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1

Composition of Large Deviation Principles and Applications

Composition of Large Deviation Principles and Applications Annie Millet & David Nualart & Marta Sanz-Sol´e Annie Millet Universit´e d'Angers, and Universit´e Paris 6 (UA 224) David Nualart and Marta) be a Polish space. Consider a family (V , > 0) of Evalued random variables which satisfies a large

Millet, Annie

2

Large Deviations Principle for Stochastic Scalar Conservation Laws

We investigate large deviations for a family of conservative stochastic PDEs (conservation laws) in the asymptotic of jointly vanishing noise and viscosity. We obtain a first large deviations principle in a space of Young measures. The associated rate functional vanishes on a wide set, the so-called set of measure-valued solutions to the limiting conservation law. We therefore investigate a second order large deviations principle, thus providing a quantitative characterization of non-entropic solutions to the conservation law.

Mauro Mariani

2008-04-07

3

Large deviations principles of Non-Freidlin-Wentzell type

Generalized Large deviation principles was developed for Colombeau-Ito SDE with a random coefficients. We is significantly expand the classical theory of large deviations for randomly perturbed dynamical systems developed by Freidlin and Wentzell.Using SLDP approach, jumps phenomena, in financial markets, also is considered. Jumps phenomena, in financial markets is explained from the first principles, without any reference to Poisson jump process. In contrast with a phenomenological approach we explain such jumps phenomena from the first principles, without any reference to Poisson jump process.

Jaykov Foukzon

2014-10-22

4

Large Deviation Principle for Benedicks-Carleson Quadratic Maps

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the pioneering works of Jakobson and Benedicks & Carleson and others, it has been known that a positive measure set of quadratic maps admit invariant probability measures absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue. These measures allow one to statistically predict the asymptotic fate of Lebesgue almost every initial condition. Estimating fluctuations of empirical distributions before they settle to equilibrium requires a fairly good control over large parts of the phase space. We use the sub-exponential slow recurrence condition of Benedicks & Carleson to build induced Markov maps of arbitrarily small scale and associated towers, to which the absolutely continuous measures can be lifted. These various lifts together enable us to obtain a control of recurrence that is sufficient to establish a level 2 large deviation principle, for the absolutely continuous measures. This result encompasses dynamics far from equilibrium, and thus significantly extends presently known local large deviations results for quadratic maps.

Chung, Yong Moo; Takahasi, Hiroki

2012-11-01

5

Large Deviations and Gallavotti-Cohen Principle for Dissipative PDEs with Rough Noise

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a class of dissipative PDEs perturbed by an unbounded kick force. Under some natural assumptions, the restrictions of solutions to integer times form a homogeneous Markov process. Assuming that the noise is rough with respect to the space variables and has a non-degenerate law, we prove that the system in question satisfies a large deviation principle (LDP) in ?-topology. Under some additional hypotheses, we establish a Gallavotti-Cohen type symmetry for the rate function of an entropy production functional and the strict positivity and finiteness of the mean entropy production rate in the stationary regime. The latter result is applicable to PDEs with strong nonlinear dissipation.

Jaki?, V.; Nersesyan, V.; Pillet, C.-A.; Shirikyan, A.

2015-01-01

6

Suppose $ E$ is a space with a null-recurrent Markov kernel $ P$. Furthermore, suppose there are infinite particles with variable weights on $ E$ performing a random walk following $ P$. Let $ X_{t}$ be a weighted functional of the position of particles at time $ t$. Under some conditions on the initial distribution of the particles the process $ (X_{t})$ is stationary over time. Non-Gaussian infinitely divisible (ID) distributions turn out to be natural candidates for the initial distribution and then the process $ (X_{t})$ is ID. We prove a functional large and moderate deviation principle for the partial sums of the process $ (X_{t})$. The recurrence of the Markov Kernel $ P$ induces long memory in the process $ (X_{t})$ and that is reflected in the large deviation principle. It has been observed in certain short memory processes that the large deviation principle is very similar to that of an i.i.d. sequence. Whereas, if the process is long range dependent the large deviations change dramatically. We show...

Ghosh, Souvik

2010-01-01

7

The meaning of thermodynamic descriptions is found in large-deviations scaling of the fluctuations probabilities. The primary large-deviations rate function is the entropy, which is the basis for both fluctuation theorems and for characterizing the thermodynamic interactions of systems. Freidlin-Wentzell theory provides a general formulation of large-deviations scaling for non-equilibrium stochastic processes, through a representation in terms of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. A number of related methods now exist to construct the Freidlin-Wentzell Hamiltonian for many kinds of stochastic processes; one method due to Doi and Peliti, appropriate to integer counting statistics, is widely used in reaction-diffusion theory. Using these tools together with a path-entropy method due to Jaynes, we show how to construct entropy functions that both express large-deviations scaling of fluctuations, and describe system-environment interactions, for discrete stochastic processes either at or away from equilibrium. A collection of variational methods familiar within quantum field theory, but less commonly applied to the Doi-Peliti construction, is used to define a "stochastic effective action", which is the large-deviations rate function for arbitrary non-equilibrium paths. We show how common principles of entropy maximization, applied to different ensembles of states or of histories, lead to different entropy functions and different sets of thermodynamic state variables. Yet the relations of among all these levels of description may be constructed explicitly and understood in terms of information conditions. The example systems considered introduce methods that may be used to systematically construct descriptions with all the features familiar from equilibrium thermodynamics, for a much wider range of systems describable by stochastic processes.

Eric Smith

2011-02-18

8

Large Deviations and Random Matrices

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue to the left of the expected value are investigated for the Gaussian and Wishart random matrices. Universal rate functions can be computed analytically with a Coulomb gas approach and numerical simulations are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. In contrast with the case of independent random variables, the exponential decay of the probability of extreme events follows a power N2 and not N due to the peculiar level repulsion.

Vivo, P.; Majumdar, S. N.; Bohigas, O.

2007-12-01

9

Large Deviations for Stochastic Evolution Equations with Small Multiplicative Noise

The Freidlin-Wentzell large deviation principle is established for the distributions of stochastic evolution equations with general monotone drift and small multiplicative noise. As examples, the main results are applied to derive the large deviation principle for different types of SPDE such as stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, stochastic porous media equations and fast diffusion equations, and the stochastic p-Laplace equation in Hilbert space. The weak convergence approach is employed in the proof to establish the Laplace principle, which is equivalent to the large deviation principle in our framework.

Liu Wei, E-mail: weiliu0402@yahoo.com.c [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik (Germany)

2010-02-15

10

Strong Large Deviation and Local Limit Theorems

Most large deviation results give asymptotic expressions for $\\\\log P(Y_n \\\\geq y_n)$, where the event $\\\\{Y_n \\\\geq y_n\\\\}$ is a large deviation event, that is, $P(Y_n \\\\geq y_n)$ goes to 0 exponentially fast. We refer to such results as weak large deviation results. In this paper we obtain strong large deviation results for arbitrary random variables $\\\\{Y_n\\\\}$, that is, we

Narasinga Rao Chaganty; Jayaram Sethuraman

1993-01-01

11

Multidimensional large deviation local limit theorems

An earlier paper by the author ([4], 97-114) established large deviation local limit theorems for arbitrary sequences of real valued random variables. This work showed clearly the connection between the Cramr series and large deviation rates. In this article we present large deviation local limit theorems for arbitrary multidimensional random variables based solely on conditions imposed on their moment generating

Narasinga R. Chaganty; J. Sethuraman

1986-01-01

12

Large Deviations for Nonlocal Stochastic Neural Fields

We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20. PMID:24742297

2014-01-01

13

Special ergodic theorems and dynamical large deviations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let f?:?M ? M be a self-map of a compact Riemannian manifold M, admitting a global SRB measure ?. For a continuous test function \\varphi\\colon M\\to R and a constant ? > 0, consider the set K?,? of the initial points for which the Birkhoff time averages of the function ? differ from its ?-space average by at least ?. As the measure ? is a global SRB one, the set K?,? should have zero Lebesgue measure. The special ergodic theorem, whenever it holds, claims that, moreover, this set has a Hausdorff dimension less than the dimension of M. We prove that for Lipschitz maps, the special ergodic theorem follows from the dynamical large deviations principle. We also define and prove analogous result for flows. Applying the theorems of Young and of Arajo and Pacifico, we conclude that the special ergodic theorem holds for transitive hyperbolic attractors of C2-diffeomorphisms, as well as for some other known classes of maps (including the one of partially hyperbolic non-uniformly expanding maps) and flows.

Kleptsyn, Victor; Ryzhov, Dmitry; Minkov, Stanislav

2012-11-01

14

Large Deviations and Universality in Quantum Quenches

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the large deviation statistics of the intensive work done by globally changing a control parameter in a thermally isolated quantum many-body system. We show that, upon approaching a critical point, large deviations well below the mean work display universal features related to the critical Casimir effect in the corresponding classical system. Large deviations well above the mean are, instead, of quantum nature and not captured by the quantum-to-classical correspondence. For a bosonic system we show that in this latter regime a transition from exponential to power-law statistics, analogous to the equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation, may occur depending on the parameters of the quench and on the spatial dimensionality.

Gambassi, Andrea; Silva, Alessandro

2012-12-01

15

Flows, currents, and cycles for Markov Chains: large deviation asymptotics

We consider a continuous time Markov chain on a countable state space. We prove a joint large deviation principle (LDP) of the empirical measure and current in the limit of large time interval. The proof is based on results on the joint large deviations of the empirical measure and flow obtained in \\cite{BFG}. By improving such results we also show, under additional assumptions, that the LDP holds with the strong L^1 topology on the space of currents. We deduce a general version of the Gallavotti-Cohen (GC) symmetry for the current field and show that it implies the so-called fluctuation theorem for the GC functional. We also analyze the large deviation properties of generalized empirical currents associated to a fundamental basis in the cycle space, which, as we show, are given by the first class homological coefficients in the graph underlying the Markov chain. Finally, we discuss in detail some examples.

L. Bertini; A. Faggionato; D. Gabrielli

2014-08-23

16

Macroscopic Determinism in Interacting Systems Using Large Deviation Theory

We consider the quasi-deterministic behavior of systems with a large number, n, of deterministically interacting constituents. This work extends the results of a previous paper [J. Statist. Phys.99:12251249 (2000)] to include vector-valued observables on interacting systems. The approach used here, however, differs markedly in that a level-1 large deviation principle (LDP) on joint observables, rather than a level-2 LDP on

Brian R. La Cour; William C. Schieve

2002-01-01

17

Physica D 133 (1999) 106136 The theory of large deviations: from Boltzmann's 1877 calculation to

of large deviations, this paper applies the theory to a number of problems in statistical mechanics; Maximum entropy principle; Equilibrium macrostates 1. Introduction The theory of large deviations studies a number of topics in the theory of large deviations and several applications to statistical mechanics, all

Ellis, Richard S.

18

Large Deviations in Single-File Diffusion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply macroscopic fluctuation theory to study the diffusion of a tracer in a one-dimensional interacting particle system with excluded mutual passage, known as single-file diffusion. In the case of Brownian point particles with hard-core repulsion, we derive the cumulant generating function of the tracer position and its large deviation function. In the general case of arbitrary interparticle interactions, we express the variance of the tracer position in terms of the collective transport properties, viz., the diffusion coefficient and the mobility. Our analysis applies both for fluctuating (annealed) and fixed (quenched) initial configurations.

Krapivsky, P. L.; Mallick, Kirone; Sadhu, Tridib

2014-08-01

19

The One-Shot-Deviation Principle for Sequential Rationality

We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium.Journal of Economic LiteratureClassification Number: C72.

Ebbe Hendon; Hans Jrgen Jacobsen; Birgitte Sloth

1996-01-01

20

Cluster Analysis Based on the Central Tendency Deviation Principle

Our main goal is to introduce three clustering functions based on the central tendency deviation principle. According to this\\u000a approach, we consider to cluster two objects together providing that their similarity is above a threshold. However, how to\\u000a set this threshold ? This paper gives some insights regarding this issue by extending some clustering functions designed for\\u000a categorical data to

Julien Ah-pine

2009-01-01

21

Elements of Statistical Mechanics and Large Deviation Theory

Elements of Statistical Mechanics and Large Deviation Theory #12;#12;Contents Chapter 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics areas, namely Equilibirum Statistical Mechanics (ESM) and Large Deviation Th

Friedli, Sacha

22

On large deviations of sums of independent random variables

On large deviations of sums of independent random variables Zhishui Hu12 , Valentin V. Petrov23, Australia, 3 Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics, St. Petersburg University, Stary Peterhof, St. Petersburg

Sydney, University of

23

On large deviations for sums of independent random variables

On large deviations for sums of independent random variables Valentin V. Petrov12 and John Robinson of Mathematics and Mechanics, St. Petersburg University, Stary Peterhof, St. Petersburg 198504, Russia Abstract

Sydney, University of

24

A one-sided large deviation local limit theorem

We establish a one-sided large deviation local limit theorem for sums of i.i.d. rvs with heavy tails assuming only a condition on the one-sided tail of the generic distribution. The results in[Baltr?nas, A., 1996. A local limit theorem on one-sided large deviations for dominated-variation distributions. Lithuanian Math. J. 36, 17] are improved and thus, the result in [Doney, R.A., 1989.

Jianxi Lin

2008-01-01

25

Path integrals and large deviations in stochastic hybrid systems.

We construct a path-integral representation of solutions to a stochastic hybrid system, consisting of one or more continuous variables evolving according to a piecewise-deterministic dynamics. The differential equations for the continuous variables are coupled to a set of discrete variables that satisfy a continuous-time Markov process, which means that the differential equations are only valid between jumps in the discrete variables. Examples of stochastic hybrid systems arise in biophysical models of stochastic ion channels, motor-driven intracellular transport, gene networks, and stochastic neural networks. We use the path-integral representation to derive a large deviation action principle for a stochastic hybrid system. Minimizing the associated action functional with respect to the set of all trajectories emanating from a metastable state (assuming that such a minimization scheme exists) then determines the most probable paths of escape. Moreover, evaluating the action functional along a most probable path generates the so-called quasipotential used in the calculation of mean first passage times. We illustrate the theory by considering the optimal paths of escape from a metastable state in a bistable neural network. PMID:24827272

Bressloff, Paul C; Newby, Jay M

2014-04-01

26

Large Deviations and Overflow Probabilities for the General Single-Server Queue, With Applications

We consider from a thermodynamic viewpoint queueing systems where the workloadprocess is assumed to have an associated large deviation principle with arbitraryscaling: there exist increasing scaling functions (a t ; v t ; t 2R+ ) and a rate function Isuch that if (W t ; t 2 R+ ) denotes the workload process, thenlimt!1v\\\\Gamma1t log P (W t =a

N. g. Duffield; Neil Connell

1994-01-01

27

Parameter mismatch estimation using large deviations from synchronization

We present a method to determine the relative parameter mismatch in a collection of nearly identical chaotic oscillators by measuring large deviations from the synchronized state. We demonstrate our method with an ensemble of slightly different circle maps. We discuss how to apply our method when there is noise, and show an example where the noise intensity is comparable to the mismatch.

Jupiter Bagaipo; Juan G. Restrepo

2004-12-20

28

TEST CONFIGURATIONS, LARGE DEVIATIONS AND GEODESIC RAYS ON TORIC VARIETIES

TEST CONFIGURATIONS, LARGE DEVIATIONS AND GEODESIC RAYS ON TORIC VARIETIES JIAN SONG AND STEVE rays t defined by Phong-Sturm corresponding to test configurations T in the sense of Donaldson. We show that the `Bergman approximations' k(t, z) of Phong-Sturm converge in C1 to the geodesic ray t, and that the geodesic

Zelditch, Steve

29

Large deviations and stochastic calculus for large random matrices

Large random matrices appear in different fields of mathematics and physics such as combinatorics, probability theory, statistics, operator theory, number theory, quantum field theory, string theory etc... In the last ten years, they attracted lots of interests, in particular due to a serie of mathematical breakthroughs allowing for instance a better understanding of local properties of their spectrum, answering universality

Alice Guionnet

2004-01-01

30

Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

Kushner, Harold J., E-mail: hjk@dam.brown.ed [Brown University, Applied Math (United States)

2010-12-15

31

Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory

We investigate thermally-activated phenomena in micromagnetics using large deviation theory and concepts from stochastic resonance. We give a natural mathematical denition of nite-temp erature as- troids, nite-temp erature hysteresis loops, etc. Generically, these ob- jects emerge when the (generalized) Arrhenius timescale governing the thermally-activated barrier crossing event of magnetic switching matches the timescale at which the magnetic element is pulsed

Robert V. Kohn; Maria G. Rezniko; Eric Vanden-Eijndenz

32

Large-deviation properties of Brownian motion with dry friction.

We investigate piecewise-linear stochastic models with regard to the probability distribution of functionals of the stochastic processes, a question that occurs frequently in large deviation theory. The functionals that we are looking into in detail are related to the time a stochastic process spends at a phase space point or in a phase space region, as well as to the motion with inertia. For a Langevin equation with discontinuous drift, we extend the so-called backward Fokker-Planck technique for non-negative support functionals to arbitrary support functionals, to derive explicit expressions for the moments of the functional. Explicit solutions for the moments and for the distribution of the so-called local time, the occupation time, and the displacement are derived for the Brownian motion with dry friction, including quantitative measures to characterize deviation from Gaussian behavior in the asymptotic long time limit. PMID:25375433

Chen, Yaming; Just, Wolfram

2014-10-01

33

Large deviations for white-noise driven, nonlinear stochastic PDEs in two and three dimensions

We study the stochastic Allen-Cahn equation driven by a noise term with intensity $\\sqrt{\\varepsilon}$ and correlation length $\\delta$ in two and three spatial dimensions. We study diagonal limits $\\delta, \\varepsilon \\to 0$ and describe fully the large deviation behaviour depending on the relationship between $\\delta$ and $\\varepsilon$. The recently developed theory of regularity structures allows to fully analyse the behaviour of solutions for vanishing correlation length $\\delta$ and fixed noise intensity $\\varepsilon$. One key fact is that in order to get non-trivial limits as $\\delta \\to 0$, it is necessary to introduce diverging counterterms. The theory of regularity structures allows to rigorously analyse this renormalisation procedure for a number of interesting equations. Our main result is a large deviation principle for these renormalised solutions. One interesting feature of this result is that the diverging renormalisation constants disappear at the level of the large deviations rate function. We apply this result to derive a sharp condition on $\\delta, \\varepsilon$ that guarantees a large deviation principle for diagonal schemes $\\varepsilon, \\delta \\to 0$ for the equation without renormalisation.

Martin Hairer; Hendrik Weber

2014-09-16

34

Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory

We investigate thermally activated phenomena in micromagnetics using\\u000a large deviation theory and concepts from stochastic resonance. We\\u000a give a natural mathematical definition of finite-temperature\\u000a astroids, finite-temperature hysteresis loops, etc. Generically,\\u000a these objects emerge when the (generalized) Arrhenius timescale\\u000a governing the thermally activated barrier crossing event of magnetic\\u000a switching matches the timescale at which the magnetic element is\\u000a pulsed or ramped

Robert V. Kohn; Maria G. Reznikoff; Eric Vanden-Eijnden

2005-01-01

35

Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N N) Wishart matrix W = XTX (where X is a rectangular M N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value lang?rang = N/c decreases for large N as {\\sim}\\!\\exp\\big[{-}\\frac{\\beta}{2}N^2 \\Phi_{-}\\big(\\frac{2}{\\sqrt{c}}+1;c\\big)\\big] , where ? = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M <= 1 and ?-(x c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions.

Vivo, Pierpaolo; Majumdar, Satya N.; Bohigas, Oriol

2007-04-01

36

Large-deviation properties of resilience of power grids

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the distributions of the resilience of power flow models against transmission line failures via a so-called backup capacity. We consider three ensembles of random networks, and in addition, the topology of the British transmission power grid. The three ensembles are Erd?sRnyi random graphs, Erd?sRnyi random graphs with a fixed number of links, and spatial networks where the nodes are embedded in a two-dimensional plane. We numerically investigate the probability density functions (pdfs) down to the tails to gain insight into very resilient and very vulnerable networks. This is achieved via large-deviation techniques, which allow us to study very rare values that occur with probability densities below 10?160. We find that the right tail of the pdfs towards larger backup capacities follows an exponential with a strong curvature. This is confirmed by the rate function, which approaches a limiting curve for increasing network sizes. Very resilient networks are basically characterized by a small diameter and a large power sign ratio. In addition, networks can be made typically more resilient by adding more links.

Dewenter, Timo; Hartmann, Alexander K.

2015-01-01

37

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the realm of multiscale signal analysis, multifractal analysis provides a natural and rich framework to measure the roughness of a time series. As such, it has drawn special attention of both mathematicians and practitioners, and led them to characterize relevant physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding these considerable progresses, multifractal analysis almost exclusively developed around the concept of Legendre singularity spectrum, for which efficient and elaborate estimators exist, but which are structurally blind to subtle features like non-concavity or, to a certain extent, non scaling of the distributions. Large deviations theory allows bypassing these limitations but it is only very recently that performing estimators were proposed to reliably compute the corresponding large deviations singularity spectrum. In this article, we illustrate the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate signals from the Physionet public database. As conjectured, we verify that large deviations principles reveal significant information that otherwise remains hidden with classical approaches, and which can be reminiscent of some physiological characteristics. In particular we quantify the presence/absence of scale invariance of RR signals.

Loiseau, Patrick; Mdigue, Claire; Gonalves, Paulo; Attia, Najmeddine; Seuret, Stphane; Cottin, Franois; Chemla, Denis; Sorine, Michel; Barral, Julien

2012-11-01

38

Large Deviations and Importance Sampling for Systems of Slow-Fast Motion

In this paper we develop the large deviations principle and a rigorous mathematical framework for asymptotically efficient importance sampling schemes for general, fully dependent systems of stochastic differential equations of slow and fast motion with small noise in the slow component. We assume periodicity with respect to the fast component. Depending on the interaction of the fast scale with the smallness of the noise, we get different behavior. We examine how one range of interaction differs from the other one both for the large deviations and for the importance sampling. We use the large deviations results to identify asymptotically optimal importance sampling schemes in each case. Standard Monte Carlo schemes perform poorly in the small noise limit. In the presence of multiscale aspects one faces additional difficulties and straightforward adaptation of importance sampling schemes for standard small noise diffusions will not produce efficient schemes. It turns out that one has to consider the so called cell problem from the homogenization theory for Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations in order to guarantee asymptotic optimality. We use stochastic control arguments.

Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos, E-mail: kspiliop@dam.brown.edu [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)] [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)

2013-02-15

39

Large Deviations, Central Limit and dynamical phase transitions in the atom maser

The theory of quantum jump trajectories provides a new framework for understanding dynamical phase transitions in open systems. A candidate for such transitions is the atom maser, which for certain parameters exhibits strong intermittency in the atom detection counts, and has a bistable stationary state. Although previous numerical results suggested that the "free energy" may not be a smooth function, we show that the atom detection counts satisfy a large deviations principle, and therefore we deal with a phase cross-over rather than a genuine phase transition. We argue however that the latter occurs in the limit of infinite pumping rate. As a corollary, we obtain the Central Limit Theorem for the counting process. The proof relies on the analysis of a certain deformed generator whose spectral bound is the limiting cumulant generating function. The latter is shown to be smooth, so that a large deviations principle holds by the Gartner-Ellis Theorem. One of the main ingredients is the Krein-Rutman Theorem which extends the Perron-Frobenius theory to a general class of positive compact semigroups.

Merlijn van Horssen; Madalin Guta

2012-06-21

40

Large deviations of the current in a two-dimensional diffusive system

In this notes we study the large deviations of the time-averaged current in the two-dimensional (2D) Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti model of energy transport when subject to a boundary gradient. We use the tools of hydrodynamic fluctuation theory, supplemented with an appropriate generalization of the additivity principle. As compared to its one-dimensional counterpart, which amounts to assume that the optimal profiles responsible of a given current fluctuation are time-independent, the 2D additivity conjecture requires an extra assumption, i.e. that the optimal, divergence-free current vector field associated to a given fluctuation of the time-averaged current is in fact constant across the system. Within this context we show that the current distribution exhibits in general non-Gaussian tails. The ensuing optimal density profile can be either monotone for small current fluctuations, or non-monotone with a single maximum for large enough current deviations. Furthermore, this optimal profile remains invariant under arbitrary rotations of the current vector, providing a detailed example of the recently introduced Isometric Fluctuation Relation.

Perez-Espigares, C.; Pozo, J. J. del; Garrido, P. L.; Hurtado, P. I. [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia, and Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)

2011-03-24

41

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large deviations for fat tailed distributions, i.e. those that decay slower than exponential, are not only relatively likely, but they also occur in a rather peculiar way where a finite fraction of the whole sample deviation is concentrated on a single variable. The regime of large deviations is separated from the regime of typical fluctuations by a phase transition where the symmetry between the points in the sample is spontaneously broken. For stochastic processes with a fat tailed microscopic noise, this implies that, while typical realizations are well described by a diffusion process with continuous sample paths, large deviation paths are typically discontinuous. For eigenvalues of random matrices with fat tailed distributed elements, a large deviation where the trace of the matrix is anomalously large concentrates on just a single eigenvalue, whereas in the thin tailed world the large deviation affects the whole distribution. These results find a natural application to finance. Since the price dynamics of financial stocks are characterized by fat tailed increments, large fluctuations in stock prices are expected to be realized by discrete jumps. Interestingly, we find that large excursions of prices are more likely realized by continuous drifts rather than by discontinuous jumps. Indeed, auto correlations suppress the concentration of large deviations. Financial covariance matrices also exhibit an anomalously large eigenvalue, the market mode, as compared to the prediction of random matrix theory. We show that this is explained by a large deviation with excess covariance rather than by one with excess volatility.

Filiasi, Mario; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Peressi, Maria; Vesselli, Erik; Zarinelli, Elia

2014-09-01

42

Large deviations of combinatorial distributions II: Local limit theorems

This paper is a sequel to our paper [17] where we derived a general central limit theorem for probabilitiesof large deviationsapplicable to many classes of combinatorial structures and arithmeticfunctions; we consider corresponding local limit theorems in this paper. More precisely, given asequence of integral random variablesn#1 each of maximal span 1 (see below for definition), weare interested in the asymptotic

Hsien-Kuei Hwang

1997-01-01

43

Large deviations of combinatorial distributions. II. Local limit theorems

We derive a general local limit theorem for probabilities of large\\u000adeviations for a sequence of random variables by means of the saddlepoint\\u000amethod on Laplace-type integrals. This result is applicable to parameters in a\\u000anumber of combinatorial structures and the distribution of additive\\u000aarithmetical functions.

Hsien-Kuei Hwang

1998-01-01

44

Limiting Distributions and Large Deviations for Random Walks in ...

My life has been blessed in so many ways by things that are ... 2.1.2 Recursions for Hitting Times and a Law of Large Numbers. ..... (traps) where the potential is increasing (which means the random walk is more likely to move ..... allow the walk to backtrack more than log2(n) ladder times (that is, we deal with a dynamically.

2008-07-21

45

]). Let Assumptions 1 and 2 hold. Then, there exists a convex function H(v) such that Xn n satisfies an annealed large deviation principle with good rate function H(v). That is, for any Borel subset Rd, with denoting its interior and its closure, - inf v H(v) lim inf n 1 n log P Xn n lim sup n 1 n log P Xn n

46

Further study of the gas temperature deviation in large-scale tangentially coal-fired boilers

Gas temperature deviation in upper furnace is an important but a less reported issue in large-scale tangentially fired boilers, since they endanger largely boilers operation. Simulations are conducted in this paper to study the deviation. Perfect agreement between the simulation results and key boiler design values and available site operation records indicates that the calculations are reliable. Based on the

Chungen Yin; Lasse Rosendahl; Thomas J Condra

2003-01-01

47

Large deviations in the alternating mass harmonic chain

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the work of Kannan et al and derive the cumulant generating function (CGF) for the alternating mass harmonic chain consisting of N particles and driven by heat reservoirs. The main result is a closed expression for the (CGF) in the thermodynamic large N limit. This expression is independent of N, but depends on whether the chain consists of an even or odd number of particles, in accordance with the results obtained by Kannan et al for the heat current. This result is in accordance with the absence of local thermodynamic equilibrium in a linear system.

Fogedby, Hans C.

2014-08-01

48

The large deviations of a multi-allele Wright-Fisher process mapped on the sphere

This is the fourth in a series of papers devoted to the study of the\\u000alarge deviations of a Wright Fisher process modeling the genetic\\u000aevolution of a reproducing population.Variational considerations imply that if\\u000athe process undergoes a large deviation, then it necessarily follows closely a\\u000adefinite path from its original to its current state. The favored paths were\\u000adetermined

F. Papangelou

2000-01-01

49

Large Deviations of the Maximum Eigenvalue for Wishart and Gaussian Random Matrices

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a Coulomb gas method to calculate analytically the probability of rare events where the maximum eigenvalue of a random matrix is much larger than its typical value. The large deviation function that characterizes this probability is computed explicitly for Wishart and Gaussian ensembles. The method is general and applies to other related problems, e.g., the joint large deviation function for large fluctuations of top eigenvalues. Our results are relevant to widely employed data compression techniques, namely, the principal components analysis. Analytical predictions are verified by extensive numerical simulations.

Majumdar, Satya N.; Vergassola, Massimo

2009-02-01

50

Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue for wishart and Gaussian random matrices.

We present a Coulomb gas method to calculate analytically the probability of rare events where the maximum eigenvalue of a random matrix is much larger than its typical value. The large deviation function that characterizes this probability is computed explicitly for Wishart and Gaussian ensembles. The method is general and applies to other related problems, e.g., the joint large deviation function for large fluctuations of top eigenvalues. Our results are relevant to widely employed data compression techniques, namely, the principal components analysis. Analytical predictions are verified by extensive numerical simulations. PMID:19257572

Majumdar, Satya N; Vergassola, Massimo

2009-02-13

51

Large deviation principles are established for the FlemingViot processes with neutral mutation and selection, and the corresponding equilibrium measures as the sampling rate goes to 0. All results are first proved for the finite allele model, and then generalized, through the projective limit technique, to the infinite allele model. Explicit expressions are obtained for the rate functions.

Donald A. Dawson; Shui Feng

1998-01-01

52

Large deviations of the smallest eigenvalue of the Wishart-Laguerre ensemble

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the large deviations of the smallest eigenvalue of the Wishart-Laguerre Ensemble. Using the Coulomb gas picture we obtain rate functions for the large fluctuations to the left and the right of the hard edge. Our results are compared with known exact results for ?=1 finding good agreement. We also consider the case of almost square matrices finding new universal rate functions describing large fluctuations.

Katzav, Eytan; Prez Castillo, Isaac

2010-10-01

53

Mark Peletier (Eindhoven) Large deviations and gradient flows: heat and diffusion

and the diffusion equation, since it describes both the conduction of heat and the spreading of particles the arguments and insights for the diffusion case, and then concen- trate on the case of heat conduction. AgainMark Peletier (Eindhoven) Large deviations and gradient flows: heat and diffusion Abstract Many

Harman, Neal.A.

54

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR WHITE-NOISE DRIVEN, NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC PDES IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR WHITE-NOISE DRIVEN, NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC PDES IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS which are driven by space-time white noise, in 2 and 3 spatial dimensions. We are going to study in the case of vanishing correlation length = 0, i.e. in the case where the noise term is a space-time white

Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

55

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR WHITE-NOISE DRIVEN, NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC PDES IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR WHITE-NOISE DRIVEN, NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC PDES IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS by space-time white noise, in 2 and 3 spatial dimensions. We are going to study equations of the type tu correlation length = 0, i.e. in the case where the noise term is a space-time white noise. In this situation

Hairer, Martin

56

LARGE DEVIATIONS AND THE ZERO VISCOSITY LIMIT FOR 2D STOCHASTIC NAVIER STOKES EQUATIONS WITH FREE

LARGE DEVIATIONS AND THE ZERO VISCOSITY LIMIT FOR 2D STOCHASTIC NAVIER STOKES EQUATIONS WITH FREE for the solution of 2D stochastic Navier Stokes equations when the viscosity converges to 0 and the noise intensity is multiplied by the square root of the viscosity. Unlike previous results on LDP for hydrodynamical models

57

Bit-error rate computation of optical CDMA communication systems by large deviations theory

Recently, there has been a lot of interest in using code-division multiple access (CDMA) for optical fiber communication systems. In this letter, we present a technique for estimating the bit error rate of optical CDMA communication systems employing avalanche photodiode receivers. The proposed technique, which is based on large deviations theory, is featured as a simple, accurate, and flexible method

T. K. Tang; K. Ben Letaief

1998-01-01

58

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to earlier first-principles calculations, the spin-disorder contribution to the resistivity of rare-earth metals in the paramagnetic state is strongly underestimated if Matthiessen's rule is assumed to hold. To understand this discrepancy, the resistivity of paramagnetic Fe and Gd is evaluated by taking into account both spin and phonon disorder. Calculations are performed using the supercell approach within the linear muffin-tin orbital method. Phonon disorder is modeled by introducing random displacements of the atomic nuclei, and the results are compared with the case of fictitious Anderson disorder. In both cases, the resistivity shows a nonlinear dependence on the square of the disorder potential, which is interpreted as a resistivity saturation effect. This effect is much stronger in Gd than in Fe. The nonlinearity makes the phonon and spin-disorder contributions to the resistivity nonadditive, and the standard procedure of extracting the spin-disorder resistivity by extrapolation from high temperatures becomes ambiguous. An "apparent" spin-disorder resistivity obtained through such extrapolation is in much better agreement with experiment compared to the results obtained by considering only spin disorder. By analyzing the spectral function of the paramagnetic Gd in the presence of Anderson disorder, the resistivity saturation is explained by the collapse of a large area of the Fermi surface due to the disorder-induced mixing between the electron and hole sheets.

Glasbrenner, J. K.; Pujari, B. S.; Belashchenko, K. D.

