Large Deviations Principle for Stochastic Scalar Conservation Laws
Mauro Mariani
2009-04-06
We investigate large deviations for a family of conservative stochastic PDEs (conservation laws) in the asymptotic of jointly vanishing noise and viscosity. We obtain a first large deviations principle in a space of Young measures. The associated rate functional vanishes on a wide set, the so-called set of measure-valued solutions to the limiting conservation law. We therefore investigate a second order large deviations principle, thus providing a quantitative characterization of non-entropic solutions to the conservation law.
The Boltzmann-Sanov Large Deviation Principle and
Ellis, Richard S.
studied by Ludwig Boltzmann. These ideas include microscopic and macroscopic levels of description, Cram the theory in the context of a simple model of a discrete ideal gas studied by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1877 [3The Boltzmann-Sanov Large Deviation Principle and Applications to Statistical Mechanics Richard S
A Large Deviation Principle at play in Large-Scale Structure cosmology
Bernardeau, Francis
2015-01-01
We present an application of Large Deviation Theory to the problem of structure growth on large-scale structure cosmology. Starting from gaussian distributed overdensities on concentric spherical shells, we show that a Large Deviation Principle holds for the densities on the corresponding shells after gravitational evolution if no shell-crossing happens. As consequences of the Large Deviation Principle we obtain the cumulant generating function for the non-linear densities, and present formulae to compute the cumulant generating function for general window functions.
Derivation of the Onsager principle from large deviation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Cour, Brian R.; Schieve, William C.
2004-01-01
The Onsager linear relations between macroscopic flows and thermodynamics forces are derived from the point of view of large deviation theory. For a given set of macroscopic variables, we consider the short-time evolution of near-equilibrium fluctuations, represented as the limit of finite-size conditional expectations. The resulting asymptotic conditional expectation is taken to represent the typical macrostate of the system and is used in place of the usual time-averaged macrostate of traditional approaches. By expanding in the short-time, near-equilibrium limit and equating the large deviation rate function with the thermodynamic entropy, a linear relation is obtained between the time rate of change of the macrostate and the conjugate initial macrostate. A Green-Kubo formula for the Onsager matrix is derived and shown to be positive semi-definite, while the Onsager reciprocity relations readily follow from time reversal invariance. Although the initial tendency of a macroscopic variable is to evolve towards equilibrium, we find that this evolution need not be monotonic. The example of an ideal Knundsen gas is considered as an illustration.
Large deviation principles for non gradient weakly asymmetric stochastic lattice gases
Bertini, L; Gabrielli, D
2010-01-01
We consider a lattice gas on the discrete d-dimensional torus (Z/NZ)^d with a generic translation invariant, finite range interaction satisfying a uniform strong mixing condition. The lattice gas performs a Kawasaki dynamics in the presence of a weak external field E/N. We show that, under diffusive rescaling, the hydrodynamic behavior of the lattice gas is described by a nonlinear driven diffusion equation. We then prove the associated dynamical large deviation principle. Under suitable assumptions on the external field (e.g. E constant), we finally analyze the variational problem defining the quasi-potential and characterize the optimal exit trajectory. From these results we deduce the asymptotic behavior of the stationary measures of the stochastic lattice gas, which are not explicitly known. In particular, when the external field E is constant, we prove a stationary large deviation principle for the empirical density and show that the rate function does not depend on E.
Large Deviations and Gallavotti-Cohen Principle for Dissipative PDEs with Rough Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakši?, V.; Nersesyan, V.; Pillet, C.-A.; Shirikyan, A.
2015-05-01
We study a class of dissipative PDEs perturbed by an unbounded kick force. Under some natural assumptions, the restrictions of solutions to integer times form a homogeneous Markov process. Assuming that the noise is rough with respect to the space variables and has a non-degenerate law, we prove that the system in question satisfies a large deviation principle (LDP) in ?-topology. Under some additional hypotheses, we establish a Gallavotti-Cohen type symmetry for the rate function of an entropy production functional and the strict positivity and finiteness of the mean entropy production rate in the stationary regime. The latter result is applicable to PDEs with strong nonlinear dissipation.
Eric Smith
2011-02-18
The meaning of thermodynamic descriptions is found in large-deviations scaling of the fluctuations probabilities. The primary large-deviations rate function is the entropy, which is the basis for both fluctuation theorems and for characterizing the thermodynamic interactions of systems. Freidlin-Wentzell theory provides a general formulation of large-deviations scaling for non-equilibrium stochastic processes, through a representation in terms of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. A number of related methods now exist to construct the Freidlin-Wentzell Hamiltonian for many kinds of stochastic processes; one method due to Doi and Peliti, appropriate to integer counting statistics, is widely used in reaction-diffusion theory. Using these tools together with a path-entropy method due to Jaynes, we show how to construct entropy functions that both express large-deviations scaling of fluctuations, and describe system-environment interactions, for discrete stochastic processes either at or away from equilibrium. A collection of variational methods familiar within quantum field theory, but less commonly applied to the Doi-Peliti construction, is used to define a "stochastic effective action", which is the large-deviations rate function for arbitrary non-equilibrium paths. We show how common principles of entropy maximization, applied to different ensembles of states or of histories, lead to different entropy functions and different sets of thermodynamic state variables. Yet the relations of among all these levels of description may be constructed explicitly and understood in terms of information conditions. The example systems considered introduce methods that may be used to systematically construct descriptions with all the features familiar from equilibrium thermodynamics, for a much wider range of systems describable by stochastic processes.
A. Faggionato; D. Gabrielli; M. Ribezzi Crivellari
2008-09-16
We consider Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes (PDMPs) with a finite set of discrete states. In the regime of fast jumps between discrete states, we prove a law of large number and a large deviation principle. In the regime of fast and slow jumps, we analyze a coarse-grained process associated to the original one and prove its convergence to a new PDMP with effective force fields and jump rates. In all the above cases, the continuous variables evolve slowly according to ODEs. Finally, we discuss some applications related to the mechanochemical cycle of macromolecules, including strained--dependent power--stroke molecular motors. Our analysis covers the case of fully--coupled slow and fast motions.
Large deviations and rain showers
Wilkinson, Michael
2015-01-01
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
Large deviation estimates involving deformed exponential functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naudts, Jan; Suyari, Hiroki
2015-10-01
We study large deviation properties of probability distributions with either a compact support or a fat tail by comparing them with q-deformed exponential distributions. Our main result is a large deviation property for probability distributions with a fat tail.
Large Deviations and a Fluctuation Symmetry for Chaotic Homeomorphisms
Christian Maes; Evgeny Verbitskiy
2002-03-06
We consider expansive homeomorphisms with the specification property. We give a new simple proof of a large deviation principle for Gibbs measures corresponding to a regular potential and we establish a general symmetry of the rate function for the large deviations of the antisymmetric part, under time-reversal, of the potential. This generalizes the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem to a larger class of chaotic systems.
From Large Deviations to Statistical Mechanics
Ellis, Richard S.
of large deviations has its roots in the work of Ludwig Boltzmann, the founder of statistical mechanics Boltzmann's insight is applied to prove a conditional limit theorem that addresses a basic issue arising
Large Deviations for Nonlocal Stochastic Neural Fields
2014-01-01
We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers’ law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20. PMID:24742297
On large deviations for ensembles of distributions
Khrychev, D A
2013-11-30
The paper is concerned with the large deviations problem in the Freidlin-Wentzell formulation without the assumption of the uniqueness of the solution to the equation involving white noise. In other words, it is assumed that for each ?>0 the nonempty set P{sub ?} of weak solutions is not necessarily a singleton. Analogues of a number of concepts in the theory of large deviations are introduced for the set (P{sub ?}, ?>0), hereafter referred to as an ensemble of distributions. The ensembles of weak solutions of an n-dimensional stochastic Navier-Stokes system and stochastic wave equation with power-law nonlinearity are shown to be uniformly exponentially tight. An idempotent Wiener process in a Hilbert space and idempotent partial differential equations are defined. The accumulation points in the sense of large deviations of the ensembles in question are shown to be weak solutions of the corresponding idempotent equations. Bibliography: 14 titles.
Convergence of large-deviation estimators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohwer, Christian M.; Angeletti, Florian; Touchette, Hugo
2015-11-01
We study the convergence of statistical estimators used in the estimation of large-deviation functions describing the fluctuations of equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and manmade stochastic systems. We give conditions for the convergence of these estimators with sample size, based on the boundedness or unboundedness of the quantity sampled, and discuss how statistical errors should be defined in different parts of the convergence region. Our results shed light on previous reports of "phase transitions" in the statistics of free energy estimators and establish a general framework for reliably estimating large-deviation functions from simulation and experimental data and identifying parameter regions where this estimation converges.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Nonlinear Beam Equations
Sidorov, Nikita
equations for nonlinear vibration of elastic panels (also called stochastic nonlinear beam equations). Key, and the nonlinear operator B(u) = 1 0 |xu|2 dx 2 xu. The mathematical model for the nonlinear penal vibrationLarge Deviations for Stochastic Nonlinear Beam Equations Tusheng Zhang First version: 31 December
Large Deviations for the Langevin Equation with Strong Damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerrai, Sandra; Freidlin, Mark
2015-11-01
We study large deviations in the Langevin dynamics, with damping of order ? ^{-1} and noise of order 1, as ? downarrow 0. The damping coefficient is assumed to be state dependent. We proceed first with a change of time and then we use a weak convergence approach to large deviations and its equivalent formulation in terms of the Laplace principle, to determine the good action functional. Some applications of these results to the exit problem from a domain and to the wave front propagation for a suitable class of reaction diffusion equations are considered.
Large Deviation Results for the Nonparametric Regression Function Estimator on Functional Data
Louani, Djamal
2011-01-01
This paper is devoted to the study of large deviation behaviors in the setting of the estimation of the regression function on functional data. A large deviation principle is stated for a process Zn, de?ned below, allowing to derive a pointwise large deviation principle for the Nadaraya-Watson-type l-indexed regression function estimator as a by-product. Moreover, a uniform over VC-classes Cherno? type large deviation result is stated for the deviation of the l-indexed regression estimator.
An Introduction to Large Deviations for Teletraffic Engineers
Weber, Richard
What Large Deviation Theory is about ffl Coin tossing: how to explore Large Deviations using your PC in Queuing Networks: effective bandwidths ffl Bypassing modelling: estimating the scaled CGF 2 #12; What Large Deviation Theory is about Large Deviation theory is a theory of rare events; it can be used
Nonequilibrium Markov processes conditioned on large deviations
Raphael Chetrite; Hugo Touchette
2014-10-09
We consider the problem of conditioning a Markov process on a rare event and of representing this conditioned process by a conditioning-free process, called the effective or driven process. The basic assumption is that the rare event used in the conditioning is a large deviation-type event, characterized by a convex rate function. Under this assumption, we construct the driven process via a generalization of Doob's $h$-transform, used in the context of bridge processes, and show that this process is equivalent to the conditioned process in the long-time limit. The notion of equivalence that we consider is based on the logarithmic equivalence of path measures and implies that the two processes have the same typical states. In constructing the driven process, we also prove equivalence with the so-called exponential tilting of the Markov process, which is used with importance sampling to simulate rare events, and which gives rise, from the point of view of statistical mechanics, to a nonequilibrium version of the canonical ensemble. Other links between our results and the topics of bridge processes, quasi-stationary distributions, stochastic control, and conditional limit theorems are mentioned.
Large Deviations in Quantum Lattice Systems: Onephase Region
the annihilation and creation operators for fermions of spin # # {#, #} at site x # Z d . These operators satisfy deviations in quantum statistical mechanics. To our knowledge, results on large deviations have been obtained and subadditivity arguments. #12; Other large deviation results in quantum mechanical models can be found in [4, 5
Large Deviations for Quantum Spin probabilities at temperature zero
Artur O. Lopes; Jairo K. Mengue; Joana Mohr
2015-05-06
We consider certain self-adjoint observables for the KMS state associated to the Hamiltonian $H= \\sigma_x \\otimes \\sigma_x$ over the quantum spin lattice $\\mathbb{C}^2 \\otimes \\mathbb{C}^2 \\otimes \\mathbb{C}^2 \\otimes ...$. For a fixed observable of the form $L \\otimes L \\otimes L \\otimes ...$, where $L:\\mathbb{C}^2 \\to \\mathbb{C}^2 $, and for zero temperature one can get a naturally defined stationary probability $\\mu$ on the Bernoulli space $\\{1,2\\}^\\mathbb{N}$. This probability is not Markov. Anyway, for such probability $\\mu$ we can show that a Large Deviation Principle is true for a certain class of functions. The result is derived by showing the explicit form of the free energy which is differentiable. We show that the natural probability $\\mu$ at temperature zero is invariant for the shift but it is not mixing. We also prove that $\\mu$ is not a Gibbs state for a continuous normalized potential.
Large deviations for spatially extended random neural networks
Tanguy Cabana; Jonathan Touboul
2015-10-26
We investigate the asymptotic mesoscopic behavior of a spatially extended stochastic neural networks dynamics in random environment with highly random connectivity weights. These systems model the spatiotemporal activity of the brain, thus feature (i) communication delays depending on the distance between cells and (ii) heterogeneous synapses: connectivity coefficients are random variables whose law depends on the neurons positions and whose variance scales as the inverse of the network size. When the weights are independent Gaussian random variables, we show that the empirical measure satisfies a large-deviation principle. This holds under a technical condition on time horizon, noise and heterogeneity in the general case, and with no restriction in the case where delays do not depend on space. The associated good rate function achieves its minimum at a unique spatially extended probability measure, implying convergence of the empirical measure and propagation of chaos. The limit is characterized through complex non Markovian implicit equation in which the network interaction term is replaced by a non-local Gaussian process whose statistics depend on the solution over the whole neural field. We further demonstrate the universality of this limit, in the sense that neuronal networks with non-Gaussian interconnection weights converge towards it provided that synaptic weights have a sufficiently fast decay.
Large deviations in randomly coloured random graphs J. D. Biggins
types (colours) of its vertices, so that whether or not edges are present can be dependent in the colourings followed by typical edge placement and the other from large deviation in edge placement. 1 is independently assigned one of a number of colours, and the probability that an edge arises depends
Large deviations for Branching Processes in Random Environment
Berestycki, Julien
Large deviations for Branching Processes in Random Environment Vincent Bansaye, Julien Berestycki September 26, 2009 Abstract A branching process in random environment (Zn, n N) is a generalization-Watson case, here random environments and the branching process can conspire to achieve atypical events
NEW LARGE DEVIATION RESULTS FOR SOME SUPER-BROWNIAN PROCESSES
Serlet, Laurent
large deviation results for the super-Brownian ex- cursion conditioned to have unit mass or unit-Brownian excursion normalized to have a unit mass or a unit duration, super-Brownian motion with (constant) non the super-Brownian excursion (SBE) with unit mass is a super-Brownian motion conditioned to have a total
Mathematical aspects The theory of large deviations and
Ellis, Richard S.
the first large deviation calculation in sci- ence, carried out by Ludwig Boltzmann. Stated in a modern, and a macroscopic level, on which the laws describing the behavior of the system are formulated. Boltzmann and), and Wightman (1979), which cover a number of topics relevant to these notes. Boltzmann's calculation
Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions via large deviations: computable examples
Frank Redig; Feijia Wang
2012-02-20
We give new and explicitly computable examples of Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions of mean-field type, using the large deviation approach introduced in [4]. These examples include Brownian motion with small variance and related diffusion processes, such as the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, as well as birth and death processes. We show for a large class of initial measures and diffusive dynamics both short-time conservation of Gibbsianness and dynamical Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions.
Deviations From Newton's Law in Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions
Callin, P
2006-01-01
Deviations from Newton's Inverse-Squared Law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the Cosmological Constant Problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the Dark Energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant natu...
Deviations From Newton's Law in Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions
P. Callin; C. P. Burgess
2005-11-17
Deviations from Newton's Inverse-Squared Law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the Cosmological Constant Problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the Dark Energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from General Relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's Law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case.
Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays
Kushner, Harold J.
2010-12-15
We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.
A large-deviation view on dynamical Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions
Aernout van Enter; Roberto Fernández; Frank den Hollander; Frank Redig
2010-05-02
We develop a space-time large-deviation point of view on Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions in spin systems subject to a stochastic spin-flip dynamics. Using the general theory for large deviations of functionals of Markov processes outlined in Feng and Kurtz [11], we show that the trajectory under the spin-flip dynamics of the empirical measure of the spins in a large block in Z^d satisfies a large deviation principle in the limit as the block size tends to infinity. The associated rate function can be computed as the action functional of a Lagrangian that is the Legendre transform of a certain non-linear generator, playing a role analogous to the moment-generating function in the Gartner-Ellis theorem of large deviation theory when this is applied to finite-dimensional Markov processes. This rate function is used to define the notion of "bad empirical measures", which are the discontinuity points of the optimal trajectories (i.e., the trajectories minimizing the rate function) given the empirical measure at the end of the trajectory. The dynamical Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions are linked to the occurrence of bad empirical measures: for short times no bad empirical measures occur, while for intermediate and large times bad empirical mea- sures are possible. A future research program is proposed to classify the various possible scenarios behind this crossover, which we refer to as a "nature-versus-nurture" transition.
Large deviation analysis of a simple information engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maitland, Michael; Grosskinsky, Stefan; Harris, Rosemary J.
2015-11-01
Information thermodynamics provides a framework for studying the effect of feedback loops on entropy production. It has enabled the understanding of novel thermodynamic systems such as the information engine, which can be seen as a modern version of "Maxwell's Dæmon," whereby a feedback controller processes information gained by measurements in order to extract work. Here, we analyze a simple model of such an engine that uses feedback control based on measurements to obtain negative entropy production. We focus on the distribution and fluctuations of the information obtained by the feedback controller. Significantly, our model allows an analytic treatment for a two-state system with exact calculation of the large deviation rate function. These results suggest an approximate technique for larger systems, which is corroborated by simulation data.
Large deviations for empirical measures generated by Gibbs measures with singular energy functionals
Paul Dupuis; Vaios Laschos; Kavita Ramanan
2015-11-21
We establish large deviation principles (LDPs) for empirical measures associated with a sequence of Gibbs distributions on $n$-particle configurations, each of which is defined in terms of an inverse temperature $\\beta_n$ and an energy functional that is the sum of a (possibly singular) interaction and confining potential. Under fairly general assumptions on the potentials, we establish LDPs both with speeds $\\beta_n/n \\rightarrow \\infty$, in which case the rate function is expressed in terms of a functional involving the potentials, and with the speed $\\beta_n =n$, when the rate function contains an additional entropic term. Such LDPs are motivated by questions arising in random matrix theory, sampling and simulated annealing. Our approach, which uses the weak convergence methods developed in "A weak convergence approach to the theory of large deviations", establishes large deviation principles with respect to stronger, Wasserstein-type topologies, thus resolving an open question in "First order global asymptotics for Calogero-Sutherland gases". It also provides a common framework for the analysis of LDPs with all speeds, and includes cases not covered due to technical reasons in previous works.
Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K.; Majumdar, Satya N.
2015-05-01
We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A . While the mean perimeter
Locality and nonlocality of classical restrictions of quantum spin systems with applications to quantum large deviations and entanglement
De Roeck, W. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Maes, C. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Schütz, M. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Neto?ný, K. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be
2015-02-15
We study the projection on classical spins starting from quantum equilibria. We show Gibbsianness or quasi-locality of the resulting classical spin system for a class of gapped quantum systems at low temperatures including quantum ground states. A consequence of Gibbsianness is the validity of a large deviation principle in the quantum system which is known and here recovered in regimes of high temperature or for thermal states in one dimension. On the other hand, we give an example of a quantum ground state with strong nonlocality in the classical restriction, giving rise to what we call measurement induced entanglement and still satisfying a large deviation principle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Roeck, W.; Maes, C.; Neto?ný, K.; Schütz, M.
2015-02-01
We study the projection on classical spins starting from quantum equilibria. We show Gibbsianness or quasi-locality of the resulting classical spin system for a class of gapped quantum systems at low temperatures including quantum ground states. A consequence of Gibbsianness is the validity of a large deviation principle in the quantum system which is known and here recovered in regimes of high temperature or for thermal states in one dimension. On the other hand, we give an example of a quantum ground state with strong nonlocality in the classical restriction, giving rise to what we call measurement induced entanglement and still satisfying a large deviation principle.
Applied Probability Trust (13 August 2010) LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR MINKOWSKI SUMS OF HEAVY-TAILED
Samorodnitsky, Gennady
Applied Probability Trust (13 August 2010) LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR MINKOWSKI SUMS OF HEAVY-TAILED distribution. The result confirms the heavy-tailed large deviation heuristics: "large" values of the sum with heavy-tailed random elements. Large deviations results for sums of heavy-tailed random elements
Large deviations for quasi-periodic cocycles with singularities
Pedro Duarte; Silvius Klein
2015-07-10
We derive large deviations type (LDT) estimates for linear cocycles over an ergodic multifrequency torus translation. These models are called quasi-periodic cocycles. We make the following assumptions on the model: the translation vector satisfies a generic Diophantine condition, and the fiber action is given by a matrix valued analytic function of several variables which is not identically singular. The LDT estimates obtained here depend on some uniform measurements on the cocycle. Our general results derived in [9] regarding the continuity properties of the Lyapunov exponents (LE) and of the Oseledets filtration and decompositions are then applicable, and we obtain local weak-Holder continuity of these quantities in the presence of gaps in the Lyapunov spectrum. The main new feature of this work is allowing a cocycle depending on several variables to have singularities, i.e. points of non invertibility. This requires a careful analysis of the set of zeros of certain analytic functions of several variables and of the singularities (i.e. negative infinity values) of pluri-subharmonic functions related to the iterates of the cocycle. A refinement of this method in the one variable case leads to a stronger LDT estimate and in turn to a stronger, nearly-Holder modulus of continuity of the LE, Oseledets filtration and Oseledets decomposition. This is a draft of a chapter in our forthcoming research monograph [9].
Large Deviations Techniques for Long-Range Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patelli, Aurelio; Ruffo, Stefano
After a brief introduction to the main equilibrium features of long-range interacting systems (ensemble inequivalence, negative specific heat and susceptibility, broken ergodicity, etc.) and a recall of Cramèr's theorem, we discuss in this chapter a general method which allows us to compute microcanonical entropy for systems of the mean-field type. The method consists in expressing the Hamiltonian in terms of global variables and, then, in computing the phase-space volume by fixing a value for these variables: this is done by using large deviations. The calculation of entropy as a function of energy is, thus, reformulated as the solution of a variational problem. We show the power of the method by explicitly deriving the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the three-state Potts model, the Blume-Capel model, an XY spin system, the ? 4 model and the Colson-Bonifacio model of the free electron laser. When short range interactions coexist with long-range ones, the method cannot be straightforwardly applied. We discuss an alternative variational method which allows us to solve the XY model with both mean-field and nearest neighbor interactions.
Irreversible Langevin samplers and variance reduction: a large deviations approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rey-Bellet, Luc; Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos
2015-07-01
In order to sample from a given target distribution (often of Gibbs type), the Monte Carlo Markov chain method consists of constructing an ergodic Markov process whose invariant measure is the target distribution. By sampling the Markov process one can then compute, approximately, expectations of observables with respect to the target distribution. Often the Markov processes used in practice are time-reversible (i.e. they satisfy detailed balance), but our main goal here is to assess and quantify how the addition of a non-reversible part to the process can be used to improve the sampling properties. We focus on the diffusion setting (overdamped Langevin equations) where the drift consists of a gradient vector field as well as another drift which breaks the reversibility of the process but is chosen to preserve the Gibbs measure. In this paper we use the large deviation rate function for the empirical measure as a tool to analyze the speed of convergence to the invariant measure. We show that the addition of an irreversible drift leads to a larger rate function and it strictly improves the speed of convergence of ergodic average for (generic smooth) observables. We also deduce from this result that the asymptotic variance decreases under the addition of the irreversible drift and we give an explicit characterization of the observables whose variance is not reduced reduced, in terms of a nonlinear Poisson equation. Our theoretical results are illustrated and supplemented by numerical simulations.
Large deviations for local time fractional Brownian motion and applications
Meerschaert, Mark M; Xiao, Yimin
2007-01-01
Let $W^H=\\{W^H(t), t \\in \\rr\\}$ be a fractional Brownian motion of Hurst index $H \\in (0, 1)$ with values in $\\rr$, and let $L = \\{L_t, t \\ge 0\\}$ be the local time process at zero of a strictly stable L\\'evy process $X=\\{X_t, t \\ge 0\\}$ of index $1<\\alpha\\leq 2$ independent of $W^H$. The $\\a$-stable local time fractional Brownian motion $Z^H=\\{Z^H(t), t \\ge 0\\}$ is defined by $Z^H(t) = W^H(L_t)$. The process $Z^H$ is self-similar with self-similarity index $H(1 - \\frac 1 \\alpha)$ and is related to the scaling limit of a continuous time random walk with heavy-tailed waiting times between jumps (\\cite{coupleCTRW,limitCTRW}). However, $Z^H$ does not have stationary increments and is non-Gaussian. In this paper we establish large deviation results for the process $Z^H$. As applications we derive upper bounds for the uniform modulus of continuity and the laws of the iterated logarithm for $Z^H$.
Irreversible Langevin samplers and variance reduction: a large deviation approach
Luc Rey-Bellet; Kostantinos Spiliopoulos
2015-04-22
In order to sample from a given target distribution (often of Gibbs type), the Monte Carlo Markov chain method consists in constructing an ergodic Markov process whose invariant measure is the target distribution. By sampling the Markov process one can then compute, approximately, expectations of observables with respect to the target distribution. Often the Markov processes used in practice are time-reversible (i.e., they satisfy detailed balance), but our main goal here is to assess and quantify how the addition of a non-reversible part to the process can be used to improve the sampling properties. We focus on the diffusion setting (overdamped Langevin equations) where the drift consists of a gradient vector field as well as another drift which breaks the reversibility of the process but is chosen to preserve the Gibbs measure. In this paper we use the large deviation rate function for the empirical measure as a tool to analyze the speed of convergence to the invariant measure. We show that the addition of an irreversible drift leads to a larger rate function and it strictly improves the speed of convergence of ergodic average for (generic smooth) observables. We also deduce from this result that the asymptotic variance decreases under the addition of the irreversible drift and we give an explicit characterization of the observables whose variance is not reduced reduced, in terms of a nonlinear Poisson equation. Our theoretical results are illustrated and supplemented by numerical simulations.
Large Deviations and Importance Sampling for Systems of Slow-Fast Motion
Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos
2013-02-15
In this paper we develop the large deviations principle and a rigorous mathematical framework for asymptotically efficient importance sampling schemes for general, fully dependent systems of stochastic differential equations of slow and fast motion with small noise in the slow component. We assume periodicity with respect to the fast component. Depending on the interaction of the fast scale with the smallness of the noise, we get different behavior. We examine how one range of interaction differs from the other one both for the large deviations and for the importance sampling. We use the large deviations results to identify asymptotically optimal importance sampling schemes in each case. Standard Monte Carlo schemes perform poorly in the small noise limit. In the presence of multiscale aspects one faces additional difficulties and straightforward adaptation of importance sampling schemes for standard small noise diffusions will not produce efficient schemes. It turns out that one has to consider the so called cell problem from the homogenization theory for Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations in order to guarantee asymptotic optimality. We use stochastic control arguments.
Large deviations for cluster size distributions in a continuous classical many-body system
Sabine Jansen; Wolfgang König; Bernd Metzger
2015-03-17
An interesting problem in statistical physics is the condensation of classical particles in droplets or clusters when the pair-interaction is given by a stable Lennard-Jones-type potential. We study two aspects of this problem. We start by deriving a large deviations principle for the cluster size distribution for any inverse temperature $\\beta\\in (0,\\infty)$ and particle density $\\rho\\in(0,\\rho_{\\mathrm{cp}})$ in the thermodynamic limit. Here $\\rho_{\\mathrm{cp}}>0$ is the close packing density. While in general the rate function is an abstract object, our second main result is the $\\Gamma$-convergence of the rate function toward an explicit limiting rate function in the low-temperature dilute limit $\\beta\\to \\infty$, $\\rho\\downarrow0$ such that $-\\beta^{-1}\\log\\rho\\to\
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teodorescu, Razvan
2009-10-01
Systems of oscillators coupled non-linearly (stochastically or not) are ubiquitous in nature and can explain many complex phenomena: coupled Josephson junction arrays, cardiac pacemaker cells, swarms or flocks of insects and birds, etc. They are know to have a non-trivial phase diagram, which includes chaotic, partially synchronized, and fully synchronized phases. A traditional model for this class of problems is the Kuramoto system of oscillators, which has been studied extensively for the last three decades. The model is a canonical example for non-equilibrium, dynamical phase transitions, so little understood in physics. From a stochastic analysis point of view, the transition is described by the large deviations principle, which offers little information on the scaling behavior near the critical point. I will discuss a special case of the model, which allows a rigorous analysis of the critical properties of the model, and reveals a new, anomalous scaling behavior in the vicinity of the critical point.
The Semi-Infinite Asymmetric Exclusion Process: Large Deviations via Matrix Products
Horacio González Duhart; Peter Mörters; Johannes Zimmer
2015-07-07
We study the totally asymmetric exclusion process on the positive integers with a single particle source at the origin. Liggett (1975) has shown that the long term behaviour of this process has a phase transition: If the particle production rate at the source is below a critical value, the stationary measure is a product measure, otherwise the stationary measure is spatially correlated. Following the approach of Derrida et al. (1993) it was shown by Gro{\\ss}kinsky (2004) that these correlations can be described by means of a matrix product representation. In this paper we derive a large deviation principle with explicit rate function for the particle density in a macroscopic box based on this representation. The novel and rigorous technique we develop for this problem combines spectral theoretical and combinatorial ideas and has the potential to be applicable to other models described by matrix products.
arXiv:mathph/0406065 Large Deviations in Quantum Lattice Systems
Bologna, Università di
in Section 3. Let c x;#27; and c #3; x;#27; denote the annihilation and creation operators for fermions about large deviations in quantum statistical mechanics. To our knowledge, results on large deviations will consider quantum systems of spins or fermions on a lattice. The statistical mechanics of spins and fermions
Garrido, Pedro L.
Current fluctuations and statistics during a large deviation event in an exactly solvable transport+17$30.00 #12;J.Stat.Mech.(2009)P02032 Current fluctuations and statistics during a large deviation event of Statistical Mechanics: An IOP and SISSA journalJ Theory and Experiment Current fluctuations and statistics
Large deviations, condensation and giant response in a statistical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corberi, Federico
2015-11-01
We study the probability distribution P of the sum of a large number of non-identically distributed random variables n m . Condensation of fluctuations, the phenomenon whereby one of such variables provides a macroscopic contribution to the global probability, is discussed and interpreted by analogy with phase-transitions in statistical mechanics. A general expression for P is derived, and its sensitivity to the details of the distribution of a single n m is worked out. These general results are verified by the analytical and numerical solution of some specific examples.
Large deviations and exact asymptotics for perpetuities with small discount rates
Blanchet, Jose H.
