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1

A quenched large deviation principle and a Parisi formula for a Perceptron version of the GREM

We introduce a perceptron version of the Generalized Random Energy Model, and prove a quenched Sanov type large deviation principle for the empirical distribution of the random energies. The dual of the rate function has a representation through a variational formula which is closely related to the Parisi variational formula for the SK-model.

Bolthausen, E

2010-01-01

2

We consider a general class of statistical mechanical models of coherent structures in turbulence, which includes models of two-dimensional fluid motion, quasi-geostrophic flows, and dispersive waves. First, large deviation principles are proved for the canonical ensemble and the microcanonical ensemble. For each ensemble the set of equilibrium macrostates is defined as the set on which the corresponding rate function attains

R. S. Ellis; Kyle Haven; Bruce Turkington

2000-01-01

3

Large Deviations and Gallavotti-Cohen Principle for Dissipative PDEs with Rough Noise

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a class of dissipative PDEs perturbed by an unbounded kick force. Under some natural assumptions, the restrictions of solutions to integer times form a homogeneous Markov process. Assuming that the noise is rough with respect to the space variables and has a non-degenerate law, we prove that the system in question satisfies a large deviation principle (LDP) in ?-topology. Under some additional hypotheses, we establish a Gallavotti-Cohen type symmetry for the rate function of an entropy production functional and the strict positivity and finiteness of the mean entropy production rate in the stationary regime. The latter result is applicable to PDEs with strong nonlinear dissipation.

Jakši?, V.; Nersesyan, V.; Pillet, C.-A.; Shirikyan, A.

2015-01-01

4

The meaning of thermodynamic descriptions is found in large-deviations scaling of the fluctuations probabilities. The primary large-deviations rate function is the entropy, which is the basis for both fluctuation theorems and for characterizing the thermodynamic interactions of systems. Freidlin-Wentzell theory provides a general formulation of large-deviations scaling for non-equilibrium stochastic processes, through a representation in terms of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. A number of related methods now exist to construct the Freidlin-Wentzell Hamiltonian for many kinds of stochastic processes; one method due to Doi and Peliti, appropriate to integer counting statistics, is widely used in reaction-diffusion theory. Using these tools together with a path-entropy method due to Jaynes, we show how to construct entropy functions that both express large-deviations scaling of fluctuations, and describe system-environment interactions, for discrete stochastic processes either at or away from equilibrium. A collection of variational methods familiar within quantum field theory, but less commonly applied to the Doi-Peliti construction, is used to define a "stochastic effective action", which is the large-deviations rate function for arbitrary non-equilibrium paths. We show how common principles of entropy maximization, applied to different ensembles of states or of histories, lead to different entropy functions and different sets of thermodynamic state variables. Yet the relations of among all these levels of description may be constructed explicitly and understood in terms of information conditions. The example systems considered introduce methods that may be used to systematically construct descriptions with all the features familiar from equilibrium thermodynamics, for a much wider range of systems describable by stochastic processes.

Eric Smith

2011-02-18

5

Optimal hedging via large deviation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The criterion of minimizing the cumulative hedged returns’ probability of underperforming a benchmark provides a framework for evaluating short-term hedges that are rolled over to produce longer-term hedges. Large deviations theory can be used to either parametrically or nonparametrically estimate underperformance probabilities for cumulative hedged returns produced by roll-overs, providing a straightforward way to find optimal hedge ratios. Optimal hedges using soybean futures are constructed to illustrate the procedures, and their relationship to the popular hedging criteria that are motivated by normality.

Stutzer, Michael

2013-08-01

6

Large Deviations for Nonlocal Stochastic Neural Fields

We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers’ law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20. PMID:24742297

2014-01-01

7

Perturbative Large Deviation Analysis of Non-Equilibrium Dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macroscopic fluctuation theory has shown that a wide class of non-equilibrium stochastic dynamical systems obey a large deviation principle, but except for a few one-dimensional (1D) examples these large deviation principles are in general not known in closed form. We consider the problem of constructing successive approximations to an (unknown) large deviation functional and show that the non-equilibrium probability distribution then takes a Gibbs–Boltzmann form with a set of auxiliary (non-physical) energy functions. The expectation values of these auxiliary energy functions and their conjugate quantities satisfy a closed system of equations which can imply a considerable reduction of dimensionality of the dynamics. We show that the accuracy of the approximations can be tested self-consistently without solving the full non-equilibrium dynamical equations. We test the general procedure on the simple model problem of a relaxing 1D Ising chain.

Del Ferraro, Gino; Aurell, Erik

2014-08-01

8

Large Deviations in Single-File Diffusion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply macroscopic fluctuation theory to study the diffusion of a tracer in a one-dimensional interacting particle system with excluded mutual passage, known as single-file diffusion. In the case of Brownian point particles with hard-core repulsion, we derive the cumulant generating function of the tracer position and its large deviation function. In the general case of arbitrary interparticle interactions, we express the variance of the tracer position in terms of the collective transport properties, viz., the diffusion coefficient and the mobility. Our analysis applies both for fluctuating (annealed) and fixed (quenched) initial configurations.

Krapivsky, P. L.; Mallick, Kirone; Sadhu, Tridib

2014-08-01

9

Large Deviations for Expanding Transformations with Additive White Noise

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-deviations estimates for the autocorrelations of order kof the random process Z n= ?( X n)+ ? n, n?0, are obtained. The processes ( X n) n?0and ( ? n) n?0are independent, ? n, n?0, are i.i.d. bounded random variables, X n= T n( X 0), n?{N}, T: M? Mis expanding leaving invariant a Gibbs measure on a compact set M, and ?: M?{R}is a continuous function. A possible application of this result is the case where Mis the unit circle and the Gibbs measure is the one absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure on the circle. The case when Tis a uniquely ergodic map was studied in Carmona et al.(1998). In the present paper Tis an expanding map. However, it is possible to derive large-deviations properties for the autocorrelations samples (1/ n) ? n-1 j=0 Z j Z j+ k . But the deviation function is quite different from the uniquely ergodic case because it is necessary to take into account the entropy of invariant measures for Tas an important information. The method employed here is a combination of the variational principle of the thermodynamic formalism with Donsker and Varadhan's large-deviations approach.

Carmona, S. C.; Lopes, A.

2000-03-01

10

Elements of Statistical Mechanics and Large Deviation Theory

Elements of Statistical Mechanics and Large Deviation Theory #12;#12;Contents Chapter 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics areas, namely Equilibirum Statistical Mechanics (ESM) and Large Deviation Th

Friedli, Sacha

11

Random Trees, Heights, and Large Deviations

We present here a general framework to devise a law of large numbers for the height of random trees. Our model unifies the treatment of many examples of the literature such as binary search trees, median-of-(2k + 1) trees, random recursive trees, plane oriented trees, digital search trees, scale-free trees, and all polynomial families of increasing trees, among others. The

Nicolas Broutin

12

Path integrals and large deviations in stochastic hybrid systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a path-integral representation of solutions to a stochastic hybrid system, consisting of one or more continuous variables evolving according to a piecewise-deterministic dynamics. The differential equations for the continuous variables are coupled to a set of discrete variables that satisfy a continuous-time Markov process, which means that the differential equations are only valid between jumps in the discrete variables. Examples of stochastic hybrid systems arise in biophysical models of stochastic ion channels, motor-driven intracellular transport, gene networks, and stochastic neural networks. We use the path-integral representation to derive a large deviation action principle for a stochastic hybrid system. Minimizing the associated action functional with respect to the set of all trajectories emanating from a metastable state (assuming that such a minimization scheme exists) then determines the most probable paths of escape. Moreover, evaluating the action functional along a most probable path generates the so-called quasipotential used in the calculation of mean first passage times. We illustrate the theory by considering the optimal paths of escape from a metastable state in a bistable neural network.

Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

2014-04-01

13

Large deviations, dynamics and phase transitions in large stochastic heterogeneous neural networks

We analyze the macroscopic behavior of multi-populations randomly connected neural networks with interaction delays. Similar to cases occurring in spin glasses, we show that the sequences of empirical measures satisfy a large deviation principle, and converge towards a self-consistent non-Markovian process. The proof differs in that we are working in infinite-dimensional spaces (interaction delays), non-centered interactions and multiple cell types. The limit equation is qualitatively analyzed, and we identify a number of phase transitions in such systems upon changes in delays, connectivity patterns and dispersion, particularly focusing on the emergence of non-equilibrium states involving synchronized oscillations.

Tanguy Cabana; Jonathan Touboul

2013-02-27

14

A basic introduction to large deviations: Theory, applications, simulations

The theory of large deviations deals with the probabilities of rare events (or fluctuations) that are exponentially small as a function of some parameter, e.g., the number of random components of a system, the time over which a stochastic system is observed, the amplitude of the noise perturbing a dynamical system or the temperature of a chemical reaction. The theory has applications in many different scientific fields, ranging from queuing theory to statistics and from finance to engineering. It is also increasingly used in statistical physics for studying both equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems. In this context, deep analogies can be made between familiar concepts of statistical physics, such as the entropy and the free energy, and concepts of large deviation theory having more technical names, such as the rate function and the scaled cumulant generating function. The first part of these notes introduce the basic elements of large deviation theory at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and gr...

Touchette, Hugo

2011-01-01

15

Large Deviations for Stochastic Tamed 3D Navier-Stokes Equations

In this paper, using weak convergence method, we prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for the stochastic tamed 3D Navier-Stokes equations driven by multiplicative noise, which was investigated in (Roeckner and Zhang in Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 145(1-2), 211-267, 2009).

Roeckner, Michael, E-mail: roeckner@math.uni-bielefeld.d [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik (Germany); Zhang, Tusheng, E-mail: tzhang@maths.man.ac.u [University of Manchester, School of Mathematics (United Kingdom); Zhang Xicheng, E-mail: XichengZhang@gmail.co [University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics (Australia)

2010-04-15

16

Large Deviations Estimates in Semi-Group Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We translate in semi-group theory our proof of Wentzel-Freidlin estimates and our proof of Varadhan estimates for subelliptic Laplacians which was using the theory of large deviations of Wentzel-Freidlin and the Malliavin Calculus of Bismut type.

Léandre, Rémi

2008-09-01

17

A basic introduction to large deviations: Theory, applications, simulations

The theory of large deviations deals with the probabilities of rare events (or fluctuations) that are exponentially small as a function of some parameter, e.g., the number of random components of a system, the time over which a stochastic system is observed, the amplitude of the noise perturbing a dynamical system or the temperature of a chemical reaction. The theory has applications in many different scientific fields, ranging from queuing theory to statistics and from finance to engineering. It is also increasingly used in statistical physics for studying both equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems. In this context, deep analogies can be made between familiar concepts of statistical physics, such as the entropy and the free energy, and concepts of large deviation theory having more technical names, such as the rate function and the scaled cumulant generating function. The first part of these notes introduces the basic elements of large deviation theory at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics, engineering, chemistry, and mathematics. The focus there is on the simple but powerful ideas behind large deviation theory, stated in non-technical terms, and on the application of these ideas in simple stochastic processes, such as sums of independent and identically distributed random variables and Markov processes. Some physical applications of these processes are covered in exercises contained at the end of each section. In the second part, the problem of numerically evaluating large deviation probabilities is treated at a basic level. The fundamental idea of importance sampling is introduced there together with its sister idea, the exponential change of measure. Other numerical methods based on sample means and generating functions, with applications to Markov processes, are also covered.

Hugo Touchette

2012-02-29

18

Small shape deviations causes complex dynamics in large electric generators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove that combinations of small eccentricity, ovality and/or triangularity in the rotor and stator can produce complex whirling motions of an unbalanced rotor in large synchronous generators. It is concluded which structures of shape deviations that are more harmful, in the sense of producing complex whirling motions, than others. For each such structure, we derive simplified equations of motions from which we conclude analytically the relation between shape deviations and mass unbalance that yield non-smooth whirling motions. Finally we discuss validity of our results in the sense of modeling of the unbalanced magnetic pull force.

Lundström, Niklas L. P.; Grafström, Anton; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

2014-05-01

19

Large deviation function and fluctuation theorem for classical particle transport.

We analytically evaluate the large deviation function in a simple model of classical particle transfer between two reservoirs. We illustrate how the asymptotic long-time regime is reached starting from a special propagating initial condition. We show that the steady-state fluctuation theorem holds provided that the distribution of the particle number decays faster than an exponential, implying analyticity of the generating function and a discrete spectrum for its evolution operator. PMID:24580206

Harbola, Upendra; Van den Broeck, Christian; Lindenberg, Katja

2014-01-01

20

Large deviation function and fluctuation theorem for classical particle transport

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analytically evaluate the large deviation function in a simple model of classical particle transfer between two reservoirs. We illustrate how the asymptotic long-time regime is reached starting from a special propagating initial condition. We show that the steady-state fluctuation theorem holds provided that the distribution of the particle number decays faster than an exponential, implying analyticity of the generating function and a discrete spectrum for its evolution operator.

Harbola, Upendra; Van den Broeck, Christian; Lindenberg, Katja

2014-01-01

21

Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

Kushner, Harold J., E-mail: hjk@dam.brown.ed [Brown University, Applied Math (United States)

2010-12-15

22

Large-deviation properties of Brownian motion with dry friction.

We investigate piecewise-linear stochastic models with regard to the probability distribution of functionals of the stochastic processes, a question that occurs frequently in large deviation theory. The functionals that we are looking into in detail are related to the time a stochastic process spends at a phase space point or in a phase space region, as well as to the motion with inertia. For a Langevin equation with discontinuous drift, we extend the so-called backward Fokker-Planck technique for non-negative support functionals to arbitrary support functionals, to derive explicit expressions for the moments of the functional. Explicit solutions for the moments and for the distribution of the so-called local time, the occupation time, and the displacement are derived for the Brownian motion with dry friction, including quantitative measures to characterize deviation from Gaussian behavior in the asymptotic long time limit. PMID:25375433

Chen, Yaming; Just, Wolfram

2014-10-01

23

Stochastic 2D Hydrodynamical Type Systems: Well Posedness and Large Deviations

We deal with a class of abstract nonlinear stochastic models, which covers many 2D hydrodynamical models including 2D Navier-Stokes equations, 2D MHD models and the 2D magnetic Benard problem and also some shell models of turbulence. We state the existence and uniqueness theorem for the class considered. Our main result is a Wentzell-Freidlin type large deviation principle for small multiplicative noise which we prove by a weak convergence method.

Chueshov, Igor, E-mail: chueshov@univer.kharkov.u [Kharkov National University, Department of Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Millet, Annie, E-mail: amillet@univ-paris1.f [Universites Paris 6-Paris 7, Boite Courrier 188, Laboratoire de Probabilites et Modeles Aleatoires (France)

2010-06-15

24

Condensation transition in joint large deviations of linear statistics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real space condensation is known to occur in stochastic models of mass transport in the regime in which the globally conserved mass density is greater than a critical value. It has been shown within models with factorized stationary states that the condensation can be understood in terms of sums of independent and identically distributed random variables: these exhibit condensation when they are conditioned to a large deviation of their sum. It is well understood that the condensation, whereby one of the random variables contributes a finite fraction to the sum, occurs only if the underlying probability distribution (modulo exponential) is heavy-tailed, i.e. decaying slower than exponential. Here we study a similar phenomenon in which condensation is exhibited for non-heavy-tailed distributions, provided random variables are additionally conditioned on a large deviation of certain linear statistics. We provide a detailed theoretical analysis explaining the phenomenon, which is supported by Monte Carlo simulations (for the case where the additional constraint is the sample variance) and demonstrated in several physical systems. Our results suggest that the condensation is a generic phenomenon that pertains to both typical and rare events.

Szavits-Nossan, Juraj; Evans, Martin R.; Majumdar, Satya N.

2014-11-01

25

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally the profile deviations are measured through the generating method, the coordinate method and the meshing method by using gear measuring instruments (GMI) and coordinate measuring machines (CMM) in metrology room. But high-speed inspection of gear profile deviations at industrial scale manufacturing is a problem. To solve this problem, a novel measurement principle of profile deviations based on the double-flank rolling test with rack probe is introduced in this paper, and also the measuring system was given. The new methods will meet the demands of the high-speed gear measurement in shop floor.

Tang, Jie; Shi, Zhaoyao; Fang, Zhiqiang

2013-01-01

26

Large Deviations in the Superstable Weakly Imperfect Bose Gas

The superstable Weakly Imperfect Bose Gas {(WIBG)} was originally derived to solve the inconsistency of the Bogoliubov theory of superfluidity. Its grand-canonical thermodynamics was recently solved but not at {point of} the {(first order)} phase transition. This paper proposes to close this gap by using the large deviations formalism and in particular the analysis of the Kac distribution function. It turns out that, as a function of the chemical potential, the discontinuity of the Bose condensate density at the phase transition {point} disappears as a function of the particle density. Indeed, the Bose condensate continuously starts at the first critical particle density and progressively grows but the free-energy per particle stays constant until the second critical density is reached. At higher particle densities, the Bose condensate density as well as the free-energy per particle both increase {monotonously}.

J. -B. Bru; V. A. Zagrebnov

2007-09-21

27

Convex Hulls of Random Walks: Large-Deviation Properties

We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A. While the mean perimeter and the mean area have been studied before, analytically and numerically, and exact results are known for large T (Brownian motion limit), little is known about the full distributions P(A) and P(L). In this paper, we provide numerical results for these distributions. We use a sophisticated large-deviation approach that allows us to study the distributions over a larger range of the support, where the probabilities P(A) and P(L) are as small as 10^{-300}. We analyze (open) random walks as well as (closed) Brownian bridges on the two-dimensional discrete grid as well as in the two-dimensional plane. The resulting distributions exhibit, for large T, a universal scaling behavior (independent of the details of the jump distributions) as a function of A/T and L/\\sqrt{T}...

Claussen, Gunnar; Majumdar, Satya N

2015-01-01

28

Large-deviation properties of resilience of power grids

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the distributions of the resilience of power flow models against transmission line failures via a so-called backup capacity. We consider three ensembles of random networks, and in addition, the topology of the British transmission power grid. The three ensembles are Erd?s–Rényi random graphs, Erd?s–Rényi random graphs with a fixed number of links, and spatial networks where the nodes are embedded in a two-dimensional plane. We numerically investigate the probability density functions (pdfs) down to the tails to gain insight into very resilient and very vulnerable networks. This is achieved via large-deviation techniques, which allow us to study very rare values that occur with probability densities below 10?160. We find that the right tail of the pdfs towards larger backup capacities follows an exponential with a strong curvature. This is confirmed by the rate function, which approaches a limiting curve for increasing network sizes. Very resilient networks are basically characterized by a small diameter and a large power sign ratio. In addition, networks can be made typically more resilient by adding more links.

Dewenter, Timo; Hartmann, Alexander K.

2015-01-01

29

Large deviation for diffusions and Hamilton-Jacobi equation in Hilbert spaces

Theorems 4.3.1 and 4.4.2 in [12]. The main result in [18] can be viewed as a process version of the above theorem, expressed at an infinitesimal level. To explain the result, we proceed informally first. Let {Xn(t),0 ? t < +?; n = 1,2, . . . } denote a.... Applying the main theorem of this paper, Theorem 1.10, we have: THEOREM 1.4. Under Condition 1.3 and scaling relation (1.14), the solu- tions Xn(t) of (1.17) satisfy a large deviation principle in CL2(O)[0,?) with good rate function I as defined in (1...

Feng, Jin

2006-01-01

30

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the realm of multiscale signal analysis, multifractal analysis provides a natural and rich framework to measure the roughness of a time series. As such, it has drawn special attention of both mathematicians and practitioners, and led them to characterize relevant physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding these considerable progresses, multifractal analysis almost exclusively developed around the concept of Legendre singularity spectrum, for which efficient and elaborate estimators exist, but which are structurally blind to subtle features like non-concavity or, to a certain extent, non scaling of the distributions. Large deviations theory allows bypassing these limitations but it is only very recently that performing estimators were proposed to reliably compute the corresponding large deviations singularity spectrum. In this article, we illustrate the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate signals from the Physionet public database. As conjectured, we verify that large deviations principles reveal significant information that otherwise remains hidden with classical approaches, and which can be reminiscent of some physiological characteristics. In particular we quantify the presence/absence of scale invariance of RR signals.

Loiseau, Patrick; Médigue, Claire; Gonçalves, Paulo; Attia, Najmeddine; Seuret, Stéphane; Cottin, François; Chemla, Denis; Sorine, Michel; Barral, Julien

2012-11-01

31

Large Deviations and Importance Sampling for Systems of Slow-Fast Motion

In this paper we develop the large deviations principle and a rigorous mathematical framework for asymptotically efficient importance sampling schemes for general, fully dependent systems of stochastic differential equations of slow and fast motion with small noise in the slow component. We assume periodicity with respect to the fast component. Depending on the interaction of the fast scale with the smallness of the noise, we get different behavior. We examine how one range of interaction differs from the other one both for the large deviations and for the importance sampling. We use the large deviations results to identify asymptotically optimal importance sampling schemes in each case. Standard Monte Carlo schemes perform poorly in the small noise limit. In the presence of multiscale aspects one faces additional difficulties and straightforward adaptation of importance sampling schemes for standard small noise diffusions will not produce efficient schemes. It turns out that one has to consider the so called cell problem from the homogenization theory for Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations in order to guarantee asymptotic optimality. We use stochastic control arguments.

Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos, E-mail: kspiliop@dam.brown.edu [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)] [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (United States)

2013-02-15

32

Large Deviations, Central Limit and dynamical phase transitions in the atom maser

The theory of quantum jump trajectories provides a new framework for understanding dynamical phase transitions in open systems. A candidate for such transitions is the atom maser, which for certain parameters exhibits strong intermittency in the atom detection counts, and has a bistable stationary state. Although previous numerical results suggested that the "free energy" may not be a smooth function, we show that the atom detection counts satisfy a large deviations principle, and therefore we deal with a phase cross-over rather than a genuine phase transition. We argue however that the latter occurs in the limit of infinite pumping rate. As a corollary, we obtain the Central Limit Theorem for the counting process. The proof relies on the analysis of a certain deformed generator whose spectral bound is the limiting cumulant generating function. The latter is shown to be smooth, so that a large deviations principle holds by the Gartner-Ellis Theorem. One of the main ingredients is the Krein-Rutman Theorem which extends the Perron-Frobenius theory to a general class of positive compact semigroups.

Merlijn van Horssen; Madalin Guta

2013-10-14

33

AN ALMOST SURE LARGE DEVIATION PRINCIPLE FOR THE HOPFIELD MODEL #

of the disorder for almost all realizations of the patterns. Keywords: Hopfield model, neural networks, self be found in biology (heteropolymers, neural networks) but also in the domain of disordered solids CHRXÂCT93Â0411 1 eÂmail: bovier@iaasÂberlin.d400.de 2 eÂmail: gayrard@cpt.univÂmrs.fr #12; 1

34

Further study of the gas temperature deviation in large-scale tangentially coal-fired boilers

Gas temperature deviation in upper furnace is an important but a less reported issue in large-scale tangentially fired boilers, since they endanger largely boilers operation. Simulations are conducted in this paper to study the deviation. Perfect agreement between the simulation results and key boiler design values and available site operation records indicates that the calculations are reliable. Based on the

Chungen Yin; Lasse Rosendahl; Thomas J Condra

2003-01-01

35

Large deviations in the alternating mass harmonic chain

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the work of Kannan et al and derive the cumulant generating function (CGF) for the alternating mass harmonic chain consisting of N particles and driven by heat reservoirs. The main result is a closed expression for the (CGF) in the thermodynamic large N limit. This expression is independent of N, but depends on whether the chain consists of an even or odd number of particles, in accordance with the results obtained by Kannan et al for the heat current. This result is in accordance with the absence of local thermodynamic equilibrium in a linear system.

Fogedby, Hans C.

2014-08-01

36

On large deviation properties of Erdos-R enyi random graphs

On large deviation properties of Erdos-R#19;enyi random graphs Andreas Engel 1;2 , R#19;emi show that large deviation properties of Erdos-R#19;enyi random graphs can be derived from the free by Erdos and R#19;enyi [1] 1 #12; more than four decades ago. In addition to #12;xed edge number and #12

Hartmann, Alexander K.

37

Determinantal Point Processes and Fermions on Complex Manifolds: Large Deviations and Bosonization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study determinantal random point processes on a compact complex manifold X associated to a Hermitian metric on a line bundle over X and a probability measure on X. Physically, this setup describes a gas of free fermions on X subject to a U(1)-gauge field and when X is the Riemann sphere it specializes to various random matrix ensembles. Our general setup will also include the setting of weighted orthogonal polynomials in , as well as in . It is shown that, in the many particle limit, the empirical random measures on X converge exponentially towards the deterministic pluripotential equilibrium measure, defined in terms of the Monge-Ampère operator of complex pluripotential theory. More precisely, a large deviation principle (LDP) is established with a good rate functional which coincides with the (normalized) pluricomplex energy of a measure recently introduced in Berman et al. (Publ Math de l'IHÉS 117, 179-245, 2013). We also express the LDP in terms of the Ray-Singer analytic torsion. This can be seen as an effective bosonization formula, generalizing the previously known formula in the Riemann surface case to higher dimensions and the paper is concluded with a heuristic quantum field theory interpretation of the resulting effective boson-fermion correspondence.

Berman, Robert J.

2014-04-01

38

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to earlier first-principles calculations, the spin-disorder contribution to the resistivity of rare-earth metals in the paramagnetic state is strongly underestimated if Matthiessen's rule is assumed to hold. To understand this discrepancy, the resistivity of paramagnetic Fe and Gd is evaluated by taking into account both spin and phonon disorder. Calculations are performed using the supercell approach within the linear muffin-tin orbital method. Phonon disorder is modeled by introducing random displacements of the atomic nuclei, and the results are compared with the case of fictitious Anderson disorder. In both cases, the resistivity shows a nonlinear dependence on the square of the disorder potential, which is interpreted as a resistivity saturation effect. This effect is much stronger in Gd than in Fe. The nonlinearity makes the phonon and spin-disorder contributions to the resistivity nonadditive, and the standard procedure of extracting the spin-disorder resistivity by extrapolation from high temperatures becomes ambiguous. An "apparent" spin-disorder resistivity obtained through such extrapolation is in much better agreement with experiment compared to the results obtained by considering only spin disorder. By analyzing the spectral function of the paramagnetic Gd in the presence of Anderson disorder, the resistivity saturation is explained by the collapse of a large area of the Fermi surface due to the disorder-induced mixing between the electron and hole sheets.

Glasbrenner, J. K.; Pujari, B. S.; Belashchenko, K. D.

2014-05-01

39

Large Deviations for Random Walks on Galton-Watson Trees: Averaging and Uncertainty

Large Deviations for Random Walks on Galton-Watson Trees: Averaging and Uncertainty A. Dembo #3 over environments. In this paper we consider a simple random walk fXng on a Galton-Watson tree T, i.e., on the family tree arising from a supercritical branching process. Denote by jXn j the distance between the node

Dembo, Amir

40

Large Deviations for Random Walks on Galton-Watson Trees: Averaging and Uncertainty

Large Deviations for Random Walks on Galton-Watson Trees: Averaging and Uncertainty A. Dembo #3 from averaging over environments. In this paper we consider a simple random walk fXng on a Galton-Watson tree T, i.e., on the family tree arising from a supercritical branching process. Denote by jXn j

Zeitouni, Ofer

41

Large Deviations for Random Walks on GaltonWatson Trees: Averaging and Uncertainty

Large Deviations for Random Walks on GaltonWatson Trees: Averaging and Uncertainty A. Dembo, obtained from averaging over environments. In this paper we consider a simple random walk fXng on a GaltonWatson tree T, i.e., on the family tree arising from a supercritical branching process. Denote by jXn j

Peres, Yuval

42

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$ Patrick to characterize relevant physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding. In this article, we illustrate the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate

Boyer, Edmond

43

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$ Patrick physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding these considerable progresses, multi the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate signals from the Physionet

Gonçalves, Paulo

44

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR WHITE-NOISE DRIVEN, NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC PDES IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR WHITE-NOISE DRIVEN, NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC PDES IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS which are driven by space-time white noise, in 2 and 3 spatial dimensions. We are going to study in the case of vanishing correlation length = 0, i.e. in the case where the noise term is a space-time white

Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

45

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR WHITE-NOISE DRIVEN, NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC PDES IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR WHITE-NOISE DRIVEN, NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC PDES IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS by space-time white noise, in 2 and 3 spatial dimensions. We are going to study equations of the type tu correlation length = 0, i.e. in the case where the noise term is a space-time white noise. In this situation

Hairer, Martin

46

Simulation of the gas temperature deviation in large-scale tangential coal fired utility boilers

For tangential coal fired boilers, the gas temperature deviation at the exit of the furnace will occur when boiler capacity becomes large. In this paper, the flow, heat transfer and combustion process in a boiler of 300 MWe unit at Shiheng Power Plant, Shandong, China and a boiler of 600 MWe unit at Shidongkou Power Plant, Shanghai are simulated. The

Minghou Xu; Jianwei Yuan; Shifa Ding; Handing Cao

1998-01-01

47

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR SOLUTIONS TO STOCHASTIC RECURRENCE EQUATIONS UNDER KESTEN'S CONDITION

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR SOLUTIONS TO STOCHASTIC RECURRENCE EQUATIONS UNDER KESTEN'S CONDITION D for partial sums constructed from the solution to a stochastic recurrence equation. We assume Kesten solution (Yi) to the stochastic recurrence equation (1.1) was discovered by Kesten [17]. He proved under

Buraczewski, Dariusz

48

The wide angular range of the treelike structure in Morpho butterfly scales was investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)/particle-swarm-optimization (PSO) analysis. Using the FDTD method, different parameters in the Morpho butterflies' treelike structure were studied and their contributions to the angular dependence were analyzed. Then a wide angular range was realized by the PSO method from quantitatively designing the lamellae deviation (?y), which was a crucial parameter with angular range. The field map of the wide-range reflection in a large area was given to confirm the wide angular range. The tristimulus values and corresponding color coordinates for various viewing directions were calculated to confirm the blue color in different observation angles. The wide angular range realized by the FDTD/PSO method will assist us in understanding the scientific principles involved and also in designing artificial optical materials. PMID:23454951

Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Wang; Chen, Weixin; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Deng, Tao; Zhang, Di

2013-01-15

49

arXiv:cond-mat/0311535v221Jan2004 On large deviation properties of Erdos-Renyi

arXiv:cond-mat/0311535v221Jan2004 On large deviation properties of Erd¨os-R´enyi random graphs 22, 2004 Abstract We show that large deviation properties of Erd¨os-R´enyi random graphs can ever since the seminal work by Erd¨os and R´enyi [1] 1 #12;more than four decades ago. In addition

Peinke, Joachim

50

Quadratic and rate-independent limits for a large-deviations functional

We construct a stochastic model showing the relationship between noise, gradient flows and rate-independent systems. The model consists of a one-dimensional birth-death process on a lattice, with rates derived from Kramers' law as an approximation of a Brownian motion on a wiggly energy landscape. Taking various limits we show how to obtain a whole family of generalized gradient flows, ranging from quadratic to rate-independent ones, connected via '$L \\log L$' gradient flows. This is achieved via Mosco-convergence of the renormalized large-deviations rate functional of the stochastic process.

Giovanni A. Bonaschi; Mark A. Peletier

2014-09-15

51

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we consider a family of continuous time symmetric random walks indexed by kin {N} , {X_k(t), t?0} . For each kin {N} the matching random walk take values in the finite set of states ? _k=1/k({Z}/k{Z}) ; notice that ? _k is a subset of {S}^1 , where {S}^1 is the unitary circle. The infinitesimal generator of such chain is denoted by L_k . The stationary probability for such process converges to the uniform distribution on the circle, when k? ?. Here we want to study other natural measures, obtained via a limit on k? ?, that are concentrated on some points of {S}^1 . We will disturb this process by a potential and study for each k the perturbed stationary measures of this new process when k? ?. We disturb the system considering a fixed C^2 potential V: {S}^1 ? {R} and we will denote by V_k the restriction of V to ? _k . Then, we define a non-stochastic semigroup generated by the matrix k L_k + k V_k , where k L_k is the infinifesimal generator of {X_k(t), t? 0} . From the continuous time Perron's Theorem one can normalized such semigroup, and, then we get another stochastic semigroup which generates a continuous time Markov Chain taking values on ? _k . This new chain is called the continuous time Gibbs state associated to the potential k V_k , see (Lopes et al. in J Stat Phys 152:894-933, 2013). The stationary probability vector for such Markov Chain is denoted by ? _{k,V} . We assume that the maximum of V is attained in a unique point x_0 of {S}^1 , and from this will follow that ? _{k,V}? ? _{x_0} . Thus, here, our main goal is to analyze the large deviation principle for the family ? _{k,V} , when k ? ?. The deviation function I^V , which is defined on {S}^1 , will be obtained from a procedure based on fixed points of the Lax-Oleinik operator and Aubry-Mather theory. In order to obtain the associated Lax-Oleinik operator we use the Varadhan's Lemma for the process {X_k(t), t? 0} . For a careful analysis of the problem we present full details of the proof of the Large Deviation Principle, in the Skorohod space, for such family of Markov Chains, when k? ?. Finally, we compute the entropy of the invariant probabilities on the Skorohod space associated to the Markov Chains we analyze.

