is discussed. It is shown that existing stochastic spectral diffusion theories cannot explain all these experimental

I. S. Osad'Ko; L. B. Yershova

1999-01-01

437

Comparison of MMPI psychopathic deviate scores of battered and nonbattered women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the voluminous research using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, little research has been done evaluating the MMPI for assessing personality profiles and psychopathology in victims of domestic violence. The current study focused on the Psychopathic Deviate scale (scale 4), and the Harris and Lingoes subscales measuring specific aspects of this concept. The objective was to evaluate whether a clinical

Nancy R. Rhodes

1992-01-01

438

The MMPI–2 Antisocial Practices Content Scale: Construct Validity and Comparison With the Psychopathic Deviate Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known regarding the construct validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—2 Antisocial Practices (ASP) content scale or its differences from the Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) scale. In 3 studies with undergraduates (N s = 95, 110, and 100), the ASP scale exhibited convergent and discriminant validity with self-report, interview, family history, and observer measures of psychopathy, personality disorders, and

Scott O. Lilienfeld

1996-01-01

439

MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation  

SciTech Connect

A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

Meyer, Arnd [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

2010-02-10

440

48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is responsible for transmitting to the FAR Secretariat the information...not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for deviation through the FAR...

2011-10-01

441

48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is responsible for transmitting to the FAR Secretariat the information...not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for deviation through the FAR...

2012-10-01

442

The Role of Metal Ion Polymerization in Beer's Law Deviations Using Extractive-Colorimetric Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the solvent extraction of metal chelates, the presence of polymerized metal ion in either the aqueous or organic layer, can cause the efficiency of extraction to vary throughout a range of metal ion concentrations. Should an extractive-colorimetric determination be employed, a deviation from Beer's Law can result in addition to other intrinsic causes. In this study, the nature of

Selman A. Berger

1990-01-01

443

Fourth Purkinje image signals reveal eye-lens deviations and retinal image distortions during saccades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccadic eye movements of various sizes and directions were registered simultaneously with the scleral search coil and a fifth-generation Dual Purkinje image eyetracker. Comparison of the search coil and the Purkinje image tracker records reveal considerable dynamic deviations during and immediately after the saccade, which we ascribe to the movements of the eye lens relative to the optical axis of

Heiner Deubel; Bruce Bridgeman

1995-01-01

444

The Non-linear Logarithm Method (NLLM) to adjust the color deviation of fluorescent images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence objects can be excited by ultraviolet (UV) light and emit a specific light of longer wavelength in biomedical experiments. However, UV light causes a deviation in the blue violet color of fluorescent images. Therefore, this study presents a color deviation adjustment method to recover the color of fluorescent image to the hue observed under normal white light, while retaining the UV light-excited fluorescent area in the reconstructed image. Based on the Gray World Method, we proposed a non-linear logarithm method (NLLM) to restore the color deviation of fluorescent images by using a yellow filter attached to the front of a digital camera lens in the experiment. Subsequently, the luminance datum of objects can be divided into the red, green, and blue (R/G/B) components which can determine the appropriate intensity of chromatic colors. In general, the datum of fluorescent images transformed into the CIE 1931 color space can be used to evaluate the quality of reconstructed images by the distribution of x-y coordinates. From the experiment, the proposed method NLLM can recover more than 90% color deviation and the reconstructed images can approach to the real color of fluorescent object illuminated by white light.

Chen, Yi-Ju; Chang, Han-Chao; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Chang, Chung-Hsing

2013-06-01

445

EBSD study of angular deviations from the Goss component in grain-oriented electrical steels.  

PubMed

The magnetic properties of grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels strongly depend on the distribution of the ? and ? angles, i.e., the deviations of the easy magnetisation ?100? from the rolling direction (RD) in the rolling plane and out of the rolling plane, respectively. However, most Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) studies consider the standard Goss deviation angle, which includes the rotation of the (110) plane about the RD. Therefore, in the present work, a new procedure is demonstrated for deriving the ? and ? angles from EBSD mappings to obtain a quantitative texture characterisation in line with the magnetic properties. This procedure is later applied to 37 GO steels after secondary recrystallisation that exhibit a wide range of permeability levels. The relation between the texture and the polarisation at 800A/m (J800) that is measured in the present study by EBSD is compared to the one that has been determined in previous papers with optical goniometers and X-ray diffraction techniques, and this relation is subsequently used to define a relevant parameter to describe the orientation quality of the grains. The results indicate that the average angle of the ? and ? deviations is a relevant deviation parameter for the characterisation of grain orientations. Finally, it is demonstrated that the combination of the quantitative correlation between polarisation and texture with the orientation imaging of EBSD offers the possibilities of both studying the crystallographic environment of highly oriented grains in the primary recrystallised matrix for the production of high-permeability steels and evaluating the spatial distribution of the angular deviations in GO steels after secondary recrystallisation. PMID:24090630

Bernier, Nicolas; Leunis, Elke; Furtado, Carlos; Van De Putte, Tom; Ban, Gabor

2013-09-12

446

Nuclear deviation in hepatic parenchymal cells on sinusoidal surfaces in Arctic animals.  