Large deviations and exact asymptotics for perpetuities with small discount rates Blanchet, J. and Glynn, P. August, 2005. Abstract A perpetuity takes the form D = R 0 e-(t-)d (t). In this paper, we deviations theory and sharp asymptotics for the distribution of general perpetuities - also known as infinite
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR POINT PROCESSES BASED ON STATIONARY SEQUENCES WITH HEAVY TAILS
Samorodnitsky, Gennady
LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR POINT PROCESSES BASED ON STATIONARY SEQUENCES WITH HEAVY TAILS HENRIK HULT deviations for point processes based on stationary sequences with regu- larly varying tails. This framework the marginal distributions are heavy-tailed and clustering of ex- treme values is observed. More precisely
Yoshida, Masaomi; Miyazaki, Syuji; Fujisaka, Hirokazu
2006-08-01
The nonperturbative non-Gaussian characteristics of diffusive motion are examined in the framework of the large deviation statistical theory, where simple extended mapping models showing chaotic diffusion are taken as an example. Furthermore, by rigorously solving the large deviation statistical quantities, it is found that the same type of anomalous, complex control parameter dependence as that for the diffusion coefficient reported by Klages and Dorfman is also observed in the large deviation statistical quantities such as the weighted average, the generalized diffusion coefficient, and the generalized power spectrum densities. PMID:17025522
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Masaomi; Miyazaki, Syuji; Fujisaka, Hirokazu
2006-08-01
The nonperturbative non-Gaussian characteristics of diffusive motion are examined in the framework of the large deviation statistical theory, where simple extended mapping models showing chaotic diffusion are taken as an example. Furthermore, by rigorously solving the large deviation statistical quantities, it is found that the same type of anomalous, complex control parameter dependence as that for the diffusion coefficient reported by Klages and Dorfman is also observed in the large deviation statistical quantities such as the weighted average, the generalized diffusion coefficient, and the generalized power spectrum densities.
Large Deviations of the Maximum Eigenvalue for Wishart and Gaussian Random Matrices
Majumdar, Satya N.; Vergassola, Massimo
2009-02-13
We present a Coulomb gas method to calculate analytically the probability of rare events where the maximum eigenvalue of a random matrix is much larger than its typical value. The large deviation function that characterizes this probability is computed explicitly for Wishart and Gaussian ensembles. The method is general and applies to other related problems, e.g., the joint large deviation function for large fluctuations of top eigenvalues. Our results are relevant to widely employed data compression techniques, namely, the principal components analysis. Analytical predictions are verified by extensive numerical simulations.
Two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction kinetics through second quantization path integral
Tiejun Li; Feng Lin
2015-08-26
Motivated by the study of the rare event for a typical genetic switching model in systems biology, we aim to establish the general two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction kinetic systems in this paper. We build a formal approach to explicitly obtain the large deviation rate functionals of the considered two-scale processes based upon the second-quantization path integral technique. This approach is shown to be superior than the well-known WKB asymptotics in giving the correct large deviation rate functionals rather than a non-unique Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the quasi-potential. We get three important types of large deviation results when the underlying two times scales are in three different regimes. This is realized by singular perturbation analysis to the rate functionals obtained by path integral. We find that the three regimes correspond to the same mean-field deterministic limit but completely different chemical Langevin approximations. The obtained results are natural extensions of the classical large volume limit in chemical reaction kinetics. Our framework and results can be applied to understand general multi-scale systems including diffusion processes.
Large deviations in randomly coloured random graphs J. D. Biggins # and D. B. Penman +
types (colours) of its vertices, so that whether or not edges are present can be dependent in the colourings followed by typical edge placement and the other from large deviation in edge placement. 1 is independently assigned one of a number of colours, and the probability that an edge arises depends
Queueing Systems 0 (1997) ?--? 1 Large Deviations Ordering of Point Processes in some
Massoulié, Laurent
1997-01-01
Queueing Systems 0 (1997) ?--? 1 Large Deviations Ordering of Point Processes in some Queueing/D/1 queues along fixed routes. For the socalled strong variability ordering we show that point processes remain smooth as they proceed through a tandem of quasisaturated (i.e., loaded to 1) M+\\Delta/D/1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glasbrenner, J. K.; Pujari, B. S.; Belashchenko, K. D.
2014-05-01
According to earlier first-principles calculations, the spin-disorder contribution to the resistivity of rare-earth metals in the paramagnetic state is strongly underestimated if Matthiessen's rule is assumed to hold. To understand this discrepancy, the resistivity of paramagnetic Fe and Gd is evaluated by taking into account both spin and phonon disorder. Calculations are performed using the supercell approach within the linear muffin-tin orbital method. Phonon disorder is modeled by introducing random displacements of the atomic nuclei, and the results are compared with the case of fictitious Anderson disorder. In both cases, the resistivity shows a nonlinear dependence on the square of the disorder potential, which is interpreted as a resistivity saturation effect. This effect is much stronger in Gd than in Fe. The nonlinearity makes the phonon and spin-disorder contributions to the resistivity nonadditive, and the standard procedure of extracting the spin-disorder resistivity by extrapolation from high temperatures becomes ambiguous. An "apparent" spin-disorder resistivity obtained through such extrapolation is in much better agreement with experiment compared to the results obtained by considering only spin disorder. By analyzing the spectral function of the paramagnetic Gd in the presence of Anderson disorder, the resistivity saturation is explained by the collapse of a large area of the Fermi surface due to the disorder-induced mixing between the electron and hole sheets.
Yevgeniy Kovchegov; Peter T. Otto
2015-08-11
In this paper, we present a novel extension to the classical path coupling method to statistical mechanical models which we refer to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, we use this aggregate path coupling method to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The parameter region for rapid mixing for the generalized Curie-Weiss-Potts model is derived as a new application of the aggregate path coupling method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovchegov, Yevgeniy; Otto, Peter T.
2015-11-01
In this paper, we present a novel extension to the classical path coupling method to statistical mechanical models which we refer to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, we use this aggregate path coupling method to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The parameter region for rapid mixing for the generalized Curie-Weiss-Potts model is derived as a new application of the aggregate path coupling method.
Multifractal analysis of the irregular set for almost-additive sequences via large deviations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bomfim, Thiago; Varandas, Paulo
2015-10-01
In this paper we introduce a notion of free energy and large deviations rate function for asymptotically additive sequences of potentials via an approximation method by families of continuous potentials. We provide estimates for the topological pressure of the set of points whose non-additive sequences are far from the limit described through Kingman’s sub-additive ergodic theorem and give some applications in the context of Lyapunov exponents for diffeomorphisms and cocycles, and the Shannon-McMillan-Breiman theorem for Gibbs measures.
How T-cells use large deviations to recognize foreign antigens
Natali Zint; Ellen Baake; Frank den Hollander
2008-05-15
A stochastic model for the activation of T-cells is analysed. T-cells are part of the immune system and recognize foreign antigens against a background of the body's own molecules. The model under consideration is a slight generalization of a model introduced by Van den Berg, Rand and Burroughs in 2001, and is capable of explaining how this recognition works on the basis of rare stochastic events. With the help of a refined large deviation theorem and numerical evaluation it is shown that, for a wide range of parameters, T-cells can distinguish reliably between foreign antigens and self-antigens.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes, Artur O.; Neumann, Adriana
2015-05-01
In the present paper, we consider a family of continuous time symmetric random walks indexed by , . For each the matching random walk take values in the finite set of states ; notice that is a subset of , where is the unitary circle. The infinitesimal generator of such chain is denoted by . The stationary probability for such process converges to the uniform distribution on the circle, when . Here we want to study other natural measures, obtained via a limit on , that are concentrated on some points of . We will disturb this process by a potential and study for each the perturbed stationary measures of this new process when . We disturb the system considering a fixed potential and we will denote by the restriction of to . Then, we define a non-stochastic semigroup generated by the matrix , where is the infinifesimal generator of . From the continuous time Perron's Theorem one can normalized such semigroup, and, then we get another stochastic semigroup which generates a continuous time Markov Chain taking values on . This new chain is called the continuous time Gibbs state associated to the potential , see (Lopes et al. in J Stat Phys 152:894-933, 2013). The stationary probability vector for such Markov Chain is denoted by . We assume that the maximum of is attained in a unique point of , and from this will follow that . Thus, here, our main goal is to analyze the large deviation principle for the family , when . The deviation function , which is defined on , will be obtained from a procedure based on fixed points of the Lax-Oleinik operator and Aubry-Mather theory. In order to obtain the associated Lax-Oleinik operator we use the Varadhan's Lemma for the process . For a careful analysis of the problem we present full details of the proof of the Large Deviation Principle, in the Skorohod space, for such family of Markov Chains, when . Finally, we compute the entropy of the invariant probabilities on the Skorohod space associated to the Markov Chains we analyze.
Mapping the large-angle deviation from Gaussianity in simulated CMB maps
A. Bernui; M. J. Reboucas
2012-02-14
[Abridged] In recent works we have proposed two new large-angle non-Gaussianity indicators based on skewness and kurtosis of patches of CMB sky-sphere, and used them to find out significant deviation from Gaussianity in frequency bands and foreground-reduced CMB maps. Simulated CMB maps with assigned type and amplitude of primordial non-Gaussianity are important tools to determine the strength, sensitivity and limitations of non-Gaussian estimators. Here we investigate whether and to what extent our non-Gaussian indicators have sensitivity to detect non-Gaussianity of local type, particularly with amplitude within the seven-year WMAP bounds. We make a systematic study by employing our statistical tools to generate maps of skewness and kurtosis from several thousands of simulated maps equipped with non-Gaussianity of local type of various amplitudes. We show that our indicators can be used to detect large-angle local-type non-Gaussianity only for relatively large values of the non-linear parameter $f_{\\rm NL}^{\\rm local}$. Thus, our indicators have not enough sensitivity to detect deviation from Gaussianity with the non-linear parameter within the seven-year WMAP bounds. This result along with the outcomes of frequency bands and foreground-reduced analyses suggest that non-Gaussianity captured in the previous works by our indicators is not of primordial origin, although it might have a primordial component. We have also made a comparative study of non-Gaussianity of simulated maps and of the full-sky WMAP foreground-reduced seven-year ILC-7yr map. An outcome of this analysis is that the level of non-Gaussianity of ILC-7yr map is higher than that of the simulated maps for $f_{\\rm NL}^{\\rm local}$ within WMAP bounds. This provides quantitative indications on the suitability of the ILC-7yr map as a Gaussian reconstruction of the full-sky CMB.
Topology Trivialization and Large Deviations for the Minimum in the Simplest Random Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fyodorov, Yan V.; Le Doussal, Pierre
2013-09-01
Finding the global minimum of a cost function given by the sum of a quadratic and a linear form in N real variables over (N-1)-dimensional sphere is one of the simplest, yet paradigmatic problems in Optimization Theory known as the "trust region subproblem" or "constraint least square problem". When both terms in the cost function are random this amounts to studying the ground state energy of the simplest spherical spin glass in a random magnetic field. We first identify and study two distinct large-N scaling regimes in which the linear term (magnetic field) leads to a gradual topology trivialization, i.e. reduction in the total number {N}_{tot} of critical (stationary) points in the cost function landscape. In the first regime {N}_{tot} remains of the order N and the cost function (energy) has generically two almost degenerate minima with the Tracy-Widom (TW) statistics. In the second regime the number of critical points is of the order of unity with a finite probability for a single minimum. In that case the mean total number of extrema (minima and maxima) of the cost function is given by the Laplace transform of the TW density, and the distribution of the global minimum energy is expected to take a universal scaling form generalizing the TW law. Though the full form of that distribution is not yet known to us, one of its far tails can be inferred from the large deviation theory for the global minimum. In the rest of the paper we show how to use the replica method to obtain the probability density of the minimum energy in the large-deviation approximation by finding both the rate function and the leading pre-exponential factor.
Large-deviation joint statistics of the finite-time Lyapunov spectrum in isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Perry L.; Meneveau, Charles
2015-08-01
One of the hallmarks of turbulent flows is the chaotic behavior of fluid particle paths with exponentially growing separation among them while their distance does not exceed the viscous range. The maximal (positive) Lyapunov exponent represents the average strength of the exponential growth rate, while fluctuations in the rate of growth are characterized by the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs). In the last decade or so, the notion of Lagrangian coherent structures (which are often computed using FTLEs) has gained attention as a tool for visualizing coherent trajectory patterns in a flow and distinguishing regions of the flow with different mixing properties. A quantitative statistical characterization of FTLEs can be accomplished using the statistical theory of large deviations, based on the so-called Cramér function. To obtain the Cramér function from data, we use both the method based on measuring moments and measuring histograms and introduce a finite-size correction to the histogram-based method. We generalize the existing univariate formalism to the joint distributions of the two FTLEs needed to fully specify the Lyapunov spectrum in 3D flows. The joint Cramér function of turbulence is measured from two direct numerical simulation datasets of isotropic turbulence. Results are compared with joint statistics of FTLEs computed using only the symmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor, as well as with joint statistics of instantaneous strain-rate eigenvalues. When using only the strain contribution of the velocity gradient, the maximal FTLE nearly doubles in magnitude, highlighting the role of rotation in de-correlating the fluid deformations along particle paths. We also extend the large-deviation theory to study the statistics of the ratio of FTLEs. The most likely ratio of the FTLEs ?1 : ?2 : ?3 is shown to be about 4:1:-5, compared to about 8:3:-11 when using only the strain-rate tensor for calculating fluid volume deformations. The results serve to characterize the fundamental statistical and geometric structure of turbulence at small scales including cumulative, time integrated effects. These are important for deformable particles such as droplets and polymers advected by turbulence.
Pérez Castillo, Isaac
2014-10-01
We compute the full order statistics of a one-dimensional gas of spinless fermions (or, equivalently, hard bosons) in a harmonic trap at zero temperature, including its large deviation tails. The problem amounts to computing the probability distribution of the kth smallest eigenvalue ?(k) of a large dimensional Gaussian random matrix. We find that this probability behaves for large N as P[?(k)=x]?exp[-?N(2)?(k/N,x)], where ? is the Dyson index of the ensemble. The rate function ?(c,x), computed explicitly as a function of x in terms of the intensive label c=k/N, has a quadratic behavior modulated by a weak logarithmic singularity at its minimum. This is shown to be related to phase transitions in the associated Coulomb gas problem. The connection with statistics of extreme eigenvalues and order stastistics of random matrices is also discussed. We find that, as a function of c and keeping the value of x fixed, the rate function ?(c,x) describes the statistics of the shifted index number, generalizing known results on its typical fluctuations; as a function of x and keeping the fraction c=k/N fixed, the rate function ?(c,x) also describes the statistics of the kth eigenvalue in the bulk, generalizing as well the results on its typical fluctuations. Moreover, for k=1 (respectively, for k=N), the rate function captures both the fluctuations to the left and to the right of the typical value of ?(1) (respectively, of ?(N)). PMID:25375421
Large deviations of the maximum of independent and identically distributed random variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vivo, Pierpaolo
2015-09-01
A pedagogical account of some aspects of extreme value statistics (EVS) is presented from the somewhat non-standard viewpoint of large deviation theory. We address the following problem: given a set of N independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables \\{{X}1,\\ldots ,{X}N\\} drawn from a parent probability density function (pdf) p(x), what is the probability that the maximum value of the set {X}{max}={{max}}i{X}i is ‘atypically larger’ than expected? The cases of exponential and Gaussian distributed variables are worked out in detail, and the right rate function for a general pdf in the Gumbel basin of attraction is derived. The Gaussian case convincingly demonstrates that the full rate function cannot be determined from the knowledge of the limiting distribution (Gumbel) alone, thus implying that it indeed carries additional information. Given the simplicity and richness of the result and its derivation, its absence from textbooks, tutorials and lecture notes on EVS for physicists appears inexplicable.
Large deviations of the maximum of independent and identically distributed random variables
Pierpaolo Vivo
2015-07-20
A pedagogical account of some aspects of Extreme Value Statistics (EVS) is presented from the somewhat non-standard viewpoint of Large Deviation Theory. We address the following problem: given a set of $N$ i.i.d. random variables $\\{X_1,\\ldots,X_N\\}$ drawn from a parent probability density function (pdf) $p(x)$, what is the probability that the maximum value of the set $X_{\\mathrm{max}}=\\max_i X_i$ is "atypically larger" than expected? The cases of exponential and Gaussian distributed variables are worked out in detail, and the right rate function for a general pdf in the Gumbel basin of attraction is derived. The Gaussian case convincingly demonstrates that the full rate function cannot be determined from the knowledge of the limiting distribution (Gumbel) alone, thus implying that it indeed carries additional information. Given the simplicity and richness of the result and its derivation, its absence from textbooks, tutorials and lecture notes on EVS for physicists appears inexplicable.
Gibb, Alice C.
Pleuronectiform fishes (flatfishes) are a large and successful group of teleost fishes which have deviated from the general vertebrate plan of skeletal and muscular bilateral symmetry. Although flatfishes of the head (Ahlstrom et al. 1984). Flatfish also lose all coloration on the eyeless (blind) side of the body
Vaienti, S. Dipartimento di Fisica, Bologna )
1989-08-01
For the Axiom-A attractors a relation is given between the topological pressure and the spectrum of the generalized Lyapunov exponents. As a consequence, a simple formula is found to compute the topological entropy of the attractor by means of a time series. The results are used to compute the large deviations for positive Lyapunov exponents.
Deviation from tri-bimaximal mixing and large reactor mixing angle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rashed, Ahmed
2013-09-01
Recent observations for a non-zero ?13 have come from various experiments. We study a model of lepton mixing with a 2-3 flavor symmetry to accommodate the sizable ?13 measurement. In this work, we derive deviations from the tri-bimaximal (TBM) pattern arising from breaking the flavor symmetry in the neutrino sector, while the charged leptons contribution has been discussed in a previous work. Contributions from both sectors towards accommodating the non-zero ?13 measurement are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itami, Masato; Sasa, Shin-ichi
2015-11-01
We study the friction coefficient of a macroscopic sphere in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. First, Kirkwood's formula for the friction coefficient is reviewed on the basis of the Hamiltonian description of particle systems. According to this formula, the friction coefficient is expressed in terms of the stress correlation on the surface of the macroscopic sphere. Then, with the aid of large deviation theory, we relate the surface stress correlation to the stress correlation in the bulk of the fluid, where the latter is characterized by the viscosity in the Green-Kubo formula. By combining Kirkwood's formula and the Green-Kubo formula in large deviation theory, we derive Stokes' law without explicitly employing the hydrodynamic equations.
Extending the Principles of Intensive Writing to Large Macroeconomics Classes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Docherty, Peter; Tse, Harry; Forman, Ross; McKenzie, Jo
2010-01-01
The authors report on the design and implementation of a pilot program to extend the principles of intensive writing outlined by W. Lee Hansen (1998), Murray S. Simpson and Shireen E. Carroll (1999) and David Carless (2006) to large macroeconomics classes. The key aspect of this program was its collaborative nature, with staff from two specialist…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Nitin; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Sood, A. K.
2011-03-01
A geometrically polar granular rod confined in 2D geometry, subjected to a sinusoidal vertical oscillation, undergoes noisy self-propulsion in a direction determined by its polarity. When surrounded by a medium of crystalline spherical beads, it displays substantial negative fluctuations in its velocity. We find that the large-deviation function (LDF) for the normalized velocity is strongly non-Gaussian with a kink at zero velocity, and that the antisymmetric part of the LDF is linear, resembling the fluctuation relation known for entropy production, even when the velocity distribution is clearly non-Gaussian. We extract an analogue of the phase-space contraction rate and find that it compares well with an independent estimate based on the persistence of forward and reverse velocities.
Large aperture spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer: Principle and experimental results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiangli, Bin; Cai, Qisheng; Du, Shusong
2015-12-01
A large aperture spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer (LASHIS) is proposed. It is a kind of pushbroom Fourier transform ultraspectral imager with no moving parts. This imaging spectrometer, based on a Sagnac lateral shearing interferometer combined with a pair of gratings, has the advantages of high spectral resolution, high throughput and robustness. The principle of LASHIS and its spectral retrieval method are introduced. The processing chain to convert raw images to ultraspectral datacube is also described. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolving power of LASHIS with the emission spectrum of a low pressure sodium lamp.
Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars
2014-09-01
We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form -log ?; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ?² for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ? for the nonlinear heat equation.
Mark A. Peletier; Frank Redig; Kiamars Vafayi
2014-03-19
We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter $m$, a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP$(m)$ and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the GBEP($a$). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP$(m)$, and give a formal derivation for the GBEP($a$). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form $-\\log \\rho$; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order $\\rho^2$ for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of $\\rho$ for the nonlinear heat equation.
Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L
2010-04-01
Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems. PMID:20481672
Large impurity effects in rubrene crystals: First-principles calculations
Tsetseris, L.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.
2008-01-01
Carrier mobilities of rubrene films are among the highest values reported for any organic semiconductor. Here, we probe with first-principles calculations the sensitivity of rubrene crystals on impurities. We find that isolated oxygen impurities create distinct peaks in the electronic density of states consistent with observations of defect levels in rubrene and that increased O content changes the position and shape of rubrene energy bands significantly. We also establish a dual role of hydrogen as individual H species and H impurity pairs create and annihilate deep carrier traps, respectively. The results are relevant to the performance and reliability of rubrene-based devices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorski, Krzysztof M.
1992-01-01
The limits to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) temperature anisotropy derived from the results of the University of California at Santa Barbara South Pole degree-scale experiment are translated into upper bounds on large-scale deviations from the Hubble flow. The lack of measurable CBR anisotropy in this experiment implies very low upper bounds upon the rms amplitude V(R) of the streaming motion within a Gaussian window of radius R: Vmax(R is greater than 4000 km/s) less than 200 km/s, and Vmax(R is greater than 7500 km/s) is less than 100 km/s. Thus, the smoothness of the CBR at about 1-2 deg and the apparent large-amplitude (about 500 km/s) deviations from pure Hubble flow at R greater than about 4000 km/s cannot be simultaneously explained in the framework of usual large-scale structure formation models based on the assumptions involved in this calculation.
Dupuis, Paul
2014-03-14
This proposal is concerned with applications of Monte Carlo to problems in physics and chemistry where rare events degrade the performance of standard Monte Carlo. One class of problems is concerned with computation of various aspects of the equilibrium behavior of some Markov process via time averages. The problem to be overcome is that rare events interfere with the efficient sampling of all relevant parts of phase space. A second class concerns sampling transitions between two or more stable attractors. Here, rare events do not interfere with the sampling of all relevant parts of phase space, but make Monte Carlo inefficient because of the very large number of samples required to obtain variance comparable to the quantity estimated. The project uses large deviation methods for the mathematical analyses of various Monte Carlo techniques, and in particular for algorithmic analysis and design. This is done in the context of relevant application areas, mainly from chemistry and biology.
Implementing the "Marketing You" Project in Large Sections of Principles of Marketing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Karen H.
2004-01-01
There is mounting pressure on business education to increase experiential learning at the same time that budget constraints are forcing universities to increase class size. This article explains the design and implementation of the "Marketing You" project in two large sections of Principles of Marketing to bring experiential learning into the…
Holmquist, R
1975-03-24
Eight proteins of diverse lengths, functions, and origin, are examined for compositional non-randomness amino acid by amino acid. The proteins investigated are human fibrinopeptide A, guinea pig Insulin, rattlesnake cytochrome c, MS2 phage coat protein, rabbit triosephosphate isomerase, bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease A, bovine glutamate dehydrogenase, and Bacillus thermoproteolyticus thermolysin. As a result of this study the experimentally testable hypothesis is put forth that for a large class of proteins the ratio of that fraction of the molecule which exhibits compositional non-randomness to that fraction which does not is on the average, stable about a mean value (estimated as 0.32 plus or minus 0.17) and (nearly) independent of protein length. Stochastic and selective evolutionary forces are viewed as interacting rather than independent phenomena. With respect to amino acid composition, this coupling ameliorates the current controversy over Darwinian vs. non-Darwinian evolution, selectionist vs. neutralist, in favor of neither: Within the context of the quantitative data, the evolution of real proteins is seen as a compromise between the two viewpoints, both important. The compositional fluctuations of the electrically charged amino acids glutamic and aspartic acid, lysine and arginine, are examined in depth for over eighty protein families, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic. For both taxa, each of the acidic amino acids is present in amounts roughly twice that predicted from the genetic code. The presence of an excess of glutamic acid is independent of the presence of an excess of aspartic acid and vice versa. PMID:173858
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jauregui, Max; Tsallis, Constantino
2015-02-01
We consider correlated random variables X1, …, Xn taking values in {0, 1} such that, for any permutation ? of {1, …, n}, the random vectors (X1, …, Xn) and (X?(1), …, X?(n)) have the same distribution. This distribution, which was introduced by Rodríguez et al. [J. Stat. Mech. 2008, P09006] and then generalized by Hanel et al. [Eur. Phys. J. B 72, 263 (2009)], is scale-invariant and depends on a real parameter ? > 0 (? ? ? implies independence). Putting Sn = X1 + ⋯ + Xn, the distribution of Sn - n/2 approaches a Q-Gaussian distribution with compact support (Q = 1 - 1/(? - 1) < 1) as n increases, after appropriate scaling. In the present article, we show that the distribution of Sn/n converges, as n ? ?, to a beta distribution with both parameters equal to ?. In particular, the law of large numbers does not hold since, if 0 ? x < 1/2, then ?(Sn/n ? x), which is the probability of the event {Sn/n ? x} (large deviation), does not converge to zero as n ? ?. For x = 0 and every real ? > 0, we show that ?(Sn = 0) decays to zero like a power law of the form 1/n? with a subdominant term of the form 1/n?+1. If 0 < x ? 1 and ? > 0 is an integer, we show that we can analytically find upper and lower bounds for the difference between ?(Sn/n ? x) and its (n ? ?) limit. We also show that these bounds vanish like a power law of the form 1/n with a subdominant term of the form 1/n2.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Terence R.; Menon, Sudhakar; Star, Jeffrey L.; Estes, John E.
1987-01-01
This paper provides a brief survey of the history, structure and functions of 'traditional' geographic information systems (GIS), and then suggests a set of requirements that large-scale GIS should satisfy, together with a set of principles for their satisfaction. These principles, which include the systematic application of techniques from several subfields of computer science to the design and implementation of GIS and the integration of techniques from computer vision and image processing into standard GIS technology, are discussed in some detail. In particular, the paper provides a detailed discussion of questions relating to appropriate data models, data structures and computational procedures for the efficient storage, retrieval and analysis of spatially-indexed data.
Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Lau, Edmond Y; Bennion, Brian J; Huang, Patrick; Lightstone, Felice C
2015-12-01
Enzymes are complicated solvated systems that typically require many atoms to simulate their function with any degree of accuracy. We have recently developed numerical techniques for large scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and applied them to the study of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. We carried out density functional theory calculations for a quantum-mechanical (QM) subsystem consisting of 612 atoms with an O(N) complexity finite-difference approach. The QM subsystem is embedded inside an external potential field representing the electrostatic effect due to the environment. We obtained finite-temperature sampling by first-principles molecular dynamics for the acylation reaction of acetylcholine catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase. Our calculations show two energy barriers along the reaction coordinate for the enzyme-catalyzed acylation of acetylcholine. The second barrier (8.5 kcal/mol) is rate-limiting for the acylation reaction and in good agreement with experiment. PMID:26642985
Thermal Conductivity and Large Isotope Effect in GaN from First Principles
Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Reinecke, T. L.
2012-08-28
We present atomistic first principles results for the lattice thermal conductivity of GaN and compare them to those for GaP, GaAs, and GaSb. In GaN we find a large increase to the thermal conductivity with isotopic enrichment, ~65% at room temperature. We show that both the high thermal conductivity and its enhancement with isotopic enrichment in GaN arise from the weak coupling of heat-carrying acoustic phonons with optic phonons. This weak scattering results from stiff atomic bonds and the large Ga to N mass ratio, which give phonons high frequencies and also a pronounced energy gap between acoustic and optic phonons compared to other materials. Rigorous understanding of these features in GaN gives important insights into the interplay between intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering and isotopic scattering in a range of materials.
The Force-From-Lipid (FFL) principle of mechanosensitivity, at large and in elements
Teng, Jinfeng; Loukin, Stephen; Anishkin, Andriy; Kung, Ching
2014-01-01
Focus on touch and hearing distracts attention from numerous subconscious force sensors such as the vital control of blood pressure, systemic osmolarity, etc. and sensors in non-animals. Multifarious manifestations should not obscure invariant and fundamental physico-chemical principles. We advocate that force-from-lipid (FFL) is one such principle. It is based on the fact that the self-assembled bilayer necessitates inherent forces that are large, and anisotropic, even at life’s origin. Functional response of membrane proteins is governed by bilayer-force changes. Added stress can redirect these forces, leading to geometric changes of embedded proteins such as ion channels. The FFL principle was first demonstrated when purified bacterial MscL remained mechanosensitive (MS) after reconstituting into bilayers. This key experiment has recently been unequivocally replicated with two vertebrate MS K2p channels. Even the canonical Kv and the Drosophila TRPCs have now been shown to be MS in biophysical and in physiological contexts, supporting the universality of the FFL paradigm. We also review the deterministic role of mechanical force during stem-cell differentiation as well as the cell-cell and cell-matrix tethers that provide force communications. In both the ear hair cell and the worm’s touch neuron, deleting the cadherin or microtubule tethers reduces but does not eliminate MS-channel activities. We found no evidence to distinguish whether these tethers directly pulls on the channel protein or a surrounding lipid platform. Regardless of the implementation, pulling tether tenses up the bilayer. Membrane tenting is directly visible at the apexes of the stereocilia. PMID:24888690
Integration of human factors principles in LARG organizations--a conceptual model.
Figueira, Sara; Machado, V Cruz; Nunes, Isabel L
2012-01-01
Nowadays many companies are undergoing organizational transformations in order to meet the changing market demands. Thus, in order to become more competitive, supply chains (SC) are adopting new management paradigms to improve SC performance: lean, agile, resilient and green (LARG paradigms). The implementation of new production paradigms demands particular care with the issues related with Human Factors to avoid health and safety problems to workers and losses to companies. Thus, the successful introduction of these new production paradigms depends among others on a Human Factors oriented approach. This work presents a conceptual framework that allows integrating ergonomic and safety design principles during the different implementation phases of lean, agile, resilient and green practices. PMID:22316960
Creminelli, Paolo; Gleyzes, Jérôme; Vernizzi, Filippo; Hui, Lam; Simonovi?, Marko E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it
2014-06-01
The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10{sup ?3}÷10{sup ?4} on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.
A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations
Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke
2014-06-28
An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF{sub 4})
Principles for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams
Krinitzsky, E.L.; Marcuson, William F.
1983-01-01
This report gives a synopsis of the various tools and techniques used in selecting earthquake ground motion parameters for large dams. It presents 18 charts giving newly developed relations for acceleration, velocity, and duration versus site earthquake intensity for near- and far-field hard and soft sites and earthquakes having magnitudes above and below 7. The material for this report is based on procedures developed at the Waterways Experiment Station. Although these procedures are suggested primarily for large dams, they may also be applicable for other facilities. Because no standard procedure exists for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams, a number of precautions are presented to guide users. The selection of earthquake motions is dependent on which one of two types of engineering analyses are performed. A pseudostatic analysis uses a coefficient usually obtained from an appropriate contour map; whereas, a dynamic analysis uses either accelerograms assigned to a site or specified respunse spectra. Each type of analysis requires significantly different input motions. All selections of design motions must allow for the lack of representative strong motion records, especially near-field motions from earthquakes of magnitude 7 and greater, as well as an enormous spread in the available data. Limited data must be projected and its spread bracketed in order to fill in the gaps and to assure that there will be no surprises. Because each site may have differing special characteristics in its geology, seismic history, attenuation, recurrence, interpreted maximum events, etc., as integrated approach gives best results. Each part of the site investigation requires a number of decisions. In some cases, the decision to use a 'least ork' approach may be suitable, simply assuming the worst of several possibilities and testing for it. Because there are no standard procedures to follow, multiple approaches are useful. For example, peak motions at a site may be obtained from several methods that involve magnitude of earthquake, distance from source, and corresponding motions; or, alternately, peak motions may be assigned from other correlations based on earthquake intensity. Various interpretations exist to account for duration, recurrence, effects of site conditions, etc. Comparison of the various interpretations can be very useful. Probabilities can be assigned; however, they can present very serious problems unless appropriate care is taken when data are extrapolated beyond their data base. In making deterministic judgments, probabilistic data can provide useful guidance in estimating the uncertainties of the decision. The selection of a design ground motion for large dams is based in the end on subjective judgments which should depend, to an important extent, on the consequences of failure. Usually, use of a design value of ground motion representing a mean plus one standard deviation of possible variation in the mean of the data puts one in a conservative position. If failure presents no hazard to life, lower values of design ground motion may be justified, providing there are cost benefits and the risk is acceptable to the owner. Where a large hazard to life exists (i.e., a dam above an urbanized area) one may wish to use values of design ground motion that approximate the very worst case. The selection of a design ground motion must be appropriate for its particular set of circumstances.