2014-05-01

59

Large deviations for the symmetric simple exclusion process in dimensions d 3

as the rate functional for the large deviations of the empirical measure. More precisely if X 1 ; X 2 # ' exp f\\GammaLH(Q ; P )g where H(\\Delta; \\Delta) is the entropy functional (1:3) H(Q;P ) = ae R log dQ d 1 (\\Delta); : : : ; xL (\\Delta) their trajectories in some finite interval [0; T ], we can form

Quastel, Jeremy

60

Exact analysis as well as asymptotic analysis, based on large-deviation theory (LDT), are developed to compute the bit-error rate (BER) for ultrafast avalanche-photodiode (APD) based optical receivers assuming on-off keying and direct detection. The effects of intersymbol interference (ISI), resulting from the APD's stochastic avalanche buildup time, as well as the APD's dead space are both included in the analysis.

Peng Sun; Majeed M. Hayat; Abhik K. Das

2009-01-01

61

Explicit Computations of Instantons and Large Deviations in Beta-Plane Turbulence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a path integral formalism and instanton theory in order to make explicit analytical predictions about large deviations and rare events in beta-plane turbulence. The path integral formalism is a concise way to get large deviation results in dynamical systems forced by random noise. In the most simple cases, it leads to the same results as the Freidlin-Wentzell theory, but it has a wider range of applicability. This approach is however usually extremely limited, due to the complexity of the theoretical problems. As a consequence it provides explicit results in a fairly limited number of models, often extremely simple ones with only a few degrees of freedom. Few exception exist outside the realm of equilibrium statistical physics. We will show that the barotropic model of beta-plane turbulence is one of these non-equilibrium exceptions. We describe sets of explicit solutions to the instanton equation, and precise derivations of the action functional (or large deviation rate function). The reason why such exact computations are possible is related to the existence of hidden symmetries and conservation laws for the instanton dynamics. We outline several applications of this apporach. For instance, we compute explicitly the very low probability to observe flows with an energy much larger or smaller than the typical one. Moreover, we consider regimes for which the system has multiple attractors (corresponding to different numbers of alternating jets), and discuss the computation of transition probabilities between two such attractors. These extremely rare events are of the utmost importance as the dynamics undergo qualitative macroscopic changes during such transitions.

Laurie, J.; Bouchet, F.; Zaboronski, O.

2012-12-01

62

Phase Diagram and Density Large Deviations of a Nonconserving ABC Model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of particle-nonconserving processes on the steady state of driven diffusive systems is studied within the context of a generalized ABC model. It is shown that in the limit of slow nonconserving processes, the large deviation function of the overall particle density can be computed by making use of the steady-state density profile of the conserving model. In this limit one can define a chemical potential and identify first order transitions via Maxwells construction, similarly to what is done in equilibrium systems. This method may be applied to other driven models subjected to slow nonconserving dynamics.

Cohen, O.; Mukamel, D.

2012-02-01

63

Universal large deviations for the tagged particle in single-file motion.

We consider a gas of point particles moving in a one-dimensional channel with a hard-core interparticle interaction that prevents particle crossings--this is called single-file motion. Starting from equilibrium initial conditions we observe the motion of a tagged particle. It is well known that if the individual particle dynamics is diffusive, then the tagged particle motion is subdiffusive, while for ballistic particle dynamics, the tagged particle motion is diffusive. Here we compute the exact large deviation function for the tagged particle displacement and show that this is universal, independent of the individual dynamics. PMID:25279614

Hegde, Chaitra; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Dhar, Abhishek

2014-09-19

64

Large deviations of the limiting distribution in the Shanks-R\\'enyi prime number race

Let $q\\geq 3$, $2\\leq r\\leq \\phi(q)$ and $a_1,...,a_r$ be distinct residue classes modulo $q$ that are relatively prime to $q$. Assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis and the Grand Simplicity Hypothesis, M. Rubinstein and P. Sarnak showed that the vector-valued function $E_{q;a_1,...,a_r}(x)=(E(x;q,a_1),..., E(x;q,a_r)),$ where $E(x;q,a)= \\frac{\\log x}{\\sqrt{x}}(\\phi(q)\\pi(x;q,a)-\\pi(x))$, has a limiting distribution $\\mu_{q;a_1,...,a_r}$ which is absolutely continuous on $\\mathbb{R}^r$. Under the same assumptions, we determine the asymptotic behavior of the large deviations $\\mu_{q;a_1,...,a_r}(||\\vx||>V)$ for different ranges of $V$, uniformly as $q\\to\\infty.$

Lamzouri, Youness

2011-01-01

65

Exact large-deviation statistics for a nonequilibrium quantum spin chain.

We consider a one-dimensional XX spin chain in a nonequilibrium setting with a Lindblad-type boundary driving. By calculating large-deviation rate function in the thermodynamic limit, a generalization of free energy to a nonequilibrium setting, we obtain a complete distribution of current, including closed expressions for lower-order cumulants. We also identify two phase-transition-like behaviors in either the thermodynamic limit, at which the current probability distribution becomes discontinuous, or at maximal driving, when the range of possible current values changes discontinuously. In the thermodynamic limit the current has a finite upper and lower bound. We also explicitly confirm nonequilibrium fluctuation relation and show that the current distribution is the same under mapping of the coupling strength ??1/?. PMID:24580430

Znidari?, Marko

2014-01-31

66

Heterogeneity-induced large deviations in activity and (in some cases) entropy production.

We solve a simple model that supports a dynamic phase transition and show conditions for the existence of the transition. Using methods of large deviation theory we analytically compute the probability distribution for activity and entropy production rates of the trajectories on a large ring with a single heterogeneous link. The corresponding joint rate function demonstrates two dynamical phases--one localized and the other delocalized, but the marginal rate functions do not always exhibit the underlying transition. Symmetries in dynamic order parameters influence the observation of a transition, such that distributions for certain dynamic order parameters need not reveal an underlying dynamical bistability. Solution of our model system furthermore yields the form of the effective Markov transition matrices that generate dynamics in which the two dynamical phases are at coexistence. We discuss the implications of the transition for the response of bacterial cells to antibiotic treatment, arguing that even simple models of a cell cycle lacking an explicit bistability in configuration space will exhibit a bistability of dynamical phases. PMID:25375454

Gingrich, Todd R; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Geissler, Phillip L

2014-10-01

67

Heterogeneity-induced large deviations in activity and (in some cases) entropy production

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve a simple model that supports a dynamic phase transition and show conditions for the existence of the transition. Using methods of large deviation theory we analytically compute the probability distribution for activity and entropy production rates of the trajectories on a large ring with a single heterogeneous link. The corresponding joint rate function demonstrates two dynamical phasesone localized and the other delocalized, but the marginal rate functions do not always exhibit the underlying transition. Symmetries in dynamic order parameters influence the observation of a transition, such that distributions for certain dynamic order parameters need not reveal an underlying dynamical bistability. Solution of our model system furthermore yields the form of the effective Markov transition matrices that generate dynamics in which the two dynamical phases are at coexistence. We discuss the implications of the transition for the response of bacterial cells to antibiotic treatment, arguing that even simple models of a cell cycle lacking an explicit bistability in configuration space will exhibit a bistability of dynamical phases.

Gingrich, Todd R.; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Geissler, Phillip L.

2014-10-01

68

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through this paper we analyze the ergodic properties of continuous time Markov chains with values on the one-dimensional spin lattice (also known as the Bernoulli space). Initially, we consider as the infinitesimal generator the operator [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], where [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is a discrete time Ruelle operator (transfer operator), and is a given fixed Lipschitz function. The associated continuous time stationary Markov chain will define the a priori probability. Given a Lipschitz interaction , we are interested in Gibbs (equilibrium) state for such V. This will be another continuous time stationary Markov chain. In order to analyze this problem we will use a continuous time Ruelle operator (transfer operator) naturally associated to V. Among other things we will show that a continuous time Perron-Frobenius Theorem is true in the case V is a Lipschitz function. We also introduce an entropy, which is negative (see also Lopes et al. in Entropy and Variational Principle for one-dimensional Lattice Systems with a general a-priori probability: positive and zero temperature. Arxiv, 2012), and we consider a variational principle of pressure. Finally, we analyze large deviations properties for the empirical measure in the continuous time setting using results by Y. Kifer (Tamsui Oxf. J. Manag. Sci. 321(2):505-524, 1990). In the last appendix of the paper we explain why the techniques we develop here have the capability to be applied to the analysis of convergence of a certain version of the Metropolis algorithm.

Lopes, Artur; Neumann, Adriana; Thieullen, Philippe

2013-09-01

69

The principle of large numbers shows that the relative deviation for a macro system with N independent elements is of the order of 1\\/N. Lucas approach to a microfoundations for macroeconomic fluctuations is thus not capable of explaining the magnitude of observed macroeconomic fluctuations. Arbitrage activity would largely eliminate correlations created by rational expectations among economic agents when they face

Ping Chen

2002-01-01

70

Nonequilibrium ensemble inequivalence and large deviations of the density in the ABC model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the one-dimensional driven ABC model under particle-conserving and particle-nonconserving processes. Two limiting cases are studied: (a) The rates of the nonconserving processes are vanishingly slow compared with the conserving processes in the thermodynamic limit and (b) the two rates are comparable. For case (a) we provide a detailed analysis of the phase diagram and the large deviations function of the overall density, G (r). The phase diagram of the nonconserving model, derived from G (r), is found to be different from the conserving one. This difference, which stems from the nonconvexity of G (r), is analogous to ensemble inequivalence found in equilibrium systems with long-range interactions. An outline of the analysis of case (a) was given in an earlier letter. For case (b) we show that, unlike the conserving model, the nonconserving model exhibits a moving density profile in the steady state with a velocity that remains finite in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, in contrast with case (a), the critical lines of the conserving and nonconserving models do not coincide. These are new features which are present only when the rates of the conserving and nonconserving processes are comparable. In addition, we analyze G (r) in case (b) using macroscopic fluctuations theory. Much of the derivation presented in this paper is applicable to any driven-diffusive system coupled to an external particle bath via a slow dynamics.

Cohen, O.; Mukamel, D.

2014-07-01

71

Annual Rainfall Maxima: Large-Deviation Alternative to Extreme-Value and Extreme-Excess Methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to common belief, Gumbel's extreme value (EV) and Pickands' extreme excess (EE) theories do not generally apply to rainfall maxima at the annual level. This is true not just for long averaging durations d, as one would expect, but also in the high-resolution limit as d ?? 0. We reach these conclusions by studying the annual maxima of scale-invariant rainfall models with a multiplicative structure. We find that for d ?? 0 the annual maximum rainfall intensity in d, Iyear(d), has a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution with a shape parameter k that is significantly higher than that predicted by Gumbel's theory and is always in the EV2 range. Under the same conditions, the excess above levels close to the annual maximum has generalized Pareto (GP) distribution with a parameter k that is always higher than that predicted by Pickands' theory. The proper tool to obtain these results is large deviation (LD) theory, a branch of probability that has been largely ignored in stochastic hydrology. In the classic EV and EE settings one considers a single random variable X and studies either the distribution of the maximum of n independent copies of X as n ??? or the distribution of the excess Xu = (X - u|X ? u) as the threshold u ???. A well known result is that, if under renormalization these distributions approach non-degenerate limits, then the distribution of the maximum is GEV(k), the distribution of the excess above u is GP(k), and the common shape parameter k depends on the tail behavior of X. When applied to rainfall extremes, X is typically taken to be I(d), the rainfall intensity in a generic d interval. The problem with the EV approach is that the number of d intervals in one year, n(d) = 1yr?d, may be too small for convergence of Iyear(d) to the asymptotic GEV distribution. Likewise, in the EE approach, thresholds u on the order of the annual maximum may be too low for convergence of the excess to the asymptotic GP distribution. This is indeed what happens in multifractal (and likely other multiplicative) models of rainfall. In contrast to EV and EE theories, LD theory considers a sequence of random variables {Xn = i=1nY i, n = 1, 2, ?} where Y 1, Y 2,... are independent copies of a non-negative random variable Y and evaluates the probability P[Xn > eγn] for given γ > 0 as n ???. For application to scale-invariant rainfall one writes I(d) = I(D)Xn=ln(D?d), where D is the outer limit of the scale-invariant behavior. By using LD results, one finds that as d ?? 0 the distribution of Iyear(d) is EV2(k) with k that depends on the body (not the tail) of the distribution of Y . One can use LD theory also to extend Pickands' EE results. In this case one considers the excess Xn,eγn = (Xn - eγn|Xn ? eγn) where the threshold u is made to vary with n as u = eγn for some γ > 0. One finds that, when the threshold is set to values on the order of the annual maximum and d ?? 0, the excess of I(d) = I(D)Xn=ln(D?d) approaches a GP(k) distribution where k is the same as in the EV2(k) distribution of Iyear(d). For d finite, Iyear(d) does not have a GEV distribution, but one can use LD theory to find the best-fitting EV2(k) distribution within a given range of quantiles. The use of large-deviation theory rather than extreme-value or extreme-excess theories represents a significant conceptual change in the way annual rainfall maxima are viewed and evaluated. There are also practical implications. Use of LD theory to calculate the distribution of the annual maximum does not require knowledge of the upper tail behavior of I(d). Rather one needs to know the distribution of I(d) in a less extreme region with significant gains in estimation accuracy and robustness. Some of the practical implications are considered in a companion study (Lepore et al., "Annual Rainfall Maxima: Practical Estimation Based on Large-deviation Results," EGU 2009). This

Veneziano, D.; Langousis, A.; Lepore, C.

2009-04-01

72

Mechanical principles of large mirror supports

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large thin meniscus mirrors use force-controlled shape actuators to obtain the required optical performance. The shape actuators can be interpreted as an advancement of classical mirror supports as whiffle trees or iso-static levers, which worked purely mechanical. The paper develops, after a short historical overview, the theoretical background of mirror mechanics. Different combinations of force-controlled shape actuators with mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic whiffle trees or iso-static levers are analyzed in regard of their impact on optical performance, dynamic and control behavior. The investigations were the basis for the choice of the shape actuator system for the E-ELT M2, executed by MT Mechatronics under an ESO contract in 2008-09.

Krcher, Hans J.; Eisentrger, Peter; Sss, Martin

2010-07-01

73

LARGE DEVIATION PRINCIPLES FOR NON GRADIENT WEAKLY ASYMMETRIC STOCHASTIC LATTICE GASES

BERTINI, ALESSANDRA FAGGIONATO, AND DAVIDE GABRIELLI Abstract. We consider a lattice gas on the discrete d" PTRELSS 228032. #12;2 L. BERTINI, A. FAGGIONATO, AND D. GABRIELLI satisfying the local detailed balance

Bertini, Lorenzo

74

Large deviations upper bounds and central limit theorems for band matrices and

. In this paper, we shall generalize K. Johansson's ty* *pe of result to band matrices with Gaussian entries for band matrices and non-commutative functionnals of Gaussian large random matrices measure. As a consequenc* *e, we derive such type of results for Gaussian band matrices

Guionnet, Alice

75

Large deviations theory and efficient simulation of excessive backlogs in a GI\\/GI\\/m queue

The problem of using importance sampling to estimate the average time to buffer overflow in a stable GI\\/GI\\/m queue is considered. Using the notion of busy cycles, estimation of the expected time to buffer overflow is reduced to the problem of estimating pn=P (buffer overflow during a cycle) where n is the buffer size. The probability pn is a large

John S. Sadowsky

1991-01-01

76

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematic assumptions upon which the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is founded allow it to be extended to more advanced analysis. Simple superposition allows for three-dimensional transverse loading. Using alternative constitutive equations can allow for viscoelastic or plastic beam deformation. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory can also be extended to the analysis of curved beams, beam buckling, composite beams and geometrically nonlinear beam deflection. In this study, solving the nonlinear differential equation governing the calculation of the large rotation deviation of the beam (or column) has been discussed. Previously to calculate the rotational deviation of the beam, the assumption is made that the angular deviation of the beam is small. By considering the small slope in the linearization of the governing differential equation, the solving is easy. The result of this simplification in some cases will lead to an excessive error. In this paper nonlinear differential equations governing on this system are solved analytically by Akbari-Ganji's method (AGM). Moreover, in AGM by solving a set of algebraic equations, complicated nonlinear equations can easily be solved and without any mathematical operations such as integration solving. The solution of the problem can be obtained very simply and easily. Furthermore, to enhance the accuracy of the results, the Taylor expansion is not needed in most cases via AGM manner. Also, comparisons are made between AGM and numerical method (Runge-Kutta 4th). The results reveal that this method is very effective and simple, and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

Akbari, M. R.; Nimafar, M.; Ganji, D. D.; Akbarzade, M. M.

2014-12-01

77

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical turbulent flows are characterized by their self-organization into large scale coherent structures, in particular parallel jets. We will present a theory in order to describe the effective statistics and dynamics of these jets. We prove that this closure is exact in the limit of a timescale separation between the forcing and the inertial dynamics, which is rare in a turbulent flow. The equation obtained describes the attractors for the dynamics (alternating zonal jets) and the relaxation towards those attractors. At first order, these attractors are the same as the ones obtained from a quasi-Gaussian closure, already studied. Our work thus justifies this approximation and the corresponding asymptotic limit. We also present a new, very efficient algorithm to compute the terms appearing in this equation. The theory also goes beyond the quasi-Gaussian approximation, and indeed it can also describe the stationary distribution of the jets (fluctuations and large deviations).

Bouchet, F.; Nardini, C.; Tangarife, T.

2014-12-01

78

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In extremely intense laser system used for plasma physics experiments, temporal contrast is an important property of the ultra-short pulse. In this paper, we theoretically study the temporal contrast degradation due to wave front deviation in large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system. Two-step focusing fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm with the coordinate transform based on Fresnel approximation in space domain and Fourier integral transform method in time domain were used to simulate the focusing process spatially and temporally, in which the spatial distribution of ultra-short pulse temporal contrast characteristics at the focal spot is related to the wave front in large aperture off-axis parabolic mirror focusing optical system. Firstly, temporal contrast degradation due to wave front noise with higher spatial frequency is analyzed and appropriate evaluation parameter for large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system is put forward from the perspective of temporal contrast. Secondly, the influence of wave front distortion with lower spatial frequency on temporal contrast is revealed comparing different degradation characteristics of various aberrations. At last, a method by controlling and optimizing the wave front to prevent temporal contrast degradation in large aperture ultra-short laser system is proposed, which is of great significance for high temporal contrast petawatt laser facilities.

Zhu, Ping; Xie, Xinglong; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhu, Haidong; Yang, Qingwei; Kang, Jun; Guo, Ailin; Gao, Qi

2014-11-01

79

We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter $m$, a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP$(m)$ and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the GBEP($a$). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP$(m)$, and give a formal derivation for the GBEP($a$). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form $-\\log \\rho$; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order $\\rho^2$ for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of $\\rho$ for the nonlinear heat equation.

Mark A. Peletier; Frank Redig; Kiamars Vafayi

2014-03-19

80

Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics simulations on the BlueGene/L Platform

Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics simulations on the BlueGene/L Platform using. Keywords Electronic structure. Molecular Dynamics. Ab initio simulations. First-principles simulations that the Qbox code supports unprecedented large-scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) applications

Franchetti, Franz

81

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, by journalist Robert Niles, defines and explains standard deviation and the normal distribution. Graphs and a clear list of terms you need to know are given, and links to more of Niles' sites can be found by visitors on the right side of the screen.

Niles, Robert

82

Large impurity effects in rubrene crystals: First-principles calculations

Carrier mobilities of rubrene films are among the highest values reported for any organic semiconductor. Here, we probe with first-principles calculations the sensitivity of rubrene crystals on impurities. We find that isolated oxygen impurities create distinct peaks in the electronic density of states consistent with observations of defect levels in rubrene and that increased O content changes the position and shape of rubrene energy bands significantly. We also establish a dual role of hydrogen as individual H species and H impurity pairs create and annihilate deep carrier traps, respectively. The results are relevant to the performance and reliability of rubrene-based devices.

Tsetseris, L. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University

2008-01-01

83

This proposal is concerned with applications of Monte Carlo to problems in physics and chemistry where rare events degrade the performance of standard Monte Carlo. One class of problems is concerned with computation of various aspects of the equilibrium behavior of some Markov process via time averages. The problem to be overcome is that rare events interfere with the efficient sampling of all relevant parts of phase space. A second class concerns sampling transitions between two or more stable attractors. Here, rare events do not interfere with the sampling of all relevant parts of phase space, but make Monte Carlo inefficient because of the very large number of samples required to obtain variance comparable to the quantity estimated. The project uses large deviation methods for the mathematical analyses of various Monte Carlo techniques, and in particular for algorithmic analysis and design. This is done in the context of relevant application areas, mainly from chemistry and biology.

Dupuis, Paul [Brown University] [Brown University

2014-03-14

84

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following study proposes a two-dimensional large-scale particle tracking velocimetry (LS-PTV) system to characterize coherent wind structures. Seven minutes of LS-PTV data is collected via an apparatus that seeds fog-filled soap bubbles into the wind at a height of 6m from the ground. The LS-PTV data is compared to 20 minutes of data collected concurrently from a wind mast at the same site. The LS-PTV system recorded a mean streamwise velocity of 1.35m/s with a standard deviation of 0.23m/s at a mean height of 2.50m with a standard deviation of 0.7m, which agrees well with the velocity profile measured by the wind mast. Furthermore, the Reynolds stresses measured by the LS-PTV system are found to compare to those measured by the wind mast and by Klebanoff [1] for a canonical turbulent boundary layer. The current study assumes that the centre-of-curvature trajectories of the particle pathlines are representative of the trajectories followed by the spanwise vortices. As a proof-of-principle study, this work has been successful in accurately describing the vortex distribution very near to the ground. However, the trajectories followed by the centres-of- curvat.ure belonging to pathlines concurrently passing through the field-of-view were sporadic and uncorrelated.

Rosi, G. A.; la Bastide, B.; Gaebler, J.; Kinzel, M.; Rival, D. E.

2014-12-01

85

Bioinspired principles for large-scale networked sensor systems: an overview.

Biology has often been used as a source of inspiration in computer science and engineering. Bioinspired principles have found their way into network node design and research due to the appealing analogies between biological systems and large networks of small sensors. This paper provides an overview of bioinspired principles and methods such as swarm intelligence, natural time synchronization, artificial immune system and intercellular information exchange applicable for sensor network design. Bioinspired principles and methods are discussed in the context of routing, clustering, time synchronization, optimal node deployment, localization and security and privacy. PMID:22163841

Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Zhang, Qi; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjdeberg

2011-01-01

86

Arboreal Ants Use the ``VelcroH Principle'' to Capture Very Large Prey

Arboreal Ants Use the ``VelcroH Principle'' to Capture Very Large Prey Alain Dejean1 *, Ce Biologi´a Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain Abstract Plant-ants live and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN) and/or food bodies (FBs); the ants can also attend sap

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

Large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics for electrochemical systems with O(N) methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on electrochemical systems has been developed by combining the effective screening medium (ESM) method with O(N) density functional theory (DFT). This implementation has been significantly simplified by the introduction of neutral atom potentials, which minimizes the modifications to existing DFT code. In order to demonstrate ability of this implementation, it has been applied to an electrochemical system consisting of a H-Si(111) electrode, which is a candidate anode for high-capacity Li-ion secondary batteries, and a propylene carbonate (PC) solvent to simulate how PC molecules in the vicinity of the electrode surface respond to an imposed electric field. The large-scale MD simulation clearly demonstrates that the combination of the ESM and O(N) DFT methods provides a useful tool for first-principles investigation of complicated electrochemical systems such as high-capacity batteries.

Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Ozaki, Taisuke

2012-04-01

88

Evaluation of variational principle based model for LDPE large scale film blowing process

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, variational principle based film blowing model combined with Pearson and Petrie formulation, considering non-isothermal processing conditions and novel generalized Newtonian model allowing to capture steady shear and uniaxial extensional viscosities has been validated by using experimentally determined bubble shape and velocity profile for LDPE sample on large scale film blowing line. It has been revealed that the minute change in the flow activation energy can significantly influence the film stretching level.

Kolarik, Roman; Zatloukal, Martin

2013-04-01

89

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a brief survey of the history, structure and functions of 'traditional' geographic information systems (GIS), and then suggests a set of requirements that large-scale GIS should satisfy, together with a set of principles for their satisfaction. These principles, which include the systematic application of techniques from several subfields of computer science to the design and implementation of GIS and the integration of techniques from computer vision and image processing into standard GIS technology, are discussed in some detail. In particular, the paper provides a detailed discussion of questions relating to appropriate data models, data structures and computational procedures for the efficient storage, retrieval and analysis of spatially-indexed data.

Smith, Terence R.; Menon, Sudhakar; Star, Jeffrey L.; Estes, John E.

1987-01-01

90

A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF4).

Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke

2014-06-01

91

The force-from-lipid (FFL) principle of mechanosensitivity, at large and in elements.

Focus on touch and hearing distracts attention from numerous subconscious force sensors, such as the vital control of blood pressure and systemic osmolarity, and sensors in nonanimals. Multifarious manifestations should not obscure invariant and fundamental physicochemical principles. We advocate that force from lipid (FFL) is one such principle. It is based on the fact that the self-assembled bilayer necessitates inherent forces that are large and anisotropic, even at life's origin. Functional response of membrane proteins is governed by bilayer force changes. Added stress can redirect these forces, leading to geometric changes of embedded proteins such as ion channels. The FFL principle was first demonstrated when purified bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) remained mechanosensitive (MS) after reconstituting into bilayers. This key experiment has recently been unequivocally replicated with two vertebrate MS K2p channels. Even the canonical Kv and the Drosophila canonical transient receptor potentials (TRPCs) have now been shown to be MS in biophysical and in physiological contexts, supporting the universality of the FFL paradigm. We also review the deterministic role of mechanical force during stem cell differentiation as well as the cell-cell and cell-matrix tethers that provide force communications. In both the ear hair cell and the worm's touch neuron, deleting the cadherin or microtubule tethers reduces but does not eliminate MS channel activities. We found no evidence to distinguish whether these tethers directly pull on the channel protein or a surrounding lipid platform. Regardless of the implementation, pulling tether tenses up the bilayer. Membrane tenting is directly visible at the apexes of the stereocilia. PMID:24888690

Teng, Jinfeng; Loukin, Stephen; Anishkin, Andriy; Kung, Ching

2015-01-01

92

The relative motion of many particles can be described by the geodesic deviation equation. This can be derived from the second covariant variation of the point particle's action. It is shown that the second covariant variation of the string action leads to a string deviation equation.

Mark D. Roberts

1998-10-13

93

Integration of human factors principles in LARG organizations--a conceptual model.

Nowadays many companies are undergoing organizational transformations in order to meet the changing market demands. Thus, in order to become more competitive, supply chains (SC) are adopting new management paradigms to improve SC performance: lean, agile, resilient and green (LARG paradigms). The implementation of new production paradigms demands particular care with the issues related with Human Factors to avoid health and safety problems to workers and losses to companies. Thus, the successful introduction of these new production paradigms depends among others on a Human Factors oriented approach. This work presents a conceptual framework that allows integrating ergonomic and safety design principles during the different implementation phases of lean, agile, resilient and green practices. PMID:22316960

Figueira, Sara; Machado, V Cruz; Nunes, Isabel L

2012-01-01

94

The Hierarchy Principle and the Large Mass Limit of the Linear Sigma Model

In perturbation theory we study the matching in four dimensions between the linear sigma model in the large mass limit and the renormalized nonlinear sigma model in the recently proposed flat connection formalism. We consider both the chiral limit and the strong coupling limit of the linear sigma model. Our formalism extends to Green functions with an arbitrary number of pion legs,at one loop level,on the basis of the hierarchy as an efficient unifying principle that governs both limits. While the chiral limit is straightforward, the matching in the strong coupling limit requires careful use of the normalization conditions of the linear theory, in order to exploit the functional equation and the complete set of local solutions of its linearized form.

Daniele Bettinelli; Ruggero Ferrari; Andrea Quadri

2006-11-06

95

A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations.

An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF4). PMID:24985616

Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke

2014-06-28

96

Deviation from secular equilibrium

Laser exposure of gold nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of Uranium salt leads to accelerated decay of U238 nuclei and significant deviation from secular equilibrium. The samples demonstrate the enhanced gamma emission in the range of 54 keV during laser exposure.

A. V. Simakin; G. A. Shafeev

2010-01-20

97

In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 2025 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first and last pages. A draft of the first page, collected early in the term, was returned to each student by graduate TAs to provide individual feedback on scientific writing. Overall the course has run three times at ful or near enrollment capacity despite being held at an 8:00 AM time slot. Student-generated teaching evaluations place it well within the normal range, while this format importantly contributes to budget efficiency permitting the teaching of more required small-format courses (e.g., freshman writing). The demographics of the course have changed to one in which the vast majority of the students are now outside the disciplines of neuroscience or psychology and are taking the course to fulfill a General Education requirement. This pattern allows the wide dissemination of basic neuroscientific knowledge to a general college audience. PMID:24319388

Bodnar, Richard J.; Stellar, James R.; Kraft, Tamar T.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M.; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo

2013-01-01

98

In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20-25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first and last pages. A draft of the first page, collected early in the term, was returned to each student by graduate TAs to provide individual feedback on scientific writing. Overall the course has run three times at ful or near enrollment capacity despite being held at an 8:00 AM time slot. Student-generated teaching evaluations place it well within the normal range, while this format importantly contributes to budget efficiency permitting the teaching of more required small-format courses (e.g., freshman writing). The demographics of the course have changed to one in which the vast majority of the students are now outside the disciplines of neuroscience or psychology and are taking the course to fulfill a General Education requirement. This pattern allows the wide dissemination of basic neuroscientific knowledge to a general college audience. PMID:24319388

Bodnar, Richard J; Stellar, James R; Kraft, Tamar T; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo

2013-01-01

99

The Precautionary Principle is a guide to coping with scientific uncertainties in the assessment and management of risks. In recent years, it has moved to the forefront of debates in policy and applied ethics, becoming a key normative tool in policy discussions in such diverse areas as medical and scientific research, health and safety regulation, environmental regulation, product development, international trade, and even judicial review. The principle has attracted critics who claim that it is fundamentally incoherent, too vague to guide policy, and makes demands that are logically and scientifically impossible. In this paper we will answer these criticisms by formulating guidelines for its application that ensure its coherence as a useful normative guide in applied and policy ethics debates. We will also provide analyses of cases that demonstrate how our version of the principle functions in practice. PMID:19757190

Petrenko, Anton; McArthur, Dan

2010-09-01

100

Power fluctuations, large deviations and turbulence

We study local power fluctuations in numerical simulations of stationary, homogenous, isotropic turbulence in two and three dimensions with Gaussian forcing. Due to the near-Gaussianity of the one-point velocity distribution, the probability distribution function (pdf) of the local power is well modeled by the pdf of the product of two joint normally distributed variables. In appropriate units, this distribution is calculated exactly and shown to satisfy a Fluctuation Relation (FR) with a coefficient which depends on {epsilon}.

Bandi, Mahesh M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chumakov, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Connaughton, Colm P [U OF WARWICK, UK

2008-01-01

101

From Large Deviations to Statistical Mechanics

Richard S. Ellis Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 in mathematics, statistical mechanics, and other applications. What is the most 1 #12;Richard S. Ellis into randomness, was nearly a mathematical impossibility. Lewis Thomas, The Lives of a Cell (New York: Viking

Ellis, Richard S.

102

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate an efficient and accurate first-principles method to calculate the electronic structure of a large system using a divide-and-conquer strategy based on localized quasi-atomic minimal basis set orbitals recently developed. Tight-binding Hamiltonian and overlap matrices of a large system can be constructed by extracting the matrix elements for a given pair of atoms from first-principles calculations of smaller systems that represent the local bonding environment of the particular atom pair. The approach is successfully applied to the studies of electronic structure in graphene nanoribbons. This provides a promising way to do the electronic simulation for large systems directly from first principles.

Yao, Y. X.; Wang, C. Z.; Zhang, G. P.; Ji, M.; Ho, K. M.

2009-06-01

103

Proceedings of 4th SCA 74-81 (2007) ?? Variational Principles and Large Scale Effective

mechanics and perception recovers empirical results of hearing aid fitting, and offers adap- tivity when of premixed turbulent flames or a more general problem of reaction-diffusion front propagation in random media quantity is the large time front speed that depends on statistics of the random media in a highly

Xin, Jack

104

Large scale atomistic first principles study of adsorption and surface diffusion

Computer simulation of atomistic processes is an important tool in understanding the properties of condensed matter at a microscopic level. The best way to reproduce the rich variety of experimentally observed effects in the simulation is to use the quantum mechanical description of the ion-electron interactions in a solid. Such calculations although increasingly popular make high demands on the computing power available. The systems of practical interest to surface physics include at least hundreds (or even thousands) of atoms, and their ab initio study inevitably requires parallel supercomputers. In this paper the authors describe the total energy calculations of the adsorption and migration properties of a single Ge adatom on the Si(100) surface. This system is typical in complexity for modern large scale simulations and presents a good test case to show the methodology and its application to surface science problems.