PubMed

In normal rat and human, most of the nuclei of hepatic parenchymal cells are centrally located in the cytoplasm. However, it is reported that the nuclei of hepatic parenchymal cells are situated at a deviated position on sinusoidal surfaces under pathological situations such as chronic hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, adenomatous hyperplasia, or regeneration. During a study on the mechanism of extreme vitamin A-accumulation in hepatic stellate cells of arctic animals including polar bears, arctic foxes, bearded seals, and glaucous gulls, we noticed that these arctic animals displayed the nuclear deviation in hepatic parenchymal cells on sinusoidal surfaces. In this study, we assessed the frequency of hepatic parenchymal cells showing the nuclear deviation on the sinusoidal surfaces in arctic animals. A significantly higher frequency of the nuclear deviation in hepatic parenchymal cells was seen in polar bears (89.8+/-3.4%), arctic foxes (68.6+/-10.5%), bearded seals (63.6+/-8.4%), and glaucous gulls (24.2+/-5.8%), as compared to that of control rat liver (9.8+/-3.5%). However, no pathological abnormality such as fibrosis or necrosis was observed in hepatic parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells of arctic animals, and there were no differences in the intralobular distribution of parenchymal cells displaying the nuclear deviation in the livers from either arctic animals and control rats. The hepatic sinusoidal littoral cells such as stellate cells or extracellular matrix components in the perisinusoidal spaces may influence the nuclear positioning and hence the polarity and intrinsic physiological function of parenchymal cells. PMID:11482455

Sato, M; Miura, M; Kojima, N; Higashi, N; Imai, K; Sato, T; Wold, H L; Moskaug, J O; Blomhoff, R; Wake, K; Roos, N; Berg, T; Norum, K R; Senoo, H

2001-04-01

447

Protecting Patients from an Unsafe System: The Etiology & Recovery of Intra-Operative Deviations in Care  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the etiology and resolution of unanticipated events in the operating room (OR). Background The majority of surgical adverse events occur intra-operatively. The OR represents a complex, high-risk system. The influence of different human, team, and organizational/environmental factors on safety and performance is unknown. Methods We video-recorded and transcribed 10 high-acuity operations, representing 43.7 hours of patient care. Deviations, defined as delays and/or episodes of decreased patient safety, were identified by majority consensus of a multidisciplinary team. Factors that contributed to each event and/or mitigated its impact were determined and attributed to the patient, providers, or environment/organization. Results Thirty-three deviations (10 delays, 17 safety compromises, 6 both) occurred – with a mean of one every 79.4 minutes. These deviations were multifactorial (mean 3.1 factors). Problems with communication and organizational structure appeared repeatedly at the root of both types of deviations. Delays tended to be resolved with vigilance, communication, coordination, and cooperation, while mediation of safety compromises was most frequently accomplished with vigilance, leadership, communication, and/or coordination. The organization/environment was not found to play a direct role in compensation. Conclusions Unanticipated events are common in the OR. Deviations result from poor organizational/environmental design and suboptimal team dynamics, with caregivers compensating to avoid patient harm. While recognized in other high risk domains, such human resilience has not yet been described in surgery and has major implications for the design of safety interventions.

Hu, Yue-Yung; Arriaga, Alexander F.; Roth, Emilie M.; Peyre, Sarah E.; Corso, Katherine A.; Swanson, Richard S.; Osteen, Robert T.; Schmitt, Pamela; Bader, Angela M.; Zinner, Michael J.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

2012-01-01

448

On an invariance principle for phase separation lines ? ? Partly supported by the EU Network Postdoctoral Training Program in Mathematical Analysis of Large Quantum Systems under the contract HPRN-CT-2002-00277 and by the Senior Visiting Fellowship at the Isaac Newton Institute in the framework of the IGS Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove invariance principles for phase separation lines in the two dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model up to the critical temperature and for connectivity lines in the general context of high temperature finite range ferromagnetic Ising models.

Lev Greenberg; Dmitry Ioffe

2005-01-01

449

Mechanical Principles of Biological Nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological nanocomposites, such as bone, tooth, shell, and wood, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties. Much recent effort has been directed at exploring the basic mechanical principles behind the microstructures of these natural materials to provide guidelines for the development of novel man-made nanocomposites. This article reviews some of the recent studies on mechanical properties of biological nanocomposites, including their stiffness, strength, toughness, interface properties, and elastic stability. The discussion is focused on the mechanical principles of biological nanocomposites, including the generic nanostructure of hard-mineral crystals embedded in a soft protein matrix, the flaw-tolerant design of the hard phase, the role of the soft matrix, the hybrid interface between protein and mineral, and the structural hierarchy. The review concludes with some discussion of and outlook on the development of biomimicking synthetic materials guided by the principles found in biological nanocomposites.