Lopes, Artur O.; Neumann, Adriana

2015-02-01

52

Information on design principles governing transcriptome changes upon transition from safe to hazardous drug concentrations or from tolerated to cytotoxic drug levels are important for the application of toxicogenomics data in developmental toxicology. Here, we tested the effect of eight concentrations of valproic acid (VPA; 25–1000 ?M) in an assay that recapitulates the development of human embryonic stem cells to neuroectoderm. Cells were exposed to the drug during the entire differentiation process, and the number of differentially regulated genes increased continuously over the concentration range from zero to about 3000. We identified overrepresented transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) as well as superordinate cell biological processes, and we developed a gene ontology (GO) activation profiler, as well as a two-dimensional teratogenicity index. Analysis of the transcriptome data set by the above biostatistical and systems biology approaches yielded the following insights: (i) tolerated (?25 ?M), deregulated/teratogenic (150–550 ?M), and cytotoxic (?800 ?M) concentrations could be differentiated. (ii) Biological signatures related to the mode of action of VPA, such as protein acetylation, developmental changes, and cell migration, emerged from the teratogenic concentrations range. (iii) Cytotoxicity was not accompanied by signatures of newly emerging canonical cell death/stress indicators, but by catabolism and decreased expression of cell cycle associated genes. (iv) Most, but not all of the GO groups and TFBS seen at the highest concentrations were already overrepresented at 350–450 ?M. (v) The teratogenicity index reflected this behavior, and thus differed strongly from cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest the use of the highest noncytotoxic drug concentration for gene array toxicogenomics studies, as higher concentrations possibly yield wrong information on the mode of action, and lower drug levels result in decreased gene expression changes and thus a reduced power of the study. PMID:24383497

2014-01-01

53

Large deviations of the limiting distribution in the Shanks-R\\'enyi prime number race

Let $q\\geq 3$, $2\\leq r\\leq \\phi(q)$ and $a_1,...,a_r$ be distinct residue classes modulo $q$ that are relatively prime to $q$. Assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis and the Grand Simplicity Hypothesis, M. Rubinstein and P. Sarnak showed that the vector-valued function $E_{q;a_1,...,a_r}(x)=(E(x;q,a_1),..., E(x;q,a_r)),$ where $E(x;q,a)= \\frac{\\log x}{\\sqrt{x}}(\\phi(q)\\pi(x;q,a)-\\pi(x))$, has a limiting distribution $\\mu_{q;a_1,...,a_r}$ which is absolutely continuous on $\\mathbb{R}^r$. Under the same assumptions, we determine the asymptotic behavior of the large deviations $\\mu_{q;a_1,...,a_r}(||\\vx||>V)$ for different ranges of $V$, uniformly as $q\\to\\infty.$

Lamzouri, Youness

2011-01-01

54

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the full order statistics of a one-dimensional gas of spinless fermions (or, equivalently, hard bosons) in a harmonic trap at zero temperature, including its large deviation tails. The problem amounts to computing the probability distribution of the k th smallest eigenvalue ?(k ) of a large dimensional Gaussian random matrix. We find that this probability behaves for large N as P [?(k )=x ] ?exp[-? N2? (k /N ,x ) ] , where ? is the Dyson index of the ensemble. The rate function ? (c ,x ) , computed explicitly as a function of x in terms of the intensive label c =k /N , has a quadratic behavior modulated by a weak logarithmic singularity at its minimum. This is shown to be related to phase transitions in the associated Coulomb gas problem. The connection with statistics of extreme eigenvalues and order stastistics of random matrices is also discussed. We find that, as a function of c and keeping the value of x fixed, the rate function ? (c ,x ) describes the statistics of the shifted index number, generalizing known results on its typical fluctuations; as a function of x and keeping the fraction c =k /N fixed, the rate function ? (c ,x ) also describes the statistics of the k th eigenvalue in the bulk, generalizing as well the results on its typical fluctuations. Moreover, for k =1 (respectively, for k =N ), the rate function captures both the fluctuations to the left and to the right of the typical value of ?(1 ) (respectively, of ?(N )).

Castillo, Isaac Pérez

2014-10-01

55

The principle of large numbers shows that the relative deviation for a macro system with N independent elements is of the order of 1\\/N. Lucas’ approach to a microfoundations for macroeconomic fluctuations is thus not capable of explaining the magnitude of observed macroeconomic fluctuations. Arbitrage activity would largely eliminate correlations created by rational expectations among economic agents when they face

Ping Chen

2002-01-01

56

hal-00147705,version1-20May2007 Asymmetric potentials and motor effect: a large deviation approach

hal-00147705,version1-20May2007 Asymmetric potentials and motor effect: a large deviation approach analysis of appearance of the concentrations (as Dirac masses) of the solution to a Fokker-Planck system with asymmetric potentials. This problem has been proposed as a model to describe motor proteins moving along

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

57

LARGE DEVIATION PRINCIPLES FOR THE HOPFIELD MODEL AND THE KACHOPFIELD MODEL #

of interest of the physics community in the field of ``neural networks''. An important new ingredient contract No. SC1ÂCT91Â0695 1 eÂmail: bovier@iaasÂberlin.d400.de 2 eÂmail: gayrard@cpt.univÂmrs.fr 3 e

58

Extending the Principles of Intensive Writing to Large Macroeconomics Classes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report on the design and implementation of a pilot program to extend the principles of intensive writing outlined by W. Lee Hansen (1998), Murray S. Simpson and Shireen E. Carroll (1999) and David Carless (2006) to large macroeconomics classes. The key aspect of this program was its collaborative nature, with staff from two specialist…

Docherty, Peter; Tse, Harry; Forman, Ross; McKenzie, Jo

2010-01-01

59

Large deviations theory and efficient simulation of excessive backlogs in a GI\\/GI\\/m queue

The problem of using importance sampling to estimate the average time to buffer overflow in a stable GI\\/GI\\/m queue is considered. Using the notion of busy cycles, estimation of the expected time to buffer overflow is reduced to the problem of estimating pn=P (buffer overflow during a cycle) where n is the buffer size. The probability pn is a large

John S. Sadowsky

1991-01-01

60

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematic assumptions upon which the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is founded allow it to be extended to more advanced analysis. Simple superposition allows for three-dimensional transverse loading. Using alternative constitutive equations can allow for viscoelastic or plastic beam deformation. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory can also be extended to the analysis of curved beams, beam buckling, composite beams and geometrically nonlinear beam deflection. In this study, solving the nonlinear differential equation governing the calculation of the large rotation deviation of the beam (or column) has been discussed. Previously to calculate the rotational deviation of the beam, the assumption is made that the angular deviation of the beam is small. By considering the small slope in the linearization of the governing differential equation, the solving is easy. The result of this simplification in some cases will lead to an excessive error. In this paper nonlinear differential equations governing on this system are solved analytically by Akbari-Ganji's method (AGM). Moreover, in AGM by solving a set of algebraic equations, complicated nonlinear equations can easily be solved and without any mathematical operations such as integration solving. The solution of the problem can be obtained very simply and easily. Furthermore, to enhance the accuracy of the results, the Taylor expansion is not needed in most cases via AGM manner. Also, comparisons are made between AGM and numerical method (Runge-Kutta 4th). The results reveal that this method is very effective and simple, and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

Akbari, M. R.; Nimafar, M.; Ganji, D. D.; Akbarzade, M. M.

2014-12-01

61

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical turbulent flows are characterized by their self-organization into large scale coherent structures, in particular parallel jets. We will present a theory in order to describe the effective statistics and dynamics of these jets. We prove that this closure is exact in the limit of a timescale separation between the forcing and the inertial dynamics, which is rare in a turbulent flow. The equation obtained describes the attractors for the dynamics (alternating zonal jets) and the relaxation towards those attractors. At first order, these attractors are the same as the ones obtained from a quasi-Gaussian closure, already studied. Our work thus justifies this approximation and the corresponding asymptotic limit. We also present a new, very efficient algorithm to compute the terms appearing in this equation. The theory also goes beyond the quasi-Gaussian approximation, and indeed it can also describe the stationary distribution of the jets (fluctuations and large deviations).

Bouchet, F.; Nardini, C.; Tangarife, T.

2014-12-01

62

Penile deviation has been gaining in importance as a symptom of several diseases. There are congenital forms (congenital penile deviation, hypo- and epispadias) as well as acquired forms (induratio penis plastica, traumatic deviation, urethral manipulation syndrome). History and autophotography are the most important diagnostic procedures. The therapeutic procedure is corporaplasty according to Nesbit-Kelâmi. PMID:4012944

Kelâmi, A

1985-05-01

63

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In extremely intense laser system used for plasma physics experiments, temporal contrast is an important property of the ultra-short pulse. In this paper, we theoretically study the temporal contrast degradation due to wave front deviation in large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system. Two-step focusing fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm with the coordinate transform based on Fresnel approximation in space domain and Fourier integral transform method in time domain were used to simulate the focusing process spatially and temporally, in which the spatial distribution of ultra-short pulse temporal contrast characteristics at the focal spot is related to the wave front in large aperture off-axis parabolic mirror focusing optical system. Firstly, temporal contrast degradation due to wave front noise with higher spatial frequency is analyzed and appropriate evaluation parameter for large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system is put forward from the perspective of temporal contrast. Secondly, the influence of wave front distortion with lower spatial frequency on temporal contrast is revealed comparing different degradation characteristics of various aberrations. At last, a method by controlling and optimizing the wave front to prevent temporal contrast degradation in large aperture ultra-short laser system is proposed, which is of great significance for high temporal contrast petawatt laser facilities.

Zhu, Ping; Xie, Xinglong; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhu, Haidong; Yang, Qingwei; Kang, Jun; Guo, Ailin; Gao, Qi

2014-11-01

64

We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form ?log??; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ?{sup 2} for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ? for the nonlinear heat equation.

Peletier, Mark A., E-mail: m.a.peletier@tue.nl [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Redig, Frank, E-mail: f.h.j.redig@tudelft.nl [Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Technische Universiteit Delft, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Vafayi, Kiamars, E-mail: k.vafayi@tue.nl [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2014-09-15

65

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic materials contain an anomalous contribution to the electrical resistivity due to thermal spin fluctuations, which saturates in the disordered phase and is called the spin-disorder resistivity (SDR). Experimental determination of the SDR involves fitting to high-temperature resistivity data and extrapolating to T=0 K. Recent calculations of the SDR of the heavy rare-earth metals revealed strong underestimations of this quantity, particularly for Gd, while the results for transition metals were in good agreement with experiments. In order to understand this discrepancy, here we evaluate the mutual effects of phonon and spin-disorder scattering in Fe and Gd. Calculations are performed using the supercell approach within the linear muffin-tin orbital method. The atomic positions are displaced according to the Gaussian distribution, and the resistivity is evaluated as a function of the mean-square displacement 2?T. The deviations from Matthiessen's rule (DMR) are large in Gd and moderate in Fe. Fitting the linear region of ? vs 2? in Gd yields an intercept ˜2.5 times larger than the ``bare'' SDR, significantly improving the agreement with experiment. Large DMR suggest large variations of the relaxation time on the anisotropic Fermi surface.

Glasbrenner, James; Belashchenko, Kirill

2013-03-01

66

important OEÂdivergences in mathematical statistics and information theory are the total variation distance to the total variation and the IÂdivergence, the Ã? 2 Â divergence has an unconventional large deviation rate, partitions, goodnessÂofÂfit, total variation, IÂdivergence, Ã? 2 Âdivergence, Bahadur exact slope \\Lambda

Devroye, Luc

67

B3LYP\\/6-31G? calculations have been performed in order to better understand the reasons for the large positive deviation from bond enthalpy additivity (BEA), found by Hill and Squires, for formation of triplet 1,3-dimethylenecyclobutane-2,4-diyl (2) from 1,3-dimethylenecyclobutane (3). The calculations find that, in contrast to the formation of diradical 2 from diene 3, formation of 2 from 1-methyl-3-methylenecyclobutene (5) has a negative

D. Y Zhang; W. T Borden

2000-01-01

68

Large impurity effects in rubrene crystals: First-principles calculations

Carrier mobilities of rubrene films are among the highest values reported for any organic semiconductor. Here, we probe with first-principles calculations the sensitivity of rubrene crystals on impurities. We find that isolated oxygen impurities create distinct peaks in the electronic density of states consistent with observations of defect levels in rubrene and that increased O content changes the position and shape of rubrene energy bands significantly. We also establish a dual role of hydrogen as individual H species and H impurity pairs create and annihilate deep carrier traps, respectively. The results are relevant to the performance and reliability of rubrene-based devices.

Tsetseris, L. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University

2008-01-01

69

Large-Scale First-Principles Calculations of Magnetic Nanoparticles

Modern supercomputers as the IBM Blue Gene\\/L provide the possibility to investigate large systems containing several hundred transition metal atoms. We present results on two examples, the size dependent evolution of structure and magnetism of elemental iron nanoparticles and the identification of structural comparison of competing morph ologies of near-stoichiometric Fe-Pt and Co-Pt nanoparticles, which are currently discussed as media

Markus Ernst Gruner; Georg Rollmann; Peter Entel

70

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The limits to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) temperature anisotropy derived from the results of the University of California at Santa Barbara South Pole degree-scale experiment are translated into upper bounds on large-scale deviations from the Hubble flow. The lack of measurable CBR anisotropy in this experiment implies very low upper bounds upon the rms amplitude V(R) of the streaming motion within a Gaussian window of radius R: Vmax(R is greater than 4000 km/s) less than 200 km/s, and Vmax(R is greater than 7500 km/s) is less than 100 km/s. Thus, the smoothness of the CBR at about 1-2 deg and the apparent large-amplitude (about 500 km/s) deviations from pure Hubble flow at R greater than about 4000 km/s cannot be simultaneously explained in the framework of usual large-scale structure formation models based on the assumptions involved in this calculation.

Gorski, Krzysztof M.

1992-01-01

71

Mathematical principles of predicting the probabilities of large earthquakes

A multicomponent random process used as a model for the problem of space-time earthquake prediction; this allows us to develop consistent estimation for conditional probabilities of large earthquakes if the values of the predictor characterizing the seismicity prehistory are known. We introduce tools for assessing prediction efficiency, including a separate determination of efficiency for "time prediction" and "location prediction": a generalized correlation coefficient and the density of information gain. We suggest a technique for testing the predictor to decide whether the hypothesis of no prediction can be rejected.

Ghertzik, V M

2009-01-01

72

This proposal is concerned with applications of Monte Carlo to problems in physics and chemistry where rare events degrade the performance of standard Monte Carlo. One class of problems is concerned with computation of various aspects of the equilibrium behavior of some Markov process via time averages. The problem to be overcome is that rare events interfere with the efficient sampling of all relevant parts of phase space. A second class concerns sampling transitions between two or more stable attractors. Here, rare events do not interfere with the sampling of all relevant parts of phase space, but make Monte Carlo inefficient because of the very large number of samples required to obtain variance comparable to the quantity estimated. The project uses large deviation methods for the mathematical analyses of various Monte Carlo techniques, and in particular for algorithmic analysis and design. This is done in the context of relevant application areas, mainly from chemistry and biology.

Dupuis, Paul [Brown University] [Brown University

2014-03-14

73

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following study proposes a two-dimensional large-scale particle tracking velocimetry (LS-PTV) system to characterize coherent wind structures. Seven minutes of LS-PTV data is collected via an apparatus that seeds fog-filled soap bubbles into the wind at a height of 6m from the ground. The LS-PTV data is compared to 20 minutes of data collected concurrently from a wind mast at the same site. The LS-PTV system recorded a mean streamwise velocity of 1.35m/s with a standard deviation of 0.23m/s at a mean height of 2.50m with a standard deviation of 0.7m, which agrees well with the velocity profile measured by the wind mast. Furthermore, the Reynolds stresses measured by the LS-PTV system are found to compare to those measured by the wind mast and by Klebanoff [1] for a canonical turbulent boundary layer. The current study assumes that the centre-of-curvature trajectories of the particle pathlines are representative of the trajectories followed by the spanwise vortices. As a proof-of-principle study, this work has been successful in accurately describing the vortex distribution very near to the ground. However, the trajectories followed by the centres-of- curvat.ure belonging to pathlines concurrently passing through the field-of-view were sporadic and uncorrelated.

Rosi, G. A.; la Bastide, B.; Gaebler, J.; Kinzel, M.; Rival, D. E.

2014-12-01

74

Bioinspired principles for large-scale networked sensor systems: an overview.

Biology has often been used as a source of inspiration in computer science and engineering. Bioinspired principles have found their way into network node design and research due to the appealing analogies between biological systems and large networks of small sensors. This paper provides an overview of bioinspired principles and methods such as swarm intelligence, natural time synchronization, artificial immune system and intercellular information exchange applicable for sensor network design. Bioinspired principles and methods are discussed in the context of routing, clustering, time synchronization, optimal node deployment, localization and security and privacy. PMID:22163841

Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Zhang, Qi; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

2011-01-01

75

Bioinspired Principles for Large-Scale Networked Sensor Systems: An Overview

Biology has often been used as a source of inspiration in computer science and engineering. Bioinspired principles have found their way into network node design and research due to the appealing analogies between biological systems and large networks of small sensors. This paper provides an overview of bioinspired principles and methods such as swarm intelligence, natural time synchronization, artificial immune system and intercellular information exchange applicable for sensor network design. Bioinspired principles and methods are discussed in the context of routing, clustering, time synchronization, optimal node deployment, localization and security and privacy. PMID:22163841

Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Zhang, Qi; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

2011-01-01

76

Accurate barrier heights are obtained for the 26 pericyclic reactions in the BHPERI dataset by means of the high-level Wn-F12 thermochemical protocols. Very often, the complete basis set (CBS)-type composite methods are used in similar situations, but herein it is shown that they in fact result in surprisingly large errors with root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of about 2.5 kcal mol(-1) . In comparison, other composite methods, particularly G4-type and estimated coupled cluster with singles, doubles, and quasiperturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)/CBS] approaches, show deviations well below the chemical-accuracy threshold of 1 kcal mol(-1) . With the exception of SCS-MP2 and the herein newly introduced MP3.5 approach, all other tested Møller-Plesset perturbative procedures give poor performance with RMSDs of up to 8.0 kcal mol(-1) . The finding that CBS-type methods fail for barrier heights of these reactions is unexpected and it is particularly troublesome given that they are often used to obtain reference values for benchmark studies. Significant differences are identified in the interpretation and final ranking of density functional theory (DFT) methods when using the original CBS-QB3 rather than the new Wn-F12 reference values for BHPERI. In particular, it is observed that the more accurate Wn-F12 benchmark results in lower statistical errors for those methods that are generally considered to be robust and accurate. Two examples are the PW6B95-D3(BJ) hybrid-meta-general-gradient approximation and the PWPB95-D3(BJ) double-hybrid functionals, which result in the lowest RMSDs of the entire DFT study (1.3 and 1.0 kcal mol(-1) , respectively). These results indicate that CBS-QB3 should be applied with caution in computational modeling and benchmark studies involving related systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25649643

Karton, Amir; Goerigk, Lars

2015-04-15

77

Implementing the "Marketing You" Project in Large Sections of Principles of Marketing

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is mounting pressure on business education to increase experiential learning at the same time that budget constraints are forcing universities to increase class size. This article explains the design and implementation of the "Marketing You" project in two large sections of Principles of Marketing to bring experiential learning into the…

Smith, Karen H.

2004-01-01

78

Arboreal Ants Use the ``VelcroH Principle'' to Capture Very Large Prey

Arboreal Ants Use the ``VelcroH Principle'' to Capture Very Large Prey Alain Dejean1 *, Ce Biologi´a Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain Abstract Plant-ants live and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN) and/or food bodies (FBs); the ants can also attend sap

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider correlated random variables X1, …, Xn taking values in {0, 1} such that, for any permutation ? of {1, …, n}, the random vectors (X1, …, Xn) and (X?(1), …, X?(n)) have the same distribution. This distribution, which was introduced by Rodríguez et al. [J. Stat. Mech. 2008, P09006] and then generalized by Hanel et al. [Eur. Phys. J. B 72, 263 (2009)], is scale-invariant and depends on a real parameter ? > 0 (? ? ? implies independence). Putting Sn = X1 + ⋯ + Xn, the distribution of Sn - n/2 approaches a Q-Gaussian distribution with compact support (Q = 1 - 1/(? - 1) < 1) as n increases, after appropriate scaling. In the present article, we show that the distribution of Sn/n converges, as n ? ?, to a beta distribution with both parameters equal to ?. In particular, the law of large numbers does not hold since, if 0 ? x < 1/2, then ?(Sn/n ? x), which is the probability of the event {Sn/n ? x} (large deviation), does not converge to zero as n ? ?. For x = 0 and every real ? > 0, we show that ?(Sn = 0) decays to zero like a power law of the form 1/n? with a subdominant term of the form 1/n?+1. If 0 < x ? 1 and ? > 0 is an integer, we show that we can analytically find upper and lower bounds for the difference between ?(Sn/n ? x) and its (n ? ?) limit. We also show that these bounds vanish like a power law of the form 1/n with a subdominant term of the form 1/n2.

Jauregui, Max; Tsallis, Constantino

2015-02-01

80

The force-from-lipid (FFL) principle of mechanosensitivity, at large and in elements.

Focus on touch and hearing distracts attention from numerous subconscious force sensors, such as the vital control of blood pressure and systemic osmolarity, and sensors in nonanimals. Multifarious manifestations should not obscure invariant and fundamental physicochemical principles. We advocate that force from lipid (FFL) is one such principle. It is based on the fact that the self-assembled bilayer necessitates inherent forces that are large and anisotropic, even at life's origin. Functional response of membrane proteins is governed by bilayer force changes. Added stress can redirect these forces, leading to geometric changes of embedded proteins such as ion channels. The FFL principle was first demonstrated when purified bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) remained mechanosensitive (MS) after reconstituting into bilayers. This key experiment has recently been unequivocally replicated with two vertebrate MS K2p channels. Even the canonical Kv and the Drosophila canonical transient receptor potentials (TRPCs) have now been shown to be MS in biophysical and in physiological contexts, supporting the universality of the FFL paradigm. We also review the deterministic role of mechanical force during stem cell differentiation as well as the cell-cell and cell-matrix tethers that provide force communications. In both the ear hair cell and the worm's touch neuron, deleting the cadherin or microtubule tethers reduces but does not eliminate MS channel activities. We found no evidence to distinguish whether these tethers directly pull on the channel protein or a surrounding lipid platform. Regardless of the implementation, pulling tether tenses up the bilayer. Membrane tenting is directly visible at the apexes of the stereocilia. PMID:24888690

Teng, Jinfeng; Loukin, Stephen; Anishkin, Andriy; Kung, Ching

2015-01-01

81

Generalized deviations in risk analysis

General deviation measures are introduced and studied sys- tematically for their potential applications to risk management in areas like portfolio optimization and engineering. Such measures include standard de- viation as a special case but need not be symmetric with respect to ups and downs. Their properties are explored with a mind to generating a large assortment of examples and assessing

R. Tyrrell Rockafellar; Stan Uryasev; Michael Zabarankin

2006-01-01

82

The relative motion of many particles can be described by the geodesic deviation equation. This can be derived from the second covariant variation of the point particle's action. It is shown that the second covariant variation of the string action leads to a string deviation equation.

Mark D. Roberts

1999-07-17

83

The comply-or-explain principle is a common feature of corporate governance codes. While prior studies investigated compliance with corporate governance codes as well as the effects of compliance on firm behaviour and performance, explanations for deviations from a corporate governance code remain largely unexamined. This paper intends to fill that gap. The paper draws on the voluntary disclosure literature and agency

Reggy Hooghiemstra

2011-01-01

84

The comply-or-explain principle is a common feature of corporate governance codes. While prior studies investigated compliance with corporate governance codes as well as the effects of compliance on firm behaviour and performance, explanations for deviations from a corporate governance code remain largely unexamined. This paper intends to fill that gap. The paper draws on the voluntary disclosure literature and agency

Reggy Hooghiemstra

2012-01-01

85

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10-3÷10-4 on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.

Creminelli, Paolo; Gleyzes, Jérôme; Hui, Lam; Simonovi?, Marko; Vernizzi, Filippo

2014-06-01

86

A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations

An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF{sub 4})

Ohwaki, Tsukuru [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., 1 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8523 (Japan); Otani, Minoru [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ozaki, Taisuke [Research Center for Simulation Science (RCSS), Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

2014-06-28

87

The boron conundrum: which principles underlie the formation of large hollow boron cages?

Extensive optimisation calculations are performed for the B(80) isomers in order to find out which principles underlie the formation of large hollow boron cages. Our analysis shows that the most stable isomers contain triangular B(10) or rhombohedral B(16) building blocks. The lowest-energy isomer has C(3v) symmetry and is characterised by a belt of three interconnected B(16) units and two separate B(10) units. At the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory, this newly discovered isomer is 2.29, 1.48, and 0.54 eV below the leapfrog B(80) of Szwacki et al., the T(h) -B(80) of Wang, and the D(3d) -B(80) of Pochet et al., respectively. Our C(3v) isomer is therefore identified as the most stable hollow cage isomer of B(80) presently known. Its HOMO-LUMO gap of 1.6 eV approaches that of the leapfrog B(80). The leapfrog principle still remains a reliable scheme for producing boron cages with larger HOMO-LUMO gaps, whereas the thermodynamically most stable B(80) cages are formed when all pentagonal faces are capped. We show that large hollow cages of boron retain a preference for fullerene frames. The additional capping is in accordance with the following rules: preference for capping of pentagonal faces, formation of B(10) and/or B(16) units, homogeneous distribution of the hexagonal caps, and hole density approaching 1/9. Although our most stable B(80) isomer still remains higher in energy than the B(80) core-shell structure, we show that by applying the bonding principles to larger structures it is possible to construct boron cages with higher stabilisation energy per boron atom than the core-shell structure; a prototypical example is B(160). This clearly shows the continuous competition between the two suggested construction schemes, namely, the formation of multiple-shell structures and hollow cages. PMID:23345038

Muya, Jules Tshishimbi; Lijnen, Erwin; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Ceulemans, Arnout

2013-02-01

88

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomolecular simulations with atomistic detail are often required to describe interactions with chemical accuracy for applications such as the calculation of free energies of binding or chemical reactions in enzymes. Force fields are typically used for this task but these rely on extensive parameterisation which in cases can lead to limited accuracy and transferability, for example for ligands with unusual functional groups. These limitations can be overcome with first principles calculations with methods such as density functional theory (DFT) but at a much higher computational cost. The use of electrostatic embedding can significantly reduce this cost by representing a portion of the simulated system in terms of highly localised charge distributions. These classical charge distributions are electrostatically coupled with the quantum system and represent the effect of the environment in which the quantum system is embedded. In this paper we describe and evaluate such an embedding scheme in which the polarisation of the electronic density by the embedding charges occurs self-consistently during the calculation of the density. We have implemented this scheme in a linear-scaling DFT program as our aim is to treat with DFT entire biomolecules (such as proteins) and large portions of the solvent. We test this approach in the calculation of interaction energies of ligands with biomolecules and solvent and investigate under what conditions these can be obtained with the same level of accuracy as when the entire system is described by DFT, for a variety of neutral and charged species.

Fox, Stephen J.; Pittock, Chris; Fox, Thomas; Tautermann, Christofer S.; Malcolm, Noj; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

2011-12-01

89

This paper presents a visual measurement method able to sense 1D rigid body displacements with very high resolutions, large ranges and high processing rates. Sub-pixelic resolution is obtained thanks to a structured pattern placed on the target. The pattern is made of twin periodic grids with slightly different periods. The periodic frames are suited for Fourier-like phase calculations—leading to high resolution—while the period difference allows the removal of phase ambiguity and thus a high range-to-resolution ratio. The paper presents the measurement principle as well as the processing algorithms (source files are provided as supplementary materials). The theoretical and experimental performances are also discussed. The processing time is around 3 ?s for a line of 780 pixels, which means that the measurement rate is mostly limited by the image acquisition frame rate. A 3-? repeatability of 5 nm is experimentally demonstrated which has to be compared with the 168 ?m measurement range. PMID:24625736

Guelpa, Valérian; Laurent, Guillaume J.; Sandoz, Patrick; Zea, July Galeano; Clévy, Cédric

2014-01-01

90

This paper presents a visual measurement method able to sense 1D rigid body displacements with very high resolutions, large ranges and high processing rates. Sub-pixelic resolution is obtained thanks to a structured pattern placed on the target. The pattern is made of twin periodic grids with slightly different periods. The periodic frames are suited for Fourier-like phase calculations-leading to high resolution-while the period difference allows the removal of phase ambiguity and thus a high range-to-resolution ratio. The paper presents the measurement principle as well as the processing algorithms (source files are provided as supplementary materials). The theoretical and experimental performances are also discussed. The processing time is around 3 µs for a line of 780 pixels, which means that the measurement rate is mostly limited by the image acquisition frame rate. A 3-? repeatability of 5 nm is experimentally demonstrated which has to be compared with the 168 µm measurement range. PMID:24625736

Guelpa, Valérian; Laurent, Guillaume J; Sandoz, Patrick; Zea, July Galeano; Clévy, Cédric

2014-01-01

91

In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20–25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first and last pages. A draft of the first page, collected early in the term, was returned to each student by graduate TAs to provide individual feedback on scientific writing. Overall the course has run three times at ful or near enrollment capacity despite being held at an 8:00 AM time slot. Student-generated teaching evaluations place it well within the normal range, while this format importantly contributes to budget efficiency permitting the teaching of more required small-format courses (e.g., freshman writing). The demographics of the course have changed to one in which the vast majority of the students are now outside the disciplines of neuroscience or psychology and are taking the course to fulfill a General Education requirement. This pattern allows the wide dissemination of basic neuroscientific knowledge to a general college audience. PMID:24319388

Bodnar, Richard J.; Stellar, James R.; Kraft, Tamar T.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M.; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo

2013-01-01

92

Geodesic deviation at higher orders via covariant bitensors

We review a simple but instructive application of the formalism of covariant bitensors, to use a deviation vector field along a fiducial geodesic to describe a neighboring worldline, in an exact and manifestly covariant manner, via the exponential map. Requiring the neighboring worldline to be a geodesic leads to the usual linear geodesic deviation equation for the deviation vector, plus corrections at higher order in the deviation and relative velocity. We show how these corrections can be efficiently computed to arbitrary orders via covariant bitensor expansions, deriving a form of the geodesic deviation equation valid to all orders, and producing its explicit expanded form through fourth order. We also discuss the generalized Jacobi equation, action principles for the higher-order geodesic deviation equations, results useful for describing accelerated neighboring worldlines, and the formal general solution to the geodesic deviation equation through second order.

Justin Vines

2014-07-25

93

Computational Challenges of Large-Scale Long-Time First-Principles Molecular Dynamics

Plane-wave density functional calculations have traditionally been able to use the largest available supercomputing resources. We analyze the scalability of modern projector- augmented wave implementations to identify the challenges in performing molecular dynamics calculations of large systems containing many thousands of electrons. Benchmark calculations on the Cray XT4 demonstrate that global linear-algebra operations are the primary reason for limited parallel scalability. Plane-wave related operations can be made sufficiently scalable. Improving parallel linear-algebra performance is an essential step to reaching longer timescales in future large-scale molecular dynamics calculations.

Kent, Paul R [ORNL

2008-01-01

94

Geodesic deviation and gravitational waves

The detection of gravitational waves based on the geodesic deviation equation is discussed. In particular, it is shown that the only non-vanishing components of the wave field in the conventional traceless-transverse gauge in linearized general relativity do not enter the geodesic deviation equation, and therefore, apparently, no effect is predicted by that equation in that specific gauge. The reason is traced back to the fact that the geodesic deviation equation is written in terms of a coordinate distance, which is not a directly measurable quantity. On the other hand, in the proper Lorentz frame of the detector, the conventional result described in standard textbooks holds.

M. Leclerc

2006-05-24

95

We report the linear optical absorption spectra of aluminum clusters Aln (n = 2-5) involving valence transitions, computed using the large-scale all-electron configuration interaction (CI) methodology. Several low-lying isomers of each cluster were considered, and their geometries were optimized at the coupled-cluster singles-doubles (CCSD) level of theory. With these optimized ground-state geometries, excited states of different clusters were computed using the multi-reference singles-doubles configuration-interaction (MRSDCI) approach, which includes electron correlation effects at a sophisticated level. These CI wave functions were used to compute the transition dipole matrix elements connecting the ground and various excited states of different clusters, and thus their photoabsorption spectra. The convergence of our results with respect to the basis sets, and the size of the CI expansion, was carefully examined. Our results were found to be significantly different as compared to those obtained using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) [Deshpande et al. Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys., 2003, 68, 035428]. When compared to the available experimental data for the isomers of Al2 and Al3, our results are in very good agreement as far as important peak positions are concerned. The contribution of configurations to many body wave functions of various excited states suggests that in most cases optical excitations involved are collective, and plasmonic in nature. PMID:25162600

Shinde, Ravindra; Shukla, Alok

2014-10-14

96

48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR...REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404 Class deviations. Class deviations...

2010-10-01

97

The Quantization of Geodesic Deviation

There exists a two parameter action, the variation of which produces both the geodesic equation and the geodesic deviation equation. In this paper it is shown that this action can be quantized by the canonical method, resulting in equations which generalize the Klein-Gordon equation. The resulting equations might have applications, and also show that entirely unexpected systems can be quantized. The possible applications of quantized geodesic deviation are to: i)the spreading wave packet in quantum theory, ii)and also to the one particle to many particle problem in second quantized quantum field theory.

Mark D. Roberts

1999-03-27

98

48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR...REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.403 Individual deviations. In individual...

2010-10-01

99

Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

2005-01-01

100

Diurnal deviation of the orbit circumference due to building distortion

Beam position stability was found to be largely affected by the distortion of the storage ring building, especially when the beam emittance was lowered. Building distortion in the horizontal direction was noticed as the diurnal deviation of the orbit circumference. The deviation was measured by reading the amount of rf frequency variation necessary to recover the horizontal central orbit. The deviation of the orbit circumference was interpreted to be induced from the ring floor expansion. Such diurnal expansion of the ring floor was evaluated by using a model simulation that dealt with the distortion of the ring building under thermal stress. To reduce such thermal stress, the rooftop of the building was insulated. The deviation of the ring circumference measured after insulation was reduced to one-half of that measured before. The simulation also gave the same amount of deviations as measured before and after insulation.

Katsura, T.; Kamiya, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Nakamura, H. (Photon Factory, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)); Fujita, Y. (Nuclear Power Division, Shimizu Corporation, No. 2-3, Shibaura 1-Chome, Minatoku, Tokyo 105-7 (Japan))

1992-01-01

101

Vacuum stability bounds on Higgs coupling deviations

We analyze the constraints imposed by Higgs vacuum stability on models with new fermions beyond the Standard Model. We focus on the phenomenology of Higgs couplings accessible at the Large Hadron Collider. New fermions that affect Higgs couplings lead to vacuum instability of the Higgs potential. Above the scale of vacuum instability, bosonic states must stabilize the potential, implying a cut-off to the pure fermion model. Conservatively tuning the models to produce the maximal cut-off for a given Higgs coupling effect, we show that observing a deviation in the $Htt$, $H$-diphoton, or $H$-digluon coupling, larger than 20$%$, would require that new bosons exist in order to stabilize the Higgs potential below about 100 TeV. For generic parameter configurations, and unless the new fermions are made as light as they can possibly be given current experimental constraints, observing a 10$%$ deviation in any of these couplings would suggest an instability cut-off below 10-100 TeV. Similarly, if new bosons are absen...