Milman, V.; Pennycook, S.J.; Jesson, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Payne, M.C.; Stich, I.; Lee, M.H. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

1994-02-01

105

Understanding biological systems at the level of their relational (emergent) molecular properties in functional protein networks relies on imaging methods, able to spatially resolve a tissue or a cell as a giant, non-random, topologically defined collection of interacting supermolecules executing myriads of subcellular mechanisms. Here, the development and findings of parameter-unlimited functional super-resolution microscopy are describeda technology based on the fluorescence imaging cycler (IC) principle capable of co-mapping thousands of distinct biomolecular assemblies at high spatial resolution and differentiation (<40?nm distances). It is shown that the subcellular and transcellular features of such supermolecules can be described at the compositional and constitutional levels; that the spatial connection, relational stoichiometry, and topology of supermolecules generate hitherto unrecognized functional self-segmentation of biological tissues; that hierarchical features, common to thousands of simultaneously imaged supermolecules, can be identified; and how the resulting supramolecular order relates to spatial coding of cellular functionalities in biological systems. A large body of observations with IC molecular systems microscopy collected over 20?years have disclosed principles governed by a law of supramolecular segregation of cellular functionalities. This pervades phenomena, such as exceptional orderliness, functional selectivity, combinatorial and spatial periodicity, and hierarchical organization of large molecular systems, across all species investigated so far. This insight is based on the high degree of specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity of molecular recognition processes for fluorescence imaging beyond the spectral resolution limit, using probe libraries controlled by ICs. 2013 The Authors. Journal of Molecular Recognition published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24375580

Schubert, Walter

2013-01-01

106

Large-scale surface reconstructions from first principles: Au(100) and Pt(100) by all-electron DFT

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the large-scale, quasihexagonal surface reconstructions of Au(100) and Pt(100) are captured by all-electron density functional theory (DFT) in the local-density approximation and PBE generalized gradient approximation in excellent agreement with experiment. While the superstructure is often approximated as (5x1) in first-principles calculations, larger, more realistic approximants turn out to be important for some aspects. For example, the reconstruction energy for Au(100) approximately doubles compared to (5x1) when considering the much larger, more realistic series (5xN) (N=10,15,20,25,30). For Pt(100), where an experimental reconstruction energy estimate exists [1], DFT based on these approximants is in close agreement. In addition to the energetics, our calculations reveal the full local surface geometry, and corroborrate relativistically enhanced d-d hybridization as the electronic reconstruction driving force. Our calculations are based on 5-layer asymmetric slab geometries, two layers of which are fully relaxed, i.e. up to 786 atoms, with 336 relaxed, and are performed using the efficient, accurate all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims [2]. [1] W.A. Brown, R. Kose, D.A. King, Chem. Rev. 98, 797 (1998) [2] V. Blum et al, Comp. Phys. Comm. 180, 2175 (2009).

Havu, Paula; Blum, Volker; Havu, Ville; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

2010-03-01

107

The Quantization of Geodesic Deviation

There exists a two parameter action, the variation of which produces both the geodesic equation and the geodesic deviation equation. In this paper it is shown that this action can be quantized by the canonical method, resulting in equations which generalize the Klein-Gordon equation. The resulting equations might have applications, and also show that entirely unexpected systems can be quantized. The possible applications of quantized geodesic deviation are to: i)the spreading wave packet in quantum theory, ii)and also to the one particle to many particle problem in second quantized quantum field theory.

Mark D. Roberts

1999-03-27

108

Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

2005-01-01

109

This paper is concerned with the prediction of oxygen diffusivities in fcc nickel from first-principles calculations and large-scale atomic simulations. Considering only the interstitial octahedral to tetrahedral to octahedral minimum energy pathway for oxygen diffusion in fcc lattice, greatly underestimates the migration barrier and overestimates the diffusivities by several orders of magnitude. The results indicate that vacancies in the Ni-lattice significantly impact the migration barrier of oxygen in nickel. Incorporation of the effect of vacancies results in predicted diffusivities consistent with available experimental data. First-principles calculations show that at high temperatures the vacancy concentration is comparable to the oxygen solubility, and there is a strong binding energy and a redistribution of charge density between the oxygen atom and vacancy. Consequently, there is a strong attraction between the oxygen and vacancy in the Ni lattice, which impacts diffusion.

Fang, H. Z.; Shang, S. L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Alfonso, D.; Alman, D. E. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Shin, Y. K.; Zou, C. Y.; Duin, A. C. T. van [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lei, Y. K.; Wang, G. F. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

2014-01-28

110

Uncertainty principle and uncertainty relations

It is generally believed that the uncertainty relation q p1\\/2, where q and p are standard deviations, is the precise mathematical expression of the uncertainty principle for position and momentum in quantum mechanics. We show that actually it is not possible to derive from this relation two central claims of the uncertainty principle, namely, the impossibility of an arbitrarily sharp

J. B. M. Uffink; J. Hilgevoord

1985-01-01

111

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ORGANIZATIONS, AND WITH COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS, FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, ORGANIZATIONS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS General 95.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget...

2010-07-01

112

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ORGANIZATIONS, AND WITH COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS, FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, ORGANIZATIONS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS General 95.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget...

2011-07-01

113

Suppression of Deviations and Vibrations of Tethered Satellite

The present paper discusses the problems of planning and optimization of maneuver (reorientation) strategies of large-space flexible structures as long booms and tethered satellites subject to conditions for minimization of deviations and vibrations. An approach based on the multibody system methodology for dynamics simulation and forward analysis is proposed. The optimization problem is defined as nonlinear programming problem. Iterative procedure

Evtim Zahariev; Kamen Delchev; Stefan Karastanev

2006-01-01

114

The material design of type-VIII clathrate Si46 is presented based on first principles. The structural, electronic, elastic, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of this hypothetical material are presented. Our results predict that type-VIII clathrate Si46 is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.24eV. The band structure revealed an interestingly large number of electron pockets near both conduction and valance band edges. Such a large density of states near the band edges, which is higher than that of the best thermoelectric materials discovered so far, can result in a large thermoelectric power factor (>0.004Wm(-1)K(-2)) making it a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications. The elastic properties as well as the vibrational modes and the phonon state densities of this material were also calculated. Our calculations predict that the heat capacity at constant volume (isochoric) of this clathrate increases smoothly with temperature and approaches the Dulong-Petit value near room temperature. The electronic band structure shows a large number of valleys closely packed around the valance band edge, which is rare among the known semiconducting materials. These valleys can contribute to transport at high temperature resulting in a possibly high performance (ZT>1.5) p-type thermoelectric material. PMID:24172765

Norouzzadeh, Payam; Myles, Charles W; Vashaee, Daryoosh

2013-11-27

115

Program helps quickly calculate deviated well path

A BASIC computer program quickly calculates the angle and measured depth of a simple directional well given only the true vertical depth and total displacement of the target. Many petroleum engineers and geologists need a quick, easy method to calculate the angle and measured depth necessary to reach a target in a proposed deviated well bore. Too many of the existing programs are large and require much input data. The drilling literature is full of equations and methods to calculate the course of well paths from surveys taken after a well is drilled. Very little information, however, covers how to calculate well bore trajectories for proposed wells from limited data. Furthermore, many of the equations are quite complex and difficult to use. A figure lists a computer program with the equations to calculate the well bore trajectory necessary to reach a given displacement and true vertical depth (TVD) for a simple build plant. It can be run on an IBM compatible computer with MS-DOS version 5 or higher, QBasic, or any BASIC that does no require line numbers. QBasic 4.5 compiler will also run the program. The equations are based on conventional geometry and trigonometry.

Gardner, M.P. (Plains Resources Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-11-22

116

Large deviation local limit theorems for ratio statistics

Let {Tn, n ? 1} be an arbitrary sequence of nonlattice random variables and let {Sn, n ? 1} be another sequence of positive random variables. Assume that the sequences are independent. In this paper we obtain asymptotic expression for the density function of the ratio statistic Rn = Tn\\/Sn based on simple conditions on the moment generating functions of

Narasinga Rao Chaganty; Sanjeev Sabnis

1990-01-01

117

Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory

properties of the astroids, like their shrink- ing and sharpening as the number of applied pulses-pulse astroid in the thin film limit 8 4 Multiple-pulse astroids and action minimization 12 4.1 Action minimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2 Multiple-pulse astroids

118

Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory

can be used to explain some properties of the astroids, like their shrink- ing and sharpening, New York University, USA, email: eve2@cims.nyu.edu 1 #12;2 Modeling 6 3 Single-pulse astroid in the thin film limit 8 4 Multiple-pulse astroids and action minimization 13 4.1 Action minimization

Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH)

119

On large deviations of sums of independent random variables

Zhishui Hu12, Valentin V. Petrov23 and John Robinson2* 1Department of Statistics, NSW 2006, Australia, 3Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics, St. Petersburg University, Stary Peterhof, St. Petersburg 198504, Russia Extensions of some limit theorems are proved

Sydney, University of

120

Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin-tossing

The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD, we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle, and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems, and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.

Shihan Sajeed; Igor Radchenko; Sarah Kaiser; Jean-Philippe Bourgoin; Anna Pappa; Laurent Monat; Matthieu Legre; Vadim Makarov

2014-12-27

121

Lab#1: Icebergs: Raising Sea Level and Archimedes' Principle Questions What is density? Can more or less dense than water? What is Archimedes' Principle? What is displacement? Will melting Archimedes' Principle (displacement). 3. Understand that the water created from melting icebergs is equal

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

122

With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk. PMID:24323297

Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

2014-01-01

123

48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01... Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

2014-10-01

124

48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01... Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

2013-10-01

125

48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01... Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

2011-10-01

126

48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01... Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

2010-10-01

127

48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01... Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

2012-10-01

128

48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01... Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

2014-10-01

129

48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01... Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

2011-10-01

130

48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01... Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

2010-10-01

131

48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01... Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

2013-10-01

132

48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01... Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR...

2012-10-01

133

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...statutory. (c) Other class deviations. For classes of awards other than small awards, the Director, Defense Research and Engineering, or his or her designee, may grant exceptions from the requirements of this part when exceptions are...

2010-07-01

134

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...statutory. (c) Other class deviations. For classes of awards other than small awards, the Director, Defense Research and Engineering, or his or her designee, may grant exceptions from the requirements of this part when exceptions are...

2012-07-01

135

48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the...the Defense Contract Management Agency, and the Defense Logistics Agency, may...

2012-10-01

136

48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the...the Defense Contract Management Agency, and the Defense Logistics Agency, may...

2011-10-01

137

48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the...the Defense Contract Management Agency, and the Defense Logistics Agency, may...

2010-10-01

138

48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

139

Equivalence principle and gravitational redshift.

We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Mssbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10(-6) level. PMID:21568541

Hohensee, Michael A; Chu, Steven; Peters, Achim; Mller, Holger

2011-04-15

140

Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift

We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.

Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Peters, Achim [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2011-04-15

141

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI

1991-01-01

142

Fatigue, pilot deviations and time of day

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationships between pilot fatigue, pilot deviations, reported incidents, and time of day are examined. A sample of 200 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports were analyzed from 1985 and 200 reports from 1987, plus 100 reports from late 1987 and early 1988 that were selected because of possible association with fatigue. The FAA pilot deviation data and incident data were analyzed in relation to denominator data that summarized the hourly operations (landings and takeoffs of scheduled flights) at major U.S. airports. Using as numerators FAA data on pilot deviations and incidents reported to the FAA, the rates by time of day were calculated. Pilot age was also analyzed in relation to the time of day, phase of flight, and type of incident.

Baker, Susan P.

1989-01-01

143

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from Kyoto University, provides a discussion of Machs Principle, a concept that played an important role in forming Einstein's theory of general relativity. Excerpts from Machs original text are examined and discussed for his ideas that are closely related to this principle. The general ambiguity of Machs Principle, and Einsteins interpretations of it are also presented.

Uchii, Soshichi

2007-10-10

144

Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a

Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

2012-01-01

145

Deviations from Rutherford-scattering cross sections

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments have demonstrated the utility of high-energy backscattering for thin-film analysis, often exploiting elastic-scattering resonances to increase sensitivity to low- Z elements. However, higher- Z elements may also exhibit deviations from Rutherford scattering, and it is desirable to examine the problem theoretically so that such deviations can be predicted and corrected for. We have used the optical-model computer code SCAT86 to calculate the projectile energy Enr at which the scattering cross section begins to deviate from its Rutherford value. The results agree well with data for both alpha particle and proton projectiles, but the interaction potentials are complicated, and the program does not provide an analytical predictive formula. We have therefore developed a simple classical model which treats the interaction as a sum of Coulomb and Yukawa-like potentials. For small deviations from Coulomb scattering, the problem can be solved analytically, providing a simple expression for Enr which agrees well with both experimental data and SCAT86. The classical approach is valid for all but small-angle forward scattering and can easily be extended to heavier projectiles such as Li.

Bozoian, Michael; Hubbard, Kevin M.; Nastasi, Michael

1990-10-01

146

Manifestations of Deviation in the Adolescent Subculture

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors look at questions relating to school students' attitudes toward types of deviation such as smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotics. The empirical material is divided into the following topics: how widespread these forms of behavior are; motives that cause adolescents to start smoking, using alcohol, and taking

Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.

2005-01-01

147

Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations.

This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary, suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, here we report a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of a subbasin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We generalize this relationship to a joint probability density, and provide observations and explanations of deviations from scaling. We show that fluctuations about scaling are substantial, and grow with system size. We find strong deviations from scaling at small scales which can be explained by the existence of a linear network structure. At intermediate scales, we find slow drifts in exponent values, indicating that scaling is only approximately obeyed and that universality remains indeterminate. At large scales, we observe a breakdown in scaling due to decreasing sample space and correlations with overall basin shape. The extent of approximate scaling is significantly restricted by these deviations, and will not be improved by increases in network resolution. PMID:11304322

Dodds, P S; Rothman, D H

2001-01-01

148

Human amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) are routinely obtained for prenatal diagnostics procedures. Recently, it has been illustrated that these cells may also serve as a valuable model system to study developmental processes and for application in regenerative therapies. Cellular reprogramming is a means of assigning greater value to primary AFCs by inducing self-renewal and pluripotency and, thus, bypassing senescence. Here, we report the generation and characterization of human amniotic fluid-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (AFiPSCs) and demonstrate their ability to differentiate into the trophoblast lineage after stimulation with BMP2/BMP4. We further carried out comparative transcriptome analyses of primary human AFCs, AFiPSCs, fibroblast-derived iPSCs (FiPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This revealed that the expression of key senescence-associated genes are down-regulated upon the induction of pluripotency in primary AFCs (AFiPSCs). By defining distinct and overlapping gene expression patterns and deriving the LARGE (Lost, Acquired and Retained Gene Expression) Principle of Cellular Reprogramming, we could further highlight that AFiPSCs, FiPSCs and ESCs share a core self-renewal gene regulatory network driven by OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. Nevertheless, these cell types are marked by distinct gene expression signatures. For example, expression of the transcription factors, SIX6, EGR2, PKNOX2, HOXD4, HOXD10, DLX5 and RAXL1, known to regulate developmental processes, are retained in AFiPSCs and FiPSCs. Surprisingly, expression of the self-renewal-associated gene PRDM14 or the developmental processes-regulating genes WNT3A and GSC are restricted to ESCs. Implications of this, with respect to the stability of the undifferentiated state and long-term differentiation potential of iPSCs, warrant further studies. PMID:21060825

Wolfrum, Katharina; Wang, Ying; Prigione, Alessandro; Sperling, Karl; Lehrach, Hans; Adjaye, James

2010-01-01

149

33 CFR 150.40 - Deviating from the operations manual.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Deviating from the operations manual. 150.40 Section 150...Deviating from the operations manual. If, because of a particular...deviate from the operations manual, the licensee must submit...and notifies the licensee in...

2010-07-01

150

Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

1979-01-01

151

Note Onset Deviations as Musical Piece Signatures

A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

Serr, Joan; zaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

2013-01-01

152

Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

Serr, Joan; zaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

2013-01-01

153

Distance deviation measure of contouring variability

Background Several methods that are currently used for contouring analysis have problems providing reliable and/or meaningful results. In this paper a solution to these problems is proposed in a form of a novel measure, which was developed based on requirements defined for contouring studies. Materials and methods The proposed distance deviation measure can be understood as an extension of the closest point measures in such a way that it does not measure only distances between points on contours but rather analyse deviation of distances to both/all contours from each image point/voxel. The obtained result is information rich, reliable and provided in a form of an image, enabling detailed topographic analysis. In addition to image representation, results can be further processed into angular representation for compact topographic analysis or into overall scalar estimates for quick assessment of contour disagreement. Results Distance deviation method is demonstrated on a multi observer contouring example with complex contour shapes, i.e., with pronounced extremes and void interior. The results are presented using the three proposed methods. Conclusions The proposed method can detect and measure contour variation irrespective of contour complexity and number of contour segments, while the obtained results are easy to interpret. It can be used in various situations, regarding the presence of reference contour or multiple test contours. PMID:23450669

Rogelj, Peter; Hudej, Robert; Petric, Primoz

2013-01-01

154

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Design Principles for Interactive Texts is a fun-to-use interactive text on the effective design of interactive texts for education. It summarizes basic principles of interface design from studies in psychology, skills-training, education, art & design, and other sources, illustrating the principles with many examples. The text should be of interest to anyone designing presentations, computer-based reading materials, student computer labs, or educational Web sites.

Jacobs, Julie

155

The correspondence principle is due to Niels Bohr (18851962). According to Bohr, the principle justifies the use of formal\\u000a classical expressions in quantum theory and a physical interpretation of quantum theory in terms of classical concepts. The\\u000a principle emerged from his use of classical concepts and formal analogies in ? Bohr's atomic model of 1913. Before the rise of quantum

Brigitte Falkenburg

156

A test for deviation from island-model population structure.

The neutral island model forms the basis for several estimation models that relate patterns of genetic structure to microevolutionary processes. Estimates of gene flow are often based on this model and may be biased when the model's assumptions are violated. An appropriate test for violations is to compare FST scores for individual loci to a null distribution based on the average FST taken over multiple loci. A parametric bootstrap method is described here based on Wright's beta-distribution to generate null distributions of FST for each locus. These null distributions account for error introduced by sampling populations, individuals and loci, and also biological sources of error, including variable alleles/locus and inbreeding. Confidence limits can be obtained directly from these distributions. Significant deviations from the island model may be the result of selection, deviations from the island model's migration pattern, nonequilibrium conditions, or other deviations from island-model assumptions. Only strong biases are likely to be detected because of the inherently large sampling variation of FST. Nevertheless, a coefficient, Nb, describing bias in the spread of the beta-distribution in units comparable to the gene flow parameter, Nm, can be obtained for each locus. In samples from populations of the butterfly Coenonympha tullia, the loci Idh-1, Mdh-1, Pgi and Pgm showed significantly lower FST than expected. PMID:12753211

Porter, Adam H

2003-04-01

157

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,

MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

2009-01-01

158

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from HyperPhysics provides a description of Pascal's Principle, which explains how pressure is transmitted in an enclosed fluid. Drawings and sample calculations are provided. Examples illustrating the principle include a hydraulic press and an automobile hydraulic lift.

Nave, Carl R.

159

Babinet's principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas

We consider Babinet's principle for metamaterials at optical frequencies and include realistic conditions which deviate from the theoretical assumptions of the classic principle such as an infinitely thin and perfectly conducting metal layer. It is shown that Babinet's principle associates not only transmission and reflection between a structure and its complement but also the field modal profiles of the electromagnetic

T. Zentgraf; T. P. Meyrath; A. Seidel; S. Kaiser; H. Giessen; C. Rockstuhl; F. Lederer

2007-01-01

160

Meiosis and its deviations in polyploid plants.

Meiosis is a fundamental process in all sexual organisms that ensures fertility and genome stability and creates genetic diversity. For each of these outcomes, the exclusive formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes is needed. This is more difficult to achieve in polyploid species which have more than 2 sets of chromosomes able to recombine. In this review, we describe how meiosis and meiotic recombination 'deviate' in polyploid plants compared to diploids, and give an overview of current knowledge on how they are regulated. See also the sister article focusing on animals by Stenberg and Saura in this themed issue. PMID:23817089

Grandont, L; Jenczewski, E; Lloyd, A

2013-01-01

161

Deviations from tri-bimaximal mixing

Current data indicates that lepton mixing is very close to the tri-bimaximal mixing scenario. In general, however, one expects deviations from any mixing scenario. We discuss several examples to perturb tri-bimaximal mixing, namely soft breaking, renormalization group running and charged lepton corrections. We also present a convenient parametrization of the PMNS matrix which takes advantage of the apparently close to tri-bimaximal mixing pattern. Finally, it is discussed how to generate values of U_{e3} which correspond to the recently found hint for non-zero U_{e3}.

Werner Rodejohann

2009-01-02

162

Perception via the Deviated Eye in Strabismus

Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color (red or blue) revealed which eyes image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus. PMID:22836262

Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.

2012-01-01

163

Perception via the deviated eye in strabismus.

Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color ("red" or "blue") revealed which eye's image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus. PMID:22836262

Economides, John R; Adams, Daniel L; Horton, Jonathan C

2012-07-25

164

DEVIATIONS IN INFLUENZA SEASONALITY: ODD COINCIDENCE OR OBSCURE CONSEQUENCE?

In temperate regions, influenza typically arrives with the onset of colder weather. Seasonal waves travel over large spaces covering many climatic zones in a relatively short period of time. The precise mechanism for this striking seasonal pattern is still not well understood and the interplay of factors that influence the spread of infection and the emergence of new strains is largely unknown. The study of influenza seasonality has been fraught with problems. One of these is the ever shifting description of illness due to influenza and the use of both the historical definitions and new definitions based on actual isolation of the virus. The compilation of records describing influenza oscillations on a local and global scale is massive, but the value of these data is a function of the definitions used. In this review we argue that both observations of seasonality and deviation from the expected pattern stem from the nature of this disease. Heterogeneity in seasonal patterns may arrive from differences in behavior of specific strains, emergence of a novel strain or cross-protection from previously observed strains. Most likely the seasonal patterns emerge from interactions of individual factors behaving as coupled resonators. We emphasize that both seasonality and deviations from it may merely be a reflection of our inability to disentangle signal from noise, be it due to ambiguity in measurement and/or terminology. We conclude the review with suggestions for new promising and realistic directions with tangible consequences to model complex influenza dynamics in order to effectively control infection. PMID:22958213

Moorthy, Mahesh; Castronovo, Denise; Abraham, Asha; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Gradus, Steve; Gorski, Jack; Naumov, Yuri N.; Fefferman, Nina H.; Naumova, Elena N.

2012-01-01

165

10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Overview 1017.5 Requesting a deviation. (a) Any person may request a deviation, or condition that diverges from the norm and that is categorized as: (1) A variance (i.e., an approved condition that technically varies from a...

2010-01-01

166

A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.

Orris, J. B.

2011-01-01

167

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bernoulli's principle relates the pressure of a fluid to its elevation and its speed. Bernoulli's equation can be used to approximate these parameters in water, air or any fluid that has very low viscosity. Students learn about the relationships between the components of the Bernoulli equation through real-life engineering examples and practice problems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory

168

Inspirational airflow patterns in deviated noses: a numerical study.

This study attempts to evaluate the effects of deviation of external nose to nasal airflow patterns. Four typical subjects were chosen for model reconstruction based on computed tomography images of undeviated, S-shaped deviated, C-shaped deviated and slanted deviated noses. To study the hypothetical influence of deviation of external nasal wall on nasal airflow (without internal blockage), the collapsed region along the turbinate was artificially reopened in all the three cases with deviated noses. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were carried out in models of undeviated, original deviated and reopened nasal cavities at both flow rates of 167 and 500 ml/s. The shape of the anterior nasal roof was found to be collapsed on one side of the nasal airways in all the deviated noses. High wall shear stress region was found around the collapsed anterior nasal roof. The nasal resistances in cavities with deviated noses were considerably larger than healthy nasal cavity. Patterns of path-line distribution and wall shear stress distribution were similar between original deviated and reopened models. In conclusion, the deviation of an external nose is associated with the collapse of one anterior nasal roof. The crooked external nose induced a larger nasal resistance compared to the undeviated case, while the internal blockage of the airway along the turbinates further increased it. PMID:22515677

Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Lee, Shu Jin; San, Lynette Teo Li; Wang, De Yun

2013-01-01

169

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

Sato, Toru

1989-01-01

170

Protocol Development Policy on the Issuance of Waivers for Protocol Deviation(s)

Staff in the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) occasionally receive calls from investigators requesting that certain criteria in a CTEP-approved protocol be waived so a particular patient can be entered or modifications be made to the original treatment plan. In most cases, these waivers relate to the initial eligibility criteria or treatment plans established when the protocol was written and before patient recruitment begins. Granting waivers for protocol deviations has been handled different at CTEP depending on which program staff is contacted.

171

Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave deviates from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux deviation and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux deviation. The energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite large because of their high anisotropy. The flux deviation angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux deviation was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1).

Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

1992-01-01

172

Influence of altitude on aero-optic imaging deviation.

Aero-optic imaging deviation is a kind of aero-optic effect. It characterizes the image position displacement on an imaging plane. This paper studies the influence of altitude on aero-optic imaging deviation. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver provided in FLUENT was used for flow computations. The Runge-Kutta method based ray tracing was adopted for optics calculations. The orthogonal array was brought in for the experiment arrangement. Four representative suites of imaging deviations and imaging deviation slopes were obtained in the altitude range of 10-60 km. The results show that as altitude increases, the imaging deviation decreases, and the imaging deviation slope approaches zero from a negative value. PMID:21691360

Xu, Liang; Cai, Yuanli

2011-06-20

173

Understanding the Standard Deviation: What Makes it Larger or Smaller?

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using cooperative learning methods, this activity helps students develop a better intuitive understanding of what is meant by variability in statistics. Emphasis is placed on the standard deviation as a measure of variability. This lesson also helps students to discover that the standard deviation is a measure of the density of values about the mean of a distribution. As such, students become more aware of how clusters, gaps, and extreme values affect the standard deviation.

Roseth, Cary J.

2009-07-16

174

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric response of spin-crossover (SCO) materials is a key property facilitating their use in next-generation information processing technologies. Solid state hybrid density functional theory calculations show that the temperature-induced and strongly hysteretic SCO transition in the Cs+Fe2+[Cr3+(CN-)6] Prussian blue analogue (PBA) is associated with a large change (?) in both the static, ??0(HS - LS), and high frequency, ???(HS - LS) dielectric constants. The SCO-induced variation in CsFe[Cr(CN)6] is significantly greater than the experimental ?? values observed previously in other SCO materials. The phonon contribution, ??phon(HS - LS), determined within a lattice dynamics approach, dominates over the clamped nuclei term, ???(HS - LS), and is in turn dominated by the low-frequency translational motions of Cs+ cations within the cubic voids of the Fe[Cr(CN)6]- framework. The Cs+ translational modes couple strongly to the large unit cell volume change occurring through the SCO transition. PBAs and associated metal-organic frameworks emerge as a potentially fruitful class of materials in which to search for SCO transitions associated with large changes in dielectric response and other macroscopic properties.

Middlemiss, Derek S.; Deeth, Robert J.

2014-04-01

175

The dielectric response of spin-crossover (SCO) materials is a key property facilitating their use in next-generation information processing technologies. Solid state hybrid density functional theory calculations show that the temperature-induced and strongly hysteretic SCO transition in the Cs{sup +}Fe{sup 2+}[Cr{sup 3+}(CN{sup ?}){sub 6}] Prussian blue analogue (PBA) is associated with a large change (?) in both the static, ??{sup 0}(HS ? LS), and high frequency, ??{sup ?}(HS ? LS) dielectric constants. The SCO-induced variation in CsFe[Cr(CN){sub 6}] is significantly greater than the experimental ?? values observed previously in other SCO materials. The phonon contribution, ??{sup phon}(HS ? LS), determined within a lattice dynamics approach, dominates over the clamped nuclei term, ??{sup ?}(HS ? LS), and is in turn dominated by the low-frequency translational motions of Cs{sup +} cations within the cubic voids of the Fe[Cr(CN){sub 6}]{sup ?} framework. The Cs{sup +} translational modes couple strongly to the large unit cell volume change occurring through the SCO transition. PBAs and associated metal-organic frameworks emerge as a potentially fruitful class of materials in which to search for SCO transitions associated with large changes in dielectric response and other macroscopic properties.

Middlemiss, Derek S., E-mail: derekmiddlemiss@gmail.com, E-mail: R.J.Deeth@warwick.ac.uk; Deeth, Robert J., E-mail: derekmiddlemiss@gmail.com, E-mail: R.J.Deeth@warwick.ac.uk [Inorganic Computational Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2014-04-14

176

We show how deviations from the dimensional scaling laws for exclusive processes may be related to a breakdown in the locality of quark-hadron duality. The essential principles are illustrated in a pedagogic model of a composite system with two spinless charged constituents, for which a dual picture for the low-energy resonance phenomena and high-energy scaling behavior can be established. We introduce the concept of "restricted locality" of quark-hadron duality and show how this results in deviations from the perturbative quantum chromodynamics quark counting rules above the resonance region. In particular, it can be a possible source for oscillations about the smooth quark counting rule, as seen, e.g., in the 90-degree differential cross sections for gammap-->pi(+)n. PMID:12906474

Zhao, Qiang; Close, Frank E

2003-07-11

177

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. Calibration on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for calibration are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian principles. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model reduction. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of calibrated model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of accurate filtering become very feasible for our suggested aPC-based calibration framework. However, the power of aPC-based Bayesian updating strongly depends on the accuracy of prior information. In the current study, the prior assumptions on the model parameters were not satisfactory and strongly underestimate the reservoir pressure. Thus, the aPC-based response surface used in Bootstrap filtering is fitted to a distant and poorly chosen region within the parameter space. Thanks to the iterative procedure suggested in [2] we overcome this drawback with small computational costs. The iteration successively improves the accuracy of the expansion around the current estimation of the posterior distribution. The final result is a calibrated model of the site that can be used for further studies, with an excellent match to the data. References [1] Oladyshkin S. and Nowak W. Data-driven uncertainty quantification using the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 106:179-190, 2012. [2] Oladyshkin S., Class H., Nowak W. Bayesian updating via Bootstrap filtering combined with data-driven polynomial chaos expansions: methodology and application to history matching for carbon dioxide storage in geological formations. Computational Geosciences, 17 (4), 671-687, 2013.

Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.

2013-12-01

178

Deviational analyses for validating regulations on real systems

of dependability assurance is safety; national and interna- tional procedures require operators of aircraft is a traditional way of exploring the safety of systems. The results of deviational analysis contribute to tradi- tional safety cases and safety arguments. We extend deviational analysis to other aspects

Kelly, Tim

179

Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

Goldberg, Fred M.

1985-01-01

180

The early child development, from birth until the age of one year is, amongst other changes, characterized by intense motor learning. During that period, the voluntary learning patterns evolve from reflexive patterns to coordinated voluntary patterns. All of the child's voluntary movements present active forms in which the child communicates with the environment. In this communication, the hand plays an important role. Its brain representation covers one-third of the entire motor region, situated in the close proximity to the speech region. For this reason, some authors refer to hand as a "speech organ". According to numerous studies, each separate finger also has a relatively large representation in the cerebral cortex, which points to the importance of the fine motor skills development, or precise, highly differentiated movements of hand muscles following the principles of differentiation and hierarchical integration. Development of the fine motor skills in the hand is important for the overall child development, and it also serves as a predictor pointing to immaturity of the central nervous system. The aim of this paper is to present the development of hand motoricity from birth until the age of one year, as well as the most frequent deviations observed in children hospitalized at Children's Department of Rehabilitation, Clinical Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center. PMID:24558760

Matijevi?, Valentina; Seci?, Ana; Zivkovi?, Tamara Kauzlari?; Borosak, Jesenka; Kolak, Zeljka; Dimi?, Zdenka

2013-09-01

181

Ion Density Deviations in Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules: Influence on Biosensors

Polyelectrolyte microcapsules loaded with fluorescent dyes have been proposed as biosensors to monitor local pH and ionic strength for diagnostic purposes. In the case of charged microcapsules, however, the local electric field can cause deviations of ion densities inside the cavities, potentially resulting in misdiagnosis of some diseases. Using nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we systematically investigate these deviations induced by charged microcapsules. Our results show that the microcapsule charge density, as well as the capsule and salt concentrations, contribute to deviations of local ion concentrations and pH. Our findings are relevant for applications of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with encapsulated ion-sensitive dyes as biosensors.

Qiyun Tang; Alan R. Denton

2014-10-24

182

Quantum mechanics and geodesic deviation in the brane world

We investigate the induced geodesic deviation equations in the brane world models, in which all the matter forces except gravity are confined on the 3-brane. Also, the Newtonian limit of induced geodesic deviation equation is studied. We show that in the first Randall-Sundrum model the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule is as a result of consistency between the geodesic and geodesic deviation equations. This indicates that the path of test particle is made up of integral multiples of a fundamental Compton-type unit of length $h/mc$.

S. M. M. Rasouli; A. F. Bahrehbakhsh; S. Jalalzadeh; M. Farhoudi

2009-11-16

183

Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (?) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO (<1 ppbv to a peak of 295 ppbv), NO2 (<2 ppbv-47 ppbv) and O3 (4 ppbv-95 ppbv) mixing ratios, all of which showed strong diurnal variation. The ? values showed large deviations from unity over the measurement period, with mostly negative deviations (? < 1), showing that the air masses were dominated by local sources of NOx and that the PSS was not achieved. Positive deviations (? > 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

2014-10-01

184

Star Library: What Makes the Standard Deviation Larger or Smaller?

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activity is designed to help students develop a better intuitive understanding of what is meant by variability in statistics. Emphasis is placed on the standard deviation as a measure of variability. As they learn about the standard deviation, many students focus on the variability of bar heights in a histogram when asked to compare the variability of two distributions. For these students, variability refers to the ??variation? in bar heights. Other students may focus only on the range of values, or the number of bars in a histogram, and conclude that two distributions are identical in variability even when it is clearly not the case. This activity can help students discover that the standard deviation is a measure of the density of values about the mean of a distribution and to become more aware of how clusters, gaps, and extreme values affect the standard deviation.

2009-02-12

185

Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

Ni, W.-T.

1977-01-01

186

THE SECOND CYBERNETICS Deviation-Amplifying Mutual Causal Processes

Since its inception, cybernetics was more or less identified as a science of self-regulating and equilibrating systems. Thermostats, physiological regulation of body temperature, automatic steering devices, economic and political processes were studied under a general mathematical model of deviation-counteracting feedback networks. By focusing on the deviation-counteracting aspect of the mutual causal relationships however, the cyberneticians paid less attention to the

MAGOROH MARUYAMA

1963-01-01

187

Utility System For Constructing Database Of Performance Deviations

Demand for music databases is increasing for the stud- ies of musicology and music informatics. Our goal is to construct databases that contain deviations of tempo, and dynamics, start-timing, and duration of each note. This paper describes a procedure based on hybrid use of DP Matching and HMM that efficiently extracts deviations fromMIDI-formattedexpressive human performances. The algorithm of quantizing the

Ken'ichi Toyoda; Kenzi Noike; Haruhiro Katayose

2004-01-01

188

Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.

Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors

Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.