Ji, Baohua; Gao, Huajian

2010-08-01

450

Principles of Virus Structural Organization  

PubMed Central

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective.

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

451

Design Principles for Effective Knowledge Discovery from Big Data  

SciTech Connect

Big data phenomenon refers to the practice of collection and processing of very large data sets and associated systems and algorithms used to analyze these massive datasets. Architectures for big data usually range across multiple machines and clusters, and they commonly consist of multiple special purpose sub-systems. Coupled with the knowledge discovery process, big data movement offers many unique opportunities for organizations to benefit (with respect to new insights, business optimizations, etc.). However, due to the difficulty of analyzing such large datasets, big data presents unique systems engineering and architectural challenges. In this paper, we present three sys- tem design principles that can inform organizations on effective analytic and data collection processes, system organization, and data dissemination practices. The principles presented derive from our own research and development experiences with big data problems from various federal agencies, and we illustrate each principle with our own experiences and recommendations.

Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Horey, James L [ORNL

2012-01-01

452

Farther discussion of Huygens-Fresnel principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huygens-Fresnel principle is well used in analyzing wavefront propagation in vacuum. However, we should clear if this principle is available in the space including absorptive objection, such as a grating. In this paper we analyze if a grating can diffract a beam when the grating set on the focus point and the grating pitch is larger than the Airy disc, especially the phenomenon in a special interferometer [1]. The special interferometer shown in reference [1] has an extended incoherent light source modulated by a binary grating. The light source is imaged onto a sinusoidal transmission grating by the tested lens. The pitch of the binary grating is half of the period of the sinusoidal grating. Light coming from an arbitrary point of the light source is focused onto the sinusoidal grating. Two kinds of analysis method are considered. One is using Huygens-Fresnel principle as described in reference [1]: the concave beam can be resolved to a pair of waves. Each wave is diffracted by the sinusoidal grating. By using the modulated extended light source, only one color interferogram interfered by -1st and +1st order beams can be observed. By shifting the sinusoidal grating; the phase of the interferogram can be modulated; therefore, the intensity after the grating will change. The intensity variation is the contrast of the interferogram. The other analysis method is to calculate the intensity after the sinusoidal grating as in a normal Ronchi test. If two points on the light source separated by distance of the binary grating's pitch is picked up, the intensity of each point after the grating changes sinusoidally when the sinusoidal grating is shifted. Because the period of the modulation grating is half of the sinusoidal grating's pitch, the intensities of the two points change with "pi" phase difference. The total intensity after the sinusoidal grating does not change even if the sinusoidal grating is shifted. We found that the confusion in reference of complex transmission and amplitude transmission is one reason of the difference. We also reviewed the developing of Huygens-Fresnel principle from Maxwell equations. To get Huygens-Fresnel principle, condition of non absorptive elements is needed. Because transmission grating is an absorptive element, wavelet should be integrated before the grating. We also found that the substrate influences the phase of complex transmission when NA of the test is large. We performed an experiment to show that the contrast is almost zero, not 21% as calculated by the theory shown in the paper of refer.

Liu, Zhiqiang; Uchikawa, Kiyoshi

2011-09-01

453

Astronomical principles of satellite positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) dominate the positioning technologies at the beginning of this millennium. The new concept, already common in all users' segments, refer to those radio-navigation systems providing highly precise time and position information, continuously and globally, disregarding the weather status. In the present paper, a comparison between the principles of celestial navigation and satellite navigation is intended, offering additional reasoning to conclude that the roots of the global satellite navigation systems are connected to the classical principles of celestial navigation.

Dragusan, Adrian; Lupu, Sergiu; Cojocaru, Stelian

2008-09-01

454

RPL Dosimetry: Principles and Applications  

SciTech Connect

The principle of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) is applied to the glass dosimeter, which is one of the most excellent solid state dosimeters. The silver activated phosphate glass irradiated with ionizing radiations emits luminescence when exposed to UV light. This phenomenon is called RPL. The most characteristic features of the glass dosimeters are data accumulation and no fading. The basic principle of RPL is described and then how it is applied to the glass dosimeter is explained. Finally some applications of RPL will be introduced.

Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Radioisotope Research Center, Osaka University, 2-4, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) and Oarai Research Center, Chiyoda Technol Corporation, 3681, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1313 (Japan)

2011-05-05

455

Geometry drives the "deviated-bending" of the bi-tubular structures of the 9 + 2 axoneme in the flagellum.  