Blum, Kfir; Fan, JiJi

2015-01-01

102

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.18 Deviations. To the extent that...include a supporting statement, which indicates briefly the nature of the deviation requested and the reasons in support...

2010-01-01

103

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.18 Deviations. To the extent that...include a supporting statement, which indicates briefly the nature of the deviation requested and the reasons in support...

2012-01-01

104

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.18 Deviations. To the extent that...include a supporting statement, which indicates briefly the nature of the deviation requested and the reasons in support...

2014-01-01

105

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

106

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

107

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...

2011-01-01

108

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case...

2010-01-01

109

Structure of deviations from optimality in biological systems

Optimization theory has been used to analyze evolutionary adaptation. This theory has explained many features of biological systems, from the genetic code to animal behavior. However, these systems show important deviations from optimality. Typically, these deviations are large in some particular components of the system, whereas others seem to be almost optimal. Deviations from optimality may be due to many factors in evolution, including stochastic effects and finite time, that may not allow the system to reach the ideal optimum. However, we still expect the system to have a higher probability of reaching a state with a higher value of the proposed indirect measure of fitness. In systems of many components, this implies that the largest deviations are expected in those components with less impact on the indirect measure of fitness. Here, we show that this simple probabilistic rule explains deviations from optimality in two very different biological systems. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this rule successfully explains the experimental deviations of the position of neurons from the configuration of minimal wiring cost. In Escherichia coli, the probabilistic rule correctly obtains the structure of the experimental deviations of metabolic fluxes from the configuration that maximizes biomass production. This approach is proposed to explain or predict more data than optimization theory while using no extra parameters. Thus, it can also be used to find and refine hypotheses about which constraints have shaped biological structures in evolution. PMID:19918070

Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; Rivera-Alba, Marta; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.

2009-01-01

110

Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

Gorard, Stephen

2015-01-01

111

This paper is concerned with the prediction of oxygen diffusivities in fcc nickel from first-principles calculations and large-scale atomic simulations. Considering only the interstitial octahedral to tetrahedral to octahedral minimum energy pathway for oxygen diffusion in fcc lattice, greatly underestimates the migration barrier and overestimates the diffusivities by several orders of magnitude. The results indicate that vacancies in the Ni-lattice significantly impact the migration barrier of oxygen in nickel. Incorporation of the effect of vacancies results in predicted diffusivities consistent with available experimental data. First-principles calculations show that at high temperatures the vacancy concentration is comparable to the oxygen solubility, and there is a strong binding energy and a redistribution of charge density between the oxygen atom and vacancy. Consequently, there is a strong attraction between the oxygen and vacancy in the Ni lattice, which impacts diffusion.

Fang, H. Z.; Shang, S. L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Alfonso, D.; Alman, D. E. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Shin, Y. K.; Zou, C. Y.; Duin, A. C. T. van [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lei, Y. K.; Wang, G. F. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

2014-01-28

112

Uncertainty principle and uncertainty relations

It is generally believed that the uncertainty relation q p1\\/2, where q and p are standard deviations, is the precise mathematical expression of the uncertainty principle for position and momentum in quantum mechanics. We show that actually it is not possible to derive from this relation two central claims of the uncertainty principle, namely, the impossibility of an arbitrarily sharp

J. B. M. Uffink; J. Hilgevoord

1985-01-01

113

Gold medals standard deviation 13.9857

1) Gold medals mean 19.6 standard deviation 13.9857 minimum 7 Q1 10 median 15 Q3 22 maximum 51 Silver medals mean 15.9 standard deviation 9.2189 minimum 6 Q1 10 median 14 Q3 19.75 maximum 38 Bronze medals mean 18.5 standard deviation 9.2406 minimum 8 Q1 11.25 median 16 Q3 25.5 maximum 36 2) Greg Maddux

DeMaio, Joe

114

Program helps quickly calculate deviated well path

A BASIC computer program quickly calculates the angle and measured depth of a simple directional well given only the true vertical depth and total displacement of the target. Many petroleum engineers and geologists need a quick, easy method to calculate the angle and measured depth necessary to reach a target in a proposed deviated well bore. Too many of the existing programs are large and require much input data. The drilling literature is full of equations and methods to calculate the course of well paths from surveys taken after a well is drilled. Very little information, however, covers how to calculate well bore trajectories for proposed wells from limited data. Furthermore, many of the equations are quite complex and difficult to use. A figure lists a computer program with the equations to calculate the well bore trajectory necessary to reach a given displacement and true vertical depth (TVD) for a simple build plant. It can be run on an IBM compatible computer with MS-DOS version 5 or higher, QBasic, or any BASIC that does no require line numbers. QBasic 4.5 compiler will also run the program. The equations are based on conventional geometry and trigonometry.

Gardner, M.P. (Plains Resources Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-11-22

115

Limiting Distributions and Large Deviations for Random Walks in Random

, 2008 #12;c Jonathon Robert Peterson 2008 #12;i Acknowledgments First of all, I would like to thank God has been blessed in so many ways by things that are beyond my control. I know that God has guided my, for keeping my life balanced and for bringing me back to reality when I "lose track of time." As I finish

Peterson, Jonathon

116

Large Deviations on Empirical Service for Erasure Channels with Memory

systems. One factor that can greatly affect the performance of real- time communication systems is channel buildup. The ability of the system to recover from such fading events depends on the excess capacity

Pfister, Henry D.

117

Limiting Distributions and Large Deviations for Random Walks in ...

Thank you for guiding me to such a great thesis topic, and for all your help ... Without his strong encouragement and vote of confidence, I may never have achieved so ...... 0} and independent of everything else (note that for sucess excursions we .... is essentially the environment the random walker “sees” once it is told that it.

2008-07-21

118

Source coding, large deviations, and approximate pattern matching

We present a development of parts of rate-distortion theory and pattern-matching algorithms for lossy data compression, centered around a lossy version of the asymptotic equipartition property (AEP). This treatment closely parallels the corresponding development in lossless compression, a point of view that was advanced in an important paper of Wyner and Ziv in 1989. In the lossless case, we review

Amir Dembo; Ioannis Kontoyiannis

2002-01-01

119

Pathologies that lead to biomechanical restrictions in human gait interfere with the tightly regulated muscle activation patterns that control the external moments. In order to maintain proper function, secondary mechanisms are required. The aims of this systematic review were (1) to identify secondary mechanisms in pathologic gait that have been described throughout the scientific literature by means of instrumented gait analysis, (2) to distinguish between active compensatory mechanisms and passive physical effects and (3) to identify common compensatory mechanisms that appear to be independent from the underlying disease. A comprehensive literature search revealed 4080 citations for review, whereof 148 studies entered the full-text review. Thirty-six studies were included and the quality of these studies was assessed by two independent reviewers (kappa=0.83). The quality of the included studies showed large variation and several methodological issues were identified. Five studies were further identified describing only passive physical effects, leaving a total of 31 studies reporting on compensations. The qualitative analysis revealed common compensations that appeared to be independent from the underlying pathology. In clinical practice, distinguishing primary from secondary gait deviations can be considered highly important since unnecessary treatment may be avoided. However, given the introduction of general principles of compensatory mechanisms and the fact that certain presumed "compensations" were identified as simple passive physical effects, secondary gait deviations have to be further investigated. Computer simulation studies are valuable, especially in respect of the distinction between compensations and physical effects. Furthermore, the need for a uniform terminology was highlighted. PMID:23022156

Schmid, Stefan; Schweizer, Katrin; Romkes, Jacqueline; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Brunner, Reinald

2013-04-01

120

Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing

The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD, we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle, and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems, and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.

Shihan Sajeed; Igor Radchenko; Sarah Kaiser; Jean-Philippe Bourgoin; Anna Pappa; Laurent Monat; Matthieu Legre; Vadim Makarov

2015-03-30

121

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE...Government; (d) The name of the owner or generator seeking the deviation and nuclear power reactor(s) affected; (e) A...

2011-01-01

122

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE...Government; (d) The name of the owner or generator seeking the deviation and nuclear power reactor(s) affected; (e) A...

2010-01-01

123

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved...Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant...

2013-01-01

124

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved...Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant...

2011-01-01

125

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved...Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant...

2012-01-01

126

48 CFR 1.404 - Class deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations...Civilian Agency Acquisition Council (CAA Council...accordance with the Defense FAR Supplement. (c) For NASA...accordance with agency regulations. [48 FR...

2010-10-01

127

Ion density deviations in semipermeable ionic microcapsules.

By implementing the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory in a cell model, we theoretically investigate the influence of polyelectrolye gel permeability on ion densities and pH deviations inside the cavities of ionic microcapsules. Our calculations show that variations in permeability of a charged capsule shell cause a redistribution of ion densities within the capsule, which ultimately affects the pH deviation and Donnan potential induced by the electric field of the shell. We find that semipermeable capsules can induce larger pH deviations inside their cavities that can permeable capsules. Furthermore, with increasing capsule charge, the influence of permeability on pH deviations progressively increases. Our theory, while providing a self-consistent method for modeling the influence of permeability on fundamental properties of ionic microgels, makes predictions of practical significance for the design of microcapsules loaded with fluorescent dyes, which can serve as biosensors for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25826392

Tang, Qiyun; Denton, Alan R

2015-04-01

128

Lab#1: Icebergs: Raising Sea Level and Archimedes' Principle Questions What is density? Can more or less dense than water? What is Archimedes' Principle? What is displacement? Will melting Archimedes' Principle (displacement). 3. Understand that the water created from melting icebergs is equal

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

129

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

Hewitt, Paul G.

2004-01-01

130

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI

1991-01-01

131

Minimizing Mean Squared Deviation of Completion Times About a Common Due Date

This paper addresses a nonpreemptive single machine scheduling problem where all jobs have a common due date and have zero ready time. The scheduling objective is to minimize mean squared deviation (MSD) of job completion times about the due date. This nonregular measure of performance is appropriate when earliness and tardiness are both penalized, and when large deviations of completion

Uttarayan Bagchi; Robert S. Sullivan; Yih-Long Chang

1987-01-01

132

Galaxy distances and deviations from the Hubble flow - Summary remarks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is presented of the issues addressed by the papers delivered at this conference. Papers addressing classical cosmological topics, including the distances to nearby objects, the intermediate scale distance determination, the local peculiar velocity, the local Hubble constant and other age parameters, and the density parameter from Virgo infall are reviewed. Papers discussing new cosmological developments, including large-scale inhomogeneities, large-scale deviations from Hubble flow, and the origin of the velocity and density inhomogeneities are briefly summarized. Prospects for the next 10 years are examined.

Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

1986-01-01

133

Variational Approach to Deviations from Ohm's Law

In a perturbation framework, Kohler's variational method has been extended to obtain deviations from Ohm's law for a nondegenerate electron gas. Solution for the distribution function reduces to solving sets of linear algebraic equations. It is shown that, to second order in the field strength, the \\

I. Adawi

1959-01-01

134

Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

2012-01-01

135

Manifestations of Deviation in the Adolescent Subculture

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors look at questions relating to school students' attitudes toward types of deviation such as smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotics. The empirical material is divided into the following topics: how widespread these forms of behavior are; motives that cause adolescents to start smoking, using alcohol, and taking…

Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.

2005-01-01

136

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many large-scale applications require electromagnetic modelling with extensive numerical computations, such as magnets or three-dimensional (3D) objects like transposed conductors or motors and generators. Therefore, it is necessary to develop computationally time-efficient but still accurate numerical methods. This article develops a general variational formalism for any {E}({J}) relation and applies it to model coated-conductor coils containing up to thousands of turns, taking magnetization currents fully into account. The variational principle, valid for any 3D situation, restricts the computations to the sample volume, reducing the computation time. However, no additional magnetic materials interacting with the superconductor are taken directly into account. Regarding the coil modelling, we use a power law E(J) relation with magnetic field-dependent critical current density, Jc, and power law exponent, n. We test the numerical model by comparing the results to analytical formulas for thin strips and experiments for stacks of pancake coils, finding a very good agreement. Afterwards, we model a magnet-size coil of 4000 turns (stack of 20 pancake coils of 200 turns each). We found that the ac loss is mainly due to magnetization currents. We also found that for an n exponent of 20, the magnetization currents are greatly suppressed after 1 h relaxation. In addition, in coated conductor coils magnetization currents have an important impact on the generated magnetic field; which should be taken into account for magnet design. In conclusion, the presented numerical method fulfills the requirements for electromagnetic design of coated conductor windings.

Pardo, Enric; Šouc, Ján; Frolek, Lubomir

2015-04-01

137

Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

1979-01-01

138

Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

2013-01-01

139

Note Onset Deviations as Musical Piece Signatures

A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

2013-01-01

140

A test for deviation from island-model population structure.

The neutral island model forms the basis for several estimation models that relate patterns of genetic structure to microevolutionary processes. Estimates of gene flow are often based on this model and may be biased when the model's assumptions are violated. An appropriate test for violations is to compare FST scores for individual loci to a null distribution based on the average FST taken over multiple loci. A parametric bootstrap method is described here based on Wright's beta-distribution to generate null distributions of FST for each locus. These null distributions account for error introduced by sampling populations, individuals and loci, and also biological sources of error, including variable alleles/locus and inbreeding. Confidence limits can be obtained directly from these distributions. Significant deviations from the island model may be the result of selection, deviations from the island model's migration pattern, nonequilibrium conditions, or other deviations from island-model assumptions. Only strong biases are likely to be detected because of the inherently large sampling variation of FST. Nevertheless, a coefficient, Nb, describing bias in the spread of the beta-distribution in units comparable to the gene flow parameter, Nm, can be obtained for each locus. In samples from populations of the butterfly Coenonympha tullia, the loci Idh-1, Mdh-1, Pgi and Pgm showed significantly lower FST than expected. PMID:12753211

Porter, Adam H

2003-04-01

141

The correspondence principle is due to Niels Bohr (1885–1962). According to Bohr, the principle justifies the use of formal\\u000a classical expressions in quantum theory and a physical interpretation of quantum theory in terms of classical concepts. The\\u000a principle emerged from his use of classical concepts and formal analogies in ? Bohr's atomic model of 1913. Before the rise of quantum

Brigitte Falkenburg

142

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Design Principles for Interactive Texts is a fun-to-use interactive text on the effective design of interactive texts for education. It summarizes basic principles of interface design from studies in psychology, skills-training, education, art & design, and other sources, illustrating the principles with many examples. The text should be of interest to anyone designing presentations, computer-based reading materials, student computer labs, or educational Web sites.

Jacobs, Julie

143

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

Lamport, Leslie

2012-08-01

144

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from HyperPhysics provides a description of Pascal's Principle, which explains how pressure is transmitted in an enclosed fluid. Drawings and sample calculations are provided. Examples illustrating the principle include a hydraulic press and an automobile hydraulic lift.

Nave, Carl R.

145

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

2009-01-01

146

Least absolute deviation (LAD) image matching

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The robust estimator properties of the L,-norm or least absolute deviation (LAD) is shown to provide better subpixel matching accuracy in the presence of outlier points than the least squares method widely employed for image matching applications. Two LAD algorithms are compared with each other and with the least squares (LS) method and the iteratively reweighted least squares (IRLS) method. Results indicate that the Barrodale-Roberts LAD algorithm can be used advantageously in conjunction with or in place of the IRLS and LS algorithms.

Calitz, M. F.; Rüther, H.

147

Deviation Analysis: A New Use of Model Checking

Inaccuracies, or deviations, in the measurements of monitored variables in a control system are facts of life that control software must accommodate. Deviation analysis can be used to determine how a software specification will behave in the face of such deviations. Deviation analysis is intended to answer questions such as \\

Mats Per Erik Heimdahl; Yunja Choi; Michael W. Whalen

2005-01-01

148

Babinet's principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas

We consider Babinet's principle for metamaterials at optical frequencies and include realistic conditions which deviate from the theoretical assumptions of the classic principle such as an infinitely thin and perfectly conducting metal layer. It is shown that Babinet's principle associates not only transmission and reflection between a structure and its complement but also the field modal profiles of the electromagnetic

T. Zentgraf; T. P. Meyrath; A. Seidel; S. Kaiser; H. Giessen; C. Rockstuhl; F. Lederer

2007-01-01

149

Borehole deviation surveys are necessary for hydraulic fracture monitoring Leo Eisner, Schlumberger Not performing accurate borehole deviation surveys for hydraulic fracture monitoring (HFM) and neglecting fracture parameters. Introduction Recently a large number of hydraulic fracture treatments have been

Cerveny, Vlastislav

150

Fast self contained exponential random deviate algorithm

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm that generates random numbers with an exponential distribution and is about ten times faster than other well known algorithms has been reported before (J. F. Fernández and J. Rivero, Comput. Phys. 10), 83 (1996). That algorithm requires input of uniform random deviates. We now report a new version of it that needs no input and is nearly as fast. The only limitation we predict thus far for the quality of the output is the amount of computer memory available. Performance results under various tests will be reported. The algorithm works in close analogy to the set up that is often used in statistical physics in order to obtain the Gibb's distribution. N numbers, that are are stored in N registers, change with time according to the rules of the algorithm, keeping their sum constant. Further details will be given.

Fernández, Julio F.

1997-03-01

151

An analysis is made of the distribution of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions with k alleles and of estimates of inbreeding coefficients (f) ob- tained from these deviations.-If f is small, the best estimate off in large samples is shown to be 2x,(T.\\/N,)\\/(k - I), where T. is an unbiased measure of the excess of the ith homozygote and N, the

ALAN ROBERTSON; WILLIAM G. HILL

152

Principles of dataspace systems

The most acute information management challenges today stem from organizations relying on a large number of diverse, inter- related data sources, but having no means of managing them in a convenient, integrated, or principled fashion. These chal- lenges arise in enterprise and government data management, digital libraries, ìsmartî homes and personal information man- agement. We have proposed dataspaces as a

Alon Y. Halevy; Michael J. Franklin; David Maier

2006-01-01

153

10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...approved deviation from a requirement in these regulations...Identify the specific requirement for which the deviation...or equivalent means for meeting the requirement. (c) DOE employees must submit such...

2010-01-01

154

A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.

Orris, J. B.

2011-01-01

155

38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...

2011-07-01

156

38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...

2010-07-01

157

38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...

2014-07-01

158

38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...

2012-07-01

159

38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...

2013-07-01

160

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab, students will use a little background information about Bernoulli's principle to figure out how the spinning of a moving ball affects its trajectory. The activity is inquiry in that students will be discovering this relationship on their own.

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

161

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bernoulli's principle relates the pressure of a fluid to its elevation and its speed. Bernoulli's equation can be used to approximate these parameters in water, air or any fluid that has very low viscosity. Students learn about the relationships between the components of the Bernoulli equation through real-life engineering examples and practice problems.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program and Laboratory,

162

Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN1-xSbx from first principles

Applicability of the Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting water under visible light irradiation.

Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Lisenkov, Sergey; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Mahendra K.; Menon, Madhu

2011-08-01

163

There are four lines of development that might be called psychosomatic principles. The first represents the work initiated by Claude Bernard, Cannon, and others, in neurophysiology and endocrinology in relationship to stress. The second is the application of psychoanalytic formulations to the understanding of illness. The third is in the development of the social sciences, particularly anthropology, social psychology and sociology with respect to the emotional life of man, and, fourth, there is an increased application of epidemiological techniques to the understanding and incidence of disease and its causes. These principles can be applied to the concepts of comprehensive medicine and they bid fair to be unifying and helpful in its study. This means that future practitioners, as well as those working in the field of psychosomatic medicine, are going to have to have a much more precise knowledge of the influence of emotions on bodily processes. PMID:14259334

Cleghorn, R. A.

1965-01-01

164

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

Sato, Toru

1989-01-01

165

Protocol Development — Policy on the Issuance of Waivers for Protocol Deviation(s)

Staff in the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) occasionally receive calls from investigators requesting that certain criteria in a CTEP-approved protocol be waived so a particular patient can be entered or modifications be made to the original treatment plan. In most cases, these waivers relate to the initial eligibility criteria or treatment plans established when the protocol was written and before patient recruitment begins. Granting waivers for protocol deviations has been handled different at CTEP depending on which program staff is contacted.

166

Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave deviates from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux deviation and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux deviation. The energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite large because of their high anisotropy. The flux deviation angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux deviation was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1).

Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

1992-01-01

167

Influence of altitude on aero-optic imaging deviation.

Aero-optic imaging deviation is a kind of aero-optic effect. It characterizes the image position displacement on an imaging plane. This paper studies the influence of altitude on aero-optic imaging deviation. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver provided in FLUENT was used for flow computations. The Runge-Kutta method based ray tracing was adopted for optics calculations. The orthogonal array was brought in for the experiment arrangement. Four representative suites of imaging deviations and imaging deviation slopes were obtained in the altitude range of 10-60 km. The results show that as altitude increases, the imaging deviation decreases, and the imaging deviation slope approaches zero from a negative value. PMID:21691360

Xu, Liang; Cai, Yuanli

2011-06-20

168

On the Deviations from Ohm's Law at High Current Densities

The deviations from Ohm's law at high current densities are calculated on the basis of the wave-mechanical theory of conductivity. A current density of 109 amp.\\/cm2 causes a 1 percent deviation only. No observable deviations are to be expected at the experimental current densities available at present (106 amp.\\/cm2). This is in agreement with the experiments of Barlow, neither does

Eugene Guth; Josef Mayerhöfer

1940-01-01

169

46 CFR 385.9 - Exceptions, deviations, or waivers.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Regulation System § 385.9 Exceptions, deviations, or waivers. Requests for exceptions,...

2010-10-01

170

Deviations from tri-bimaximality and quark-lepton complementarity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study deviations from tri-bimaximality (TBM) and quark-lepton complementarity (QLC) in a model-independent way. The current neutrino experimental data is well approximated by tri-bimaximal generation mixing but the QLC relations are not satisfied with each data of 1? level. This means that there exist deviations from the complementarity. The same fact for the TBM might be checked in the future neutrino experiments. We discuss such deviations from the TBM and QLC, simultaneously. A new ratio between the deviations is introduced, and some interesting points are presented. We also show predicted correlations among leptonic mixing angles at the points.

Shimizu, Yusuke; Takahashi, Ryo

2011-03-01

171

On Deviations between Observed and Theoretically Estimated Values on Additivity-Law Failures

The authors have reported in the previous studies that the average observed results are about a half of the corresponding predictions on the experiments with large additivity-law failures. One of the reasons of the deviations is studied and clarified by using the original observed data on additivity-law failures in the Nakano experiment. The conclusion from the observations and their analyses

Yoshinobu Nayatani; Hiroaki Sobagaki

2003-01-01

172

The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance

Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of

Shoichi Hisa

2008-01-01

173

Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

Goldberg, Fred M.

1985-01-01

174

Deviational analyses for validating regulations on real systems

of dependability assurance is safety; national and interna- tional procedures require operators of aircraft is a traditional way of exploring the safety of systems. The results of deviational analysis contribute to tradi- tional safety cases and safety arguments. We extend deviational analysis to other aspects

Kelly, Tim

175

Downhole control of deviation with steerable straight-hole turbodrills

Advances in directional drilling have until recently been confined to issues that are peripheral to the central problem of controlling assembly behavior downhole. Examples of these advances are measurement while drilling (MWD) and the increasing use of computer assistance in well planning. These were significant steps forward, but the major problem remained. Changes in formation deviation tendencies led to trips to change bottomhole assemblies (BHA's) to cope with the new conditions. There is almost no direct control of deviation behavior. The steerable straight-hole turbodrill (SST) addresses this problem directly, allowing alteration of the well course without the need to trip. The availability of such a system radically changes the way in which directional well planning may be approached. This paper describes the equipment used and the equipment's construction and operational requirements. It discusses the capabilities and current limitation of the systems. Field results are presented for some 300,000 ft (91 500 m) of deviated drilling carried out over 2 years in Alaska and the North Sea. A series of four highly deviated wells totaling 35,000 ft (10 700m) with only three deviation trips is included. The SST is the first deviation drilling system to achieve deviation control over long sections without tripping to change BHA's. Bits and downhole equipment are now more reliable and long-lived than ever, therefore, deviation trips are becoming a major target for well cost saving.

Gaynor, T.M.

1988-03-01

176

Chi Square Test of Deviations from Expected Frequencies

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The applet allows users to sample from a normal distribution or from a uniform distribution. It shows the expected values and the observed values and computes the deviation. Then, a chi-square test shows if the deviations are significant for both the normal and uniform distributions.

Lane, David M.

177

Deviation of eyes and head in acute cerebral stroke

BACKGROUND: It is a well-known phenomenon that some patients with acute left or right hemisphere stroke show a deviation of the eyes (Prévost's sign) and head to one side. Here we investigated whether both right- and left-sided brain lesions may cause this deviation. Moreover, we studied the relationship between this phenomenon and spatial neglect. In contrast to previous studies, we

M Fruhmann Berger; UJ Ilg; H-O Karnath

2006-01-01

178

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. Calibration on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for calibration are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian principles. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model reduction. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of calibrated model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of accurate filtering become very feasible for our suggested aPC-based calibration framework. However, the power of aPC-based Bayesian updating strongly depends on the accuracy of prior information. In the current study, the prior assumptions on the model parameters were not satisfactory and strongly underestimate the reservoir pressure. Thus, the aPC-based response surface used in Bootstrap filtering is fitted to a distant and poorly chosen region within the parameter space. Thanks to the iterative procedure suggested in [2] we overcome this drawback with small computational costs. The iteration successively improves the accuracy of the expansion around the current estimation of the posterior distribution. The final result is a calibrated model of the site that can be used for further studies, with an excellent match to the data. References [1] Oladyshkin S. and Nowak W. Data-driven uncertainty quantification using the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 106:179-190, 2012. [2] Oladyshkin S., Class H., Nowak W. Bayesian updating via Bootstrap filtering combined with data-driven polynomial chaos expansions: methodology and application to history matching for carbon dioxide storage in geological formations. Computational Geosciences, 17 (4), 671-687, 2013.

Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.

2013-12-01

179

Ion Density Deviations in Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules: Influence on Biosensors

Polyelectrolyte microcapsules loaded with fluorescent dyes have been proposed as biosensors to monitor local pH and ionic strength for diagnostic purposes. In the case of charged microcapsules, however, the local electric field can cause deviations of ion densities inside the cavities, potentially resulting in misdiagnosis of some diseases. Using nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we systematically investigate these deviations induced by charged microcapsules. Our results show that the microcapsule charge density, as well as the capsule and salt concentrations, contribute to deviations of local ion concentrations and pH. Our findings are relevant for applications of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with encapsulated ion-sensitive dyes as biosensors.

Qiyun Tang; Alan R. Denton

2014-10-24

180

The inconstant "principle of constancy".

A review of the principle of constancy, as it appeared in Freud's writings, shows that it was inspired by his clinical observations, first with Breuer in the field of cathartic therapy and then through experiences in the early usage of psychoanalysis. The recognition that memories repressed in the unconscious created increasing tension, and that this was relieved with dischargelike phenomena when the unconscious was made conscious, was the basis for his claim to originality in this area. The two principles of "neuronic inertia" Freud expounded in the Project (1895), are found to offer the key to the ambiguous definition of the principle of constancy he was to offer in later years. The "original" principle, which sought the complete discharge of energy (or elimination of stimuli), became the forerunner of the death drive; the "extended" principle achieved balances that were relatively constant, but succumbed in the end to complete discharge. This was the predecessor of the life drives. The relation between the constancy and pleasure-unpleasure principles was maintained for twenty-five years largely on an empirical basis which invoked the concept of psychophysical parallelism between "quantity" and "quality." As the links between the two principles were weakened by clinical experiences attendant upon the growth of ego psychology, a revision of the principle of constancy was suggested, and it was renamed the Nirvana principle. Actually it was shifted from alignment with the "extended" principle of inertia to the original, so that "constancy" was incongruously identified with self-extinction. The former basis for the constancy principle, the extended principle of inertia, became identified with Eros. Only a few commentators seem aware of this radical transformation, which has been overlooked in the Standard Edition of Freud's writings. Physiological biases in the history and conception of the principle of constancy are noted in the Standard Edition. The historical antecedents of the principle of constancy, especially in relation to the teachings and influence of J. F. Herbart (1776-1841), do much to bridge the gap between psychological and neurophysiological aspects of Freud's ideas about constancy and its associated doctrine, psychic determinism. Freud's later teachings about the Nirvana principle and Eros suggest a continuum of "constancies" embodied in the structural and functional development of the mental apparatus as it evolves from primal unity with the environment (e.g., the mother-child unit) and differentiates in patterns that organize the inner and outer worlds in relation to each other. PMID:6681436

Kanzer, M

1983-01-01

181

Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (?) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO (<1 ppbv to a peak of 295 ppbv), NO2 (<2 ppbv-47 ppbv) and O3 (4 ppbv-95 ppbv) mixing ratios, all of which showed strong diurnal variation. The ? values showed large deviations from unity over the measurement period, with mostly negative deviations (? < 1), showing that the air masses were dominated by local sources of NOx and that the PSS was not achieved. Positive deviations (? > 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

2014-10-01

182

Star Library: What Makes the Standard Deviation Larger or Smaller?

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activity is designed to help students develop a better intuitive understanding of what is meant by variability in statistics. Emphasis is placed on the standard deviation as a measure of variability. As they learn about the standard deviation, many students focus on the variability of bar heights in a histogram when asked to compare the variability of two distributions. For these students, variability refers to the Â?Â?variationÂ?Â in bar heights. Other students may focus only on the range of values, or the number of bars in a histogram, and conclude that two distributions are identical in variability even when it is clearly not the case. This activity can help students discover that the standard deviation is a measure of the density of values about the mean of a distribution and to become more aware of how clusters, gaps, and extreme values affect the standard deviation.

2009-02-12

183

Recognizing deviations from normalcy for brain tumor segmentation

A framework is proposed for the segmentation of brain tumors from MRI. Instead of training on pathology, the proposed method trains exclusively on healthy tissue. The algorithm attempts to recognize deviations from normalcy ...

Gering, David T. (David Thomas), 1971-

2003-01-01

184

EXTENDING SAFETY DEVIATION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES TO ELICIT FLEXIBLE DEPENDABILITY REQUIREMENTS

EXTENDING SAFETY DEVIATION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES TO ELICIT FLEXIBLE DEPENDABILITY REQUIREMENTS G dependability levels for the system. Elicitation of the requirements that define the levels of the dependability how we can extend existing safety techniques to elicit dependability requirements. Well established

Kelly, Tim

185

Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.

Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors

Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.

1982-01-01

186

Deviations from Berry--Robnik Distribution Caused by Spectral Accumulation

By extending the Berry--Robnik approach for the nearly integrable quantum systems,\\cite{[1]} we propose one possible scenario of the energy level spacing distribution that deviates from the Berry--Robnik distribution. The result described in this paper implies that deviations from the Berry--Robnik distribution would arise when energy level components show strong accumulation, and otherwise, the level spacing distribution agrees with the Berry--Robnik distribution.

H. Makino; S. Tasaki

2004-03-26

187

THE SECOND CYBERNETICS Deviation-Amplifying Mutual Causal Processes

Since its inception, cybernetics was more or less identified as a science of self-regulating and equilibrating systems. Thermostats, physiological regulation of body temperature, automatic steering devices, economic and political processes were studied under a general mathematical model of deviation-counteracting feedback networks. By focusing on the deviation-counteracting aspect of the mutual causal relationships however, the cyberneticians paid less attention to the

MAGOROH MARUYAMA

1963-01-01

188

Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

Ni, W.-T.

1977-01-01

189

Archimedes' Principle, Pascal's Law and Bernoulli's Principle

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle and Bernoulli's principle. Fundamental definitions, equations, practice problems and engineering applications are supplied. A PowerPoint® presentation, practice problems and grading rubric are provided.

2014-09-18

190

Measuring instrument for radial composite deviations of high-precision master gear

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During double flank rolling composite detection, the radial composite deviations of master gears has been existed and transferred to the measured gear by the primary harmonic curve. In order to improve measurement accuracy, a measuring instrument is developed for radial composite deviations of high-precision master gear in the paper. This instrument uses the structure of spring-suspend swing span to overcome the shortcomings of large rotation errors, low sensitivity, low resolution and large measuring force appearing in the traditional combination-type gear inspection instrument. Artificial intelligence technology is used to improve the efficiency and accuracy of this instrument. The result is that the measuring apparatus is able to meet the requirement and improve efficiency through the measuring experiments on master gears of precision grade 2 with modulus 2 mm and 3 mm, respectively.

Ma, Yong; Wang, Tongxiang; Lou, Zhifeng; Wang, Liding; Zhang, Yuling

2010-08-01

191

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

192

A study of course deviations during cross-country soaring

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several models are developed for studying the impact of deviations from course during cross country soaring flights. Analyses are performed at the microstrategy and macrostrategy levels. Two types of lift sources are considered: concentrated thermals and thermal streets. The sensitivity of the optimum speed solutions to various model, piloting and performance parameters is evaluated. Guides are presented to provide the pilot with criterions for making in-flight decisions. In general, course deviations are warranted during weak lift conditions, but are less justifiable with moderate to strong lift conditions.

Sliwa, S. M.; Sliwa, D. J.

1979-01-01

193

Uncertainty principle and kinetic equations

A large number of mathematical studies on the Boltzmann equation are based on the Grad's angular cutoff assumption. However, for particle interaction with inverse power law potentials, the associated cross-sections have a non-integrable singularity corresponding to the grazing collisions. Smoothing properties of solutions are then expected. On the other hand, the uncertainty principle, established by Heisenberg in 1927, has been

R. Alexandre; Y. Morimoto; S. Ukai; C.-J. Xu; T. Yang

2008-01-01

194

Principles and Methods Chromatography

Edition AC 18-1022-29 Principles and Methods Affinity Chromatography #12;Antibody Purification-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Ion Exchange Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1114-21 Affinity Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1022-29 Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Principles

Lebendiker, Mario

195

Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…

Bonett, Douglas G.