1982-01-01

189

Archimedes' Principle, Pascal's Law and Bernoulli's Principle

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle and Bernoulli's principle. Fundamental definitions, equations, practice problems and engineering applications are supplied. A PowerPoint® presentation, practice problems and grading rubric are provided.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

190

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

191

Uncertainty principle and kinetic equations

A large number of mathematical studies on the Boltzmann equation are based on the Grad's angular cutoff assumption. However, for particle interaction with inverse power law potentials, the associated cross-sections have a non-integrable singularity corresponding to the grazing collisions. Smoothing properties of solutions are then expected. On the other hand, the uncertainty principle, established by Heisenberg in 1927, has been

R. Alexandre; Y. Morimoto; S. Ukai; C.-J. Xu; T. Yang

2008-01-01

192

Spin-geodesic deviations in the Kerr spacetime

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of extended spinning bodies in the Kerr spacetime is investigated in the pole-dipole particle approximation and under the assumption that the spin-curvature force only slightly deviates the particle from a geodesic path. The spin parameter is thus assumed to be very small and the back reaction on the spacetime geometry neglected. This approach naturally leads to solve the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations linearized in the spin variables as well as in the deviation vector, with the same initial conditions as for geodesic motion. General deviations from generic geodesic motion are studied, generalizing previous results limited to the very special case of an equatorial circular geodesic as the reference path.

Bini, D.; Geralico, A.

2011-11-01

193

Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.

Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered. PMID:21477097

Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael

2012-08-01

194

Principles and Methods Chromatography

Edition AC 18-1022-29 Principles and Methods Affinity Chromatography #12;Antibody Purification-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Ion Exchange Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1114-21 Affinity Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1022-29 Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Principles

Lebendiker, Mario

195

14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2010-01-01

196

14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2011-01-01

197

Velocity Structure Determination Through Seismic Waveform Modeling and Time Deviations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the use of seismic waveforms recorded by TriNet, a dataset of earthquake focal mechanisms and deviations (time shifts) relative to a standard model facilitates the investigation of the crust and uppermost mantle of southern California. The CAP method of focal mechanism determination, in use by TriNet on a routine basis, provides time shifts for surface waves and Pnl arrivals independently relative to the reference model. These shifts serve as initial data for calibration of local and regional seismic paths. Time shifts from the CAP method are derived by splitting the Pnl section of the waveform, the first arriving Pn to just before the arrival of the S wave, from the much slower surface waves then cross-correlating the data with synthetic waveforms computed from a standard model. Surface waves interact with the entire crust, but the upper crust causes the greatest effect. Whereas, Pnl arrivals sample the deeper crust, upper mantle, and source region. This natural division separates the upper from lower crust for regional calibration and structural modeling and allows 3-D velocity maps to be created using the resulting time shifts. Further examination of Pnl and other arrivals which interact with the Moho illuminate the complex nature of this boundary. Initial attempts at using the first 10 seconds of the Pnl section to determine upper most mantle structure have proven insightful. Two large earthquakes north of southern California in Nevada and Mammoth Lakes, CA allow the creation of record sections from 200 to 600 km. As the paths swing from east to west across southern California, simple 1-D models turn into complex structure, dramatically changing the waveform character. Using finite difference models to explain the structure, we determine that a low velocity zone is present at the base of the crust and extends to 100 km in depth. Velocity variations of 5 percent of the mantle in combination with steeply sloping edges produces complex waveform variations. Characteristics of this complex propagation appear from the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, in the west, to Death Valley in the east. The structure does not cross the Garlock fault to the south, but we are unsure of the structures northern extent.

Savage, B.; Zhu, L.; Tan, Y.; Helmberger, D. V.

2001-12-01

198

Deviations from Scale-Invariance in Extreme Event Phenomena: A Theoretical Analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power-law distribution has been shown to describe a broad spectrum of hazardous extreme events that span a prominent range of energies and spatial scales from micro-cracks in laboratory samples to earthquakes, land- slides, and forest-fires, to star-quakes. Notably, the pure power law is only a first-order approximation to the observed distributions. Even in paradigmatic models such as percolation and sand-pile the pure power-laws can only be observed for infinite systems. Moreover, laboratory experiments, observations, and numerical modeling of seismicity suggest that certain deviations of earthquake sizes from a pure power-law distribution (a.k.a. Gutenberg-Richter law) signal approach of a large regional earthquake. This motivates exploration of general mechanisms for origin and development of deviations from a pure power-law distribution. We approach this problem by analyzing branching diffusion with immigration -- a classical generic model for spatially distributed processes that involve direct cascade of energy redistribution and permanent external driving. Our analytical results show how event size distribution depends on spatio-temporal averaging; we establish a) pure power law under global spatio-temporal averaging, b) upward deviations from a pure power law emerging at a right side of the distribution as a large event approaches.

Zaliapin, I.; Keilis-Borok, V.; Gabrielov, A.

2006-12-01

199

Least absolute deviations estimation for the censored regression model

This paper proposes an alternative to maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of the censored regression (or censored 'Tobit') model. The proposed estimator is a generalization of least absolute deviations estimation for the standard linear model, and, unlike estimation methods based on the assumption of normally distributed error terms, the estimator is consistent and asymptoti- cally normal for a wide

James L. Powell

1984-01-01

200

Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple

Bonett, Douglas G.

2006-01-01

201

5 Thermodynamics 5.1 Deviations from Equilibrium

5 Thermodynamics 5.1 Deviations from Equilibrium Equilibrium is said to exist in a system when consequence. It is more appropriate to refer to the state of metastable equilibrium, which represents a local metastable equilibria are exactly identi- cal to those dealing with equilibrium so this procedure has

Cambridge, University of

202

Immersion Fluid Refractive Indices Using Prism Minimum Deviation Techniques

Immersion fluids for 157 nm and 193 nm immersion lithography have been measured over the spectral range from 156 nm to 1700 nm in a nitrogen purged environment. The refractive index n and k of several candidate fluids have been measured using the prism minimum deviation technique implemented on a commercial Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (VASE) system. For measurement the

Roger H. French; Min K. Yang; M. F. Lemon; R. A. Synowicki; Greg K. Pribil; Gerald T. Cooney; Craig M. Herzinger; Steven E. Green; John H. Burnett; Simon Kaplan

203

Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.

Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed. PMID:1184490

Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M

1975-01-01

204

Sonoelastography imaging: Principles and practices

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration amplitude sonoelastography imaging is an ultrasound imaging technique in which low frequency (100-500 Hz), low amplitude shear waves are propagated deep into tissue, while real time color Doppler techniques are used to image the resulting vibration field. A radio frequency ultrasound signal is phase modulated by a vibrating particle such that the peak vibration amplitude is directly proportional to the spread (standard deviation) of its power spectrum. A key application for this technique is the detection and imaging of small lesions. Finite element studies predict that a discrete hard inhomogeneity present within a larger region of soft tissue will cause a decrease in the vibration field at the location of the inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity is made visible as a region of low vibration in the color Doppler image. The principles and practices of this technique are reviewed and results are shown for the detection and imaging of stiff thermal lesions induced in bovine calf liver.

Taylor, Lawrence S.; Rubens, Deborah J.; Parker, Kevin J.

2001-05-01

205

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a "main condition" for phase stability has been employed to investigate the effects of the velocity deviation of the electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors (MPs). In a previous study [M. Mostajeran, Phys. Plasmas 21, 053108 (2014)], a stability equation was derived, where the secondary electron was assumed to have zero initial velocity and the phase deviation from the resonant phase was considered. In this work, both deviations in phase and velocity from the resonant condition are taken into account, assuming nonzero initial velocity for the secondary electrons. Using the main condition for stability, it is shown that MP discharge can rise in situations, where large velocity deviations from initial velocity and large phase deviations from resonant phase exist. This is contrary to what can be predicted on the basis of the "simple stability condition." This result is further confirmed by numerical simulations.

Mostajeran, M.

2014-11-01

206

Dissociated vertical deviation-a clinical and laboratory study.

The previously reported nomenclature and clinical characteristics of dissociated vertical deviation have been recorded. The incidence and characteristics of DVD have been determined by evaluation of 1,000 consecutive strabismus or nystagmus patients, and with selected chart study carried out on the 111 DVD patients found in this series. Electro-oculographic studies of selected patients with DVD provided objective evidence of the speed and amplitude of the ocular movements in DVD. Bell phenomenon, strabismus sursoadductorius and the Bielschowsky phenomenon were recorded and compared to clinical findings of strabismus patients with DVD. The technique for the results of surgery for DVD were described. Dissociated vertical deviation was characterized as a component of the overall strabismus picture. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 3 C FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B PMID:7020216

Helveston, E M

1980-01-01

207

Chemical Principls Exemplified

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

Plumb, Robert C.

1973-01-01

208

Geodesics and geodesic deviation for impulsive gravitational waves

The geometry of impulsive pp-waves is explored via the analysis of the\\u000ageodesic and geodesic deviation equation using the distributional form of the\\u000ametric. The geodesic equation involves formally ill-defined products of\\u000adistributions due to the nonlinearity of the equations and the presence of the\\u000aDirac $\\\\de$-distribution in the space time metric. Thus, strictly speaking, it\\u000acannot be treated within

Roland Steinbauer

1997-01-01

209

On Deviations from Gaussian Statistics for Surface Gravity Waves

Here we discuss some issues concerning the statistical properties of ocean surface waves. We show that, using the approach of weak turbulence theory, deviations from Gaussian statistics can be naturally included. In particular we discuss the role of bound and free modes for the determination of the statistical properties of the surface elevation. General formulas for skewness and kurtosis as a function of the spectral wave action density are here derived.

M. Onorato; A. R. Osborne; M. Serio

2005-03-31

210

OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.

This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.

Olsen, Harold W.

1985-01-01

211

Deviated nasal septum hinders intranasal sprays: A computer simulation study

Background This study investigates how deviated nasal septum affects the quantity and distribution of spray particles, and examines the effects of inspiratory airflow and head position on particle transport. Methods Deposition of spray particles was analysed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model created from a computed tomography scan of a human nose with leftward septal deviation and a right inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Five simulations were conducted using Fluent software, with particle sizes ranging from 20-110?m, a spray speed of 3m/s, plume angle of 68, and with steady state inspiratory airflow either present (15.7L/min) or absent at varying head positions. Results With inspiratory airflow present, posterior deposition on the obstructed side was approximately four times less than the contralateral side, regardless of head position, and was statistically significant (p<0.05). When airflow was absent, predicted deposition beyond the nasal valve on the left and right sides were between 16% and 69% lower and positively influenced by a dependent head position. Conclusions Simulations predicted that septal deviation significantly diminished drug delivery on the obstructed side. Furthermore, increased particle penetration was associated with presence of nasal airflow. Head position is an important factor in particle deposition patterns when inspiratory airflow is absent. PMID:22888490

Frank, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Cannon, Daniel; Pawar, Sachin S.; Rhee, John S.

2013-01-01

212

Explorations in statistics: standard deviations and standard errors

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in Advances in Physiology Education provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle with which to explore basic concepts in statistics, I provide the requisite R commands. In this inaugural paper we explore the essential distinction between standard deviation and standard error: a standard deviation estimates the variability among sample observations whereas a standard error of the mean estimates the variability among theoretical sample means. If we fail to report the standard deviation, then we fail to fully report our data. Because it incorporates information about sample size, the standard error of the mean is a misguided estimate of variability among observations. Instead, the standard error of the mean provides an estimate of the uncertainty of the true value of the population mean.

PhD Douglas Curran-Everett (National Jewish Medical and Research Center Div. Biostatistics, Depts. Prev. Med./Biometrics, Physiology/Biophys)

2008-05-06

213

Principles of Forest Hydrology

Principles of Forest Hydrology has been written to accompany class lectures for students pursuing training in forestry, wildland resources, environmental sciences, and geography. The book introduces basic principles and concepts of hydrology and it does this quite well.Principles of Forest Hydrology is a revision of an earlier book, An Outline of Forest Hydrology, coauthored with Wade L. Nutter. The new

Edwin T. Engman

1983-01-01

214

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations,

Paul Busch; Teiko Heinonen; Pekka Lahti

2007-01-01

215

By examining two counterexamples to the existing theory, it is shown, with mathematical rigor, that as far as scattered particles are concerned the true distribution function is in principle not determinable (indeterminacy principle or uncertainty principle) while the average distribution function over each predetermined finite velocity solid-angle element can be calculated.

C. Y. Chen

2008-12-23

216

Reconsidering Archimedes' Principle

Archimedes' principle as stated originally by Archimedes and in modern texts can lead to an incorrect prediction if the submerged object is in contact with a solid surface. In this paper we look experimentally at a submerged object and show that though the theoretical explanations of the principle are valid, the statement of the principle needs clarification.

Jeffrey Bierman; Eric Kincanon

2003-01-01

217

Large deviations for diffusions with time periodic drift and stochastic resonance

trajectories follow the exterior periodic motion in an optimal fashion, i.e. for some optimal intensity (T al. [3] proposed a simple stochastic climate model based on an energy balance equation to periodic changes of the earth orbit's eccentricity (Milankovich cycles), which coincide roughly

Imkeller, Peter

218

Large deviations for di#usions with time periodic drift and stochastic resonance

trajectories follow the exterior periodic motion in an optimal fashion, i.e. for some optimal intensity #(T] proposed a simple stochastic climate model based on an energy balance equation for the averaged global(t) fluctuates periodically at a very low frequency of 10 -5 times per year due to periodic changes of the earth

Imkeller, Peter

219

Hausdorff and Packing Spectra, Large Deviations, and Free Energy for Branching Random Walks in

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider an -valued branching random walk (BRW) on a supercritical Galton Watson tree. Without any assumption on the distribution of this BRW we compute, almost surely and simultaneously, the Hausdorff and packing dimensions of the level sets E( K) of infinite branches in the boundary of the tree (endowed with its standard metric) along which the averages of the BRW have a given closed connected set of limit points K. This goes beyond multifractal analysis, which only considers those level sets when K ranges in the set of singletons . We also give a 0-? law for the Hausdorff and packing measures of the level sets E({ ?}), and compute the free energy of the associated logarithmically correlated random energy model in full generality. Moreover, our results complete the previous works on multifractal analysis by including the levels ? which do not belong to the range of the gradient of the free energy. This covers in particular a situation that was until now badly understood, namely the case where a first order phase transition occurs. As a consequence of our study, we can also describe the whole singularity spectrum of Mandelbrot measures, as well as the associated free energy function (or L q -spectrum), when a first order phase transition occurs.

Attia, Najmeddine; Barral, Julien

2014-10-01

220

LARGE DEVIATION APPROACH TO NON EQUILIBRIUM PROCESSES IN STOCHASTIC LATTICE GASES

SOLE, D. GABRIELLI, G. JONA-LASINIO, C. LANDIM Abstract. We present a review of recent work. GABRIELLI, G. JONA-LASINIO, C. LANDIM temperature is equal to -F/T, that is minus the variation of the free

Landim, Claudio

221

FROM DYNAMIC TO STATIC LARGE DEVIATIONS IN BOUNDARY DRIVEN EXCLUSION PARTICLE SYSTEMS

related dynamical approach by Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona Lasinio, Landim [1]. 2000 Mathematics by Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona Lasinio, Landim [1]. By generalizing the Freidlin and Wentzell's theory

222

One-sided local large deviation and renewal theorems in the case of infinite mean

Summary. If {S\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a \\u000a ,n?0} is an integer-valued random walk such that S\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a \\u000a \\/a\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a converges in distribution to a stable law of index ?? (0,1) as n??, then Gnedenkos local limit theorem provides a useful estimate for P{S\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a \\u000a =r} for values of r such that r\\/a\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a is bounded. The main point of this paper is to

R. A. Doney

1997-01-01

223

Precise Large Deviations for Sums of Random Variables with Consistently Varying Tails

or t . E-mails: kaing@hku.hk (K.W. Ng), q.tang@uva.nl (Q. Tang), jayan@mail.amt.ac.cn (J.A. Yan), hlyang and Nagaev (1998) and Tang et al. (2001), among many others. Here, the random index N(·) is a nonnegative

Tang, Qihe

224

Large Deviations for Interacting Particle Systems. Applications to Non Linear Filtering

) ________________________________ *UMR C55830, CNRS, Bat.1R1, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse, delmoral@ci* *ct.fr. yURA 743, CNRS, Bat. 425, Universit'e de Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay, France, gui* *onnet of the signal process ( see Lemma 3.1 for its complete description ). The study of equations of type (2

Del Moral , Pierre

225

, Bat.1R1, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse, France b URA 743, CNRS, Bat. 425, Universit# e de Paris4149/98/$ -- see front matter c # 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved PII: S0304 4149 process (see Lemma 3.1 for its complete description). The study of equations of type (2) is far from being

Del Moral , Pierre

226

The ability of the Movement Deviation Profile (MDP) and Gait Deviation Index (GDI) to detect gait changes was compared in a child with cerebral palsy who underwent game training. Conventional gait analysis showed that sagittal plane angles became mirrored about normality after training. Despite considerable gait changes, the GDI showed minimal change, while the MDP detected a difference equal to a shift between 10-9 on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire scale. Responses of the GDI and MDP were examined during a synthetic transition of the patient's curves from before intervention to a state mirrored about normality. The GDI showed a symmetric response on the two opposite sides of normality but the neural network based MDP gave an asymmetric response reflecting faithfully the unequal biomechanical consequences of joint angle changes. In conclusion, the MDP can detect altered gait even if the changes are missed by the GDI. PMID:23521124

Barton, Gabor J; Hawken, Malcolm B; Holmes, Gill; Schwartz, Michael H

2015-01-01

227

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dipole acoustic fields in an arbitrarily deviated well penetrating a homogeneous as well as a stratified transversely isotropic formation are simulated using a 3-D finite-difference time-domain algorithm in cylindrical coordinates. The modelling results show that a dipole source can excite a fast- and a slow-flexural mode due to the shear wave anisotropy when the borehole is inclined with respect to the symmetry axis of transverse isotropy. Both flexural slownesses change with the wellbore deviation angle. The splitting of flexural modes is prominent in full wave arrays when the shear anisotropy is strong enough. It is revealed that the dipole orientation influences the relative amplitudes of the fast- and slow-flexural waves but it has no effect on their slownesses or phases. In a vertical well parallel to the symmetry axis, the two flexural waves degenerate and propagate at the same speed. The degenerated flexural wave travels approximately at the shear speed along the borehole wall except in a few formations. Our study shows, for example, that it is about 10 per cent slower than the shear wave in Mesaverde clayshale 5501. Even in that kind of formations, however, extraction of the fast- and slow-shear velocities from the flexural modes is still possible if the borehole deviation is large enough. To examine the effect of layering, we modelled the full waves in a formation with a sandwich. When the well is perpendicular to the layer interfaces, reflection is obvious and can be recognized. It becomes weaker or even invisible as the deviation angle increases, so it is difficult to detect a thin layer embedded in a formation directly from reflected waves. The sandwich can, instead, be recognized from the irregularity in the spectra of the full waveforms displayed versus depth. [Correction added after online publication 25th February 2009; the original spelling of `homogenous' in the title has been corrected to `homogeneous'.[

He, Xiao; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei

2010-04-01

228

Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.

Jie Gu

2013-11-01

229

Nonequivalence of equivalence principles

Equivalence principles played a central role in the development of general relativity. Furthermore, they have provided operative procedures for testing the validity of general relativity, or constraining competing theories of gravitation. This has led to a flourishing of different, and inequivalent, formulations of these principles, with the undesired consequence that often the same name, "equivalence principle", is associated with statements having a quite different physical meaning. In this paper we provide a precise formulation of the several incarnations of the equivalence principle, clarifying their uses and reciprocal relations. We also discuss their possible role as selecting principles in the design and classification of viable theories of gravitation.

Eolo Di Casola; Stefano Liberati; Sebastiano Sonego

2013-10-28

230

Nonequivalence of equivalence principles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equivalence principles played a central role in the development of general relativity. Furthermore, they have provided operative procedures for testing the validity of general relativity, or constraining competing theories of gravitation. This has led to a flourishing of different, and inequivalent, formulations of these principles, with the undesired consequence that often the same name, "equivalence principle," is associated with statements having a quite different physical meaning. In this paper, we provide a precise formulation of the several incarnations of the equivalence principle, clarifying their uses and reciprocal relations. We also discuss their possible role as selecting principles in the design and classification of viable theories of gravitation.

Di Casola, Eolo; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano

2015-01-01

231

The deviation from parallel shear flow as an indicator of linear eddy-viscosity model inaccuracy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A marker function designed to indicate in which regions of a generic flow field the results from linear eddy-viscosity turbulence models are plausibly inaccurate is introduced. The marker is defined to identify regions that deviate from parallel shear flow. For two different flow fields it is shown that these regions largely coincide with regions where the prediction of the Reynolds stress divergence is inaccurate. The marker therefore offers a guideline for interpreting results obtained from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations and provides a basis for the further development of turbulence model-form uncertainty quantification methods.

Gorl, C.; Larsson, J.; Emory, M.; Iaccarino, G.

2014-05-01

232

Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed

Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

2010-01-01

233

Uncertainty Principle Consequences at Thermal Equilibrium

Contrary to the conventional wisdom that deviations from standard thermodynamics originate from the strong coupling to the bath, it is shown that these deviations are intimately linked to the power spectrum of the thermal bath. Specifically, it is shown that the lower bound of the dispersion of the total energy of the system, imposed by the uncertainty principle, is dominated by the bath power spectrum and therefore, quantum mechanics inhibits the system thermal-equilibrium-state from being described by the canonical Boltzmann's distribution. This is in sharp contrast to the classical case, for which the thermal equilibrium distribution of a system interacting via central forces with pairwise-self-interacting environment, irrespective of the interaction strength, is shown to be \\emph{exactly} characterized by the canonical Boltzmann distribution. As a consequence of this analysis, we define an \\emph{effective coupling} to the environment that depends on all energy scales in the system and reservoir interactio...

Pachon, Leonardo A; Zueco, David; Brumer, Paul

2014-01-01

234

Integration across Time Determines Path Deviation Discrimination for Moving Objects

Background Human vision is vital in determining our interaction with the outside world. In this study we characterize our ability to judge changes in the direction of motion of objectsa common task which can allow us either to intercept moving objects, or else avoid them if they pose a threat. Methodology/Principal Findings Observers were presented with objects which moved across a computer monitor on a linear path until the midline, at which point they changed their direction of motion, and observers were required to judge the direction of change. In keeping with the variety of objects we encounter in the real world, we varied characteristics of the moving stimuli such as velocity, extent of motion path and the object size. Furthermore, we compared performance for moving objects with the ability of observers to detect a deviation in a line which formed the static trace of the motion path, since it has been suggested that a form of static memory trace may form the basis for these types of judgment. The static line judgments were well described by a scale invariant model in which any two stimuli which possess the same two-dimensional geometry (length/width) result in the same level of performance. Performance for the moving objects was entirely different. Irrespective of the path length, object size or velocity of motion, path deviation thresholds depended simply upon the duration of the motion path in seconds. Conclusions/Significance Human vision has long been known to integrate information across space in order to solve spatial tasks such as judgment of orientation or position. Here we demonstrate an intriguing mechanism which integrates direction information across time in order to optimize the judgment of path deviation for moving objects. PMID:18414653

Whitaker, David; Levi, Dennis M.; Kennedy, Graeme J.

2008-01-01

235

Light deviation based optical techniques applied to solid propellant combustion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Investigation in Combustion of Energetic Materials (InCoME) program is aimed at validating the numerical simulation of composite propellant combustion using nonintrusive optical techniques. The Focusing Schlieren Technique (FST) was selected; it allows catching light deviation from a thin vertical planar section centered above the propellant combustion surface. The optical system is described in the paper. Significant results are presented showing the capabilities of this technique when applied to solid propellant combustion in terms of studying flame structure, flame propagation, and particle tracking.

Cauty, F.; Erads, C.; Desse, J.-M.

2011-10-01

236

Classi?cation of Ceres HST albedo deviation map

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a mean diameter of 952 km, dwarf planet Ceres is the largest object in the main asteroid belt. Here we classify Hubble Space Telescope (HST) albedo deviation map of Ceres calculated in three bands, using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classification method. The data are available in the PDS Small Bodies Node and are described in [1]. Our classification allows the identification of regions of interest on Ceres, and to distinguish areas with similar spectral characteristics. Our work is in support of the arrival of the Dawn spacecraft at Ceres in 2015.

Zambon, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Tosi, F.; McFadden, L. A.; Blewett, T. D.; Scipioni, F.; Longobardo, A.; Li, Y. J.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

2014-04-01

237

Performance of A Fuzzy Power System Stabilizer With Tie Line Active Power Deviation Feedback

This paper reports the application of a new input signal based fuzzy power system stabilizer in multi-machine environment. Instead of conventional input pairs like speed deviation (Deltaomega) and acceleration (Deltaomegadot) or speed deviation and accelerating power deviation of each machine, in this paper, deviation of active power through the tie line connecting two areas is used as one of the

P. Mitra; S. P. Chowdhury; S. K. Pal; R. N. Lahiri; Y. H. Song

2006-01-01

238

Economic uncertainty principle? Alexander Harin

Economic uncertainty principle? Alexander Harin This preliminary paper presents a qualitative description of the economic principle of (hidden, latent) uncertainty. Mathematical expressions of principle. ....................................................................... 2 1. Economic uncertainty principle ........................................... 2 1.1. General

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical system consisted of lens array with variable focus width has been proposed for providing uniform irradiation on targets in inertial confinement fusion. This system was composed of two lenses arrays and the aspheric lens. Based on the adaxial matrix optics and the generalized diffraction integral theory, the principle of controllable focus profile was analyzed and the optimum design of the system parameters were presented, respectively. The simulated results showed that two-dimensional uniform focusing of laser beams with controllable width in the range of several hundred microns to several millimeters can be achieved by choosing appropriate system parameters. The system converted a circular laser beam into a flat-top square focused spot, presenting the transformation of beamshape and the uniform distribution of the spatial intensity at the same time. Appropriate concentricity deviation of LA was made in the design of LA focus system, so that the diffraction patterns of different beamlets did not completely overlap and the large-scale intensity fluctuation reduced effectively, and a well-irradiated laser spot and great energy efficiency can be obtained in this scheme.

Zheng, Jian-zhou; Yu, Qing-xu; Lu, Yong-jun; Guan, Shou-hua; Dong, Bin

2012-10-01

240

The induction of anterior chamber-associated immune deviation.

Evidence of ocular immune privilege was noted almost 130 years ago. The past 30 years have witnessed an explosion in research on ocular immune privilege. One of the primary mechanisms that contribute to ocular immune privilege is the unique form of immune deviation that is invoked when antigens are introduced into the anterior chamber (AC) of the eye - a phenomenon termed AC-associated immune deviation (ACAID). ACAID embodies a constellation of cellular interactions and at least four different organ systems: eye, thymus, spleen, and sympathetic nervous system. At least four different cell populations interact to generate CD8+ T regulatory cells that suppress both Th1- and Th2-mediated inflammation. The interactions that occur between F4/80+ antigen-presenting cells, CD4+ T regulatory cells, NK1.1+ T cells, gammadelta T cells, B cells, and CD8+ T cells remain to be fully elucidated. Ocular immune privilege was originally perceived as a simple anatomic anomaly that has evolved to be one of the most sophisticated and intriguing forms of immune regulation. PMID:17264480

Niederkorn, Jerry Y

2007-01-01

241

Altitude deviations: Breakdowns of an error-tolerant system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot reports of aviation incidents to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) provide a window on the problems occurring in today's airline cockpits. The narratives of 10 pilot reports of errors made in the automation-assisted altitude-change task are used to illustrate some of the issues of pilots interacting with automatic systems. These narratives are then used to construct a description of the cockpit as an information processing system. The analysis concentrates on the error-tolerant properties of the system and on how breakdowns can occasionally occur. An error-tolerant system can detect and correct its internal processing errors. The cockpit system consists of two or three pilots supported by autoflight, flight-management, and alerting systems. These humans and machines have distributed access to clearance information and perform redundant processing of information. Errors can be detected as deviations from either expected behavior or as deviations from expected information. Breakdowns in this system can occur when the checking and cross-checking tasks that give the system its error-tolerant properties are not performed because of distractions or other task demands. Recommendations based on the analysis for improving the error tolerance of the cockpit system are given.

Palmer, Everett A.; Hutchins, Edwin L.; Ritter, Richard D.; Vancleemput, Inge

1993-01-01

242

Small populations and offspring sex-ratio deviations in eagles.

Stochastic variation of sex ratio has long been appreciated as a potential factor driving small populations to extinction, but it is not the only source of sex-ratio bias in small populations. We examined whether some consequences of sex allocation could affect extinction risk in small populations of size-dimorphic birds such as eagles. We report variations in sex ratio at fledging from a long-term study of a declining population of Spanish Imperial Eagles (Aquila adalberti). Nestling sex-ratio deviation apparently was mediated by age of breeders, whereas territory quality had no obvious effect. Adult-adult pairs produced the same proportion of both sexes in high- or low-density situations, but pairs with at least one member in nonadult plumage class produced more males. As the population declined over a period of years, the proportion of breeders with immature plumage increased; consequently, the proportion of fledgling males increased. However, when population density was high, the proportion of breeders with immature plumage decreased and more female offspring were produced. This relationship between population density, composition of breeder age, and fledgling sex ratios allowed us to make predictions of extinction risk due to nonstochastic deviations of sex ratio in small, declining populations. In the study population, on the basis of the Vortex simulation results, an estimated reduction of 42.5% in predicted mean time to extinction was attributed solely to biased sex ratio. PMID:19627325

Ferrer, Miguel; Newton, Ian; Pandolfi, Massimo

2009-08-01

243

On the superposition principle in interference experiments

The superposition principle is usually incorrectly applied in interference experiments. This has recently been investigated through numerics based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods as well as the Feynman path integral formalism. In the current work, we have derived an analytic formula for the Sorkin parameter which can be used to determine the deviation from the application of the principle. We have found excellent agreement between the analytic distribution and those that have been earlier estimated by numerical integration as well as resource intensive FDTD simulations. The analytic handle would be useful for comparing theory with future experiments. It is applicable both to physics based on classical wave equations as well as the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation.

Aninda Sinha; Aravind H. Vijay; Urbasi Sinha

2014-12-06

244

Generalized uncertainty principles

The phenomenon in the essence of classical uncertainty principles is well known since the thirties of the last century. We introduce a new phenomenon which is in the essence of a new notion that we introduce: "Generalized Uncertainty Principles". We show the relation between classical uncertainty principles and generalized uncertainty principles. We generalized "Landau-Pollak-Slepian" uncertainty principle. Our generalization relates the following two quantities and two scaling parameters: 1) The weighted time spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |f(x)|^2w_1(x)dx$, ($w_1(x)$ is a non-negative function). 2) The weighted frequency spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |\\hat{f}(\\omega)|^2w_2(\\omega)d\\omega$. 3) The time weight scale $a$, ${w_1}_a(x)=w_1(xa^{-1})$ and 4) The frequency weight scale $b$, ${w_2}_b(\\omega)=w_2(\\omega b^{-1})$. "Generalized Uncertainty Principle" is an inequality that summarizes the constraints on the relations between the two spreading quantities and two scaling parameters. For any two reasonable weights $w_1(x)$ and $w_2(\\omega)$, we introduced a three dimensional set in $R^3$ that is in the essence of many uncertainty principles. The set is called "possibility body". We showed that classical uncertainty principles (such as the Heiseneberg-Pauli-Weyl uncertainty principle) stem from lower bounds for different functions defined on the possibility body. We investigated qualitative properties of general uncertainty principles and possibility bodies. Using this approach we derived new (quantitative) uncertainty principles for Landau-Pollak-Slepian weights. We found the general uncertainty principles related to homogeneous weights, $w_1(x)=w_2(x)=x^k$, $k\\in N$, up to a constant.

Ronny Machluf

2008-07-14

245

Physical principles of hearing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following sections are included: * Psychophysical properties of hearing * The cochlear amplifier * Mechanosensory hair cells * The "critical" oscillator as a general principle of auditory detection * Bibliography

Martin, Pascal

2015-10-01

246

Isochromatic lines as extension of Helmholtz reciprocity principle for effect paints.

Flake-based parameters were recently introduced as a physical concept to predict a series of measurement geometries producing similar reflection data for effect paints. We derive expressions to calculate these so-called isochromatic lines, connecting the two Helmholtz-reciprocal in-plane geometries with a series of out-of-plane geometries. Thus isochromatic lines can be regarded as an extension of the Helmholtz reciprocity principle, which is valid for effect paints. We experimentally studied seven effect paint samples with large angular color variation along the length of four isochromatic lines. A change in illumination angles by up to 75 while following isochromatic lines led to a standard deviation in color parameters of less than two units. When isochromatic lines were not followed, these colorimetric parameters varied by more than 10 units already by change in detection angle of 10. Therefore the concept of isochromatic lines works well for effect paints. PMID:25121544

Kirchner, Eric; Ferrero, Alejandro

2014-08-01

247

The Principle of Energetic Consistency

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of energetic consistency implies that, to precisely the extent that growing modes are important in data assimilation, this term is also important.

Cohn, Stephen E.

2009-01-01

248

The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene

An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310?/? and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately. PMID:25364316

2014-01-01

249

Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model

The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt`s Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong [National Chiao Tung Univ., Taiwan (China)

1996-12-31

250

Low-energy magnetic radiation: deviations from GOE

A pronounced spike at low energy in the strength function for magnetic radiation (LEMAR) is found by means of Shell Model calculations, which explains the experimentally observed enhancement of the dipole strength. LEMAR originates from statistical low-energy M1-transitions between many excited complex states. Re-coupling of the proton and neutron high-j orbitals generates the strong magnetic radiation. LEMAR is closely related to Magnetic Rotation. LEMAR is predicted for nuclides participating in the r-process of element synthesis and is expected to change the reaction rates. An exponential decrease of the strength function and a power law for the size distribution of the $B(M1)$ values are found, which strongly deviate from the ones of the GOE of random matrices, which is commonly used to represent complex compound states.

S. Frauendorf; R. Schwengner; K. Wimmer

2014-07-07

251

Exciton dispersion from first principles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a scheme to calculate exciton dispersions in real materials that is based on the first-principles many-body Bethe-Salpeter equation. We assess its high level of accuracy by comparing our results for LiF with recent inelastic x-ray scattering experimental data on a wide range of energy and momentum transfer. We show its great analysis power by investigating the role of the different electron-hole interactions that determine the exciton band structure and the peculiar exciton revival at large momentum transfer. Our calculations for solid argon are a prediction and a suggestion for future experiments. These results demonstrate that the first-principles Bethe-Salpeter equation is able to describe the dispersion of localized and delocalized excitons on equal footing and represent a key step for the ab initio study of the exciton mobility.