PubMed

The axoneme "9 + 2" is basically a system constituted of a cylinder of 9 microtubule doublets surrounding a central pair of microtubules. These bi-tubular structures are considered as the support system of the active molecular complexes that generate and regulate the axonemal movement. Schoutens has calculated their moments of inertia [Schoutens, 1994: Journal of Theoretical Biology 171:163-177]. The results obtained allowed us to assume that these bi-tubular systems are endowed with dynamic properties that could be involved in the regulation of the axonemal machinery. For the first time, using the finite elements methods and the resistance of material principles, we have now calculated that the curvature of the axoneme induces the deviated-bending of the bi-tubular structures of the axoneme, because of their geometry only; they behave as beams in a framework. This approach is similar to the one used to measure the deflection of a single microtubule [Kasas et al., 2004: Chem Phys Chem 5:252-257]. These behaviors induce internal movement or constraints of either couples or triplets of doublets within the axonemal cylinder that could be directly involved in a constrained or a spontaneous "convergence/divergence" equilibrium of the cylindrical generatrices that they draw along the axonemal cylinder, which could apparently regulate the activity of the axonemal motors (the dynein arms). These results are discussed here, taking into consideration the dynamic propagation of the wave train along the flagellar axoneme, and the regulated balance between the activities of the two opposite sides of the axoneme during the beat. This study raises a few questions about the architecture-activity duo of the axonemal doublets. PMID:15368611

Cibert, Christian; Heck, Jean-Vivien

2004-11-01

456

Electron correlation effects in the MAX phase Cr2AlC from first-principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the help of first-principles GGA+U calculations, the origin of the deviation between the experimental and theoretical data for Cr2AlC was revealed. The structural, electrical and elastic properties of Cr2AlC were well described by considering the Cr 3d on-site Coulomb energy. The temperature effect on the bulk moduli of Cr2AlC was also studied within the quasiharmonic Debye model. Based on

Y. L. Du; Z. M. Sun; H. Hashimoto; M. W. Barsoum

2011-01-01

457

Bayes and the Simplicity Principle in Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussions of the foundations of perceptual inference have often centered on 2 governing principles, the likelihood principle and the simplicity principle. Historically, these principles have usually been seen as opposed, but contemporary statistical (e.g., Bayesian) theory tends to see them as consistent, because for a variety of reasons simpler…

Feldman, Jacob

2009-01-01

458

MUSiC - Model-independent search for deviations from Standard Model predictions in CMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach for a model independent search in CMS. Systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectations, such an analysis can help to understand the detector and tune event generators. By minimizing the theoretical bias the analysis is furthermore sensitive to a wide range of models for new physics, including the uncounted number of models not-yet-thought-of. After sorting the events into classes defined by their particle content (leptons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy), a minimally prejudiced scan is performed on a number of distributions. Advanced statistical methods are used to determine the significance of the deviating regions, rigorously taking systematic uncertainties into account. A number of benchmark scenarios, including common models of new physics and possible detector effects, have been used to gauge the power of such a method. )

Pieta, Holger

2010-02-01

459

The Automatic Discovery of Structural Principles Describing Protein Fold Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of protein structure has been driven largely by the careful inspection of experimental data by human experts. However, the rapid determination of protein structures from structural-genomics projects will make it increasingly difficult to analyse (and determine the principles responsible for) the distribution of proteins in fold space by inspection alone. Here, we demonstrate a machine-learning strategy that automatically

Adrian P. Cootes; Stephen H. Muggleton; Michael J. E. Sternberg

2003-01-01

460

Deciphering principles of transcription regulation in eukaryotic genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription regulation has been responsible for organismal complexity and diversity in the course of biological evolution and adaptation, and it is determined largely by the context-dependent behavior of cis-regulatory elements (CREs). Therefore, understanding principles underlying CRE behavior in regulating transcription constitutes a fundamental objective of quantitative biology, yet these remain poorly understood. Here we present a deterministic mathematical strategy, the

Patrik D'haeseleer; Dat H Nguyen

2006-01-01

461

Generalizing Case Frames Using a Thesaurus and the MDL Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for automatically acquiring case frame patterns from large corpora is proposed. In particular, the problem of generalizing values of a case frame slot for a verb is viewed as that of estimating a conditional probability distribution over a partition of words, and a new generalization method based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle is proposed. In

Hang Li; Naoki Abe

1998-01-01

462

Generalizing Case Frames Using a Thesaurus and the MDL Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of automatically acquiring case-frame patterns from large corpus data. In particular, we view this problem as the problem of estimating a (conditional) distribution over a partition of words, and propose a new generalization method based on the MDL (Minimum Description Length) principle. In order to assist with the efficiency, our method makes use of an existing

Hang Li; Naoki Abe

1995-01-01

463

Differentiation and Integration: Guiding Principles for Analyzing Cognitive Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiation and integration played large roles within classic developmental theories but have been relegated to obscurity within contemporary theories. However, they may have a useful role to play in modern theories as well, if conceptualized as guiding principles for analyzing change rather than as real-time mechanisms. In the present study,…

Siegler, Robert S.; Chen, Zhe

2008-01-01

464

The Contact Principle and Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…

Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

2010-01-01

465

History and principles of conductive media for standard DNA electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA electrophoresis has been a dominant technique in molecular biology for 30 years. The foundation for this common technique is based on a few simple electrochemical principles. Electrophoretic DNA separation borrowed from existing protein and RNA techniques developed in the 1950s and 1960s. For 30 years, common DNA electrophoretic conductive media remained largely unchanged, with Tris as the primary cation.