2006-01-01

196

On the Deviation Matrix of Queueing Systems with Discouraged Arrivals

for the deviation matrix. From this expression, the average cost and the corresponding relative value function of the customers are independent and follow an exponential distribution. The system is subject to costs per unit with admission control. Numerical experiments show that the improved policy has a close to optimal value. 1

Bhulai, Sandjai

197

Deviation from Ohm's law in As2Se3 glass

I-V curves have been measured on As2Se3 glass as a function of the thickness and temperature of the specimen. Deviation from Ohm's law starts at a particular field, the value of which is 1.6 × 105V\\/cm at room temperature.

H. J. de Wit; C. Crevecoeur

1970-01-01

198

14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2010-01-01

199

14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2011-01-01

200

14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2013-01-01

201

14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2014-01-01

202

14 CFR 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2012-01-01

203

Relative Entropy: Free Energy Associated with Equilibrium Fluctuations and Nonequilibrium Deviations

Using a one-dimensional macromolecule in aqueous solution as an illustration, we demonstrate that the relative entropy from information theory, $\\sum_k p_k\\ln(p_k/p_k^*)$, has a natural role in the energetics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium conformational fluctuations of the single molecule. It is identified as the free energy difference associated with a fluctuating density in equilibrium, and is associated with the distribution deviate from the equilibrium in nonequilibrium relaxation. This result can be generalized to any other isothermal macromolecular systems using the mathematical theories of large deviations and Markov processes, and at the same time provides the well-known mathematical results with an interesting physical interpretations.

Hong Qian

2001-02-07

204

The Deviation of the Vacuum Refractive Index Induced by a Static Gravitational Field

We analyzed the influence of static gravitational field on the vacuum and proposed the concept of inhomogeneous vacuum. According to the observational result of the light deflection in solar gravitational field as well as the corresponding Fermat's principle in the general relativity, we derived an analytical expression of the refractive index of vacuum in a static gravitational field. We found that the deviation of the vacuum refractive index is composed of two parts: one is caused by the time dilation effect, the other is caused by the length contraction effect. As an application, we simulated the effect of the gravitational lensing through computer programming and found that the missing central imaging could be interpreted in a reasonable way.

Xing-Hao Ye; Qiang Lin

2007-04-10

205

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A PV system output is not constant and varies depending on climate conditions. Varying PV power causes frequency deviations and decrease in reliability of the isolated power utility when large PV power from multiple PV systems is fed in the utility. In this paper, to overcome this problem, a simple coordinated control method based on fuzzy reasoning is proposed to reduce the frequency deviations. Here, the power command is formed in two steps: central and local. Fuzzy control is applied to produce the central power command considering average insolation, change of insolation, and frequency deviations. In the local step, a simple coordination is kept between the central power command and the local power commands by producing a common tuning factor. The proposed method is compared with the method where extracted maximum power is supplied to the utility without coordination. Simulation results show that the proposed method is feasible to reduce the frequency deviations of the isolated power utility and delivers PV power near the maximum PV power. Usually, to reduce frequency deviations, PV power is smoothed; however, propose method reduces the frequency deviation without smoothing of the PV power variations.

Datta, Manoj; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi; Funabashi, Toshihisa

206

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a "main condition" for phase stability has been employed to investigate the effects of the velocity deviation of the electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors (MPs). In a previous study [M. Mostajeran, Phys. Plasmas 21, 053108 (2014)], a stability equation was derived, where the secondary electron was assumed to have zero initial velocity and the phase deviation from the resonant phase was considered. In this work, both deviations in phase and velocity from the resonant condition are taken into account, assuming nonzero initial velocity for the secondary electrons. Using the main condition for stability, it is shown that MP discharge can rise in situations, where large velocity deviations from initial velocity and large phase deviations from resonant phase exist. This is contrary to what can be predicted on the basis of the "simple stability condition." This result is further confirmed by numerical simulations.

Mostajeran, M.

2014-11-01

207

Solar Radiation Pressure and Deviations from Keplerian Orbits

Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.

Kezerashvili, Roman Ya

2009-01-01

208

Solar Radiation Pressure and Deviations from Keplerian Orbits

Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.

Roman Ya. Kezerashvili; Justin F. Vazquez-Poritz

2009-04-15

209

Deviations from liquidlike behavior in molten polymer films at interfaces.

We have performed x-ray specular and diffuse scattering on liquid polymer films and analyzed the spectra as a function of film thickness and molecular weight. The results show that films whose molecular weight is close to the entanglement length behave as simple liquids except that the shortest wavelength is determined by the radius of gyration (R(g)) rather than the monomer-monomer distance. When the molecular weight is higher than the entanglement length, the strong deviations from liquidlike behavior are observed. We find that the long wavelength cutoff vector, q(l,c), scales with film thickness, d as d(-1.1+/-0.1) rather than the usual d(-2) expected for simple liquids. If we assume that these deviations are due to surface pinning of the polymer chains, then our results are consistent with the formalism developed by Fredrickson et al. to explain the capillary wave spectrum that can propagate in a polymer brush. PMID:15904190

Seo, Young-Soo; Koga, T; Sokolov, J; Rafailovich, M H; Tolan, M; Sinha, S

2005-04-22

210

Latent ocular deviations in patients with advanced AIDS

The purpose of this study is to determine horizontal latent ocular deviations in patients with advanced AIDS (CD4+ count 9\\/l) and to compare with normal values by means of the von Graefe technique. Twenty patients aged between 17 and 44 years with AIDS and aged-matched control groups were submitted to study. The AC\\/A ratio was also measured in both groups

E. España-Gregori; R. Montés-Micó; I. Bueno-Gimeno; M. Dìaz-Llopis; J. L. Menezo-Rozalén

2001-01-01

211

OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.

This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.

Olsen, Harold W.

1985-01-01

212

Time Course of Eye and Head Deviation in Spatial Neglect

Spatial neglect is characterized by a deviation of the eyes and the head during active search, as well as at rest. Here the authors investigate the hitherto unknown relationship between these striking behaviors in the course of recovery. Gaze, eye-in-head, and head-on-trunk positions were recorded separately under two experimental conditions: (i) at rest (i.e., without any specific requirements, doing nothing)

Monika Fruhmann Berger; Leif Johannsen; Hans-Otto Karnath

2008-01-01

213

Explorations in statistics: standard deviations and standard errors

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in Advances in Physiology Education provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle with which to explore basic concepts in statistics, I provide the requisite R commands. In this inaugural paper we explore the essential distinction between standard deviation and standard error: a standard deviation estimates the variability among sample observations whereas a standard error of the mean estimates the variability among theoretical sample means. If we fail to report the standard deviation, then we fail to fully report our data. Because it incorporates information about sample size, the standard error of the mean is a misguided estimate of variability among observations. Instead, the standard error of the mean provides an estimate of the uncertainty of the true value of the population mean.

PhD Douglas Curran-Everett (National Jewish Medical and Research Center Div. Biostatistics, Depts. Prev. Med./Biometrics, Physiology/Biophys)

2008-05-06

214

Chemical Principls Exemplified

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

Plumb, Robert C.

1973-01-01

215

Correlation study between nasal septal deviation and rhinosinusitis.

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a major cause of concern worldwide. Nasal septal deviation (NSD) may either cause osteomeatal obstruction or may interfere with proper airflow and potentially predispose to sinusitis. Due to the lack of a universally accepted classification on NSD it has not been established whether NSD influences the development of sinusitis or not. Mladina in 1987 proposed a classification in which he classified NSD into seven different categories. The aims and objectives of this study are to observe the correlation between NSD and CRS and to study the relation of different grades of NSD with sinusitis as per Mladina's classification. Patients above 18 years of age presenting to ENT OPD with complaint of nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and headache were subjected to CT scan (nose and paranasal sinuses) coronal section with contiguous 5 mm thickness slice perpendicular to the hard palate in prone position. Presence of NSD and sinusitis was observed. 120 cases were studied. The mean age was 28.7 ± 9.37 years with age range 18-58 years. There were 92 (76.6 %) males and 28 (23.3 %) females with a M:F ratio of 3:1. Out of 120 cases, 114 (95 %) cases had NSD. Sinusitis was present in 63 (52.5 %) cases on CT scan. Out of 57 (50.0 %) cases with NSD and sinusitis, 13 (11.4 %) cases had sinusitis on the same side of NSD, 14 (12.28 %) cases had sinusitis on the side opposite to NSD and 30 (26.31 %) cases had sinusitis on both sides of NSD. There was no statistically significant relationship between NSD and sinusitis. As per Mladina's classification vertical deviations accounted for majority of patient's septal deviations with 31 (27.1 %) cases of type II NSD and 24 (21.1 %) cases of type I NSD. The maximum number of cases with sinusitis had vertical deviations with type I NSD in 17 (27.0 %) cases and type II NSD in 18 (28.5 %) cases. The present study reveals that there is no correlation between NSD and sinusitis. Vertical deviations type I and type II are more prone to sinusitis as they involve the nasal valve area. PMID:24427600

Prasad, Sumit; Varshney, Saurabh; Bist, S S; Mishra, Sarita; Kabdwal, Namita

2013-12-01

216

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. The exclusion principle: a philosophical overview; 2. The origins of the exclusion principle: an extremely natural prescriptive rule; 3. From the old quantum theory to the new quantum theory: reconsidering Kuhn's incommensurability; 4. How Pauli's rule became the exclusion principle: from the Fermi-Dirac statistics to the spin-statistics theorem; 5. The exclusion principle opens up new avenues: from the eightfold way to quantum chromodynamics.

Massimi, Michela

2012-10-01

217

Anthropic principle in cosmology

A brief explanation of the meaning of the anthropic principle - as a prescription for the attribution of a priori probability weighting - is illustrated by various cosmological and local applications, in which the relevant conclusions are contrasted with those that could be obtained from (less plausible) alternative prescriptions such as the vaguer and less restrictive ubiquity principle, or the more sterile and restrictive autocentric principle.

Brandon Carter

2006-06-27

218

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

Beim, George

219

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations,

Paul Busch; Teiko Heinonen; Pekka Lahti

2007-01-01

220

By examining two counterexamples to the existing theory, it is shown, with mathematical rigor, that as far as scattered particles are concerned the true distribution function is in principle not determinable (indeterminacy principle or uncertainty principle) while the average distribution function over each predetermined finite velocity solid-angle element can be calculated.

C. Y. Chen

2008-12-23

221

Reconsidering Archimedes' Principle

Archimedes' principle as stated originally by Archimedes and in modern texts can lead to an incorrect prediction if the submerged object is in contact with a solid surface. In this paper we look experimentally at a submerged object and show that though the theoretical explanations of the principle are valid, the statement of the principle needs clarification.

Jeffrey Bierman; Eric Kincanon

2003-01-01

222

Chemical Principles Exemplified

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

Plumb, Robert C.

1970-01-01

223

Large-deviation analysis and applications Of learning tree-structured graphical models

The design and analysis of complexity-reduced representations for multivariate data is important in many scientific and engineering domains. This thesis explores such representations from two different perspectives: deriving ...

Tan, Vincent Yan Fu

2011-01-01

224

Large Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations in the Daphnia longispina of Lake El Tobar

The population structure of Daphnia longispina in Lake El Tobar, Spain was studied by measuring variation at the aldehyde oxidase (AO), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) and phosphoglucose mutase (PGM) loci in each of 1337 individuals from four collections. In 9 of the 12 comparisons between observed allele frequencies and those expected by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium there was an excess of heterozygotes. We

Charles E. King; Maria R. Miracle; Eduardo Vicente

1995-01-01

225

Power-free values, large deviations, and integer points on irrational curves

Let $f\\\\in \\\\mathbb{Z}\\\\lbrack x\\\\rbrack$ be a polynomial of degree $d\\\\geq 3$\\u000awithout roots of multiplicity $d$ or $(d-1)$. Erd\\\\H{o}s conjectured that, if\\u000a$f$ satisfies the necessary local conditions, then $f(p)$ is free of $(d-1)$th\\u000apowers for infinitely many primes $p$. This is proved here for all $f$ with\\u000asufficiently high entropy.\\u000a The proof serves to demonstrate two innovations: a strong

Harald A. HELFGOTT

2004-01-01

226

Whose Opinion to Follow in Multihypothesis Social Learning? A Large Deviations Perspective

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a multihypothesis social learning problem in which an agent has access to a set of private observations and chooses an opinion from a set of experts to incorporate into its final decision. To model individual biases, we allow the agent and experts to have general loss functions and possibly different decision spaces. We characterize the loss exponents of both the agent and experts, and provide an asymptotically optimal method for the agent to choose the best expert to follow. We show that up to asymptotic equivalence, the worst loss exponent for the agent is achieved when it adopts the 0-1 loss function, which assigns a loss of 0 if the true hypothesis is declared and a loss of 1 otherwise. We introduce the concept of hypothesis-loss neutrality, and show that if the agent adopts a particular policy that is hypothesis-loss neutral, then it ignores all experts whose decision spaces are smaller than its own. On the other hand, if experts have the same decision space as the agent, then choosing an expert with the same loss function as itself is not necessarily optimal for the agent, which is somewhat counter-intuitive. We derive sufficient conditions for when it is optimal for the agent with 0-1 loss function to choose an expert with the same loss function.

Tay, Wee Peng

2015-03-01

227

Hausdorff and Packing Spectra, Large Deviations, and Free Energy for Branching Random Walks in

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider an -valued branching random walk (BRW) on a supercritical Galton Watson tree. Without any assumption on the distribution of this BRW we compute, almost surely and simultaneously, the Hausdorff and packing dimensions of the level sets E( K) of infinite branches in the boundary of the tree (endowed with its standard metric) along which the averages of the BRW have a given closed connected set of limit points K. This goes beyond multifractal analysis, which only considers those level sets when K ranges in the set of singletons . We also give a 0-? law for the Hausdorff and packing measures of the level sets E({ ?}), and compute the free energy of the associated logarithmically correlated random energy model in full generality. Moreover, our results complete the previous works on multifractal analysis by including the levels ? which do not belong to the range of the gradient of the free energy. This covers in particular a situation that was until now badly understood, namely the case where a first order phase transition occurs. As a consequence of our study, we can also describe the whole singularity spectrum of Mandelbrot measures, as well as the associated free energy function (or L q -spectrum), when a first order phase transition occurs.

Attia, Najmeddine; Barral, Julien

2014-10-01

228

Meristem temperature (Tmeristem ) drives plant development but is hardly ever quantified. Instead, air temperature (Tair ) is usually used as its approximation. Meristems are enclosed within apical buds. Bud structure and function may differ across species. Therefore, Tmeristem may deviate from Tair in a species-specific way. Environmental variables (air temperature, vapour pressure deficit, radiation, and wind speed) were systematically varied to quantify the response of Tmeristem . This response was related to observations of bud structure and transpiration. Tomato and cucumber plants were used as model plants as they are morphologically distinct and usually growing in similar environments. Tmeristem substantially deviated from Tair in a species-specific manner under moderate environments. This deviation ranged between -2.6 and 3.8?°C in tomato and between -4.1 and 3.0?°C in cucumber. The lower Tmeristem observed in cucumber was linked with the higher transpiration of the bud foliage sheltering the meristem when compared with tomato plants. We here indicate that for properly linking growth and development of plants to temperature in future applications, for instance in climate change scenarios studies, Tmeristem should be used instead of Tair , as a species-specific trait highly reliant on various environmental factors. PMID:23509944

Savvides, Andreas; van Ieperen, Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A; Marcelis, Leo F M

2013-11-01

229

Deviations from piecewise linearity in the solid-state limit with approximate density functionals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In exact density functional theory, the total ground-state energy is a series of linear segments between integer electron points, a condition known as "piecewise linearity." Deviation from this condition is indicative of poor predictive capabilities for electronic structure, in particular of ionization energies, fundamental gaps, and charge transfer. In this article, we take a new look at the deviation from linearity (i.e., curvature) in the solid-state limit by considering two different ways of approaching it: a large finite system of increasing size and a crystal represented by an increasingly large reference cell with periodic boundary conditions. We show that the curvature approaches vanishing values in both limits, even for functionals which yield poor predictions of electronic structure, and therefore cannot be used as a diagnostic or constructive tool in solids. We find that the approach towards zero curvature is different in each of the two limits, owing to the presence of a compensating background charge in the periodic case. Based on these findings, we present a new criterion for functional construction and evaluation, derived from the size-dependence of the curvature, along with a practical method for evaluating this criterion. For large finite systems, we further show that the curvature is dominated by the self-interaction of the highest occupied eigenstate. These findings are illustrated by computational studies of various solids, semiconductor nanocrystals, and long alkane chains.

Vl?ek, Vojt?ch; Eisenberg, Helen R.; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Kronik, Leeor; Baer, Roi

2015-01-01

230

Deviations from piecewise linearity in the solid-state limit with approximate density functionals.

In exact density functional theory, the total ground-state energy is a series of linear segments between integer electron points, a condition known as "piecewise linearity." Deviation from this condition is indicative of poor predictive capabilities for electronic structure, in particular of ionization energies, fundamental gaps, and charge transfer. In this article, we take a new look at the deviation from linearity (i.e., curvature) in the solid-state limit by considering two different ways of approaching it: a large finite system of increasing size and a crystal represented by an increasingly large reference cell with periodic boundary conditions. We show that the curvature approaches vanishing values in both limits, even for functionals which yield poor predictions of electronic structure, and therefore cannot be used as a diagnostic or constructive tool in solids. We find that the approach towards zero curvature is different in each of the two limits, owing to the presence of a compensating background charge in the periodic case. Based on these findings, we present a new criterion for functional construction and evaluation, derived from the size-dependence of the curvature, along with a practical method for evaluating this criterion. For large finite systems, we further show that the curvature is dominated by the self-interaction of the highest occupied eigenstate. These findings are illustrated by computational studies of various solids, semiconductor nanocrystals, and long alkane chains. PMID:25612689

Vl?ek, Vojt?ch; Eisenberg, Helen R; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Kronik, Leeor; Baer, Roi

2015-01-21

231

Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.

Jie Gu

2013-11-01

232

Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…

Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

2010-01-01

233

Altitude deviations: Breakdowns of an error-tolerant system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot reports of aviation incidents to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) provide a window on the problems occurring in today's airline cockpits. The narratives of 10 pilot reports of errors made in the automation-assisted altitude-change task are used to illustrate some of the issues of pilots interacting with automatic systems. These narratives are then used to construct a description of the cockpit as an information processing system. The analysis concentrates on the error-tolerant properties of the system and on how breakdowns can occasionally occur. An error-tolerant system can detect and correct its internal processing errors. The cockpit system consists of two or three pilots supported by autoflight, flight-management, and alerting systems. These humans and machines have distributed access to clearance information and perform redundant processing of information. Errors can be detected as deviations from either expected behavior or as deviations from expected information. Breakdowns in this system can occur when the checking and cross-checking tasks that give the system its error-tolerant properties are not performed because of distractions or other task demands. Recommendations based on the analysis for improving the error tolerance of the cockpit system are given.

Palmer, Everett A.; Hutchins, Edwin L.; Ritter, Richard D.; Vancleemput, Inge

1993-01-01

234

How to optimize motor drilling in non-deviated wells

Since the introduction of drilling with positive displacement motors (PDM) in the 1960s, considerable effort has been devoted to increasing motor life, reliability, power and efficiency. Nabors Drilling has studied vertical drilling with downhole motors extensively, and has found that a detailed hydraulics analysis combined with optimized motor-bit selection can improve the economics markedly. Many tangible and intangible benefits have been documented. To reduce bottomhole assembly (BHA) failures and improve deviation control, Nabors Drilling implemented PDMs in the 9 7/8-in. upper hole section during a recent 1-year drilling program. This interval consisted of a sandstone formation to be drilled with a tooth type bit and a shale to be drilled with a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit. BHA failures were eliminated and in turn, fishing time and costs were reduced. Deviation control was also improved.The penetration rate increased significantly, reducing operating time from 12 days to 8 days. In addition, PDMs eliminated a trip when stabilizers were used while drilling out of the casing shoe, and extended PDC bit life.

Alexander, W.; Pool, R. (Dresser Security, Houston, TX (United States)); Hamm, G. (Nabors Drilling, Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-01

235

Economic uncertainty principle? Alexander Harin

Economic uncertainty principle? Alexander Harin This preliminary paper presents a qualitative description of the economic principle of (hidden, latent) uncertainty. Mathematical expressions of principle. ....................................................................... 2 1. Economic uncertainty principle ........................................... 2 1.1. General

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Generalized uncertainty principles

The phenomenon in the essence of classical uncertainty principles is well known since the thirties of the last century. We introduce a new phenomenon which is in the essence of a new notion that we introduce: "Generalized Uncertainty Principles". We show the relation between classical uncertainty principles and generalized uncertainty principles. We generalized "Landau-Pollak-Slepian" uncertainty principle. Our generalization relates the following two quantities and two scaling parameters: 1) The weighted time spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |f(x)|^2w_1(x)dx$, ($w_1(x)$ is a non-negative function). 2) The weighted frequency spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |\\hat{f}(\\omega)|^2w_2(\\omega)d\\omega$. 3) The time weight scale $a$, ${w_1}_a(x)=w_1(xa^{-1})$ and 4) The frequency weight scale $b$, ${w_2}_b(\\omega)=w_2(\\omega b^{-1})$. "Generalized Uncertainty Principle" is an inequality that summarizes the constraints on the relations between the two spreading quantities and two scaling parameters. For any two reasonable weights $w_1(x)$ and $w_2(\\omega)$, we introduced a three dimensional set in $R^3$ that is in the essence of many uncertainty principles. The set is called "possibility body". We showed that classical uncertainty principles (such as the Heiseneberg-Pauli-Weyl uncertainty principle) stem from lower bounds for different functions defined on the possibility body. We investigated qualitative properties of general uncertainty principles and possibility bodies. Using this approach we derived new (quantitative) uncertainty principles for Landau-Pollak-Slepian weights. We found the general uncertainty principles related to homogeneous weights, $w_1(x)=w_2(x)=x^k$, $k\\in N$, up to a constant.

Ronny Machluf

2008-07-14

237

On Deviations between Observed and Theoretically Estimated Values on Additivity-Law Failures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have reported in the previous studies that the average observed results are about a half of the corresponding predictions on the experiments with large additivity-law failures. One of the reasons of the deviations is studied and clarified by using the original observed data on additivity-law failures in the Nakano experiment. The conclusion from the observations and their analyses clarified that it was essentially difficult to have a good agreement between the average observed results and the corresponding theoretical predictions in the experiments with large additivity-law failures. This is caused by a kind of unavoidable psychological pressure existing in subjects participated in the experiments. We should be satisfied with the agreement in trend between them.

Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Sobagaki, Hiroaki

238

Bateman's principle and immunity.

The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) of Folstad and Karter has inspired a large number of studies that have tried to understand the causal basis of parasite-mediated sexual selection. Even though this hypothesis is based on the double function of testosterone, a hormone restricted to vertebrates, studies of invertebrates have tended to provide central support for specific predictions of the ICHH. I propose an alternative hypothesis that explains many of the findings without relying on testosterone or other biochemical feedback loops. This alternative is based on Bateman's principle, that males gain fitness by increasing their mating success whilst females increase fitness through longevity because their reproductive effort is much higher. Consequently, I predict that females should invest more in immunity than males. The extent of this dimorphism is determined by the mating system and the genetic correlation between males and females in immune traits. In support of my arguments, I mainly use studies on insects that share innate immunity with vertebrates and have the advantage that they are easier to study. PMID:11958720

Rolff, Jens

2002-01-01

239

The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene

An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310?/? and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately. PMID:25364316

2014-01-01

240

Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

1997-01-01

241

The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310?/? and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately.

Chan, Shih-Hao; Chen, Jia-Wei; Chen, Hung-Pin; Wei, Hung-Sen; Li, Meng-Chi; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

2014-10-01

242

Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model

The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt`s Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong [National Chiao Tung Univ., Taiwan (China)

1996-12-31

243

Low-energy magnetic radiation: deviations from GOE

A pronounced spike at low energy in the strength function for magnetic radiation (LEMAR) is found by means of Shell Model calculations, which explains the experimentally observed enhancement of the dipole strength. LEMAR originates from statistical low-energy M1-transitions between many excited complex states. Re-coupling of the proton and neutron high-j orbitals generates the strong magnetic radiation. LEMAR is closely related to Magnetic Rotation. LEMAR is predicted for nuclides participating in the r-process of element synthesis and is expected to change the reaction rates. An exponential decrease of the strength function and a power law for the size distribution of the $B(M1)$ values are found, which strongly deviate from the ones of the GOE of random matrices, which is commonly used to represent complex compound states.

S. Frauendorf; R. Schwengner; K. Wimmer

2014-07-07

244

Field estimation of standard deviations for 3D Gaussian model

The Gaussian dispersion model is the model most frequently used by environmental engineers to estimate the concentration (g/m{sup 3}), c, due to the atmospheric transport of contaminants. A method has been developed that gives analytical solutions for estimation of the standard deviations {sigma}{sub y} and {sigma}{sub z} in the Gaussian model from observed data without requiring knowledge of the change in wind direction. With a defined concentration radio term, R, estimates for {sigma}{sub y} can be obtained by solving the Gaussian model. By introducing a dimensionless concentration factor, c{prime}, estimates for {sigma}{sub z} can be approximated at different downwind ranges. This method can be used in field applications and also for model calibration and verification.

Jin, A.; Chang, S.Y. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-07-01

245

Regulation on radial position deviation for vertical AMB systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a source of model uncertainty, gyroscopic effect, depending on rotor speed, is studied for the vertical active magnetic bearing (VAMB) systems which are increasingly used in various industries such as clean rooms, compressors and satellites. This research applies H? controller to regulate the rotor position deviations of the VAMB systems in four degrees of freedom. The performance of H? controller is examined by experimental simulations to inspect its closed-loop stiffness, rise time and capability to suppress the high frequency disturbances. Although the H? is inferior to the LQR in position deviation regulation, the required control current in the electromagnetic bearings is much less than that for LQR or PID and the performance robustness is well retained. In order to ensure the stability robustness of H? controller, two approaches, by Kharitonov polynomials and TITO (two inputs & two outputs) Nyquist Stability Criterion, are employed to synthesize the control feedback loop. A test rig is built to further verify the efficacy of the proposed H? controller experimentally. Two Eddy-current types of gap sensors, perpendicular to each other, are included to the realistic rotor-bearing system. A four-pole magnetic bearing is used as the actuator for generation of control force. The commercial I/O module unit with A/D and D/A converters, dSPACE DS1104, is integrated to the VAMB, gap sensors, power amplifiers and signal processing circuits. The H? is designed on the basis of rotor speed 10 K rpm but in fact it is significantly robust with respect to the rotor speed, varying from 6.5 to 13.5 K rpm.

Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Kuo, Chien-Hsien; Lee, Rong-Mao

2007-10-01

246

Well tractors for highly deviated and horizontal wells

This paper introduces the oil industry to a new type of downhole tools--the Well Tractors with modular power source designed for running in open hole and inside the completions of horizontal and highly deviated wells. The Well Tractors are used for cleaning, setting and pulling of plugs, operating sliding sleeves, open hole logging, running of production logs, drilling, perforation guns, cement bond logs, etc. Horizontally the Well Tractors pull coiled tubing and/or wireline beyond 10,000 ft. The Well Tractors are capable of pulling more than 25,000 ft of coiled tubing and/or wireline into a highly deviated well. Furthermore the tools are designed for pushing other tools into the hole, e.g., logging tools, video cameras, etc. The Well Tractors with modular power source are designed in two versions: A fluid driven version for coiled tubing operations, powered by brine, water, mud, etc., which is pumped down through standard coiled tubing. The tool is controlled from the surface via a wireline running inside the tubing. Through the wireline measurements can be transmitted to the surface. Alternatively the tool can also operate without the wireline which enables it to run with a smaller size of coiled tubing or have a higher flow rate for cleaning jobs. An electric driven version of the Well Tractor for wireline operations, powered and controlled through the wireline. The Well Tractors are designed in 3 different sizes. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 3 1/8 in. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 4 3/4 in. and a Tractor with an outside diameter of 2 1/8 in.

Hallundbaek, J.

1994-12-31

247

The Principle of Energetic Consistency

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of energetic consistency implies that, to precisely the extent that growing modes are important in data assimilation, this term is also important.

Cohn, Stephen E.

2009-01-01

248

[Genetics and the precautionary principle].

It is very important to follow the Precautionary Principles with regard to genetics because of its fast development and of its impact in the public imaginer. In that regard gene grafts, OGM or recombinant drugs are pre-eminently be suspected to transmit human or animal viruses and/or to induce severe allergies. Pharmaceutical Industry has conducted large reflexions on such problems and are using drastic rules to prevent them. By contrast, academic research laboratories are handicapped by the problem of fund seeking. At the genetic disease level and mainly because the fast development of Predictive Medicine, patient and family councelling requires a great lot of reflexion and carefulness. Memorization of the presence of abnormal genes in the history of families also constitutes an important problem. We believe that, to be in accordance with the Precautionary Principles, an important work of formation and information is required. PMID:11077717

Rosa, J

2000-01-01

249

Principles for system level electrochemistry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.

Thaller, L. H.

1986-01-01

250

In vitro-induced cell-mediated immune deviation to encephalitogenic antigens.

The injection of antigens into the Anterior Chamber (AC) of the eye induces Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID), which is a potent form of immune deviation that is largely attributed to the effect of TGF?2 in the aqueous humor on ocular antigen-presenting cells (APCs). ACAID antigen presentation via APCs and B cells leads to the generation of antigen-specific T regulatory cells. The encephalitogenic antigens Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and Myelin basic protein (MBP) have an obvious clinical relevance. We hypothesized that the intravenous injection of in vitro-generated ACAID APCs or in vitro-generated ACAID B cells specific to the encephalitogenic antigens MOG35-55/MBP induces specific peripheral tolerance in recipient BALB/c mice. We examined the suppression of MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific inflammatory responses using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assays and Local Adoptive Transfer (LAT) assays. Results indicated that MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific tolerance was generated after the intravenous injections of MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID APCs, MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID B cells, and MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID T regulatory cells. The specific immune deviation was in vitro-induced, cell-mediated, and specific to the encephalitogenic antigens MOG35-55/MBP. This in vitro-mediated approach for the generation of MOG35-55/MBP-specific tolerance opens up avenues for the application of ACAID as a tool for the therapy of Multiple Sclerosis, Schizophrenia, and other diseases. PMID:24095895

Farooq, Shukkur M; Ashour, Hossam M

2014-01-01

251

Assessment Principles and Tools

The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Competence can only be determined by appropriately assessing resident performance. There are accepted guiding principles that should be applied to competence assessment methods. These principles are enumerated herein and ophthalmology-specific assessment tools that are available are described. PMID:24791100

Golnik, Karl C.

2014-01-01

252

The broad general principles of paleogeography, which I would cite as most fundamental, are as follows: 1. Ocean basins are permanent hollows of the earth's surface and have occupied their present sites since an early date in the development of geographic features. This principle does not exclude notable changes in the positions of their margins, which on the whole have

Bailey Willis

1910-01-01

253

Basic principle of superconductivity

The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

Tian De Cao

2009-11-10

254

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides instruction on Pauli's exclusion principle, formulated by physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, which states that no two electrons in an atom can have identical quantum numbers. Topics include a mathematical statement of the principle, descriptions of some of its applications, and its role in ionic and covalent bonding, nuclear shell structure, and nuclear binding energy.

Dr. Rod Nave

255

Buoyancy: Archimedes Principle

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applied mathematics lesson describes the mathematic principles behind buoyancy in aerostatic machines. In it, students are given an introduction to the forces at work in buoyancy, including Archimedes Principle, and are asked to solve problems relating to volume, density, weight, and buoyancy of objects in particular environments.

2010-07-30

256

Deviation from Power Law Behavior in Landslide Phenomenon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power law distribution of magnitude is widely observed in many natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, floods, tornadoes, and forest fires). Landslide is unique as the size distribution of landslide is characterized by a power law decrease with a rollover in the small size end. Yet, the emergence of the rollover, i.e., the deviation from power law behavior for small size landslides, remains a mystery. In this contribution, we grouped the forces applied on landslide bodies into two categories: 1) the forces proportional to the volume of failure mass (gravity and friction), and 2) the forces proportional to the area of failure surface (cohesion). Failure occurs when the forces proportional to volume exceed the forces proportional to surface area. As such, given a certain mechanical configuration, the failure volume to failure surface area ratio must exceed a corresponding threshold to guarantee a failure. Assuming all landslides share a uniform shape, which means the volume to surface area ratio of landslide regularly increase with the landslide volume, a cutoff of landslide volume distribution in the small size end can be defined. However, in realistic landslide phenomena, where heterogeneities of landslide shape and mechanical configuration are existent, a simple cutoff of landslide volume distribution does not exist. The stochasticity of landslide shape introduce a probability distribution of the volume to surface area ratio with regard to landslide volume, with which the probability that the volume to surface ratio exceed the threshold can be estimated regarding values of landslide volume. An experiment based on empirical data showed that this probability can induce the power law distribution of landslide volume roll down in the small size end. We therefore proposed that the constraints on the failure volume to failure surface area ratio together with the heterogeneity of landslide geometry and mechanical configuration attribute for the deviation from power law behavior in landslide phenomenon. Figure shows that a rollover of landslide size distribution in the small size end is produced as the probability for V/S (the failure volume to failure surface ratio of landslide) exceeding the mechanical threshold applied to the power law distribution of landslide volume.

Li, L.; Lan, H.; Wu, Y.

2013-12-01

257

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA-2008-N-0119] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard...as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the...

2010-01-05

258

Principles of animal extrapolation

Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

Calabrese, E.J.