Gatti, Matteo; Sottile, Francesco

2013-10-01

252

Deviation of Earth threatening asteroids using tether and ballast

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the collision of a Near-Earth-Object (NEO) with the Earth could be catastrophic on a local, regional or global scale depending on the size of the NEO. Therefore, there is considerable interest in determining ways to mitigate the threat posed by these objects. This dissertation presents a method utilizing a tethered ballast mass for altering the trajectory of a NEO with an Earth-intersecting orbit so that it avoids hitting the Earth. The method is simulated using four different methods. The first method assumes a rigid massless tether. Using this method, a parametric study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the technique over a wide parametric space. Specifically, this study provided results in terms of deviation rates over the parametric space. After this, the massless inelastic method was used to study actual miss distances assuming the asteroid was on a collision course with the Earth. After this, a study was conducted, using the massless, inelastic model, in which the mass of the ballast was made constant, in order to determine the minimum tether length required to divert asteroids simulated based on actual asteroids from NASA's potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) database, again assuming a massless inelastic tether. Finally, it was desired to determine how relaxing the constraints of the massless inelastic model would affect system performance. Therefore, three more models were introduced: massive inelastic, massless elastic, and massive elastic. Using these models, a study was performed to explore the effects of the changed model on system performance and to compare the results in terms of deviation, with those of the massless inelastic model. This was desired because the numerical cost of the new models was much higher than that of the massless inelastic model, so rather than conduct the study over a much larger parametric space, a smaller space was chosen, so that the results could be compared.

French, David B.

253

ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES FOR INFORMATION

June 2001 ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SECURITY By Gary Stoneburner, Computer Security Division, Information Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology In June 2001, ITL released NIST Spe cial Publication (SP) 800-27, Engineer ing Principles for Information

254

Basic principle of superconductivity

The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

Tian De Cao

2007-08-23

255

Hamilton's Principle for Beginners

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a

Brun, J. L.

2007-01-01

256

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides instruction on Pauli's exclusion principle, formulated by physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, which states that no two electrons in an atom can have identical quantum numbers. Topics include a mathematical statement of the principle, descriptions of some of its applications, and its role in ionic and covalent bonding, nuclear shell structure, and nuclear binding energy.

Dr. Rod Nave

257

Assessment Principles and Tools

The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Competence can only be determined by appropriately assessing resident performance. There are accepted guiding principles that should be applied to competence assessment methods. These principles are enumerated herein and ophthalmology-specific assessment tools that are available are described. PMID:24791100

Golnik, Karl C.

2014-01-01

258

Competency Testing: Emerging Principles.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five legal principles (and cases establishing them) on the use of competency testing in student placement or for graduation are discussed. The principles address the constitutionality of appropriate use, adequate notice to students, prohibition of effects of past racial discrimination, graduation test validity, and requirements for handicapped

Citron, Christiane Hyde

1982-01-01

259

In vitro-induced cell-mediated immune deviation to encephalitogenic antigens.

The injection of antigens into the Anterior Chamber (AC) of the eye induces Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID), which is a potent form of immune deviation that is largely attributed to the effect of TGF?2 in the aqueous humor on ocular antigen-presenting cells (APCs). ACAID antigen presentation via APCs and B cells leads to the generation of antigen-specific T regulatory cells. The encephalitogenic antigens Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and Myelin basic protein (MBP) have an obvious clinical relevance. We hypothesized that the intravenous injection of in vitro-generated ACAID APCs or in vitro-generated ACAID B cells specific to the encephalitogenic antigens MOG35-55/MBP induces specific peripheral tolerance in recipient BALB/c mice. We examined the suppression of MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific inflammatory responses using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assays and Local Adoptive Transfer (LAT) assays. Results indicated that MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific tolerance was generated after the intravenous injections of MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID APCs, MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID B cells, and MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID T regulatory cells. The specific immune deviation was in vitro-induced, cell-mediated, and specific to the encephalitogenic antigens MOG35-55/MBP. This in vitro-mediated approach for the generation of MOG35-55/MBP-specific tolerance opens up avenues for the application of ACAID as a tool for the therapy of Multiple Sclerosis, Schizophrenia, and other diseases. PMID:24095895

Farooq, Shukkur M; Ashour, Hossam M

2014-01-01

260

Editorial: The Principle of Personhood: The Field's Transcendent Principle

Some of the names of these principles that come immediately to mind are such principles as person involvement, growth orientation, hope, self-determination and choice. My next problem was I could not perfectly recall the definitions of the several principles that I could remember! If I could not remember all these important principles and their definitions, then how could these principles

William A. Anthony

261

Uncertainty Principle Consequences at Thermal Equilibrium

Contrary to the conventional wisdom that deviations from standard thermodynamics originate from the strong coupling to the bath, it is shown that these deviations are intimately linked to the power spectrum of the thermal bath. Specifically, it is shown that the lower bound of the dispersion of the total energy of the system, imposed by the uncertainty principle, is dominated by the bath power spectrum and therefore, quantum mechanics inhibits the system thermal-equilibrium-state from being described by the canonical Boltzmann's distribution. This is in sharp contrast to the classical case, for which the thermal equilibrium distribution of a system interacting via central forces with pairwise-self-interacting environment, irrespective of the interaction strength, is shown to be \\emph{exactly} characterized by the canonical Boltzmann distribution. As a consequence of this analysis, we define an \\emph{effective coupling} to the environment that depends on all energy scales in the system and reservoir interaction. Sample computations in regimes predicted by this effective coupling are demonstrated. For example, for the case of strong effective coupling, deviations from standard thermodynamics are present and, for the case of weak effective coupling, quantum features such as stationary entanglement are possible at high temperatures.

Leonardo A. Pachon; Johan F. Triana; David Zueco; Paul Brumer

2014-01-07

262

Fundamental principles in aesthetic rhinoplasty.

This review article will highlight several fundamental principles and advances in rhinoplasty. Nasal analysis has become more sophisticated and thorough in terms of breaking down the anomaly and identifying the anatomic etiology. Performing this analysis in a systematic manner each time helps refine these skills and is a prerequisite to sound surgical planning. Dorsal augmentation with alloplastic materials continue to be used but more conservatively and often mixed with autogenous grafts. Long term outcomes have also taught us much with regards to wound healing and soft tissue contracture. This is best demonstrated with a hump reduction where the progressive pinching at the middle vault creates both aesthetic and functional problems. Correcting the twisted nose is challenging and requires a more aggressive intervention than previously thought. Both cartilage and soft tissue appear to have a degree of memory that predispose to recurrent deviations. A complete structural breakdown and destabilization may be warranted before the nose is realigned. This must be followed by careful and meticulous restabilization. Tip refinement is a common request but no single maneuver can be universally applied; multiple techniques and grafts must be within the surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:21716951

Park, Stephen S

2011-06-01

263

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid increase of GPS/GNSS receivers being deployed and operated in China, real-time GPS data from nearly a thousand sites are available at the National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorology Administration. However, it is challenging to generate a high-quality regional total electron content (TEC) map with the traditional two-dimensional (2-D) retrieval scheme because a large horizontal gradient has been reported over east-south Asia due to the northern equatorial ionization anomaly. We developed an Ionosphere Data Assimilation Analysis System (IDAAS), which is described in this study, using an International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model as the background and applying a Kalman filter for updated observations. The IDAAS can reconstruct a three-dimensional ionosphere with the GPS slant TEC. The inverse slant TEC correlates well with observations both for GPS sites involved in the reconstruction and sites that are not involved. Based on the IDAAS, simulations were performed to investigate the deviation relative to the slant-to-vertical conversion (STV). The results indicate that the relative deviation induced by slant-to-vertical conversion may be significant in certain instances, and the deviation varies from 0% to 40% when the elevation decreases from 90 to 15, while the relative IDAAS deviation is much smaller and varies from -5% to 15% without an elevation dependence. Compared with true TEC map derived from the model, there is large difference in STV TEC map but no obvious discrepancy in IDAAS map. Generally, the IDAAS TEC map is much closer to the true TEC than is STV TEC map is. It is suggested that three-dimensional inversion technique is necessary for GPS observations of low elevation at an equatorial anomaly region, wherein the high horizontal electron density gradient may produce significant slant-to-vertical deviations using the two-dimensional STV inversion method.

Yu, Tao; Mao, Tian; Wang, Yungang; Zeng, Zhongcao; Xia, Chunliang; Wu, Fenglei; Wang, Le

2014-08-01

264

Measuring the deviation of the 2 3 lepton mixing from maximal with atmospheric neutrinos

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the deviation of the 2 3 leptonic mixing from maximal, D23?1/2-sin(2?23, is one of the key issues for understanding the origin of the neutrino masses and mixing. In the 3? context we study the dependence of various observables in the atmospheric neutrinos on D23. We perform the global 3?-analysis of the atmospheric and reactor neutrino data taking into account the effects of both the oscillations driven by the solar parameters (?m221 and ?12) and the 1 3 mixing. The departure from the one-dominant mass scale approximation results into the shift of the 2 3 mixing from maximal by ?sin(2?23?0.04, so that D230.040.07 (1?). Though the value of the shift is not statistically significant, the tendency of the allowed region to move towards smaller values of sin(2?23 is robust. The shift is induced by the excess of the e-like events in the sub-GeV sample. We show that future large scale water Cherenkov detectors can determine D23 with accuracy of a few percent, comparable with the sensitivity of future long-baseline experiments. Moreover, the atmospheric neutrinos will provide unique information on the sign of the deviation (octant of ?23).

Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, M.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

2004-11-01

265

Background and purpose Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is an established method of treating isolated gonartrosis. Modern techniques such as computer-assisted surgery (CAS) and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) are attractive complementary methods to UKA. However, the positioning of the components remains a concern. Thus, we performed a prospective study to assess whether there was deviation between the navigated implant position and the final implant position. Patients and methods We performed UKA with MIS and CAS in 13 patients. By comparing intraoperative navigation data with postoperative computed tomography (CT) measurements, we calculated the deviation between the computer-assisted implant position and the final 3-D implant position of the femoral and tibial components. Results The computer-assisted placement of the femoral and tibial component showed adequate position and consistent results regarding flexion-extension and varus-valgus. However, regarding rotation there was a large variation and 6 of 10 patients were outside the target range for both the femoral component and the tibial component. Interpretation Difficulties in assessing anatomical landmarks with the CAS in combination with MIS might be a reason for the poor rotational alignment of the components. PMID:23043273

2012-01-01

266

Principles of Forest Hydrology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principles of Forest Hydrology has been written to accompany class lectures for students pursuing training in forestry, wildland resources, environmental sciences, and geography. The book introduces basic principles and concepts of hydrology and it does this quite well.Principles of Forest Hydrology is a revision of an earlier book, An Outline of Forest Hydrology, coauthored with Wade L. Nutter. The new version is quite similar to the original with some important additions in the areas of precipitation, subsurface water, and evapotranspiration. Metric units are used in the examples and problems, and the soil water potential terminology has been updated.

Engman, Edwin T.

267

14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...deviation alerting system. 121.360 Section...SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements...deviation alerting system. (a) No person...being in other than the landing configuration if the system incorporates a...

2011-01-01

268

14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...deviation alerting system. 121.360 Section...SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements...deviation alerting system. (a) No person...being in other than the landing configuration if the system incorporates a...

2010-01-01

269

Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity

We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can...

Sun, Qingqing; Shahriar, M. Selim; Zubairy, M. Suhail

2010-01-01

270

32 CFR 21.340 - What are the procedures for requesting and documenting deviations?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for individual deviations and written requests for class deviations to: Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering, ATTN: Basic Research, 3080 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-3080. (b) Grants officers and...

2012-07-01

271

32 CFR 21.340 - What are the procedures for requesting and documenting deviations?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for individual deviations and written requests for class deviations to: Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering, ATTN: Basic Research, 3080 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-3080. (b) Grants officers and...

2011-07-01

272

32 CFR 21.335 - Who can authorize deviations from the DoDGARs?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the deviations are not prohibited by statute, executive order or regulation. (b) The Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) or his or her designee must approve in advance any class deviation that affects more than one...

2011-07-01

273

32 CFR 21.340 - What are the procedures for requesting and documenting deviations?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for individual deviations and written requests for class deviations to: Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering, ATTN: Basic Research, 3080 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-3080. (b) Grants officers and...

2013-07-01

274

32 CFR 21.340 - What are the procedures for requesting and documenting deviations?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

275

32 CFR 21.340 - What are the procedures for requesting and documenting deviations?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

276

49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals? 192.943 Section 192.943 Transportation...an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals? (a) Waiver from reassessment interval in limited situations. In the...

2010-10-01

277

Gait deviations induced by visual stimulation in roll.

Locomotion control uses proprioceptive, visual, and vestibular signals. The vestibular contribution has been analyzed previously with galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which constitutes mainly a virtual head-fixed rotation in the roll plane that causes polarity-specific deviations of gait. In this study we examined whether a visual disturbance has similar effects on gait when it acts in the same direction as GVS, i.e., when roll vection is induced by head-fixed visual roll motion stimulation. Random dot patterns were constantly rotated in roll at +/-15 degrees /s on a computer-driven binocular head-mounted display that was worn by eight healthy participants. Their gait trajectories were tracked while they walked a distance of 6 m. A stimulation effect was observed only for the first three to four steps, but not for the whole walking distance. These results are similar to the results of previous GVS studies, suggesting that in terms of the direction of action visual motion stimulations in the roll plane are similar to GVS. Both kinds of stimulation cause only initial balance responses in the roll plane but do not contribute to the steering of gait in the yaw plane. PMID:17909767

Schneider, Erich; Jahn, Klaus; Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas; Strupp, Michael

2008-02-01

278

Local hardness equalization and the principle of maximum hardness.

The chemical potential, hardness, and hyperhardnesses equalization principles are used to show that the leading term associated with charge transfer in the total interaction energy among the fragments in which a molecule is divided is directly proportional to minus the hardness of the molecule in its ground state, as established by the principle of maximum hardness. The additional terms in the interaction energy, associated with the changes in the external potential of the fragments, provide explanation for deviations between the point of maximum hardness and the point of minimum energy. It is also found that the dual descriptor plays a very important role in hardness equalization. PMID:23758354

Gzquez, Jos L; Vela, Alberto; Chattaraj, Pratim K

2013-06-01

279

Revisiting a 90-Year-Old Debate: The Advantages of the Mean Deviation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the reliance of numerical analysis on the concept of the standard deviation, and its close relative the variance. It suggests that the original reasons why the standard deviation concept has permeated traditional statistics are no longer clearly valid, if they ever were. The absolute mean deviation, it is argued here, has many

Gorard, Stephen

2005-01-01

280

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations, in the form of uncertainty relations: for the widths of the position and momentum distributions in any quantum state; for the inaccuracies of any joint measurement of these quantities; and for the inaccuracy of a measurement of one of the quantities and the ensuing disturbance in the distribution of the other quantity. Whilst conceptually distinct, these three kinds of uncertainty relations are shown to be closely related formally. Finally, we survey models and experimental implementations of joint measurements of position and momentum and comment briefly on the status of experimental tests of the uncertainty principle.

P. Busch; T. Heinonen; P. Lahti

2007-10-30

281

Chemical Principles Exemplified

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)

Plumb, Robert C.

1972-01-01

282

Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary Buoyancy is based on Archimedes' Principle which states that the buoyant force acting upward on an object completely or partially immersed in a fluid equals the weight of the fluid displaced by the ...

283

Archimedes' Principle in Action

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

Kires, Marian

2007-01-01

284

Archimedes' Principle and Applications Objectives

Lab 9 Archimedes' Principle and Applications Objectives: Upon successful completion of this exercise you will have ... 1. ... utilized Archimedes' principle to determine the density and specific gravity of a variety of substances. 2. ... utilized Archimedes' principle to determine the density

Yu, Jaehoon

285

Buoyancy: Archimedes Principle

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes bouyancy (the difference between the upward and downward forces acting on the bottom and the top of an object) and the Archimedes Principle, which states that the buoyant force on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced by it. It consists of text descriptions of these principles, using the examples of metal cubes suspended in water and hot air baloons in the atmosphere. Mathematical word problems are included.

286

Principles of Forecasting Project

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Directed by J. Scott Armstrong at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, the Principles of Forecasting Project seeks to "develop a comprehensive and structured review of the state of knowledge in the field of forecasting" in order to aid future research. The project will lead to a book entitled Principles of Forecasting: A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners, and sample chapters, contact information, updates, and links to forecasting resources add value to this expanding compilation.

287

Principles of Information Assurance

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course on the Principles of Information Assurance is provided by the Cyber Security Education Consortium (CSEC). The course includes introductory security principles and gives students "an understanding of the current threats and vulnerabilities of the cyber landscape, plus other topics relating to the information assurance field." Links are provided to learn more about the Major Topics Covered, Course Learning Objectives, and Course Outline. The Course Outline includes a list of careers that require the knowledge from this course and related textbooks.

288

The infection rate of Daphnia magna by Pasteuria ramosa conforms with the mass-action principle.

In simple epidemiological models that describe the interaction between hosts with their parasites, the infection process is commonly assumed to be governed by the law of mass action, i.e. it is assumed that the infection rate depends linearly on the densities of the host and the parasite. The mass-action assumption, however, can be problematic if certain aspects of the host-parasite interaction are very pronounced, such as spatial compartmentalization, host immunity which may protect from infection with low doses, or host heterogeneity with regard to susceptibility to infection. As deviations from a mass-action infection rate have consequences for the dynamics of the host-parasite system, it is important to test for the appropriateness of the mass-action assumption in a given host-parasite system. In this paper, we examine the relationship between the infection rate and the parasite inoculum for the water flee Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. We measured the fraction of infected hosts after exposure to 14 different doses of the parasite. We find that the observed relationship between the fraction of infected hosts and the parasite dose is largely consistent with an infection process governed by the mass-action principle. However, we have evidence for a subtle but significant deviation from a simple mass-action infection model, which can be explained either by some antagonistic effects of the parasite spores during the infection process, or by heterogeneity in the hosts' susceptibility with regard to infection. PMID:14596538

Regoes, R R; Hottinger, J W; Sygnarski, L; Ebert, D

2003-10-01

289

A variational principle in optics.

We derive a new variational principle in optics. We first formulate the principle for paraxial waves and then generalize it to arbitrary waves. The new principle, unlike the Fermat principle, concerns both the phase and the intensity of the wave. In particular, the principle provides a method for finding the ray mapping between two surfaces in space from information on the wave's intensity there. We show how to apply the new principle to the problem of phase reconstruction from intensity measurements. PMID:15535374

Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon

2004-11-01

290

Immune deviation and ocular infections with varicella zoster virus.

Since experimental, herpes simplex virus-induced acute retinal necrosis (ARN) develops in mice only if the mice fail to acquire virus-specific delayed hypersensitivity (DH) and despite their production of anti-viral antibodies (i.e. ACAID), I investigated whether a similar situation exists for patients with either varicella zoster virus (VZV)-induced ARN or anterior uveitis caused by VZV. Patients with either acute VZV-induced ARN, anterior uveitis with dermatitis (herpes zoster ophthalmicus, ZO-AU), or anterior uveitis without dermatitis (zoster sine herpete, ZSH-AU) were skin-tested with VZV to evaluate DH. The formal diagnoses of ARN associated with VZV, ZO-AU, and ZSH-AU were established by PCR analysis of the ocular samples and/or by the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient to determine levels of local antibody production. ARN, ZO-AU, and ZSH-AU activity were assessed clinically, and DH skin tests were repeated three months after onset when ocular recovery had taken place. All patients with VZV-induced skin disease alone (control group) displayed intense DH when tested with VZV antigen. In contrast, subsets of patients with ARN or ZO-AU displayed loss of VZV-specific DH. Patients with the most severe ARN or ZO-AU had the lowest DH responses to VZV antigens. Serum anti-VZV antibody titers were higher in ARN patients than in normal controls, and the anti-viral titer correlated inversely with the intensity of anti-VZV DH responses. VZV-specific DH responses were restored in patients who recovered from ARN. Patients with ZSH-AU also failed to display VZV-specific DH. The absence of DH reactivity to VZV antigens (i.e. immune deviation) appears to be a concomitant feature of VZV uveitis of high intensity, implying that virus-specific DH may interfere with the emergence of VZV-induced ARN or anterior uveitis. PMID:15209460

Kezuka, Takeshi

2004-03-01

291

Long Term Gait Deviations in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Females

Purpose Little is known of the potential long term gait alterations that occur after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In particular, variables such as impact loading which have been previously associated with joint deterioration have not been studied in walking and running after an ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to define the alterations in impact forces, loading rates, and the accompanying sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic mechanics at the time of impact between the ACL reconstructed group and a healthy control group. Methods 40 females (20 ACL reconstruction, 20 controls) participated in the study. An instrumented gait analysis was performed on all subjects. Between group and limb comparisons were made for initial vertical impact force, loading rate, sagittal plane knee and hip angles as well as moments. Results During walking and running the ACL cohort had significantly greater initial vertical impact force (p=0.002 and p= 0.001), and loading rates (p=0.03 and p= 0.01), as well as a smaller knee extensor moment and hip angle during walking (p=0.000 and p=0.01). There was a trend towards a smaller knee moment and hip angle during running (p=0.08 and p=0.06) as well as a larger hip extensor moment during walking (p=0.06) in the ACL group. No differences were found for hip extensor moment during running, knee angles between groups during walking or running. Lastly, no between limb differences were found for any variable. Conclusion Gait deviations such as elevated impact loading and loading rates do not resolve long term after the individual has resumed previous activity levels and may contribute to the greater risk of early joint degeneration in this population. PMID:23568090

Noehren, Brian; Wilson, Hilary; Miller, Casey; Lattermann, Christian

2015-01-01

292

Petrothermal heat extraction using a single deviated well (Horstberg, revisited)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-well tracer test conducted (Behrens et al. 2006) in conjunction with waterfrac experiments at Horstberg is re-examined with a view at four basic issues: why single-well? why fracturing? why tracers? does this only work at Horstberg, or can it work almost anywhere else in the Northern-German sedimentary basin? Heat and tracer transport within a composite reservoir (impermeable matrix + waterfrac + permeable layer), as accessed by a single deviated well, turn out to fit into a surprisingly simple description, as the plain (arithmetic) sum of certain petrothermal-type and aquifer-type contributions, whose weighting relative to each other can vary from site to site, depending upon stratigraphy and upon wellbore geometry. At Horstberg, within the particular formations tested ('Volpriehausen', 'Detfurth', 'Solling', comprising mainly claystone and sandstone layers), thermal lifetime results to be petrothermally-dominated, while tracer residence times prove to be 'aquifer'-dominated. Despite this disparity, the reservoir's thermal lifetime can reliably be predicted from tracer test results. What cannot be determined from waterfrac flow-path tracing is the very waterfrac's aperture. Aperture uncertainty, however, does not impede upon thermal lifetime predictability. The results of the semi-analytical approach are confirmed by numerical simulations using a FE model that includes more details of hydrogeological heterogeneity for the Horstberg site. They are complemented by a parameter sensitivity analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit G6 of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').

Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Vogt, Esther; Bartetzko, Anne; Sauter, Martin

2013-04-01

293

Cranial base deviation in hemifacial microsomia by craniometric analysis.

Although facial asymmetry in hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is well documented in the literature, no studies have concentrated on the morphology of the cranial base. This study aimed to evaluate the endocranial morphology in patients with HFM. Consecutive patients with unilateral HFM treated at a craniofacial center from 2000 to 2012 were included. The patients were grouped according to severity on the basis of the Kaban-Pruzansky classification: mild (0-1), moderate (2a), and severe (2b-3). Skull base angulation and transverse craniometric measures were recorded and then compared with those of age-matched controls.A total of 30 patients (14 males, 16 females) averaging 7.5 years of age (range, 1.1-15.7 y) were included. Four patients were classified as mild; 12, as moderate; and 14, as severe. The mean cranial base angle was found to be between 179 and 181 degrees with no significant difference between the severity groups (P = 0.57). The mean cranial base angle did not differ significantly in the patients compared with the controls(179.6 vs 180.0; P = 0.51) No significant differences between the affected and unaffected sides in the patients were found in distances from the midline to hypoglossal canal, internal acoustic meatus, lateral carotid canal, medial carotid canal, foramen ovale, and rotundum. There were no significant differences in transverse measurements between the severity classes using the same landmarks (P = 0.46, P = 0.30, P = 0.40, P = 0.25, P = 0.57, and P = 0.76, respectively). The cranial base axis is not deviated in the patients with HFM compared with the age-matched controls, and there exists little difference in endocranial morphologic measurements with increasing severity of HFM. These data are interesting, given the role of the cranial base in facial growth and the varying hypotheses regarding the mechanism of disease in HFM. PMID:25569421

Paliga, James Thomas; Tahiri, Youssef; Wink, Jason; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

2015-01-01

294

Probing deviations from General Relativity with the Euclid spectroscopic survey

We discuss the ability of the planned Euclid mission to detect deviations from General Relativity using its extensive redshift survey of more than 50 Million galaxies. Constraints on the gravity theory are placed measuring the growth rate of structure within 14 redshift bins between z=0.7 and z=2. The growth rate is measured from redshift-space distortions, i.e. the anisotropy of the clustering pattern induced by coherent peculiar motions. This is performed in the overall context of the Euclid spectroscopic survey, which will simultaneously measure the expansion history of the universe, using the power spectrum and its baryonic features as a standard ruler, accounting for the relative degeneracies of expansion and growth parameters. The resulting expected errors on the growth rate in the different redshift bins, expressed through the quantity f\\sigma_8, range between 1.3% and 4.4%. We discuss the optimisation of the survey configuration and investigate the important dependence on the growth parameterisation and the assumed cosmological model. We show how a specific parameterisation could actually drive the design towards artificially restricted regions of the parameter space. Finally, in the framework of the popular "\\gamma -parameterisation", we show that the Euclid spectroscopic survey alone will already be able to provide substantial evidence (in Bayesian terms) if the growth index differs from the GR value \\gamma=0.55 by at least \\sim 0.13. This will combine with the comparable inference power provided by the Euclid weak lensing survey, resulting in Euclid's unique ability to provide a decisive test of modified gravity.

Elisabetta Majerotto; Luigi Guzzo; Lado Samushia; Will J. Percival; Yun Wang; Sylvain de la Torre; Bianca Garilli; Paolo Franzetti; Emanuel Rossetti; Andrea Cimatti; Carmelita Carbone; Nathan Roche; Giovanni Zamorani

2012-05-28

295

Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum.

Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (-0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ?0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice. PMID:24498519

Manjunatha, Roopa G; Rajanna, Konandur; Mahapatra, Roy D; Dorasala, Srinivas

2013-01-01

296

Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum

Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (?0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ?0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice. PMID:24498519

Manjunatha, Roopa G.; Mahapatra, Roy D.; Dorasala, Srinivas

2013-01-01

297

The August Krogh principle applies to plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Krogh principle refers to the use of a large number of animals to study the large number of physiological problems, rather than limiting study to a particular organism for all problems. There may be organisms that are more suited to study of a particular problem than others. This same principle applies to plants. The authors are concerned with the recent trend in plant biology of using Arabidopsis thaliana as the "organism of choice." Arabidopsis is an excellent organism for molecular genetic research, but other plants are superior models for other research areas of plant biology. The authors present examples of the successful use of the Krogh principle in plant cell biology research, emphasizing the particular characteristics of the selected research organisms that make them the appropriate choice.

Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.

1996-01-01

298

Nurses's knowledge of heart failure education principles

Objective: The goal of this study was to determine nurses' knowledge of heart failure (HF) self-management education principles. Design: The study was exploratory and descriptive and included a convenience sample. Setting: Research took place in a large midwestern health care system that included a university-based hospital, community hospitals, and home or palliative care. Subjects: Subjects included 300 nurses who provide

Nancy M. Albert; Susan Collier; Veronica Sumodi; Sandra Wilkinson; Jeffrey P. Hammel; Linda Vopat; Cindy Willis; Barb Bittel

2002-01-01

299

Design Principles of the ESCOT Math Environments.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the Educational Software Components of Tomorrow (ESCOT) project. The focus of the project was on principles that support problem-solving and learner-centered design issues, and the purpose was to garner lessons from a large educational software development project to share with the learning sciences and other interested

Underwood, Jody S.; Hoadley, Chris; DiGiano, Chris; Stohl, Hollylynne; Hollebrands, Karen

300

The traveltime holographic principle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes ?pq from exterior transmission traveltimes ?sp and ?sq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times ?pq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes ?pq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes ?pq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

2015-01-01

301

Phase transitions and postural deviations during bimanual kinesthetic tracking.

Upper limb coordination was studied by examining pattern stability of between-hand rhythmical coordination. In the first of two experiments, relative phase of rhythmical wrist flexion-extension was examined within a kinesthetic tracking paradigm. Eight right-handed subjects actively tracked a driven hand being flexed and extended by a computer-controlled AC servo-motor. Hand movements were constrained in flexion or extension. The simultaneous contraction of wrist flexors and extensors was defined as inphase (IP) and the alternating contraction of wrist flexors and extensors as antiphase (AP). Phase transitions (from AP to IP) were observed in 16% of trials prepared in AP. Fewer phase transitions occurred when the right wrist was constrained in flexion, and also when the left wrist was constrained in extension. IP patterns were performed with greater stability than AP patterns. These effects were explored further in a second experiment with the addition of a secondary probe reaction time task to assess demands on central capacity, and the analysis of wrist flexor and extensor electromyographic activity. Subjects returned longer reaction times for AP than IP movement, suggesting the AP movement pattern placed a greater demand on central capacity than the IP movement pattern. During this kinesthetic tracking task, similar dynamic principles emerged as those observed during bilaterally active bimanual rhythmical coordination. The greater stability of the hand-posture combination where the driven left hand was constrained in extension and the active right hand was constrained in flexion may be a demonstration of unique central control of coupled activity. PMID:11355391

Stinear, J W; Byblow, W D

2001-04-01

302

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly published document from the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank of International Settlements considers the methodology used in determining The Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision, "a global standard for prudential regulation and supervision," which has been endorsed by many countries worldwide. There are three sections to the report. The first chapter looks at the background for the core principles and "the preconditions for effective banking supervision." The second chapter "raises a few basic considerations regarding the conduct of an assessment and the compilation and presentation of the results," and the last chapter discusses each core principle individually. The 56-page document is available in .pdf format. A thumbnail map of each page, shown on the left, is the best way to navigate the report.

303

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

304

T-wave axis deviation and left ventricular hypertrophy interaction in diabetes and hypertension.

Electrocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) and T-wave axis (TA) deviation are independent predictors of fatal and non fatal events. We assessed the prevalence of ECG-LVH, TA abnormalities and their combination according to the presence or absence of diabetes and/or hypertension in a large sample of the adult general Italian population. Data from 10,184 women (54 11 years) and 8775 men (54 11 years) were analyzed from the Moli-sani cohort, a database of randomly recruited adults (age >35) from the general population of Molise, a central region of Italy that includes collection of standard 12-lead resting ECG. Subjects with previous myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular disease or left bundle brunch block or missing values for TA or ECG-LVH have been excluded. TA was measured from the standard 12-lead ECG and it was defined as the rotation of the T wave in the frontal plane as computed by a proprietary algorithm (CalECG/Bravo, AMPS-LLC, NY). ECG-LVH was defined as Sokolow Lyon voltage (SLv) >35 mm or Cornell voltage duration Product (CP) >= 2440 mm*ms. Among subjects with ECG-LVH, prevalence of hypertension was 59.0% and 49.7%, respectively for men and women, whereas that of diabetes was 10.7% and 5.7%. In hypertensives, TA was normal in 72.3% of subjects, borderline in 24.8% and abnormal in 2.9%. In diabetics, TA was normal in 70.4% of subjects, borderline in 26.5% and abnormal in 3.1%. In both hypertensive and diabetic subjects, the prevalence of ECG-LVH, was significantly greater in subjects with borderline or abnormal TA. Hypertension was an independent predictor of abnormal TA (odd ratio: 1.38, P = .025). These results suggest that hypertension might play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of TA deviation. PMID:24011993

Assanelli, Deodato; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Rago, Livia; Badilini, Fabio; Vinetti, Giovanni; Gianfagna, Francesco; Salvetti, Massimo; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

2013-01-01

305

30 CFR 285.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations 285.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...

2011-07-01

306

30 CFR 585.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations 585.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...

2014-07-01

307

30 CFR 585.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations 585.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...

2012-07-01

308

30 CFR 585.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations 585.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...

2013-07-01

309

30 CFR 285.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations 285.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...

2010-07-01

310

41 CFR 102-2.85 - What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations...Deviations 102-2.85 What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations? The reasons for writing are to: (a)...

2013-07-01

311

41 CFR 102-2.85 - What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations...Deviations 102-2.85 What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations? The reasons for writing are to: (a)...

2014-01-01

312

41 CFR 102-2.85 - What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations...Deviations 102-2.85 What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations? The reasons for writing are to: (a)...

2012-01-01

313

41 CFR 102-2.85 - What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations...Deviations 102-2.85 What are the reasons for writing to GSA about FMR deviations? The reasons for writing are to: (a)...

2011-01-01

314

Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Dark Matter

There have been proposals that primordial black hole remnants (BHRs) are the dark matter, but the idea is somewhat vague. Recently we argued that the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) may prevent black holes from evaporating completely, in a similar way that the standard uncertainty principle prevents the hydrogen atom from collapsing. We further noted that the hybrid inflation model provides a plausible mechanism for production of large numbers of small black holes. Combining these we suggested that the dark matter might be composed of Planck-size BHRs. In this paper we briefly review these arguments, and discuss the reheating temperature as a result of black hole evaporation.

Chen, P

2004-01-13

315

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general principles of HF communication system design, using as a framework a generalized communication system comprising: propagation path, information source and sink, source encoder/decoder, channel encoder/decoder, and RF equipment. The basic properties of the medium relevant to the design, control and operation of HF systems are considered. In particular, the problems of HF system control are examined in depth.