Jonathan R. Brody; Scott E. Kern

2004-01-01

466

Use of the mitrofanoff principle in urinary reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mitrofanoff principle for continent reconstruction of the lower urinary tract may be summarized as: 1) the use of a narrow catheterizable conduit (appendix or ureter) brought to the skin; 2) anti-refluxing connection of the conduit for catheterization to the reservoir to provide continence; 3) a large low pressure leak-proof urine storage reservoir (bladder, augmented bladder, or colon segment); 4)

John W. Duckett; Howard Mc C. Snyder

1985-01-01

467

Underlying principles of visual shape selectivity in posterior inferotemporal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object perception depends on shape processing in the ventral visual pathway, which in monkeys culminates in inferotemporal cortex (IT). Here we provide a description of fundamental quantitative principles governing neural selectivity for complex shape in IT. By measuring responses to large, parametric sets of two-dimensional (2D) silhouette shapes, we found that neurons in posterior IT (Brodmann's areas TEO and posterior

Scott L Brincat; Charles E Connor

2004-01-01

468

Application of bioreactor design principles to plant micropropagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of oxygen consumption, oxygen transport, suspension, and mixing are discussed in the context of propagating aggregates of plant tissue in liquid suspension bioreactors. Although micropropagated plants have a relatively low biological oxygen demand (BOD), the relatively large tissue size and localization of BOD in meristematic regions will typically result in oxygen mass transfer limitations in liquid culture. In contrast

Wayne R. Curtis

2005-01-01

469

Application of bioreactor design principles to plant micropropagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of oxygen consumption, oxygen transport, suspension, and mixing are discussed in the context of propagating aggregates of plant tissue in liquid suspension bioreactors. Although micropropagated plants have a relatively low biological oxygen demand (BOD), the relatively large tissue size and localization of BOD in meristematic regions will typically result in oxygen mass transfer limitations in liquid culture. In contrast

Wayne R. Curtis

470

Determinants of Skeletal Age Deviation in a Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Skeletal age deviation (SAD) is associated with bone mass and fracture risk in children, but factors determining this are unknown. The aim of this population-based cross-sectional study was to describe the factors associated with SAD. Methods: A convenience sample of 640 male and female children aged 7-17 yr was studied. All were assessed for body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry),

Sandi Powell; Deqiong Ma; Graeme Jones

471

Computer-aided manufacturing of spiral bevel and hypoid gears with minimum surface-deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear regression method to minimize the deviations of a real cut gear-tooth-surface is investigated in this paper. Based on the Gleason hypoid gear generator, a mathematical model of the tooth surface is proposed. Applying the proposed mathematical model, the sensitivities of tooth surface due to the variations of machine-tool setting are also investigated. The corrective machine-tool settings, calculated by

Chung-Yunn Lin; Chung-Biau Tsay; Zhang-Hua Fong

1998-01-01

472

Individuality That is Unheard of: Systematic Temporal Deviations in Scale Playing Leave an Inaudible Pianistic Fingerprint.  

PubMed

Whatever we do, we do it in our own way, and we recognize master artists by small samples of their work. This study investigates individuality of temporal deviations in musical scales in pianists in the absence of deliberate expressive intention. Note-by-note timing deviations away from regularity form a remarkably consistent "pianistic fingerprint." First, eight professional pianists played C-major scales in two sessions, separated by 15?min. Euclidian distances between deviation traces originating from different pianists were reliably larger than traces originating from the same pianist. As a result, a simple classifier that matched deviation traces by minimizing their distance was able to recognize each pianist with 100% accuracy. Furthermore, within each pianist, fingerprints produced by the same movements were more similar than fingerprints resulting in the same scale sound. This allowed us to conclude that the fingerprints are mostly neuromuscular rather than intentional or expressive in nature. However, human listeners were not able to distinguish the temporal fingerprints by ear. Next, 18 pianists played C-major scales on a normal or muted piano. Recognition rates ranged from 83 to 100%, further supporting the view that auditory feedback is not implicated in the creation of the temporal signature. Finally, 20 pianists were recognized 20?months later at above chance level, showing signature effects to be long lasting. Our results indicate that even non-expressive playing of scales reveals consistent, partially effector-unspecific, but inaudible inter-individual differences. We suggest that machine learning studies into individuality in performance will need to take into account unintentional but consistent variability below the perceptual threshold. PMID:23519688

Van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

2013-03-21

473

The relationship between attentional capture and deviations in movement trajectories in a selective reaching task.  