Deviation from secular equilibrium
A. V. Simakin; G. A. Shafeev
2010-01-20
Laser exposure of gold nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of Uranium salt leads to accelerated decay of U238 nuclei and significant deviation from secular equilibrium. The samples demonstrate the enhanced gamma emission in the range of 54 keV during laser exposure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salemi, Michael K.
2009-01-01
One of the most important challenges facing college instructors of economics is helping students engage. Engagement is particularly important in a large-enrollment Principles of Economics course, where it can help students achieve a long-lived understanding of how economists use basic economic ideas to look at the world. The author reports how…
Bodnar, Richard J.; Stellar, James R.; Kraft, Tamar T.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M.; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo
2013-01-01
In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20–25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first and last pages. A draft of the first page, collected early in the term, was returned to each student by graduate TAs to provide individual feedback on scientific writing. Overall the course has run three times at ful or near enrollment capacity despite being held at an 8:00 AM time slot. Student-generated teaching evaluations place it well within the normal range, while this format importantly contributes to budget efficiency permitting the teaching of more required small-format courses (e.g., freshman writing). The demographics of the course have changed to one in which the vast majority of the students are now outside the disciplines of neuroscience or psychology and are taking the course to fulfill a General Education requirement. This pattern allows the wide dissemination of basic neuroscientific knowledge to a general college audience. PMID:24319388
Bodnar, Richard J; Stellar, James R; Kraft, Tamar T; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo
2013-01-01
In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20-25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first and last pages. A draft of the first page, collected early in the term, was returned to each student by graduate TAs to provide individual feedback on scientific writing. Overall the course has run three times at ful or near enrollment capacity despite being held at an 8:00 AM time slot. Student-generated teaching evaluations place it well within the normal range, while this format importantly contributes to budget efficiency permitting the teaching of more required small-format courses (e.g., freshman writing). The demographics of the course have changed to one in which the vast majority of the students are now outside the disciplines of neuroscience or psychology and are taking the course to fulfill a General Education requirement. This pattern allows the wide dissemination of basic neuroscientific knowledge to a general college audience. PMID:24319388
Jaykov Foukzon
2015-05-30
In this article we proved so-called strong reflection principles corresponding to formal theories Th which has omega-models. An posible generalization of the Lob's theorem is considered.Main results is: (1) let $k$ be an inaccessible cardinal and $H_k$ is a set of all sets having hereditary size less then k, then $\
Large Deviations for Stochastic Volterra Equations
Nualart, David; Rovira, Carles
2000-04-01
(s, t, y)ÿ a i (s, t, x)j < Kjxÿ yj, ja i (s, t, 0)j < K: A solution of (5.3) is a stochastic process fX z , z 2 Tg satisfying X z ? x 0 ? ? R z ã z (ç)fa 3 (ç, X ç ) dW ç ? a 4 (ç, X ç ) dçg, where ç ? (u, v), z ? (s, t), R z denotes the rectangle [0... < : 9 = ; < exp ÿ L C 1 N 1=2 â ÿ C 2 ! 2 1 T â ? ln(2? T 2 2 p ) 8 < : 9 = ; ? exp ÿ L 2 N â T â 1 C 1 ÿ C 2 N 1=2 â L ! 2 ÿln(2? T 2 2 p ) N â T â L 2 2 4 3 5 8 < : 9 = ; : Set C 3 ? maxf2C 1 C 2 , 2 3=2 (ln(2? T 2 2 p )) 1=2 C 1 T â=2 g...
Power fluctuations, large deviations and turbulence
Bandi, Mahesh M; Chumakov, Sergei; Connaughton, Colm P
2008-01-01
We study local power fluctuations in numerical simulations of stationary, homogenous, isotropic turbulence in two and three dimensions with Gaussian forcing. Due to the near-Gaussianity of the one-point velocity distribution, the probability distribution function (pdf) of the local power is well modeled by the pdf of the product of two joint normally distributed variables. In appropriate units, this distribution is calculated exactly and shown to satisfy a Fluctuation Relation (FR) with a coefficient which depends on {epsilon}.
Geodesic deviation at higher orders via covariant bitensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vines, Justin
2015-05-01
We review a simple but instructive application of the formalism of covariant bitensors, to use a deviation vector field along a fiducial geodesic to describe a neighboring worldline, in an exact and manifestly covariant manner, via the exponential map. Requiring the neighboring worldline to be a geodesic leads to the usual linear geodesic deviation equation for the deviation vector, plus corrections at higher order in the deviation and relative velocity. We show how these corrections can be efficiently computed to arbitrary orders via covariant bitensor expansions, deriving a form of the geodesic deviation equation valid to all orders, and producing its explicit expanded form through fourth order. We also discuss the generalized Jacobi equation, action principles for the higher-order geodesic deviation equations, results useful for describing accelerated neighboring worldlines, and the formal general solution to the geodesic deviation equation through second order.
Digitalized Mirror Array and Its Application in Large Telescope: Principle and Case Studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ying-Tian; Zhang, Yang; Hu, Sen; Ho, Tso-Hsiu; Boon, Ham Lim; Chen, Sin Lim; Kok, Keong Chong; Boon, Kok Tan
2009-10-01
In this article, we report the principle and conceptual design of a fundamentally different technology in fabricating high precision aberration free optical devices. The tip-tilt of facet in a mirror array is produced by digitally controlled line-tilts of rows and columns. It has not only provided a cost-effective designing methodology in optical physics but also led to a much finer precision of 1 mili arc sec or less. As examples of the application of the proposed digitalised optics, two case studies have been given: a 10 m Schmidt telescope (off-axis) and an 8 m Cassegrain telescope (on-axis).
Ma, Haibo; Qin, Ting; Troisi, Alessandro
2014-03-11
The electronic excited states of amorphous polymeric semiconductor MEH-PPV are investigated by first principles quantum chemical calculations based on trajectories from classical molecular dynamics simulations. We inferred an average conjugation length of ?5-7 monomers for lowest vertical excitations of amorphous MEH-PPV at room temperature and verified that the normal definition of a chromophore in a polymer based on purely geometric "conjugation breaks" is not always valid in amorphous polymers and a rigorous definition can be only on the basis of the evaluation of the polymer excited state wave function. The charge transfer character is observed to be nearly invariant for all excited states in low energy window while the exciton delocalization extent is found to increase with energy. The interchain excitonic couplings for amorphous MEH-PPV are shown to be usually smaller than 10 meV suggesting that the transport mechanism across chain can be described by incoherent hopping. All these observations about the energetic and spatial distribution of the excitons in polymer as well as their couplings provide important qualitative insights and useful quantitative information for constructing a realistic model for exciton migration dynamics in amorphous polymer materials. PMID:26580196
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tholander, C.; Tasnádi, F.; Abrikosov, I. A.; Hultman, L.; Birch, J.; Alling, B.
2015-11-01
The potential of quarternary wurtzite TMx /2Mx /2Al1 -xN (TM =Ti , Zr, Hf; M =Mg , Ca, Zn) alloys for piezoelectric applications is investigated using first-principles calculations. All considered alloys show increased piezoelectric response compared to pure AlN, and competing with the best ternary system proven to date: ScAlN. (Zr,Hf)x /2(Mg,Ca)x /2Al1 -xN alloys are particularly promising. Calculations reveal positive mixing enthalpies indicative for phase separating systems; their values are smaller compared to related nitride alloys, which still can be grown as metastable thin films. The wurtzite phase of the alloys is lowest in energy at least up to x =0.5 and for Tix /2Znx /2Al1 -xN in the full composition range. Moreover, calculations reveal that wurtzite TM0.5Zn0.5N (TM =Ti , Zr, Hf) are piezoelectric alloys with d33 ,f=19.95 , 29.89, and 24.65 pC/N respectively, up to six times that of AlN. Finally, we discuss the physical origin behind the increased piezoelectric response and show that the energy difference between tetrahedrally coordinated zinc-blende (B3) and the layered hexagonal (Bk) phases of the TM0.5M0.5N alloy can be used as a descriptor in a high-throughput search for complex wurtzite alloys with high piezoelectric response.
Nurbawono, Argo; Liu, Shuanglong; Zhang, Chun
2015-04-21
Time dependent density functional tight binding (TDDFTB) method is implemented with sparse matrix techniques and improved parallelization algorithms. The method is employed to calculate the optical properties of various Si nanocrystals (NCs). The calculated light absorption spectra of small Si NCs from TDDFTB were found to be comparable with many body perturbation methods utilizing planewave basis sets. For large Si NCs (more than a thousand atoms) that are beyond the reach of conventional approaches, the TDDFTB method is able to produce reasonable results that are consistent with prior experiments. We also employed the method to study the effects of surface chemistry on the optical properties of large Si NCs. We learned that the optical properties of Si NCs can be manipulated with small molecule passivations such as methyl, hydroxyl, amino, and fluorine. In general, the shifts and profiles in the absorption spectra can be tuned with suitably chosen passivants. PMID:25903903
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nurbawono, Argo; Liu, Shuanglong; Zhang, Chun
2015-04-01
Time dependent density functional tight binding (TDDFTB) method is implemented with sparse matrix techniques and improved parallelization algorithms. The method is employed to calculate the optical properties of various Si nanocrystals (NCs). The calculated light absorption spectra of small Si NCs from TDDFTB were found to be comparable with many body perturbation methods utilizing planewave basis sets. For large Si NCs (more than a thousand atoms) that are beyond the reach of conventional approaches, the TDDFTB method is able to produce reasonable results that are consistent with prior experiments. We also employed the method to study the effects of surface chemistry on the optical properties of large Si NCs. We learned that the optical properties of Si NCs can be manipulated with small molecule passivations such as methyl, hydroxyl, amino, and fluorine. In general, the shifts and profiles in the absorption spectra can be tuned with suitably chosen passivants.
Schubert, Walter
2013-01-01
Understanding biological systems at the level of their relational (emergent) molecular properties in functional protein networks relies on imaging methods, able to spatially resolve a tissue or a cell as a giant, non-random, topologically defined collection of interacting supermolecules executing myriads of subcellular mechanisms. Here, the development and findings of parameter-unlimited functional super-resolution microscopy are described—a technology based on the fluorescence imaging cycler (IC) principle capable of co-mapping thousands of distinct biomolecular assemblies at high spatial resolution and differentiation (<40?nm distances). It is shown that the subcellular and transcellular features of such supermolecules can be described at the compositional and constitutional levels; that the spatial connection, relational stoichiometry, and topology of supermolecules generate hitherto unrecognized functional self-segmentation of biological tissues; that hierarchical features, common to thousands of simultaneously imaged supermolecules, can be identified; and how the resulting supramolecular order relates to spatial coding of cellular functionalities in biological systems. A large body of observations with IC molecular systems microscopy collected over 20?years have disclosed principles governed by a law of supramolecular segregation of cellular functionalities. This pervades phenomena, such as exceptional orderliness, functional selectivity, combinatorial and spatial periodicity, and hierarchical organization of large molecular systems, across all species investigated so far. This insight is based on the high degree of specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity of molecular recognition processes for fluorescence imaging beyond the spectral resolution limit, using probe libraries controlled by ICs. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Molecular Recognition published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24375580
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yong; Evans, James W.
2015-10-01
Large-scale first-principles density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on monolayer graphene (G) supported on Ru(0001). The G sheet exhibits a periodic moiré-cell superstructure due to lattice mismatch. Within a moiré cell, there are three distinct regions: fcc, hcp, and mound, in which the C6-ring center is above a fcc site, a hcp site, and a surface Ru atom of Ru(0001), respectively. The adsorption energy of a Ru adatom is evaluated at specific sites in these distinct regions. We find the strongest binding at an adsorption site above a C atom in the fcc region, next strongest in the hcp region, then the fcc-hcp boundary (ridge) between these regions, and the weakest binding in the mound region. Behavior is similar to that observed from small-unit-cell calculations of Habenicht et al. [Top. Catal. 57, 69 (2014)], which differ from previous large-scale calculations. We determine the minimum-energy path for local diffusion near the center of the fcc region and obtain a local diffusion barrier of ˜0.48 eV. We also estimate a significantly lower local diffusion barrier in the ridge region. These barriers and information on the adsorption energy variation facilitate development of a realistic model for the global potential energy surface for Ru adatoms. This in turn enables simulation studies elucidating diffusion-mediated directed-assembly of Ru nanoclusters during deposition of Ru on G/Ru(0001).
Deviation differential equations. Jacobi fields
G. Sardanashvily
2013-04-02
Given a differential equation on a smooth fibre bundle Y, we consider its canonical vertical extension to that, called the deviation equation, on the vertical tangent bundle VY of Y. Its solutions are Jacobi fields treated in a very general setting. In particular, the deviation of Euler--Lagrange equations of a Lagrangian L on a fibre bundle Y are the Euler-Lagrange equations of the canonical vertical extension of L onto VY. Similarly, covariant Hamilton equations of a Hamiltonian form H are the Hamilton equations of the vertical extension VH of H onto VY.
van Vliet, Danique; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Mazzola, Priscila N.; van Faassen, Martijn H. J. R.; de Blaauw, Pim; Kema, Ido P.; Heiner-Fokkema, M. Rebecca; van Anholt, Rogier D.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.
2015-01-01
Background Phenylketonuria (PKU) was the first disorder in which severe neurocognitive dysfunction could be prevented by dietary treatment. However, despite this effect, neuropsychological outcome in PKU still remains suboptimal and the phenylalanine-restricted diet is very demanding. To improve neuropsychological outcome and relieve the dietary restrictions for PKU patients, supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) is suggested as alternative treatment strategy that might correct all brain biochemical disturbances caused by high blood phenylalanine, and thereby improve neurocognitive functioning. Objective As a proof-of-principle, this study aimed to investigate all hypothesized biochemical treatment objectives of LNAA supplementation (normalizing brain phenylalanine, non-phenylalanine LNAA, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations) in PKU mice. Methods C57Bl/6 Pah-enu2 (PKU) mice and wild-type mice received a LNAA supplemented diet, an isonitrogenic/isocaloric high-protein control diet, or normal chow. After six weeks of dietary treatment, blood and brain amino acid and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were assessed. Results In PKU mice, the investigated LNAA supplementation regimen significantly reduced blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations by 33% and 26%, respectively, compared to normal chow (p<0.01), while alleviating brain deficiencies of some but not all supplemented LNAA. Moreover, LNAA supplementation in PKU mice significantly increased brain serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations from 35% to 71% and from 57% to 86% of wild-type concentrations (p<0.01), respectively, but not brain dopamine concentrations (p = 0.307). Conclusions This study shows that LNAA supplementation without dietary phenylalanine restriction in PKU mice improves brain biochemistry through all three hypothesized biochemical mechanisms. Thereby, these data provide proof-of-concept for LNAA supplementation as a valuable alternative dietary treatment strategy in PKU. Based on these results, LNAA treatment should be further optimized for clinical application with regard to the composition and dose of the LNAA supplement, taking into account all three working mechanisms of LNAA treatment. PMID:26624009
Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra
2005-01-01
To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.
A spine proof of a largedeviations principle for branching Brownian motion
Bath, University of
A spine proof of a largedeviations principle for branching Brownian motion Robert Hardy and Simon C. Harris March 8, 2004 Abstract Using the foundations for the use of spines in branching di martingales can be used to change measure so that the spine follows `close' to the path of interest. We
Fang, H. Z.; Shang, S. L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K.; Alfonso, D.; Alman, D. E.; Shin, Y. K.; Zou, C. Y.; Duin, A. C. T. van; Lei, Y. K.; Wang, G. F.
2014-01-28
This paper is concerned with the prediction of oxygen diffusivities in fcc nickel from first-principles calculations and large-scale atomic simulations. Considering only the interstitial octahedral to tetrahedral to octahedral minimum energy pathway for oxygen diffusion in fcc lattice, greatly underestimates the migration barrier and overestimates the diffusivities by several orders of magnitude. The results indicate that vacancies in the Ni-lattice significantly impact the migration barrier of oxygen in nickel. Incorporation of the effect of vacancies results in predicted diffusivities consistent with available experimental data. First-principles calculations show that at high temperatures the vacancy concentration is comparable to the oxygen solubility, and there is a strong binding energy and a redistribution of charge density between the oxygen atom and vacancy. Consequently, there is a strong attraction between the oxygen and vacancy in the Ni lattice, which impacts diffusion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deviations. 1480.403 Section 1480.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN AFFAIRS SUPPLEMENT ACQUISITIONS UNDER THE BUY INDIAN ACT Policy 1480.403 Deviations. (a) The following officials may authorize a deviation for an IA acquisition:...
48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 201.404 Section 201.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 201.404 Class deviations. (b)(i) Except as provided...
Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gorard, Stephen
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…
The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yunis, Isam
2005-01-01
Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.
Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc
2014-01-01
We present the first truly scalable first-principles molecular dynamics algorithm with O(N) complexity and controllable accuracy, capable of simulating systems with finite band gaps of sizes that were previously impossible with this degree of accuracy. By avoiding global communications, we provide a practical computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic wave functions are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the components of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected elements of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to 101 952 atoms on 23 328 processors, with a wall-clock time of the order of 1 min per molecular dynamics time step and numerical error on the forces of less than 7x10^{-4} Ha/Bohr.
A Scalable O(N) Algorithm for Large-Scale Parallel First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc
2014-01-01
Traditional algorithms for first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations only gain a modest capability increase from current petascale computers, due to their O(N^{3}) complexity and their heavy use of global communications. To address this issue, we are developing a truly scalable O(N) complexity FPMD algorithm, based on density functional theory (DFT), which avoids global communications. The computational model uses a general nonorthogonal orbital formulation for the DFT energy functional, which requires knowledge of selected elements of the inverse of the associated overlap matrix. We present a scalable algorithm for approximately computing selected entries of the inverse of the overlap matrix, based on an approximate inverse technique, by inverting local blocks corresponding to principal submatrices of the global overlap matrix. The new FPMD algorithm exploits sparsity and uses nearest neighbor communication to provide a computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic orbitals are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the entries of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected entries of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to O(100K) atoms on O(100K) processors, with a wall-clock time of O(1) minute per molecular dynamics time step.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norouzzadeh, Payam; Myles, Charles W.; Vashaee, Daryoosh
2013-11-01
The material design of type-VIII clathrate Si46 is presented based on first principles. The structural, electronic, elastic, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of this hypothetical material are presented. Our results predict that type-VIII clathrate Si46 is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.24 eV. The band structure revealed an interestingly large number of electron pockets near both conduction and valance band edges. Such a large density of states near the band edges, which is higher than that of the best thermoelectric materials discovered so far, can result in a large thermoelectric power factor (>0.004 W m-1 K-2) making it a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications. The elastic properties as well as the vibrational modes and the phonon state densities of this material were also calculated. Our calculations predict that the heat capacity at constant volume (isochoric) of this clathrate increases smoothly with temperature and approaches the Dulong-Petit value near room temperature. The electronic band structure shows a large number of valleys closely packed around the valance band edge, which is rare among the known semiconducting materials. These valleys can contribute to transport at high temperature resulting in a possibly high performance (ZT > 1.5) p-type thermoelectric material.
48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... through the Director, DAMS. (b) Requests for deviations under paragraph (a) of this section must be... contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the Director, DAMS will consult with... Director, DAMS as required in FAR 1.404....
48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... through the Director, DAMS. (b) Requests for deviations under paragraph (a) of this section must be... contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the Director, DAMS will consult with... Director, DAMS as required in FAR 1.404....
48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... through the Director, DAMS. (b) Requests for deviations under paragraph (a) of this section must be... contracting actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the Director, DAMS will consult with... Director, DAMS as required in FAR 1.404....
48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 501.404 Section 501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and GSAR 501.404...
48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 501.403 Section 501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and GSAR...
Program helps quickly calculate deviated well path
Gardner, M.P. )
1993-11-22
A BASIC computer program quickly calculates the angle and measured depth of a simple directional well given only the true vertical depth and total displacement of the target. Many petroleum engineers and geologists need a quick, easy method to calculate the angle and measured depth necessary to reach a target in a proposed deviated well bore. Too many of the existing programs are large and require much input data. The drilling literature is full of equations and methods to calculate the course of well paths from surveys taken after a well is drilled. Very little information, however, covers how to calculate well bore trajectories for proposed wells from limited data. Furthermore, many of the equations are quite complex and difficult to use. A figure lists a computer program with the equations to calculate the well bore trajectory necessary to reach a given displacement and true vertical depth (TVD) for a simple build plant. It can be run on an IBM compatible computer with MS-DOS version 5 or higher, QBasic, or any BASIC that does no require line numbers. QBasic 4.5 compiler will also run the program. The equations are based on conventional geometry and trigonometry.
Large Deviations for a Class of Anticipating Stochastic Differential Equations
Millet, A.; Nualart, David; Sanz, M.
1992-10-02
Consider the family of perturbed stochastic differential equations on Rd, X?t=X?0+???t0?(X?s)?dWs+?t0b(X?s)ds, ?>0, defined on the canonical space associated with the standard k-dimensional Wiener process W. We assume that ...
Large deviations of Rouse polymer chain: First passage problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Jing; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Zuowei; Likhtman, Alexei E.
2015-11-01
The purpose of this paper is to investigate several analytical methods of solving first passage (FP) problem for the Rouse model, a simplest model of a polymer chain. We show that this problem has to be treated as a multi-dimensional Kramers' problem, which presents rich and unexpected behavior. We first perform direct and forward-flux sampling (FFS) simulations and measure the mean first-passage time ?(z) for the free end to reach a certain distance z away from the origin. The results show that the mean FP time is getting faster if the Rouse chain is represented by more beads. Two scaling regimes of ?(z) are observed, with transition between them varying as a function of chain length. We use these simulation results to test two theoretical approaches. One is a well known asymptotic theory valid in the limit of zero temperature. We show that this limit corresponds to fully extended chain when each chain segment is stretched, which is not particularly realistic. A new theory based on the well known Freidlin-Wentzell theory is proposed, where dynamics is projected onto the minimal action path. The new theory predicts both scaling regimes correctly, but fails to get the correct numerical prefactor in the first regime. Combining our theory with the FFS simulations leads us to a simple analytical expression valid for all extensions and chain lengths. One of the applications of polymer FP problem occurs in the context of branched polymer rheology. In this paper, we consider the arm-retraction mechanism in the tube model, which maps exactly on the model we have solved. The results are compared to the Milner-McLeish theory without constraint release, which is found to overestimate FP time by a factor of 10 or more.
Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory
properties of the astroids, like their shrink- ing and sharpening as the number of applied pulses-pulse astroid in the thin film limit 8 4 Multiple-pulse astroids and action minimization 12 4.1 Action minimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2 Multiple-pulse astroids
Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory
Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH)
can be used to explain some properties of the astroids, like their shrink- ing and sharpening, New York University, USA, email: eve2@cims.nyu.edu 1 #12;2 Modeling 6 3 Single-pulse astroid in the thin film limit 8 4 Multiple-pulse astroids and action minimization 13 4.1 Action minimization
Large deviations of Rouse polymer chain: First passage problem
Jing Cao; Jian Zhu; Zuowei Wang; Alexei E. Likhtman
2015-08-24
The purpose of this paper is to investigate several analytical methods of solving first passage (FP) problem for the Rouse model, a simplest model of a polymer chain. We show that this problem has to be treated as a multi-dimensional Kramers' problem, which presents rich and unexpected behavior. We first perform direct and forward-flux sampling (FFS) simulations, and measure the mean first-passage time $\\tau(z)$ for the free end to reach a certain distance $z$ away from the origin. The results show that the mean FP time is getting faster if the Rouse chain is represented by more beads. Two scaling regimes of $\\tau(z)$ are observed, with transition between them varying as a function of chain length. We use these simulations results to test two theoretical approaches. One is a well known asymptotic theory valid in the limit of zero temperature. We show that this limit corresponds to fully extended chain when each chain segment is stretched, which is not particularly realistic. A new theory based on the well known Freidlin-Wentzell theory is proposed, where dynamics is projected onto the minimal action path. The new theory predicts both scaling regimes correctly, but fails to get the correct numerical prefactor in the first regime. Combining our theory with the FFS simulations lead us to a simple analytical expression valid for all extensions and chain lengths. One of the applications of polymer FP problem occurs in the context of branched polymer rheology. In this paper, we consider the arm-retraction mechanism in the tube model, which maps exactly on the model we have solved. The results are compared to the Milner-McLeish theory without constraint release, which is found to overestimate FP time by a factor of 10 or more.
Large deviations of Rouse polymer chain: First passage problem.
Cao, Jing; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Zuowei; Likhtman, Alexei E
2015-11-28
The purpose of this paper is to investigate several analytical methods of solving first passage (FP) problem for the Rouse model, a simplest model of a polymer chain. We show that this problem has to be treated as a multi-dimensional Kramers' problem, which presents rich and unexpected behavior. We first perform direct and forward-flux sampling (FFS) simulations and measure the mean first-passage time ?(z) for the free end to reach a certain distance z away from the origin. The results show that the mean FP time is getting faster if the Rouse chain is represented by more beads. Two scaling regimes of ?(z) are observed, with transition between them varying as a function of chain length. We use these simulation results to test two theoretical approaches. One is a well known asymptotic theory valid in the limit of zero temperature. We show that this limit corresponds to fully extended chain when each chain segment is stretched, which is not particularly realistic. A new theory based on the well known Freidlin-Wentzell theory is proposed, where dynamics is projected onto the minimal action path. The new theory predicts both scaling regimes correctly, but fails to get the correct numerical prefactor in the first regime. Combining our theory with the FFS simulations leads us to a simple analytical expression valid for all extensions and chain lengths. One of the applications of polymer FP problem occurs in the context of branched polymer rheology. In this paper, we consider the arm-retraction mechanism in the tube model, which maps exactly on the model we have solved. The results are compared to the Milner-McLeish theory without constraint release, which is found to overestimate FP time by a factor of 10 or more. PMID:26627948
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
Shihan Sajeed; Igor Radchenko; Sarah Kaiser; Jean-Philippe Bourgoin; Anna Pappa; Laurent Monat; Matthieu Legre; Vadim Makarov
2015-03-30
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD, we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle, and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems, and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim
2015-03-01
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Deviation magnification: Revealing departures from ideal geometries
Wadhwa, Neal
Structures and objects are often supposed to have idealized geometries such as straight lines or circles. Although not always visible to the naked eye, in reality, these objects deviate from their idealized models. Our ...
Ion Density Deviations in Semipermeable Ionic Microcapsules
Qiyun Tang; Alan R. Denton
2015-07-07
By implementing the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory in a cell model, we theoretically investigate the influence of polyelectrolye gel permeability on ion densities and pH deviations inside the cavities of ionic microcapsules. Our calculations show that variations in permeability of a charged capsule shell cause a redistribution of ion densities within the capsule, which ultimately affects the pH deviation and Donnan potential induced by the electric field of the shell. We find that semipermeable capsules can induce larger pH deviations inside their cavities that can permeable capsules. Furthermore, with increasing capsule charge, the influence of permeability on pH deviations progressively increases. Our theory, while providing a self-consistent method for modeling the influence of permeability on fundamental properties of ionic microgels, makes predictions of practical significance for the design of microcapsules loaded with fluorescent dyes, which can serve as biosensors for diagnostic purposes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
...Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
...Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant...
48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
..., and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201... department or agency; (B) Have a significant cost or administrative impact on contractors or offerors;...
48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
..., and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201... department or agency; (B) Have a significant cost or administrative impact on contractors or offerors;...
48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
..., and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201... department or agency; (B) Have a significant cost or administrative impact on contractors or offerors;...
48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
..., and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201... department or agency; (B) Have a significant cost or administrative impact on contractors or offerors;...
On geodesic deviation in Schwarzschild spacetime
Philipp, Dennis; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Deshpande, Kaustubh
2015-01-01
For metrology, geodesy and gravimetry in space, satellite based instruments and measurement techniques are used and the orbits of the satellites as well as possible deviations between nearby ones are of central interest. The measurement of this deviation itself gives insight into the underlying structure of the spacetime geometry, which is curved and therefore described by the theory of general relativity (GR). In the context of GR, the deviation of nearby geodesics can be described by the Jacobi equation that is a result of linearizing the geodesic equation around a known reference geodesic with respect to the deviation vector and the relative velocity. We review the derivation of this Jacobi equation and restrict ourselves to the simple case of the spacetime outside a spherically symmetric mass distribution and circular reference geodesics to find solutions by projecting the Jacobi equation on a parallel propagated tetrad as done by Fuchs. Using his results, we construct solutions of the Jacobi equation for...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hewitt, Paul G.
2004-01-01
Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…
Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift
Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger; Peters, Achim
2011-04-15
We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.
On geodesic deviation in Schwarzschild spacetime
Dennis Philipp; Volker Perlick; Claus Laemmerzahl; Kaustubh Deshpande
2015-08-26
For metrology, geodesy and gravimetry in space, satellite based instruments and measurement techniques are used and the orbits of the satellites as well as possible deviations between nearby ones are of central interest. The measurement of this deviation itself gives insight into the underlying structure of the spacetime geometry, which is curved and therefore described by the theory of general relativity (GR). In the context of GR, the deviation of nearby geodesics can be described by the Jacobi equation that is a result of linearizing the geodesic equation around a known reference geodesic with respect to the deviation vector and the relative velocity. We review the derivation of this Jacobi equation and restrict ourselves to the simple case of the spacetime outside a spherically symmetric mass distribution and circular reference geodesics to find solutions by projecting the Jacobi equation on a parallel propagated tetrad as done by Fuchs. Using his results, we construct solutions of the Jacobi equation for different physical initial scenarios inspired by satellite gravimetry missions and give a set of parameter together with their precise impact on satellite orbit deviation. We further consider the Newtonian analog and construct the full solution, that exhibits a similar structure, within this theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI
1991-01-01
A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.
Galaxy distances and deviations from the Hubble flow - Summary remarks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1986-01-01
A summary is presented of the issues addressed by the papers delivered at this conference. Papers addressing classical cosmological topics, including the distances to nearby objects, the intermediate scale distance determination, the local peculiar velocity, the local Hubble constant and other age parameters, and the density parameter from Virgo infall are reviewed. Papers discussing new cosmological developments, including large-scale inhomogeneities, large-scale deviations from Hubble flow, and the origin of the velocity and density inhomogeneities are briefly summarized. Prospects for the next 10 years are examined.
Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.
2012-01-01
Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... the IA Procurement Chief, absent a CCO). Exceeding $550,000 but not exceeding $11.5 million IA Competition Advocate. Exceeding $11.5 million but not exceeding $57 million The head of the procuring activity... acquisition using the order of precedence established in FAR 8.001. (c) Deviations may be authorized...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.104 Section 1260.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...