Darnell, M.

1983-05-01

316

The general principles of HF communication system design, using as a framework a generalized communication system comprising: propagation path, information source and sink, source encoder\\/decoder, channel encoder\\/decoder, and RF equipment. The basic properties of the medium relevant to the design, control and operation of HF systems are considered. In particular, the problems of HF system control are examined in depth.

M. Darnell

1983-01-01

317

Variational Principles Relativistic SPH

Variational Principles for Relativistic SPH J. J. Monaghan and D.J. Price Epsilon Laboratory Department of Mathematics and Statistics Monash University, Clayton 3800, Australia email: joe.monaghan see Monaghan 1992) is an ap- proximation to the continuum equations of uid dynamics which can

Price, Daniel

318

Principles of Applied Mathematics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course, presented by MIT and taught by professor Aslan Kasimov, describes basic principles of applied mathematics. Specifically, the material looks at mathematical analysis of continuum models of various natural phenomena. The course materials include student assignments and exams. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Kasimov, Aslan

319

Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)

Schaars, Marvin A.

320

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

Kamat, R. V.

1991-01-01

321

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workshop covers major principles and regulations pertinent to working in laboratories with hazardous materials. It is divided into 45 minute segments dealing with: Radioactive Materials (Staiger); Toxic, Reactive, Carcinogenic, and Teratogenic Chemicals (Carlson); Infectious Agents (Laver); and Fire Safety Concepts and Physical Hazards (Arnston).

Jerry Staiger, Keith Carlson, Jim Laver, Ray Arntson (University of Minnesota; )

2008-04-11

322

HEDGING PRUNING: GUIDING PRINCIPLES

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Major issues limiting profitabiity of pecan orchard operations are management of tree crowding, alternate bearing, and light management in orchards. Key principles are presented that provide the foundation needed for the tailoring of hedge pruning based orchard management strategies that minimize t...

323

Principles for Professional Ethics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews principles based on assumptions that school psychologists will act as advocates for their clients and will do no harm. Includes sections on professional competency, relationships and responsibilities, and practice in public and private settings. Presents extensive information on procedural guidelines for adjudication of ethical complaints.

School Psychology Review, 1997

1997-01-01

324

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at individuals who have stood on principle against authority or popular opinion. The first article investigates John Adams and his defense of British soldiers at the Boston Massacre trials. The second article explores Archbishop Thomas Becket's fatal conflict with England's King Henry II. The final

Martz, Carlton

1999-01-01

325

What are the factors responsible for the deviation in stepping on the spot?

Without vision, keeping a straight-ahead direction while stepping on the spot is almost impossible, everybody deviates more or less. Several explanations for this, such as laterality, vestibulo-spinal influence, dopamine system, have been proposed. The aims of the experiment presented here were (1) to quantify the lateral deviation when stepping using a modified Fukuda test apparatus, and (2) to determine the factors potentially underlying such deviation. Twenty-five young adults, blindfolded, performed the experiment which consisted in stepping while holding a rotating vertical roll bar fixed on the wall. Four experimental conditions (i.e., normal, with an imposed pace, dual-task, or with the neck bent) were tested. All participants deviated towards one side or the other in all conditions. Adding an attentional load or imposing a particular pace did not change the amount of deviation. For three conditions (normal, with an imposed pace and dual-task), the deviation towards one side was not significantly larger than towards the other side at the group level. In the bent-neck condition, the deviation was significantly larger than in the other conditions. Furthermore, in this condition the deviation towards the left was significantly larger than the deviation towards the right at the group level. We discussed the results regarding the role of vestibular information and proprioceptive feedback from neck muscles in correcting a spontaneous deviation. Our results, however, go against the idea that sensorimotor lateral preferences are among the factors underlying such deviations, since we found no relationship between lateral preferences (hand, foot, and eye) and the side of deviation. PMID:18337006

Toussaint, Yann; Do, Manh-Cuong; Fagard, Jacqueline

2008-04-11

326

A Correlational Study of Scoliosis and Trunk Balance in Adult Patients with Mandibular Deviation

Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an S type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p<0.01). The trunk balance of patients with mandibular deviation was disturbed (imbalance angle >1), while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1). There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation. PMID:23555836

Yang, Yang; Wang, Na; Wang, Wenyong; Ding, Yin; Sun, Shiyao

2013-01-01

327

Uncertainty Principles Sparse Representation in Overcomplete Dictionaries

Uncertainty Principles Sparse Representation in Overcomplete Dictionaries Uncertainty Principles November 8, 2007 Matthew J. Hirn Uncertainty Principles in Sparse Representation and Compressed Sensing #12;Uncertainty Principles Sparse Representation in Overcomplete Dictionaries Outline 1 Uncertainty Principles

Hirn, Matthew

328

Minimization of deviations of gear real tooth surfaces determined by coordinate measurements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The deviations of a gear's real tooth surface from the theoretical surface are determined by coordinate measurements at the grid of the surface. A method was developed to transform the deviations from Cartesian coordinates to those along the normal at the measurement locations. Equations are derived that relate the first order deviations with the adjustment to the manufacturing machine-tool settings. The deviations of the entire surface are minimized. The minimization is achieved by application of the least-square method for an overdetermined system of linear equations. The proposed method is illustrated with a numerical example for hypoid gear and pinion.

Litvin, F. L.; Kuan, C.; Wang, J.-C.; Handschuh, R. F.; Masseth, J.; Maruyama, N.

1992-01-01

329

Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles Part II. Polymer Formation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part two in a series on classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Described is how large molecules can be assembled from subunits (the process of polymerization). Examples chosen include both linear and branched or cross-linked molecules. (RH)

Rodriguez, F.; And Others

1987-01-01

330

Significant errors related to poor time zero estimation, well deviation or mislocation of the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) stations can render even the most sophisticated modeling and inversion routine useless. Previous examples of methods for the analysis and correction of data errors in geophysical tomography include the works of Maurer and Green (1997), Squires et al. (1992) and Peterson (2001). Here we follow the analysis and techniques of Peterson (2001) for data quality control and error correction. Through our data acquisition and quality control procedures we have very accurate control on the surface locations of wells, the travel distance of both the transmitter and receiver within the boreholes, and the change in apparent zero time. However, we often have poor control on well deviations, either because of economic constraints or the nature of the borehole itself prevented the acquisition of well deviation logs. Also, well deviation logs can sometimes have significant errors. Problems with borehole deviations can be diagnosed prior to inversion of travel-time tomography data sets by plotting the apparent velocity of a straight ray connecting a transmitter (TX) to a receiver (RX) against the take-off angle of the ray. Issues with the time-zero pick or distances between wells appear as symmetric smiles or frown in these QC plots. Well deviation or dipping-strong anisotropy will result in an asymmetric correlation between apparent velocity and take-off angle (Figure 1-B). In addition, when a network of interconnected GPR tomography data is available, one has the additional quality constraint of insuring that there is continuity in velocity between immediately adjacent tomograms. A sudden shift in the mean velocity indicates that either position deviations are present or there is a shift in the pick times. Small errors in well geometry may be effectively treated during inversion by including weighting, or relaxation, parameters into the inversion (e.g. Bautu et al., 2006). In the technique of algebraic reconstruction tomography (ART), which is used herein for the travel time inversion (Peterson et al., 1985), a small relaxation parameter will smooth imaging artifacts caused by data errors at the expense of resolution and contrast (Figure 2). However, large data errors such as unaccounted well deviations cannot be adequately suppressed through inversion weighting schemes. Previously, problems with tomograms were treated manually. However, in large data sets and/or networks of data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Mislocation of the transmitter and receiver stations of GPR cross-well tomography data sets can lead to serious imaging artifacts if not accounted for prior to inversion. Previously, problems with tomograms have been treated manually prior to inversion. In large data sets and/or networks of tomographic data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Our approach is to use cross-well data quality checks and a simplified model of borehole deviation with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to automatically correct for source and receiver locations prior to tomographic inversion. We present a simple model of well deviation, which is designed to minimize potential corruption of actual data trends. We also provide quantitative quality control measures based on minimizing correlations between take-off angle and apparent velocity, and a quality check on the continuity of velocity between adjacent wells. This methodology is shown to be accurate and robust for simple 2-D synthetic test cases. Plus, we demonstrate the method on actual field data where it is compared to deviation logs. This study shows the promise for automatic correction of well deviations in GPR tomographic data. Analysis of synthetic data shows that very precise estimates of well deviation can be made for small deviations, even in the presence of static data errors. However, the analysis of the synthetic data and the application of

Sassen, D. S.; Peterson, J. E.

2010-03-15

331

Deviations in cortex sulcation associated with visual hallucinations in schizophrenia.

Hallucinations, and auditory hallucinations (AH) in particular, constitute the most typical and disabling schizophrenia symptoms. Although visual hallucinations (VH) have been largely neglected in psychiatric disorders, a recent review reported a 27% mean prevalence of VH in schizophrenia patients. The pathophysiology underlying VH in schizophrenia remains elusive. Several schizophrenia studies reported a significant effect of age on VH; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia may explain VH occurrence. We analyzed cortex sulcation, a marker of brain development, in healthy controls (HCs) and two subgroups of carefully selected schizophrenia patients suffering from hallucinations: patients with only AH (that is, patients who never reported VH) and patients with audio-visual hallucinations (A+VH). Different cortical sulcation and left-right sulcal asymmetry were found between A+VH and AH patients, with decreased sulcation in both A+VH and AH patients in comparison with the HCs. Although a specific association between VH and neurodegenerative mechanisms, for example, in Body-Lewy Dementia or Parkinson's Disease, has previously been reported in the literature, the current study provides the first neuroimaging evidence of an association between VH and neurodevelopmental mechanisms.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 28 October 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.140. PMID:25349166

Cachia, A; Amad, A; Brunelin, J; Krebs, M-O; Plaze, M; Thomas, P; Jardri, R

2014-10-28

332

Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning deviations. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity deviations (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional deviations of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional deviations produce large intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of {>=}5% in {approx}1 mm{sup 2} areas and {>=}2% in {approx}20 mm{sup 2} areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences ({<=}2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.

Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

2012-08-15

333

The Shakespearean Principle Revisited

Let every eye negotiate for itself and trust no agent. That line is from William Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. 1 To me, it is a fundamental doctrine of patient care, and I have named it the Shakespearean Principle.2 It stimulates skepticism,3 promotes doubt,4 improves communication, fosters proper decision-making, and protects against a malady that currently plagues our professionherd mentality.5 This editorial shows what can happen when doctors violate the Shakespearean Principle. The story is real and tells of a woman whose doctor unintentionally killed her. To ensure anonymity, the time and place of the tragedy, as well as the players involved, have been changed. PMID:22412219

Fred, Herbert L.

2012-01-01

334

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. General Principles: 1. Prefaratory explanations; 2. The relatedness of nature; 3. Equality; 4. Some principles of physical science; Part II. Physical Applications: 5. The equations of motion; 6. On the formula of dJ2; 7. Permanent gravitational fields; 8. Apparent mass and the spectral shift; 9. Planetary motion; 10. electromagnetic equations; 11. Gravitation and light waves; 12. Temperature effects on gravitational forces; 13. The electrostatic potential and spectral shift; 14. The lib effect; 15. Permanent directions of vibration and the doubling effect; 16. Steady electromagnetic fields; 17. The Moon's motion; Part III. Elementary Theory of Tensors: 18. Fundamental notions; 19. Elementary properties; 20. The process of restriction; 21. Tensors of the second order; 22. The Galilean tensor; 23. The differentiation of tensor components; 24. Some important tensors.

Whitehead, A. N.

2011-06-01

335

Basic Principles of Ultrasound

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.

2004-01-01

336

Principles of Semiconductor Devices

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Home page of an online and interactive textbook, Principles of Semiconductor Devices., written by Bart J. Van Zeghbroeck, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The goal of this text is to provide the basic principles of common semiconductor devices, with a special focus on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs). A browser environment was chosen so that text, figures and equations can be linked for easy reference. A table of contents, a glossary, active figures and some study aids are integrated with the text with the intention to provide a more effective reference and learning environment. Chapter titles include: Semiconductor Fundamentals, Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, p-n Junctions, Bipolar Transistors, MOS Capacitors, and MOSFET.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart Jozef

337

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A principle of quantum theory, devised in 1925 by Wolfgang Pauli (1900-58), which states that no two fermions may exist in the same quantum state. The quantum state of a particle is defined by a set of numbers that describe quantities such as energy, angular momentum and spin. Fermions are particles such as quarks, protons, neutrons and electrons, that have spin = (in units of h/2?, where h is ...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

338

Principles of lake sedimentology

This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

Janasson, L.

1983-01-01

339

A biomechanical inactivation principle

This paper develops the mathematical side of a theory of inactivations in human biomechanics. This theory has been validated\\u000a by practical experiments, including zero-gravity experiments. The theory mostly relies on Pontryagins maximum principle on\\u000a the one side and on transversality theory on the other side. It turns out that the periods of silence in the activation of\\u000a muscles that are

Jean-Paul Gauthier; Bastien Berret; Frdric Jean

2010-01-01

340

Treatment deviating from guidelines does not influence status epilepticus prognosis.

Status epilepticus (SE) prognosis is related to nonmodifiable factors (age, etiology), but the exact role of drug treatment is unclear. This study was undertaken to address the prognostic role of treatment adherence to guidelines (TAG). We prospectively studied over 26 months a cohort of adults with incident SE (excluding postanoxic). TAG was assessed in terms of drug doses ( 30 % of recommendations) and medication sequence; its prognostic impact on mortality and return to baseline conditions was adjusted for etiology, SE severity [Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS)], and comorbidities. Of 225 patients, 26 (12 %) died and 82 (36 %) were discharged with a new handicap; TAG was observed in 142 (63 %). On univariate analysis, age, etiology, SE severity, and comorbidities were significantly related to outcome, while TAG was associated with neither outcome nor likelihood of SE control. Logistic regression for mortality identified etiology [odds ratio (OR) 18.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.3-82.8] and SE severity (STESS ? 3; OR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.2-2.4) as independent predictors, and for lack of return to baseline, again etiology (OR 7.4, 95 % CI 3.9-14.0) and STESS ? 3 (OR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.4-2.2). Similar results were found for the subgroup of 116 patients with generalized-convulsive SE. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses confirmed that TAG did not improve outcome prediction. This study of a large SE cohort suggests that treatment adherence to recommendations using current medications seems to play a negligible prognostic role (class III), confirming the importance of the biological background. Awaiting further treatment trials, it appears mandatory to apply resources towards identification of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22899399

Rossetti, Andrea O; Alvarez, Vincent; Januel, Jean-Marie; Burnand, Bernard

2013-02-01

341

Observable signature of a background deviating from the Kerr metric

By detecting gravitational wave signals from extreme mass ratio inspiraling sources (EMRIs) we will be given the opportunity to check our theoretical expectations regarding the nature of supermassive bodies that inhabit the central regions of galaxies. We have explored some qualitatively new features that a perturbed Kerr metric induces in its geodesic orbits. Since a generic perturbed Kerr metric does not possess all the special symmetries of a Kerr metric, the geodesic equations in the former case are described by a slightly nonintegrable Hamiltonian system. According to the Poincare-Birkhoff theorem, this causes the appearance of the so-called Birkhoff chains of islands on the corresponding surfaces of section in between the anticipated KAM curves of the integrable Kerr case, whenever the intrinsic frequencies of the system are at resonance. The chains of islands are characterized by finite width, i.e. there is a finite range of initial conditions that correspond to a particular resonance and consequently to a constant rational ratio of intrinsic frequencies. Thus while the EMRI changes adiabatically by radiating energy and angular momentum, by monitoring the frequencies of a signal we can look for a transient pattern, in the form of a plateau, in the evolution of their ratio. We have shown that such a plateau is anticipated to be apparent in a quite large fraction of possible orbital characteristics if the central gravitating source is not a Kerr black hole. Moreover, the plateau in the ratio of frequencies is expected to be more prominent at specific rational values that correspond to the strongest resonances. This gives a possible observational detection of such non-Kerr exotic objects.

Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy, Soranou Efesiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece); Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos GR15783, Athens (Greece); Apostolatos, Theocharis A. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos GR15783, Athens (Greece); Contopoulos, George [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy, Soranou Efesiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece)

2010-06-15

342

Two cases of hypotropia and dissociated vertical deviation treated with oblique muscle surgery.

The authors report two cases with vertical deviations. The first patient had right exotropia and hypotropia and left inferior oblique overaction and was treated with left inferior oblique muscle weakening and bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession. The second patient had chin-up posture and right dissociated vertical deviation and was treated with bilateral superior oblique posterior tenotomy. PMID:25490238

Niyaz, Leyla; Gursoy, Haluk Huseyin; Basmak, Hikmet

2014-01-01

343

Simple technique for the fabrication of a penta prism with high accuracy right angle deviation.

What we believe to be a new technique for the fabrication of a penta prism (PP) with high accuracy right angle deviation of the incident beam is presented. We derive simple formulas relating to the error in right angle deviation with the errors in 45 degrees (beta) and 90 degrees (delta) angles of a PP, and we determine error in right angle deviation from the angle ((error in right angle deviation)r) between the plane wavefronts reflected from the right angled surfaces (external Fresnel reflection on the entrance surface and internal Fresnel reflection on the exit surface) of a PP and the angular error (delta) between the same surfaces. The error in right angle deviation is determined from the measurement of (error in right angle deviation)r using an autocollimator and a Fizeau interferometer, and error in right angle deviation is corrected to a high order of accuracy during the final stage of polishing one of the slanted surfaces of the PP. A new technique to determine the magnitude and direction of the small values of (error in right angle deviation)r is proposed and verified. The result for a PP is presented. PMID:17846645

Chatterjee, Sanjib; Pavan Kumar, Y

2007-09-10

344

Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson

Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson be a mixture of humans, hardware, and software. This paper describes one of the Safeware hazard analysis techniques, Software Deviation Analysis, that incorporates the beneficial fea tures of HAZOP (such

Leveson, Nancy

345

Physics 116C Fall 2012 The standard deviation of the mean

on the distinction between the standard devi ation and the standard deviation of the mean. 1. The sample mean) The standard deviation of x is denoted by # # # Var(x). In the real world, p(x) is usually unknown, in which pos sible estimates for µ and #. In class, we defined the sample average x and the sample variance

California at Santa Cruz, University of

346

Physics 116C Fall 2012 The standard deviation of the mean

on the distinction between the standard devi- ation and the standard deviation of the mean. 1. The sample mean deviation of x is denoted by Var(x). In the real world, p(x) is usually unknown, in which case µ pos- sible estimates for µ and . In class, we defined the sample average x and the sample variance 2

California at Santa Cruz, University of

347

A coating technique is being developed to correct the surface figure deviations in grazing-incidence X-ray optics. These optics are typically designed to have precise conic profiles, and any deviation in this profile, as a result of fabrication, results in a degradation of the imaging performance. To correct the mirror profiles, physical vapor deposition has been utilized to selectively deposit a

Kiranmayee Kilaru; Brian D. Ramsey; Mikhail V. Gubarev; Jessica A. Gaskin; Stephen L. O'Dell; William Zhang

2011-01-01

348

Strabismus represents a complex oculomotor disorder characterized by the deviation of one or both eyes and poor vision. A more sophisticated understanding of the genetic liability of strabismus is required to guide searches for associated molecular variants. In this classical twin study of 1,462 twin pairs, we examined the relative influence of genes and environment in comitant strabismus, and the degree to which these influences can be explained by factors in common with refractive error. Participants were examined for the presence of latent ('phoria') and manifest ('tropia') strabismus using cover-uncover and alternate cover tests. Two phenotypes were distinguished: eso-deviation (esophoria and esotropia) and exo-deviation (exophoria and exotropia). Structural equation modeling was subsequently employed to partition the observed phenotypic variation in the twin data into specific variance components. The prevalence of eso-deviation and exo-deviation was 8.6% and 20.7%, respectively. For eso-deviation, the polychoric correlation was significantly greater in monozygotic (MZ) (r = 0.65) compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (r = 0.33), suggesting a genetic role (p = .003). There was no significant difference in polychoric correlation between MZ (r = 0.55) and DZ twin pairs (r = 0.53) for exo-deviation (p = .86), implying that genetic factors do not play a significant role in the etiology of exo-deviation. The heritability of an eso-deviation was 0.64 (95% CI 0.50-0.75). The additive genetic correlation for eso-deviation and refractive error was 0.13 and the bivariate heritability (i.e., shared variance) was less than 1%, suggesting negligible shared genetic effect. This study documents a substantial heritability of 64% for eso-deviation, yet no corresponding heritability for exo-deviation, suggesting that the genetic contribution to strabismus may be specific to eso-deviation. Future studies are now needed to identify the genes associated with eso-deviation and unravel their mechanisms of action. PMID:22877876

Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hammond, Christopher J; Staffieri, Sandra E; Kearns, Lisa S; Melissa Liew, S H; Barbour, Julie M; Hewitt, Alex W; Ge, Dongliang; Snieder, Harold; Mackinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Lorenz, Birgit; Spector, Tim D; Martin, Nicholas G; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Mackey, David A

2012-10-01

349

Detection and compensation of basis deviation in satellite-to-ground quantum communications.

Basis deviation is the reference-frame deviation between a sender and receiver caused by satellite motion in satellite-to-ground quantum communications. It increases the quantum-bit error ratio of the system and must be compensated for to guarantee reliable quantum communications. We present a new scheme for compensating for basis deviation that employs a BB84 decoding module to detect basis deviation and half-wave plate to provide compensation. Based on this detection scheme, we design a basis-deviation compensation approach and test its feasibility in a voyage experiment. Unlike other polarization-correction schemes, this compensation scheme is simple, convenient, and can be easily implemented in satellite-to-ground quantum communications without increased burden to the satellite. PMID:24787870

Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jincai; Yang, Shiji; Wan, Xiong; He, Zhiping; Jia, Jianjun; Citrin, D S; Wang, Jianyu

2014-04-21

350

Secondary flow spanwise deviation model for the stators of NASA middle compressor stages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of the spanwise variation of deviation for stator blades is presented. Deviation is defined as the difference between the passage mean flow angle and the metal angle at the outlet of a blade element of an axial compressor stage. The variation of deviation is taken as the difference above or below that predicted by blade element, (i.e., two-dimensional) theory at any spanwise location. The variation of deviation is dependent upon the blade camber, solidity and inlet boundary layer thickness at the hub or tip end-wall, and the blade channel aspect ratio. If these parameters are known or can be calculated, the model provides a reasonable approximation of the spanwise variation of deviation for most compressor middle stage stators operating at subsonic inlet Mach numbers.

Roberts, W. B.; Sandercock, D. M.

1984-01-01

351

Principles for School Drug Education

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a revised set of principles for school drug education. The principles for drug education in schools comprise an evolving framework that has proved useful over a number of decades in guiding the development of effective drug education. The first edition of "Principles for Drug Education in Schools" (Ballard et al. 1994) has

Meyer, Lois

2004-01-01

352

Uncertainty principles and vector quantization

Abstract. An abstract form of the Uncertainty Principle set forth by Candes and Tao has found remarkable applications in the sparse approximation theory. This pa- per demonstates a new connection between the Uncertainty Principle and the vector quantization theory. We show that for frames in C, that satisfy the Uncertainty Principle, one can quickly convert every frame representation into a

Yurii Lyubarskii; Roman Vershynin

2010-01-01

353

Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is

Ridgely, Charles T.

2010-01-01

354

The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery

Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches.

Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)], E-mail: lawrence.marks@duke.edu; Light, Kim L.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Georgas, Debra L.; Jones, Ellen L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, C (United States); Wright, Melanie C. [Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Willett, Christopher G.; Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2007-12-01

355

Determination of ensemble-average pairwise root mean-square deviation from experimental B-factors.

Root mean-square deviation (RMSD) after roto-translational least-squares fitting is a measure of global structural similarity of macromolecules used commonly. On the other hand, experimental x-ray B-factors are used frequently to study local structural heterogeneity and dynamics in macromolecules by providing direct information about root mean-square fluctuations (RMSF) that can also be calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. We provide a mathematical derivation showing that, given a set of conservative assumptions, a root mean-square ensemble-average of an all-against-all distribution of pairwise RMSD for a single molecular species, **) and (1/2). We show this relationship and explore its limits of validity on a heterogeneous ensemble of structures taken from molecular dynamics simulations of villin headpiece generated using distributed-computing techniques and the Folding@Home cluster. Our results provide a basis for quantifying global structural diversity of macromolecules in crystals directly from x-ray experiments, and we show this on a large set of structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. In particular, we show that the ensemble-average pairwise backbone RMSD for a microscopic ensemble underlying a typical protein x-ray structure is approximately 1.1 A, under the assumption that the principal contribution to experimental B-factors is conformational variability. PMID:20197040**

Kuzmanic, Antonija; Zagrovic, Bojan

2010-03-01

356

Deviations from Tribimaximal Neutrino Mixing using a Model with $?(27)$ Symmetry

We present a model of neutrino mixing based on the flavour group $\\Delta(27)$ in order to account for the observation of a non-zero reactor mixing angle ($\\theta_{13}$). The model provides a common flavour structure for the charged-lepton and the neutrino sectors, giving their mass matrices a `circulant-plus-diagonal' form. Mass matrices of this form readily lead to mixing patterns with realistic deviations from tribimaximal mixing, including non-zero $\\theta_{13}$. With the parameters constrained by existing measurements, our model predicts an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We obtain two distinct sets of solutions in which the atmospheric mixing angle lies in the first and the second octants. The first (second) octant solution predicts the lightest neutrino mass, $m_3 \\sim 29~\\text{meV}$ ($m_3 \\sim 65~\\text{meV}$) and the $CP$ phase, $\\delta_{CP} \\sim -\\frac{\\pi}{4}$ ($\\delta_{CP} \\sim \\frac{\\pi}{2}$), offering the possibility of large observable $CP$ violating effects in future experiments.

P. F. Harrison; R. Krishnan; W. G. Scott

2014-06-08

357

To what extent do deviations from an ideal occlusion constitute a health risk?

Selection of patients for orthodontic treatment should be based on a thorough analysis of the consequences of malocclusions for the individual. The mere presence of deviations from the concept of the ideal occlusion should have no influence on orthodontic treatment decisions. According to available studies, the influence of malocclusion on periodontal health, speech and chewing is fairly minor. Neither can orthodontic treatment be justified as an effective means of preventing TMD but it may be indicated to reduce existing signs and symptoms of TMD in certain carefully selected cases. Interceptive or preventive orthodontic treatment may be indicated to reduce the negative influence on growth and occlusal development of functional malocclusions (anterior or lateral forced bite) or ectopic tooth eruption. Similarly, early correction of large overjet may be valuable in order to reduce the risk of traumatic injuries. Such treatment is usually motivated during the primary or mixed dentition periods. From the teenage period and onwards, psychosocial or aesthetic reasons for orthodontic treatment are dominating. Decisions to start orthodontic treatment in order to improve aesthetics should usually not be taken before the child has reached sufficient maturity for these decisions, normally after the age of 12 years. Special consideration needs to be given to subjects with craniofacial syndromes or handicap in order to develop effective treatment methods to promote as normal growth and occlusal development as possible. PMID:12704943

Mohlin, Bengt; Kurol, Juri

2003-01-01

358

An improved Fuzzy Comprehensive evaluation method using expanded least deviations algorithm

Fuzzy Comprehensive evaluation is usually influenced significantly by the matrix of fuzzy relation and weight vector. For a sequential segmentation category, the principle of the lowest cost, the principle of maximum degree of measure and the principle of maximum degree of membership sometimes can get unreasonable conclusion, because they conceal the difference of two degree of membership. First of all,

Wei Chen; Xiaohong Hao; Jie Lin

2008-01-01

359

Incompatibility between the principle of the constancy of the speed of light and the Lorentz contraction in the global positioning system (GPS) is discussed. The GPS works precisely in the earth-centered locally inertial (ECI) coordinate system on the condition that the speed of light c is assumed to be constant regardless of the inertial motion of the GPS satellites and the earth. The inertial system of the earth travels not only in the solar system at the velocity 30 km/s but also in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at the velocity 700 km/s. The deviation on the car navigation system by the Lorentz contraction of 700 km/s is maximally estimated as 54 m. However, such a large deviation is not observed: that is, the Lorentz contraction is not observed in the gravitational field of the earth. If there is a Lorentz contraction, the GPS cannot work so precisely. The GPS satellites are in the gravitational field of the earth, therefore the system should be interpreted by the theory of general relativity as well as special relativity.

Masanori Sato

2007-03-12

360

NANOMETER PRECISION IN LARGE SURFACE PROFILOMETRY.

The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is in use at many synchrotron radiation (SR) laboratories throughout the world and by a number of manufacturers who specialize in fabricating grazing incidence mirrors for SR and x-ray telescope applications. Recent improvements in the design and operation of the LTP system have reduced the statistical error in slope profile measurement to the 1 standard deviation level of 0.3 microradian for 0.5 meter long mirrors. This corresponds to a height error on the order of 10-20 nanometers. This level of performance allows one to measure with confidence the absolute shape of large cylindrical aspheres and spheres that have kilometer radii of curvature in the axial direction. The LTP is versatile enough to make measurements of a mirror in the face up, sideways, and face down configurations. We will illustrate the versatility of the current version of the instrument, the LTP II, and present results from two new versions of the instrument: the in situ LTP (ISLTP) and the Vertical Scan LTP (VSLTP). Both of them are based on the penta prism LTP (ppLTP) principle that utilizes a stationary optical head and moving penta prism. The ISLTP is designed to measure the distortion of high heat load mirrors during actual operation in SR beam lines. The VSLTP is designed to measure the complete 3-dimensional shape of x-ray telescope cylinder mirrors and mandrels in a vertical configuration. Scans are done both in the axial direction and in the azimuthal direction.

TAKACS,P.Z.

1999-08-30

361

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidecadal review of glacier fluctuations and case-studies of glacier processes and environments in central East Greenland will be used to demonstrate Mechanisms that Amplify, Attenuate and Deviate glacier response to climate forcings (MAAD). The different spatial and temporal scales at which MAAD affect mass balance and ice flow may complicate interpretation and longterm extrapolation of glacier response to climate change. A framework of MAAD characterisation and best-practice for interpreting climate signals while taking into account MAAD will be proposed. Glaciers in the Watkins Bjerge, Geikie Plateau and Stauning Alps regions of central East Greenland (68-72N) contain about 50000 km2 of glacierized area peripheral to the Greenland Ice Sheet. Within the region, large north-south and coast-inland climatic gradients, as well as complicated topography and glacier dynamics, result in discrepant glacier behaviour. Average retreat rates have doubled from about 2 to 4 km2 a-1 between the late 20th and early 21st centuries. However, glaciers terminating along the Atlantic coast display two times the retreat, thinning, and acceleration rates compared to glaciers terminating in inland fjords or on land. Despite similar climatic forcing variable glacier behaviour is apparent: individual glacier length change ranges from +57 m a-1 to -428 m a-1, though most retreat -20 to -100 m a-1. Interacting dynamic, mass balance and glacio-morphological mechanisms can amplify, attenuate or deviate glacier response (MAAD) to climate change, thus complicating the climatological interpretation of glacier length, area, and thickness changes. East Greenland MAAD include a range of common positive and negative feedback mechanisms in surface mass balance and terminus and subglacial boundary conditions affecting ice flow, but also mechanisms that have longterm or delayed effects. Certain MAAD may affect glacier change interpretation on multiple timescales: e.g. surging glaciers do not only pose problems for the direct interpretation of climate change from length and volume changes due to their dynamically-driven advance and retreat regimes, but also for the reconstruction of LIA extents from trimlines and moraines, and the reconstruction of surface mass balance due to crevasses, potholes or debris-cover. This presentation will address a range of MAAD, including thermal regime transitions; ocean influences on tidewater-terminating glaciers; glacier fragmentation and tributary-trunk interaction; glacier surging and tidewater behaviour; seasonal variations; glacier hypsometry and morphology; terrain and substrate; melt-albedo and melt-ice flow feedbacks; and ice marginal lakes.

Jiskoot, H.

2013-12-01

362

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An answer to Fermi's question, 'Where are they?', is presented. The answer is: we are alone because our Universe is bad for civilization. The combination of physical constants does not need to be more fine tuned than is necessary to permit one civilization and, since extreme fine tuning of the constants is a very unlikely event, it is most likely that our Universe is just good enough to permit the development of only one civilization. The alternative anthropic principle can be formulated as follows: 'It is most likely to observe a universe in which civilized life is an extremely rare phenomenon.'

Khrapko, R. I.

2003-06-01

363

Protection - Principles and practice.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The protection mechanisms of computer systems control the access to objects, especially information objects. The principles of protection system design are formalized as a model (theory) of protection. Each process has a unique identification number which is attached by the system to each access attempted by the process. Details of system implementation are discussed, taking into account the storing of the access matrix, aspects of efficiency, and the selection of subjects and objects. Two systems which have protection features incorporating all the elements of the model are described.

Graham, G. S.; Denning, P. J.

1972-01-01

364

Principles of electroanalytical methods

Using a structured approach, this book offers a basic understanding of theoretical and practical aspects of a wide range of electroanalytical techniques. It provides basic definitions, conventions, principles, and approaches and covers approximately fifteen analytical methods based on electrochemical cells and electrolysis cells. Reflecting the latest advances in the field, it is designed to teach the reader to select a suitable method for a particular application, identify similarities between methods, and prepare for further study. The book features self-assessment work and suggests experiments for three-hour lab periods. SI units are used extensively.

Riley, T.; Tomlinson, C.; James, A.M.

1987-01-01

365

Hawking temperature for various kinds of black holes from Heisenberg uncertainty principle

Hawking temperature is computed for a large class of black holes (with spherical, toroidal and hyperboloidal topologies) using only laws of classical physics plus the "classical" Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. This principle is shown to be fully sufficient to get the result, and there is no need to this scope of a Generalized Uncertainty Principle.