PubMed

According to action-centered models of attention, attention and action systems are tightly linked such that the capture of attention by an object automatically initiates response-producing processes. In support of this link, studies have shown that movements deviate towards or away from non-target stimuli. These deviations are thought to emerge because attentional capture by non-target stimuli generates responses that summate with target responses to develop a combined movement vector. The present study tested attention-action coupling by examining movement trajectories in the presence of non-target stimuli that do or do not capture attention. Previous research has revealed that non-target cue stimuli only capture attention when they share critical features with the target. Cues that do not share this feature do not capture attention. Following these studies and their findings, participants in the present study aimed to the location of a single white square (onset singleton target) or a single red square presented with two white squares (color singleton target). In separate blocks, targets were preceded by non-predictive cues that did or did not share the target feature (color or onset singleton cues). The critical finding of the present study was that trajectory effects mirrored the temporal interference effects in that deviations were only observed when cue and target properties matched. Deviations were not observed when the cue and target properties did not match. These data provide clear support for the link between attentional capture and the activation of response-producing processes. PMID:21507363

Welsh, Timothy N

2011-04-19

474

Distinguishing negligence from intentional tort when a health care provider deviates from a patient's consent.  

PubMed

A number of California appellate courts have held that a health care provider's unintentional deviation from a patient's consent will support a cause of action for "technical battery"--an intentional tort. This policy has allowed plaintiffs to circumvent California's statutory malpractice damage limits and seek punitive damages, thus posing a significant threat to the foundation of California medical malpractice tort law reform. The California Supreme Court recently acknowledged the problem and appears to be taking steps toward a solution. PMID:10124484

Cole, C A; Holtz, M D

1993-01-01

475

Transient uniocular visual loss on deviation of the eye in association with intraorbital tumours.  

PubMed Central

Five patients with unilateral orbital tumours are described in whom transient loss of vision occurred on deviation of the affected eye from the primary position. Other presenting features were diplopia, proptosis, poor visual acuity, visual field defects, pupillary abnormalities, fundal changes and altered colour vision. Abnormalities on fluorescein angiography suggest that the visual loss is due to transient ischaemia. Temporary uniocular loss of vision on eye movement may be an early sign of an intra-orbital mass. Images

Bradbury, P G; Levy, I S; McDonald, W I

1987-01-01

476

Demonstration of the frequency modulation of optical signals with a high frequency deviation parameter  

SciTech Connect

A new type of an integrated optical modulator for the frequency coding of optical signals is developed and fabricated. The modulator operation is based on the original technology of the electric control of a Bragg grating. The frequency modulation of an optical signal with the frequency deviation of 25 GHz is demonstrated experimentally. The modular was used to transfer the ASCII code through an optical fibre. (optical communication)

Shamray, A V; Kozlov, A S; Il'ichev, I V; Petrov, M P [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2008-03-31

477

Detecting deviations from metronomic timing in music: Effects of perceptual structure on the mental timekeeper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detectability of a deviation from metronomic timing—of a small local increment in interonset interval (IOI) duration—in\\u000a a musical excerpt is subject to positional biases, or “timing expectations,” that are closely related to the expressive timing\\u000a (sequence of IOI durations) typically produced by musicians in performance (Repp, 1992b, 1998c, 1998d). Experiment 1 replicated\\u000a this finding with some changes in procedure

Bruno H. Repp

1999-01-01

478

Air Conditioning Cold\\/Heat Sources Evaluation Model Based on Maximizing Deviations Associated with Gray Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming the complexity, ambiguity and uncertainty of the Optimization of cold\\/heat sources for air-conditioning system, the paper presents a optimization model, which is based on maximizing deviations associated with the gray-coupled. Model is based on program evaluation index values of various properties under the objective difference between the empowerment, the decision-making for program optimization is based on the size of

Huiqing Liu; Wenjie Li

2010-01-01

479

Maximumisometric moments generated by the wrist muscles in flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum isometric and passive moments about the wrist were measured for a range of flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation angles in 10 healthy adult males. Each subject was seated in a test apparatus with his shoulder abducted 90°, elbow flexed 90°, and body and forearm constrained. Peak flexion moments ranged from 5.2 to 18.7 N m (mean = 12.2, SD =