1991-01-01

259

The reported study follows the footsteps of Heider, and Simmel (1944) [Heider, F., & Simmel, M. (1944). An experimental study of apparent behavior. American Journal of Psychology, 57, 243-249] and Michotte (1946/1963) [Michotte, A. (1963). The perception of causality (T.R. Miles & E. Miles, Trans.). London: Methuen (Original work published 1946)] who demonstrated the role of object movement in attributions of life-likeness to figures. It goes one step further in studying the categorization of film scenes as to genre as a function of object movements. In an animated film scene portraying a chase, movements of the chasing object were systematically varied as to parameters: velocity, efficiency, fluency, detail, and deformation. The object movements were categorized by viewers into genres: non-fiction, comedy, drama, and action. Besides this categorization, viewers rated their animacy attribution and emotional response. Results showed that non-expert viewers were consistent in categorizing the genres according to object movement parameters. The size of its deviation from the unmanipulated movement scene determined the assignment of any target scene to one of the fiction genres: small and moderate deviations resulted in categorization as drama and action, and large deviations as comedy. The results suggest that genre classification is achieved by, at least, three distinct cognitive processes: (a) animacy attribution, which influences the fiction versus non-fiction classification; (b) emotional responses, which influences the classification of a specific fiction genre; and (c) the amount of deviation from reality, at least with regard to movements. PMID:19118823

Visch, Valentijn T; Tan, Ed S

2009-02-01

260

The Stanford equivalence principle program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Stanford Equivalence Principle Program (Worden, Jr. 1983) is intended to test the uniqueness of free fall to the ultimate possible accuracy. The program is being conducted in two phases: first, a ground-based version of the experiment, which should have a sensitivity to differences in rate of fall of one part in 10(exp 12); followed by an orbital experiment with a sensitivity of one part in 10(exp 17) or better. The ground-based experiment, although a sensitive equivalence principle test in its own right, is being used for technology development for the orbital experiment. A secondary goal of the experiment is a search for exotic forces. The instrument is very well suited for this search, which would be conducted mostly with the ground-based apparatus. The short range predicted for these forces means that forces originating in the Earth would not be detectable in orbit. But detection of Yukawa-type exotic forces from a nearby large satellite (such as Space Station) is feasible, and gives a very sensitive and controllable test for little more effort than the orbiting equivalence principle test itself.

Worden, Paul W., Jr.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Bye, M.

1989-01-01

261

Spatial Analysis on Deviation Block of External Prestressed Bridge with Finite Element Software

The Unity Bridge between Tanzania and Mozambique as the background project, the deviation block of external prestressing are analyzed with ANSYS software. When the deviators holes inner diameter are enlarged 1.5 times from 130 mm because the different deviators are applied, the concrete stresses and cracks state are introduced in detail, some suggestions for construction are presented. The results prove

Fang-yuan Li; Jun Wang

2010-01-01

262

The Behavior of Option Implied Standard Deviations around Merger and Acquisition Announcements

This paper examines the behavior of option implied standard deviations around merger and acquisition announcements. The implied standard deviations of target firms increase significantly three days prior to the announcement. The bidding firm implied standard deviations are not affected. The analysis is extended to the equity market to determine which market reacts first to the merger or acquisition announcement. Target

Haim Levy; James A. Yoder

1993-01-01

263

Maintaining Standards: Differences between the Standard Deviation and Standard Error, and

Maintaining Standards: Differences between the Standard Deviation and Standard Error, and When to Use Each David L Streiner, PhD1 Many people confuse the standard deviation (SD) and the standard error of the findings. (Can J Psychiatry 1996;41:498Â502) Key Words: statistics, standard deviation, standard error

California at Santa Cruz, University of

264

Revisiting a 90-Year-Old Debate: The Advantages of the Mean Deviation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the reliance of numerical analysis on the concept of the standard deviation, and its close relative the variance. It suggests that the original reasons why the standard deviation concept has permeated traditional statistics are no longer clearly valid, if they ever were. The absolute mean deviation, it is argued here, has many…

Gorard, Stephen

2005-01-01

265

The angle mouse: target-agnostic dynamic gain adjustment based on angular deviation

We present a novel method of dynamic C-D gain adaptation that improves target acquisition for users with motor impairments. Our method, called the Angle Mouse, adjusts the mouse C-D gain based on the deviation of angles sampled during movement. When angular deviation is low, the gain is kept high. When angular deviation is high, the gain is dropped, making the

Jacob O. Wobbrock; James Fogarty; Shunichi Kimuro

2009-01-01

266

Paul Withers Were slopes on Mars once flat? -Systematic Deviations

as above would explain their flatness. If the ocean hypothesis is correct, then sedimentation would explain such as the formation of the large volcanic province of Tharsis or the hemispheric dichotomy. The history

Withers, Paul

267

Spectral Relative Standard Deviation: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics

Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...

268

Geodesic deviations: modeling extreme mass-ratio systems and their gravitational waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of geodesic deviations has been applied to derive accurate analytic approximations to geodesics in Schwarzschild spacetime. The results are used to construct analytic expressions for the source terms in the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli-Moncrief equations, which describe the propagation of gravitational waves emitted by a compact massive object moving in the Schwarzschild background spacetime. The wave equations are solved numerically to provide the asymptotic form of the wave at large distances for a series of non-circular bound orbits with periastron distances up to the ISCO radius, and the power emitted in gravitational waves by the extreme mass-ratio binary system is computed. The results compare well with those of purely numerical approaches.

Koekoek, G.; van Holten, J. W.

2011-11-01

269

Imputation of response rates from means and standard deviations in schizophrenia.

Missing outcome data is a major threat in meta-analytical studies of schizophrenia. Most clinical trials in psychiatry report only continuous outcome measures and express the effect of an intervention as a difference of means. However, these results are difficult to interpret for clinicians. Converting continuous data to binary response rates is one possible solution to the problem. Based on means and standard deviations for a continuous outcome, we examined the performance of an imputation method to define a dichotomous outcome using original individual patients' data from 16 randomized trials (6276 participants) comparing antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia. We concluded that the imputed values re-captured in a reasonable degree the observed values providing a simple and practical alternative methodological choice for imputation of missing binary data in schizophrenia trials; nevertheless, the imputation method tended to introduce biases, especially for extreme risks and large treatment differences. PMID:24262679

Samara, Myrto T; Spineli, Loukia M; Furukawa, Toshi A; Engel, Rolf R; Davis, John M; Salanti, Georgia; Leucht, Stefan

2013-12-01

270

Constraints on Deviations from the Kerr Metric by XTE J1550-564

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the spin of the galactic black hole XTE J1550-564 has been measured using spectral fits of its thermal disk emission and relativistically broadened iron line. In addition, over the lifetime of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) have been detected repeatedly at frequencies that cluster around 180 Hz and 280 Hz with an approximate 3:2 frequency ratio. In this talk, we infer the most likely centroid frequency of each cluster as well as the underlying fundamental mode using Bayesian techniques. We then use the combination of all the spectral and QPO data to constrain potential deviations from the Kerr metric as a test of the no-hair theorem assuming two particular QPO models. These models may be distinguished by the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT), one of five candidates for ESA’s next M3-class mission.

Johannsen, Tim; Psaltis, D.; Steiner, J. F.

2013-04-01

271

Chemical Principles Exemplified

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)

Plumb, Robert C.

1972-01-01

272

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations, in the form of uncertainty relations: for the widths of the position and momentum distributions in any quantum state; for the inaccuracies of any joint measurement of these quantities; and for the inaccuracy of a measurement of one of the quantities and the ensuing disturbance in the distribution of the other quantity. Whilst conceptually distinct, these three kinds of uncertainty relations are shown to be closely related formally. Finally, we survey models and experimental implementations of joint measurements of position and momentum and comment briefly on the status of experimental tests of the uncertainty principle.

P. Busch; T. Heinonen; P. Lahti

2007-10-30

273

Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary Buoyancy is based on Archimedes' Principle which states that the buoyant force acting upward on an object completely or partially immersed in a fluid equals the weight of the fluid displaced by the ...

274

Archimedes' Principle in Action

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

Kires, Marian

2007-01-01

275

Principles of Information Assurance

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course on the Principles of Information Assurance is provided by the Cyber Security Education Consortium (CSEC). The course includes introductory security principles and gives students "an understanding of the current threats and vulnerabilities of the cyber landscape, plus other topics relating to the information assurance field." Links are provided to learn more about the Major Topics Covered, Course Learning Objectives, and Course Outline. The Course Outline includes a list of careers that require the knowledge from this course and related textbooks.

276

Petrothermal heat extraction using a single deviated well (Horstberg, revisited)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-well tracer test conducted (Behrens et al. 2006) in conjunction with waterfrac experiments at Horstberg is re-examined with a view at four basic issues: why single-well? why fracturing? why tracers? does this only work at Horstberg, or can it work almost anywhere else in the Northern-German sedimentary basin? Heat and tracer transport within a composite reservoir (impermeable matrix + waterfrac + permeable layer), as accessed by a single deviated well, turn out to fit into a surprisingly simple description, as the plain (arithmetic) sum of certain petrothermal-type and aquifer-type contributions, whose weighting relative to each other can vary from site to site, depending upon stratigraphy and upon wellbore geometry. At Horstberg, within the particular formations tested ('Volpriehausen', 'Detfurth', 'Solling', comprising mainly claystone and sandstone layers), thermal lifetime results to be petrothermally-dominated, while tracer residence times prove to be 'aquifer'-dominated. Despite this disparity, the reservoir's thermal lifetime can reliably be predicted from tracer test results. What cannot be determined from waterfrac flow-path tracing is the very waterfrac's aperture. Aperture uncertainty, however, does not impede upon thermal lifetime predictability. The results of the semi-analytical approach are confirmed by numerical simulations using a FE model that includes more details of hydrogeological heterogeneity for the Horstberg site. They are complemented by a parameter sensitivity analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit G6 of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').

Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Vogt, Esther; Bartetzko, Anne; Sauter, Martin

2013-04-01

277

Immune deviation and ocular infections with varicella zoster virus.

Since experimental, herpes simplex virus-induced acute retinal necrosis (ARN) develops in mice only if the mice fail to acquire virus-specific delayed hypersensitivity (DH) and despite their production of anti-viral antibodies (i.e. ACAID), I investigated whether a similar situation exists for patients with either varicella zoster virus (VZV)-induced ARN or anterior uveitis caused by VZV. Patients with either acute VZV-induced ARN, anterior uveitis with dermatitis (herpes zoster ophthalmicus, ZO-AU), or anterior uveitis without dermatitis (zoster sine herpete, ZSH-AU) were skin-tested with VZV to evaluate DH. The formal diagnoses of ARN associated with VZV, ZO-AU, and ZSH-AU were established by PCR analysis of the ocular samples and/or by the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient to determine levels of local antibody production. ARN, ZO-AU, and ZSH-AU activity were assessed clinically, and DH skin tests were repeated three months after onset when ocular recovery had taken place. All patients with VZV-induced skin disease alone (control group) displayed intense DH when tested with VZV antigen. In contrast, subsets of patients with ARN or ZO-AU displayed loss of VZV-specific DH. Patients with the most severe ARN or ZO-AU had the lowest DH responses to VZV antigens. Serum anti-VZV antibody titers were higher in ARN patients than in normal controls, and the anti-viral titer correlated inversely with the intensity of anti-VZV DH responses. VZV-specific DH responses were restored in patients who recovered from ARN. Patients with ZSH-AU also failed to display VZV-specific DH. The absence of DH reactivity to VZV antigens (i.e. immune deviation) appears to be a concomitant feature of VZV uveitis of high intensity, implying that virus-specific DH may interfere with the emergence of VZV-induced ARN or anterior uveitis. PMID:15209460

Kezuka, Takeshi

2004-03-01

278

Long Term Gait Deviations in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Females

Purpose Little is known of the potential long term gait alterations that occur after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In particular, variables such as impact loading which have been previously associated with joint deterioration have not been studied in walking and running after an ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to define the alterations in impact forces, loading rates, and the accompanying sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic mechanics at the time of impact between the ACL reconstructed group and a healthy control group. Methods 40 females (20 ACL reconstruction, 20 controls) participated in the study. An instrumented gait analysis was performed on all subjects. Between group and limb comparisons were made for initial vertical impact force, loading rate, sagittal plane knee and hip angles as well as moments. Results During walking and running the ACL cohort had significantly greater initial vertical impact force (p=0.002 and p= 0.001), and loading rates (p=0.03 and p= 0.01), as well as a smaller knee extensor moment and hip angle during walking (p=0.000 and p=0.01). There was a trend towards a smaller knee moment and hip angle during running (p=0.08 and p=0.06) as well as a larger hip extensor moment during walking (p=0.06) in the ACL group. No differences were found for hip extensor moment during running, knee angles between groups during walking or running. Lastly, no between limb differences were found for any variable. Conclusion Gait deviations such as elevated impact loading and loading rates do not resolve long term after the individual has resumed previous activity levels and may contribute to the greater risk of early joint degeneration in this population. PMID:23568090

Noehren, Brian; Wilson, Hilary; Miller, Casey; Lattermann, Christian

2015-01-01

279

Archimedes' Principle and Applications Objectives

Lab 9 Archimedes' Principle and Applications Objectives: Upon successful completion of this exercise you will have ... 1. ... utilized Archimedes' principle to determine the density and specific gravity of a variety of substances. 2. ... utilized Archimedes' principle to determine the density

Yu, Jaehoon

280

A variational principle in optics.

We derive a new variational principle in optics. We first formulate the principle for paraxial waves and then generalize it to arbitrary waves. The new principle, unlike the Fermat principle, concerns both the phase and the intensity of the wave. In particular, the principle provides a method for finding the ray mapping between two surfaces in space from information on the wave's intensity there. We show how to apply the new principle to the problem of phase reconstruction from intensity measurements. PMID:15535374

Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon

2004-11-01

281

Numerical Simulation of Mud-Filtrate Invasion in Deviated Wells

, capillary pressure, permeability anisotropy, dipping layers, and degree of hydraulic communication between the spatial distribution of fluids in the near- borehole region caused by mud-filtrate invasion is necessary- fluid-flow simulator that is widely used in large-scale reservoir applications. Checks of numerical

Torres-VerdÃn, Carlos

282

The August Krogh principle applies to plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Krogh principle refers to the use of a large number of animals to study the large number of physiological problems, rather than limiting study to a particular organism for all problems. There may be organisms that are more suited to study of a particular problem than others. This same principle applies to plants. The authors are concerned with the recent trend in plant biology of using Arabidopsis thaliana as the "organism of choice." Arabidopsis is an excellent organism for molecular genetic research, but other plants are superior models for other research areas of plant biology. The authors present examples of the successful use of the Krogh principle in plant cell biology research, emphasizing the particular characteristics of the selected research organisms that make them the appropriate choice.

Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.

1996-01-01

283

The traveltime holographic principle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes ?pq from exterior transmission traveltimes ?sp and ?sq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times ?pq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes ?pq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes ?pq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

2015-01-01

284

Multiple target tracking using maximum likelihood principle

Proposes a method (tracking algorithm (TAL)) based on the maximum likelihood (ML) principle for multiple target tracking in near-field using outputs from a large uniform linear array of passive sensors. The targets are assumed to be narrowband signals and modeled as sample functions of a Gaussian stochastic process. The phase delays of these signals are expressed as functions of both

A. Satish; Rangasami L. Kashyap

1995-01-01

285

Comprehensive Program Review: Applying TQM Principles.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews one system successfully used to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) principles and techniques in a student affairs department at a large public university. Discusses TQM applications and argues that implementation of TQM requires both planned staff training and an organization-wide culture change. (RJM)

Ostroth, D. David

1996-01-01

286

GENI Design Principles GENI: Global Environment

GENI Design Principles GDD-06-08 GENI: Global Environment for Network Innovation August 11, 2006 #12;This document was prepared by the GENI Planning Group: Larry Peterson, Princeton (Editor) Tom Shenker, Berkeley John Wroclawski, USC/ISI It was largely motivated by questions asked at GENI Town Hall

Singh, Jaswinder Pal

287

Nurses's knowledge of heart failure education principles

Objective: The goal of this study was to determine nurses' knowledge of heart failure (HF) self-management education principles. Design: The study was exploratory and descriptive and included a convenience sample. Setting: Research took place in a large midwestern health care system that included a university-based hospital, community hospitals, and home or palliative care. Subjects: Subjects included 300 nurses who provide

Nancy M. Albert; Susan Collier; Veronica Sumodi; Sandra Wilkinson; Jeffrey P. Hammel; Linda Vopat; Cindy Willis; Barb Bittel

2002-01-01

288

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly published document from the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank of International Settlements considers the methodology used in determining The Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision, "a global standard for prudential regulation and supervision," which has been endorsed by many countries worldwide. There are three sections to the report. The first chapter looks at the background for the core principles and "the preconditions for effective banking supervision." The second chapter "raises a few basic considerations regarding the conduct of an assessment and the compilation and presentation of the results," and the last chapter discusses each core principle individually. The 56-page document is available in .pdf format. A thumbnail map of each page, shown on the left, is the best way to navigate the report.

289

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

290

[Principles of neoadjuvant therapy].

Neoadjuvant therapy is now an integral part in the treatment of locally advanced cancer of the esophagus and stomach. The mechanisms of action comprise downsizing of the primary tumor, improvement of the T and N categories and the earliest possible eradication of micrometastases. Several controlled clinical studies could show that these principles can indeed augment the rate of curative (R0) resections and can reduce the likelihood of systemic recurrences. As a consequence overall survival is improved by neoadjuvant therapy. This article summarizes how the basic principles of neoadjuvant therapy translate into clinical practice and gives a review of current developmental perspectives in this field. PMID:19812908

Lordick, F

2009-11-01

291

Median absolute deviation to improve hit selection for genome-scale RNAi screens.

High-throughput screening (HTS) of large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) libraries has become an increasingly popular method of functional genomics in recent years. Cell-based assays used for RNAi screening often produce small dynamic ranges and significant variability because of the combination of cellular heterogeneity, transfection efficiency, and the intrinsic nature of the genes being targeted. These properties make reliable hit selection in the RNAi screen a difficult task. The use of robust methods based on median and median absolute deviation (MAD) has been suggested to improve hit selection in such cases, but mean and standard deviation (SD)-based methods are still predominantly used in many RNAi HTS. In an experimental approach to compare these 2 methods, a genome-scale small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen was performed, in which the identification of novel targets increasing the therapeutic index of the chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MMC) was sought. MAD values were resistant to the presence of outliers, and the hits selected by the MAD-based method included all the hits that would be selected by SD-based method as well as a significant number of additional hits. When retested in triplicate, a similar percentage of these siRNAs were shown to genuinely sensitize cells to MMC compared with the hits shared between SD- and MAD-based methods. Confirmed hits were enriched with the genes involved in the DNA damage response and cell cycle regulation, validating the overall hit selection strategy. Finally, computer simulations showed the superiority and generality of the MAD-based method in various RNAi HTS data models. In conclusion, the authors demonstrate that the MAD-based hit selection method rescued physiologically relevant false negatives that would have been missed in the SD-based method, and they believe it to be the desirable 1st-choice hit selection method for RNAi screen results. PMID:18216396

Chung, Namjin; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas; Kreamer, Anthony; Locco, Louis; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Bartz, Steven; Linsley, Peter S; Ferrer, Marc; Strulovici, Berta

2008-02-01

292

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple phenomenological model for the relationship between structure and composition of the high Tc cuprates is presented. The model is based on two simple crystal chemistry principles: unit cell doping and charge balance within unit cells. These principles are inspired by key experimental observations of how the materials accommodate large deviations from stoichiometry. Consistent explanations for significant HTSC properties can be explained without any additional assumptions while retaining valuable insight for geometric interpretation. Combining these two chemical principles with a review of Crystal Field Theory (CFT) or Ligand Field Theory (LFT), it becomes clear that the two oxidation states in the conduction planes (typically d8 and d9) belong to the most strongly divergent d-levels as a function of deformation from regular octahedral coordination. This observation offers a link to a range of coupling effects relating vibrations and spin waves through application of Hund’s rules. An indication of this model’s capacity to predict physical properties for HTSC is provided and will be elaborated in subsequent publications. Simple criteria for the relationship between structure and composition in HTSC systems may guide chemical syntheses within new material systems.

Alarco, J. A.; Talbot, P. C.

2012-06-01

293

30 CFR 585.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations § 585.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...

2012-07-01

294

30 CFR 285.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations § 285.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...

2011-07-01

295

30 CFR 585.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations § 585.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...

2014-07-01

296

30 CFR 285.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations § 285.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...

2010-07-01

297

30 CFR 585.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline Deviations § 585.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved...

2013-07-01

298

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at individuals who have stood on principle against authority or popular opinion. The first article investigates John Adams and his defense of British soldiers at the Boston Massacre trials. The second article explores Archbishop Thomas Becket's fatal conflict with England's King Henry II. The final…

Martz, Carlton

1999-01-01

299

Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

Dempster, Chalmer T.

300

Reprographic Principles Made Easy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Means for reproducing graphic materials are explained. There are several types of processes: those using light sensitive material, those using heat sensitive material, those using photo conductive materials (electrophotography), and duplicating processes using ink. For each of these, the principles behind them are explained, the necessary…

Young, J. B.

301

Principles of Wildlife Conservation

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Principles of Wildlife Conservation is a course that was developed to fulfill requirements in the curriculum of Forest Resource Technology students at Chemeketa Community College in Salem, Oregon. It is an introductory course that presents a diversity of issues relating to wildlife conservation and management and is open to the general student population.

Dan Edge

302

PRINCIPLES OF WATER FILTRATION

This paper reviews principles involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...

303

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

Kamat, R. V.

1991-01-01

304

Pattern recognition principles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work gives an account of basic principles and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.

Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.

1974-01-01

305

Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)…

Schaars, Marvin A.

306

A Correlational Study of Scoliosis and Trunk Balance in Adult Patients with Mandibular Deviation

Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an “S” type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p<0.01). The trunk balance of patients with mandibular deviation was disturbed (imbalance angle >1°), while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°). There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation. PMID:23555836

Yang, Yang; Wang, Na; Wang, Wenyong; Ding, Yin; Sun, Shiyao

2013-01-01

307

Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.

Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

1992-01-01

308

Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Dark Matter

There have been proposals that primordial black hole remnants (BHRs) are the dark matter, but the idea is somewhat vague. Recently we argued that the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) may prevent black holes from evaporating completely, in a similar way that the standard uncertainty principle prevents the hydrogen atom from collapsing. We further noted that the hybrid inflation model provides a plausible mechanism for production of large numbers of small black holes. Combining these we suggested that the dark matter might be composed of Planck-size BHRs. In this paper we briefly review these arguments, and discuss the reheating temperature as a result of black hole evaporation.

Pisin Chen

2003-05-01

309

Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Dark Matter

There have been proposals that primordial black hole remnants (BHRs) are the dark matter, but the idea is somewhat vague. Recently we argued that the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) may prevent black holes from evaporating completely, in a similar way that the standard uncertainty principle prevents the hydrogen atom from collapsing. We further noted that the hybrid inflation model provides a plausible mechanism for production of large numbers of small black holes. Combining these we suggested that the dark matter might be composed of Planck-size BHRs. In this paper we briefly review these arguments, and discuss the reheating temperature as a result of black hole evaporation.

Chen, P

2004-01-13

310

Principles of temperature monitoring.

Maintaining optimum body temperature is essential to life, and taking and recording a patient's temperature is a fundamental nursing skill. Deviation from the normal range of body temperature can be an important clinical indicator of altered physiological status requiring further investigation. Correct technique and careful recording are important for accuracy because clinicians rely on clinical observations to make diagnoses and decide on treatment. Nurses need to be able to interpret single stand-alone temperature recordings as well as sequential pattern recordings in the context of safe and acceptable physiological boundaries. PMID:23944825

Grainger, Angela

311

Significant errors related to poor time zero estimation, well deviation or mislocation of the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) stations can render even the most sophisticated modeling and inversion routine useless. Previous examples of methods for the analysis and correction of data errors in geophysical tomography include the works of Maurer and Green (1997), Squires et al. (1992) and Peterson (2001). Here we follow the analysis and techniques of Peterson (2001) for data quality control and error correction. Through our data acquisition and quality control procedures we have very accurate control on the surface locations of wells, the travel distance of both the transmitter and receiver within the boreholes, and the change in apparent zero time. However, we often have poor control on well deviations, either because of economic constraints or the nature of the borehole itself prevented the acquisition of well deviation logs. Also, well deviation logs can sometimes have significant errors. Problems with borehole deviations can be diagnosed prior to inversion of travel-time tomography data sets by plotting the apparent velocity of a straight ray connecting a transmitter (TX) to a receiver (RX) against the take-off angle of the ray. Issues with the time-zero pick or distances between wells appear as symmetric smiles or frown in these QC plots. Well deviation or dipping-strong anisotropy will result in an asymmetric correlation between apparent velocity and take-off angle (Figure 1-B). In addition, when a network of interconnected GPR tomography data is available, one has the additional quality constraint of insuring that there is continuity in velocity between immediately adjacent tomograms. A sudden shift in the mean velocity indicates that either position deviations are present or there is a shift in the pick times. Small errors in well geometry may be effectively treated during inversion by including weighting, or relaxation, parameters into the inversion (e.g. Bautu et al., 2006). In the technique of algebraic reconstruction tomography (ART), which is used herein for the travel time inversion (Peterson et al., 1985), a small relaxation parameter will smooth imaging artifacts caused by data errors at the expense of resolution and contrast (Figure 2). However, large data errors such as unaccounted well deviations cannot be adequately suppressed through inversion weighting schemes. Previously, problems with tomograms were treated manually. However, in large data sets and/or networks of data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Mislocation of the transmitter and receiver stations of GPR cross-well tomography data sets can lead to serious imaging artifacts if not accounted for prior to inversion. Previously, problems with tomograms have been treated manually prior to inversion. In large data sets and/or networks of tomographic data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Our approach is to use cross-well data quality checks and a simplified model of borehole deviation with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to automatically correct for source and receiver locations prior to tomographic inversion. We present a simple model of well deviation, which is designed to minimize potential corruption of actual data trends. We also provide quantitative quality control measures based on minimizing correlations between take-off angle and apparent velocity, and a quality check on the continuity of velocity between adjacent wells. This methodology is shown to be accurate and robust for simple 2-D synthetic test cases. Plus, we demonstrate the method on actual field data where it is compared to deviation logs. This study shows the promise for automatic correction of well deviations in GPR tomographic data. Analysis of synthetic data shows that very precise estimates of well deviation can be made for small deviations, even in the presence of static data errors. However, the analysis of the synthetic data and the application of

Sassen, D. S.; Peterson, J. E.

2010-03-15

312

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity field of large-scale non-Hubble galaxy motion recovered from peculiar velocities of spiral galaxies is distorted due to measurement errors and deviations from Tully-Fisher relationship. To figure out how this affects the multipole structure we use the Monte-Carlo approach and simulate errors and deviations. We use the galaxies from the Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue subsample and the generalized Tully-Fisher relationship in the `H I line width-angular diameter' version. The analysis of the multipole structure has shown that the dipole velocity component (bulk motion) is underestimated, and the characteristic values of the quadrupole component are overestimated. The directions of the quadrupole component's eigenvectors can be determined precisely enough. Typical deviation angles of bulk motion apices lie between 17 and 40°. The main input is caused by errors in the measurement of the angular diameter. The probability of the quadrupole component being incidental can be estimated at the 4 per cent level. For the octopole component, it can be estimated at the 7-10 per cent level. This is essentially higher than the estimations less than 1 per cent due to the Fisher test.

Parnovsky, S. L.; Parnowski, A. S.

2008-10-01

313

Uncertainty Principles Sparse Representation in Overcomplete Dictionaries

Uncertainty Principles Sparse Representation in Overcomplete Dictionaries Uncertainty Principles November 8, 2007 Matthew J. Hirn Uncertainty Principles in Sparse Representation and Compressed Sensing #12;Uncertainty Principles Sparse Representation in Overcomplete Dictionaries Outline 1 Uncertainty Principles

Hirn, Matthew

314

Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning deviations. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity deviations (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional deviations of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional deviations produce large intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of {>=}5% in {approx}1 mm{sup 2} areas and {>=}2% in {approx}20 mm{sup 2} areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences ({<=}2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.

Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

2012-08-15

315

Principles of Semiconductor Devices

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Home page of an online and interactive textbook, Principles of Semiconductor Devices., written by Bart J. Van Zeghbroeck, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The goal of this text is to provide the basic principles of common semiconductor devices, with a special focus on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs). A browser environment was chosen so that text, figures and equations can be linked for easy reference. A table of contents, a glossary, active figures and some study aids are integrated with the text with the intention to provide a more effective reference and learning environment. Chapter titles include: Semiconductor Fundamentals, Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, p-n Junctions, Bipolar Transistors, MOS Capacitors, and MOSFET.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart Jozef

316

Basic Principles of Ultrasound

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.

2004-01-01

317

Treatment deviating from guidelines does not influence status epilepticus prognosis.

Status epilepticus (SE) prognosis is related to nonmodifiable factors (age, etiology), but the exact role of drug treatment is unclear. This study was undertaken to address the prognostic role of treatment adherence to guidelines (TAG). We prospectively studied over 26 months a cohort of adults with incident SE (excluding postanoxic). TAG was assessed in terms of drug doses (± 30 % of recommendations) and medication sequence; its prognostic impact on mortality and return to baseline conditions was adjusted for etiology, SE severity [Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS)], and comorbidities. Of 225 patients, 26 (12 %) died and 82 (36 %) were discharged with a new handicap; TAG was observed in 142 (63 %). On univariate analysis, age, etiology, SE severity, and comorbidities were significantly related to outcome, while TAG was associated with neither outcome nor likelihood of SE control. Logistic regression for mortality identified etiology [odds ratio (OR) 18.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.3-82.8] and SE severity (STESS ? 3; OR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.2-2.4) as independent predictors, and for lack of return to baseline, again etiology (OR 7.4, 95 % CI 3.9-14.0) and STESS ? 3 (OR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.4-2.2). Similar results were found for the subgroup of 116 patients with generalized-convulsive SE. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses confirmed that TAG did not improve outcome prediction. This study of a large SE cohort suggests that treatment adherence to recommendations using current medications seems to play a negligible prognostic role (class III), confirming the importance of the biological background. Awaiting further treatment trials, it appears mandatory to apply resources towards identification of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22899399

Rossetti, Andrea O; Alvarez, Vincent; Januel, Jean-Marie; Burnand, Bernard

2013-02-01

318

Observable signature of a background deviating from the Kerr metric

By detecting gravitational wave signals from extreme mass ratio inspiraling sources (EMRIs) we will be given the opportunity to check our theoretical expectations regarding the nature of supermassive bodies that inhabit the central regions of galaxies. We have explored some qualitatively new features that a perturbed Kerr metric induces in its geodesic orbits. Since a generic perturbed Kerr metric does not possess all the special symmetries of a Kerr metric, the geodesic equations in the former case are described by a slightly nonintegrable Hamiltonian system. According to the Poincare-Birkhoff theorem, this causes the appearance of the so-called Birkhoff chains of islands on the corresponding surfaces of section in between the anticipated KAM curves of the integrable Kerr case, whenever the intrinsic frequencies of the system are at resonance. The chains of islands are characterized by finite width, i.e. there is a finite range of initial conditions that correspond to a particular resonance and consequently to a constant rational ratio of intrinsic frequencies. Thus while the EMRI changes adiabatically by radiating energy and angular momentum, by monitoring the frequencies of a signal we can look for a transient pattern, in the form of a plateau, in the evolution of their ratio. We have shown that such a plateau is anticipated to be apparent in a quite large fraction of possible orbital characteristics if the central gravitating source is not a Kerr black hole. Moreover, the plateau in the ratio of frequencies is expected to be more prominent at specific rational values that correspond to the strongest resonances. This gives a possible observational detection of such non-Kerr exotic objects.

Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy, Soranou Efesiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece); Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos GR15783, Athens (Greece); Apostolatos, Theocharis A. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos GR15783, Athens (Greece); Contopoulos, George [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy, Soranou Efesiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece)

2010-06-15

319

Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous

Max Born; Emil Wolf

1999-01-01

320

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Principle's of Flight Web site is offered by the Pilot's Web Aviation Journal and contains an excellent introduction to the physics of flight. Topics include Newton's laws of motion and force, airfoils, lift and drag, forces acting on an airplane, speed, flight maneuvers, the effects of roll, and more. Each topic contains good illustrations, descriptions, and equations. Overall, the site is an interesting and informative look behind the science of flight.

321

The main objective of the present study was to determine the minimal optical deviation responsible for cognitive after-effects in healthy individuals and to explore whether there was a relationship between the degree of optical deviation and cognitive after-effects. Therefore different leftward optical deviations (8°, 10° and 15°) were used in three different groups of healthy participants. Sensorimotor after-effects (evaluating the visuo-manual realignment) were assessed using an open-loop pointing task and cognitive after-effects (evaluating changes in spatial representation) were assessed using manual and perceptual (landmark) line bisection tasks. Results revealed that exposure to 8°, 10° and 15° optical shifts produced sensorimotor after-effects. In contrast, the occurrence of cognitive after-effects depended on the optical deviation. Adaptation to an 8° leftward optical deviation did not produce cognitive after-effects. Adaptation to a 10° leftward optical deviation was responsible for after-effects in the manual line bisection task only. Adaptation to a 15° leftward optical deviation produced after-effects in both the manual and perceptual line bisection tasks. All cognitive after-effects were rightward and were similar to mild, neglect-like manifestations. Both sensorimotor and cognitive after-effects were correlated with the degree of optical deviation. Our results are of methodological and theoretical interest to those interested in sensorimotor plasticity and spatial cognition. PMID:25660233

Michel, Carine; Cruz, Remy

2015-03-17

322

75 FR 67093 - Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Canada Corp., to market test a product designated as ``GLACE Rare Iceberg Water'' that deviates from the U.S. standard of...interstate marketing tests of products identified as ``GLACE Rare Iceberg Water'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of...

2010-11-01

323

Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson

Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson be a mixture of humans, hardware, and software. This paper describes one of the Safeware hazard analysis techniques, Software Deviation Analysis, that incorporates the beneficial feaÂ tures of HAZOP (such

Leveson, Nancy

324

Two cases of hypotropia and dissociated vertical deviation treated with oblique muscle surgery.