Fabio Scardigli

2006-07-04

366

Condensation and Large Cardinals Sy-David Friedman, Peter Holy

Condensation and Large Cardinals Sy-David Friedman, Peter Holy Abstract We introduce two generalized condensation principles: Local Club Condensation and Stationary Condensation. We show that while Strong Condensation (a generalized Condensation principle intro- duced by Hugh Woodin in [19

367

On Generalized Uncertainty Principle

We study generalized uncertainty principle through the basic concepts of limit and Fourier transformation and analyze both the quantum theory of gravity and string theory from the perspective of complex function theory. Motivated from the noncommutative nature of string theory, we have proposed a UV/IR mixing dependent function $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $. For a given $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $, we arrived at the string uncertainty principle from the analyticity condition of a complex function, which depends upon UV cut-off of the theory. This non trivially modifies the quantum measurements, black hole physics and short distance geometries. The present analysis is based on the postulate that the Planck scale is the minimal length scale in nature. Furthermore, our consideration is in perfect agreement with the existence of the maximum length scale in nature. Both of the above length scales rely only upon the analysis of $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $ and do not directly make use of any specific structure of the theory or Hamiltonian. The Regge behavior of the string spectrum and the quantization of the horizon area of a black hole are natural consequences of the function $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $. It is hereby anticipated that $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $ contains all possible corrections operating in nature, and thus a promising possibility to reveal important clues towards the geometric origin of $M$-theory.

Bhupendra Nath Tiwari

2011-09-20

368

Uncertainty Principle Respects Locality

The notion of nonlocality implicitly implies there might be some kind of spooky action at a distance in nature, however, the validity of quantum mechanics has been well tested up to now. In this work it is argued that the notion of nonlocality is physically improper, the basic principle of locality in nature is well respected by quantum mechanics, namely, the uncertainty principle. We show that the quantum bound on the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality can be recovered from the uncertainty relation in a multipartite setting, and the same bound exists classically which indicates that nonlocality does not capture the essence of quantum and then distinguish quantum mechanics and classical mechanics properly. We further argue that the super-quantum correlation demonstrated by the nonlocal box is not physically comparable with the quantum one, as the result, the physical foundation for the existence of nonlocality is falsified. The origin of the quantum structure of nature still remains to be explained, some post-quantum theory which is more complete in some sense than quantum mechanics is possible and might not necessarily be a hidden variable theory.

Dongsheng Wang

2013-03-21

369

Principle of relative locality

We propose a deepening of the relativity principle according to which the invariant arena for nonquantum physics is a phase space rather than spacetime. Descriptions of particles propagating and interacting in spacetimes are constructed by observers, but different observers, separated from each other by translations, construct different spacetime projections from the invariant phase space. Nonetheless, all observers agree that interactions are local in the spacetime coordinates constructed by observers local to them. This framework, in which absolute locality is replaced by relative locality, results from deforming energy-momentum space, just as the passage from absolute to relative simultaneity results from deforming the linear addition of velocities. Different aspects of energy-momentum space geometry, such as its curvature, torsion and nonmetricity, are reflected in different kinds of deformations of the energy-momentum conservation laws. These are in principle all measurable by appropriate experiments. We also discuss a natural set of physical hypotheses which singles out the cases of energy-momentum space with a metric compatible connection and constant curvature.

Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita 'La Sapienza', and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P. le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2Y5 (Canada); Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Pl. Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

2011-10-15

370

Principles of Safety Pharmacology

Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.). PMID:18604233

Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

2008-01-01

371

Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle

Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

Evers, Ellen R. K.; Lakens, Danil

2013-01-01

372

Principles of safety pharmacology.

Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.). PMID:18604233

Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

2008-08-01

373

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equatorial shallow water equations at low Froude number form a symmetric hyperbolic system with large terms containing a variable coefficient, the Coriolis parameter f, which depends on the latitude. The limiting behavior of the solutions as the Froude number tends to zero was investigated rigorously a few years ago, using the common approximation that the variations of f with latitude are linear. In that case, the large terms have a peculiar structure, due to special properties of the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian, which can be exploited to prove strong uniform a priori estimates in adapted functional spaces. It is shown here that these estimates still hold when f deviates from linearity, even though the special properties on which the proofs were based have no obvious generalization. As in the linear case, existence, uniqueness and convergence properties of the solutions corresponding to general unbalanced data are deduced from the estimates.

Dutrifoy, Alexandre

2014-10-01

374

Testing the strong equivalence principle by radio ranging

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary range data offer the most promising means to test the validity of the Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP). Analytical expressions for the perturbation in the 'range' expected from an SEP violation predicted by the 'variation-of-G' method and by the 'two-times' approach are derived and compared. The dominant term in both expressions is quadratic in time. Analysis of existing range data should allow a determination of the coefficient of this term with a one-standard-deviation uncertainty of about 1 part in 100 billion/yr.

Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.; Shapiro, I. I.

1984-01-01

375

Asymptotic approach to special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle

We propose a general framework to describe Planckian deviations from special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle. They are introduced as the leading corrections in an asymptotic approach to special relativity going beyond the energy power expansion of effective field theories. We discuss the conditions in which these Planckian effects might be experimentally observable in the near future, together with the nontrivial limits of applicability of this asymptotic approach that such a situation would produce, both at the very high (ultraviolet) and the very low (infrared) energy regimes.

Carmona, J. M.; Cortes, J. L.; Mazon, D. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)

2010-10-15

376

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171... BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports 606.171...

2013-04-01

377

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171... BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports 606.171...

2012-04-01

378

49 CFR 213.65 - Combined track alinement and surface deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry 213.65 Combined track alinement and surface deviations. On any curved track where operations are conducted at...

2013-10-01

379

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...

2014-01-01

380

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...

2011-01-01

381

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...

2013-01-01

382

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

383

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

384

48 CFR 1352.219-70 - Section 8(a) direct award (Deviation).

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Deviation). As prescribed in 48 CFR 1319.811-3(a), insert the following clause: Section 8(A) Direct Award (Dl) (APR 2010) (a) This contract is issued as a direct award between the contracting activity and the 8(a)...

2010-10-01

385

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between nasal septal deviation and the middle turbinate hypertrophy using computed tomography. In this retrospective analysis, we examined 77 patients with nasal septal deviation. The mucosal and bone structures of the middle turbinate and the angle of the septum were measured using radiological analysis. Measurements of the middle turbinate on the convex side were compared to those on the concave side. Measurements of the bony and mucosal structure area of the middle turbinate were significantly greater than those on the concave side. The dimensions of medial mucosa thickness and bone thickness were not significantly different between the convex and concave sides. No significant correlation was found between the angle of deviation and other parameters. The present findings suggest that compensatory middle turbinate hypertrophy was caused both by conchal bone growth and mucosal hypertrophy in patients with nasal septal deviation. PMID:25377060

Demir, Deniz; Asil, K?yasettin; Gven, Mehmet; Kayaba?o?lu, Grkan; Y?lmaz, Mahmut Sinan

2014-11-01

386

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration State System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single- Case Deviation...States System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant...program expansion supplement for one State SSDI Grant. Approximately $82,332 in...

2013-09-24

387

Noise and deviation effects in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity

We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements such as gravitational wave detection. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can be controlled within $10^{-4}$. The laser phase noise decreases the dispersion magnitude while the amplitude noise increases it. Although we can always adjust the parameters to satisfy the white light condition, both noises make the cavity transmission curve uneven.

Qingqing Sun; M. Selim Shahriar; M. Suhail Zubairy

2009-09-30

388

Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity

We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can be controlled with an accuracy of 10{sup -4}. The laser phase noise decreases the dispersion magnitude while the amplitude noise increases it. Although we can always adjust the parameters to satisfy the white light condition, both types of noise make the cavity transmission curve uneven.

Sun Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail [Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Shahriar, M. Selim [Departments of EECS and Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3118 (United States)

2010-03-15

389

SMALL DEVIATIONS OF RIEMANNLIOUVILLE PROCESSES IN L q SPACES WITH RESPECT TO FRACTAL MEASURES

We investigate Riemann-Liouville processes RH,H > 0, and fractional Brownian motions BH, 0 < H < 1, and study their small deviation properties in the spaces Lq((0,1),). Of special interest are hereby thin (fractal) measures , i.e., those which are singular with respect to the Lebesgue measure. We describe the behavior of small deviation probabilities by numerical quantities of ,

MIKHAIL LIFSHITS; WERNER LINDE; ZHAN SHI

2005-01-01

390

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The definitive ideas that led to the creation of general relativity crystallized in Einstein's thinking during 1912 while he was in Prague. At the centenary meeting held there to mark the breakthrough, I was asked to talk about earlier great work of relevance to dynamics done at Prague, above all by Kepler and Mach. The main topics covered in this chapter are: some little known but basic facts about the planetary motions; the conceptual framework and most important discoveries of Ptolemy and Copernicus; the complete change of concepts that Kepler introduced and their role in his discoveries; the significance of them in Newton's work; Mach's realization that Kepler's conceptual revolution needed further development to free Newton's conceptual world of the last vestiges of the purely geometrical Ptolemaic world view; and the precise formulation of Mach's principle required to place GR correctly in the line of conceptual and technical evolution that began with the ancient Greek astronomers.

Barbour, Julian

391

Principles of Digital Computing

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Principles of Digital Computing, is the sixteenth chapter in Volume IV âDigital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: a binary adder; look-up tables; finite state machines; microprocessors; and microprocessor planning. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-29

392

An understanding of the basic principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs is important in appropriate therapeutic use of various drugs. In simple terms, the effects of the body on the drug once it has entered the body has been referred to as pharmacokinetics, and it aims to provide a quantitative assessment of the main processes involved in biodisposition of the drug, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Pharmacodynamics concerns itself with the effects of the drug on the body and the main processes involved are the action of the drug on specific sites, especially the receptors. In addition, pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics evaluates the influence of genetics on drug response. This article reviews basic concepts of pharmacology applicable to psychotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of mental disorders of children and adolescents. PMID:21281845

Feucht, Cynthia; Patel, Dilip R

2011-02-01

393

Dynamical principles in neuroscience

Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?.

Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I. [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States) and GNB, Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States) and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States); Department of Physics and Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)

2006-10-15

394

Fault Management Guiding Principles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

2011-01-01

395

Dynamical principles in neuroscience

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

2006-10-01

396

Gait deviations and compensations in pediatric patients with increased femoral torsion.

Coxa antetorta describes an abnormal torsion of the femur. It is commonly considered a cosmetic problem and is treated surgically only in severe cases and the presence of physical complaints. The purpose of this study was to identify deviations in gait kinematics and kinetics in pediatric patients caused by coxa antetorta and to categorize these deviations into primary and secondary deviations. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis study to detect gait deviations in adolescents (n?=?18; age range 10.5-17.5 years) with coxa antetorta compared to age-matched healthy control subjects (n?=?17). Principal component (PC) analysis was used for data reduction. Linear mixed models applied to PC-scores were used to estimate the main effects within retained PCs followed by a post-hoc subgroup analysis. Patients walked with smaller external foot progression angle, greater knee adduction, more internally rotated and flexed hips and greater anterior pelvic tilt. Subgroup analysis revealed that-depending on knee alignment-patients had higher knee and hip adduction moments. These deviations in joint kinematics and kinetics may be associated with physical complaints and accelerated development of osteoarthritis. Assessment of gait deviations related to coxa antetorta using 3D gait analysis may be an additional tool in individual clinical decision-making. 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. PMID:25284013

Bruderer-Hofstetter, Marina; Fenner, Verena; Payne, Erika; Zdenek, Katja; Klima, Harry; Wegener, Regina

2014-10-01

397

Roll angle measurement based on common path compensation principle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel and compact roll angle displacement measurement method based on collimated laser position measurement and the common path compensation principle. The principles of the roll angle displacement measurement and the common path compensation are analyzed. The feasibility of the measurement method is verified, and the experimental results revealed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99995 between the relative displacement of the measuring beam spot and the angular displacement. Furthermore, the theoretical measurement resolution is 0.013 arcsec. To test the performance of the compensation, a series of experiments, including one system stability experiment and two different environmental interference experiments, were performed. The experimental results indicated that the standard deviations of the measuring beam spot's angular drift were improved by 82.6-87.2%. Thus, the stability of the system and the measurement resolution were improved.

Zhu, Yiwei; Liu, Shaocong; Kuang, Cuifang; Li, Shuai; Liu, Xu

2015-04-01

398

Risk Management Principles for Nanotechnology

Risk management of nanotechnology is challenged by the enormous uncertainties about the risks, benefits, properties, and future\\u000a direction of nanotechnology applications. Because of these uncertainties, traditional risk management principles such as acceptable\\u000a risk, costbenefit analysis, and feasibility are unworkable, as is the newest risk management principle, the precautionary\\u000a principle. Yet, simply waiting for these uncertainties to be resolved before undertaking

Gary E. Marchant; Douglas J. Sylvester; Kenneth W. Abbott

2008-01-01

399

The uncertainty of the lens mass can be substantially reduced if it is determined from the lens proper motion obtained from astrometric measurements of the source image centroid shifts, $\\vdelta\\vtheta_c$, by using high precision interferometers. However, for the complete resolution of the lens parameter degeneracy it is required to determine the lens parallax by measuring the parallax-induced deviations in the centroid shifts trajectory, $\\vDelta \\vdelta \\vtheta_c$. In this paper, we investigate the detectabilities of $\\vdelta\\vtheta_c$ and $\\vDelta\\vdelt\\vtheta_c$ by determining the distributions of the maximum centroid shifts and the average maximum deviations expected for different types of Galactic microlensing events caused by various masses. From this investigation, we find that as long as sources are bright enough for astrometric observations it is expected that $\\vdeltavxtheta_c$ for most events caused by masses greater than 0.1 M_\\odot regardless of the event types can be easily detected from observations by using not only the Space Interfeormetry Mission (SIM, with a detection threshold ~ 3 \\mu-as) but also the ground-based interferometers (with a threshold ~30 \\mu-as). However, detection of $\\vDelta\\vdelta\\vtheta_c$ from ground-based observations will be difficult for nearly all Galactic bulge self-lensing events, and will be restricted only for small fractions of disk-bulge and halo-LMC events, for which the deviations are relatively large. From observations by using the SIM, on the other hand, detecting $\\vDelta\\vdelta\\vtheta_c$ will be possible for majority of disk-bulge and halo-LMC events and even for some fraction of bulge self-lensing events. For the complete resolution of the lens parameter degeneracy, therefore, SIM observations (or equivalent) will be essential.

Cheongho Han; Kyongae Chang

2000-11-04

400

arXiv:1005.0147v1[math.PR]2May2010 A large-deviation view on

to as a "nature-versus-nurture" transition. MSC2010: Primary 60F10, 60G60, 60K35; Secondary 82B26, 82C22. Key, nature versus nurture. Acknowledgment: The authors are grateful for extended discussions with Christof K¨ulske. Part of this research was supported by the Dutch mathematics cluster Nonlinear Dynam- ics of Natural

Redig, Frank

401

an event \\Gamma for which ¯ = 2 ¯ \\Gamma, how to control the ``deviant'' behavior of the system inside of random variables (with a 1 = 1) and have proved the asymptotic hydrodynamical behavior of the system behavior investigation, a natural open question can be formulated as follows: From the hydrodynamical limit

402

Thoughts on the cosmological principle

The cosmological principle says that the Universe is spatially homogeneous and isotropic. It predicts, among other phenomena, the cosmic redshift of light and the Hubble law. Nevertheless, the existence of structure in the Universe violates the (exact) cosmological principle. A more precise formulation of the cosmological principle must allow for the formation of structure and must therefore incorporate probability distributions. In this contribution to the Memorial Volume for Wolfgang Kummer, a great teacher and mentor to me, I discuss how we could formulate a new version of the cosmological principle, how to test it, and how to possibly justify it by fundamental physics. My contribution starts with some of my memories of Wolfgang.

Schwarz, Dominik J

2009-01-01

403

Towards first-principles electrochemistry

This doctoral dissertation presents a comprehensive computational approach to describe quantum mechanical systems embedded in complex ionic media, primarily focusing on the first-principles representation of catalytic ...

Dabo, Ismaila

2008-01-01

404

Basic principles governing the design of magnetic switches

The idea of using saturable reactors as the basis of high power pulse generators is not a new concept, but there have been few recent applications of this technology. Here the principle of magnetic pulse generation is briefly described and some of the basic guidelines used to design these circuits are discussed. A demonstration of the principles by a small scale pulse amplifier is presented, and finally there is an extrapolation to a large scale system.

Birx, D.L.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Schmidt, J.; Smith, M.

1980-11-18

405

[The beginning of the first principles: the anthropic principle].

The nowadays classical Anthropic Principle is put both in the historical perspective of the traditional problem of "the place of man in the Universe', and in the confluence of several scientific "border" issues, some of which, due to their problematical nature, are also subject of philosophical analysis. On the one hand, the scientific uses of the Principle, related to the initial and constitutional conditions of "our Universe", are enumerated, as they are supposedly necessary for the appearance and consequent development of Life--up to Man--. On the other, an organized collection of the principles of today's Physics is synthetically exhibited. The object of this work is to determine the intrinsic scientific nature of the Anthropic Principle, and the role it plays in the global frame of the principles of Physics (Astrophysics, Astrobiology and Cosmology). PMID:15553402

Gonzlez de Posada, Francisco

2004-01-01

406

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rail wear dynamic measurement techniques are important to ensure the security of railway system and the efficiency of maintaining. Nowadays, a widely used approach is based on structured-light vision sensor, which includes a camera and a laser projector generating a light plane on the inner side of the rail. Considering the sensor installation error and vibration of running train, it is difficult to ensure the perpendicularity between the light plane and the rail, which leads to large measurement error. In order to overcome the problem, a motion deviation rectifying method is proposed. Rail section profiles are obtained by a multi-line structured-light vision sensor with multiple parallel light planes. Each profile can be segmented into two curves. One representing the rail waist is used to fit the rail longitudinal axis (parallel to train running direction) and establish an auxiliary plane perpendicular to the direction. Deviation rectifying process is to project the rail section profiles onto the auxiliary plane to recover perpendicularity between the light plane and the rail. Then another curve representing the rail head is used to calculate the rail wear based on the standard profile. The experimental results indicate that the method reduces the rail wear measurement error, meeting the requirements for real-time dynamic measurement of rail wear.

Sun, Junhua; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Yuntao; Liu, Qianzhe; Zhang, Guangjun

2013-09-01

407

When the value of a quantity for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty. PMID:24205158

Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazn, Mara Alejandra; Carrodeguas, Jos A.

2013-01-01

408

Local sequence alignments statistics: deviations from Gumbel statistics in the rare-event tail

Background The optimal score for ungapped local alignments of infinitely long random sequences is known to follow a Gumbel extreme value distribution. Less is known about the important case, where gaps are allowed. For this case, the distribution is only known empirically in the high-probability region, which is biologically less relevant. Results We provide a method to obtain numerically the biologically relevant rare-event tail of the distribution. The method, which has been outlined in an earlier work, is based on generating the sequences with a parametrized probability distribution, which is biased with respect to the original biological one, in the framework of Metropolis Coupled Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Here, we first present the approach in detail and evaluate the convergence of the algorithm by considering a simple test case. In the earlier work, the method was just applied to one single example case. Therefore, we consider here a large set of parameters: We study the distributions for protein alignment with different substitution matrices (BLOSUM62 and PAM250) and affine gap costs with different parameter values. In the logarithmic phase (large gap costs) it was previously assumed that the Gumbel form still holds, hence the Gumbel distribution is usually used when evaluating p-values in databases. Here we show that for all cases, provided that the sequences are not too long (L > 400), a "modified" Gumbel distribution, i.e. a Gumbel distribution with an additional Gaussian factor is suitable to describe the data. We also provide a "scaling analysis" of the parameters used in the modified Gumbel distribution. Furthermore, via a comparison with BLAST parameters, we show that significance estimations change considerably when using the true distributions as presented here. Finally, we study also the distribution of the sum statistics of the k best alignments. Conclusion Our results show that the statistics of gapped and ungapped local alignments deviates significantly from Gumbel in the rare-event tail. We provide a Gaussian correction to the distribution and an analysis of its scaling behavior for several different scoring parameter sets, which are commonly used to search protein data bases. The case of sum statistics of k best alignments is included. PMID:17625018

Wolfsheimer, Stefan; Burghardt, Bernd; Hartmann, Alexander K

2007-01-01

409

Milk Fever Control Principles: A Review

Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%60% in terms of milk fever prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K) (Cl + S)) significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD principle is a palatability problem. The principle of feeding rations low in calcium is highly efficient in milk fever prevention provided the calcium intake in the dry period is kept below 20 g per day. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a very low mean RR (between 0 and 0.20) (daily calcium intake below versus above 20 g/d). The main problem in implementing the low-Ca principle is difficulties in formulating rations sufficiently low in calcium when using commonly available feeds. The use of large doses of vitamin D metabolites and analogues for milk fever prevention is controversial. Due to toxicity problems and an almost total lack of recent studies on the subject this principle is not described in detail. A few management related issues were discussed briefly, and the following conclusions were made: It is important to supply the periparturient cow with sufficient magnesium to fulfil its needs, and to prevent the dry cows from being too fat. Available information on the influence of carbohydrate intake, and on the effect of the length of the dry period and prepartum milking, is at present insufficient to include these factors in control programmes. PMID:12071112

2002-01-01

410

Magnetic Core Memory Principles

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A researcher from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow provides this website on Magnetic RAM (MRAM) -- a non-volatile memory storage system similar to Flash memory except that it uses less power and switches faster. Predicting that "2005 could see mass production of MRAM parts" to be used in powering instant-on computers and computers that are in stand-by power-savings mode (as is currently done with PDAs and laptops), the author reviews some of the physical challenges yet to be overcome. The website provides some basic information on magnetic memory and binary notation, as well as sections on: the Principle of the Magnetic Memory, The Rectangular Hysterisis Loop, A Magnetic Memory Element, Arrangement of Magnetic Core Memories, Relation between the Decimal and Binary Codes, How Numbers Are Stored in a Memory, How a Binary-Coded Decimal Digit is 'written in,' How a Digit is 'read out,' and a Complete Wiring Diagram of a Matrix Plane.

Doherty, Frederico A.

411

Small Representation Principle

In a previous article Don Bennett and I looked for, found and proposed a game in which the Standard Model Gauge Group $S(U(2) \\times U(3))$ gets singled out as the "winner". This "game" means that the by Nature chosen gauge group should be just that one, which has the maximal value for a quantity, which is a modification of the ratio of the quadratic Casimir for the adjoint representation and that for a "smallest" faithful representation. In a recent article I proposed to extend this "game" to construct a corresponding game between different potential dimensions for space-time. The idea is to formulate, how the same competition as the one between the potential gauge groups would run out, if restricted to the potential Lorentz or Poincare groups achievable for different dimensions of space-time $d$. The remarkable point is, that it is the experimental space-time dimension 4, which wins. It follows that the whole Standard Model is specified by requiring SMALLEST REPRESENTATIONS! Speculatively we even argue that our principle found suggests the group of gauge transformations and some manifold(suggestive of say general relativity).

H. B. F. Nielsen

2014-03-06

412

[The principles of homeopathy].

Homeopathy is a gentle but effective form of treatment which stimulates the natural ability of the organism to heal itself. The word homoeopathy comes from the greek words "homoios" which means similar, and "pathos" which means disease. This reflects the main principle of homoeopathy, the law of similars, which predicts that a disease can be cured by a medicine, which in healthy people is able to produce a condition that resembles the disease. The law of similars is probably a basic law of nature. Therefore it is not surprising that examples can also be found in orthodox medicine, where the mode of functioning for some medicines probably can be ascribed the law of similars. Homoeopathic medicines are likely to work through the body's own curative powers in a way that is best explained by comparison with vaccination. Both the homoeopathic medicine and the vaccine constitute a mild stimulous that causes mobilisation of the body's defence mechanisms and thus increased ability to oppose a pathogenic influence. The homoeopathic medicine does not work at molecular level, but probably through non-materialistic qualities (possibly electromagnetic in nature) in the organism, which are so sensitive that even a mild stimulus is enough to cause a reaction. This means that homoeopathic preparations can still have an effect even when diluted beyond avogadro's number. PMID:9265314

Hjelvik, M; Mrenskog, E

1997-06-30

413

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. 317...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. ...commerce may be printed in a foreign language and may show the statement of...

2010-01-01

414

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. 317...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. ...commerce may be printed in a foreign language and may show the statement of...

2011-01-01

415

Publications Aquaculture: Principles, Practices, and

Publications Aquaculture: Principles, Practices, and Disease Controls Are Published "Principles of Warmwater Aquaculture" by Robert R. Stickney, has been published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. as an introductory text. As such, it examines various subject areas of aquaculture and provides concepts

416

Ideario Educativo (Principles of Education).

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) which discusses an overall educational policy for Mexico based on Constitutional principles and those of humanism. The basic principles that should guide Mexican education as seen by the National Technical Council for Education are the following: (1) love of country; (2)

Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

417

Computational principles of movement neuroscience

Unifying principles of movement have emerged from the computational study of motor control. We review several of these principles and show how they apply to processes such as motor planning, control, estimation, prediction and learning. Our goal is to demonstrate how specific models emerging from the computational approach provide a theoretical framework for movement neuroscience.

Zoubin Ghahramani; Daniel M. Wolpert

2000-01-01

418

Uncertainty principle quantum estimation theory

Uncertainty principle in view of quantum estimation theory Keiji Matsumoto METR 97-08 October 1997 #12;Uncertainty principle in view of quantum estimation theory Keiji Matsumoto 1 Abstract Position-momentum uncertainty relation is examined in the light of quantum estimation theory, and some counterintuitive results

Yamamoto, Hirosuke

419

Principles for Conducting Outcomes Research.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents principles that should be considered in planning and interpreting studies of outcomes of interventions with children receiving mental health services. Principles to consider when planning outcome studies include recognizing that "outcome" refers to multiple rather than single domains and choosing outcome domains that coincide

Salzer, Mark S.

420

Agile Principles and Ethical Conduct

Software practitioners experience pressure to compromise their work and their reasonable care for others. Even as software becomes more beneficial, pervasive, and interconnected, the potential for unintended harm grows. Agile Software Development is an approach to building software systems that embodies a set of declared core principles. How do these principles align to an ethical standard of conduct? This paper

Ken H. Judy

2009-01-01

421

PRINCIPLES OF ARCHIVES & RECORDS MANAGEMENT

PRINCIPLES OF ARCHIVES & RECORDS MANAGEMENT Archives and records management is based upon." The basic unit used in all discussions of records management and all records retention and disposi- tion of a record series is known as "appraisal," the second basic principle of records management. Appraisal

New Mexico, University of

422

The growing interest in data mining is motivated by a common problem across disciplines: how does one store, access, model, and ultimately describe and understand very large data sets? Historically, different aspects of data mining have been addressed independently by different disciplines. This is the first truly interdisciplinary text on data mining, blending the contributions of information science, computer science,

David J. Hand; Heikki Mannila; Padhraic Smyth

2001-01-01

423

A systematic review: the effects of podiatrical deviations on nonspecific chronic low back pain.

Lower back pain (LBP) is a widespread, expensive, and debilitating problem in Western industrialized countries. Though LBP can be caused by acute injuries, biomechanical discrepancies have also been indicated to cause chronic LBP. A possible link between podiatrical deviations and LBP has been established in the literature; yet, no comprehensive review investigating the effects of foot and ankle deviations on low back pain has been published. The aim of this study was to assess the relevant literature concerning the effects of foot and ankle deviations on LBP. After review, it was determined that there is limited research regarding ankle and foot deviations and their connection to LBP. Reviewed studies have linked flat feet, ankle instability, sagittal plane blockage and excessive pronation to LBP. Specifically, excessive pronation has been shown to cause leg length discrepancies leading to pelvic tilts and LBP. Based on these results, ankle and foot deviations can be considered a potential cause for LBP due to the disruption of the kinetic chain from the foot to the back. Clinicians should consider the foot and ankle when addressing LBP, especially if more conventional etiologies fail to describe the condition. PMID:23640312

O'Leary, Colin B; Cahill, Caroline R; Robinson, Andrew W; Barnes, Meredith J; Hong, Junggi

2013-01-01

424

Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems

In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-12-15

425

An interferogram of the wavefront deformation to a flat wave caused by an aircraft or spacecraft window contains all the error contribution effects of the window. The interferogram may be analyzed to determine the slope of this wavefront at a given point, which yields the angular deviation to a line of sight through the point. The interferogram as used in this study is a two-dimensional photo representing the three-dimensional relationship of the transmitted wave relative to the flat reference wave. The progression from light to dark fringes is the progression of the third dimension normal to the photo, and the fringes are thus similar to contour lines on a topographic map. To demonstrate the ability to obtain interferograms, to analyze interferograms, and to achieve sufficient accuracy, an aircraft window and spacecraft window were studied in an experimental test. The deviations to a line of sight were derived from transmitted wave interferograms obtained in the laboratory and were also measured precisely by an autocollimator system. The standard deviation of the transmitted wave deviations derived from interferograms relative to directly measured deviations was 0.7 sec of arc, indicating that the transmitted wave interferogram method is a good tool for window error determination. PMID:20076334

Walsh, T M; Warner, D N

1970-05-01

426

Optic eikonal, Fermat's principle and the least action principle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalized refractive index in the form of optic eikonal is defined through comparing frame definitions of left-handed and right-handed sets and indicates the sign of the refractive index covered by the quadratic form of the eikonal equation. Fermats principle is generalized, and the general refractive law is derived directly. Under this definition, the comparison between Fermats principle and the least action principle is made through employing path integral and analogizing L. de Broglies theory.

Tan, Kangbo; Liang, Changhong; Shi, Xiaowei

2008-12-01

427

Periodontal diseases are among the most common diseases affecting humans. Dental biofilm is a contributor to the etiology of most periodontal diseases. It is also widely accepted that immunological and inflammatory responses to biofilm components are manifested by signs and symptoms of periodontal disease. The outcome of such interaction is modulated by risk factors (modifiers), either inherent (genetic) or acquired (environmental), significantly affecting the initiation and progression of different periodontal disease phenotypes. While definitive genetic determinants responsible for either susceptibility or resistance to periodontal disease have yet to be identified, many factors affecting the pathogenesis have been described, including smoking, diabetes, obesity, medications, and nutrition. Currently, periodontal diseases are classified based upon clinical disease traits using radiographs and clinical examination. Advances in genomics, molecular biology, and personalized medicine may result in new guidelines for unambiguous disease definition and diagnosis in the future. Recent studies have implied relationships between periodontal diseases and systemic conditions. Answering critical questions regarding host-parasite interactions in periodontal diseases may provide new insight in the pathogenesis of other biomedical disorders. Therapeutic efforts have focused on the microbial nature of the infection, as active treatment centers on biofilm disruption by non-surgical mechanical debridement with antimicrobial and sometimes anti-inflammatory adjuncts. The surgical treatment aims at gaining access to periodontal lesions and correcting unfavorable gingival/osseous contours to achieve a periodontal architecture that will provide for more effective oral hygiene and periodontal maintenance. In addition, advances in tissue engineering have provided innovative means to regenerate/repair periodontal defects, based upon principles of guided tissue regeneration and utilization of growth factors/biologic mediators. To maintain periodontal stability, these treatments need to be supplemented with long-term maintenance (supportive periodontal therapy) programs. PMID:23240942

Dentino, Andrew; Lee, Seokwoo; Mailhot, Jason; Hefti, Arthur F

2013-02-01

428

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shot peening is frequently used to improve mechanical characteristics of metallic components' surfaces. The physical properties of shot peened surfaces exhibit deviations from their bulk values. This paper shows that there exists a scaling law (universality) among seemingly unrelated material property deviations and among different peening conditions. We present examples and support for scaling behaviors based on experimental data on Almen strip deflection, cold work and residual stress profiles of a shot peened nickel-base superalloy (Waspaloy), and swept frequency eddy current signals used for NDE studies of another shot peened nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718). In addition, a fast impedance calculation formula for a coil placed on a metal with small, continuous conductivity deviation is presented and used for analytical and numerical study of eddy current signals.

Frishman, A. M.; Lo, C. C. H.; Shen, Y.; Nakagawa, N.

2009-03-01

429

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of recent theories of physics beyond the standard model would, if true, lead to deviations from Newtonian gravity on experimentally accessible length scales. A few of the most important theoretical proposals along these lines are large extra spatial dimensions, string theoretic dilatons and moduli, and scalar particles in hidden supersymmetric sectors. This list is not exhaustive---there are many reasons to investigate the behavior of gravity at small length scales, perhaps the most compelling of which is the fact that it is largely unexplored territory. To detect or constrain deviations from Newtonian gravity, we have constructed a second-generation cantilever-based probe to directly measure the force between two masses separated by tens of microns. The drive mass in our experiment consists of a metal disc with trenches machined in its face. The trenches are filled with a lighter material and covered with gold so that only the density (and not the conductivity or height) is modulated with the proper periodicity. This mass is rotated by a cryogenic helium gas bearing, producing an AC force on a gold test mass. The test mass sits on a silicon nitride cantilever enclosed in a sealed micromachined cavity maintained at low pressure by an integrated cryopump. The cantilever's displacement is recorded by a focused fiber interferometer and correlated with the rotation of the drive mass. This signal can be averaged over many drive mass rotations and used as a measurement of the force between the drive mass and the test mass. This measured force can be compared to calculations of the predicted force from various Yukawa-type interactions. This dissertation describes the design and construction of the apparatus, presents the first data from it, and discusses the prospects for increased precision in constraint or detection of non-Newtonian effects using this probe.

Weld, David Minot

430

Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008

The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.

2006-01-01

431

Low-temperature deviations from Bloch's law in BaFe12O19 hexaferrite

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NMR method is used to study the temperature variations of local fields on 57Fe nuclei in the octahedral positions 12k, 4f2, and 2a of the iron ions in the ferrite BaFe12O19. The possibility of applying Bloch's spin-wave theory to describe the temperature variations of the local fields on the iron nuclei is examined. Deviations from Bloch's 3/2 power law are found in the temperature range 4.2-77 K. These deviations cannot be described on the basis of the behavioral characteristics due to the presence of an energy gap in the acoustic magnon spectrum.

Bezlepkin, A. A.; Kuntsevich, S. P.