Scott L. Delp; Anita E. Grierson; Thomas S. Buchanan

1996-01-01

480

DEVIATIONS FROM THE SCHMIDT-KENNICUTT RELATIONS DURING EARLY GALAXY EVOLUTION  

SciTech Connect

We utilize detailed time-varying models of the coupled evolution of stars and the H I, H{sub 2}, and CO-bright H{sub 2} gas phases in galaxy-sized numerical simulations to explore the evolution of gas-rich and/or metal-poor systems, which are expected to be numerous in the early universe. The inclusion of the CO-bright H{sub 2} gas phase and the realistic rendering of star formation as an H{sub 2}-regulated process (and the new feedback processes that this entails) allow the most realistic tracking of strongly evolving galaxies and much better comparison with observations. We find that while galaxies eventually settle into states conforming to the Schmidt-Kennicutt (S-K) relations, significant and systematic deviations of their star formation rates (SFRs) from the latter occur, and are especially pronounced and prolonged for metal-poor systems. The largest such deviations occur for gas-rich galaxies during not only the early evolutionary stages but also during brief periods at later stages. Given that gas-rich and/or metal-poor states of present-epoch galaxies are expected in the early universe while a much larger number of mergers frequently reset non-isolated systems to gas-rich states, even brief periods of sustained deviations of their SFRs from those expected from the S-K relations may come to characterize significant periods of their stellar mass built-up. This indicates potentially serious limitations of S-K-type relations as reliable sub-grid elements of star formation physics in simulations of structure formation in the early universe. We anticipate that galaxies with marked deviations from the S-K relations will be found at high redshifts as unbiased inventories of total gas mass become possible with ALMA and the EVLA.

Papadopoulos, Padelis P. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Pelupessy, Federico I. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2010-07-10

481

Temperature dependence of the refractive indices of liquids: Deviation from the Lorentz-Lorenz formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature dependence of the refractive index of liquids is an old problem which has received much attention because experimental results depart significantly from the values inferred from the usual Lorentz-Lorenz formula. Using a sensitive interferometric device, we have very accurately measured the values of (?n\\/?T)p for 15 different molecular liquids, and we give the corresponding deviations from the values

D. Beysens; P. Calmettes

1977-01-01

482

Mean-absolute deviation portfolio optimization for mortgage-backed securities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop an integrated simulation\\/optimization model for managing portfolios of mortgage-backed securities. The mortgage portfolio problem is viewed in the same spirit of models used for the management of portfolios of equities. That is, it trades off rates of return with a suitable measure of risk. In this respect we employ amean-absolute deviation model which is consistent with the asymmetric

Stavros A. Zenios; Pan Kang

1993-01-01

483

Volume and deviator creep of calcium-leached cement-based materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides new experimental evidence of the specific volume creep and deviator creep of cement-based materials. Creep tests conducted on calcium-leached cement pastes and mortars under various triaxial loading conditions provide conclusive evidence of a specific short-term creep and a specific long-term creep. It is found that at least two competing dissipative mechanisms are at work in short-term creep

Olivier Bernard; Franz-Josef Ulm; John T. Germaine

2003-01-01

484

Markers typed in genome-wide analysis identify regions showing deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium  

PubMed Central

Background Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) are commonly thought of as indicating genotyping errors, population stratification or some other artefact. However they could also arise through important biological mechanisms. In particular, genetic variants having a recessive effect on the successful fertilisation and/or development of an embryo might be manifest through such deviations in an unselected sample of "control" subjects. Findings We investigated genotypes from 463842 autosomal markers from 1504 British subjects. We identified regions in which several neighbouring markers exhibited deviation from HWE in the same direction by considering "heterozygosity scores" in windows of 10 markers. The heterozygosity score for each marker was defined as -log(p) or log(p) according to whether the marker demonstrated increased heterozygosity or homozygosity. In each window the marker with the highest absolute score was ignored and the positive and negative scores were summed for the other nine markers. Windows were selected on the basis of this sum exceeding a given threshold, for which we used values of 50 or 15. For the threshold of 50, we identified 7 regions with increased heterozygosity and for the threshold of 15 we identified 22 regions with increased heterozygosity, 23 with increased homozygosity and 2 containing both kinds of window. The most impressive of these results came from a group of 6 markers at 17q21, each of which showed increased heterozygosity significant at p < 10-190. Conclusion The human genome contains regions which deviate markedly from HWE and these might harbour genes influencing embryonic survival.

Vine, Anna E; Curtis, David

2009-01-01

485

Measuring the performance of quality assurance processes: pharmaceutical industry deviation management case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents experience from the practice of a successful pharmaceutical company related to design and implementation\\u000a of performance measures (PMs) for deviation management linked to the analysis of impact on the production cost for the selected product. Case study focuses\\u000a on PMs within good manufacturing practice (GMP) processes related to quality assurance (QA) and quality management, with the aim

Zorana Boltic; Nenad Ruzic; Mica Jovanovic; Slobodan Petrovic

2010-01-01

486

Thomas Jefferson University study finds deviating from radiation protocols increases risk of treatment failure and death  

Cancer.gov

Implementing measures to ensure radiation therapy protocols are followed not only decreases deviations, but it can also improve overall survival in cancer patients, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital researchers suggest in a first-of-its kind study presented during a plenary session at the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 54th Annual Meeting in Boston. Thomas Jefferson University Hospital is home to the Kimmel Cancer Center.