The authors report two cases with vertical deviations. The first patient had right exotropia and hypotropia and left inferior oblique overaction and was treated with left inferior oblique muscle weakening and bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession. The second patient had chin-up posture and right dissociated vertical deviation and was treated with bilateral superior oblique posterior tenotomy. PMID:25490238

Niyaz, Leyla; Gursoy, Haluk Huseyin; Basmak, Hikmet

2014-01-01

325

Immersion Fluid Refractive Indices Using Prism Minimum Deviation Roger H. French1*

Immersion Fluid Refractive Indices Using Prism Minimum Deviation Techniques Roger H. French1* , Min using the prism minimum deviation technique implemented on a commercial Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (VASE® ) system. For measurement the liquids were contained in a triangular prism cell made

Rollins, Andrew M.

326

Analysis of wavelength deviation of guided waves with electromagnetic acoustic transducers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is usually considered that the wavelength of guided waves propagating in plates is equal to the double spacing interval of the meander-line coil of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). However, the actual value of the wavelength might deviate from the double spacing. This paper takes Shear Horizontal (SH) waves for instance to study the relationship between the wavelength deviation and the parameters of EMATs. It is shown that the wavelength deviation occurs when the operating point of EMATs does not locate on the dispersion curves of a certain SH mode. A wavelength measurement method is proposed to evaluate the deviation by the time-frequency analysis of detected wave signals. Experiments are set up to study the phenomenon of wavelength deviation and verify the validity of the proposed method.

Zhai, Guofu; Jiang, Tao; Kang, Lei

2012-10-01

327

Principles of Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Introduction: 1. Observation and interpretation; 2. Difficulties of the classical theories; 3. The purpose of quantum theory; Part I. Elementary Theory of Observation (Principle of Complementarity): 4. Refraction in inhomogeneous media (force fields); 5. Scattering of charged rays; 6. Refraction and reflection at a plane; 7. Absolute values of momentum and wave length; 8. Double ray of matter diffracting light waves; 9. Double ray of matter diffracting photons; 10. Microscopic observation of ? (x) and ? (p); 11. Complementarity; 12. Mathematical relation between ? (x) and ? (p) for free particles; 13. General relation between ? (q) and ? (p); 14. Crystals; 15. Transition density and transition probability; 16. Resultant values of physical functions; matrix elements; 17. Pulsating density; 18. General relation between ? (t) and ? (?); 19. Transition density; matrix elements; Part II. The Principle of Uncertainty: 20. Optical observation of density in matter packets; 21. Distribution of momenta in matter packets; 22. Mathematical relation between ? and ?; 23. Causality; 24. Uncertainty; 25. Uncertainty due to optical observation; 26. Dissipation of matter packets; rays in Wilson Chamber; 27. Density maximum in time; 28. Uncertainty of energy and time; 29. Compton effect; 30. Bothe-Geiger and Compton-Simon experiments; 31. Doppler effect; Raman effect; 32. Elementary bundles of rays; 33. Jeans' number of degrees of freedom; 34. Uncertainty of electromagnetic field components; Part III. The Principle of Interference and Schrödinger's equation: 35. Physical functions; 36. Interference of probabilities for p and q; 37. General interference of probabilities; 38. Differential equations for ?p (q) and Xq (p); 39. Differential equation for ?? (q); 40. The general probability amplitude ??' (Q); 41. Point transformations; 42. General theorem of interference; 43. Conjugate variables; 44. Schrödinger's equation for conservative systems; 45. Schrödinger's equation for non-conservative systems; 46. Pertubation theory; 47. Orthogonality, normalization and Hermitian conjugacy; 48. General matrix elements; Part IV. The Principle of Correspondence: 49. Contact transformations in classical mechanics; 50. Point transformations; 51. Contact transformations in quantum mechanics; 52. Constants of motion and angular co-ordinates; 53. Periodic orbits; 54. De Broglie and Schrödinger function; correspondence to classical mechanics; 55. Packets of probability; 56. Correspondence to hydrodynamics; 57. Motion and scattering of wave packets; 58. Formal correspondence between classical and quantum mechanics; Part V. Mathematical Appendix: Principle of Invariance: 59. The general theorem of transformation; 60. Operator calculus; 61. Exchange relations; three criteria for conjugacy; 62. First method of canonical transformation; 63. Second method of canonical transformation; 64. Proof of the transformation theorem; 65. Invariance of the matrix elements against unitary transformations; 66. Matrix mechanics; Index of literature; Index of names and subjects.

Landé, Alfred

2013-10-01

328

Deviation of Long-Period Tides from Equilibrium: Kinematics and Geostrophy

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New empirical estimates of the long-period fortnightly (Mf) tide obtained from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter data confirm significant basin-scale deviations from equilibrium. Elevations in the low-latitude Pacific have reduced amplitude and lag those in the Atlantic by 30 deg or more. These interbasin amplitude and phase variations are robust features that are reproduced by numerical solutions of the shallow-water equations, even for a constant-depth ocean with schematic interconnected rectangular basins. A simplified analytical model for cooscillating connected basins also reproduces the principal features observed in the empirical solutions. This simple model is largely kinematic. Zonally averaged elevations within a simple closed basin would be nearly in equilibrium with the gravitational potential, except for a constant offset required to conserve mass. With connected basins these offsets are mostly eliminated by interbasin mass flux. Because of rotation, this flux occurs mostly in a narrow boundary layer across the mouth and at the western edge of each basin, and geostrophic balance in this zone supports small residual offsets (and phase shifts) between basins. The simple model predicts that this effect should decrease roughly linearly with frequency, a result that is confirmed by numerical modeling and empirical T/P estimates of the monthly (Mm) tidal constituent. This model also explains some aspects of the anomalous nonisostatic response of the ocean to atmospheric pressure forcing at periods of around 5 days.

Egbert, Gary D.; Ray, Richard D.

2003-01-01

329

Principles of Public Paul Tabbush

access for recreation or health initiatives, using forests and woodlands as the sites for public eventsPrinciples of Public Engagement Paul Tabbush Bianca Ambrose-Oji #12;Principles of Public Engagement for this document is: Tabbush, P., and Ambrose-Oji, B., 2011, Principles of Public Engagement. Forest Research

330

Uncertainty principles and vector quantization

Abstract. An abstract form of the Uncertainty Principle set forth by Candes and Tao has found remarkable applications in the sparse approximation theory. This pa- per demonstates a new connection between the Uncertainty Principle and the vector quantization theory. We show that for frames in C, that satisfy the Uncertainty Principle, one can quickly convert every frame representation into a

Yurii Lyubarskii; Roman Vershynin

2010-01-01

331

Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

Ridgely, Charles T.

2010-01-01

332

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidecadal review of glacier fluctuations and case-studies of glacier processes and environments in central East Greenland will be used to demonstrate Mechanisms that Amplify, Attenuate and Deviate glacier response to climate forcings (MAAD). The different spatial and temporal scales at which MAAD affect mass balance and ice flow may complicate interpretation and longterm extrapolation of glacier response to climate change. A framework of MAAD characterisation and best-practice for interpreting climate signals while taking into account MAAD will be proposed. Glaciers in the Watkins Bjerge, Geikie Plateau and Stauning Alps regions of central East Greenland (68°-72°N) contain about 50000 km2 of glacierized area peripheral to the Greenland Ice Sheet. Within the region, large north-south and coast-inland climatic gradients, as well as complicated topography and glacier dynamics, result in discrepant glacier behaviour. Average retreat rates have doubled from about 2 to 4 km2 a-1 between the late 20th and early 21st centuries. However, glaciers terminating along the Atlantic coast display two times the retreat, thinning, and acceleration rates compared to glaciers terminating in inland fjords or on land. Despite similar climatic forcing variable glacier behaviour is apparent: individual glacier length change ranges from +57 m a-1 to -428 m a-1, though most retreat -20 to -100 m a-1. Interacting dynamic, mass balance and glacio-morphological mechanisms can amplify, attenuate or deviate glacier response (MAAD) to climate change, thus complicating the climatological interpretation of glacier length, area, and thickness changes. East Greenland MAAD include a range of common positive and negative feedback mechanisms in surface mass balance and terminus and subglacial boundary conditions affecting ice flow, but also mechanisms that have longterm or delayed effects. Certain MAAD may affect glacier change interpretation on multiple timescales: e.g. surging glaciers do not only pose problems for the direct interpretation of climate change from length and volume changes due to their dynamically-driven advance and retreat regimes, but also for the reconstruction of LIA extents from trimlines and moraines, and the reconstruction of surface mass balance due to crevasses, potholes or debris-cover. This presentation will address a range of MAAD, including thermal regime transitions; ocean influences on tidewater-terminating glaciers; glacier fragmentation and tributary-trunk interaction; glacier surging and tidewater behaviour; seasonal variations; glacier hypsometry and morphology; terrain and substrate; melt-albedo and melt-ice flow feedbacks; and ice marginal lakes.

Jiskoot, H.

2013-12-01

333

Constructing optimal local pseudopotentials from first principles

Local pseudopotential (LPP) is an important component of the orbital free density functional theory (OF-DFT), which is a promising large scale simulation method that can still maintain information of electron state in materials. Up to date, LPP is usually extracted from the solid state DFT calculations. It is unclear how to assess its transferability while applying to a much different chemical environment. Here we reveal a fundamental relation between the first principles norm-conserving PP (NCPP) and the LPP. Using the optimized effective potential method developed for exchange functional, we demonstrate that the LPP can be constructed optimally from the NCPP for a large number of elements. Our theory also reveals that the existence of an LPP is intrinsic to the elements, irrespective to the parameters used for the construction. Our method provides a unified method in constructing and assessing LPP in the framework of first principles pseudopotentials.

Mi, Wenhui; Ma, Yanming; Miao, Maosheng

2015-01-01

334

Nonequilibrium quantum Landauer principle.

Using the operational framework of completely positive, trace preserving operations and thermodynamic fluctuation relations, we derive a lower bound for the heat exchange in a Landauer erasure process on a quantum system. Our bound comes from a nonphenomenological derivation of the Landauer principle which holds for generic nonequilibrium dynamics. Furthermore, the bound depends on the nonunitality of dynamics, giving it a physical significance that differs from other derivations. We apply our framework to the model of a spin-1/2 system coupled to an interacting spin chain at finite temperature. PMID:25723198

Goold, John; Paternostro, Mauro; Modi, Kavan

2015-02-13

335

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introduction to Earth observation includes definitions of several terms, examples taken from real situations, and questions, answers, and exercises. A simple example of traditional chorological mapping methods and is used to show some fundamental principles of satellite images. Histogram, pixel and classification are introduced. There are discussions about remote sensing, the history of Earth observation, and geostationary and solar synchronous orbits. In addition, the basic physical concepts underlying remote sensing are explained, with the help of some relatively simple viewgraphs. This site is also available in German, French, Italian and Spanish.

336

Nonequilibrium Quantum Landauer Principle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the operational framework of completely positive, trace preserving operations and thermodynamic fluctuation relations, we derive a lower bound for the heat exchange in a Landauer erasure process on a quantum system. Our bound comes from a nonphenomenological derivation of the Landauer principle which holds for generic nonequilibrium dynamics. Furthermore, the bound depends on the nonunitality of dynamics, giving it a physical significance that differs from other derivations. We apply our framework to the model of a spin-1 /2 system coupled to an interacting spin chain at finite temperature.

Goold, John; Paternostro, Mauro; Modi, Kavan

2015-02-01

337

Complex Correspondence Principle

Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Hook, Daniel W. [Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wang Qinghai [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2010-02-12

338

PRINCIPLE OF INTERACTION REGION LOCAL CORRECTION

For hadron storage rings like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the machine performance at collision is usually limited by the field quality of the interaction region (IR) magnets. A robust local correction for the IR region is valuable in improving the dynamic aperture with practically achievable magnet field quality. The authors present in this paper the action-angle kick minimization principle on which the local IR correction for both RHIC and the LHC are based.

WEI,J.

1999-09-07

339

Principles of Enterprise Systems

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) through its Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) research team has been conducting research and facilitating enterprise-level transformations in large complex sociotechnical ...

Nightingale, Deborah

2009-06-15

340

Principle of relative locality

We propose a deepening of the relativity principle according to which the invariant arena for nonquantum physics is a phase space rather than spacetime. Descriptions of particles propagating and interacting in spacetimes are constructed by observers, but different observers, separated from each other by translations, construct different spacetime projections from the invariant phase space. Nonetheless, all observers agree that interactions are local in the spacetime coordinates constructed by observers local to them. This framework, in which absolute locality is replaced by relative locality, results from deforming energy-momentum space, just as the passage from absolute to relative simultaneity results from deforming the linear addition of velocities. Different aspects of energy-momentum space geometry, such as its curvature, torsion and nonmetricity, are reflected in different kinds of deformations of the energy-momentum conservation laws. These are in principle all measurable by appropriate experiments. We also discuss a natural set of physical hypotheses which singles out the cases of energy-momentum space with a metric compatible connection and constant curvature.

Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita 'La Sapienza', and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P. le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2Y5 (Canada); Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Pl. Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

2011-10-15

341

Uncertainty Principle Respects Locality

The notion of nonlocality implicitly implies there might be some kind of spooky action at a distance in nature, however, the validity of quantum mechanics has been well tested up to now. In this work it is argued that the notion of nonlocality is physically improper, the basic principle of locality in nature is well respected by quantum mechanics, namely, the uncertainty principle. We show that the quantum bound on the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality can be recovered from the uncertainty relation in a multipartite setting, and the same bound exists classically which indicates that nonlocality does not capture the essence of quantum and then distinguish quantum mechanics and classical mechanics properly. We further argue that the super-quantum correlation demonstrated by the nonlocal box is not physically comparable with the quantum one, as the result, the physical foundation for the existence of nonlocality is falsified. The origin of the quantum structure of nature still remains to be explained, some post-quantum theory which is more complete in some sense than quantum mechanics is possible and might not necessarily be a hidden variable theory.

Dongsheng Wang

2013-03-21

342

Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle

Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

Evers, Ellen R. K.; Lakens, Daniël

2013-01-01

343

On Generalized Uncertainty Principle

We study generalized uncertainty principle through the basic concepts of limit and Fourier transformation and analyze both the quantum theory of gravity and string theory from the perspective of complex function theory. Motivated from the noncommutative nature of string theory, we have proposed a UV/IR mixing dependent function $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $. For a given $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $, we arrived at the string uncertainty principle from the analyticity condition of a complex function, which depends upon UV cut-off of the theory. This non trivially modifies the quantum measurements, black hole physics and short distance geometries. The present analysis is based on the postulate that the Planck scale is the minimal length scale in nature. Furthermore, our consideration is in perfect agreement with the existence of the maximum length scale in nature. Both of the above length scales rely only upon the analysis of $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $ and do not directly make use of any specific structure of the theory or Hamiltonian. The Regge behavior of the string spectrum and the quantization of the horizon area of a black hole are natural consequences of the function $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $. It is hereby anticipated that $ \\tilde{\\delta}(\\Delta x,\\Delta k, \\epsilon) $ contains all possible corrections operating in nature, and thus a promising possibility to reveal important clues towards the geometric origin of $M$-theory.

Bhupendra Nath Tiwari

2011-09-20

344

Great Lakes Literacy Principles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

2011-03-01

345

Principles of Safety Pharmacology

Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.). PMID:18604233

Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

2008-01-01

346

Hawking temperature for various kinds of black holes from Heisenberg uncertainty principle

Hawking temperature is computed for a large class of black holes (with spherical, toroidal and hyperboloidal topologies) using only laws of classical physics plus the "classical" Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. This principle is shown to be fully sufficient to get the result, and there is no need to this scope of a Generalized Uncertainty Principle.

Fabio Scardigli

2006-07-04

347

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equatorial shallow water equations at low Froude number form a symmetric hyperbolic system with large terms containing a variable coefficient, the Coriolis parameter f, which depends on the latitude. The limiting behavior of the solutions as the Froude number tends to zero was investigated rigorously a few years ago, using the common approximation that the variations of f with latitude are linear. In that case, the large terms have a peculiar structure, due to special properties of the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian, which can be exploited to prove strong uniform a priori estimates in adapted functional spaces. It is shown here that these estimates still hold when f deviates from linearity, even though the special properties on which the proofs were based have no obvious generalization. As in the linear case, existence, uniqueness and convergence properties of the solutions corresponding to general unbalanced data are deduced from the estimates.

Dutrifoy, Alexandre

2015-04-01

348

... determine the cause of your chronic sinusitis and nasal obstruction. Your First Visit: After discussing your symptoms, the primary care physician or specialist will inquire if you have ever incurred severe trauma to your nose and if you have had previous nasal surgery. ...

349

Prediction of Formation-Tester Fluid-Sample Quality in Highly-Deviated Wells

, currently with Chevron Energy Technology Company, Houston, TX 77099; Email: mmalik@chevron.com ©2009 Society a wide range of deviation angles. Sensitivity studies con- sider the effects of permeability anisotropy

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

350

Estimation of deviation angle for axial-flow compressor blade sections using inviscid-flow solutions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a method of estimating deviation angles by analytical procedures was begun. Solutions for inviscid, irrotational flow in the blade-to-blade plane were obtained with a finite-difference calculation method. Deviation angles for a plane cascade with a rounded trailing edge were estimated by using the inviscid-flow solutions and three trailing-edge hypotheses. The estimated deviation angles were compared with existing experimental data over a range of incidence angles at inlet flow angles of 30 deg and 60 deg. The results indicate that deviation angles can be estimated accurately (within 1 deg) by using one of the three trailing-edge hypotheses, but only when pressure losses are low. A new trailing-edge hypotheses is presented which is suitable (for the cascade considered) for both low- and high-loss operating points.

Miller, M. J.

1974-01-01

351

Y Keywords: adaptation; artificial neural networks; evolutionary constraints; parasitoid; sex ratio by modelling information acquisition and processing using artificial neural networks (ANNs) evolving accordingConstraints on adaptation: explaining deviation from optimal sex ratio using artificial neural

West, Stuart

352

The otolith organs consist of the utricle and saccule. The utricle mediates the utriculo-ocular reflex by detecting horizontal head translation and static head tilt. Skew deviation is a vertical strabismus caused by imbalance of the utriculo-ocular reflex pathway and is commonly caused by lesions in the brainstem or cerebellum. It is associated with abnormal utriculo-ocular reflexes including asymmetric reduction of the translational vestibulo-ocular and ocular counterroll responses. Skew deviation is also associated with head position-dependent changes in ocular torsion and vertical strabismus. The reduction in ocular torsion and vertical strabismus when changing from an upright to supine position in skew deviation allows us to devise a new bedside 'upright-supine test' to differentiate skew deviation from fourth nerve palsy and other causes of vertical strabismus. PMID:25323854

Wong, A M F

2015-02-01

353

Observing angular deviations in the specular reflection of a light beam

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Law of Reflection of a light ray incident upon a mirror (?in = ?out) was first formulated by Euclid around 300 BC in his book Catoptrics; it has been a tenet of geometrical optics ever since. However, more recently, a small angular deviation of the Law of Reflection has been predicted for a physical light beam when this is regarded as the implementation of a ray. The deviation is a diffractive consequence of the angular dependence of the reflectivity and should occur for any mirror with less than 100% reflectivity. We report here experimental proof of this angular deviation by determining the direction of an optical beam after reflection from an air-glass interface, using a position detector with nanometre resolution. Our results are relevant for angular metrology in general and cantilever-based surface microscopies in particular. Analogous angular deviations are expected for reflection of acoustic waves and quantum matter waves.

Merano, M.; Aiello, A.; van Exter, M. P.; Woerdman, J. P.

2009-06-01

354

49 CFR 213.65 - Combined track alinement and surface deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.65 Combined track alinement and surface deviations. On any curved track where operations are conducted at...

2014-10-01

355

49 CFR 213.65 - Combined track alinement and surface deviations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.65 Combined track alinement and surface deviations. On any curved track where operations are conducted at...

2013-10-01

356

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...

2011-01-01

357

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...

2013-01-01

358

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...

2012-01-01

359

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

360

We present experimental measurements of the mean energy for the atom optics kicked rotor after just two kicks. The energy is found to deviate from the quasi--linear value for small kicking periods. The observed deviation is explained by recent theoretical results which include the effect of a non--uniform initial momentum distribution, previously applied only to systems using much colder atoms than ours.

Mark Sadgrove; Terry Mullins; Scott Parkins; Rainer Leonhardt

2004-09-06

361

Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity

We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can be controlled with an accuracy of 10{sup -4}. The laser phase noise decreases the dispersion magnitude while the amplitude noise increases it. Although we can always adjust the parameters to satisfy the white light condition, both types of noise make the cavity transmission curve uneven.

Sun Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail [Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Shahriar, M. Selim [Departments of EECS and Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3118 (United States)

2010-03-15

362

Noise and deviation effects in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity

We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements such as gravitational wave detection. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can be controlled within $10^{-4}$. The laser phase noise decreases the dispersion magnitude while the amplitude noise increases it. Although we can always adjust the parameters to satisfy the white light condition, both noises make the cavity transmission curve uneven.

Qingqing Sun; M. Selim Shahriar; M. Suhail Zubairy

2009-09-30

363

Testing the strong equivalence principle by radio ranging

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary range data offer the most promising means to test the validity of the Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP). Analytical expressions for the perturbation in the 'range' expected from an SEP violation predicted by the 'variation-of-G' method and by the 'two-times' approach are derived and compared. The dominant term in both expressions is quadratic in time. Analysis of existing range data should allow a determination of the coefficient of this term with a one-standard-deviation uncertainty of about 1 part in 100 billion/yr.

Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.; Shapiro, I. I.

1984-01-01

364

EVALUATION OF APICAL DEVIATION IN ROOT CANALS INSTRUMENTED WITH K3 AND ProTaper SYSTEMS

Objectives: this study evaluated the apical deviation of curved root canals instrumented with K3 and ProTaper systems. Material and methods: twenty root canals of human maxillary and mandibular first molars were employed, which were divided into 2 groups: group A (10 teeth) was instrumented with the K3 system, and group B (10 teeth) with the ProTaper system. Evaluation of deviation was performed by double radiographic exposure. Radiographs were achieved before and after instrumentation, with 0.3-second, thus allowing superimposition of images. Three-dimensional computerized tomograph was performed in 3 specimens in each group, as an additional means to evaluate the apical deviation. Results: were evaluated by the parametric test Student-Newman-Keuls at 5%, which did not reveal significance between groups concerning the apical deviation. The results of computerized tomograph images demonstrated that the larger deviation of the root canal occurred at the distolingual area for both systems. Conclusions: both techniques produced a mild apical deviation. Computerized microtomography was shown to be accurate for experimental endodontics studies. PMID:19089248

dos Santos, Mariana Diniz Bisi; Marceliano, Marília Fagury; Souza, Patrícia Rodrigues de Almeida Silva E

2006-01-01

365

Principles of Digital Computing

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â? Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Principles of Digital Computing, is the sixteenth chapter in Volume IV â??Digital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: a binary adder; look-up tables; finite state machines; microprocessors; and microprocessor planning. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

366

Fault Management Guiding Principles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

2011-01-01

367

Variational principle in dynamics of a vortex filament.

A variational principle governing the dynamics of a vortex filament in unbounded incompressible inviscid fluid flow was suggested by Rasetti and Regge [Physica A 80, 217 (1975)]. This variational principle holds in the approximation taking into account the logarithmically large terms, on the order of ln(La) , L and a being the length and the cross-section radius of the filament, respectively. In this approximation, the Hamiltonian is a function of L . Accordingly, the filament length L is constant in the course of motion. In this paper, a variational principle is obtained that takes into account also the terms on the order of unity. A characteristic feature of the more precise theory is the evolution of the filament length. The variational principle of the vortex filament dynamics is derived from the variational principle for the arbitrary vortex motion of an incompressible inviscid fluid found recently. PMID:18851140

Berdichevsky, Victor L

2008-09-01

368

Risk Management Principles for Nanotechnology

Risk management of nanotechnology is challenged by the enormous uncertainties about the risks, benefits, properties, and future\\u000a direction of nanotechnology applications. Because of these uncertainties, traditional risk management principles such as acceptable\\u000a risk, cost–benefit analysis, and feasibility are unworkable, as is the newest risk management principle, the precautionary\\u000a principle. Yet, simply waiting for these uncertainties to be resolved before undertaking

Gary E. Marchant; Douglas J. Sylvester; Kenneth W. Abbott

2008-01-01

369

Roll angle measurement based on common path compensation principle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel and compact roll angle displacement measurement method based on collimated laser position measurement and the common path compensation principle. The principles of the roll angle displacement measurement and the common path compensation are analyzed. The feasibility of the measurement method is verified, and the experimental results revealed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99995 between the relative displacement of the measuring beam spot and the angular displacement. Furthermore, the theoretical measurement resolution is 0.013 arcsec. To test the performance of the compensation, a series of experiments, including one system stability experiment and two different environmental interference experiments, were performed. The experimental results indicated that the standard deviations of the measuring beam spot's angular drift were improved by 82.6-87.2%. Thus, the stability of the system and the measurement resolution were improved.

Zhu, Yiwei; Liu, Shaocong; Kuang, Cuifang; Li, Shuai; Liu, Xu

2015-04-01

370

A Topological Interpretation of Mach's Principle in General Relativity

Starting from the Lovelock action and its supplementation by the relevant Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term, the curvature action corresponding to second-order General Relativity is stated in accordance to the topological properties of the space-time manifold $\\mathcal{M}$ with metric solutions being interpreted as topological solitons. Furthermore, this is shown to arise naturally from a topological interpretation of Mach's principle, with the appropriate manifestation of general covariance. Mach's principle is again invoked to suggest formulations of the curvature action in alternative elliptic complexes. The extent of these deviations from the curvature action as constructed in the first part of this paper are remarked upon in the context of contemporary modified theories of gravity.

Thomas W. McLaughlin

2012-07-10

371

Analytical (rational) mechanics is the mathematical structure of Newtonian deterministic dynamics developed by D'Alembert, Langrange, Hamilton, Jacobi, and many other luminaries of applied mathematics. Diffusion as a stochastic process of an overdamped individual particle immersed in a fluid, initiated by Einstein, Smoluchowski, Langevin and Wiener, has no momentum since its path is nowhere differentiable. In this exposition, we illustrate how analytical mechanics arises in stochastic dynamics from a randomly perturbed ordinary differential equation $dX_t=b(X_t)dt+\\epsilon dW_t$ where $W_t$ is a Brownian motion. In the limit of vanishingly small $\\epsilon$, the solution to the stochastic differential equation other than $\\dot{x}=b(x)$ are all rare events. However, conditioned on an occurence of such an event, the most probable trajectory of the stochastic motion is the solution to Lagrangian mechanics with $\\mathcal{L}=\\|\\dot{q}-b(q)\\|^2/4$ and Hamiltonian equations with $H(p,q)=\\|p\\|^2+b(q)\\cdot p$. Hamilton...

Ge, Hao

2012-01-01

372

and develop cryptic coloration on the eyed (ocular) side of the body during metamorphosis (Ahlstrom et al becomes asymmetrical and contorted because it `twists' towards the ocular (eyed) side during eye migration on the ocular side because of the presence of the additional eye (Yazdani, 1969). However, there is much

Gibb, Alice C.

373

arXiv:1005.0147v1[math.PR]2May2010 A large-deviation view on

to as a "nature-versus-nurture" transition. MSC2010: Primary 60F10, 60G60, 60K35; Secondary 82B26, 82C22. Key, nature versus nurture. Acknowledgment: The authors are grateful for extended discussions with Christof KÂ¨ulske. Part of this research was supported by the Dutch mathematics cluster Nonlinear Dynam- ics of Natural

Redig, Frank

374

Towards first-principles electrochemistry

This doctoral dissertation presents a comprehensive computational approach to describe quantum mechanical systems embedded in complex ionic media, primarily focusing on the first-principles representation of catalytic ...

Dabo, Ismaila

2008-01-01

375

Einstein's principle of Equivalence S What was Einstein's principle of

Einstein's principle of Equivalence S What was Einstein's principle of Equivalence?* JOHN NORTON 1 experimentD smll hmers suh s #12;T John Norton n elevtorD is elerted in order to trnsforms wy grvittionl s the ox eomes ritrrily smllF por exmpleD the tidl ulges rising in freely flling liquid droplet do

376

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rail wear dynamic measurement techniques are important to ensure the security of railway system and the efficiency of maintaining. Nowadays, a widely used approach is based on structured-light vision sensor, which includes a camera and a laser projector generating a light plane on the inner side of the rail. Considering the sensor installation error and vibration of running train, it is difficult to ensure the perpendicularity between the light plane and the rail, which leads to large measurement error. In order to overcome the problem, a motion deviation rectifying method is proposed. Rail section profiles are obtained by a multi-line structured-light vision sensor with multiple parallel light planes. Each profile can be segmented into two curves. One representing the rail waist is used to fit the rail longitudinal axis (parallel to train running direction) and establish an auxiliary plane perpendicular to the direction. Deviation rectifying process is to project the rail section profiles onto the auxiliary plane to recover perpendicularity between the light plane and the rail. Then another curve representing the rail head is used to calculate the rail wear based on the standard profile. The experimental results indicate that the method reduces the rail wear measurement error, meeting the requirements for real-time dynamic measurement of rail wear.

Sun, Junhua; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Yuntao; Liu, Qianzhe; Zhang, Guangjun

2013-09-01

377

Planned Parenthood says that rather than accept the Bush administration's gag rule it will give up federal funding of its operations. The gag rule forbids professionals at birth control clinics from even referring to abortion as an option to a pregnant woman, much less recommending one. President Bush has agreed to a policy which allows physicians but no one else at clinics to discuss abortion in at least some cases. In his view, according to White House officials, this was an admitted attempt to straddle the issue. Why he would want to straddle is understandable. The right wing of his party, which has always been suspicious of Mr. Bush, is pushing him to uphold what it regards as the Reagan legacy on this issue. The original gag rule, which prevented even physicians from discussing abortion as an option in almost all cases, was issued in the last presidents's 2nd term and upheld last year by the Supreme Court. Give Planned Parenthood credit for sticking to its principles. A lot of recipients of all sorts of federal funds want it both ways, take the money but not accept federal policy guidelines. When they find they can't, many "rise above principle," take the money and adjust policy accordingly. It is not going to be easy for Planned Parenthood now. Federal funds account for a significant portion of the organizations's budgets. Planned Parenthood of Maryland, for example, gets about $500,000 a year from the federal government, or about 12-13% of its total budget. It will either have to cut back on its services or increase its fundraising from other sources or charge women more for services--or all of those things. This is not the end of the story. It is certainly not the end of the political story. Pat Buchanan said of the new regulations, "I like the old position, to be quite candid." Thank goodness he never won a primary. George Bush would not have moved even as far as he hid on the gag rule. There will be a lot of agreement with the Buchanan view at the Republican national convention. We can only hope that by then the president will be looking to the general election campaign and a Democratic opponent who will be appealing to Republican women on this issue. Perhaps then he will relax the gag order a little more. PMID:12317218

1992-03-27

378

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. 317...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. ...commerce may be printed in a foreign language and may show the statement of...

2011-01-01

379

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. 317...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. ...commerce may be printed in a foreign language and may show the statement of...

2010-01-01

380

49 CFR 192.1013 - When may an operator deviate from required periodic inspections under this part?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...When may an operator deviate from required periodic inspections under this part? 192...may an operator deviate from required periodic inspections under this part? (a...may propose to reduce the frequency of periodic inspections and tests required in...

2010-10-01

381

A test of the Copernican principle.

The blackbody nature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation spectrum is used in a modern test of the Copernican principle. The reionized universe serves as a mirror to reflect CMB photons, thereby permitting a view of ourselves and the local gravitational potential. By comparing with measurements of the CMB spectrum, a limit is placed on the possibility that we occupy a privileged location, residing at the center of a large void. The Hubble diagram inferred from lines of sight originating at the center of the void may be misinterpreted to indicate cosmic acceleration. Current limits on spectral distortions are shown to exclude the largest voids which mimic cosmic acceleration. More sensitive measurements of the CMB spectrum could prove the existence of such a void or confirm the validity of the Copernican principle. PMID:18518434

Caldwell, R R; Stebbins, A

2008-05-16

382

Small Representation Principle

In a previous article Don Bennett and I looked for, found and proposed a game in which the Standard Model Gauge Group $S(U(2) \\times U(3))$ gets singled out as the "winner". This "game" means that the by Nature chosen gauge group should be just that one, which has the maximal value for a quantity, which is a modification of the ratio of the quadratic Casimir for the adjoint representation and that for a "smallest" faithful representation. In a recent article I proposed to extend this "game" to construct a corresponding game between different potential dimensions for space-time. The idea is to formulate, how the same competition as the one between the potential gauge groups would run out, if restricted to the potential Lorentz or Poincare groups achievable for different dimensions of space-time $d$. The remarkable point is, that it is the experimental space-time dimension 4, which wins. It follows that the whole Standard Model is specified by requiring SMALLEST REPRESENTATIONS! Speculatively we even argue that our principle found suggests the group of gauge transformations and some manifold(suggestive of say general relativity).

H. B. F. Nielsen

2014-03-06

383

[Principles of wound treatment].

New techniques and devices have revolutionized the treatment of wounds during the last years. For the treatment of wounds we have nowadays a great variety of new gadgets, tools and methods. Complex wounds require specific skills, given the fact that a great number of different promising methods are on the market to enable an optimal wound management. Well educated "wound experts" are required to overcome the problems of very complicated and chronic wound problems. The importance of an interdisciplinary team increases while facing the problems of special wound disorders such as a diabetic food, food ulcers or the problems of open abdomen in case of severe peritonitis. In this overview the main principles of modern wound treatment are outlined. The aim of this article is to present a good summary of wound judgement and treatment for the practioner. Increasingly important is it to point out the situation of complexe wounds which should be judgded and treated with the help of a "wound expert". PMID:18075140

Bruhin, A; Metzger, J

2007-09-01

384

Magnetism: Principles and Applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If you are studying physics, chemistry, materials science, electrical engineering, information technology or medicine, then you'll know that understanding magnetism is fundamental to success in your studies and here is the key to unlocking the mysteries of magnetism....... You can: obtain a simple overview of magnetism, including the roles of B and H, resonances and special techniques take full advantage of modern magnets with a wealth of expressions for fields and forces develop realistic general design programmes using isoparametric finite elements study the subtleties of the general theory of magnetic moments and their dynamics follow the development of outstanding materials appreciate how magnetism encompasses topics as diverse as rock magnetism, chemical reaction rates, biological compasses, medical therapies, superconductivity and levitation understand the basis and remarkable achievements of magnetic resonance imaging In his new book, Magnetism, Derek Craik throws light on the principles and applications of this fascinating subject. From formulae for calculating fields to quantum theory, the secrets of magnetism are exposed, ensuring that whether you are a chemist or engineer, physicist, medic or materials scientist Magnetism is the book for our course.