48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... Section 3001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY... is authorized to approve FAR class deviations, except (FAR) 48 CFR 30.201-3, and 30.201-4 (the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards Board); 48 CFR chapter 99 (FAR appendix); and part 50. Prior...
48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... Section 3001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY... is authorized to approve FAR class deviations, except (FAR) 48 CFR 30.201-3, and 30.201-4 (the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards Board); 48 CFR Chapter 99 (FAR Appendix); and part 50. Prior...
48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
.... 3001.403 Section 3001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations... CFR 30.201-3, 30.201-4; the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards board rules and...
48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
....403 Section 3001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... regulation, the HCA is authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to (FAR) 48 CFR 30.201-3, 30.201-4; the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards board rules and regulations at 48...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS REPORTING SUBAWARD AND...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved REPORTING SUBAWARD AND...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Pre-award responsibilities UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...
Manifestations of Deviation in the Adolescent Subculture
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.
2005-01-01
In this article the authors look at questions relating to school students' attitudes toward types of deviation such as smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotics. The empirical material is divided into the following topics: how widespread these forms of behavior are; motives that cause adolescents to start smoking, using alcohol, and taking…
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...” within the meaning of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 35) and its implementation in 5 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...
41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...
Measuring the deviation from the Rutherford formula
E. A. Kuraev; M. Shatnev; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson
2009-06-25
Modern experiments with heavy ion-leptons collisions open the possibility to measure the deviation of cross section of small angles electron(positron)-ion elastic scattering from the Rutherford formula due to multiple virtual photons exchange. The charge asymmetry and the polarization of the scattered leptons are calculated and numerical predictions are given. A generalization to elastic proton-nucleus scattering is discussed.
Evaluating Optical Fiber Links with Data Filtering and Allan Deviation
Calosso, Claudio Eligio; Micalizio, Salvatore
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose a simple method to reject the high-frequency noise in the evaluation of statistical uncertainty of coherent optical fiber links. Specifically, we propose a preliminary data filtering, separated from the frequency stability computation. In this way, it is possible to use the Allan deviation as estimator of stability, to get unbiased data, which are representative of the noise process affecting the delivered signal. Our approach is alternative to the use of the modified Allan deviation, which is largely adopted in this field. We apply this processing to the experimental data we obtained on a 1284 km coherent optical link for frequency dissemination, which we realized in Italy. We also show how the so-called Lambda-type commercial phase/frequency counters can be used to this purpose.
Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations
Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.
2001-01-01
This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary, suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, here we report a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of a subbasin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We generalize this relationship to a joint probability density, and provide observations and explanations of deviations from scaling. We show that fluctuations about scaling are substantial, and grow with system size. We find strong deviations from scaling at small scales which can be explained by the existence of a linear network structure. At intermediate scales, we find slow drifts in exponent values, indicating that scaling is only approximately obeyed and that universality remains indeterminate. At large scales, we observe a breakdown in scaling due to decreasing sample space and correlations with overall basin shape. The extent of approximate scaling is significantly restricted by these deviations, and will not be improved by increases in network resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardo, Enric; Šouc, Ján; Frolek, Lubomir
2015-04-01
Many large-scale applications require electromagnetic modelling with extensive numerical computations, such as magnets or three-dimensional (3D) objects like transposed conductors or motors and generators. Therefore, it is necessary to develop computationally time-efficient but still accurate numerical methods. This article develops a general variational formalism for any {E}({J}) relation and applies it to model coated-conductor coils containing up to thousands of turns, taking magnetization currents fully into account. The variational principle, valid for any 3D situation, restricts the computations to the sample volume, reducing the computation time. However, no additional magnetic materials interacting with the superconductor are taken directly into account. Regarding the coil modelling, we use a power law E(J) relation with magnetic field-dependent critical current density, Jc, and power law exponent, n. We test the numerical model by comparing the results to analytical formulas for thin strips and experiments for stacks of pancake coils, finding a very good agreement. Afterwards, we model a magnet-size coil of 4000 turns (stack of 20 pancake coils of 200 turns each). We found that the ac loss is mainly due to magnetization currents. We also found that for an n exponent of 20, the magnetization currents are greatly suppressed after 1 h relaxation. In addition, in coated conductor coils magnetization currents have an important impact on the generated magnetic field; which should be taken into account for magnet design. In conclusion, the presented numerical method fulfills the requirements for electromagnetic design of coated conductor windings.
9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...
9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...
14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...609 Approval for deviation. (a) Each manufacturer who requests approval to deviate from any performance standard of a TSO shall show that the standards from which a deviation is requested are compensated for by factors or design features...
14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...609 Approval for deviation. (a) Each manufacturer who requests approval to deviate from any performance standard of a TSO shall show that the standards from which a deviation is requested are compensated for by factors or design features...
Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.
1979-01-01
Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1976-01-01
The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis
2013-01-01
A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971
Note Onset Deviations as Musical Piece Signatures
Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis
2013-01-01
A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David
2009-01-01
This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…
Cerveny, Vlastislav
Borehole deviation surveys are necessary for hydraulic fracture monitoring Leo Eisner, Schlumberger Not performing accurate borehole deviation surveys for hydraulic fracture monitoring (HFM) and neglecting fracture parameters. Introduction Recently a large number of hydraulic fracture treatments have been
Deviations from Keplerian Orbits for Solar Sails
Roman Ya. Kezerashvili; Justin F. Vazquez-Poritz
2009-07-20
It is shown that the curvature of spacetime, a possible net electric charge on the sun, a small positive cosmological constant and the oblateness of the sun, in conjunction with solar radiation pressure (SPR), affect the bound orbital motion of solar sails and lead to deviations from Kepler's third law for heliocentric and non-Keplerian orbits. With regards to the Lense-Thirring effect, the SRP increases the amount of precession per orbit for polar orbits. Non-Keplerian polar orbits exhibit an analog of the Lense-Thirring effect in which the orbital plane precesses around the sun.
Effect of stress on energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in GR/EP composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1990-01-01
Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy because of the large anisotropy. The angle of deviation is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of deviation is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux deviation for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis (fiber axis) and the x1 for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as large as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers a new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svenson, Eric Johan
Participants on the Invincible America Assembly in Fairfield, Iowa, and neighboring Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa, practicing Maharishi Transcendental Meditation(TM) (TM) and the TM-Sidhi(TM) programs in large groups, submitted written experiences that they had had during, and in some cases shortly after, their daily practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs. Participants were instructed to include in their written experiences only what they observed and to leave out interpretation and analysis. These experiences were then read by the author and compared with principles and phenomena of modern physics, particularly with quantum theory, astrophysics, quantum cosmology, and string theory as well as defining characteristics of higher states of consciousness as described by Maharishi Vedic Science. In all cases, particular principles or phenomena of physics and qualities of higher states of consciousness appeared qualitatively quite similar to the content of the given experience. These experiences are presented in an Appendix, in which the corresponding principles and phenomena of physics are also presented. These physics "commentaries" on the experiences were written largely in layman's terms, without equations, and, in nearly every case, with clear reference to the corresponding sections of the experiences to which a given principle appears to relate. An abundance of similarities were apparent between the subjective experiences during meditation and principles of modern physics. A theoretic framework for understanding these rich similarities may begin with Maharishi's theory of higher states of consciousness provided herein. We conclude that the consistency and richness of detail found in these abundant similarities warrants the further pursuit and development of such a framework.
Nasal septal deviation in a mediaeval population.
Mays, Simon
2012-07-01
In modern populations, there is evidence that nasal septal deviation (NSD) may be associated with maxillary sinusitis, and that those with NSD may differ in craniofacial morphology from those without or with less severe NSD. Whether these associations hold true for earlier populations has yet to be investigated. The current work is a step toward remedying this. The study group comes from a mediaeval English archaeological site. NSD was quantified using image analysis. Maxillary sinusitis was identified from new bone formation in the antrum. Cranial morphology was assessed using standard craniometric measurements. The results provided no evidence for a relationship between NSD and maxillary sinus disease. NSD was associated with reduced measures of upper facial height, suggesting decoupling of growth in vertical height of the nasal septum and the bony structures surrounding it. PMID:22565652
Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy
Chiu, M.-H.; Lai, C.-W.; Tan, C.-T.; Lai, C.-F
2008-10-10
We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam converges or diverges because of refractive and/or surface height variations. Advantages include high axial resolution ({approx}32 nm), nondestructive and noncontact measurement, and larger measurement ranges ({+-} 80 {mu}m) for a numerical aperture of 0.21in a transparent measurement medium. The technique can be used without conductivity and pretreatment.
The Role of Burden and Deviation in Ostracizing Others.
Wesselmann, Eric D; Wirth, James H; Pryor, John B; Reeder, Glenn D; Williams, Kipling D
2015-01-01
Ostracism (being excluded and ignored) is a painful experience, so why do individuals ostracize others? Previous research suggests individuals often ostracize those who are deviate, but not always. We posit that there may be two types of deviation, burdensome and non-burdensome, and the former is most likely to be ostracized. Study 1 manipulated burdensome deviation by programming a group member to perform more slowly (8 or 16 sec.) than others (4 sec.) in a virtual ball-toss game. Participants perceived slower players as more burdensome and deviate than normal speed players. Additionally, participants ostracized (gave fewer ball tosses to) the slowest player. Study 2 examined participant responses to both burdensome deviation (8- and 16-sec. players) and non-burdensome deviation (goth appearance). Participants again perceived the slower players to be burdensome and deviate, and ostracized them. They perceived the goth player to be deviate but not burdensome and did not ostracize this player. PMID:26267129
10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Overview § 1017.5 Requesting a deviation. (a) Any person may request a deviation, or condition that diverges from the norm and that is categorized as: (1) A variance (i.e., an approved condition that technically varies from a...
10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Overview § 1017.5 Requesting a deviation. (a) Any person may request a deviation, or condition that diverges from the norm and that is categorized as: (1) A variance (i.e., an approved condition that technically varies from a...
10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...Overview § 1017.5 Requesting a deviation. (a) Any person may request a deviation, or condition that diverges from the norm and that is categorized as: (1) A variance (i.e., an approved condition that technically varies from a...
10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...Overview § 1017.5 Requesting a deviation. (a) Any person may request a deviation, or condition that diverges from the norm and that is categorized as: (1) A variance (i.e., an approved condition that technically varies from a...
10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...Overview § 1017.5 Requesting a deviation. (a) Any person may request a deviation, or condition that diverges from the norm and that is categorized as: (1) A variance (i.e., an approved condition that technically varies from a...
Primary Cementing of a Highly Deviated Oil Well
Fournier, John J.F.
Primary Cementing of a Highly Deviated Oil Well by Mariana Carrasco-Teja B.Sc., Instituto Tecnol. The study comes from the primary cementing of highly deviated oil and gas wells. Highly deviated wells are those in which part of the wellbore is nearly horizontal. Primary cementing is a critical process
Large deviations in boundary-driven systems: Numerical evaluation and effective large-scale behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunin, Guy; Kafri, Yariv; Podolsky, Daniel
2012-07-01
We study rare events in systems of diffusive fields driven out of equilibrium by the boundaries. We present a numerical technique and use it to calculate the probabilities of rare events in one and two dimensions. Using this technique, we show that the probability density of a slowly varying configuration can be captured with a small number of long-wavelength modes. For a configuration which varies rapidly in space this description can be complemented by a local-equilibrium assumption.
Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN_{1-x}Sb_{x} from first principles
Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Lisenkov, Sergey; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Mahendra K.; Menon, Madhu
2011-08-01
Applicability of the Ga(Sb_{x})N_{1-x} alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sb_{x})N_{1-x} alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sb_{x})N_{1-x} alloys could be potential candidates for splitting water under visible light irradiation.
Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN1-xSbx from first principles
Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Lisenkov, Sergey; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Mahendra K.; Menon, Madhu
2011-08-01
Applicability of the Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting water under visible light irradiation.
Deviated-well seismic data and the application
Jisong, C. )
1991-01-01
This paper reports on geological drillers which often use deviated-well technology to make an exploratory well penetrate several targets which do not lie in same vertical direction. In order to correlate deviated- well data with seismic section, people should do the following processings of deviated-well data. The deviated- well projection positions on adjacent seismic sections are determined by using deviated-well data, formation dip angle and formation dip direction, the position being usually described with vertical depth and deviation. The record depths of samples of each logging curve must be converted into the vertical depths in a relevant seismic section. Synthetic seismogram is made by using depth-converted sonic and density logging data. The synthetic seismogram whose amplitude are multiplied by a proper factor is stacked with the deviation of the deviated-well-projection on a seismic section. The synthetic seismogram is displayed in the same scale the seismic section uses, so that it can be correlated with the seismic section. Other logging data of deviated well, such as apparent resistivity curve, natural potential curve and natural gamma curve, also can be correlated with seismic section by stacking them with the deviation of deviated-well projection on seismic section.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ronghan; Xie, Qing; Cheng, Xiyue; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi; Chen, Xing-Qiu
2015-11-01
By means of first-principles calculations in combination with universal evolutionary structure search, we identified the crystalline structure of long-term argued M3Bi2 (M =Sr , Ca, and Ba), which crystallizes in a tubelike structure stacked by buckled graphenelike layers. The analyses of electronic structures revealed that this type of M3Bi2 is a native wide-gap three-dimensional topological insulator with the inverted band order induced mainly by crystal field effect. The spin-orbit coupling effect was found to open the band gap and further enhance the band inversion. Among them, Sr3Bi2 is most attractive due to its largest fundamental gap of about 0.3 eV and the directly inverted band gap of 0.81 eV at ? obtained within the framework of Green functionals (G W ). Moreover, the computation also evidences that their tubelike structure is suitable for further treatment via magnetic dopants, which prefer to occupy 1 b site. Interestingly, the ferromagnetic insulating state has been achieved for V- and Mn-doped cases. This may provide a further opportunity to observe the quantized anomalous Hall effect in its thin films.
Optimal wellbore planning for deviated drilling
Wu, H.C.; Kuehn, J.L.; Ziaja, M.B.; Patten, W.N.
1994-12-31
The paper describes a rigorous and systematic analytical planning procedure that produces an optimal trajectory for a drilled wellbore in R{sup 3}. The investigation assumes that the `steering` is accomplished by changing the angular orientation of the drill bit in the wellbore. The steering angle change at any point is assumed to be bounded. (This reflects the limited bending that can be induced in the drill string when in the wellbore). A system of nonlinear differential equations is first posed to describe the path parameterized wellbore trajectory. The work assumes that the objective of planning is to discover a path of lest length that connects a given kickoff point in the vertical wellbore to a specified pay zone location. The problem is treated using the calculus of variations. The optimal control policy is determined by solving a system of coupled first order necessary conditions, and Pontryagin`s Minimum Principle. Because the solution is non-unique, then all feasible arcs are identified. The minimizing trajectory is shown to consist of an assembly of optimal subarcs. The continuity requirements at the connection between subarcs is established using transversality conditions. The analytical treatment is followed by a numerical case study. This paper demonstrates a rigorous method for wellbore planning that can be implemented in a straightforward manner. Unlike ad hoc methods, the procedure produces an optimal trajectory that requires (as a general rule) no more than two course corrections (alterations of a fixed bent sub) after kickoff to reach any point (with an specificized orientation). The technique produces a smooth trajectory free of doglegs.
Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1992-01-01
In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave deviates from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux deviation and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux deviation. The energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite large because of their high anisotropy. The flux deviation angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux deviation was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1).
Protocol Development — Policy on the Issuance of Waivers for Protocol Deviation(s)
Staff in the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) occasionally receive calls from investigators requesting that certain criteria in a CTEP-approved protocol be waived so a particular patient can be entered or modifications be made to the original treatment plan. In most cases, these waivers relate to the initial eligibility criteria or treatment plans established when the protocol was written and before patient recruitment begins. Granting waivers for protocol deviations has been handled different at CTEP depending on which program staff is contacted.
Middlemiss, Derek S. E-mail: R.J.Deeth@warwick.ac.uk; Deeth, Robert J. E-mail: R.J.Deeth@warwick.ac.uk
2014-04-14
The dielectric response of spin-crossover (SCO) materials is a key property facilitating their use in next-generation information processing technologies. Solid state hybrid density functional theory calculations show that the temperature-induced and strongly hysteretic SCO transition in the Cs{sup +}Fe{sup 2+}[Cr{sup 3+}(CN{sup ?}){sub 6}] Prussian blue analogue (PBA) is associated with a large change (?) in both the static, ??{sup 0}(HS ? LS), and high frequency, ??{sup ?}(HS ? LS) dielectric constants. The SCO-induced variation in CsFe[Cr(CN){sub 6}] is significantly greater than the experimental ?? values observed previously in other SCO materials. The phonon contribution, ??{sup phon}(HS ? LS), determined within a lattice dynamics approach, dominates over the clamped nuclei term, ??{sup ?}(HS ? LS), and is in turn dominated by the low-frequency translational motions of Cs{sup +} cations within the cubic voids of the Fe[Cr(CN){sub 6}]{sup ?} framework. The Cs{sup +} translational modes couple strongly to the large unit cell volume change occurring through the SCO transition. PBAs and associated metal-organic frameworks emerge as a potentially fruitful class of materials in which to search for SCO transitions associated with large changes in dielectric response and other macroscopic properties.
Elastic-wave propagation in deviated wells in anisotropic formations Bikash K. Sinha1
Simsek, Ergun
by a heavy-fluid column. INTRODUCTION Deviated drilling through the overburden shale is often required to access horizontal wells in a reservoir. Large stress-induced shear anisotropy in the borehole cross of the sedimentary rocks exhibit some degree of anisotropy.Ahorizontally layered structure exhibits transversely
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolovskiy, Vladimir V.; Entel, P.; Buchelnikov, V. D.; Gruner, M. E.
2015-06-01
The magnetocaloric properties of Ni-Co-Mn-Cr-In Heusler alloys have been studied by means of ab initio calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. We discuss the resulting complex spin configurations, the temperature behavior of entropy, as well as the critical temperatures of the phase transitions. The substitution of 5% Co for Ni and 5% Cr for Mn results in a first-order magnetostructural transition from ferromagnetic austenite to antiferromagnetic martensite, which is accompanied by a spin-flip transition upon cooling. As a result, a large magnetization drop and giant inverse magnetocaloric effect can be achieved of ? Tad?10 K in a 2 T field across the magnetostructural phase transition.
Thür, C; Jülke, M; Bircher, H P
1998-03-01
There are many different causes leading to impingement lesions of the shoulder (e.g., architecture of the acromion, arthritis of the acromioclavicular joint, bursitis subacromialis, chronic instability). There are also different ways of treating it. Neer described his technique of anterior acromioplasty in 1972. With this technique there is sometimes a limitation in the amount of resection possible because of the anatomical findings (i.e., very curved or small acromion). We developed a new technique: the lift-up osteotomy of the acromion (LOA). This technique allows us to gain as much subacromial space as needed (e.g., for large anterior deltoid flaps). Osteotomy of the acromion gives an excellent view of the rotator cuff. Even large lesions can easily be repaired. After the cuff repair is done, the acromion is refixed with two canulated screws. So far, we have used this LOA technique in more than 100 patients in impingement operations, cuff repairs and anterior deltoid flaps all with good results. PMID:9577213
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.
2013-12-01
Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. Calibration on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for calibration are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian principles. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model reduction. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of calibrated model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of accurate filtering become very feasible for our suggested aPC-based calibration framework. However, the power of aPC-based Bayesian updating strongly depends on the accuracy of prior information. In the current study, the prior assumptions on the model parameters were not satisfactory and strongly underestimate the reservoir pressure. Thus, the aPC-based response surface used in Bootstrap filtering is fitted to a distant and poorly chosen region within the parameter space. Thanks to the iterative procedure suggested in [2] we overcome this drawback with small computational costs. The iteration successively improves the accuracy of the expansion around the current estimation of the posterior distribution. The final result is a calibrated model of the site that can be used for further studies, with an excellent match to the data. References [1] Oladyshkin S. and Nowak W. Data-driven uncertainty quantification using the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 106:179-190, 2012. [2] Oladyshkin S., Class H., Nowak W. Bayesian updating via Bootstrap filtering combined with data-driven polynomial chaos expansions: methodology and application to history matching for carbon dioxide storage in geological formations. Computational Geosciences, 17 (4), 671-687, 2013.
Cooperative Games with General Deviation Measures Bogdan Grechuk
Banaji,. Murad
Cooperative Games with General Deviation Measures Bogdan Grechuk Department of Mathematics Cooperative games with players using different law-invariant deviation measures as numerical represen- tations of the cooperative portfolio expected gain, belonging to the core of a corresponding cooperative game, is suggested
Developmental Dyslexia, Neurolinguistic Theory and Deviations in Brain Morphology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hynd, George W.; And Others
1991-01-01
Reviews computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies examining deviations in brain morphology. Discusses methodological and technical issues. Concludes that dyslexics show variations in specific brain regions. Suggests that neuroimaging procedures appear to provide direct evidence supporting the importance of deviations in normal…
Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldberg, Fred M.
1985-01-01
Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)
33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...
33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...
48 CFR 225.1070 - Clause deviations in overseas contracts.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... overseas contracts. 225.1070 Section 225.1070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Acquisition Regulations 225.1070 Clause deviations in overseas contracts. See 201.403(2) for approval authority for clause deviations in overseas contracts with governments of North Atlantic Treaty...
48 CFR 225.1070 - Clause deviations in overseas contracts.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... overseas contracts. 225.1070 Section 225.1070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Acquisition Regulations 225.1070 Clause deviations in overseas contracts. See 201.403(2) for approval authority for clause deviations in overseas contracts with governments of North Atlantic Treaty...
48 CFR 225.1070 - Clause deviations in overseas contracts.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... overseas contracts. 225.1070 Section 225.1070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Acquisition Regulations 225.1070 Clause deviations in overseas contracts. See 201.403(2) for approval authority for clause deviations in overseas contracts with governments of North Atlantic Treaty...
48 CFR 225.1070 - Clause deviations in overseas contracts.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... overseas contracts. 225.1070 Section 225.1070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Acquisition Regulations 225.1070 Clause deviations in overseas contracts. See 201.403(2) for approval authority for clause deviations in overseas contracts with governments of North Atlantic Treaty...
48 CFR 225.1070 - Clause deviations in overseas contracts.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... overseas contracts. 225.1070 Section 225.1070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Acquisition Regulations 225.1070 Clause deviations in overseas contracts. See 201.403(2) for approval authority for clause deviations in overseas contracts with governments of North Atlantic Treaty...
The Relationship Between Inhibition of Return and Saccade Trajectory Deviations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Godijn, Richard; Theeuwes, Jan
2004-01-01
After presentation of a peripheral cue, a subsequent saccade to the cued location is delayed (inhibition of return: IOR). Furthermore, saccades typically deviate away from the cued location. The present study examined the relationship between these inhibitory effects. IOR and saccade trajectory deviations were found after central (endogenous) and…
48 CFR 927.403 - Negotiations and deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Negotiations and deviations. 927.403 Section 927.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.403 Negotiations and deviations. Contracting officers...
48 CFR 927.403 - Negotiations and deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Negotiations and deviations. 927.403 Section 927.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.403 Negotiations and deviations. Contracting officers...
Predicting leptonic CP phase by considering deviations in charged lepton and neutrino sectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sruthilaya, M.; Soumya, C.; Deepthi, K. N.; Mohanta, R.
2015-08-01
Recently, the reactor mixing angle {? }13 has been measured precisely by Daya Bay, RENO, and T2K experiments with a moderately large value. However, the standard form of neutrino mixing patterns such as bimaximal, tri-bimaximal, golden ratio of types A and B, hexagonal, etc., which are based on certain flavor symmetries, predict vanishing {? }13. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix can be represented as {V}{PMNS}={U}l\\dagger {U}? {P}? , where Ul and {U}? result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices and {P}? is a diagonal matrix containing Majorana phases, we explore the possibility of accounting for the large reactor mixing angle by considering deviations both in the charged lepton and neutrino sector. In the charged lepton sector we consider the deviation as an additional rotation in the (12) and (13) planes, whereas in the neutrino sector we consider deviations to various neutrino mixing patterns through (13) and (23) rotations. We find that with the inclusion of these deviations it is possible to accommodate the observed large reactor mixing angle {? }13, and one can also obtain limits on the charge-conjugation parity-violating Dirac phase{? }{CP} and Jarlskog invariant JCP for most of the cases. We then explore whether our findings can be tested in the currently running NuMI Off-axis ve Appearance experiment with three years of data taking in neutrino mode followed by three years with the anti-neutrino mode.
Allison, Thomas C; Burgess, Donald R
2015-11-19
In this article, the first-principles prediction of enthalpies of formation is demonstrated for 669 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and a number of related functionalized molecules. It is shown that by extrapolating density functional theory calculations to a large basis set limit and then applying a group based correction scheme that good results may be obtained. Specifically, a mean unsigned deviation and root mean squared deviation from the experimental enthalpies of formation data of 5.0 and 6.4 kJ/mol, respectively, are obtained using this scheme. This computational scheme is economical to compute and straightforward to apply, while yielding results of reasonable reliability. The results are also compared for a smaller set of molecules to the predictions given by the G3B3 and G3MP2B3 variants of the Gaussian-3 model chemistry with a mean unsigned deviation and root mean squared deviation from the experimental enthalpies of formation of 4.5 and 4.8 kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:26485436
Influence of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation on esthetics
Corte, Cristiane Cherobini Dalla; da Silveira, Bruno Lopes; Marquezan, Mariana
2015-01-01
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the degree of perception of occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation in facial esthetics, assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. Methods: A woman with 5.88° of inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation was selected and, based on her original photograph, four new images were created correcting the deviations and creating more symmetric faces and smiles. Examiners assessed the images by means of a questionnaire. Their opinions were compared by qualitative and quantitative analyses. Results: A total of 45 laypeople, 27 dentists and 31 orthodontists filled out the questionnaires. All groups were able to perceive the asymmetry; however, orthodontists were more sensitive, identifying asymmetries as from 4.32° of occlusal plane inclination and 4.155 mm of mandibular deviation (p< 0.05). The other categories of evaluators identified asymmetries and assigned significantly lower grades, starting from 5.88° of occlusal plane inclination and 5.54 mm of mandibular deviation (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Occlusal plane inclination and mandibular deviation were perceived by all groups, but orthodontists presented higher perception of deviations. PMID:26560821
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1990-01-01
Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy because of the large anisotropy. The angle of deviation is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of deviation is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux deviation for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis fiber axis) and the x1 axis for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as large as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.
Ion Density Deviations in Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules: Influence on Biosensors
Qiyun Tang; Alan R. Denton
2014-10-24
Polyelectrolyte microcapsules loaded with fluorescent dyes have been proposed as biosensors to monitor local pH and ionic strength for diagnostic purposes. In the case of charged microcapsules, however, the local electric field can cause deviations of ion densities inside the cavities, potentially resulting in misdiagnosis of some diseases. Using nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we systematically investigate these deviations induced by charged microcapsules. Our results show that the microcapsule charge density, as well as the capsule and salt concentrations, contribute to deviations of local ion concentrations and pH. Our findings are relevant for applications of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with encapsulated ion-sensitive dyes as biosensors.
Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini
2014-10-01
A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (?) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO (<1 ppbv to a peak of 295 ppbv), NO2 (<2 ppbv-47 ppbv) and O3 (4 ppbv-95 ppbv) mixing ratios, all of which showed strong diurnal variation. The ? values showed large deviations from unity over the measurement period, with mostly negative deviations (? < 1), showing that the air masses were dominated by local sources of NOx and that the PSS was not achieved. Positive deviations (? > 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.
A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth
2010-01-01
Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.
9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...
Recognizing deviations from normalcy for brain tumor segmentation
Gering, David T. (David Thomas), 1971-
2003-01-01
A framework is proposed for the segmentation of brain tumors from MRI. Instead of training on pathology, the proposed method trains exclusively on healthy tissue. The algorithm attempts to recognize deviations from normalcy ...
Correction method for sonic logging trace from deviated well
Xuejun, W.; Xiaoping, Z. )
1992-01-01
This paper reports that the synthetic seismogram derived from deviated well logging trace can not be used to make stratigraphic division along the deviated well. It may be applied to stratigraphic division for the vertical seismic trace at the head of the deviated well; however, great error occurs in such stratigraphic division because of bed dip influence. It is necessary, therefore, to make dip and depth corrections of the deviated well logging trace so as to obtain a pseudo logging trace which reflects the petrophysical property of a vertical seismic trace at the well head. Then the pseudo vertical logging trace is used to produce synthetic seismogram that can be used to perform stratigraphic division for vertical seismic trace at the well head. The example shows that the stratigraphic division using this method is reliable. This method is applicable for the are in which geological structure is simple.
DEVIATIONS OF ERGODIC SUMS FOR TORAL TRANSLATIONS I. CONVEX BODIES
Dolgopyat, Dmitry
DEVIATIONS OF ERGODIC SUMS FOR TORAL TRANSLATIONS I. CONVEX BODIES DMITRY DOLGOPYAT AND BASSAM by the normalized Lebesgue measure on X. Then we will prove the following 1 #12;2 DMITRY DOLGOPYAT AND BASSAM FAYAD
Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.
Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.
1982-01-01
Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors
Dissociated vertical deviation: evidence of abnormal visual pathway projection.
Fitzgerald, B. A.; Billson, F. A.
1984-01-01
Abnormalities in visually evoked responses have been used to demonstrate abnormal optic nerve fibre projections in human albinos, who have anomalous nystagmoid movements. Using visually evoked potentials we tested the hypothesis that patients with dissociated vertical deviation (another group with anomalous nystagmoid movements) may have abnormal visual evoked responses similar to those of albinos. Patients with dissociated vertical deviation (both unilateral and alternating), patients with congenital esotropia without dissociated vertical deviation, and normal subjects were investigated. The results showed a very high incidence of abnormal visual evoked responses in patients with dissociated vertical deviation, while recordings from the other groups were normal. As well as suggesting the possibility of abnormalities of optic nerve fibre projections, the visual evoked responses showed a marked increase in latency in all patients with dissociated vertical deviation. These results occurred regardless of the visual acuity or amblyopia of the eyes tested. The possible existence of abnormal pathway projection in the presence of dissociated vertical deviation is discussed. PMID:6498135
Equivalence principles and electromagnetism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ni, W.-T.
1977-01-01
The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.
Principles and Methods Chromatography
Lebendiker, Mario
Edition AC 18-1022-29 Principles and Methods Affinity Chromatography #12;Antibody Purification-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Ion Exchange Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1114-21 Affinity Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1022-29 Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Principles
14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...
14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...
24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ...
24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ROW OF INTACT COLUMNS, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST. (NOTE BOLTED BLOCK SCABBED TO COLUMN AS JOIST/TRUSS SUPPORT) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Detecting Deviations from Usual Medical Care James Mezger1
Hauskrecht, Milos
by the lactulose model. The model predicts with high probability that these two cases should receive lactulose. Since, lactulose is used in hepatic encephalopathy and acute hepatic failure to counteract ACUHEPFAI 0.86 Table 1. Deviations predicted by the lactulose model. #12;
10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting a deviation. 1017.5 Section 1017.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR... the Office of Classification, Office of Health, Safety and Security, U.S. Department of Energy,...
10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requesting a deviation. 1017.5 Section 1017.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR... the Office of Classification, Office of Health, Safety and Security, U.S. Department of Energy,...
Attempt of quantitative determination of ocular deviation using a pupillometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwata, Yo; Handa, Tomoya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Kimiya
2015-11-01
Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.
Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M
1975-01-01
Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed. PMID:1184490
Paul Withers Were slopes on Mars once flat? -Systematic Deviations
Withers, Paul
Paul Withers Were slopes on Mars once flat? - Systematic Deviations of "Flat" Martian Features from an Equipotential Surface Abstract On Mars, the northern lowlands and floors of the two largest impact craters were the geophysical evolution of Mars. Proposal The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) aboard the Mars Global
Process and Deviation Exploration with Inductive visual Miner
van der Aalst, Wil
Process and Deviation Exploration with Inductive visual Miner Sander J.J. Leemans, Dirk Fahland.fahland, w.m.p.v.d.aalst}@tue.nl Abstract Process mining aims to extract information from recorded process data, which can be used to gain insights into the process. This requires applying a discovery algorithm
33 CFR 161.5 - Deviations from the rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Traffic Services General Rules § 161.5... the request, the VTS Director may authorize a deviation if it is determined that, based on vessel handling characteristics, traffic density, radar contacts, environmental conditions and other...
Mini-Muddling: Learning from Project Plan Deviations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hallgren, Markus; Wilson, Timothy L.
2007-01-01
Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the informal and incidental learning that takes place in project work among individuals who must adapt to deviations from project plans. Design/methodology/approach: Reflections in the study are built on four power plant projects found in an integrated provider of projects of this…
21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written procedures; deviations. 211.100 Section 211.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production...
21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written procedures; deviations. 211.100 Section 211.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production...
33 CFR 161.5 - Deviations from the rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... by the required measure or is a maneuver considered necessary for safe navigation under the... alternative to the required measure. (b) Requests to deviate from any provision in this part due to... handling characteristics, traffic density, radar contacts, environmental conditions and other...
33 CFR 161.5 - Deviations from the rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... by the required measure or is a maneuver considered necessary for safe navigation under the... alternative to the required measure. (b) Requests to deviate from any provision in this part due to... handling characteristics, traffic density, radar contacts, environmental conditions and other...
33 CFR 161.5 - Deviations from the rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... by the required measure or is a maneuver considered necessary for safe navigation under the... alternative to the required measure. (b) Requests to deviate from any provision in this part due to... handling characteristics, traffic density, radar contacts, environmental conditions and other...
33 CFR 161.5 - Deviations from the rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... by the required measure or is a maneuver considered necessary for safe navigation under the... alternative to the required measure. (b) Requests to deviate from any provision in this part due to... handling characteristics, traffic density, radar contacts, environmental conditions and other...
Relative Entropy: Free Energy Associated with Equilibrium Fluctuations and Nonequilibrium Deviations
Hong Qian
2001-02-07
Using a one-dimensional macromolecule in aqueous solution as an illustration, we demonstrate that the relative entropy from information theory, $\\sum_k p_k\\ln(p_k/p_k^*)$, has a natural role in the energetics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium conformational fluctuations of the single molecule. It is identified as the free energy difference associated with a fluctuating density in equilibrium, and is associated with the distribution deviate from the equilibrium in nonequilibrium relaxation. This result can be generalized to any other isothermal macromolecular systems using the mathematical theories of large deviations and Markov processes, and at the same time provides the well-known mathematical results with an interesting physical interpretations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mostajeran, M.
2014-11-01
In this work, a "main condition" for phase stability has been employed to investigate the effects of the velocity deviation of the electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors (MPs). In a previous study [M. Mostajeran, Phys. Plasmas 21, 053108 (2014)], a stability equation was derived, where the secondary electron was assumed to have zero initial velocity and the phase deviation from the resonant phase was considered. In this work, both deviations in phase and velocity from the resonant condition are taken into account, assuming nonzero initial velocity for the secondary electrons. Using the main condition for stability, it is shown that MP discharge can rise in situations, where large velocity deviations from initial velocity and large phase deviations from resonant phase exist. This is contrary to what can be predicted on the basis of the "simple stability condition." This result is further confirmed by numerical simulations.
Mostajeran, M.
2014-11-15
In this work, a “main condition” for phase stability has been employed to investigate the effects of the velocity deviation of the electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors (MPs). In a previous study [M. Mostajeran, Phys. Plasmas 21, 053108 (2014)], a stability equation was derived, where the secondary electron was assumed to have zero initial velocity and the phase deviation from the resonant phase was considered. In this work, both deviations in phase and velocity from the resonant condition are taken into account, assuming nonzero initial velocity for the secondary electrons. Using the main condition for stability, it is shown that MP discharge can rise in situations, where large velocity deviations from initial velocity and large phase deviations from resonant phase exist. This is contrary to what can be predicted on the basis of the “simple stability condition.” This result is further confirmed by numerical simulations.
Solar Radiation Pressure and Deviations from Keplerian Orbits
Roman Ya. Kezerashvili; Justin F. Vazquez-Poritz
2009-04-15
Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.
Dissociated vertical deviation-a clinical and laboratory study.
Helveston, E M
1980-01-01
The previously reported nomenclature and clinical characteristics of dissociated vertical deviation have been recorded. The incidence and characteristics of DVD have been determined by evaluation of 1,000 consecutive strabismus or nystagmus patients, and with selected chart study carried out on the 111 DVD patients found in this series. Electro-oculographic studies of selected patients with DVD provided objective evidence of the speed and amplitude of the ocular movements in DVD. Bell phenomenon, strabismus sursoadductorius and the Bielschowsky phenomenon were recorded and compared to clinical findings of strabismus patients with DVD. The technique for the results of surgery for DVD were described. Dissociated vertical deviation was characterized as a component of the overall strabismus picture. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 3 C FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B PMID:7020216
Method for improving cuttings transport in deviated wells
Savins, J. G.
1985-01-29
An improved method of drilling a deviated well is effected by injecting a slug or series of slugs of a shear thickening fluid down the drill string ahead of the drilling fluid and into the annulus formed about the drill string to displace cuttings that accumulate in the annular regions where the drill string lies near the lower side of the deviated portion of the borehole thereby increasing cuttings transport efficiency. The shear thickening fluid has characteristics that enable it to dislodge and disperse the accumulated cuttings in that it undergoes a reversible, isothermal, increase in viscosity when subjected to an increasing shear rate. Slug volumes vary between 0.05 and 5 percent of the annulus volume between the drill string and the wellbore wall.
Geodesic Deviation Equation in $f(T)$ gravity
F. Darabi; M. Mousavi; K. Atazadeh
2015-04-14
In this work, we show that it is possible to study the notion of geodesic deviation equation in $f(T)$ gravity, in spite of the fact that in teleparallel gravity there is no notion of geodesics, and the torsion is responsible for the appearance of gravitational interaction. In this regard, we obtain the GR equivalent equations for $f(T)$ gravity which are in the modified gravity form such as $f(R)$ gravity. Then, we obtain the GDE within the context of this modified gravity. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the $f(T)$ gravity. Eventually, we extend the calculations to obtain the modification of Matting relation.
OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.
Olsen, Harold W.
1985-01-01
This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.
Geometric deviation modeling by kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Weidong; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Yu; Dai, Wanyi
2015-09-01
Typical representation of dimension and geometric accuracy is limited to the self-representation of dimension and geometric deviation based on geometry variation thinking, yet the interactivity affection of geometric variation and gesture variation of multi-rigid body is not included. In this paper, a kinematic matrix model based on Lagrangian coordinate is introduced, with the purpose of unified model for geometric variation and gesture variation and their interactive and integrated analysis. Kinematic model with joint, local base and movable base is built. The ideal feature of functional geometry is treated as the base body; the fitting feature of functional geometry is treated as the adjacent movable body; the local base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the ideal geometry, and the movable base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the fitting geometry. Furthermore, the geometric deviation is treated as relative location or rotation variation between the movable base and the local base, and it's expressed by the Lagrangian coordinate. Moreover, kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate for different types of geometry tolerance zones is constructed, and total freedom for each kinematic model is discussed. Finally, the Lagrangian coordinate library, kinematic matrix library for geometric deviation modeling is illustrated, and an example of block and piston fits is introduced. Dimension and geometric tolerances of the shaft and hole fitting feature are constructed by kinematic matrix and Lagrangian coordinate, and the results indicate that the proposed kinematic matrix is capable and robust in dimension and geometric tolerances modeling.
Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD): The saccadic and slow eye movements.
Zubcov, A A; Goldstein, H P; Reinecke, R D
1994-01-01
Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD), a vertical strabismus, is often associated with infantile esotropia, latent nystagmus and excyclo-torsion. DVD usually becomes apparent at about three years of age. The authors wished to determine whether DVD is a manifestation of an abnormal motor vergence system or is part of a visual system disorder. Vertical eye movements of six subjects with DVD, on cover-uncover and alternate cover tests, were studied using the magnetic search eye coil system. Asymmetry between the eyes' saccades were quantified during the DVD upward movement and during a trial of pure vertical saccades. In three subjects the vertical deviation increased to its full amount through a smooth vertical divergence movement, and in the other three patients through a combination of smooth and asymmetrical saccade-like movements. The latencies of the DVD, the peak velocity of the deviation movements, its time constant and the asymmetries in the saccades suggest that DVD represents an abnormal vertical vergence system. PMID:21314545
Chemical Principls Exemplified
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Plumb, Robert C.
1973-01-01
Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)
Principles of project management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1982-01-01
The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.
Measurement--Based Admission Control: A Large Deviations Approach for Bufferless
Reisslein, Martin
Martin Reisslein GMD FOKUS Kaiserin--Augusta--Allee 31 10589 Berlin, Germany phone: +49Â30Â3463Â7282 fax to provide Quality of Service (QoS) assurances networks perform call admission control before accepting a new--based admission control for bufferless multiplexers. We then conduct simulation studies with traces of MPEG 1
Large Deviations estimates for Polling and Weighted Fair Queueing service systems
MassouliÃ©, Laurent
â??e # Microsoft Research St George House, 1 Guildhall Street, Cambridge CB2 3ZH, UK lmassoul of tra#c classes employing either Weighted Fair Queueing or Weighted Round Robin service policy among. The system is also known as Weighted Round Robin (WRR), the weight associated with connection i being given
Large deviation for diffusions and Hamilton-Jacobi equation in Hilbert spaces
Feng, Jin
2006-01-01
? ?),(3.7) h?,y(x) ? inf t?0 { t + ?? ( ?x ? S(t)y?2 )} ,(3.8) hn,?,y(x) ? ? 1 an log ? ? 0 e?an{t+??(?x?Sn(t)y? 2)} dt.(3.9) Then by Lemma A.12, lim ??0+ sup x?E |h?,y(x) ? dC(x, y)| = 0 and lim n?? sup x?K |h?,y(x) ? hn,?,y(x)| = 0 for each compact K...) = g(x) ? ?2(h?,y1(x)) ? · · · ? ?k+1(h?,yk (x)) ? D(H1), where g(x) = ??1(?x ? ??2). We define H1f (x) = ?2??1(?x ? ?? 2)?x ? ?,C0?? ? ( sup r?0 ??2(r) + · · · + sup r?0 ??k+1(r) ) (3.11) + inf ?q????2(h?,y1 (x))+···+? ? k+1(h?,y2 (x)) ( ?F(x),Dg(x...
C. Y. Chen
2008-12-23
By examining two counterexamples to the existing theory, it is shown, with mathematical rigor, that as far as scattered particles are concerned the true distribution function is in principle not determinable (indeterminacy principle or uncertainty principle) while the average distribution function over each predetermined finite velocity solid-angle element can be calculated.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beim, George
This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…
Chemical Principles Exemplified
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Plumb, Robert C.
1970-01-01
This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…
Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug
2010-01-01
First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…
Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva Ribeiro, A.; Costa Santos, A.; Alves Sousa, J.; Forbes, A. B.
2015-02-01
Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment.
Altitude deviations: Breakdowns of an error-tolerant system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palmer, Everett A.; Hutchins, Edwin L.; Ritter, Richard D.; Vancleemput, Inge
1993-01-01
Pilot reports of aviation incidents to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) provide a window on the problems occurring in today's airline cockpits. The narratives of 10 pilot reports of errors made in the automation-assisted altitude-change task are used to illustrate some of the issues of pilots interacting with automatic systems. These narratives are then used to construct a description of the cockpit as an information processing system. The analysis concentrates on the error-tolerant properties of the system and on how breakdowns can occasionally occur. An error-tolerant system can detect and correct its internal processing errors. The cockpit system consists of two or three pilots supported by autoflight, flight-management, and alerting systems. These humans and machines have distributed access to clearance information and perform redundant processing of information. Errors can be detected as deviations from either expected behavior or as deviations from expected information. Breakdowns in this system can occur when the checking and cross-checking tasks that give the system its error-tolerant properties are not performed because of distractions or other task demands. Recommendations based on the analysis for improving the error tolerance of the cockpit system are given.
Geodesics and geodesic deviation for impulsive gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinbauer, R.
1998-04-01
The geometry of impulsive pp-waves is explored via the analysis of the geodesic and geodesic deviation equation using the distributional form of the metric. The geodesic equation involves formally ill-defined products of distributions due to the nonlinearity of the equations and the presence of the Dirac ?-distribution in the space-time metric. Thus, strictly speaking, it cannot be treated within Schwartz's linear theory of distributions. To cope with this difficulty we proceed by first regularizing the ?-singularity, then solving the regularized equation within classical smooth functions and, finally, obtaining a distributional limit as solution to the original problem. Furthermore, it is shown that this limit is independent of the regularization without requiring any additional condition, thereby confirming earlier results in a mathematically rigorous fashion. We also treat the Jacobi equation which, despite being linear in the deviation vector field, involves even more delicate singular expressions, like the "square" of the Dirac ?-distribution. Again the same regularization procedure provides us with a perfectly well behaved smooth regularization and a regularization-independent distributional limit. Hence it is concluded that the geometry of impulsive pp-waves can be described consistently using distributions as long as careful regularization procedures are used to handle the ill-defined products.
Effects of experimentally deviated mandibular position on stress response.
Amemiya, Ai; Takeda, Tomotaka; Nakajima, Kazunori; Ishigami, Keiichi; Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of stress on -prefrontal cortex (PFC), emotion (using visual analogue scale, VAS, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Two types of stress were applied: (1) malocclusion-induced physical stress and (2) mental stress induced by an arithmetic task. Malocclusion was induced using an experimentally deviated mandibular device (EDMD) to obtain an experimentally deviated mandibular position (EDMP). A total of 11 healthy volunteers participated in the study. On day 1 they performed a pretrial arithmetic task followed by a 10-min rest, after which they performed a posttrial EDMD + arithmetic task or rest device + arithmetic task. These two tasks were selected at random and assigned at the rate of one per day. Activity in the PFC tended to show an increase in the pretrial arithmetic tasks and rest device + arithmetic task, but a decrease in the EDMD + arithmetic task compared with the rest device + arithmetic task. Heart rate significantly increased during the rest device + arithmetic task, whereas no significant difference was observed during the EDMD + arithmetic task. The EDMD + arithmetic task significantly increased STAI scores (p = 0.0047), and the significant decrease in VAS indicated "unpleasant" (p = 0.035). These findings suggest that EDMP-induced reduction in the level of PFC activity was a response to discomfort, indicating that EDMP affects systemic function such as that of the ANS as an unpleasant stressor. PMID:22879007
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Weirui; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Cao, Genrui
2014-05-01
The stitching interferometry for the surface profile measurement of a large aperture component is studied. To analyze the overlapping region interferogram of the adjacent subapertures with Scale Invariant Feature Transform(SIFT) algorithm, the stitching parameters of the adjacent subapertures and then overall surface information of the tested component can be obtained. SIFT algorithm of subaperture positioning, interferogram processing, phase unwrapping, Zernike polynomials wavefront fitting and subaperture wavefront stitching programs are written. A principle experiment has been carried out. Compared with the measurement results between the stitching interferometry and full caliber testing, the deviation of RMS is less than 2nm.
On the superposition principle in interference experiments.
Sinha, Aninda; H Vijay, Aravind; Sinha, Urbasi
2015-01-01
The superposition principle is usually incorrectly applied in interference experiments. This has recently been investigated through numerics based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods as well as the Feynman path integral formalism. In the current work, we have derived an analytic formula for the Sorkin parameter which can be used to determine the deviation from the application of the principle. We have found excellent agreement between the analytic distribution and those that have been earlier estimated by numerical integration as well as resource intensive FDTD simulations. The analytic handle would be useful for comparing theory with future experiments. It is applicable both to physics based on classical wave equations as well as the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. PMID:25973948
On the superposition principle in interference experiments
Sinha, Aninda; H. Vijay, Aravind; Sinha, Urbasi
2015-01-01
The superposition principle is usually incorrectly applied in interference experiments. This has recently been investigated through numerics based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods as well as the Feynman path integral formalism. In the current work, we have derived an analytic formula for the Sorkin parameter which can be used to determine the deviation from the application of the principle. We have found excellent agreement between the analytic distribution and those that have been earlier estimated by numerical integration as well as resource intensive FDTD simulations. The analytic handle would be useful for comparing theory with future experiments. It is applicable both to physics based on classical wave equations as well as the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. PMID:25973948
On the superposition principle in interference experiments
Aninda Sinha; Aravind H. Vijay; Urbasi Sinha
2015-04-22
The superposition principle is usually incorrectly applied in interference experiments. This has recently been investigated through numerics based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods as well as the Feynman path integral formalism. In the current work, we have derived an analytic formula for the Sorkin parameter which can be used to determine the deviation from the application of the principle. We have found excellent agreement between the analytic distribution and those that have been earlier estimated by numerical integration as well as resource intensive FDTD simulations. The analytic handle would be useful for comparing theory with future experiments. It is applicable both to physics based on classical wave equations as well as the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation.
Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E.; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho
2015-10-01
Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.
Instructional Software Design Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hazen, Margret
1985-01-01
Discusses learner/computer interaction, learner control, sequencing of instructional events, and graphic screen design as effective principles for the design of instructional software, including tutorials. (MBR)
Defending principlism well understood.
Quante, Michael; Vieth, Andreas
2002-12-01
After presenting the current version of principlism, in the process repudiating a widespread deductivist misinterpretation, a fundamental metaethical disagreement is developed by outlining the deductivistic critique of principlism. Once the grounds for this critique have been understood, the dispute between casuistry, deductivism and principlism can be restructured, and the model of "application" proven to be the central difference. In the concluding section it is argued that principlism is the most attractive position, if the perceptual model of weak intuitionism is made more explicit. PMID:12607161
Physical principles of hearing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Pascal
2015-10-01
The following sections are included: * Psychophysical properties of hearing * The cochlear amplifier * Mechanosensory hair cells * The "critical" oscillator as a general principle of auditory detection * Bibliography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Bo; Wu, Zong Yan; de Bougrenet de La Tocnaye, Jean-Louis; Grosso, Philippe
2011-03-01
A position sensitive device (PSD) is frequently used in laser beam deviation measurement. However, it lacks the capability to retrieve the power distribution information of a laser beam. A charge-coupled device (CCD) gives much more information of a laser beam than a PSD. The requirement of a multifunctional sensor makes the replacement of a PSD with a CCD in measuring laser beam deviation to be a reasonable topic. In this paper a performance comparison between a PSD and a CCD combined with a centroid algorithm are discussed with special attention paid to the CCD-based system. According to the operating principle of the CCD-based system, several experiments were carried out to evaluate five factors of the CCD-based system: image window size, number of processed images, threshold, binning, and saturation. By applying the optimized parameters, several experiments were made to compare the CCD-based system with the state-of-the-art PSD-based system in terms of two performance indicators, namely resolution and speed. It is shown that, by applying the optimized parameters, the performance of a CCD-based system is comparable to that of a PSD-based system in measuring laser beam deviation.
Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model
Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong
1996-12-31
The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt`s Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Shih-Hao; Chen, Jia-Wei; Chen, Hung-Pin; Wei, Hung-Sen; Li, Meng-Chi; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Kuo, Chien-Cheng
2014-10-01
An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310?/? and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately.
Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.
Low-energy magnetic radiation: Deviations from GOE
Frauendorf, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wimmer, K.
2014-10-15
A pronounced spike at low energy in the strength function for magnetic radiation (LEMAR) is found by means of Shell Model calculations, which explains the experimentally observed enhancement of the dipole strength. LEMAR originates from statistical low-energy M1-transitions between many excited complex states. Re-coupling of the proton and neutron high-j orbitals generates the strong magnetic radiation. LEMAR is closely related to Magnetic Rotation. LEMAR is predicted for nuclides participating in the r-process of element synthesis and is expected to change the reaction rates. An exponential decrease of the strength function and a power law for the size distribution of the B(M1) values are found, which strongly deviate from the ones of the GOE of random matrices, which is commonly used to represent complex compound states.
Spine deviations and orthodontic treatment of asymmetric malocclusions in children
2012-01-01
Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept). The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3?years, SD 2.1?years). After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy?=?37, control?=?40); 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2). The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1?years (SD 0.2?years). Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test). Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study). This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:22906114
What Metadata Principles Apply to Scientific Data?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayernik, M. S.
2014-12-01
Information researchers and professionals based in the library and information science fields often approach their work through developing and applying defined sets of principles. For example, for over 100 years, the evolution of library cataloging practice has largely been driven by debates (which are still ongoing) about the fundamental principles of cataloging and how those principles should manifest in rules for cataloging. Similarly, the development of archival research and practices over the past century has proceeded hand-in-hand with the emergence of principles of archival arrangement and description, such as maintaining the original order of records and documenting provenance. This project examines principles related to the creation of metadata for scientific data. The presentation will outline: 1) how understandings and implementations of metadata can range broadly depending on the institutional context, and 2) how metadata principles developed by the library and information science community might apply to metadata developments for scientific data. The development and formalization of such principles would contribute to the development of metadata practices and standards in a wide range of institutions, including data repositories, libraries, and research centers. Shared metadata principles would potentially be useful in streamlining data discovery and integration, and would also benefit the growing efforts to formalize data curation education.
Principles for system level electrochemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thaller, L. H.
1986-01-01
The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.
Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik
2009-10-15
Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.
Generalizing Landauer's principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maroney, O. J. E.
2009-03-01
In a recent paper [Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys. 36, 355 (2005)] it is argued that to properly understand the thermodynamics of Landauer’s principle it is necessary to extend the concept of logical operations to include indeterministic operations. Here we examine the thermodynamics of such operations in more detail, extending the work of Landauer to include indeterministic operations and to include logical states with variable entropies, temperatures, and mean energies. We derive the most general statement of Landauer’s principle and prove its universality, extending considerably the validity of previous proofs. This confirms conjectures made that all logical operations may, in principle, be performed in a thermodynamically reversible fashion, although logically irreversible operations would require special, practically rather difficult, conditions to do so. We demonstrate a physical process that can perform any computation without work requirements or heat exchange with the environment. Many widespread statements of Landauer’s principle are shown to be special cases of our generalized principle.
A model for the transport of cuttings in highly deviated wells
Gavignet, A.A.; Sobey, I.J.
1986-01-01
At present, drilling of highly deviated wells is complicated by the possibility of the formation of a thick bed of cuttings at low flow rates. The bed of cuttings can cause large torque loads on drill pipe and can fall back around the bit resulting in a stuck bit. Previous investigators have made experimental observations which show that bed formation is characterized by a relatively rapid increase in bed thickness as either the flow rate is lowered past some critical value, or as the deviation from the vertical increases. The authors present a simple model which explains these observations. The model shows that the bed thickness is controlled by the interfacial stress caused by the different velocities of the mud and the cuttings layer. The results confirm previous observations that bed formation is relatively insensitive to mud rheology. Eccentricity of the drill pipe in the hole is an important factor. The model is used to determine critical flow rate needed to prevent the formation of a thick bed of cuttings and the inclination, hole size and rate of penetration are varied.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-09-24
...Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single- Case Deviation From Competition Requirements AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration...HHS). ACTION: Notice of Single-Case Deviation from Competition Requirements for the Maternal and Child Health (MCH)...
48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is... deviations not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for...
48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is... deviations not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for...
48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is... deviations not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for...
48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is... deviations not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for...
48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is... deviations not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... uncontrolled airspace unless that pilot notifies an appropriate aeronautical facility before deviating. (c) No pilot may deviate from the filed DVFR flight plan unless that pilot notifies an appropriate...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... uncontrolled airspace unless that pilot notifies an appropriate aeronautical facility before deviating. (c) No pilot may deviate from the filed DVFR flight plan unless that pilot notifies an appropriate...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... uncontrolled airspace unless that pilot notifies an appropriate aeronautical facility before deviating. (c) No pilot may deviate from the filed DVFR flight plan unless that pilot notifies an appropriate...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... uncontrolled airspace unless that pilot notifies an appropriate aeronautical facility before deviating. (c) No pilot may deviate from the filed DVFR flight plan unless that pilot notifies an appropriate...
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... uncontrolled airspace unless that pilot notifies an appropriate aeronautical facility before deviating. (c) No pilot may deviate from the filed DVFR flight plan unless that pilot notifies an appropriate...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-01-05
...FDA-2008-N-0119] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard...as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the...
Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review
Kindregan, Deirdre; Gallagher, Louise; Gormley, John
2015-01-01
In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning. PMID:25922766
Principles of good evidence giving.
Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam
2010-11-01
With increased regulation and litigation in the health-care sector, appearing in court is becoming an almost routine part of a district nurse's role. A review of local newspapers shows that in the last 4weeks alone district nurses around the UK have given evidence in no fewer than ten different cases that have involved the coroners' court, county court and magistrates' court. The prospect of appearing in court or giving evidence at fitness to practice hearings remains a daunting one. The process is still largely adversarial and cross examination is a hostile experience. This article highlights the principles of good evidence. PMID:21079560
Physical Principles of Evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuster, Peter
Theoretical biology is incomplete without a comprehensive theory of evolution, since evolution is at the core of biological thought. Evolution is visualized as a migration process in genotype or sequence space that is either an adaptive walk driven by some fitness gradient or a random walk in the absence of (sufficiently large) fitness differences. The Darwinian concept of natural selection consisting in the interplay of variation and selection is based on a dichotomy: All variations occur on genotypes whereas selection operates on phenotypes, and relations between genotypes and phenotypes, as encapsulated in a mapping from genotype space into phenotype space, are central to an understanding of evolution. Fitness is conceived as a function of the phenotype, represented by a second mapping from phenotype space into nonnegative real numbers. In the biology of organisms, genotype-phenotype maps are enormously complex and relevant information on them is exceedingly scarce. The situation is better in the case of viruses but so far only one example of a genotype-phenotype map, the mapping of RNA sequences into RNA secondary structures, has been investigated in sufficient detail. It provides direct information on RNA selection in vitro and test-tube evolution, and it is a basis for testing in silico evolution on a realistic fitness landscape. Most of the modeling efforts in theoretical and mathematical biology today are done by means of differential equations but stochastic effects are of undeniably great importance for evolution. Population sizes are much smaller than the numbers of genotypes constituting sequence space. Every mutant, after all, has to begin with a single copy. Evolution can be modeled by a chemical master equation, which (in principle) can be approximated by a stochastic differential equation. In addition, simulation tools are available that compute trajectories for master equations. The accessible population sizes in the range of 10^7le Nle 10^8 molecules are commonly too small for problems in chemistry but sufficient for biology.
Revisiting a 90-Year-Old Debate: The Advantages of the Mean Deviation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gorard, Stephen
2005-01-01
This paper discusses the reliance of numerical analysis on the concept of the standard deviation, and its close relative the variance. It suggests that the original reasons why the standard deviation concept has permeated traditional statistics are no longer clearly valid, if they ever were. The absolute mean deviation, it is argued here, has many…
Travel time delays and slowness vector deviations interpretation of multiply reflected P waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foundotos, M.; Nolet, G.
2013-12-01
From a previous study we have shown that it was possible to observe multiply reflected P waves such as PPP, PPPP, PPPPP, PPPPPP. Despite the ray theoretical prediction that at a certain distance most of their compressional energy is converted to shear waves. A 1D P-velocity model for the pacific region was also proposed. The purpose of this new study is to make measurements of travel time delay and slowness vector deviation of these waves. We used about 400 events of magnitude Mw > 6.1 recorded from the dense network of US ARRAY, which allows us to make a very large number of travel time delays and slowness vector perturbation measurements of multiply reflected P waves. These measurements show that multiply reflected P wave are of great interests when studying the Upper mantle structure.
Spectral Relative Standard Deviation: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics
Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...
Chemical Principles Exemplified
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Plumb, Robert C.
1972-01-01
Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)
Archimedes' Principle in Action
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kires, Marian
2007-01-01
The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)
Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum
Manjunatha, Roopa G.; Mahapatra, Roy D.; Dorasala, Srinivas
2013-01-01
Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (?0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ?0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice. PMID:24498519
Probing deviations from General Relativity with the Euclid spectroscopic survey
Elisabetta Majerotto; Luigi Guzzo; Lado Samushia; Will J. Percival; Yun Wang; Sylvain de la Torre; Bianca Garilli; Paolo Franzetti; Emanuel Rossetti; Andrea Cimatti; Carmelita Carbone; Nathan Roche; Giovanni Zamorani
2012-05-28
We discuss the ability of the planned Euclid mission to detect deviations from General Relativity using its extensive redshift survey of more than 50 Million galaxies. Constraints on the gravity theory are placed measuring the growth rate of structure within 14 redshift bins between z=0.7 and z=2. The growth rate is measured from redshift-space distortions, i.e. the anisotropy of the clustering pattern induced by coherent peculiar motions. This is performed in the overall context of the Euclid spectroscopic survey, which will simultaneously measure the expansion history of the universe, using the power spectrum and its baryonic features as a standard ruler, accounting for the relative degeneracies of expansion and growth parameters. The resulting expected errors on the growth rate in the different redshift bins, expressed through the quantity f\\sigma_8, range between 1.3% and 4.4%. We discuss the optimisation of the survey configuration and investigate the important dependence on the growth parameterisation and the assumed cosmological model. We show how a specific parameterisation could actually drive the design towards artificially restricted regions of the parameter space. Finally, in the framework of the popular "\\gamma -parameterisation", we show that the Euclid spectroscopic survey alone will already be able to provide substantial evidence (in Bayesian terms) if the growth index differs from the GR value \\gamma=0.55 by at least \\sim 0.13. This will combine with the comparable inference power provided by the Euclid weak lensing survey, resulting in Euclid's unique ability to provide a decisive test of modified gravity.
Immune deviation and ocular infections with varicella zoster virus.
Kezuka, Takeshi
2004-03-01
Since experimental, herpes simplex virus-induced acute retinal necrosis (ARN) develops in mice only if the mice fail to acquire virus-specific delayed hypersensitivity (DH) and despite their production of anti-viral antibodies (i.e. ACAID), I investigated whether a similar situation exists for patients with either varicella zoster virus (VZV)-induced ARN or anterior uveitis caused by VZV. Patients with either acute VZV-induced ARN, anterior uveitis with dermatitis (herpes zoster ophthalmicus, ZO-AU), or anterior uveitis without dermatitis (zoster sine herpete, ZSH-AU) were skin-tested with VZV to evaluate DH. The formal diagnoses of ARN associated with VZV, ZO-AU, and ZSH-AU were established by PCR analysis of the ocular samples and/or by the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient to determine levels of local antibody production. ARN, ZO-AU, and ZSH-AU activity were assessed clinically, and DH skin tests were repeated three months after onset when ocular recovery had taken place. All patients with VZV-induced skin disease alone (control group) displayed intense DH when tested with VZV antigen. In contrast, subsets of patients with ARN or ZO-AU displayed loss of VZV-specific DH. Patients with the most severe ARN or ZO-AU had the lowest DH responses to VZV antigens. Serum anti-VZV antibody titers were higher in ARN patients than in normal controls, and the anti-viral titer correlated inversely with the intensity of anti-VZV DH responses. VZV-specific DH responses were restored in patients who recovered from ARN. Patients with ZSH-AU also failed to display VZV-specific DH. The absence of DH reactivity to VZV antigens (i.e. immune deviation) appears to be a concomitant feature of VZV uveitis of high intensity, implying that virus-specific DH may interfere with the emergence of VZV-induced ARN or anterior uveitis. PMID:15209460
Two universal physical principles shape the power-law statistics of real-world networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorimer, Tom; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi
2015-07-01
The study of complex networks has pursued an understanding of macroscopic behaviour by focusing on power-laws in microscopic observables. Here, we uncover two universal fundamental physical principles that are at the basis of complex network generation. These principles together predict the generic emergence of deviations from ideal power laws, which were previously discussed away by reference to the thermodynamic limit. Our approach proposes a paradigm shift in the physics of complex networks, toward the use of power-law deviations to infer meso-scale structure from macroscopic observations.