487

Fly-cutting and testing of freeform optics with sub-?m shape deviations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical designs in various applications profit from the increasing use of freeform elements. However, freeform optics always challenges the manufacturing process. The complexity of the fabrication derives from the missing symmetry in freeform surfaces. Ultra-precision machining is an appropriate method to realize complex optical freeforms. Surface deviations can be reduced in a deterministic process by a test and correction loop to achieve shapes with sub-&mum deviations. But freeform elements do not only require the optical performance, they also depend on tight tolerances of the surface position with respect to reference structures. Due to the absence of rotation symmetry in freeform elements, all six degrees of freedom have to be constrained. Diamond machining allows to machine reference structures on the optical part. They can be used for alignment while testing or during the assembly processes. This paper shows a deterministic approach to manufacture optical freeform surfaces with sub-?m surface deviations by fly-cut-machining and servo assisted diamond turning. Reference structures are included at the edge of the element in order to support the following measurement and assembly processes. The reference structures are manufactured within the machining process of the optical surface. This procedure ensures tight tolerances between reference structures and optical surface /1/. The complex optical surface is measured with respect to the references with the tactile measurement system UA3P. The reference structures are used to locate the coordinate system of the element and hence to constrain the alignment parameter. After fitting the data, a revised tool-path is used to improve the shape deviation to sub-?m accuracies.

Steinkopf, Ralf; Scheiding, Sebastian; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

2012-10-01

488

Core-level x-ray photoemission: Deviations from threshold behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a systematic numerical study of core-level x-ray photoemission intensity in metals, with emphasis upon studying the deviations from behavior asymptotically close to threshold. For a model with a contact potential and linear conduction-electron dispersion, we have evaluated the photoemission intensity for core-hole phase shifts delta(0) between 0.05pi and 0.5pi. We find the following results. (i) The asymptotic regime

D. L. Cox; H. O. Frota; L. N. Oliveira; J. W. Wilkins

1985-01-01

489

Higher-Order Geodesic Deviations and the Calculus of Relativistic Orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics1,2 by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations in a fully relativistic scheme. We apply this method to the problem of orbit motion of test particles in Schwarzschild3 and Kerr metrics; from a simple circular orbit as the initial geodesic we obtain finite eccentricity orbits as a Taylor series with respect

R. Colistete

2002-01-01

490

Uncertainty Principles in Hilbert Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we provide several generalizations of inequalities bounding the commutator of two linear operators acting on a Hilbert space which relate to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and time\\/frequency analysis of periodic functions. We develop conditions that ensure these inequalities are sharp and apply our results to concrete examples of importance in the literature.

Say Song Goh; Charles A. Micchelli

2002-01-01

491

Astronomical principles of satellite positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) dominate the positioning technologies at the beginning of this millennium. The new concept, already common in all users' segments, refer to those radio-navigation systems providing highly precise time and position information, continuously and globally, disregarding the weather status. In the present paper, a comparison between the principles of celestial navigation and satellite navigation is

Adrian Dragusan; Sergiu Lupu; Stelian Cojocaru

2008-01-01

492

The ecological principle in medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological principle demands information of a total quality. It is not satisfied with a chemical explanation alone, nor one at the biological level alone, nor yet one at the purely psychological level––each must give its fraction to the total picture. Just what the intricate equating at these roughly indicated levels may be constitutes the work of the conscientious physician.

S. E. Jelliffe

1937-01-01

493

Reversing the Balance Wheel Principle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper discusses funding principles and policies of higher education during the recession period. The role of state appropriations for the viability of public higher education institutions is emphasized. State funding affecting institutional behaviour is another issue raised. The paper analyzes the possibility of expanding state funding for…

Orkodashvili, Mariam

2008-01-01

494

Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

2011-01-01

495

Vacuum Technology:. Principles and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is devoted on principles and applications of vacuum technology. Classification and properties of vacuum are discussed. Various pumping mechanisms as well as three basic flow regimes namely viscous, intermediate and molecular are briefly presented. Gas-surface interaction concepts including physisorption and chemisorption states with their distinctive character as well as desorption phenomenon are considered. Two types of surface reaction

A. Z. Moshfegh

2004-01-01

496

Aesthetic Principles for Instructional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article offers principles that contribute to developing the aesthetics of instructional design. Rather than describing merely the surface qualities of things and events, the concept of aesthetics as applied here pertains to heightened, integral experience. Aesthetic experiences are those that are immersive, infused with meaning, and felt as…

Parrish, Patrick E.

2009-01-01

497

Local Taxation: Principles and Scope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses principles of local taxation such as accountability, benefit-tax link, non-distortion, regional equity, long-term efficiency, reliability and stability of tax bases, tax sharing as implicit insurance, and administrative simplicity. Not all of the criteria for local taxation are consistent with each other and could be realized at the same time.

Paul Bernd Spahn

1995-01-01

498

On the Dirichlet's Box Principle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

2008-01-01

499

Principles and Guidelines for Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transfer relationships in British Columbia (BC) are governed by statements which were adopted by the Council in 1993 after consultation with the institutions of the BC Transfer System. Principles and guidelines in this document are based on those formulated by the British Columbia Post-Secondary Coordinating Committee and approved by university…

British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2003

2003-01-01

500

Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear

Sarah L. Frazar; Gretchen Hund

2012-01-01