Craik, Derek J.

2003-09-01

385

Conservative relativity principle: Logical ground and analysis of relevant experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest a new relativity principle, which asserts the impossibility to distinguish the state of rest and the state of motion at the constant velocity of a system, if no work is done to the system in question during its motion. We suggest calling this new rule as "conservative relativity principle" (CRP). In the case of an empty space, CRP is reduced to the Einstein special relativity principle. We also show that CRP is compatible with the general relativity principle. One of important implications of CRP is the dependence of the proper time of a charged particle on the electric potential at its location. In the present paper we consider the relevant experimental facts gathered up to now, where the latter effect can be revealed. We show that in atomic physics the introduction of this effect furnishes a better convergence between theory and experiment than that provided by the standard approach. Finally, we reanalyze the Mössbauer experiments in rotating systems and show that the obtained recently puzzling deviation of the relative energy shift between emission and absorption lines from the relativistic prediction can be explained by the CRP.

Kholmetskii, Alexander; Yarman, Tolga; Missevitch, Oleg

2014-05-01

386

Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems

In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-12-15

387

In 49 rabbits the mucoperichondrium of their nasal septa was strictly unilaterally separated according to the Cottle procedure. In addition, in some rabbits only the surface of the septal cartilage was incised and in others the cartilage was cut vertically or horizontally. Four months after the operation the following alterations of the septa were seen: The separation of the mucoperichondrium from the cartilage or superficial incision of the cartilage led to a deviation to the operated left side. If in addition parts of the cartilage septum were mobilized, thus swinging horizontally or vertically, a deviation to the other nonoperated side was seen. Similarly, if two parallel vertical stripes of cartilage were excised, the ends of the remaining cartilage plate bent and the cartilage plate itself deviated to the nonoperated side. The postoperative deviations are due to released unbalanced forces of the cartilage itself and to the disequilibrium of scar tension resulting from the unilateral separation of the mucoperichondrium. To avoid these postoperative deviations the bilateral tunneling of the mucoperichondrium is required. PMID:7458764

Eitschberger, E; Merklein, C; Masing, H; Pesch, H J

1980-01-01

388

Uncertainty principle quantum estimation theory

Uncertainty principle in view of quantum estimation theory Keiji Matsumoto METR 97-08 October 1997 #12;Uncertainty principle in view of quantum estimation theory Keiji Matsumoto 1 Abstract Position-momentum uncertainty relation is examined in the light of quantum estimation theory, and some counterintuitive results

Yamamoto, Hirosuke

389

MICROBIOLOGY 301 PRINCIPLES OF MICROBIOLOGY

MICROBIOLOGY 301 PRINCIPLES OF MICROBIOLOGY FALL 2014 LECTURE: Lawson Hall, Room 161, 9:00 a.m. M: Lecture: To develop a fundamental understanding of the basic principles of microbiology. Students with medical, agricultural and some other applied aspects of the field of microbiology. Laboratory: To acquire

Nickrent, Daniel L.

390

PRINCIPLES OF PESTICIDES Spring 2014

IPM 5305 PRINCIPLES OF PESTICIDES Spring 2014 Three (3) credit hours Â Spring semesters Instructor: Dr. Fred Fishel Professor, Dept. of Agronomy Pesticide Information Office, Bldg. 164, Box 110710 DESCRIPTION Principles of Pesticides will provide opportunities for students to gain a basic knowledge

Watson, Craig A.

391

Computational principles of movement neuroscience

Unifying principles of movement have emerged from the computational study of motor control. We review several of these principles and show how they apply to processes such as motor planning, control, estimation, prediction and learning. Our goal is to demonstrate how specific models emerging from the computational approach provide a theoretical framework for movement neuroscience.

Zoubin Ghahramani; Daniel M. Wolpert

2000-01-01

392

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soccer coaches must understand the principles of play if they want to succeed. The principles of play are the rules of action that support the basic objectives of soccer and the foundation of a soccer coaching strategy. They serve as a set of permanent criteria that coaches can use to evaluate the efforts of their team. In this article, the author…

Ouellette, John

2004-01-01

393

Practical principles of medical audit.

The practical principles have been highlighted to help doctors avoid pitfalls in audit, especially when starting to carry out formal systematic audit. As these principles are mastered, audit activity can be expanded as desired with a firm and appropriate basis established for the activity. PMID:2247399

Dixon, N

1990-01-01

394

Publications Aquaculture: Principles, Practices, and

Publications Aquaculture: Principles, Practices, and Disease Controls Are Published "Principles of Warmwater Aquaculture" by Robert R. Stickney, has been published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. as an introductory text. As such, it examines various subject areas of aquaculture and provides concepts

395

Children's Understanding of Conversational Principles.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the development of awareness of conversational principles in preschool, first-, and third-grade children by presenting them with short stories ending with a verbal statement by a story character. Results suggest that children's understanding of conversational principles improves considerably between preschool and first grade.…

Conti, Daniel J.; Camras, Linda A.

1984-01-01

396

Ideario Educativo (Principles of Education).

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) which discusses an overall educational policy for Mexico based on Constitutional principles and those of humanism. The basic principles that should guide Mexican education as seen by the National Technical Council for Education are the following: (1) love of country; (2)…

Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

397

Principles of canonical action research

Despite the growing prominence of canonical action research (CAR) in the information systems discipline, a paucity of methodological guidance contin- ues to hamper those conducting and evaluating such studies. This article elicits a set of five principles and associated criteria to help assure both the rigor and the relevance of CAR in information systems. The first principle relates to the

Robert M. Davison; Maris G. Martinsons; Ned Kock

2004-01-01

398

Milk Fever Control Principles: A Review

Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%–60% in terms of milk fever prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K) – (Cl + S)) significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD principle is a palatability problem. The principle of feeding rations low in calcium is highly efficient in milk fever prevention provided the calcium intake in the dry period is kept below 20 g per day. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a very low mean RR (between 0 and 0.20) (daily calcium intake below versus above 20 g/d). The main problem in implementing the low-Ca principle is difficulties in formulating rations sufficiently low in calcium when using commonly available feeds. The use of large doses of vitamin D metabolites and analogues for milk fever prevention is controversial. Due to toxicity problems and an almost total lack of recent studies on the subject this principle is not described in detail. A few management related issues were discussed briefly, and the following conclusions were made: It is important to supply the periparturient cow with sufficient magnesium to fulfil its needs, and to prevent the dry cows from being too fat. Available information on the influence of carbohydrate intake, and on the effect of the length of the dry period and prepartum milking, is at present insufficient to include these factors in control programmes. PMID:12071112

2002-01-01

399

The growing interest in data mining is motivated by a common problem across disciplines: how does one store, access, model, and ultimately describe and understand very large data sets? Historically, different aspects of data mining have been addressed independently by different disciplines. This is the first truly interdisciplinary text on data mining, blending the contributions of information science, computer science,

David J. Hand; Heikki Mannila; Padhraic Smyth

2001-01-01

400

Precautionary principle in international law.

The deregulatory nature of trade rules frequently brings them into conflict with the precautionary principle. These rules dominate debate over the content and legal status of the precautionary principle at the international level. The World Trade Organization (WTO), because of its power in settling disputes, is a key player. Many States are concerned to define the precautionary principle consistent with WTO rules, which generally means defining it as simply a component of risk analysis. At the same time, many States, especially environmental and public health policymakers, see the principle as the legal basis for preserving domestic and public health measures in the face of deregulatory pressures from the WTO. The precautionary principle has begun to acquire greater content and to move into the operative articles of legally binding international agreements. It is important to continue this trend. PMID:11114120

Saladin, C

2000-01-01

401

[Dignity, founding principle of law].

The principle of dignity made a noted appearance in the legal field on the occasion of the adoption of the first texts concerning bioethics. There is in fact an obvious correlation between the need to provide a framework for certain practices and the principle of human dignity. This recognition, which can be seen in international and European law as much as in national law, is marked by certain ambiguities as to its meaning and its impact. So this principle should be subjected to a legal analysis. From this point of view, it presents three main characteristics, it is a matrix principle, which cannot be waived and it constitutes an objective right. Today, beyond its formal recognition, the effectiveness of the principle of dignity is weakened by a tendency to give prevalence to the requirement of freedom, as a subjective right. Beyond the ideological debate on this issue, it is the protection of the individual that is at stake. PMID:21456303

Mathieu, Bertrand

2010-09-01

402

Highly Deviated Asymmetric Division in Very Low Proportion of Mycobacterial Mid-log Phase Cells

In this study, we show that about 20% of the septating Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium xenopi cells in the exponential phase populationdivideasymmetrically, with an unusually high deviation (17 ± 4%) in the division site from the median, to generate short cells and long cells, thereby generating population heterogeneity. This mode of division is very different from the symmetric division of themajority (about 80%) of the septating cells in the Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG exponential phase population, with 5-10% deviation in the division site from the mid-cell site, as reported by recent studies. The short cells and the long cells further grew and divided to generate a population. We speculate that the generation of the short cells and the long cells through the highly deviated asymmetric divisionin the low proportions of mycobacterial population may have a role in stress tolerance. PMID:24949109

Vijay, Srinivasan; Mukkayyan, Nagaraja; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

2014-01-01

403

Deviations of the K ?/K ? intensity ratio of Ti upon impact with low velocity ions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deviations of the branching ratio of the decay of K-vacancies in Ti have been observed during bombardment with low velocity ions of H, He and N. Beams of these ions have been used for various applications in which resonant nuclear reactions were used as the main analytical technique, whereas the X-ray signal could conveniently be used for monitoring the accumulated charge. During the evaluation of this monitoring signal, it was observed that the commonly made assumption that the K ?/K ? intensity ratio is a constant can easily be off by 30% or more. Also a few data of L-shell ionisation cross sections has been measured on Au to establish if the onset of deviations in the branching ratio parallels the onset of deviations from the ECPSSR theory for inner shell ionisation.

Wijsman, W. E.; Vis, R. D.

1999-04-01

404

Seven patients with definite RA and bilateral ulnar deviation of Fearnley grade I were included in a study of the usefulness of nocturnal resting splints. Each patient used the splint on average 17 months on one hand, randomly chosen, with the free hand as control. Joint mobility, grip strength, pain and radiographic findings were recorded at start and finish of the study. Splint treatment influenced grip strength positively, and most patients stated pain relief during the night. However, all but one patient showed progression of ulnar deviation in both hands, and there was no significant difference in progression between treated and nontreated hands. This study thus supported the use of resting splints at night for pain relief but not for prevention of ulnar deviation. PMID:1582123

Malcus Johnson, P; Sandkvist, G; Eberhardt, K; Liang, B; Herrlin, K

1992-03-01

405

[Study on physical deviation factors on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement].

In order to eliminate the deviation between the measured LIBS spectral line and the standard LIBS spectral line, and improve the accuracy of elements measurement, a research of physical deviation factors in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technology was proposed. Under the same experimental conditions, the relationship of ablated hole effect and spectral wavelength was tested, the Stark broadening data of Mg plasma laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with sampling time-delay from 1.00 to 3.00 micros was also studied, thus the physical deviation influences such as ablated hole effect and Stark broadening could be obtained while collecting the spectrum. The results and the method of the research and analysis can also be applied to other laser induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment system, which is of great significance to improve the accuracy of LIBS elements measuring and is also important to the research on the optimum sampling time-delay of LIBS. PMID:24409698

Wan, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Hua-Ming

2013-10-01

406

Physical Principles of Mammography

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An outline is given of the underlying physical principles that govern the selection and use of systems for X-ray mammography. Particular attention is paid to screen-film mammography as some aspects of digital mammography are considered in another lecture. The size and composition of the compressed female breast and of calcifications are described and the magnitude of photon interaction processes in breast tissues discussed. The physical performance measures contrast, unsharpness, dose, noise and dynamic range are outlined and used in a treatment of the various components of the mammographic system. The selection of photon energy is a compromise between contrast and/or signal-to-noise ratio on the one hand, and breast dose on the other. For screen-film imaging the contrast achieved is considered to be the most important image measure and the performances of different mammographic target/filter combinations (including Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh and W/Rh) are compared on this basis. For digital imaging, the signal-tonoise ratio is the most important image measure, and the optimal X-ray spectra are then different to those for screen-film mammography. The relationship between image unsharpness and focal spot size and image magnification is explored. The importance of breast compression is stressed and the advantages of compression listed. The contrast in the image is degraded by scattered photons recorded by the image receptor and the magnitude of this effect and the reduction achievable using mammographic anti-scatter grids considered. The performance of mammographic screen-film receptors is described and analyzed, paying attention to unsharpness, noise and receptor DQE.

Dance, David R.

407

Optic eikonal, Fermat's principle and the least action principle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalized refractive index in the form of optic eikonal is defined through comparing frame definitions of left-handed and right-handed sets and indicates the sign of the refractive index covered by the quadratic form of the eikonal equation. Fermat’s principle is generalized, and the general refractive law is derived directly. Under this definition, the comparison between Fermat’s principle and the least action principle is made through employing path integral and analogizing L. de Broglie’s theory.

Tan, Kangbo; Liang, Changhong; Shi, Xiaowei

2008-12-01

408

Role of N defects in paramagnetic CrN at finite temperatures from first principles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of defects in paramagnetic materials at high temperature constitute a formidable challenge to solid-state theory due to the interaction of magnetic disorder, vibrations, and structural relaxations. CrN is a material where these effects are particularly large due to a strong magnetolattice coupling and a tendency for deviations from the nominal 1:1 stoichiometry. In this work, we present a first-principles study of nitrogen vacancies and nitrogen interstitials in CrN at elevated temperature. We report on formation energetics, the geometry of interstitial nitrogen dimers, and the impact on the electronic structure caused by the defects. We find a vacancy formation energy of 2.28 eV with a small effect of temperature, i.e., a formation energy for N interstitial in the form of a <111 > -oriented split bond of 3.77 eV with an increase to 3.97 at 1000 K. Vacancies are found to add three electrons, while split-bond interstitial adds one electron to the conduction band. The band gap of defect-free CrN is smeared out due to vibrations, although it is difficult to draw a conclusion about the exact temperature at which the band gap closes from our calculations. However, it is clear that at 900 K there is a nonzero density of electronic states at the Fermi level. At 300 K, our results indicate a border case where the band gap is about to close.

Mozafari, E.; Alling, B.; Steneteg, P.; Abrikosov, Igor A.

2015-03-01

409

Principles of Electrospray Ionization

Electrospray ionization is today the most widely used ionization technique in chemical and biochemical analysis. Interfaced with a mass spectrometer it allows the investigation of the molecular composition of liquid samples. With electrospray a large variety of chemical substances can be ionized. There is no limitation in mass which thus enables even the investigation of large noncovalent protein complexes. Its high ionization efficiency profoundly changed biomolecular sciences because proteins can be identified and quantified on trace amounts in a high throughput fashion. This review article focuses mainly on the exploration of the underlying ionization mechanism. Some ionization characteristics are discussed that are related to this mechanism. Typical spectra of peptides, proteins, and noncovalent complexes are shown and the quantitative character of spectra is highlighted. Finally the possibilities and limitations in measuring the association constant of bivalent noncovalent complexes are described. PMID:21742801

Wilm, Matthias

2011-01-01

410

Food preservation remains to be one of the important food processing industries. Early approaches to food preservation applied\\u000a the methods of preservation naturally available, such as sun drying, salting, and fermentation, which were used to provide\\u000a food in periods when fresh foods were not available. As civilization developed, demand for large quantities of better quality\\u000a processed food also increased. This

A. G. Abdul-Ghani Al-Baali; Mohammed M. Farid

411

Mandibular resection following surgical treatment for neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity leads to numerous complications including altered mandibular movements, disfigurement, difficult in swallowing, impaired speech and articulation, and deviation of the mandible towards the resected site. Various prosthetic methods are employed to reduce or minimize mandibular deviation and improve and restore the lost functions and esthetic, like maxillomandibular fixation, implant supported prosthesis, removable mandibular guide flange prosthesis, and palatal based guidance restoration. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of a patient following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis. PMID:25821361

(Bhattacharya), Sampa Ray; Majumdar, Dibyendu; Singh, Dilip K.; Islam, M. D. Rabiul; Ray, Pradip K.; Saha, Nilanjana

2015-01-01

412

We report, for the first time, deviations from the Summerfield scaling in the ac conductivity spectra of single ion conducting glasses. In contrast to the extensively studied borate and germanate glasses, the conductivity isotherms of alkali tellurite glasses do not superimpose upon application of the Summerfield scaling. The deviations depend on the alkali oxide content as well as on the type of the alkali ion. Remarkably, our experimental findings differ considerably from theoretical results describing the hopping dynamics of charge carriers in random barrier landscapes. PMID:12443130

Murugavel, S; Roling, B

2002-11-01

413

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the XIXth century, physics was dominated by two main theories: classical (or Newtonian) mechanics and electromagnetism. To be entirely correct, we should add thermodynamics, which seemed to be grounded on different principles, but whose links with mechanics were progressively better understood thanks to the work of Maxwell and Boltzmann, among others. Classical mechanics, born with Galileo and Newton, claimed to explain the motion of lumps of matter under the action of forces. The paradigm for a lump of matter is a particle, or a corpuscle, which one can intuitively think of as a billiard ball of tiny dimensions, and which will be dubbed a micro-billiard ball in what follows. The second main component of XIXth century physics, electromagnetism, is a theory of the electric and magnetic fields and also of optics, thanks to the synthesis between electromagnetism and optics performed by Maxwell, who understood that light waves are nothing other than a particular case of electromagnetic waves. We had, on the one hand, a mechanical theory where matter exhibiting a discrete character (particles) was carried along well localized trajectories and, on the other hand, a wave theory describing continuous phenomena which did not involve transport of matter. The two theories addressed different domains, the only obvious link being the law giving the force on a charged particle submitted to an electromagnetic field, or Lorentz force. In 1905, Einstein put an end to this dichotomic wave/particle view and launched two revolutions of physics: special relativity and quantum physics. First, he showed that Newton's equations of motion must be modified when the particle velocities are not negligible with respect to that of light: this is the special relativity revolution, which introduces in mechanics a quantity characteristic of optics, the velocity of light. However, this is an aspect of the Einsteinian revolution which will not interest us directly, with the exception of Chapter 7. Then Einstein introduced the particle aspect of light: in modern language, he introduced the quantum properties of the electromagnetic field, epitomized by the concept of photon. After briefly recalling the main properties of waves in classical physics, this chapter will lead us to the heart of the quantum world, elaborating on an example which is studied in some detail, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This apparatus is widely used today in physics laboratories, but we shall limit ourselves to a schematic description, at the level of what my experimental colleagues would call "a theorist's version of an interferometer".

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

414

OECD Principles of Corporate Governance

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Principles of Corporate Governance" sets out a structure for directing and controlling corporate businesses. This document (html or .pdf) consists of five sections detailing the principles: "The rights of shareholders," "The equitable treatment of shareholders," "The role of stakeholders in corporate governance," "Disclosure and transparency," and "The responsibilities of the board," as well as annotations for each of the sections. Be sure to visit the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance Q&A page, linked at the top of the page.

415

Dark matter and the equivalence principle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence principle. The astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter are discussed and rather tight constraints on its strength are found. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). Such an interaction also has unusual implications for the growth of large-scale structure.

Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

1991-01-01

416

A New Principle of Sound Frequency Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the study of aircraft and propeller noises, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has developed an instrument for sound-frequency analysis which differs fundamentally from previous types, and which, owing to its simplicity of principle, construction, and operation, has proved to be of value in this investigation. The method is based on the well-known fact that the Ohmic loss in an electrical resistance is equal to the sum of the losses of the harmonic components of a complex wave, except for the case in which any two components approach or attain vectorial identity, in which case the Ohmic loss is increased by a definite amount. The principle of frequency analysis has been presented mathematically and a number of distinct advantages relative to previous methods have been pointed out. An automatic recording instrument embodying this principle is described in detail. It employs a beat-frequency oscillator as a source of variable frequency. A large number of experiments have verified the predicted superiority of the method. A number of representative records are presented.

Theodorsen, Theodore

1932-01-01

417

On the Maximal Deviation from the Mirror Image Approximation due to Solid Liquid Phase Transition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the Walsh and Christian (1955) analysis in a manner which allows a reasonable estimation of the expected deviation from the mirror image approximation due to solid liquid phase transition. This estimate is limited to a phase transition that occurs at shock unloading. This analysis provides a good estimate to metals with low melting pressure such as Tin and Lead.

Pistinner, S. L.; Pecker, S.; Werdiger, M.; Eliezer, S.

2007-12-01

418

Deviation of ergodic averages for area-preserving flows on surfaces of higher genus

We prove a substantial part of a conjecture of Kontsevich and Zorich on the Lyapunov exponents of the Teichmuller geodesic flow on the deviation of ergodic averages for generic conservative flows on higher genus surfaces. The result on the Teichmuller flow is formulated in terms of a (symplectic) cocycle on the real cohomology bundle over the moduli space of holomorphic

Giovanni Forni

2004-01-01

419

Local Sequence Alignments Statistics: Deviations from Gumbel Statistics in the RareEvent Tail

Local Sequence Alignments Statistics: Deviations from Gumbel Statistics in the RareÂEvent Tail Stefan Wolfsheimer #1 ,Bernd Burghardt 1 and Alexander K Hartmann 1 1 Institut fË?ur Theoretische Physik # Â wolfsh@theorie.physik.uniÂgoettingen.de; Bernd Burghardt Â burghard@theorie.physik

Hartmann, Alexander K.

420

Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series Gandhimohan M. Viswanathan,1

. This highly ir- regular behavior has recently motivated investigators 2Â7 to apply time-series analysesDeviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series Gandhimohan M. Viswanathan,1 C.-K. Peng,1,2 H. Eugene Stanley,1 and Ary L. Goldberger2 1 Center for Polymer Studies

421

Deviations of the lepton mapping matrix from the Harrison-Perkins-Scott form

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple set of hypotheses governing the deviations of the leptonic mapping matrix from the Harrison-Perkins-Scott (HPS) form. These deviations are supposed to arise entirely from a perturbation of the mass matrix in the charged lepton sector. The perturbing matrix is assumed to be purely imaginary (thus maximally T-violating) and to have a strength in energy scale no greater (but perhaps smaller) than the muon mass. As we shall show, it then follows that the absolute value of the mapping matrix elements pertaining to the tau lepton deviate by no more than O((m?/m?)2) approx 3.5 × 10-3 from their HPS values. Assuming that (m?/m?)2 can be neglected, we derive two simple constraints on the four parameters ?12, ?23, ?31, and ? of the mapping matrix. These constraints are independent of the details of the imaginary T-violating perturbation of the charged lepton mass matrix. We also show that the e and ? parts of the mapping matrix have a definite form governed by two parameters ? and ? any deviation of order m?/m? can be accommodated by adjusting these two parameters.

Friedberg, R.; D. Lee, T.

2010-10-01

422

IL4-induced immune deviation as antigen-specific therapy for inflammatory autoimmune disease

Organ-specific autoimmune diseases arc mediated by interferon ? (IFN-?)-producing T helper 1 (Th1) cells. Here, Martin Röcken and colleagues review the experimental basis for an antigen-specific therapeutic approach to inflammatory autoimmune diseases. This strategy involves selective deviation of harmful Th1 responses towards an anti-inflammatory, interleukin 4 (IL-4)-producing Th2 phenotype.

Martin Röcken; Michael Racke; Ethan M. Shevach

1996-01-01

423

Statistical Applets: Mean-Standard Deviation Analysis of Two-Asset Portfolios

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove, this applet illustrates the concept of risk versus return in investment portfolios by analyzing mean and standard deviation and graphing results. It accompanies "Practice of Business Statistics," but does not require use of this text.

Duckworth, William

424

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

This document provides notice of availability of a Class Deviation from EPA's assistance agreement dispute procedures and also sets forth the procedures that will apply to the resolution of disputes that may arise in connection with the CWSRF and DWSRF reallocation decisions made by EPA under the ARRA. Currently, with respect to states and local governments, assistance agreement disputes and......

2010-02-25

425

Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…

Carlson, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

426

Evaluation of Patient Residual Deviation and Its Impact on Dose Distribution for Proton Radiotherapy

The residual deviations after final patient repositioning based on bony anatomy and the impact of such deviations on the proton dose distributions was investigated. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and kilovoltage (kV) 'portal verification' images from 10 patients treated with passively scattered proton radiotherapy was used to estimate the residual deviation. These changes were then applied to the location of isocenter points that, in effect, moved the isocenter relative to the apertures and compensators. A composite verification plan was obtained and compared with the original clinical treatment plan to evaluate any changes in dose distributions. The residual deviations were fitted to a Gaussian distribution with {mu} = -0.9 {+-} 0.1 mm and {sigma} = 2.55 {+-} 0.07 mm. The dose distribution showed under- and overcovered dose spots with complex dose distributions both in the target volumes and in the organs at risk. In some cases, this amounts to 63.5% above the intended clinical plan. Although patient positioning is carefully verified before treatment delivery and setup uncertainties are accounted for by using compensator smearing and aperture margins, a residual shift in a patient's position can considerably affect the dose distribution.

Arjomandy, Bijan, E-mail: arjomandy_2000@yahoo.com

2011-10-01

427

This paper presents an analysis of the deviation of hydraulic fractures associated with the poroelastic change of the in situ stress field caused by fluid injection and pumping in the reservoir. This mechanism is studied within the confines of a simple model involving one injection and one pumping well, and a hydraulic fracture propagating along the path initially equidistant from

I. Berchenko; E. Detournay

1997-01-01

428

On the deviation of a parametric cubic spline interpolant from its data polygon

When fltting a parametric curve through a sequence of points, it is important in applications that the curve should not exhibit unwanted oscillations. In this paper we take the view that a good curve is one that does not deviate too far from the data polygon: the polygon formed by the data points. From this point of view, we study

Michael S. Floater

2008-01-01

429

Elasticity. El Hadji Bouya Amar1 , D. Clamond2 , N. Fraysse1 , J. Rajchenbach1 1 Laboratoire de Physique de submitted to a localized force. By means of image processing, we obtain an accurate measurement deviates unambiguously from the predictions of linear elasticity and of other theoretical descriptions

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

430

High speed cutting with industrial robots: Towards model based compensation of deviations

High speed cutting with industrial robots: Towards model based compensation of deviations Modeling and numerical simulation of the industrial robot with elastic joints Dr.-Ing. M. Stelzer and Prof. Dr. rer. nat, [abele|bauer|weigold]@ptw.tu-darmstadt.de Abstract Application of industrial robots for high speed

Stryk, Oskar von

431

Deviational simulation of phonon transport in graphene ribbons with ab initio scattering

We present a deviational Monte Carlo method for solving the Boltzmann-Peierls equation with ab initio 3-phonon scattering, for temporally and spatially dependent thermal transport problems in arbitrary geometries. Phonon dispersion relations and transition rates for graphene are obtained from density functional theory calculations. The ab initio scattering operator is simulated by an energy-conserving stochastic algorithm embedded within a deviational, low-variance Monte Carlo formulation. The deviational formulation ensures that simulations are computationally feasible for arbitrarily small temperature differences, while the stochastic treatment of the scattering operator is both efficient and exhibits no timestep error. The proposed method, in which geometry and phonon-boundary scattering are explicitly treated, is extensively validated by comparison to analytical results, previous numerical solutions and experiments. It is subsequently used to generate solutions for heat transport in graphene ribbons of various geometries and evaluate the validity of some common approximations found in the literature. Our results show that modeling transport in long ribbons of finite width using the homogeneous Boltzmann equation and approximating phonon-boundary scattering using an additional homogeneous scattering rate introduces an error on the order of 10% at room temperature, with the maximum deviation reaching 30% in the middle of the transition regime.

Landon, Colin D.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2014-10-28

432

Contraversive shift of conjugate eye deviation in hemispheric stroke indicates emerging mass effect

Conjugate eye deviation (CED) towards the ipsilateral or the contralateral side of the brain lesion can occur as a result of acute hemispheric stroke. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of CED shifting from the lesional side to the contralateral side in acute hemispheric stroke in the literature. We present four patients with right hemispheric stroke with a

Yi-Jen Wu; Tzu-Tung Tsai; Chin-Wei Huang

2011-01-01

433

Three-dimensional aspects of caloric nystagmus in humans: II. Caloric-induced torsional deviation.

The oculomotor response to caloric stimulation was recorded using video-oculography (VOG), yielding measures of eye rotation about all three orthogonal axes. During an ongoing caloric nystagmus response, a slow torsional deviation of the eye in the direction of the slow phase of the torsional component of nystagmus was observed. The effect appeared to be systematically influenced by the gravitoinertial force employed during a centrifuge study (see Part I, this issue), and was observed in all tested subjects. Furthermore, in subsequent laboratory tests warm and cold irrigations elicited opposite responses, as did stimulation to right and left ears. Testing in the supine and prone positions, however, did not lead to a reversal of direction, as is the case with the horizontal, vertical and torsional nystagmus components as such. The rate of torsional deviation was of the order of 0.05 degrees/s, well below the physiological transduction range of the cupular organs. Testing with a torsional optokinetic stimulus produced only the expected OK nystagmus without any slow deviation. This would argue against a central vestibular integratory, or oculomotor origin for the phenomenon. It is proposed that this caloric-induced, torsional deviation is of peripheral otolithic origin, most likely elicited by way of direct thermal stimulation to the hair cells of the utricular maculae. PMID:8291425

Clarke, A H; Waldmann, K; Scherer, H

1993-11-01

434

The median absolute deviation from the median (MAD) is an important robust univariate spread measure. It also plays important roles with multivariate data through statistics based on the univariate projections of the data, in which case a modified sample MAD introduced by Tyler [Tyler, D. E, 1994. Finite sample breakdown points of projection based multivariate location and scatter statistics. Annals

Robert Serfling; Satyaki Mazumder

2009-01-01

435

MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation

A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

Meyer, Arnd [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

2010-02-10

436

This article is dealing with the experimental inves tigation of friction and wear of polyethylene sheat hings under extreme loading. PE-sheathings are used as corrosion protec tion system of external tendons of post tensioned c oncrete bridges. At deviation points the material is stressed perpen dicular to the axis of the steel tendons. Whilst lo ad is applied the tendons

Hermann Weiher; Konrad Zilch

437

We report measurements on the reversible and irreversible kinetics of aggregation in a colloid of polystyrene particles, performed by quasielastic light scattering. The experiment was made with small to moderate concentrations of the simple electrolyte inducing the aggregation in order to observe both the reversible flocculation and the slow, irreversible diffusion-limited coagulation. In the latter case we observe deviations from

C. Cametti; P. Codastefano; P. Tartaglia

1987-01-01

438

Ecology and taxonomy-driven deviations in the frog callbody size relationship across the diverse Australian frog fauna C. J. Hoskin1,2 , S. James2 & G. C. Grigg2 1 School of Botany & Zoology, The Australian, St Lucia, Qld, Australia Keywords frog call; body size; signal evolution; environmental noise

Keogh, Scott

439

Importance of the levator labii alaeque nasi muscle in dorsal septal deviations.

Deviated cartilages structures of the nose can be affected by nasal muscles, and deviation becomes conspicuous when the patient smiles. This condition depends on activity of nasal muscles, particularly the levator labii alaeque nasi muscle. A total of 124 septorhinoplasty operations were performed to correct dorsal concave septal deviation between 2005 and 2009 years. The 70 women and 54 men included in the study had an average age of 28 years. The average follow-up period was 12 months. Open septorhinoplasty was preferred in all cases. The medial part of the levator labii alaeque nasi muscle was extensively dissected from the lateral crus and surrounding tissues. The lateral crura of the alar cartilages were separated from the upper lateral cartilages in the scroll area. The dorsal septal deviation was corrected by combination of bilateral spreader grafts, which reinforced cartilage with horizontal control sutures. Early postoperative period was uneventful. Nasal obstruction was reduced after surgery, and significant subjective postoperative improvements were observed in all patients. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative photographs demonstrated improved dorsal nasal contour. Revision operation was performed in 3 cases. The corrected septal cartilage was in a good position in all revised cases; therefore, septal surgery was not performed in the revision operations. In conclusion, surgical disruption of the anatomic relationship between the muscle with the dorsal septal cartilage and reinforcement of the dorsal septal cartilage with spreader grafts and horizontal control sutures can decrease risk of recurrence. PMID:21403568

Tellio?lu, Ali Teoman; Özakpinar, Hülda Rifat; Cakir, Bari?; Tekdemir, Ibrahim

2011-03-01

440

A Lorentz-Poincaré type interpretation of the Weak Equivalence Principle

The validity of the Weak Equivalence Principle relative to a local inertial frame is detailed in a scalar-vector gravitation model with Lorentz-Poincar\\'e type interpretation. Given the previously established first Post-Newtonian concordance of dynamics with General Relativity, the principle is to this order compatible with GRT. The gravitationally modified Lorentz transformations, on which the observations in physical coordinates depend, are shown to provide a physical interpretation of \\emph{parallel transport}. A development of ``geodesic'' deviation in terms of the present model is given as well.

Jan; Broekaert

2007-03-22

441

Squeezed States, Uncertainty Relations and the Pauli Principle in Composite and Cosmological Models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of not only uncertainty relations but also the Pauli exclusion principle is emphasized in discussing various 'squeezed states' existing in the universe. The contents of this paper include: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear Physics in the Quark-Shell Model; (3) Hadron Physics in the Standard Quark-Gluon Model; (4) Quark-Lepton-Gauge-Boson Physics in Composite Models; (5) Astrophysics and Space-Time Physics in Cosmological Models; and (6) Conclusion. Also, not only the possible breakdown of (or deviation from) uncertainty relations but also the superficial violation of the Pauli principle at short distances (or high energies) in composite (and string) models is discussed in some detail.