Two universal physical principles shape the power-law statistics of real-world networks
Lorimer, Tom; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi
2015-01-01
The study of complex networks has pursued an understanding of macroscopic behaviour by focusing on power-laws in microscopic observables. Here, we uncover two universal fundamental physical principles that are at the basis of complex network generation. These principles together predict the generic emergence of deviations from ideal power laws, which were previously discussed away by reference to the thermodynamic limit. Our approach proposes a paradigm shift in the physics of complex networks, toward the use of power-law deviations to infer meso-scale structure from macroscopic observations. PMID:26202858
The August Krogh principle applies to plants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.
1996-01-01
The Krogh principle refers to the use of a large number of animals to study the large number of physiological problems, rather than limiting study to a particular organism for all problems. There may be organisms that are more suited to study of a particular problem than others. This same principle applies to plants. The authors are concerned with the recent trend in plant biology of using Arabidopsis thaliana as the "organism of choice." Arabidopsis is an excellent organism for molecular genetic research, but other plants are superior models for other research areas of plant biology. The authors present examples of the successful use of the Krogh principle in plant cell biology research, emphasizing the particular characteristics of the selected research organisms that make them the appropriate choice.
Comprehensive Program Review: Applying TQM Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ostroth, D. David
1996-01-01
Reviews one system successfully used to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) principles and techniques in a student affairs department at a large public university. Discusses TQM applications and argues that implementation of TQM requires both planned staff training and an organization-wide culture change. (RJM)
Macklin, R
2003-10-01
Gillon is correct that the four principles provide a sound and useful way of analysing moral dilemmas. As he observes, the approach using these principles does not provide a unique solution to dilemmas. This can be illustrated by alternatives to Gillon's own analysis of the four case scenarios. In the first scenario, a different set of factual assumptions could yield a different conclusion about what is required by the principle of beneficence. In the second scenario, although Gillon's conclusion is correct, what is open to question is his claim that what society regards as the child's best interest determines what really is in the child's best interest. The third scenario shows how it may be reasonable for the principle of beneficence to take precedence over autonomy in certain circumstances, yet like the first scenario, the ethical conclusion relies on a set of empirical assumptions and predictions of what is likely to occur. The fourth scenario illustrates how one can draw different conclusions based on the importance given to the precautionary principle. PMID:14519836
Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stacey, J. M.
1984-01-01
The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.
Measuring the deviation of the 2-3 lepton mixing from maximal with atmospheric neutrinos
Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C.; Maltoni, M.; Smirnov, A.Yu.
2004-11-01
The measurement of the deviation of the 2-3 leptonic mixing from maximal, D{sub 23}{identical_to}1/2-sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 23}, is one of the key issues for understanding the origin of the neutrino masses and mixing. In the 3{nu} context we study the dependence of various observables in the atmospheric neutrinos on D{sub 23}. We perform the global 3{nu}-analysis of the atmospheric and reactor neutrino data taking into account the effects of both the oscillations driven by the solar parameters ({delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} and {theta}{sub 12}) and the 1-3 mixing. The departure from the one-dominant mass scale approximation results into the shift of the 2-3 mixing from maximal by {delta}sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 23}{approx_equal}0.04, so that D{sub 23}{approx}0.04{+-}0.07 (1{sigma}). Though the value of the shift is not statistically significant, the tendency of the allowed region to move towards smaller values of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 23} is robust. The shift is induced by the excess of the e-like events in the sub-GeV sample. We show that future large scale water Cherenkov detectors can determine D{sub 23} with accuracy of a few percent, comparable with the sensitivity of future long-baseline experiments. Moreover, the atmospheric neutrinos will provide unique information on the sign of the deviation (octant of {theta}{sub 23})
Rachels, James
1998-04-01
The Principle of Agency says that if it would be good for a state of affairs to occur "naturally," then it is permissable to take action to bring it about. This contradicts the views of some bioethicists, who object to euthanasia, in vitro fertilization, and cloning, even though they acknowledge that the states of affairs produced are good. But the principle, or some form of it, seems inescapable. The opposite view -- that we may not, by our action, reproduce "natural" goods -- may owe its appeal to an implicitly religious view of nature. PMID:11655330
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.
1981-01-01
The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.
Chiu, Ming-Hung; Tan, Chen-Tai; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Yang, Ya-Hsin
2015-01-01
This full-field transmission-type three-dimensional (3D) optical microscope is constructed based on the angle deviation method (ADM) and the algorithm of reflectivity-height transformation (RHT). The surface height is proportional to the deviation angle of light passing through the object. The angle deviation and surface height can be measured based on the reflectivity closed to the critical angle using a parallelogram prism and two CCDs. PMID:26504645
Chiu, Ming-Hung; Tan, Chen-Tai; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Yang, Ya-Hsin
2015-10-01
This full-field transmission-type three-dimensional (3D) optical microscope is constructed based on the angle deviation method (ADM) and the algorithm of reflectivity-height transformation (RHT). The surface height is proportional to the deviation angle of light passing through the object. The angle deviation and surface height can be measured based on the reflectivity closed to the critical angle using a parallelogram prism and two CCDs. PMID:26504645
Sassen, D. S.; Peterson, J. E.
2010-03-15
Significant errors related to poor time zero estimation, well deviation or mislocation of the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) stations can render even the most sophisticated modeling and inversion routine useless. Previous examples of methods for the analysis and correction of data errors in geophysical tomography include the works of Maurer and Green (1997), Squires et al. (1992) and Peterson (2001). Here we follow the analysis and techniques of Peterson (2001) for data quality control and error correction. Through our data acquisition and quality control procedures we have very accurate control on the surface locations of wells, the travel distance of both the transmitter and receiver within the boreholes, and the change in apparent zero time. However, we often have poor control on well deviations, either because of economic constraints or the nature of the borehole itself prevented the acquisition of well deviation logs. Also, well deviation logs can sometimes have significant errors. Problems with borehole deviations can be diagnosed prior to inversion of travel-time tomography data sets by plotting the apparent velocity of a straight ray connecting a transmitter (TX) to a receiver (RX) against the take-off angle of the ray. Issues with the time-zero pick or distances between wells appear as symmetric smiles or frown in these QC plots. Well deviation or dipping-strong anisotropy will result in an asymmetric correlation between apparent velocity and take-off angle (Figure 1-B). In addition, when a network of interconnected GPR tomography data is available, one has the additional quality constraint of insuring that there is continuity in velocity between immediately adjacent tomograms. A sudden shift in the mean velocity indicates that either position deviations are present or there is a shift in the pick times. Small errors in well geometry may be effectively treated during inversion by including weighting, or relaxation, parameters into the inversion (e.g. Bautu et al., 2006). In the technique of algebraic reconstruction tomography (ART), which is used herein for the travel time inversion (Peterson et al., 1985), a small relaxation parameter will smooth imaging artifacts caused by data errors at the expense of resolution and contrast (Figure 2). However, large data errors such as unaccounted well deviations cannot be adequately suppressed through inversion weighting schemes. Previously, problems with tomograms were treated manually. However, in large data sets and/or networks of data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Mislocation of the transmitter and receiver stations of GPR cross-well tomography data sets can lead to serious imaging artifacts if not accounted for prior to inversion. Previously, problems with tomograms have been treated manually prior to inversion. In large data sets and/or networks of tomographic data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Our approach is to use cross-well data quality checks and a simplified model of borehole deviation with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to automatically correct for source and receiver locations prior to tomographic inversion. We present a simple model of well deviation, which is designed to minimize potential corruption of actual data trends. We also provide quantitative quality control measures based on minimizing correlations between take-off angle and apparent velocity, and a quality check on the continuity of velocity between adjacent wells. This methodology is shown to be accurate and robust for simple 2-D synthetic test cases. Plus, we demonstrate the method on actual field data where it is compared to deviation logs. This study shows the promise for automatic correction of well deviations in GPR tomographic data. Analysis of synthetic data shows that very precise estimates of well deviation can be made for small deviations, even in the presence of static data errors. However, the analysis of the synthetic data and the application of
Deviations from Boltzmann-Gibbs Statistics in Confined Optical Lattices.
Dechant, Andreas; Kessler, David A; Barkai, Eli
2015-10-23
We investigate the semiclassical phase-space probability distribution P(x,p) of cold atoms in a Sisyphus cooling lattice with an additional harmonic confinement. We pose the question of whether this nonequilibrium steady state satisfies the equivalence of energy and probability. This equivalence is the foundation of Boltzmann-Gibbs and generalized thermostatic statistics, and a prerequisite for the description in terms of a temperature. At large energies, P(x,p) depends only on the Hamiltonian H(x,p) and the answer to the question is yes. In distinction to the Boltzmann-Gibbs state, the large-energy tails are power laws P(x,p)?H(x,p)^{-1/D}, where D is related to the depth of the optical lattice. At intermediate energies, however, P(x,p) cannot be expressed as a function of the Hamiltonian and the equivalence between energy and probability breaks down. As a consequence the average potential and kinetic energy differ and no well-defined temperature can be assigned. The Boltzmann-Gibbs state is regained only in the limit of deep optical lattices. For strong confinement relative to the damping, we derive an explicit expression for the stationary phase-space distribution. PMID:26551114
Deviations from Boltzmann-Gibbs Statistics in Confined Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dechant, Andreas; Kessler, David A.; Barkai, Eli
2015-10-01
We investigate the semiclassical phase-space probability distribution P (x ,p ) of cold atoms in a Sisyphus cooling lattice with an additional harmonic confinement. We pose the question of whether this nonequilibrium steady state satisfies the equivalence of energy and probability. This equivalence is the foundation of Boltzmann-Gibbs and generalized thermostatic statistics, and a prerequisite for the description in terms of a temperature. At large energies, P (x ,p ) depends only on the Hamiltonian H (x ,p ) and the answer to the question is yes. In distinction to the Boltzmann-Gibbs state, the large-energy tails are power laws P (x ,p )?H (x ,p )-1/D, where D is related to the depth of the optical lattice. At intermediate energies, however, P (x ,p ) cannot be expressed as a function of the Hamiltonian and the equivalence between energy and probability breaks down. As a consequence the average potential and kinetic energy differ and no well-defined temperature can be assigned. The Boltzmann-Gibbs state is regained only in the limit of deep optical lattices. For strong confinement relative to the damping, we derive an explicit expression for the stationary phase-space distribution.
The scope of modelling the behavior of pollutants in the aquatic environment is now immense. n many practical applications, there are effectively no computational constraints on what is possible. here is accordingly an increasing need for a set of principles of modelling that in ...
PRINCIPLES OF WATER FILTRATION
This paper reviews principles involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...
Pattern recognition principles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.
1974-01-01
The present work gives an account of basic principles and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.
Principles of Cancer Screening.
Pinsky, Paul F
2015-10-01
Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. PMID:26315516
Basic Comfort Heating Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dempster, Chalmer T.
The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kamat, R. V.
1991-01-01
A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martz, Carlton
1999-01-01
This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at individuals who have stood on principle against authority or popular opinion. The first article investigates John Adams and his defense of British soldiers at the Boston Massacre trials. The second article explores Archbishop Thomas Becket's fatal conflict with England's King Henry II. The final…
Decreasing the amplitude deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; Wang, Yu
2008-12-01
A new approach for decreasing the amplitude characteristic deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements is presented in this paper. According to Central Limit Theorem, many different Guassian approximation filters could be constructed. By using first-order Butterworth filter and moving average filter to approximate Guassian filter, their directions of amplitude deviation are opposite, and their locations of extreme value are close. So the linear combination of them could reduce the amplitude deviation greatly. The maximum amplitude deviation is only about 0.11% through paralleling them. The algorithm of this new method is simple and its efficiency is high.
Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1992-01-01
The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.
Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models
Lucila Kraiselburd; Susana J. Landau; Marcelo Salgado; Daniel Sudarsky; Héctor Vucetich
2015-11-19
Most theories that predict time and(or) space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltman proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on the WEP. In this paper we present a contrasting view based on the analysis of the force between two bodies induced by the chameleon field using a particular approach in which the field due to both the large and the small bodies is obtained by appropriate series expansions in the various regions of interest and the corresponding matching conditions. We found that resulting force depends on the test body\\'{}s composition even when the chameleon coupling constants $\\beta_{i}$ are universal. In particular, we compared the resulting differential acceleration of test bodies made of Be and Al with the corresponding bounds obtained from E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the predictions of the chameleon model are, in general, various orders of magnitude above the current bounds. These results strongly suggest that the properties of immunity from experimental test of the equivalence principle usually attributed to the chameleon and related models, should be carefully reconsidered.
Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V.
2012-08-15
Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning deviations. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity deviations (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional deviations of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional deviations produce large intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of {>=}5% in {approx}1 mm{sup 2} areas and {>=}2% in {approx}20 mm{sup 2} areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences ({<=}2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero
2015-04-01
Future sea level rise (SL), which represents today one of the major threats that are caused by climate change, will not be uniform. Regional differences are crucial for 40% of the world population, which is located in the coastal zone. To explore the mechanisms linking regional SL to climate variables is very important in order to provide reliable future projections. This study focuses on two semi-enclosed basins, the Adriatic and Baltic Sea and investigates the deviation of their SL from the mean global value. In fact, past deviations of the SL of these two basins from the global value have been observed and can be attributed to large scale factors (such as teleconnections) and regional factors, such as the inverse barometric effect, the wind stress, the thermosteric and halosteric effects. The final goal of this work is to assess to which extent the Adriatic and Baltic SL will depart from the mean global value in the next decades and at the end of 21st century. This is achieved by analyzing deviations of the mean SL of the Baltic and Adriatic Sea from the global mean SL during the 20th century and investigating which factors can explain such deviations. A multivariate linear regression model is built and used to describe the link between three large scale climate variables which are used as predictors (mean sea level pressure, surface air temperature and precipitation), and the regional SL deviation (the predictand), computed as the difference between the regional and the global SL. At monthly scale this linear regression model provides a good reconstruction of the past variability in the cold season during which it explains 60%-70% of the variance. Summer reconstruction is substantially less successful and it represents presently the main limit of the model skill. This linear regression model, forced by predictors extracted from CMIP5 multi-model simulations, is used to provide projections of SL in the Adriatic and Baltic Sea. On the basis of the projections until 2100, the Baltic Sea will rise faster than the global SL. Adriatic SL, on the contrary, shows a substantial agreement with the global trend. This study is part of the activities of RISES-AM project (FP7-EU-603396).
Providing Runtime Clock Synchronization With Minimal Node-to-Node Time Deviation on XT4s and XT5s
Jones, Terry R; Koenig, Gregory A
2011-01-01
We present a new high precision clock synchronization algorithm designed for large XT4 and XT5 leadership-class machines. The algorithm, which is designed to support OS noise reduction through co-scheduling, is suitable for usage cases requiring low overhead and minimal time deviation between nodes. Unlike most high-precision algorithms which reach their precision in a post-mortem analysis after the application has completed, the new ORNL developed algorithm rapidly provides precise results during runtime. Previous to our work, the leading high-precision clock synchronization algorithms that made results available during runtime relied on probabilistic schemes that are not guaranteed to result in an answer.
Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson
Leveson, Nancy
Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson be a mixture of humans, hardware, and software. This paper describes one of the Safeware hazard analysis techniques, Software Deviation Analysis, that incorporates the beneficial fea tures of HAZOP (such
21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of biological product deviations by... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.14 Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. (a) Who must report...
21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of biological product deviations by... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.14 Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. (a) Who must report...
Chapman, Glenn H.
, using a wedge prism to deviate the light source by 2-3x the acceptance angle creates a second imageSpatiofrequency Filter in Turbid Medium Enhanced by Background Scattered Light Subtraction from scattered light by accepting only photons with small deviation angles from their original trajectories
75 FR 67093 - Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-11-01
... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for... Administration (FDA) is announcing that a temporary permit has been issued to Iceberg Canada Corp., to market test a product designated as ``GLACE Rare Iceberg Water'' that deviates from the U.S. standard...
41 CFR 102-33.10 - May we request approval to deviate from these rules?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...May we request approval to deviate from these rules? 102-33.10 Section 102-33...33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT How These Rules Apply General § 102-33.10 May we request approval to deviate from these rules? Yes, see §§...
MODERATE AND SMALL DEVIATIONS FOR THE RANGES OF ONEDIMENSIONAL RANDOM WALKS
Chen, Xia
limit theorem when the random walk is in the domain of attraction of a stable law. The LIL for # # S[0 to the limsup and the liminf laws of the iterated logarithm. AMS 2000 Subject classifications: 60D05, 60F10, 60F deviation, law of the iterated logarithm. Short title: Moderate and small deviations for the ranges Research
32 CFR 21.335 - Who can authorize deviations from the DoDGARs?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...deviations are not prohibited by statute, executive order or regulation. (b) The Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) or his or her designee must approve in advance any class deviation that affects more than one award. Note that OMB...
Uncertainty Principle Respects Locality
Dongsheng Wang
2015-04-19
The notion of nonlocality implicitly implies there might be some kind of spooky action at a distance in nature, however, the validity of quantum mechanics has been well tested up to now. In this work it is argued that the notion of nonlocality is physically improper, the basic principle of locality in nature is well respected by quantum mechanics, namely, the uncertainty principle. We show that the quantum bound on the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality can be recovered from the uncertainty relation in a multipartite setting. We further argue that the super-quantum correlation demonstrated by the nonlocal box is not physically comparable with the quantum one. The origin of the quantum structure of nature still remains to be explained, some post-quantum theory which is more complete in some sense than quantum mechanics is possible and might not necessarily be a hidden variable theory.
Principles of Natural Photosynthesis.
Krewald, Vera; Retegan, Marius; Pantazis, Dimitrios A
2016-01-01
Nature relies on a unique and intricate biochemical setup to achieve sunlight-driven water splitting. Combined experimental and computational efforts have produced significant insights into the structural and functional principles governing the operation of the water-oxidizing enzyme Photosystem II in general, and of the oxygen-evolving manganese-calcium cluster at its active site in particular. Here we review the most important aspects of biological water oxidation, emphasizing current knowledge on the organization of the enzyme, the geometric and electronic structure of the catalyst, and the role of calcium and chloride cofactors. The combination of recent experimental work on the identification of possible substrate sites with computational modeling have considerably limited the possible mechanistic pathways for the critical O-O bond formation step. Taken together, the key features and principles of natural photosynthesis may serve as inspiration for the design, development, and implementation of artificial systems. PMID:26099285
Principles of Buddhist Tantrism
Govinda, Lama Anagarika
Gilrj) if :q fincest and licentiousness is as ridiculous as accusing the Thtral'odins of condoning matricide and patricide... , a short quotation may suffice to prove our point. "The vital force of the Five Aggregates (Tib. SkI. fq;::a) in its real nature, pertaineth to the masculine aspect of the Buddha-principle manifesting through the left psychic nerve (Tib. Skt tiS1...
Principles of plasma diagnostics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutchinson, Ian H.
The physical principles, techniques, and instrumentation of plasma diagnostics are examined in an introduction and reference work for students and practicing scientists. Topics addressed include basic plasma properties, magnetic diagnostics, plasma particle flux, and refractive-index measurements. Consideration is given to EM emission by free and bound electrons, the scattering of EM radiation, and ion processes. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample problems, and a glossary of symbols are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
A principle of quantum theory, devised in 1925 by Wolfgang Pauli (1900-58), which states that no two fermions may exist in the same quantum state. The quantum state of a particle is defined by a set of numbers that describe quantities such as energy, angular momentum and spin. Fermions are particles such as quarks, protons, neutrons and electrons, that have spin = ½ (in units of h/2?, where h is ...
Aswathanarayana, U.
1985-01-01
This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.
Observable signature of a background deviating from the Kerr metric
Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios; Apostolatos, Theocharis A.; Contopoulos, George
2010-06-15
By detecting gravitational wave signals from extreme mass ratio inspiraling sources (EMRIs) we will be given the opportunity to check our theoretical expectations regarding the nature of supermassive bodies that inhabit the central regions of galaxies. We have explored some qualitatively new features that a perturbed Kerr metric induces in its geodesic orbits. Since a generic perturbed Kerr metric does not possess all the special symmetries of a Kerr metric, the geodesic equations in the former case are described by a slightly nonintegrable Hamiltonian system. According to the Poincare-Birkhoff theorem, this causes the appearance of the so-called Birkhoff chains of islands on the corresponding surfaces of section in between the anticipated KAM curves of the integrable Kerr case, whenever the intrinsic frequencies of the system are at resonance. The chains of islands are characterized by finite width, i.e. there is a finite range of initial conditions that correspond to a particular resonance and consequently to a constant rational ratio of intrinsic frequencies. Thus while the EMRI changes adiabatically by radiating energy and angular momentum, by monitoring the frequencies of a signal we can look for a transient pattern, in the form of a plateau, in the evolution of their ratio. We have shown that such a plateau is anticipated to be apparent in a quite large fraction of possible orbital characteristics if the central gravitating source is not a Kerr black hole. Moreover, the plateau in the ratio of frequencies is expected to be more prominent at specific rational values that correspond to the strongest resonances. This gives a possible observational detection of such non-Kerr exotic objects.
Detection and compensation of basis deviation in satellite-to-ground quantum communications.
Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jincai; Yang, Shiji; Wan, Xiong; He, Zhiping; Jia, Jianjun; Citrin, D S; Wang, Jianyu
2014-04-21
Basis deviation is the reference-frame deviation between a sender and receiver caused by satellite motion in satellite-to-ground quantum communications. It increases the quantum-bit error ratio of the system and must be compensated for to guarantee reliable quantum communications. We present a new scheme for compensating for basis deviation that employs a BB84 decoding module to detect basis deviation and half-wave plate to provide compensation. Based on this detection scheme, we design a basis-deviation compensation approach and test its feasibility in a voyage experiment. Unlike other polarization-correction schemes, this compensation scheme is simple, convenient, and can be easily implemented in satellite-to-ground quantum communications without increased burden to the satellite. PMID:24787870
Secondary flow spanwise deviation model for the stators of NASA middle compressor stages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, W. B.; Sandercock, D. M.
1984-01-01
A model of the spanwise variation of deviation for stator blades is presented. Deviation is defined as the difference between the passage mean flow angle and the metal angle at the outlet of a blade element of an axial compressor stage. The variation of deviation is taken as the difference above or below that predicted by blade element, (i.e., two-dimensional) theory at any spanwise location. The variation of deviation is dependent upon the blade camber, solidity and inlet boundary layer thickness at the hub or tip end-wall, and the blade channel aspect ratio. If these parameters are known or can be calculated, the model provides a reasonable approximation of the spanwise variation of deviation for most compressor middle stage stators operating at subsonic inlet Mach numbers.
Illusory shadow person causing paradoxical gaze deviations during temporal lobe seizures.
Zijlmans, M; van Eijsden, P; Ferrier, C H; Kho, K H; van Rijen, P C; Leijten, F S S
2009-06-01
Generally, activation of the frontal eye field during seizures can cause versive (forced) gaze deviation, while non-versive head deviation is hypothesised to result from ictal neglect after inactivation of the ipsilateral temporo-parietal area. Almost all non-versive head deviations occurring during temporal lobe seizures are directed to the side of seizure onset, so in derogatory cases it is worth while explaining the paradoxical event. We present a patient with a paradoxical direction of gaze deviation during temporal lobe seizures with an unexpected explanation. Electrocortical stimulation of the temporo-parieto-occipital junction elicited an irrepressible urge to look towards an illusory shadow person besides the patient. Paradoxical non-versive gaze deviations in temporal lobe seizures may be due to illusory experiences masked by postictal amnesia. PMID:19448096
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagiwara, Makoto; Pham, Phuong Viet; Akagi, Hirofumi
This paper deals with a 50-MW self-commutated BTB (Back-To-Back) system intended for power-flow control between transmission networks. It focuses on the dynamic behavior of the BTB system during single-line-to-ground (SLG) faults. During an SLG fault, a dc magnetic deviation appears in the converter-transformers used for the BTB system just after the occurrence and restoration of the fault. It is indispensable to understand an amount of deviation because it may bring magnetic saturation as well as a large amount of magnetizing current to the transformers. This paper derives theoretical equations related to the deviation during the SLG fault. The theoretical analysis developed in this paper would make significant contributions to designing the transformers.
The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery
Marks, Lawrence B. Light, Kim L.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Georgas, Debra L.; Jones, Ellen L.; Wright, Melanie C.; Willett, Christopher G.; Yin Fangfang
2007-12-01
Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches.
Principles of Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landé, Alfred
2013-10-01
Preface; Introduction: 1. Observation and interpretation; 2. Difficulties of the classical theories; 3. The purpose of quantum theory; Part I. Elementary Theory of Observation (Principle of Complementarity): 4. Refraction in inhomogeneous media (force fields); 5. Scattering of charged rays; 6. Refraction and reflection at a plane; 7. Absolute values of momentum and wave length; 8. Double ray of matter diffracting light waves; 9. Double ray of matter diffracting photons; 10. Microscopic observation of ? (x) and ? (p); 11. Complementarity; 12. Mathematical relation between ? (x) and ? (p) for free particles; 13. General relation between ? (q) and ? (p); 14. Crystals; 15. Transition density and transition probability; 16. Resultant values of physical functions; matrix elements; 17. Pulsating density; 18. General relation between ? (t) and ? (?); 19. Transition density; matrix elements; Part II. The Principle of Uncertainty: 20. Optical observation of density in matter packets; 21. Distribution of momenta in matter packets; 22. Mathematical relation between ? and ?; 23. Causality; 24. Uncertainty; 25. Uncertainty due to optical observation; 26. Dissipation of matter packets; rays in Wilson Chamber; 27. Density maximum in time; 28. Uncertainty of energy and time; 29. Compton effect; 30. Bothe-Geiger and Compton-Simon experiments; 31. Doppler effect; Raman effect; 32. Elementary bundles of rays; 33. Jeans' number of degrees of freedom; 34. Uncertainty of electromagnetic field components; Part III. The Principle of Interference and Schrödinger's equation: 35. Physical functions; 36. Interference of probabilities for p and q; 37. General interference of probabilities; 38. Differential equations for ?p (q) and Xq (p); 39. Differential equation for ?? (q); 40. The general probability amplitude ??' (Q); 41. Point transformations; 42. General theorem of interference; 43. Conjugate variables; 44. Schrödinger's equation for conservative systems; 45. Schrödinger's equation for non-conservative systems; 46. Pertubation theory; 47. Orthogonality, normalization and Hermitian conjugacy; 48. General matrix elements; Part IV. The Principle of Correspondence: 49. Contact transformations in classical mechanics; 50. Point transformations; 51. Contact transformations in quantum mechanics; 52. Constants of motion and angular co-ordinates; 53. Periodic orbits; 54. De Broglie and Schrödinger function; correspondence to classical mechanics; 55. Packets of probability; 56. Correspondence to hydrodynamics; 57. Motion and scattering of wave packets; 58. Formal correspondence between classical and quantum mechanics; Part V. Mathematical Appendix: Principle of Invariance: 59. The general theorem of transformation; 60. Operator calculus; 61. Exchange relations; three criteria for conjugacy; 62. First method of canonical transformation; 63. Second method of canonical transformation; 64. Proof of the transformation theorem; 65. Invariance of the matrix elements against unitary transformations; 66. Matrix mechanics; Index of literature; Index of names and subjects.
Deviations from Tribimaximal Neutrino Mixing using a Model with $?(27)$ Symmetry
P. F. Harrison; R. Krishnan; W. G. Scott
2014-06-08
We present a model of neutrino mixing based on the flavour group $\\Delta(27)$ in order to account for the observation of a non-zero reactor mixing angle ($\\theta_{13}$). The model provides a common flavour structure for the charged-lepton and the neutrino sectors, giving their mass matrices a `circulant-plus-diagonal' form. Mass matrices of this form readily lead to mixing patterns with realistic deviations from tribimaximal mixing, including non-zero $\\theta_{13}$. With the parameters constrained by existing measurements, our model predicts an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We obtain two distinct sets of solutions in which the atmospheric mixing angle lies in the first and the second octants. The first (second) octant solution predicts the lightest neutrino mass, $m_3 \\sim 29~\\text{meV}$ ($m_3 \\sim 65~\\text{meV}$) and the $CP$ phase, $\\delta_{CP} \\sim -\\frac{\\pi}{4}$ ($\\delta_{CP} \\sim \\frac{\\pi}{2}$), offering the possibility of large observable $CP$ violating effects in future experiments.
Galaxy clustering constraints on deviations from Newtonian gravity at cosmological scales
Akihito Shirata; Tetsuya Shiromizu; Naoki Yoshida; Yasushi Suto
2005-04-04
In spite of the growing observational evidence for dark matter and dark energy in the universe, their physical nature is largely unknown. In fact, several authors have proposed modifications of Newton's law of gravity at cosmological scales to account for the apparent acceleration of the cosmic expansion. Inspired by such suggestions, we attempt to constrain possible deviations from Newtonian gravity by means of the clustering of SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) galaxies. To be specific, we assume a simple modification of Newton's law with an additional Yukawa-type term characterized by the amplitude \\alpha and the length scale \\lambda. Adopting spatially-flat universes dominated by cold dark matter and/or dark energy, we solve a linear perturbation equation for the growth of density fluctuations. In particular, we find an exact analytic solution for the Einstein -- de Sitter case. Following the Peacock-Dodds prescription, we compute the nonlinear power spectra of mass fluctuations, perform a statistical comparison with the SDSS galaxy data, and derive constraints in the \\alpha-\\lambda plane; for instance, we obtain the constraints of -0.5<\\alpha <0.6 and -0.8<\\alpha<0.9 (99.7% confidence level) for \\lambda=5h^{-1}Mpc and 10h^{-1}Mpc, respectively. We also discuss several future possibilities for improving our analysis.
Deviation of Long-Period Tides from Equilibrium: Kinematics and Geostrophy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egbert, Gary D.; Ray, Richard D.
2003-01-01
New empirical estimates of the long-period fortnightly (Mf) tide obtained from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter data confirm significant basin-scale deviations from equilibrium. Elevations in the low-latitude Pacific have reduced amplitude and lag those in the Atlantic by 30 deg or more. These interbasin amplitude and phase variations are robust features that are reproduced by numerical solutions of the shallow-water equations, even for a constant-depth ocean with schematic interconnected rectangular basins. A simplified analytical model for cooscillating connected basins also reproduces the principal features observed in the empirical solutions. This simple model is largely kinematic. Zonally averaged elevations within a simple closed basin would be nearly in equilibrium with the gravitational potential, except for a constant offset required to conserve mass. With connected basins these offsets are mostly eliminated by interbasin mass flux. Because of rotation, this flux occurs mostly in a narrow boundary layer across the mouth and at the western edge of each basin, and geostrophic balance in this zone supports small residual offsets (and phase shifts) between basins. The simple model predicts that this effect should decrease roughly linearly with frequency, a result that is confirmed by numerical modeling and empirical T/P estimates of the monthly (Mm) tidal constituent. This model also explains some aspects of the anomalous nonisostatic response of the ocean to atmospheric pressure forcing at periods of around 5 days.