2005-03-01

432

OECD Principles of Corporate Governance

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Principles of Corporate Governance" sets out a structure for directing and controlling corporate businesses. This document (html or .pdf) consists of five sections detailing the principles: "The rights of shareholders," "The equitable treatment of shareholders," "The role of stakeholders in corporate governance," "Disclosure and transparency," and "The responsibilities of the board," as well as annotations for each of the sections. Be sure to visit the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance Q&A page, linked at the top of the page.

433

Dark matter and the equivalence principle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence principle. The astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter are discussed and rather tight constraints on its strength are found. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). Such an interaction also has unusual implications for the growth of large-scale structure.

Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

1991-01-01

434

Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging.

The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe. PMID:23618745

Son, Joo-Hiuk

2013-05-31

435

Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in voids.

Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.

2009-11-01

436

Principles and application of electrochemistry

This book presents of introduction to electrochemistry. Emphasizes fundamental principles with some discussion of application. Includes chapter problems with solutions and discussion of electrode processes emphasizing electrochemical sensors, electrocatalysis, and electrosynthesis.

Crow, D.R.

1988-01-01

437

Fundamental principles of particle detectors

This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs.

Fernow, R.C.

1988-01-01

438

Local and Global Relativity Principles

Local versions of the (special) principle of relativity say that if the same type of experiment is conducted in two isolated, unaccelerated laboratories, then the outcomes of those experiments must be the same. Global ...

Skow, Bradford

439

Acoustic emission, principles and instrumentation

This is a tutorial paper. It first covers the general physical principles encountered in the field of acoustic emission. It then discusses different types of instrumentation and signal analysis techniques used with signal channel acoustic emission tests.

Beattie

1983-01-01

440

Get Provoked: Applying Tilden's Principles.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This address given to the Division of Interpretation, Yellowstone National Park, Interpretive Training, June 1993, examines successes and failures in interpretive programs for adults and children in light of Tilden's principles. (LZ)

Shively, Carol A.

1995-01-01

441

7 CFR 3430.31 - Guiding principles.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Guiding principles. 3430.31 Section 3430...Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION...Evaluation 3430.31 Guiding principles. The guiding principle for Federal assistance...

2010-01-01

442

HARDY'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE ON CERTAIN LIE GROUPS

HARDY'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE ON CERTAIN LIE. 1. Introduction The Uncertainty Principle states, roughly speaking, that a nonzero function f, considerable attention has been devoted to discovering forms of the* * Uncertainty Principle on Lie groups

Cowling, Michael

443

Data Communication Principles Reliable Data Transfer

Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer Data Communication Basics Mahalingam Ramkumar Mississippi State University, MS September 8, 2014 Ramkumar CSE 4153 / 6153 #12;Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer 1 Data Communication Principles Data Rate of a Communication

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

444

Statistical Applets: Mean-Standard Deviation Analysis of Two-Asset Portfolios

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove, this applet illustrates the concept of risk versus return in investment portfolios by analyzing mean and standard deviation and graphing results. It accompanies "Practice of Business Statistics," but does not require use of this text.

Duckworth, William; Mccabe, George; Moore, David; Sclove, Stanley

2009-03-12

445

The object of this paper is to study the problem of constructing an approximate solution of a first-order weakly nonlinear ordinary differential equation with deviating argument and slowly varying coefficients. On the basis of asymptotic techniques in nonlinear mechanics, we construct an algorithm for the asymptotic integration of the differential equation under consideration.

Yu. A. Mitropolskii; G. Matarazzo; A. Pompei; V. G. Samoilenko

2004-01-01

446

Introduction The perovskite structure is quite simple, yet deviations from this structure can

example is the CMR material La 0:67 Ca 0:33 MnO 3 , which is very nearly a perfect perovskite structure1 Chapter 1 Introduction The perovskite structure is quite simple, yet deviations from structural transitions. Two important classes of materials with such novel electronic properties that have

Booth, Corwin H.

447

Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested

Carlson, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

448

MUSiCAn Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

Meyer, Arnd

2010-02-01

449

This paper presents an analysis of the deviation of hydraulic fractures associated with the poroelastic change of the in situ stress field caused by fluid injection and pumping in the reservoir. This mechanism is studied within the confines of a simple model involving one injection and one pumping well, and a hydraulic fracture propagating along the path initially equidistant from

I. Berchenko; E. Detournay

1997-01-01

450

DROPLET CONDENSATION IN THE ISING MODEL: MODERATE DEVIATIONS POINT OF VIEW

DROPLET CONDENSATION IN THE ISING MODEL: MODERATE DEVIATIONS POINT OF VIEW ROLAND L. DOBRUSHIN 1 Yermolova Street GSP--4 Moscow 101447 Russia Abstract. The threshold for the condensation of the vapour. The parameter which drives the condensation is the amount of the condensing phase, and the critical value of it

Grimmett, Geoffrey

451

ARTISTIC IMAGE GENERATION BY DEVIATION MAPPING LIU WENYIN Microsoft Research China, 49 Zhichun Road, Beijing 100080, China wyliu@microsoft.com ZHONG HUA Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA, USA zhonghh@cs.cmu.edu XIN TONG XU YINGQING HEUNG-YEUNG SHUM Microsoft Research China, 49

Rajamani, Sriram K.

452

Vibrational Excitation in Single-Molecule Transistors: Deviation from the Simple

Vibrational Excitation in Single-Molecule Transistors: Deviation from the Simple Franck+) in a single-molecule-transistor geometry. In (Cp)2Fen+ (n ) 0 and 1), almost no vibrations were excited during single-electron transport, whereas in (bpy)3Fen+ (n ) 1, 2, and 3), many distinct vibrations appeared

Heller, Eric

453

Standards Deviation: How Schools Misunderstand Education Policy. CPRE Policy Briefs. RB-43

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief summarizes the findings of a recent book, "Standards Deviation: How Schools Misunderstand Education Policy" (Spillane, 2004), that examines state and local government relations as the standards move from the statehouse to the district policymakers and teachers who attempt to make sense of them. It takes a case study approach, focusing

Spillane, Jim

2005-01-01

454

Ecology and taxonomy-driven deviations in the frog callbody size relationship across the diverse Australian frog fauna C. J. Hoskin1,2 , S. James2 & G. C. Grigg2 1 School of Botany & Zoology, The Australian, St Lucia, Qld, Australia Keywords frog call; body size; signal evolution; environmental noise

Keogh, Scott

455

Despite the relatively small atomic fraction of a given heteroatom in a binary mixture of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), the inclusion of heteroatomic substituted compounds can significantly impact mixture vapor pressure behavior over a wide range of temperatures. The vapor pressures of several binary PAC mixtures containing various heteroatoms show varying behavior, from practically ideal behavior following Raoults law to significant deviations from ideality depending on the heteroatom(s) present in the mixture. Mixtures were synthesized using the quench-cool technique with equimolar amounts of two PAC, both containing heteroatoms such as aldehyde, carboxyl, nitrogen, and sulfur substituent groups. For some mixtures, deviation from ideality is inversely related to temperature, though in other cases we see deviations from ideality increasing with temperature, whereas some appear independent of temperature. Most commonly we see lower vapor pressures than predicted by Raoults law, which indicates that the interacting heteroatoms prefer the solid mixture phase as opposed to the vapor phase. Although negative deviations predominate from Raoults Law, the varying mixtures investigated show both higher and lower enthalpies and entropies of sublimation than predicted. In each mixture, a higher enthalpy of sublimation leads to higher entropy of sublimation than predicted, and vice versa. PMID:23807818

Goldfarb, Jillian L.; Suuberg, Eric M.

2013-01-01

456

MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation

A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

Meyer, Arnd [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

2010-02-10

457

Flow Deviation: 40 years of incremental flows for packets, waves, cars and tunnels

- rock's leadership and DARPA support, developed a method based on multicommodity flow and non-linear Networks journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/comnet #12;non-linear, unconstrained multicommodity (m.c.) flow prob- lems. A ``Flow Deviation'' (FD) method for the solution of these non-linear, unconstrained

Kleinrock, Leonard

458

Uncertainty Relation from Holography Principle

We propose that the information and entropy of an isolated system are two sides of one coin in the sense that they can convert into each other by measurement and evolution of the system while the sum of them is identically conserved. The holographic principle is reformulated in the way that this conserved sum is bounded by a quarter of the area A of system boundary. Uncertainty relation is derived from the holographic principle.

Jia-Zhong Chen; Duoje Jia

2006-11-18

459

Developmental principles: fact or fiction.

While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them. PMID:22489210

Durston, A J

2012-01-01

460

Sociotechnical principles for system design.

This paper offers a set of sociotechnical principles to guide system design, and some consideration of the role of principles of this kind. The principles extend earlier formulations by Cherns (1976, Human Relations, 29, 783-792; 1987, Human Relations, 40, 153-162). They are intended to apply to the design of new systems, including those incorporating new information technologies and a range of modern management practices and ways of working. They attempt to provide a more integrated perspective than is apparent in existing formulations. The principles are of three broad types: meta, content and process, though they are highly interrelated. They are for use by system managers, users and designers, and by technologists and social scientists. They offer ideas for debate and provide devices through which detailed design discussions can be elaborated. The principles are most likely to be effective if they are relatively freestanding, but supported by relevant methods and tools. The principles are necessary but not sufficient to make a substantial contribution to design practice. PMID:11059460

Clegg, C W

2000-10-01

461

Quantifying the anomalous self-diffusion in molybdenum with first-principles simulations

First-principles molecular-dynamics simulations based on a recently developed exchange-correlation functional show that self-diffusion in the refractory metal molybdenum is associated with strongly temperature-dependent activation energies for vacancy formation and migration. While static calculations of self-diffusion rates based on transition-state theory deviate systematically from experiments, with up to two orders of magnitude, the current results are accurate to within a mean

T. R. Mattsson; N. Sandberg; R. Armiento; A. E. Mattsson

2009-01-01

462

Objective To understand the etiology and resolution of unanticipated events in the operating room (OR). Background The majority of surgical adverse events occur intra-operatively. The OR represents a complex, high-risk system. The influence of different human, team, and organizational/environmental factors on safety and performance is unknown. Methods We video-recorded and transcribed 10 high-acuity operations, representing 43.7 hours of patient care. Deviations, defined as delays and/or episodes of decreased patient safety, were identified by majority consensus of a multidisciplinary team. Factors that contributed to each event and/or mitigated its impact were determined and attributed to the patient, providers, or environment/organization. Results Thirty-three deviations (10 delays, 17 safety compromises, 6 both) occurred with a mean of one every 79.4 minutes. These deviations were multifactorial (mean 3.1 factors). Problems with communication and organizational structure appeared repeatedly at the root of both types of deviations. Delays tended to be resolved with vigilance, communication, coordination, and cooperation, while mediation of safety compromises was most frequently accomplished with vigilance, leadership, communication, and/or coordination. The organization/environment was not found to play a direct role in compensation. Conclusions Unanticipated events are common in the OR. Deviations result from poor organizational/environmental design and suboptimal team dynamics, with caregivers compensating to avoid patient harm. While recognized in other high risk domains, such human resilience has not yet been described in surgery and has major implications for the design of safety interventions. PMID:22750753

Hu, Yue-Yung; Arriaga, Alexander F.; Roth, Emilie M.; Peyre, Sarah E.; Corso, Katherine A.; Swanson, Richard S.; Osteen, Robert T.; Schmitt, Pamela; Bader, Angela M.; Zinner, Michael J.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

2012-01-01

463

Design Principles for Effective Knowledge Discovery from Big Data

Big data phenomenon refers to the practice of collection and processing of very large data sets and associated systems and algorithms used to analyze these massive datasets. Architectures for big data usually range across multiple machines and clusters, and they commonly consist of multiple special purpose sub-systems. Coupled with the knowledge discovery process, big data movement offers many unique opportunities for organizations to benefit (with respect to new insights, business optimizations, etc.). However, due to the difficulty of analyzing such large datasets, big data presents unique systems engineering and architectural challenges. In this paper, we present three sys- tem design principles that can inform organizations on effective analytic and data collection processes, system organization, and data dissemination practices. The principles presented derive from our own research and development experiences with big data problems from various federal agencies, and we illustrate each principle with our own experiences and recommendations.

Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Horey, James L [ORNL

2012-01-01

464

The Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade (HKA) test is based on the prediction from the neutral theory that levels of polymorphism within a species and the divergence between two closely related species should be correlated. Population subdivision has been shown to alter both the amounts of polymorphism segregating within species and the rate of divergence between species, meaning that genomic regions with different population structures also differ in their divergence to polymorphism ratios. Population subdivision may hence hamper the utility of the HKA test for detecting deviations from the standard neutral model, especially for organelle genomes that often have different patterns of population structure compared with nuclear genes. In this paper, I show that population subdivision inflates the number of instances where the HKA test detects deviations from the neutral model. Using coalescent simulations I show that this bias is most apparent when population subdivision is strong and differs substantially between the loci included. However, if divergence time is large and population structure substantial even changes in the levels of polymorphism and divergence associated with differences in the effective population size between two loci is enough to substantially alter the number of significant outcomes of the HKA test. A dataset on cytoplasmic diversity in Sileine vulgaris and S. latifolia (Ingvarsson & Taylor, 2002) is also reanalysed. The previous study had shown a marked excess of intraspecific polymorphism in both species. However, when effects of population subdivision were removed, ad hoc, levels of intraspecific polymorphism were no longer significantly different from neutral expectations, suggesting that population subdivision contributed to the observed excess of intraspecific polymorphism seen in both species of Silene. PMID:15125064

Ingvarsson, Pr K

2004-02-01

465

The Contact Principle and Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Young Children

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years

Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

2010-01-01

466

Assessment of a Diversity Assignment in a PR Principles Course

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses an assignment for incorporating diversity into the principles of public relations course. The assignment is tailored to the challenges of using an active learning approach in a large lecture class. For the assignment, students write a goal, objectives, strategies, an identification of tactics, and evaluation plans for either

Gallicano, Tiffany Derville; Stansberry, Kathleen

2012-01-01

467

Variational Principles in General Relativity

This thesis details an effort to generate astrophysically interesting solutions to the two-body problem in General Relativity. The thesis consists of two main parts. The first part presents an analytical variational principle for describing binary neutron stars undergoing irrotational fluid flow. The variational principle is a powerful tool for generating accurate estimates of orbital parameters for neutron stars in quasi-equilibrium orbits. The second part of the thesis details the numerical application of the variational principle by solving the initial value problem for binary black holes in quasi- equilibrium circular orbits. The analysis draws from the novel ``puncture'' method of describing the black holes, and relies on nonlinear adaptive multigrid techniques for generating numerical results. We arrive at two important conclusions. First, the analytical variational principle describing binary neutron stars in irrotational motion provides a road map for future numerical simulations, and also lends credence to previous simulations by other authors. Second, the numerical application and description of binary black holes in quasi-equilibrium circular orbits simplifies the analyses of previous authors, and allows for the imposition of realistic boundary data in simulations with relatively high grid densities. Both the variational principle and its application are used to generate accurate estimates of the orbital parameters.

Brian D. Baker

2002-05-26

468

Another algebraic variational principle for the spectral curve of matrix models

We propose an alternative variational principle whose critical point is the algebraic plane curve associated to a matrix model (the spectral curve, i.e. the large $N$ limit of the resolvent). More generally, we consider a variational principle that is equivalent to the problem of finding a plane curve with given asymptotics and given cycle integrals. This variational principle is not given by extremization of the energy, but by the extremization of an "entropy".

B. Eynard

2014-07-31

469

Measurement of two-dimensional small angle deviation with a prism interferometer

A new technique for the measurement of two-dimensional small angular deviation is presented. A compound prism, which effectively produces a combination of two right-angled prisms in orthogonal directions, and plane reference surfaces have been utilized for the measurement of the orthogonal components of the angular tilt of an incident plane wavefront. Each orthogonal component of the angular tilt is separately measured from the angular rotation of the resultant wedge fringes between two plane wavefronts generated due to splitting of the incident plane wavefront by the corresponding set of right-angled prism and plane reference surface. The technique is shown to have high sensitivity for the measurement of small angle deviation. A monolithic prism interferometer, which is practically insensitive to vibration, is also proposed. Results obtained for the measurement of a known tilt angle are presented.

Chatterjee, Sanjib; Kumar, Y. Pavan

2008-09-20

470

MUSiC - Model-independent search for deviations from Standard Model predictions in CMS

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach for a model independent search in CMS. Systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectations, such an analysis can help to understand the detector and tune event generators. By minimizing the theoretical bias the analysis is furthermore sensitive to a wide range of models for new physics, including the uncounted number of models not-yet-thought-of. After sorting the events into classes defined by their particle content (leptons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy), a minimally prejudiced scan is performed on a number of distributions. Advanced statistical methods are used to determine the significance of the deviating regions, rigorously taking systematic uncertainties into account. A number of benchmark scenarios, including common models of new physics and possible detector effects, have been used to gauge the power of such a method. )

Pieta, Holger

2010-02-01

471

Deviation equations of Synge and Schild over spaces with affine connections and metrics

Deviation equation of Synge and Schild has been investigated over spaces with affine connections and metrics. It is shown that the condition for the vanishing of the Lie derivative of a vector field along a given non-null (non-isotropic) vector field u for obtaining this equation is only a sufficient (but not necessary) condition. By means of the vector field u and the projective metric (orthogonal to it) projected deviation equations of Synge and Schild have been obtained for a vector field, orthogonal to the given vector field u, as well as for the square of its length. For a given non-isotropic, auto-parallel and normalized vector field u this equation could have some simple solutions. PACS numbers: 02.90; 04.50+h; 04.90.+e: 04.30.+x

S. Manoff

2000-12-05

472

A finite element approach for shells of revolution with a local deviation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element model that is suitable for the static analysis of shells of revolution with arbitrary local deviations is presented. The model employs three types of elements: rotational, general, and transitional shell elements. The rotational shell elements are used in the region where the shell is axisymmetric. The general shell element are used in the local region of the deviation. The transitional shell elements connect these two distinctively different types of elements and make it possible to combine them in a single analysis. The form of the global stiffness matrix resulting when different forms of nodal degrees of freedom are combined is illustrated. The coupling of harmonic degrees of freedom due to the locally nonaxisymmetric geometry was studied. The use of a substructuring technique and separate partial harmonic analysis is recommended.

Han, K. J.; Gould, P. L.

1982-01-01

473

DEVIATIONS FROM THE SCHMIDT-KENNICUTT RELATIONS DURING EARLY GALAXY EVOLUTION

We utilize detailed time-varying models of the coupled evolution of stars and the H I, H{sub 2}, and CO-bright H{sub 2} gas phases in galaxy-sized numerical simulations to explore the evolution of gas-rich and/or metal-poor systems, which are expected to be numerous in the early universe. The inclusion of the CO-bright H{sub 2} gas phase and the realistic rendering of star formation as an H{sub 2}-regulated process (and the new feedback processes that this entails) allow the most realistic tracking of strongly evolving galaxies and much better comparison with observations. We find that while galaxies eventually settle into states conforming to the Schmidt-Kennicutt (S-K) relations, significant and systematic deviations of their star formation rates (SFRs) from the latter occur, and are especially pronounced and prolonged for metal-poor systems. The largest such deviations occur for gas-rich galaxies during not only the early evolutionary stages but also during brief periods at later stages. Given that gas-rich and/or metal-poor states of present-epoch galaxies are expected in the early universe while a much larger number of mergers frequently reset non-isolated systems to gas-rich states, even brief periods of sustained deviations of their SFRs from those expected from the S-K relations may come to characterize significant periods of their stellar mass built-up. This indicates potentially serious limitations of S-K-type relations as reliable sub-grid elements of star formation physics in simulations of structure formation in the early universe. We anticipate that galaxies with marked deviations from the S-K relations will be found at high redshifts as unbiased inventories of total gas mass become possible with ALMA and the EVLA.

Papadopoulos, Padelis P. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Pelupessy, Federico I. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2010-07-10

474

Methodology for evaluate the form deviations for formula one nose car

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a measuring strategy for a Formula One car using a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) and a 3D laser scanning devices. The measurement procedures outlined the dimensional deviation of the CAD model and prototype made of composite material. The authors present two methods for the determination of symmetry for components of a Formula One car based on measuring and 3D scanning.

Bere, Paul; Neamtu, Calin

2014-06-01

475

Implementing measures to ensure radiation therapy protocols are followed not only decreases deviations, but it can also improve overall survival in cancer patients, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital researchers suggest in a first-of-its kind study presented during a plenary session at the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 54th Annual Meeting in Boston. Thomas Jefferson University Hospital is home to the Kimmel Cancer Center.

476

The geodesic as well as the geodesic deviation equation for impulsive gravitational waves involve highly singular products of distributions (thetadelta,theta2delta,delta2). A solution concept for these equations based on embedding the distributional metric into the Colombeau algebra of generalized functions is presented. Using a universal regularization procedure we prove existence and uniqueness results and calculate the distributional limits of these solutions

Michael Kunzinger; Roland Steinbauer

1999-01-01

477

This paper discusses a class of impulsive neural networks with the variable delay and complex deviating arguments. By using Mawhin's continuation theorem of coincidence degree and the Halanay-type inequalities, several sufficient conditions for impulsive neural networks are established for the existence and globally exponential stability of periodic solutions, respectively. Furthermore, the obtained results are applied to some typical impulsive neural network systems as special cases, with a real-life example to show feasibility of our results. PMID:25397685

Zhao, Yong; Feng, Zhaosheng; Ding, Wei

2014-11-14

478

Low-temperature deviations from Bloch's law in BaFe12O19 hexaferrit

The NMR method is used to study the temperature variations of local fields on 57Fe nuclei in the octahedral positions 12k,4f2, and 2a of the iron ions in the ferrite BaFe12O19. The possibility of applying Blochs spin-wave theory to describe the temperature variations of the local fields on the iron nuclei is examined. Deviations from Blochs 3\\/2 power law are

A. A. Bezlepkin; S. P. Kuntsevich

2005-01-01

479

Mean-Absolute Deviation Portfolio Optimization Model and Its Applications to Tokyo Stock Market

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that a portfolio optimization model using the L_{1<\\/sub> risk (mean absolute deviation risk) function can remove most of the difficulties associated with the classical Markowitz's model while maintaining its advantages over equilibrium models. In particular, the L1<\\/sub> risk model leads to a linear program instead of a quadratic program, so that a}

Hiroshi Konno; Hiroaki Yamazaki

1991-01-01

480

Evaluating Least Absolute Deviation Regression As An Inverse Model In Groundwater Calibration

A new Least Absolute Deviation and Expectation Maximization (LAD-EM) FORTRAN procedure replaced the MODFLOW groundwater model Least Squares (LSG) parameter estimation inverse procedure. The LSG and LAD-EM MODFLOW inverse models were applied to a multi-layer 20,000 hectare watershed in Iowa. The hydraulic conductivity parameters computed with the LAD-EM MODFLOW inverse model agree with published data. The LSG MODFLOW model predicted

J. M. Huddleston

2004-01-01

481

This article presents experience from the practice of a successful pharmaceutical company related to design and implementation\\u000a of performance measures (PMs) for deviation management linked to the analysis of impact on the production cost for the selected product. Case study focuses\\u000a on PMs within good manufacturing practice (GMP) processes related to quality assurance (QA) and quality management, with the aim

Zorana Boltic; Nenad Ruzic; Mica Jovanovic; Slobodan Petrovic

2010-01-01

482

Statistical analysis of the deviation of the Reynolds stress from its eddy-viscosity representation

An improvement of the eddy-viscosity representation for Reynolds stress is made from the statistical viewpoint. The Reynolds stress is calculated with the aid of the two-scale direct-interaction formalism, and its deviation from the eddy-viscosity representation is found under general mean flows. This result theoretically elucidates the noncoincidence of the zeros of Reynolds stress and mean strain, which is frequently observed

Akira Yoshizawa

1984-01-01

483

Whatever we do, we do it in our own way, and we recognize master artists by small samples of their work. This study investigates individuality of temporal deviations in musical scales in pianists in the absence of deliberate expressive intention. Note-by-note timing deviations away from regularity form a remarkably consistent "pianistic fingerprint." First, eight professional pianists played C-major scales in two sessions, separated by 15?min. Euclidian distances between deviation traces originating from different pianists were reliably larger than traces originating from the same pianist. As a result, a simple classifier that matched deviation traces by minimizing their distance was able to recognize each pianist with 100% accuracy. Furthermore, within each pianist, fingerprints produced by the same movements were more similar than fingerprints resulting in the same scale sound. This allowed us to conclude that the fingerprints are mostly neuromuscular rather than intentional or expressive in nature. However, human listeners were not able to distinguish the temporal fingerprints by ear. Next, 18 pianists played C-major scales on a normal or muted piano. Recognition rates ranged from 83 to 100%, further supporting the view that auditory feedback is not implicated in the creation of the temporal signature. Finally, 20 pianists were recognized 20?months later at above chance level, showing signature effects to be long lasting. Our results indicate that even non-expressive playing of scales reveals consistent, partially effector-unspecific, but inaudible inter-individual differences. We suggest that machine learning studies into individuality in performance will need to take into account unintentional but consistent variability below the perceptual threshold. PMID:23519688

Van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmller, Eckart

2013-01-01

484

Multicommodity flow problems with a bounded number of paths: A flow deviation approach

Abstract We propose a modified version of the Flow Deviation method of Fratta, Gerla and Kleinrock to solve multicommodity,problems,with minimal,congestion and a bounded,number,of active paths. We discuss the approximation,of the min-max objective function by a separable convex potential function and give a mixed-integer non linear model for the constrained routing problem. A heuristic control of the path generation is then

Christophe Duhamel; Philippe Mahey

2007-01-01

485

Analyses of surgically induced astigmatism and axis deviation in microcoaxial phacoemulsification.

To evaluate surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) and axis deviation after coaxial microincision superotemporal clear corneal phacoemulsification incision in eyes with differently located steep axis. This prospective, comparative study included four groups of 45 eyes with age-related cataracts; each group underwent 2.2-mm superotemporal clear corneal incision (CCI) cataract surgery. The four groups of patients were divided by location of the steep axis. Groups were matched according to symmetry of the steep axis for both right and left eyes as follows--0-45 of steep axis for right eyes, and 136-180 for left eyes (group 1); 46-90 for right eyes and 91-135 for left eyes (group 2); 91-135 for right eyes and 46-90 for left eyes (group 3); and 136-180 for right eyes and 0-45 for left eyes (group 4). Outcome measures included changes in mean total astigmatism, SIA, and axis deviation. Astigmatism was measured by manual keratometry readings before surgery and week 1, week 4, week 8, and week 12 postoperatively. SIA was calculated by the vector analysis (Holladay-Cravy-Koch method). The magnitude of mean total astigmatism was lowest in group 3 and highest in group 1 at week 12. SIA was 0.39 diopters (D), 0.22 D, 0.17 D, and 0.28 D in group 1, group 2, group 3, and group 4, respectively. The change in astigmatic axis deviation was highest in group 3 (23.6 16.6) (P < 0.05). Axis deviation and SIA were stable after week 4. Planning of CCI on or near the steep axis can help decrease corneal astigmatism. PMID:24081915

zyol, Erhan; zyol, Pelin

2014-06-01

486

Principles of Virus Structural Organization

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

487

Mechanical Principles of Biological Nanocomposites

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological nanocomposites, such as bone, tooth, shell, and wood, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties. Much recent effort has been directed at exploring the basic mechanical principles behind the microstructures of these natural materials to provide guidelines for the development of novel man-made nanocomposites. This article reviews some of the recent studies on mechanical properties of biological nanocomposites, including their stiffness, strength, toughness, interface properties, and elastic stability. The discussion is focused on the mechanical principles of biological nanocomposites, including the generic nanostructure of hard-mineral crystals embedded in a soft protein matrix, the flaw-tolerant design of the hard phase, the role of the soft matrix, the hybrid interface between protein and mineral, and the structural hierarchy. The review concludes with some discussion of and outlook on the development of biomimicking synthetic materials guided by the principles found in biological nanocomposites.

Ji, Baohua; Gao, Huajian

2010-08-01

488

Bayes and the Simplicity Principle in Perception

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussions of the foundations of perceptual inference have often centered on 2 governing principles, the likelihood principle and the simplicity principle. Historically, these principles have usually been seen as opposed, but contemporary statistical (e.g., Bayesian) theory tends to see them as consistent, because for a variety of reasons simpler

Feldman, Jacob

2009-01-01

489

Large Extra Dimensions and Holography

The holographic principle asserts that the entropy of a system cannot exceed its boundary area in Planck units. However, conventional quantum field theory fails to describe such systems. In this Letter, we assume the existence of large $n$ extra dimensions and propose a relationship between UV and IR cutoffs in this case. We find that if $n=2$, this effective field theory could be a good description of holographic systems. If these extra dimensions are detected in future experiments, it will help to prove the validity of the holographic principle. We also discuss implications for the cosmological constant problem.

Chao Cao; Yi-Xin Chen

2008-09-24

490

Native Gating Behavior of Ion Channels in Neurons with Null-Deviation Modeling

Computational modeling has emerged as an indispensable approach to resolve and predict the intricate interplay among the many ion channels underlying neuronal excitability. However, simulation results using the classic formula-based Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) model or the superior Markov kinetic model of ion channels often deviate significantly from native cellular signals despite using carefully measured parameters. Here we found that the filters of patch-clamp amplifier not only delayed the signals, but also introduced ringing, and that the residual series resistance in experiments altered the command voltages, which had never been fully eliminated by improving the amplifier itself. To remove all the above errors, a virtual device with the parameters exactly same to that of amplifier was introduced into Markov kinetic modeling so as to establish a null-deviation model. We demonstrate that our novel null-deviation approach fully restores the native gating-kinetics of ion-channels with the data recorded at any condition, and predicts spike waveform and firing patterns clearly distinctive from those without correction. PMID:24204745

Yang, Yimei; Xiao, Feng; Yuchi, Ming; Qu, Anlian; Wang, Luyang; Ding, Jiuping

2013-01-01

491

Type II See-Saw Mechanism, Deviations from Bimaximal Neutrino Mixing and Leptogenesis

A possible interplay of both terms in the type II see-saw formula is illustrated by presenting a novel way to generate deviations from exact bimaximal neutrino mixing. In type II see-saw mechanism with dominance of the non-canonical SU(2)_L triplet term, the conventional see-saw term can give a small contribution to the neutrino mass matrix. If the triplet term corresponds to the bimaximal mixing scheme in the normal hierarchy, the small contribution of the conventional see-saw term naturally generates non-maximal solar neutrino mixing. Atmospheric neutrino mixing is also reduced from maximal, corresponding to 1 - \\sin^2 2 \\theta_{23} of order 0.01. Also, small but non-vanishing U_{e3} of order 0.001 is obtained. It is also possible that the \\Delta m^2 responsible for solar neutrino oscillations is induced by the small conventional see-saw term. Larger deviations from zero U_{e3} and from maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing are then expected. This scenario links the small ratio of the solar and atmospheric \\Delta m^2 with the deviation from maximal solar neutrino mixing. We comment on leptogenesis in this scenario and compare the contributions to the decay asymmetry of the heavy Majorana neutrinos as induced by themselves and by the triplet.

W. Rodejohann

2004-03-22

492

Under Atkins v. Virginia, the Eighth Amendment exempts from execution individuals who meet the clinical definitions of mental retardation set forth by the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and the American Psychiatric Association. Both define mental retardation as significantly subaverage intellectual functioning accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning, originating before the age of 18. Since Atkins, most jurisdictions have adopted definitions of mental retardation that conform to those definitions. But some states, looking often to stereotypes of persons with mental retardation, apply exclusion criteria that deviate from and are more restrictive than the accepted scientific and clinical definitions. These state deviations have the effect of excluding from Atkins's reach some individuals who plainly fall within the class it protects. This article focuses on the cases of Roger Cherry, Jeffrey Williams, Michael Stallings, and others, who represent an ever-growing number of individuals inappropriately excluded from Atkins. Left unaddressed, the state deviations discussed herein permit what Atkins does not: the death-sentencing and execution of some capital defendants who have mental retardation. PMID:19845060

Blume, John H; Johnson, Sheri Lynn; Seeds, Christopher

2009-01-01

493

Fermat Principle in Finsler Spacetimes

It is shown that, on a manifold with a Finsler metric of Lorentzian signature, the lightlike geodesics satisfy the following variational principle. Among all lightlike curves from a point (emission event) to a timelike curve (worldline of receiver), the lightlike geodesics make the arrival time stationary. Here ``arrival time'' refers to a parametrization of the timelike curve. This variational principle can be applied (i) to the vacuum light rays in an alternative spacetime theory, based on Finsler geometry, and (ii) to light rays in an anisotropic non-dispersive medium with a general-relativistic spacetime as background.

Volker Perlick

2005-08-08

494

RPL Dosimetry: Principles and Applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) is applied to the glass dosimeter, which is one of the most excellent solid state dosimeters. The silver activated phosphate glass irradiated with ionizing radiations emits luminescence when exposed to UV light. This phenomenon is called RPL. The most characteristic features of the glass dosimeters are data accumulation and no fading. The basic principle of RPL is described and then how it is applied to the glass dosimeter is explained. Finally some applications of RPL will be introduced.

Yamamoto, Takayoshi

2011-05-01

495

Purpose This paper seeks to address the effect that principle-based corporate governance practices have on the financial performance of large publicly-listed companies. In 2004, the New Zealand Securities Commission (NZSC) promulgated nine high level principles and guidelines for all business entities with an aim of improving corporate governance practices and boosting investor confidence in the New Zealand capital market.

Krishna Reddy; Stuart Locke; Frank Scrimgeour

2010-01-01

496

Clocks, computers, black holes, spacetime foam, and holographic principle

What do simple clocks, simple computers, black holes, space-time foam, and holographic principle have in common? I will show that the physics behind them is inter-related, linking together our concepts of information, gravity, and quantum uncertainty. Thus, the physics that sets the limits to computation and clock precision also yields Hawking radiation of black holes and the holographic principle. Moreover, the latter two strongly imply that space-time undergoes much larger quantum fluctuations than what the folklore suggests --- large enough to be detected with modern gravitational-wave interferometers through future refinements.

Y. Jack Ng

2000-10-25

497

Clocks, Computers, Black Holes, Spacetime Foam, and Holographic Principle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What do simple clocks, simple