Galaxy clustering constraints on deviations from Newtonian gravity at cosmological scales
Shirata, Akihito; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Naoki; Suto, Yasushi
2005-03-15
In spite of the growing observational evidence for dark matter and dark energy in the universe, their physical nature is largely unknown. In fact, several authors have proposed modifications of Newton's law of gravity at cosmological scales to account for the apparent acceleration of the cosmic expansion. Inspired by such suggestions, we attempt to constrain possible deviations from Newtonian gravity by means of the clustering of SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) galaxies. To be specific, we assume a simple modification of Newton's law with an additional Yukawa-type term characterized by the amplitude {alpha} and the length scale {lambda}. Adopting spatially-flat universes dominated by cold dark matter and/or dark energy, we solve a linear perturbation equation for the growth of density fluctuations. In particular, we find an exact analytic solution for the Einstein-de Sitter case. Following the Peacock-Dodds prescription, we compute the nonlinear power spectra of mass fluctuations, perform a statistical comparison with the SDSS galaxy data, and derive constraints in the {alpha}-{lambda} plane; for instance, we obtain the constraints of -0.5<{alpha}<0.6 and -0.8<{alpha}<0.9 (99.7% confidence level) for {lambda}=5h{sup -1} Mpc and 10h{sup -1} Mpc, respectively. We also discuss several future possibilities for improving our analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Shinan; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Idir, Mourad; Wu, Xuehui
2015-06-01
Since the development of the Nano-Optic-Measuring Machine (NOM), the accuracy of measuring the profile of an optical surface has been enhanced to the 100-nrad rms level or better. However, to update the accuracy of the NOM system to sub-50 nrad rms, the large saw-tooth deviation (269 nrad rms) of an existing electronic autocollimator, the Elcomat 3000/8, must be resolved. We carried out simulations to assess the saw-tooth-like deviation. We developed a method for setting readings to reduce the deviation to sub-50 nrad rms, suitable for testing plane mirrors. With this method, we found that all the tests conducted in a slowly rising section of the saw-tooth show a small deviation of 28.8 to <40 nrad rms. We also developed a dense-measurement method and an integer-period method to lower the saw-tooth deviation during tests of sphere mirrors. Further research is necessary for formulating a precise test for a spherical mirror. We present a series of test results from our experiments that verify the value of the improvements we made.
Principles for School Drug Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meyer, Lois
2004-01-01
This document presents a revised set of principles for school drug education. The principles for drug education in schools comprise an evolving framework that has proved useful over a number of decades in guiding the development of effective drug education. The first edition of "Principles for Drug Education in Schools" (Ballard et al. 1994) has…
Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ridgely, Charles T.
2010-01-01
Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…
Differential processing of melodic, rhythmic and simple tone deviations in musicians -an MEG study.
Lappe, Claudia; Lappe, Markus; Pantev, Christo
2016-01-01
Rhythm and melody are two basic characteristics of music. Performing musicians have to pay attention to both, and avoid errors in either aspect of their performance. To investigate the neural processes involved in detecting melodic and rhythmic errors from auditory input we tested musicians on both kinds of deviations in a mismatch negativity (MMN) design. We found that MMN responses to a rhythmic deviation occurred at shorter latencies than MMN responses to a melodic deviation. Beamformer source analysis showed that the melodic deviation activated superior temporal, inferior frontal and superior frontal areas whereas the activation pattern of the rhythmic deviation focused more strongly on inferior and superior parietal areas, in addition to superior temporal cortex. Activation in the supplementary motor area occurred for both types of deviations. We also recorded responses to similar pitch and tempo deviations in a simple, non-musical repetitive tone pattern. In this case, there was no latency difference between the MMNs and cortical activation was smaller and mostly limited to auditory cortex. The results suggest that prediction and error detection of musical stimuli in trained musicians involve a broad cortical network and that rhythmic and melodic errors are processed in partially different cortical streams. PMID:26436712
Welding deviation detection algorithm based on extremum of molten pool image contour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Yong; Jiang, Lipei; Li, Yunhua; Xue, Long; Huang, Junfen; Huang, Jiqiang
2015-10-01
The welding deviation detection is the basis of robotic tracking welding, but the on-line real-time measurement of welding deviation is still not well solved by the existing methods. There is plenty of information in the gas metal arc welding(GMAW) molten pool images that is very important for the control of welding seam tracking. The physical meaning for the curvature extremum of molten pool contour is revealed by researching the molten pool images, that is, the deviation information points of welding wire center and the molten tip center are the maxima and the local maxima of the contour curvature, and the horizontal welding deviation is the position difference of these two extremum points. A new method of weld deviation detection is presented, including the process of preprocessing molten pool images, extracting and segmenting the contours, obtaining the contour extremum points, and calculating the welding deviation, etc. Extracting the contours is the premise, segmenting the contour lines is the foundation, and obtaining the contour extremum points is the key. The contour images can be extracted with the method of discrete dyadic wavelet transform, which is divided into two sub contours including welding wire and molten tip separately. The curvature value of each point of the two sub contour lines is calculated based on the approximate curvature formula of multi-points for plane curve, and the two points of the curvature extremum are the characteristics needed for the welding deviation calculation. The results of the tests and analyses show that the maximum error of the obtained on-line welding deviation is 2 pixels(0.16 mm), and the algorithm is stable enough to meet the requirements of the pipeline in real-time control at a speed of less than 500 mm/min. The method can be applied to the on-line automatic welding deviation detection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, J. D.; Malozovsky, Yuriy M.
2013-06-01
In terms of an exact equation for the thermodynamic potential due to interaction between two particles and based on Green's function method; we have derived the Landau expansion of the thermodynamic potentials in terms of the variation of the quasiparticle distribution function. We have also derived the expansion of the thermodynamic potential in terms of the variation of an exact single particle (not quasiparticles), this derivations lead to the relationship between the interaction function for two quasiparticles and the interaction energy between two particles as shown. Further, in terms of the four-point vertex part we are led to the Pauli exclusion principle.
Principles of Pituitary Surgery.
Farrell, Christopher J; Nyquist, Gurston G; Farag, Alexander A; Rosen, Marc R; Evans, James J
2016-02-01
Since the description of a transnasal approach for treatment of pituitary tumors, transsphenoidal surgery has undergone continuous development. Hirsch developed a lateral endonasal approach before simplifying it to a transseptal approach. Cushing approached pituitary tumors using a transsphenoidal approach but transitioned to the transcranial route. Transsphenoidal surgery was not "rediscovered" until Hardy introduced the surgical microscope. An endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for pituitary tumors has been reported and further advanced. We describe the principles of pituitary surgery including the key elements of surgical decision making and discuss the technical nuances distinguishing the endoscopic from the microscopic approach. PMID:26614830
Nonequilibrium quantum Landauer principle.
Goold, John; Paternostro, Mauro; Modi, Kavan
2015-02-13
Using the operational framework of completely positive, trace preserving operations and thermodynamic fluctuation relations, we derive a lower bound for the heat exchange in a Landauer erasure process on a quantum system. Our bound comes from a nonphenomenological derivation of the Landauer principle which holds for generic nonequilibrium dynamics. Furthermore, the bound depends on the nonunitality of dynamics, giving it a physical significance that differs from other derivations. We apply our framework to the model of a spin-1/2 system coupled to an interacting spin chain at finite temperature. PMID:25723198
Proton spin and the cheshire cat principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, B.-Y.; Vento, V.
1991-08-01
We discuss the proton matrix element of the flavor-singlet axial current (FSAC), often referred to as proton spin, in terms of the chiral bag model with due account of the axial anomaly and quantum number fractionation. We conclude that the contribution due to gluons is significant for large bag radii and that it is crucial in order to establish the Cheshire cat principle.
Proton spin and the Cheshire cat principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, B.-Y.; Vento, V.
1991-09-01
We discuss the proton matrix element of the flavor-singlet axial current (FSAC), often referred to as proton spin, in terms of the chiral bag model with due account of the axial anomaly and quantum number fractionation. We conclude that the contribution due to gluons is significant for large bag radii and that it is crucial in order to establish the Cheshire cat principle.
Equivalence principle in scalar-tensor gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puetzfeld, Dirk; Obukhov, Yuri N.
2015-10-01
We present a direct confirmation of the validity of the equivalence principle for unstructured test bodies in scalar-tensor gravity. Our analysis is complementary to previous approaches and valid for a large class of scalar-tensor theories of gravitation. A covariant approach is used to derive the equations of motion in a systematic way and allows for the experimental test of scalar-tensor theories by means of extended test bodies.
Principles of cryopreservation by vitrification.
Fahy, Gregory M; Wowk, Brian
2015-01-01
Vitrification is an alternative approach to cryopreservation that enables hydrated living cells to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures in the absence of ice. Vitrification simplifies and frequently improves cryopreservation because it eliminates mechanical injury from ice, eliminates the need to find optimal cooling and warming rates, eliminates the importance of differing optimal cooling and warming rates for cells in mixed cell type populations, eliminates the need to find a frequently imperfect compromise between solution effects injury and intracellular ice formation, and enables cooling to be rapid enough to "outrun" chilling injury, but it complicates the osmotic effects of adding and removing cryoprotective agents and introduces a greater risk of cryoprotectant toxicity during the addition and removal of cryoprotectants. Fortunately, a large number of remedies for the latter problem have been discovered over the past 30+ years, and the former problem can in most cases be eliminated or adequately controlled by careful attention to technique. Vitrification is therefore beginning to realize its potential for enabling the superior and convenient cryopreservation of most types of biological systems (including molecules, cells, tissues, organs, and even some whole organisms), and vitrification is even beginning to be recognized as a successful strategy of nature for surviving harsh environmental conditions. However, many investigators who employ vitrification or what they incorrectly imagine to be vitrification have only a rudimentary understanding of the basic principles of this relatively new and emerging approach to cryopreservation, and this often limits the practical results that can be achieved. A better understanding may therefore help to improve present results while pointing the way to new strategies that may be yet more successful in the future. To assist this understanding, this chapter describes the basic principles of vitrification and indicates the broad potential biological relevance of vitrification. PMID:25428002
Principles of Enterprise Systems
Nightingale, Deborah
2009-06-15
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) through its Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) research team has been conducting research and facilitating enterprise-level transformations in large complex sociotechnical ...
Hawking temperature for various kinds of black holes from Heisenberg uncertainty principle
Fabio Scardigli
2006-07-04
Hawking temperature is computed for a large class of black holes (with spherical, toroidal and hyperboloidal topologies) using only laws of classical physics plus the "classical" Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. This principle is shown to be fully sufficient to get the result, and there is no need to this scope of a Generalized Uncertainty Principle.
Principles of Safety Pharmacology
Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J
2008-01-01
Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.). PMID:18604233
Principle of relative locality
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy
2011-10-15
We propose a deepening of the relativity principle according to which the invariant arena for nonquantum physics is a phase space rather than spacetime. Descriptions of particles propagating and interacting in spacetimes are constructed by observers, but different observers, separated from each other by translations, construct different spacetime projections from the invariant phase space. Nonetheless, all observers agree that interactions are local in the spacetime coordinates constructed by observers local to them. This framework, in which absolute locality is replaced by relative locality, results from deforming energy-momentum space, just as the passage from absolute to relative simultaneity results from deforming the linear addition of velocities. Different aspects of energy-momentum space geometry, such as its curvature, torsion and nonmetricity, are reflected in different kinds of deformations of the energy-momentum conservation laws. These are in principle all measurable by appropriate experiments. We also discuss a natural set of physical hypotheses which singles out the cases of energy-momentum space with a metric compatible connection and constant curvature.
Great Lakes Literacy Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey
2011-03-01
Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.
Morozov, A.N.; Bublik, V.T.
1987-09-20
Independent precision measurements of the lattice period by the Bond method (with reproducibility 1 x 10/sup -5/ A) and of the density by the hydrostatic weighing method (with reproducibility 0.00002 g x cm/sup -3/) allows them to determine the structural type and the concentrations of the predominant intrinsic point defects, the deviation from stoichiometry, and the boundaries of the homogeneity region with error varying for A/sup III/B/sup V/ compounds in the limits 5 x 10/sup 17/-3 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/. The fundamental limitations on the error in the measurement of the deviation from stoichiometry connected with inexact knowledge of the wavelength of the x-radiation and Avogadro's number are not limitations in principle. The major contribution to the absolute error in the determination of the deviation from stoichiometry comes from the error in the determination of the atomic masses of the crystals of the elements formed.
Asymptotic approach to special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle
Carmona, J. M.; Cortes, J. L.; Mazon, D.
2010-10-15
We propose a general framework to describe Planckian deviations from special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle. They are introduced as the leading corrections in an asymptotic approach to special relativity going beyond the energy power expansion of effective field theories. We discuss the conditions in which these Planckian effects might be experimentally observable in the near future, together with the nontrivial limits of applicability of this asymptotic approach that such a situation would produce, both at the very high (ultraviolet) and the very low (infrared) energy regimes.
Testing the strong equivalence principle by radio ranging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.; Shapiro, I. I.
1984-01-01
Planetary range data offer the most promising means to test the validity of the Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP). Analytical expressions for the perturbation in the 'range' expected from an SEP violation predicted by the 'variation-of-G' method and by the 'two-times' approach are derived and compared. The dominant term in both expressions is quadratic in time. Analysis of existing range data should allow a determination of the coefficient of this term with a one-standard-deviation uncertainty of about 1 part in 100 billion/yr.
Sonic Logging in Deviated Boreholes in an Anisotropic Formation: Laboratory Study
Zhu, Zhenya
2006-01-01
Deepwater field development requires drilling of deviated or horizontal wells. Most formations encountered can be highly anisotropic and P- and S-wave velocities vary with propagation directions. Sonic logs acquired in ...
Deviation from Universality in Collisions of Ultracold [superscript 6] Li[subscript 2] Molecules
Heo, Myoung-Sun
Collisions of [superscript 6]Li[subscript 2] molecules with free [superscript 6]Li atoms reveal a striking deviation from universal predictions based on long-range van der Waals interactions. Li[subscript 2] closed-channel ...
Wong, A M F
2015-02-01
The otolith organs consist of the utricle and saccule. The utricle mediates the utriculo-ocular reflex by detecting horizontal head translation and static head tilt. Skew deviation is a vertical strabismus caused by imbalance of the utriculo-ocular reflex pathway and is commonly caused by lesions in the brainstem or cerebellum. It is associated with abnormal utriculo-ocular reflexes including asymmetric reduction of the translational vestibulo-ocular and ocular counterroll responses. Skew deviation is also associated with head position-dependent changes in ocular torsion and vertical strabismus. The reduction in ocular torsion and vertical strabismus when changing from an upright to supine position in skew deviation allows us to devise a new bedside 'upright-supine test' to differentiate skew deviation from fourth nerve palsy and other causes of vertical strabismus. PMID:25323854
21 CFR 113.89 - Deviations in processing, venting, or control of critical factors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...deviations involving a failure to satisfy the minimum requirements of the scheduled process, including emergencies arising from a jam or breakdown of a continuous agitating retort necessitating cooling the retort for repairs, shall be recorded and made the...
21 CFR 113.89 - Deviations in processing, venting, or control of critical factors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
...deviations involving a failure to satisfy the minimum requirements of the scheduled process, including emergencies arising from a jam or breakdown of a continuous agitating retort necessitating cooling the retort for repairs, shall be recorded and made the...
21 CFR 113.89 - Deviations in processing, venting, or control of critical factors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...deviations involving a failure to satisfy the minimum requirements of the scheduled process, including emergencies arising from a jam or breakdown of a continuous agitating retort necessitating cooling the retort for repairs, shall be recorded and made the...
21 CFR 113.89 - Deviations in processing, venting, or control of critical factors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
...deviations involving a failure to satisfy the minimum requirements of the scheduled process, including emergencies arising from a jam or breakdown of a continuous agitating retort necessitating cooling the retort for repairs, shall be recorded and made the...
21 CFR 113.89 - Deviations in processing, venting, or control of critical factors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...deviations involving a failure to satisfy the minimum requirements of the scheduled process, including emergencies arising from a jam or breakdown of a continuous agitating retort necessitating cooling the retort for repairs, shall be recorded and made the...
Webster, C S; Andersson, E; Edwards, K; Merry, A F; Torrie, J; Weller, J M
2015-11-01
Deviations from accepted practice guidelines and protocols are poorly understood, yet some deviations are likely to be deliberate and carry potential for patient harm. Anaesthetic teams practice in a complex work environment and anaesthetists are unusual in that they both prescribe and administer the drugs they use, allowing scope for idiosyncratic practise. We aimed to better understand the intentions underlying deviation from accepted guidelines during drug administration in simulated cases. An observer recorded events that may have increased the risk of patient harm ('Events of Interest' [EOIs]) during 20 highly realistic simulated anaesthetic cases. In semi-structured interviews, details of EOIs were confirmed with participating anaesthetic teams, and intentions and reasoning underlying the confirmed deviations were discussed. Confirmed details of EOIs were tabulated and we undertook qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Twenty-four EOIs (69% of 35 recorded) were judged by participants to carry potential for patient harm, and 12 (34%) were judged to be deviations from accepted guidelines (including one drug administration error). Underlying reasons for deviations included a strong sense of clinical autonomy, poor clinical relevance and a lack of evidence for guidelines, ingrained habits learnt in early training, and the influence of peers. Guidelines are important in clinical practice, yet self-identified deviation from accepted guidelines was common in our results, and all but one of these events was judged to carry potential for patient harm. A better understanding of the reasons underlying deviation from accepted guidelines is essential to the design of more effective guidelines and to achieving compliance. PMID:26603793
Deviation of polarity from linearity in liquid mixtures containing an ionic liquid.
Beniwal, Vijay; Shukla, Shashi K; Kumar, Anil
2015-11-25
The physico-chemical properties of liquid mixtures, in general, exhibit deviations from linear behaviour with respect to their composition, arising out of different types of cross-intermolecular interactions (both specific and non-specific). These specific and non-specific interactions can however be monitored to obtain the linear mixing in liquid mixtures using the pseudo-solvent methodology in such a manner that the interactions causing deviations from linearity are cancelled out and mixtures display linear behaviour. PMID:26563566
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbour, Julian
The definitive ideas that led to the creation of general relativity crystallized in Einstein's thinking during 1912 while he was in Prague. At the centenary meeting held there to mark the breakthrough, I was asked to talk about earlier great work of relevance to dynamics done at Prague, above all by Kepler and Mach. The main topics covered in this chapter are: some little known but basic facts about the planetary motions; the conceptual framework and most important discoveries of Ptolemy and Copernicus; the complete change of concepts that Kepler introduced and their role in his discoveries; the significance of them in Newton's work; Mach's realization that Kepler's conceptual revolution needed further development to free Newton's conceptual world of the last vestiges of the purely geometrical Ptolemaic world view; and the precise formulation of Mach's principle required to place GR correctly in the line of conceptual and technical evolution that began with the ancient Greek astronomers.
The Thermodynamic Covariance Principle
Sonnino, Giorgio
2014-01-01
The concept of "equivalent systems" from the thermodynamic point of view, originally introduced by Th. De Donder and I. Prigogine, is deeply investigated and revised. From our point of view, two systems are thermodynamically equivalent if, under transformation of the thermodynamic forces, both the entropy production and the Glansdorff-Prigogine dissipative quantity remain unaltered. This kind of transformations are refereed to as the "Thermodynamic Coordinate Transformations" (TCT). The general class of transformations satisfying the TCT is determined. We shall see that, also in the nonlinear region (i.e., out of the Onsager region), the TCT preserve the reciprocity relations of the transport coefficients. The equivalent character of two transformation under TCT, leads to the concept of "Thermodynamic Covariance Principle" (TCP) stating that all thermodynamic equations involving the thermodynamic forces and flows (e.g., the closure flux-force relations) should be covariant under TCT.
Dynamic sealing principles. [design configurations for fluid leakage control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1976-01-01
The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function. They are: (1) selection and control of seal geometry, (2) control of leakage fluid properties, and (3) control of forces acting on leakage fluids. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin-film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented.
Dynamical principles in neuroscience
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.
2006-10-01
Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?
Fault Management Guiding Principles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan
2011-01-01
Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.
Dynamical principles in neuroscience
Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.
2006-10-15
Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?.
A PRINCIPLED APPROACH TO MANAGING ROUTING IN LARGE ISP NETWORKS
Singh, Jaswinder Pal
Copyright by Yi Wang, 2009. All rights reserved. #12;Abstract Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are the core building blocks of the Internet, and play a crucial role in keeping the Internet well-connected and stable plays different roles in its operation: (1) as part of the Internet, an ISP is expected to help keep
arXiv:1005.0147v1[math.PR]2May2010 A large-deviation view on
Redig, Frank
to as a "nature-versus-nurture" transition. MSC2010: Primary 60F10, 60G60, 60K35; Secondary 82B26, 82C22. Key, nature versus nurture. Acknowledgment: The authors are grateful for extended discussions with Christof K¨ulske. Part of this research was supported by the Dutch mathematics cluster Nonlinear Dynam- ics of Natural
Towards first-principles electrochemistry
Dabo, Ismaila
2008-01-01
This doctoral dissertation presents a comprehensive computational approach to describe quantum mechanical systems embedded in complex ionic media, primarily focusing on the first-principles representation of catalytic ...
Teaching chiropractic principles through patient centered problems
Gatterman, Meridel I
1997-01-01
Introduction: Large class size (148) and limited resources preclude application of the standard small group problem based learning that has generated both student and faculty satisfaction. An innovative method of teaching chiropractic philosophical foundations was developed and implemented utilizing cooperative learning, patient centered problem solving, and group presentations. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: 1) to measure the impact of an innovative method of cooperative learning on student satisfaction and class attendance: 2) to incorporate philosophical principles of chiropractic into patient centered problems; and, 3) to promote cooperative and self directed learning. Methods: A class of 148 students was divided into groups of four students. Each group was assigned a patient centered problem based on clinical practice, and three to four questions related to the philosophical or “first” principles of chiropractic. The students working in the assigned groups prepared a paper addressing the questions in the context of a patient centered practice. Each group gave a thirty minute presentation followed by fifteen minutes of class interaction. Conclusions: Using cooperative student centered learning to teach chiropractic principles through patient centered problem solving generated high levels of student satisfaction and attendance in this large group.
2012-01-01
Background The subjective visual vertical (SVV, the visual estimation of gravitational direction) is commonly considered as an indicator of the sense of orientation. The present study examined the impact of two methodological factors (the angle size of the stimulus and the participant's gender) on deviations of the SVV caused by head tilt. Forty healthy participants (20 men and 20 women) were asked to make visual vertical adjustments of a light bar with their head held vertically or roll-tilted by 30° to the left or to the right. Line angle sizes of 0.95° and 18.92° were presented. Results The SVV tended to move in the direction of head tilt in women but away from the direction of head tilt in men. Moreover, the head-tilt effect was also modulated by the stimulus' angle size. The large angle size led to deviations in the direction of head-tilt, whereas the small angle size had the opposite effect. Conclusions Our results showed that gender and line angle size have an impact on the evaluation of the SVV. These findings must be taken into account in the growing body of research that uses the SVV paradigm in disease settings. Moreover, this methodological issue may explain (at least in part) the discrepancies found in the literature on the head-tilt effect. PMID:22420467
Kind, R.J.; Serjak, P.J.; Abbott, M.W.P.
1998-01-01
Measurements of pressure distributions, profile losses, and flow deviation were carried out on a planar turbine cascade in incompressible flow to assess the effects of partial roughness coverage of the blade surfaces. Spanwise-oriented bands of roughness were placed at various locations on the suction and pressure surfaces of the blades. Roughness height, spacing between roughness elements, and band width were varied. A computational method based on the inviscid/viscous interaction approach was also developed; its predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. This indicates that good predictions can be expected for a variety of cascade and roughness configurations from any two-dimensional analysis that couples an inviscid method with a suitable rough surface boundary-layer analysis. The work also suggests that incorporation of the rough wall skin-friction law into a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code would enable good predictions of roughness effects in three-dimensional situations. Roughness was found to have little effect on static pressure distribution around the blades and on deviation angle, provided that it does not precipitate substantial flow separation. Roughness on the suction surface can cause large increases in profile losses; roughness height and location of the leading edge of the roughness band are particularly important. Loss increments due to pressure-surface roughness are much smaller than those due to similar roughness on the suction surface.
Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental principles)
Fuehrer, B.
1985-06-01
Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A large, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental principles of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''.
Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models
Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel; Vucetich, Héctor
2015-01-01
Most theories that predict time and(or) space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltman proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on the WEP. In this paper we present a contrasting view based on the analysis of the force between two bodies induced by the chameleon field using a particular approach in which the field due to both the large and the small bodies is obtained by appropriate series expansions in the various regions of interest and the corresponding matching conditions. We found that resulting force depends on the test body\\'{}s composition even when the chameleon coupling constants $\\beta_{i}$ are universal. In particular, we compared the resulting differential acceleration of test bodies made of Be and Al with the corresponding bounds obtained from E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the predictions of the chameleon model are, in general, various orders of magnitude a...
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1992-03-27
Planned Parenthood says that rather than accept the Bush administration's gag rule it will give up federal funding of its operations. The gag rule forbids professionals at birth control clinics from even referring to abortion as an option to a pregnant woman, much less recommending one. President Bush has agreed to a policy which allows physicians but no one else at clinics to discuss abortion in at least some cases. In his view, according to White House officials, this was an admitted attempt to straddle the issue. Why he would want to straddle is understandable. The right wing of his party, which has always been suspicious of Mr. Bush, is pushing him to uphold what it regards as the Reagan legacy on this issue. The original gag rule, which prevented even physicians from discussing abortion as an option in almost all cases, was issued in the last presidents's 2nd term and upheld last year by the Supreme Court. Give Planned Parenthood credit for sticking to its principles. A lot of recipients of all sorts of federal funds want it both ways, take the money but not accept federal policy guidelines. When they find they can't, many "rise above principle," take the money and adjust policy accordingly. It is not going to be easy for Planned Parenthood now. Federal funds account for a significant portion of the organizations's budgets. Planned Parenthood of Maryland, for example, gets about $500,000 a year from the federal government, or about 12-13% of its total budget. It will either have to cut back on its services or increase its fundraising from other sources or charge women more for services--or all of those things. This is not the end of the story. It is certainly not the end of the political story. Pat Buchanan said of the new regulations, "I like the old position, to be quite candid." Thank goodness he never won a primary. George Bush would not have moved even as far as he hid on the gag rule. There will be a lot of agreement with the Buchanan view at the Republican national convention. We can only hope that by then the president will be looking to the general election campaign and a Democratic opponent who will be appealing to Republican women on this issue. Perhaps then he will relax the gag order a little more. PMID:12317218
A test of the Copernican principle.
Caldwell, R R; Stebbins, A
2008-05-16
The blackbody nature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation spectrum is used in a modern test of the Copernican principle. The reionized universe serves as a mirror to reflect CMB photons, thereby permitting a view of ourselves and the local gravitational potential. By comparing with measurements of the CMB spectrum, a limit is placed on the possibility that we occupy a privileged location, residing at the center of a large void. The Hubble diagram inferred from lines of sight originating at the center of the void may be misinterpreted to indicate cosmic acceleration. Current limits on spectral distortions are shown to exclude the largest voids which mimic cosmic acceleration. More sensitive measurements of the CMB spectrum could prove the existence of such a void or confirm the validity of the Copernican principle. PMID:18518434
Magnetism: Principles and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craik, Derek J.
2003-09-01
If you are studying physics, chemistry, materials science, electrical engineering, information technology or medicine, then you'll know that understanding magnetism is fundamental to success in your studies and here is the key to unlocking the mysteries of magnetism....... You can: obtain a simple overview of magnetism, including the roles of B and H, resonances and special techniques take full advantage of modern magnets with a wealth of expressions for fields and forces develop realistic general design programmes using isoparametric finite elements study the subtleties of the general theory of magnetic moments and their dynamics follow the development of outstanding materials appreciate how magnetism encompasses topics as diverse as rock magnetism, chemical reaction rates, biological compasses, medical therapies, superconductivity and levitation understand the basis and remarkable achievements of magnetic resonance imaging In his new book, Magnetism, Derek Craik throws light on the principles and applications of this fascinating subject. From formulae for calculating fields to quantum theory, the secrets of magnetism are exposed, ensuring that whether you are a chemist or engineer, physicist, medic or materials scientist Magnetism is the book for our course.
[The principles of homeopathy].
Hjelvik, M; Mørenskog, E
1997-06-30
Homeopathy is a gentle but effective form of treatment which stimulates the natural ability of the organism to heal itself. The word homoeopathy comes from the greek words "homoios" which means similar, and "pathos" which means disease. This reflects the main principle of homoeopathy, the law of similars, which predicts that a disease can be cured by a medicine, which in healthy people is able to produce a condition that resembles the disease. The law of similars is probably a basic law of nature. Therefore it is not surprising that examples can also be found in orthodox medicine, where the mode of functioning for some medicines probably can be ascribed the law of similars. Homoeopathic medicines are likely to work through the body's own curative powers in a way that is best explained by comparison with vaccination. Both the homoeopathic medicine and the vaccine constitute a mild stimulous that causes mobilisation of the body's defence mechanisms and thus increased ability to oppose a pathogenic influence. The homoeopathic medicine does not work at molecular level, but probably through non-materialistic qualities (possibly electromagnetic in nature) in the organism, which are so sensitive that even a mild stimulus is enough to cause a reaction. This means that homoeopathic preparations can still have an effect even when diluted beyond avogadro's number. PMID:9265314
Unilateral superior rectus recession for the treatment of dissociated vertical deviation.
Schwartz, T; Scott, W
1991-01-01
The management of dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is an unsettled issue. Several authors have advocated bilateral superior rectus recession for all patients with DVD unless a dense amblyopia is present in the nonfixating eye. Our experience suggested that DVD was being successfully treated with unilateral bilateral superior rectus recession. We reviewed the charts of 57 patients who underwent graded unilateral superior rectus recession and 10 patients who had bilateral superior rectus recession for the treatment of DVD. DVD, a manifest deviation, was considered as distinct from occlusion hyperphoria, a latent deviation present only under cover. Of the patients who underwent unilateral superior rectus recession, only six developed a significant (14 prism diopters or more) DVD in the unoperated eye. The presence of any DVD in the unoperated eye appeared to be predictive of an unacceptable postoperative deviation (15 times greater chance, P less than .001). Patients with an occlusion hyperphoria in the unoperated eye showed no increased propensity to develop a significant DVD following surgery. The results of bilateral surgery were disappointing. Eight of ten patients had residual DVD in one or both eyes of 10 delta or greater. Our results suggest that unilateral surgery is an effective treatment of DVD in patients with a manifest deviation in only one eye. Although neither unilateral nor bilateral surgery was entirely satisfactory for the treatment of bilateral DVD, we recommend bilateral superior rectus recession for these patients. PMID:1919970
Milk Fever Control Principles: A Review
2002-01-01
Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%–60% in terms of milk fever prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K) – (Cl + S)) significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD principle is a palatability problem. The principle of feeding rations low in calcium is highly efficient in milk fever prevention provided the calcium intake in the dry period is kept below 20 g per day. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a very low mean RR (between 0 and 0.20) (daily calcium intake below versus above 20 g/d). The main problem in implementing the low-Ca principle is difficulties in formulating rations sufficiently low in calcium when using commonly available feeds. The use of large doses of vitamin D metabolites and analogues for milk fever prevention is controversial. Due to toxicity problems and an almost total lack of recent studies on the subject this principle is not described in detail. A few management related issues were discussed briefly, and the following conclusions were made: It is important to supply the periparturient cow with sufficient magnesium to fulfil its needs, and to prevent the dry cows from being too fat. Available information on the influence of carbohydrate intake, and on the effect of the length of the dry period and prepartum milking, is at present insufficient to include these factors in control programmes. PMID:12071112
30 CFR 285.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate... Pipeline Deviations § 285.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP? (a) You must make every effort to ensure that all cables and pipelines are constructed in a manner...
Multimedia Principle in Teaching Lessons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad
2012-01-01
Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…
Meaty Principles for Environmental Educators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rockcastle, V. N.
1985-01-01
Suggests that educated persons should be exposed to a body of conceptual knowledge which includes basic principles of the biological and physical sciences. Practical examples involving force, sound, light, waves, and density of water are cited. A lesson on animal tracks using principles of force and pressure is also described. (DH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ouellette, John
2004-01-01
Soccer coaches must understand the principles of play if they want to succeed. The principles of play are the rules of action that support the basic objectives of soccer and the foundation of a soccer coaching strategy. They serve as a set of permanent criteria that coaches can use to evaluate the efforts of their team. In this article, the author…
Probing Deviations from the Kerr Metric within General Relativity with Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandel, Ilya; Gair, Jonathan; Dodelson, Matthew
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) may detect gravitational waves from hundreds of extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes. EMRIs should function as exquisite probes of the spacetime of the central bodies and of strong-field gravity itself. We describe the detectable signatures of possible deviations of the geometry of the central body from the Kerr metric, including the possibility of chaotic orbital motion as the Carter constant disappears. We also introduce a simple framework for parametrizing the impact of deviations from general relativity itself on the gravitational waves emitted during an EMRI and analyze the accuracy with which such deviations can be measured.
Proper calculation of a modulation half cycle from the Allan deviation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carson, Cantwell G.; Haljasmaa, Igor V.
2015-12-01
The Allan deviation is commonly used to determine the long term stability and precision of oscillators or otherwise continuous measurements. When periodic, fixed frequency modulation is present, it has been previously stated that the resulting peak in the estimate coincides with the half cycle of the modulation period. However, this peak is located at ~74.2% of the actual half cycle. In this work, we provide a generalized derivation of the modulation half cycle time constant from the Allan deviation estimate. Furthermore, the peak locations for the Hadamard, Modified Allan, and time deviations are shown to be approximately 84.2, 61.0, and 84.2%, respectively of the modulation half cycle time constants.
Gupta, Neelima; Singh, P. P.; Bagla, Rahul Kumar
2015-01-01
Background and Objectives. Nasal obstruction due to deviated nasal septum is a common problem bringing a patient to an otorhinolaryngologist. Occasionally, these patients may also complain of olfactory impairment. We proposed to study the effect of septal deviation on the lateralised olfactory function and the change in olfaction after surgery of the septum (septoplasty). Methods. Forty-one patients with deviated nasal septum were evaluated for nasal airflow, olfactory score, and nasal symptomatology. Septoplasty was done under local anesthesia. Pre- and postoperative olfactory scores, airflow and olfactory scores, and nasal symptomatology and olfactory scores were compared and correlated. Results. The range of preoperative composite olfactory score (COS) on the side of septal deviation was 4–14 (mean 7.90 ± 2.234) and on the nonobstructed side was 9–18 (mean 14.49 ± 2.378). Severity of deviated nasal septum and preoperative COS of diseased side were correlated and the correlation was found to be significant (rho = ?0.690, p = 0.000 (<0.001)). The preoperative mean COS (7.90 ± 2.234) was compared with the postoperative mean COS (12.39 ± 3.687) and the improvement was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.000 (<0.001)). Conclusion. We found improvement in olfactory function in 70.6% patients after surgery, no change in 20.1%, and reduced function in 7.6%. With the limitation of a small sample size and a potential repeat testing bias, we would conclude that correction of nasal septal deviation may lead to improvement in sense of smell. PMID:26491724
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beeler, N. M.
Imagine for a moment that you are a field structural geologist, and you have just realized that your star graduate student does not know how to estimate the failure strength of intact rock at 10 km depth in a normal faulting environment. Or perhaps you are a geophysicist with graduate students modeling mantle convection who, as you come to find out, do not know what a dislocation is. You might decide that your students need to take a course in basic rock mechanics, but, and this may be easiest to imagine, you are the only staff member in your department available to teach such a course.If you are developing an introductory course in rock mechanics or you have been teaching such a course without a suitable text, this new book by Ruud Wiejermars was written specifically for you and your students. Principles of Rock Mechanics is a textbook to a one-semester course for graduate students and advanced undergraduates. There are 13 chapters, a math review section, and the obligatory introduction and final overview chapters. Each chapter is designed to be covered in two 50-minute lectures and one laboratory session. Following a formal introduction to the topic, the subsequent seven chapters serve as an introduction to the physical concepts and processes; physical quantities in rock mechanics, force and pressure, stress, elasticity, brittle failure, and ductile creep, taking the students to midterm. An unusual and welcome feature appears at the midsemester point—a math review of notation and associated concepts: differentiation of vectors and scalars, differential equations, tensors, matrices and determinants, and complex variables. This review provides an indication of the rigor to follow.
Principles of rock deformation
Nicolas, A.
1987-01-01
This text focuses on the recent achievements in the analysis of rock deformation. It gives an analytical presentation of the essential structures in terms of kinetic and dynamic interpretation. The physical properties underlying the interpretation of rock structures are exposed in simple terms. Emphasized in the book are: the role of fluids in rock fracturing; the kinematic analysis of magnetic flow structures; the application of crystalline plasticity to the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the large deformation imprinted in many metamorphic rocks.
(Bhattacharya), Sampa Ray; Majumdar, Dibyendu; Singh, Dilip K.; Islam, M. D. Rabiul; Ray, Pradip K.; Saha, Nilanjana
2015-01-01
Mandibular resection following surgical treatment for neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity leads to numerous complications including altered mandibular movements, disfigurement, difficult in swallowing, impaired speech and articulation, and deviation of the mandible towards the resected site. Various prosthetic methods are employed to reduce or minimize mandibular deviation and improve and restore the lost functions and esthetic, like maxillomandibular fixation, implant supported prosthesis, removable mandibular guide flange prosthesis, and palatal based guidance restoration. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of a patient following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis. PMID:25821361
Constraints on Yukawa-Type Deviations from Newtonian Gravity at 20 Microns
S. J. Smullin; A. A. Geraci; D. M. Weld; J. Chiaverini; S. Holmes; A. Kapitulnik
2006-01-01
Recent theories of physics beyond the standard model have predicted deviations from Newtonian gravity at short distances. In order to test these theories, we have a built an apparatus that can measure attonewton-scale forces between gold masses separated by distances on the order of 25 microns. A micromachined silicon cantilever was used as the force sensor, and its displacement was measured with a fiber interferometer. We have used our measurements to set bounds on the magnitude alpha and length scale lambda of Yukawa-type deviations from Newtonian gravity; our results presented here yield the best experimental limit in the range of lambda=6--20 microns.
Nonperturbative semiclassical stability of de Sitter spacetime for small metric deviations
Markus B. Fröb; Demetrios B. Papadopoulos; Albert Roura; Enric Verdaguer
2013-01-22
We consider the linearized semiclassical Einstein equations for small deviations around de Sitter spacetime including the vacuum polarization effects of conformal fields. Employing the method of order reduction, we find the exact solutions for general metric perturbations (of scalar, vector and tensor type). Our exact (nonperturbative) solutions show clearly that in this case de Sitter is stable with respect to small metric deviations and a late-time attractor. Furthermore, they also reveal a breakdown of perturbative solutions for a sufficiently long evolution inside the horizon. Our results are valid for any conformal theory, even self-interacting ones with arbitrarily strong coupling.
Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008
Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.
2006-01-01
The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.
Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.
2006-10-01
The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 ± 0.6) µGal (1Gal ? 1 cm s-2), the average repeatability was (2.9 ± 1.5) µGal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 ± 3.5) µGal.
Extrema Principles Of Dissipation In Fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty
1991-01-01
Report discusses application of principle of least action and other variational or extrema principles to dissipation of energy and production of entropy in fluids. Principle of least action applied successfully to dynamics of particles and to quantum mechanics, but not universally accepted that variational principles applicable to thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. Report argues for applicability of some extrema principles to some simple flows.
Dark matter and the equivalence principle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami
1991-01-01
If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence principle. The astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter are discussed and rather tight constraints on its strength are found. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). Such an interaction also has unusual implications for the growth of large-scale structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
At the end of the XIXth century, physics was dominated by two main theories: classical (or Newtonian) mechanics and electromagnetism. To be entirely correct, we should add thermodynamics, which seemed to be grounded on different principles, but whose links with mechanics were progressively better understood thanks to the work of Maxwell and Boltzmann, among others. Classical mechanics, born with Galileo and Newton, claimed to explain the motion of lumps of matter under the action of forces. The paradigm for a lump of matter is a particle, or a corpuscle, which one can intuitively think of as a billiard ball of tiny dimensions, and which will be dubbed a micro-billiard ball in what follows. The second main component of XIXth century physics, electromagnetism, is a theory of the electric and magnetic fields and also of optics, thanks to the synthesis between electromagnetism and optics performed by Maxwell, who understood that light waves are nothing other than a particular case of electromagnetic waves. We had, on the one hand, a mechanical theory where matter exhibiting a discrete character (particles) was carried along well localized trajectories and, on the other hand, a wave theory describing continuous phenomena which did not involve transport of matter. The two theories addressed different domains, the only obvious link being the law giving the force on a charged particle submitted to an electromagnetic field, or Lorentz force. In 1905, Einstein put an end to this dichotomic wave/particle view and launched two revolutions of physics: special relativity and quantum physics. First, he showed that Newton's equations of motion must be modified when the particle velocities are not negligible with respect to that of light: this is the special relativity revolution, which introduces in mechanics a quantity characteristic of optics, the velocity of light. However, this is an aspect of the Einsteinian revolution which will not interest us directly, with the exception of Chapter 7. Then Einstein introduced the particle aspect of light: in modern language, he introduced the quantum properties of the electromagnetic field, epitomized by the concept of photon. After briefly recalling the main properties of waves in classical physics, this chapter will lead us to the heart of the quantum world, elaborating on an example which is studied in some detail, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This apparatus is widely used today in physics laboratories, but we shall limit ourselves to a schematic description, at the level of what my experimental colleagues would call "a theorist's version of an interferometer".
Sciama's principle and the dynamics of galaxies I: Sciama's principle
Rourke, Colin
the nature of the big bang (Tod [12]). For our purposes, we need a statement which is more precise than it in subsequent papers. 85A05; 85D99, 85A40, 83F05 1 Mach's principle In any dynamic theory there are certain attempt to base a full theory of dynamics on Mach's principle. His idea is that every particle Q of matter
Squeezed States, Uncertainty Relations and the Pauli Principle in Composite and Cosmological Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Terazawa, Hidezumi
1996-01-01
The importance of not only uncertainty relations but also the Pauli exclusion principle is emphasized in discussing various 'squeezed states' existing in the universe. The contents of this paper include: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear Physics in the Quark-Shell Model; (3) Hadron Physics in the Standard Quark-Gluon Model; (4) Quark-Lepton-Gauge-Boson Physics in Composite Models; (5) Astrophysics and Space-Time Physics in Cosmological Models; and (6) Conclusion. Also, not only the possible breakdown of (or deviation from) uncertainty relations but also the superficial violation of the Pauli principle at short distances (or high energies) in composite (and string) models is discussed in some detail.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-01-05
... 161.170)) (73 FR 12180, March 6, 2008). The agency issued the permit to facilitate market testing of a... original permit (73 FR 12180, March 6, 2008). FDA is inviting interested persons to participate in the... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension...
The Angle Mouse: Target-Agnostic Dynamic Gain Adjustment Based on Angular Deviation
Wobbrock, Jacob O.
The Angle Mouse: Target-Agnostic Dynamic Gain Adjustment Based on Angular Deviation Jacob O for users with motor impairments. Our method, called the Angle Mouse, adjusts the mouse C-D gain based of the Angle Mouse is that, unlike most pointing facilitation techniques, it is target-agnostic, requiring
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...
Anisotropic-ray-theory geodesic deviation and two-point ray tracing
Cerveny, Vlastislav
Anisotropic-ray-theory geodesic deviation and two-point ray tracing through a split intersection://sw3d.cz/staff/klimes.htm Summary We demonstrate the principal problems with tracing the anisotropicÂrayÂtheory SÂwave rays. While the initialÂvalue rays can safely be traced by solving Hamilton's equations
Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Daniel L.
2012-01-01
Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…
Measurement of position deviation and eccentricity for ?-disc-type inductive micro-motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chih-Che; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan
2015-12-01
An innovative capacitive gap-sensing readout circuit to replace traditional gap sensor is designed to measure the motion of the levitated micro-disc embedded in an inductive micro-motor. Twelve equivalent capacitor pairs are constructed to detect the position deviation of the disc. As the position deviation of disc occurs, the capacitances of the corresponding capacitor pairs are altered. In addition, by applying the effects of inertial force and centrifugal force, an innovative non-contact measurement method to quantify the unbalance degree of the micro-disc, i.e., eccentricity, is also proposed. By commercial computer simulations and realistic experiments undertaken, the performance of the proposed capacitive gap-sensing readout circuit has been successfully verified. The mean of output voltage of gap-sensing readout circuit is about 327 mV under the position deviation of the disc being 8 ?m. Moreover, the unbalance degree of the disc is approximately proportional to the square of the position deviation of the disc.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-02-25
This document provides notice of availability of a Class Deviation from EPA's assistance agreement dispute procedures and also sets forth the procedures that will apply to the resolution of disputes that may arise in connection with the CWSRF and DWSRF reallocation decisions made by EPA under the ARRA. Currently, with respect to states and local governments, assistance agreement disputes and......
Lithospheric cooling trends and deviations in oceanic PP-P and SS-S differential traveltimes
Ritsema, Jeroen
Lithospheric cooling trends and deviations in oceanic PP-P and SS-S differential traveltimes Saskia-P and SS-S traveltime differences with oceanic PP and SS bounce points provides a good constraint on both-P and SS-S traveltime variations with plate age. The PP-P and SS-S traveltimes have substantial scatter but
Stephan, Frank
Detection and Fingerprint Generation David Brumley, Juan Caballero, Zhenkai Liang, James Newsome, and Dawn of deviations for two particular applications: error detection and fingerprint generation. We propose a novel apply the discovered devia- tions to two particular applications: error detection and fingerprint
MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation
Meyer, Arnd
2010-02-10
A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.
Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models
Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.
2009-11-15
Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in voids.
Fluorescent-protein-based probes: general principles and practices.
Ai, Hui-Wang
2015-01-01
An important application of fluorescent proteins is to derive genetically encoded fluorescent probes that can actively respond to cellular dynamics such as pH change, redox signaling, calcium oscillation, enzyme activities, and membrane potential. Despite the large diverse group of fluorescent-protein-based probes, a few basic principles have been established and are shared by most of these probes. In this article, the focus is on these general principles and strategies that guide the development of fluorescent-protein-based probes. A few examples are provided in each category to illustrate the corresponding principles. Since these principles are quite straightforward, others may adapt them to create fluorescent probes for their own interest. Hopefully, the development of the ever-growing family of fluorescent-protein-based probes will no longer be limited to a small number of laboratories specialized in senor development, leading to the situation that biological studies will be bettered assisted by genetically encoded sensors. PMID:25326886
Uncertainty principles and vector quantization
Vershynin, Roman
1 Uncertainty principles and vector quantization Yurii Lyubarskii and Roman Vershynin Abstract of the state-of-the-art of quantization prior to 1998 as well as outline of its nu- merous applications can
Get Provoked: Applying Tilden's Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shively, Carol A.
1995-01-01
This address given to the Division of Interpretation, Yellowstone National Park, Interpretive Training, June 1993, examines successes and failures in interpretive programs for adults and children in light of Tilden's principles. (LZ)
EBSD study of angular deviations from the Goss component in grain-oriented electrical steels.
Bernier, Nicolas; Leunis, Elke; Furtado, Carlos; Van De Putte, Tom; Ban, Gabor
2013-01-01
The magnetic properties of grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels strongly depend on the distribution of the ? and ? angles, i.e., the deviations of the easy magnetisation <100> from the rolling direction (RD) in the rolling plane and out of the rolling plane, respectively. However, most Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) studies consider the standard Goss deviation angle, which includes the rotation of the (110) plane about the RD. Therefore, in the present work, a new procedure is demonstrated for deriving the ? and ? angles from EBSD mappings to obtain a quantitative texture characterisation in line with the magnetic properties. This procedure is later applied to 37 GO steels after secondary recrystallisation that exhibit a wide range of permeability levels. The relation between the texture and the polarisation at 800A/m (J800) that is measured in the present study by EBSD is compared to the one that has been determined in previous papers with optical goniometers and X-ray diffraction techniques, and this relation is subsequently used to define a relevant parameter to describe the orientation quality of the grains. The results indicate that the average angle of the ? and ? deviations is a relevant deviation parameter for the characterisation of grain orientations. Finally, it is demonstrated that the combination of the quantitative correlation between polarisation and texture with the orientation imaging of EBSD offers the possibilities of both studying the crystallographic environment of highly oriented grains in the primary recrystallised matrix for the production of high-permeability steels and evaluating the spatial distribution of the angular deviations in GO steels after secondary recrystallisation. PMID:24090630
Publica(ons Principles of layout design
Boynton, Walter R.
ve #12;General design principles: Use color wisely · Choose color schemePublica(ons Principles of layout design Caroline Wicks October 2013 #12;· General design principles · Determine products & 4melines · Workshop content
Design Principles for Effective Knowledge Discovery from Big Data
Begoli, Edmon; Horey, James L
2012-01-01
Big data phenomenon refers to the practice of collection and processing of very large data sets and associated systems and algorithms used to analyze these massive datasets. Architectures for big data usually range across multiple machines and clusters, and they commonly consist of multiple special purpose sub-systems. Coupled with the knowledge discovery process, big data movement offers many unique opportunities for organizations to benefit (with respect to new insights, business optimizations, etc.). However, due to the difficulty of analyzing such large datasets, big data presents unique systems engineering and architectural challenges. In this paper, we present three sys- tem design principles that can inform organizations on effective analytic and data collection processes, system organization, and data dissemination practices. The principles presented derive from our own research and development experiences with big data problems from various federal agencies, and we illustrate each principle with our own experiences and recommendations.
Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Logothetidis, S.
Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches in nanometrology will be required in the near future and the existing ones will have to be improved in terms of better resolution and sensitivity for elements and molecular species. Finally, the development of specific guidance for the safety evaluation of nanotechnology products is strongly recommended.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauser, James P.
1989-01-01
The accuracy of the atmospheric correction to laser range measurements is one of the main limiting factors for distance measurements to retroreflectors on artificial satellites and on the moon. The main part of this correction is currently obtained by using the local atmospheric pressure and zenith angle to determine the integrated atmospheric density along the observing path. One of the factors affecting this method of correction is possible deviations of the atmosphere from hydrostatic equilibrium for observation sites in mountainous areas. This article examines the integrated equations of motion for the atmosphere and estimates the effect of such deviations on the overall range error. It is found that the expected error is less than 1 cm most of the time, even for elevation angles as low as 20 deg.
LOCAL GROUP DWARF SPHEROIDALS: CORRELATED DEVIATIONS FROM THE BARYONIC TULLY-FISHER RELATION
McGaugh, Stacy S.; Wolf, Joe E-mail: wolfj@uci.ed
2010-10-10
Local Group dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies are the faintest extragalactic stellar systems known. We examine recent data for these objects in the plane of the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation (BTFR). While some dwarf spheroidals adhere to the BTFR, others deviate substantially. We examine the residuals from the BTFR and find that they are not random. The residuals correlate with luminosity, size, metallicity, ellipticity, and susceptibility of the dwarfs to tidal disruption in the sense that fainter, more elliptical, and tidally more susceptible dwarfs deviate farther from the BTFR. These correlations disfavor stochastic processes and suggest a role for tidal effects. We identify a test to distinguish between {Lambda}CDM and MOND based on the orbits of the dwarf satellites of the Milky Way and how stars are lost from them.
Measurement of two-dimensional small angle deviation with a prism interferometer
Chatterjee, Sanjib; Kumar, Y. Pavan
2008-09-20
A new technique for the measurement of two-dimensional small angular deviation is presented. A compound prism, which effectively produces a combination of two right-angled prisms in orthogonal directions, and plane reference surfaces have been utilized for the measurement of the orthogonal components of the angular tilt of an incident plane wavefront. Each orthogonal component of the angular tilt is separately measured from the angular rotation of the resultant wedge fringes between two plane wavefronts generated due to splitting of the incident plane wavefront by the corresponding set of right-angled prism and plane reference surface. The technique is shown to have high sensitivity for the measurement of small angle deviation. A monolithic prism interferometer, which is practically insensitive to vibration, is also proposed. Results obtained for the measurement of a known tilt angle are presented.
Assessment of a Diversity Assignment in a PR Principles Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gallicano, Tiffany Derville; Stansberry, Kathleen
2012-01-01
This study assesses an assignment for incorporating diversity into the principles of public relations course. The assignment is tailored to the challenges of using an active learning approach in a large lecture class. For the assignment, students write a goal, objectives, strategies, an identification of tactics, and evaluation plans for either…
14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section 2-1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE...
The Contact Principle and Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Young Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca
2010-01-01
In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…
78 FR 2273 - Canned Tuna Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-01-10
...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) received an application for a temporary permit from Chicken of the Sea International (the applicant). We are announcing that we have issued a temporary permit to the applicant to market test products (designated as ``no drain canned tuna'' products) that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned tuna. The purpose of the temporary permit......
An estimator for the standard deviation of a natural frequency. I.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, A. J.; Bogdanoff, J. L.
1971-01-01
A brief review of mean-square approximate systems is given. The case in which the masses are deterministic is considered first in the derivation of an estimator for the upper bound of the standard deviation of a natural frequency. Two examples presented include a two-degree-of-freedom system and a case in which the disorder in the springs is perfectly correlated. For purposes of comparison, a Monte Carlo simulation was done on a digital computer.
Low profile radial nerve palsy orthosis with radial and ulnar deviation.
Peck, Jean; Ollason, Jennie
2015-01-01
Individuals who sustain damage to the radial nerve experience a significant loss in functional use of the hand. Traditional orthoses have been effective in providing assistance with wrist stabilization and finger/thumb MP extension. These authors adapted a low profile orthosis to provide the necessary support while allowing radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist, thus increasing functional use of the hand. - Victoria Priganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor. PMID:26190027
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro
2014-05-01
Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits of Signal Averaging in Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS)," Applied Physics, B57, pp 131-139, April 1993
The Social Safety Net: An Alternative to Rawl's Two Principles of Justice
Chiong, J. Winston
two principles of justice represent the maximin solution to the choice of principles under uncertainty. When applying the maximin rule to several alternative sets of possible outcomes, individuals assume that the least favorable outcome in each... the alternative of the two principles of justice, they can in large part sidestep the uncertainties of the original position. They can guarantee the protection of their liberties and a reasonably satisfactory standard of life as the conditions...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masato; Konashi, Kenji
2011-05-01
Combination of an oxygen vacancy formation energy calculated using first-principles approach and the configurational entropy change treated within the framework of statistical mechanics gives an expression of the Gibbs free energy at large deviation from stoichiometry of plutonium oxide PuO 2. An oxygen vacancy formation energy 4.20 eV derived from our previously first-principles calculation was used to evaluate the Gibbs free energy change due to oxygen vacancies in the crystal. The oxygen partial pressures then can be evaluated from the change of the free energy with two fitting parameters (a vacancy-vacancy interaction energy and vibration entropy change due to induced vacancies). Derived thermodynamic expression for the free energy based on the SGTE thermodynamic data for the stoichiometric PuO 2 and the Pu 2O 3 compounds was further incorporated into the CALPHAD modeling, then phase equilibrium between the stoichiometric Pu 2O 3 and non-stoichiometric PuO 2- x were reproduced.
Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.
Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno
2014-01-01
Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance. PMID:23876006
Septal deviation is associated with maxillary sinus fungus ball in male patients.
Oshima, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio
2014-01-01
Fungus is one of the causes of chronic rhinosinusitis. If the fungus occupies the sinus but does not invade the sinonasal mucosa, this is called sinus fungus ball. Any association between anatomical variations and fungus ball remains unclear. Sinus fungus ball is defined as non-invasive chronic fungal rhinosinusitis occurring in immunocompetent patients, and the maxillary sinus is the most commonly affected. The etiology of maxillary sinus fungus ball remains unclear. This study assessed the potential contribution of anatomical variations, such as deviated nasal septum, concha bullosa, and Haller cell to the development of fungus ball in the maxillary sinus. Concha bullosa and Haller cell are structural variations that narrow the nasal airflow passage and contribute to chronic rhinosinusitis. The involvement of these variations has been investigated in chronic sinusitis but not in sinus fungus ball. Preoperative computed tomography findings of 103 patients with maxillary sinus fungus ball were evaluated retrospectively. Septal deviation and Haller cell were not correlated with the side of maxillary sinus fungus ball. Concha bullosa was more common on the unaffected side (p = 0.099). When we analyzed males and females separately, maxillary sinus fungus ball was more common on the concave side of the deviated septum in only male patients (p = 0.006). The high incidence of maxillary fungus ball in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling fungus spores. PMID:24646922
Type II seesaw mechanism, deviations from bimaximal neutrino mixing, and leptogenesis
Rodejohann, Werner
2004-10-01
A possible interplay of both terms in the type II seesaw formula is illustrated by presenting a novel way to generate deviations from exact bimaximal neutrino mixing. In the type II seesaw mechanism with dominance of the noncanonical SU(2){sub L} triplet term, the conventional seesaw term can naturally give a small contribution to the neutrino mass matrix. Nevertheless, if the triplet term corresponds to the bimaximal mixing scheme in the normal hierarchy, the small contribution of the conventional seesaw term naturally generates nonmaximal solar neutrino mixing. Atmospheric neutrino mixing is also reduced from maximal, corresponding to 1-sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} of order 0.01. Also, small but nonvanishing U{sub e3} of order 0.001 is obtained. It is also possible that the {delta}m{sup 2} responsible for solar neutrino oscillations is induced by the small conventional seesaw term. Larger deviations from zero U{sub e3} and from maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing are then expected. This scenario links the small ratio of the solar and atmospheric {delta}m{sup 2} with the deviation from maximal solar neutrino mixing. We comment on leptogenesis in this scenario and compare the contributions to the decay asymmetry of the heavy Majorana neutrinos as induced by themselves and by the triplet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wei; Huang, Wei; Gao, Yubo; Qi, Yafei; Hypervelocity Impact Research Center Team
2015-06-01
Laboratory-scaled oblique water entry experiments for the trajectory stability in the water column have been performed with four different nosed-projectiles at a range of velocities from 20m /s to 250 m /s . The slender projectiles are designed with flat, ogival, hemi-sperical, truncated-ogival noses to make comparisons on the trajectory deviation when they are launched at vertical and oblique impact angles (0°~25°). Two high-speed cameras that are positioned orthogonal to each other and normal to the column are employed to capture the entire process of projectiles' penetration. From the experimental results, the sequential images in two planes are presented to compare the trajectory deviation of different impact tests and the 3D trajectory models are extracted based on the location recorded by cameras. Considering the effect influenced by the impact velocities and noses of projectiles, it merited concluded that trajectory deviation is affected from most by impact angle, and least by impact velocities. Additionally, ogival projectiles tend to be more sensitive to oblique angle and experienced the largest attitude changing. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.: 11372088).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Naicheng; Liu, Jide; Jin, Tao; Sun, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhuangqi
2015-12-01
Superalloys single crystals with various orientation deviations were bonded using transient liquid phase bonding method, then the creep properties of the bonded specimens were tested at 1033 K (760 °C)/780 MPa. It is found that the creep life of the bonded specimens decreases with the increase of the relative orientation deviations. Despite the fracture of the specimens appears on the bonding region, the deformation mechanism changes from specimens with low angle boundary to high angle boundary. In low angle boundary specimens, cleavage originated from the defects grows perpendicularly to the tensile stress and connects through the different slip planes around the cleavage planes. In this case, the deformation proceeds by the dislocations and stacking faults on multi-planes. With increasing orientation deviation, dislocation and stacking faults moved on single plane. As a result, the dislocations interact with the grain boundary and lead to fracture. Based on the present investigation, the orientation of the bonded superalloys single crystal should be controlled so that the introduced grain boundaries are relatively small and exhibit higher creep strength.
Measurements of Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) Allan Deviations in Space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, William M.; Wang, Rabi T.; Dunn, Charles E.
2013-01-01
Researchers have used data from the GRAIL mission to the Moon to make the first in-flight verification of ultra-stable oscillators (USOs) with Allan deviation below 10 13 for 1-to-100-second averaging times. USOs are flown in space to provide stable timing and/or navigation signals for a variety of different science and programmatic missions. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission is flying twin spacecraft, each with its own USO and with a Ka-band crosslink used to measure range fluctuations. Data from this crosslink can be combined in such a way as to give the relative time offsets of the two spacecrafts USOs and to calculate the Allan deviation to describe the USOs combined performance while orbiting the Moon. Researchers find the first direct in-space Allan deviations below 10(exp -13) for 1-to-100-second averaging times comparable to pre-launch data, and better than measurements from ground tracking of an X-band carrier coherent with the USO. Fluctuations in Earth s atmosphere limit measurement performance in direct-to-Earth links. Inflight USO performance verification was also performed for GRAIL s parent mission, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), using both Kband and Ka-band crosslinks.
The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montero García, José De La Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesús Francisco
2007-04-01
It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today. We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four "forces" or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.
The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?
Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco
2007-04-28
It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.
Principles of Virus Structural Organization
Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F
2013-01-01
Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509
Bayes and the Simplicity Principle in Perception
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feldman, Jacob
2009-01-01
Discussions of the foundations of perceptual inference have often centered on 2 governing principles, the likelihood principle and the simplicity principle. Historically, these principles have usually been seen as opposed, but contemporary statistical (e.g., Bayesian) theory tends to see them as consistent, because for a variety of reasons simpler…
Principle Paradigms Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Urban, Richard J.
2012-01-01
The Dublin Core "1:1 Principle" asserts that "related but conceptually different entities, for example a painting and a digital image of the painting, are described by separate metadata records" (Woodley et al., 2005). While this seems to be a simple requirement, studies of metadata quality have found that cultural heritage…
Observational signatures of modified gravity on ultra-large scales
Baker, Tessa
2015-01-01
Extremely large surveys with future experiments like Euclid and the SKA will soon allow us to access perturbation modes close to the Hubble scale, with wavenumbers $k \\sim {\\cal H}$. If a modified gravity theory is responsible for cosmic acceleration, the Hubble scale is a natural regime for deviations from General Relativity (GR) to become manifest. The majority of studies to date have concentrated on the consequences of alternative gravity theories for the subhorizon, quasi-static regime, however. We investigate how modifications to the gravitational field equations affect perturbations around the Hubble scale, and how this translates into deviations of ultra large-scale relativistic observables from their GR behaviour. Adopting a model-independent ethos that relies only on the broad physical properties of gravity theories, we find that the deviations of the observables are small unless modifications to GR are drastic. The angular dependence and redshift evolution of the deviations is highly parameterisatio...