Terazawa, Hidezumi

1996-01-01

442

Administrative principles in emergency planning

The complexity of the hazards environment along with limited resources and inaccurate knowledge suggest the need for balancing technical expertise and citizen participation in evacuation planning. An approach to achieve such a balance is presented through six administrative principles. Three of these principles address the process of planning, stressing the importance of constructing and continuing to monitor evacuation plans based on valid information and education of citizens by emergency officals. The other three principles focus upon the format of evacuation plans. Plans should emphasize appropriate response behaviors, be simple and flexible, and specify interorganizational coordination. Several procedures to facilitate an application of the principles are discussed with reference to responsibilities shared by emergency officals who have technical expertise and citizens with their experience and knowledge about the community. Evacuation plans must be devised with enough understanding, commitment, and ability to carry them out, or they will be ineffective as well as inefficient. 26 references.

Gillespie, D.F.; Perry, R.W.

1984-01-01

443

Fundamental principles of particle detectors

This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs.

Fernow, R.C.

1988-01-01

444

EBSD study of angular deviations from the Goss component in grain-oriented electrical steels.

The magnetic properties of grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels strongly depend on the distribution of the ? and ? angles, i.e., the deviations of the easy magnetisation <100> from the rolling direction (RD) in the rolling plane and out of the rolling plane, respectively. However, most Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) studies consider the standard Goss deviation angle, which includes the rotation of the (110) plane about the RD. Therefore, in the present work, a new procedure is demonstrated for deriving the ? and ? angles from EBSD mappings to obtain a quantitative texture characterisation in line with the magnetic properties. This procedure is later applied to 37 GO steels after secondary recrystallisation that exhibit a wide range of permeability levels. The relation between the texture and the polarisation at 800A/m (J800) that is measured in the present study by EBSD is compared to the one that has been determined in previous papers with optical goniometers and X-ray diffraction techniques, and this relation is subsequently used to define a relevant parameter to describe the orientation quality of the grains. The results indicate that the average angle of the ? and ? deviations is a relevant deviation parameter for the characterisation of grain orientations. Finally, it is demonstrated that the combination of the quantitative correlation between polarisation and texture with the orientation imaging of EBSD offers the possibilities of both studying the crystallographic environment of highly oriented grains in the primary recrystallised matrix for the production of high-permeability steels and evaluating the spatial distribution of the angular deviations in GO steels after secondary recrystallisation. PMID:24090630

Bernier, Nicolas; Leunis, Elke; Furtado, Carlos; Van De Putte, Tom; Ban, Gabor

2013-01-01

445

Objective To understand the etiology and resolution of unanticipated events in the operating room (OR). Background The majority of surgical adverse events occur intra-operatively. The OR represents a complex, high-risk system. The influence of different human, team, and organizational/environmental factors on safety and performance is unknown. Methods We video-recorded and transcribed 10 high-acuity operations, representing 43.7 hours of patient care. Deviations, defined as delays and/or episodes of decreased patient safety, were identified by majority consensus of a multidisciplinary team. Factors that contributed to each event and/or mitigated its impact were determined and attributed to the patient, providers, or environment/organization. Results Thirty-three deviations (10 delays, 17 safety compromises, 6 both) occurred – with a mean of one every 79.4 minutes. These deviations were multifactorial (mean 3.1 factors). Problems with communication and organizational structure appeared repeatedly at the root of both types of deviations. Delays tended to be resolved with vigilance, communication, coordination, and cooperation, while mediation of safety compromises was most frequently accomplished with vigilance, leadership, communication, and/or coordination. The organization/environment was not found to play a direct role in compensation. Conclusions Unanticipated events are common in the OR. Deviations result from poor organizational/environmental design and suboptimal team dynamics, with caregivers compensating to avoid patient harm. While recognized in other high risk domains, such human resilience has not yet been described in surgery and has major implications for the design of safety interventions. PMID:22750753

Hu, Yue-Yung; Arriaga, Alexander F.; Roth, Emilie M.; Peyre, Sarah E.; Corso, Katherine A.; Swanson, Richard S.; Osteen, Robert T.; Schmitt, Pamela; Bader, Angela M.; Zinner, Michael J.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

2012-01-01

446

Uncertainty Relation from Holography Principle

We propose that the information and entropy of an isolated system are two sides of one coin in the sense that they can convert into each other by measurement and evolution of the system while the sum of them is identically conserved. The holographic principle is reformulated in the way that this conserved sum is bounded by a quarter of the area A of system boundary. Uncertainty relation is derived from the holographic principle.

Jia-Zhong Chen; Duoje Jia

2006-11-18

447

HARDY'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE ON CERTAIN LIE GROUPS

HARDY'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE ON CERTAIN LIE. 1. Introduction The Uncertainty Principle states, roughly speaking, that a nonzero function f, considerable attention has been devoted to discovering forms of the* * Uncertainty Principle on Lie groups

Cowling, Michael

448

7 CFR 3430.31 - Guiding principles.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Guiding principles. 3430.31 Section 3430...Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION...Evaluation § 3430.31 Guiding principles. The guiding principle for Federal assistance...

2010-01-01

449

Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them. PMID:22489210

Durston, A. J.

2012-01-01

450

Optimizing stellarators for large flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma flow is damped in stellarators because they are not intrinsically ambipolar, unlike tokamaks, in which the flux-surface averaged radial electric current vanishes for any value of the radial electric field. Only quasisymmetric stellarators are intrinsically ambipolar, but exact quasisymmetry is impossible to achieve in non-axisymmetric toroidal configurations. By calculating the violation of intrinsic ambipolarity due to deviations from quasisymmetry, one can derive criteria to assess when a stellarator can be considered quasisymmetric in practice, i.e. when the flow damping is weak enough. Let us denote by ? a small parameter that controls the size of a perturbation to an exactly quasisymmetric magnetic field. Recently, it has been shown that if the gradient of the perturbation is sufficiently small, the flux-surface averaged radial electric current scales as ?2 for any value of the collisionality. It was also argued that when the gradient of the perturbation is large, the quadratic scaling is replaced by a more unfavorable one. In this paper, perturbations with large gradients are rigorously treated. In particular, it is proven that for low collisionality a perturbation with large gradient yields, at best, an O(|?|) deviation from quasisymmetry. Heuristic estimations in the literature incorrectly predicted an O(|?|3/2) deviation.

Calvo, Iván; Parra, Felix I.; Alonso, J. Arturo; Velasco, José Luis

2014-09-01

451

Diamonds on large cardinals Alex Hellsten

Diamonds on large cardinals Alex Hellsten November 13, 2003 Annales Academi#26; Scientiarum Fennic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3. Operations on ideals 15 3.1. Diamond principles.3. Subtlety and diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4. Weak compactness 22 4

Hellsten, Alex

452

Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment

Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the principles of HIA from peer-reviewed papers provides an opportunity for guiding HIA practice comprehensively. It seems to be feasible to develop a universal guide that covers all principles required. PMID:24987717

Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

2014-01-01

453

Background We sought to perform a study assessing the association between electrocardiographic ST?segment deviations and cardiovascular death (CVD), in relation to sex and age (? and <65 years), in a large primary care population without overt ischemic heart disease. Methods and Results Using computerized analysis of ECGs from 285 194 persons, we evaluated the association between precordial ST?segment deviations and the risk of CVD. All data on medication, comorbidity, and outcomes were retrieved from Danish registries. After a median follow?up period of 5.8 years, there were 6679 cardiovascular deaths. Increasing ST?depression was associated with an increased risk of CVD in almost all of the precordial leads, with the most robust association seen in lead V5 to V6. ST?elevations in lead V2 to V6 were associated with increased risk of CVD in young women, but not in men. However, ST?elevations in V1 increased the risk for both genders and age groups, exemplified by a HR of 1.80 (95% CI [1.19 to 2.74], P=0.005) for men <65 years with ST?elevations ?150 ?V versus a nondeviating ST?segment (?50 ?V to +50 ?V). In contrast, for men <65 years, ST?elevations in lead V2 to V3 conferred a decreased risk of CVD with a HR of 0.77 (95% CI [0.62 to 0.96], P<0.001) for ST?elevations ?150 ?V in V2. Conclusion We found that ST?depressions were associated with a dose?responsive increased risk of CVD in nearly all the precordial leads. ST?elevations conferred an increased risk of CVD in women and with regard to lead V1 also in men. However, ST?elevations in V2 to V3 were associated with a decreased risk of CVD in young men. PMID:24815495

Rasmussen, Peter Vibe; Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Pietersen, Adrian; Graff, Claus; Lind, Bent; Struijk, Johannes Jan; Olesen, Morten Salling; Haunsø, Stig; Køber, Lars; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal

2014-01-01

454

Design Principles for Effective Knowledge Discovery from Big Data

Big data phenomenon refers to the practice of collection and processing of very large data sets and associated systems and algorithms used to analyze these massive datasets. Architectures for big data usually range across multiple machines and clusters, and they commonly consist of multiple special purpose sub-systems. Coupled with the knowledge discovery process, big data movement offers many unique opportunities for organizations to benefit (with respect to new insights, business optimizations, etc.). However, due to the difficulty of analyzing such large datasets, big data presents unique systems engineering and architectural challenges. In this paper, we present three sys- tem design principles that can inform organizations on effective analytic and data collection processes, system organization, and data dissemination practices. The principles presented derive from our own research and development experiences with big data problems from various federal agencies, and we illustrate each principle with our own experiences and recommendations.

Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Horey, James L [ORNL

2012-01-01

455

Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches in nanometrology will be required in the near future and the existing ones will have to be improved in terms of better resolution and sensitivity for elements and molecular species. Finally, the development of specific guidance for the safety evaluation of nanotechnology products is strongly recommended.

Logothetidis, S.

456

We prove invariance principles for phase separation lines in the two dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model up to the critical temperature and for connectivity lines in the general context of high temperature finite range ferromagnetic Ising models.

Lev Greenberg; Dmitry Ioffe

2005-01-01

457

Exploring the local orthogonality principle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlocality is arguably one of the most fundamental and counterintuitive aspects of quantum theory. Nonlocal correlations could, however, be even more nonlocal than quantum theory allows, while still complying with basic physical principles such as no-signaling. So why is quantum mechanics not as nonlocal as it could be? Are there other physical or information-theoretic principles which prohibit this? So far, the proposed answers to this question have been only partially successful, partly because they are lacking genuinely multipartite formulations. In Fritz et al. [Nat. Commun. 4, 2263 (2013), 10.1038/ncomms3263], we introduced the principle of local orthogonality (LO), an intrinsically multipartite principle which is satisfied by quantum mechanics but is violated by nonphysical correlations. Here we further explore the LO principle, presenting additional results and explaining some of its subtleties. In particular, we show that the set of no-signaling boxes satisfying LO is closed under wirings, present a classification of all LO inequalities in certain scenarios, show that all extremal tripartite boxes with two binary measurements per party violate LO, and explain the connection between LO inequalities and unextendible product bases.

Sainz, A. B.; Fritz, T.; Augusiak, R.; Brask, J. Bohr; Chaves, R.; Leverrier, A.; Acín, A.

2014-03-01

458

Deviation equations of Synge and Schild over spaces with affine connections and metrics

Deviation equation of Synge and Schild has been investigated over spaces with affine connections and metrics. It is shown that the condition for the vanishing of the Lie derivative of a vector field along a given non-null (non-isotropic) vector field u for obtaining this equation is only a sufficient (but not necessary) condition. By means of the vector field u and the projective metric (orthogonal to it) projected deviation equations of Synge and Schild have been obtained for a vector field, orthogonal to the given vector field u, as well as for the square of its length. For a given non-isotropic, auto-parallel and normalized vector field u this equation could have some simple solutions. PACS numbers: 02.90; 04.50+h; 04.90.+e: 04.30.+x

S. Manoff

2000-12-05

459

Geodesic Deviation Equation in GR equivalent theory of $f(T)$ gravity

In this work, we show that it is possible to study the GR equivalent notion of geodesic deviation in $f(T)$ gravity, in spite of the fact that in teleparallel gravity there is no notion of geodesics, and the torsion is responsible for the appearance of gravitational interaction. In this regard, we obtain the GR equivalent of $f(T)$ gravity whose equations are in the modified gravity form such as $f(R)$ gravity. Then, we obtain the GDE within the context of this modified gravity. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the $f(T)$ gravity. Eventually, we extend the calculations to obtain the modification of Matting relation.

F. Darabi; M. Mousavi; K. Atazadeh

2014-12-31

460

A finite element approach for shells of revolution with a local deviation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element model that is suitable for the static analysis of shells of revolution with arbitrary local deviations is presented. The model employs three types of elements: rotational, general, and transitional shell elements. The rotational shell elements are used in the region where the shell is axisymmetric. The general shell element are used in the local region of the deviation. The transitional shell elements connect these two distinctively different types of elements and make it possible to combine them in a single analysis. The form of the global stiffness matrix resulting when different forms of nodal degrees of freedom are combined is illustrated. The coupling of harmonic degrees of freedom due to the locally nonaxisymmetric geometry was studied. The use of a substructuring technique and separate partial harmonic analysis is recommended.

Han, K. J.; Gould, P. L.

1982-01-01

461

Measurement of two-dimensional small angle deviation with a prism interferometer

A new technique for the measurement of two-dimensional small angular deviation is presented. A compound prism, which effectively produces a combination of two right-angled prisms in orthogonal directions, and plane reference surfaces have been utilized for the measurement of the orthogonal components of the angular tilt of an incident plane wavefront. Each orthogonal component of the angular tilt is separately measured from the angular rotation of the resultant wedge fringes between two plane wavefronts generated due to splitting of the incident plane wavefront by the corresponding set of right-angled prism and plane reference surface. The technique is shown to have high sensitivity for the measurement of small angle deviation. A monolithic prism interferometer, which is practically insensitive to vibration, is also proposed. Results obtained for the measurement of a known tilt angle are presented.

Chatterjee, Sanjib; Kumar, Y. Pavan

2008-09-20

462

Analysis of laser cutting speed influence on the surface quality and shape deviation of steel parts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of laser cutting speed influence on the quality of machined surface, defined by the Ra roughness parameter and the shape errors, in case of machining two types of steel: i) P265GH, ii) 1.4307 are presented in the paper. Two CO2 laser cutters with maximum power of the laser beam 4000W and 3200W were used for the investigation. The characteristics of the roughness parameter Ra depending on the laser cutting speed vc are presented. The diagrams of shape deviation of the machined specimens for the greatest and lowest values of the Ra for the both laser cutters are also presented. The deviation values from the theoretical profile of the particular samples, taking into account the type of the cut-out shape profiles (circular, linear) are calculated.

Kowalczyk, R.; Zebala, W.

2014-11-01

463

Implementing measures to ensure radiation therapy protocols are followed not only decreases deviations, but it can also improve overall survival in cancer patients, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital researchers suggest in a first-of-its kind study presented during a plenary session at the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 54th Annual Meeting in Boston. Thomas Jefferson University Hospital is home to the Kimmel Cancer Center.

464

Probability of ventricular fibrillation: allometric model based on the ST deviation

Background Allometry, in general biology, measures the relative growth of a part in relation to the whole living organism. Using reported clinical data, we apply this concept for evaluating the probability of ventricular fibrillation based on the electrocardiographic ST-segment deviation values. Methods Data collected by previous reports were used to fit an allometric model in order to estimate ventricular fibrillation probability. Patients presenting either with death, myocardial infarction or unstable angina were included to calculate such probability as, VFp = ? + ? (ST), for three different ST deviations. The coefficients ? and ? were obtained as the best fit to the clinical data extended over observational periods of 1, 6, 12 and 48 months from occurrence of the first reported chest pain accompanied by ST deviation. Results By application of the above equation in log-log representation, the fitting procedure produced the following overall coefficients: Average ? = 0.46, with a maximum = 0.62 and a minimum = 0.42; Average ? = 1.28, with a maximum = 1.79 and a minimum = 0.92. For a 2 mm ST-deviation, the full range of predicted ventricular fibrillation probability extended from about 13% at 1 month up to 86% at 4 years after the original cardiac event. Conclusions These results, at least preliminarily, appear acceptable and still call for full clinical test. The model seems promising, especially if other parameters were taken into account, such as blood cardiac enzyme concentrations, ischemic or infarcted epicardial areas or ejection fraction. It is concluded, considering these results and a few references found in the literature, that the allometric model shows good predictive practical value to aid medical decisions. PMID:21226961

2011-01-01

465

Computer Graphical Analysis Method Proves Beneficial in Lost Soldier Field Deviated Well Application

Results are presented of using computer-generated plots of directional drilling data as a tool in planning the directional and normal drilling operations in a testat at Lost Soldier Field, WY. Emphasis is placed on their application to deviation-controlled wells in areas experiencing crooked-hole drilling. Results show that their use in conjunction with dipmeter data and structural contour maps of shallow

David Smith

1982-01-01

466

Axially (and reflection) symmetric space-times (Bondi metric) are studied in terms of scalar functions that measure the deviation of the system from spherical symmetry. The case of small departures from sphericity is considered, and the corresponding solution is completely specified up to the first order. Finally in discussing some aspects of the initial (characteristic) value problem, a very concise proof of a theorem by Papapetrou is given.

Herrera, L.; Jimenez, J.

1986-08-01

467

The authors evaluated whether statistically significant violations of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) or the magnitude of deviations from HWE may contribute to the problem of replicating postulated gene-disease associ- ations across different studies. Forty-two gene-disease associations assessed in meta-analyses of 591 studies were examined. Studies with disease-free controls in which HWE was violated gave significantly different results from HWE-conforming studies in

Thomas A. Trikalinos; Georgia Salanti; Muin J. Khoury; John P. A. Ioannidis

2006-01-01

468

Whatever we do, we do it in our own way, and we recognize master artists by small samples of their work. This study investigates individuality of temporal deviations in musical scales in pianists in the absence of deliberate expressive intention. Note-by-note timing deviations away from regularity form a remarkably consistent "pianistic fingerprint." First, eight professional pianists played C-major scales in two sessions, separated by 15?min. Euclidian distances between deviation traces originating from different pianists were reliably larger than traces originating from the same pianist. As a result, a simple classifier that matched deviation traces by minimizing their distance was able to recognize each pianist with 100% accuracy. Furthermore, within each pianist, fingerprints produced by the same movements were more similar than fingerprints resulting in the same scale sound. This allowed us to conclude that the fingerprints are mostly neuromuscular rather than intentional or expressive in nature. However, human listeners were not able to distinguish the temporal fingerprints by ear. Next, 18 pianists played C-major scales on a normal or muted piano. Recognition rates ranged from 83 to 100%, further supporting the view that auditory feedback is not implicated in the creation of the temporal signature. Finally, 20 pianists were recognized 20?months later at above chance level, showing signature effects to be long lasting. Our results indicate that even non-expressive playing of scales reveals consistent, partially effector-unspecific, but inaudible inter-individual differences. We suggest that machine learning studies into individuality in performance will need to take into account unintentional but consistent variability below the perceptual threshold. PMID:23519688

Van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

2013-01-01

469

This article presents experience from the practice of a successful pharmaceutical company related to design and implementation\\u000a of performance measures (PMs) for deviation management linked to the analysis of impact on the production cost for the selected product. Case study focuses\\u000a on PMs within good manufacturing practice (GMP) processes related to quality assurance (QA) and quality management, with the aim

Zorana Boltic; Nenad Ruzic; Mica Jovanovic; Slobodan Petrovic

2010-01-01

470

Fly-cutting and testing of freeform optics with sub-?m shape deviations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical designs in various applications profit from the increasing use of freeform elements. However, freeform optics always challenges the manufacturing process. The complexity of the fabrication derives from the missing symmetry in freeform surfaces. Ultra-precision machining is an appropriate method to realize complex optical freeforms. Surface deviations can be reduced in a deterministic process by a test and correction loop to achieve shapes with sub-&mum deviations. But freeform elements do not only require the optical performance, they also depend on tight tolerances of the surface position with respect to reference structures. Due to the absence of rotation symmetry in freeform elements, all six degrees of freedom have to be constrained. Diamond machining allows to machine reference structures on the optical part. They can be used for alignment while testing or during the assembly processes. This paper shows a deterministic approach to manufacture optical freeform surfaces with sub-?m surface deviations by fly-cut-machining and servo assisted diamond turning. Reference structures are included at the edge of the element in order to support the following measurement and assembly processes. The reference structures are manufactured within the machining process of the optical surface. This procedure ensures tight tolerances between reference structures and optical surface /1/. The complex optical surface is measured with respect to the references with the tactile measurement system UA3P. The reference structures are used to locate the coordinate system of the element and hence to constrain the alignment parameter. After fitting the data, a revised tool-path is used to improve the shape deviation to sub-?m accuracies.

Steinkopf, Ralf; Scheiding, Sebastian; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

2012-10-01

471

Methodology for evaluate the form deviations for formula one nose car

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a measuring strategy for a Formula One car using a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) and a 3D laser scanning devices. The measurement procedures outlined the dimensional deviation of the CAD model and prototype made of composite material. The authors present two methods for the determination of symmetry for components of a Formula One car based on measuring and 3D scanning.

Bere, Paul; Neamtu, Calin

2014-06-01

472

Congenital and Acquired Penile Deviation Treated with the Essed Plication Method

Objectives: To evaluate our results with the Essed procedure for the correction of penile curvature, either congenital or due to Peyronie’s disease, and compare it with the data from the literature, both for the Essed and the Nesbit procedure.Methods: From 1991 to 1996 the Essed procedure was performed in 61 patients. 65.6% (n = 40) had congenital deviation and 34.4%

Dirk Schultheiss; Mohammad R. Meschi; Jörn Hagemann; Michael C. Truss; Christian G. Stief; Udo Jonas

2000-01-01

473

The sea surface temperature deviation and the heat flow at the sea-air interface

The deviation of the sea surface temperature from the water temperature below is calculated as a function of the heat flow through the air-sea interface, using wind tunnel determinations of the effective thermal diffusivity in a boundary layer. The influence ofQ, shortwave radiation, andH, latent and sensible heat transfer plus effective back radiation, and U, wind speed, can be described

Lutz Hasse

1971-01-01

474

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits of Signal Averaging in Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS)," Applied Physics, B57, pp 131-139, April 1993

Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

2014-05-01

475

Deviations from Ohm's law for a metal at high current densities?

The current-voltage characteristics of copper was measured up to current densities of 2 × 109 A\\/cm2 at 300 K. Joule heating was avoided by using pulses with a duration of less than 500 ps. Within the experimental accuracy of 1.5% no deviation from Ohm's law was found. Our results are in contrast to a recent publication of Jäger et al.

H. Heinrich; W. Jantsch

1976-01-01

476

Novel mathematical method for quantitative expression of deviation from the Higuchi model

A simple mathematical method to express the deviation in release profile of a test product following Higuchi's kinetics from\\u000a an ideal Higuchi release profile was developed. The method is based on calculation of area under the curve (AUC) by using\\u000a the trapezoidal rule. The precision of prediction depends on the number of data points. The method is exemplified for 2

Mukesh C. Gohel; Maulik K. Panchal; Viral V. Jogani

2000-01-01

477

A. M. Period (Inbound) 73 Table 21 ? SND False Alarm Rates for the North Freeway P. M. Period (Outbound) 74 Table 22 - SND Incident Detection Rates for the North Freeway A. M. Period (Inbound) 75 Table 23 ? SND Incident Detection Rates...INCIDENT DETECTION USING THE STANDARD iNORMAL DEVIATE MODEL AND TRAVEL TECHIE INFORMATION FROM PROBE VEHICLES A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER EUGENE MOUNTAIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Mountain, Christopher Eugene

1993-01-01

478

Statistical analysis of the deviation of the Reynolds stress from its eddy-viscosity representation

An improvement of the eddy-viscosity representation for Reynolds stress is made from the statistical viewpoint. The Reynolds stress is calculated with the aid of the two-scale direct-interaction formalism, and its deviation from the eddy-viscosity representation is found under general mean flows. This result theoretically elucidates the noncoincidence of the zeros of Reynolds stress and mean strain, which is frequently observed

Akira Yoshizawa

1984-01-01

479

Differentiation and Integration: Guiding Principles for Analyzing Cognitive Change

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiation and integration played large roles within classic developmental theories but have been relegated to obscurity within contemporary theories. However, they may have a useful role to play in modern theories as well, if conceptualized as guiding principles for analyzing change rather than as real-time mechanisms. In the present study,…

Siegler, Robert S.; Chen, Zhe

2008-01-01

480

Quantifying Fairness in Queueing Systems: Principles, Approaches and Applicability

1 Quantifying Fairness in Queueing Systems: Principles, Approaches and Applicability ABSTRACT In this paper we discuss fairness in queues, view it in the perspective of social justice at large and survey the recently published research work and publications dealing with the issue of measuring fairness of queues

Levy, Hanoch

481

First-principles derived potentials to study glass transitions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using first-principles results, we have developed potentials within the embedded atom method to carry out molecular dynamics dynamics simulations in bulk metallic glasses. The potentials are fit to ab-initio forces in a large number of liquid and glass configurations. These potentials are used to study trends in the glass transition temperature as a function of composition

Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Nicholson, Don M.; Widom, Mike; Wang, Yang; Mihalkovic, Marek

2003-03-01

482

Kindergarten Children's Developing Understanding of the Alphabetic Principle.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationship among the linguistic units that make up spoken language, the symbols of written language, and how spoken language is mapped onto written language (the alphabetic principle). Subjects, 79 kindergarten children from 5 classrooms in 4 schools in a large southeastern school district, were tested for their…

Griffith, Priscilla L.; Klesius, Janell P.

483

Assessment of a Diversity Assignment in a PR Principles Course

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses an assignment for incorporating diversity into the principles of public relations course. The assignment is tailored to the challenges of using an active learning approach in a large lecture class. For the assignment, students write a goal, objectives, strategies, an identification of tactics, and evaluation plans for either…

Gallicano, Tiffany Derville; Stansberry, Kathleen

2012-01-01

484

Design Principles for Robust Grasping in Unstructured Environments

with grasping under uncertainty can be addressed by careful mechanical design of robot hands. In particular, I hand control, can grasp a wide range of target objects in the presence of large positioning errors. ivDesign Principles for Robust Grasping in Unstructured Environments A thesis presented by Aaron

485

Evaluating the Quality of Transfer versus Nontransfer Accounting Principles Grades.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 1989-92 student records from three colleges accepting large numbers of transfers from junior schools into accounting, regression analyses compared grades of transfer and nontransfer students. Quality of accounting principle grades of transfer students was not equivalent to that of nontransfer students. (SK)

Colley, J. R.; And Others

1996-01-01

486

Native Gating Behavior of Ion Channels in Neurons with Null-Deviation Modeling

Computational modeling has emerged as an indispensable approach to resolve and predict the intricate interplay among the many ion channels underlying neuronal excitability. However, simulation results using the classic formula-based Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) model or the superior Markov kinetic model of ion channels often deviate significantly from native cellular signals despite using carefully measured parameters. Here we found that the filters of patch-clamp amplifier not only delayed the signals, but also introduced ringing, and that the residual series resistance in experiments altered the command voltages, which had never been fully eliminated by improving the amplifier itself. To remove all the above errors, a virtual device with the parameters exactly same to that of amplifier was introduced into Markov kinetic modeling so as to establish a null-deviation model. We demonstrate that our novel null-deviation approach fully restores the native gating-kinetics of ion-channels with the data recorded at any condition, and predicts spike waveform and firing patterns clearly distinctive from those without correction. PMID:24204745

Yang, Yimei; Xiao, Feng; Yuchi, Ming; Qu, Anlian; Wang, Luyang; Ding, Jiuping

2013-01-01

487

Septal deviation is associated with maxillary sinus fungus ball in male patients.

Fungus is one of the causes of chronic rhinosinusitis. If the fungus occupies the sinus but does not invade the sinonasal mucosa, this is called sinus fungus ball. Any association between anatomical variations and fungus ball remains unclear. Sinus fungus ball is defined as non-invasive chronic fungal rhinosinusitis occurring in immunocompetent patients, and the maxillary sinus is the most commonly affected. The etiology of maxillary sinus fungus ball remains unclear. This study assessed the potential contribution of anatomical variations, such as deviated nasal septum, concha bullosa, and Haller cell to the development of fungus ball in the maxillary sinus. Concha bullosa and Haller cell are structural variations that narrow the nasal airflow passage and contribute to chronic rhinosinusitis. The involvement of these variations has been investigated in chronic sinusitis but not in sinus fungus ball. Preoperative computed tomography findings of 103 patients with maxillary sinus fungus ball were evaluated retrospectively. Septal deviation and Haller cell were not correlated with the side of maxillary sinus fungus ball. Concha bullosa was more common on the unaffected side (p = 0.099). When we analyzed males and females separately, maxillary sinus fungus ball was more common on the concave side of the deviated septum in only male patients (p = 0.006). The high incidence of maxillary fungus ball in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling fungus spores. PMID:24646922

Oshima, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio

2014-01-01

488

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the radial profile of the ground state density without assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions in around atmospheric pressure (0.01 MPa

deviations from LTE in particular for the lower pressure discharges (p<0.04 MPa). In those cases, the experimental errors for both methods are significantly lower than the detected deviations. Furthermore, the measured deviations are in good agreement with predicted values from a two-temperature, two-dimensional fluid model developed elsewhere.

Elloumi, Hatem; Kindel, Eckhard; Schimke, Conrad; Zissis, Georges

1999-10-01

489

Under Atkins v. Virginia, the Eighth Amendment exempts from execution individuals who meet the clinical definitions of mental retardation set forth by the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and the American Psychiatric Association. Both define mental retardation as significantly subaverage intellectual functioning accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning, originating before the age of 18. Since Atkins, most jurisdictions have adopted definitions of mental retardation that conform to those definitions. But some states, looking often to stereotypes of persons with mental retardation, apply exclusion criteria that deviate from and are more restrictive than the accepted scientific and clinical definitions. These state deviations have the effect of excluding from Atkins's reach some individuals who plainly fall within the class it protects. This article focuses on the cases of Roger Cherry, Jeffrey Williams, Michael Stallings, and others, who represent an ever-growing number of individuals inappropriately excluded from Atkins. Left unaddressed, the state deviations discussed herein permit what Atkins does not: the death-sentencing and execution of some capital defendants who have mental retardation. PMID:19845060

Blume, John H; Johnson, Sheri Lynn; Seeds, Christopher

2009-01-01

490

The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.

Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz [Institute for Scientific and Technological Information (IDICT), National Capitol, Havana (Cuba); Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

2007-04-28

491

Principles of Virus Structural Organization

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

492

Immune deviation of 2C transgenic intraepithelial lymphocytes in antigen-bearing hosts

The present study examined self-tolerance for T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs) using the 2C transgenic (Tg) mouse model specific for a peptide antigen (Ag) presented by the class I major histocompatibility complex H-2Ld. Although Tg+ T cells were largely deleted from the periphery of Ag+ mice, equivalent numbers of Tg iIELs were present in Ag+ compared to Ag- mice. Tg iIELs in Ag- mice contained CD8 alpha beta, CD8 alpha alpha, and CD4-CD8- subsets, whereas only CD8 alpha alpha and CD4-CD8- Tg iIEL subsets were detected in Ag+ mice. Analysis of surface markers revealed that Tg iIELs in Ag+ mice expressed decreased levels of Thy-1 and increased CD45R/B220 as compared to Ag- Tg iIELs. In response to activation with exogenous peptide or immobilized anti-TCR mAB, iIELs from Ag- mice proliferated at high levels and produced interleukin (IL)- 2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma, while Tg+ iIELs from Ag+ mice proliferated at low levels and failed to produce detectable IL-2 or IFN- gamma. Activation of sorted iIEL subsets from Ag- mice revealed that CD8 alpha alpha and CD4-CD8- subsets produced low levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in response to activation with antigen-presenting cells and added peptide or immobilized anti-TCR mAb, while CD8 alpha beta + iIELs responded to endogenous levels of peptide. In response to APC and exogenous peptide, sorted iIEL subsets from Ag+ mice produced IL-2 and IFN-gamma, and proliferated at greatly reduced levels compared to corresponding subsets from Ag- mice. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels revealed that activation in vitro induced IL-2 mRNA only in Ag-, but not Ag+ iIELs, whereas a high level of IL-4 mRNA induction was detected in Tg+ iIELs from Ag+ mice, and to a lesser degree, from Ag- mice. These data suggest that tolerance for Tg+ iIELs resulted in the deletion of CD8 alpha beta + subsets and the persistence of Tg+ iIEL subsets with decreased sensitivity to endogenous levels of self- peptide. A comparison of the cytokine profiles expressed by Tg+ iIEL subsets in Ag- and Ag+ mice suggested that tolerance induction had involved the functional deviation of cells from TC1 (T helper-1-like) to a less inflammatory TC2 (T helper-2-like) phenotype capable of mediating humoral immune responses in the mucosa. PMID:8760803

1996-01-01

493

Another algebraic variational principle for the spectral curve of matrix models

We propose an alternative variational principle whose critical point is the algebraic plane curve associated to a matrix model (the spectral curve, i.e. the large $N$ limit of the resolvent). More generally, we consider a variational principle that is equivalent to the problem of finding a plane curve with given asymptotics and given cycle integrals. This variational principle is not given by extremization of the energy, but by the extremization of an "entropy".

B. Eynard

2014-07-31

494

Five Principles for Choosing Research Problems

Five Principles for Choosing Research Problems in Computer Graphics Thomas Funkhouser Princeton are the five biggest open problems ... ??? My talk is somewhere in the middle Suggest five principles for choosing research problems Explain how I've used these principles in my own choices #12;Five Principles 1

Singh, Jaswinder Pal

495

A generalized form of Hamilton's principle

Many quantization schemes rely on analogs of classical mechanics where the connections with classical mechanics are indirect. In this work I propose a new and direct connection between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics where the quantum mechanical propagator is derived from a variational principle. I identify this variational principle as a generalized form of Hamilton's principle. This proposed variational principle

John Hegseth

2005-01-01

496

Bayes and the Simplicity Principle in Perception

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussions of the foundations of perceptual inference have often centered on 2 governing principles, the likelihood principle and the simplicity principle. Historically, these principles have usually been seen as opposed, but contemporary statistical (e.g., Bayesian) theory tends to see them as consistent, because for a variety of reasons simpler…

Feldman, Jacob

2009-01-01

497

Principle Paradigms Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dublin Core "1:1 Principle" asserts that "related but conceptually different entities, for example a painting and a digital image of the painting, are described by separate metadata records" (Woodley et al., 2005). While this seems to be a simple requirement, studies of metadata quality have found that cultural heritage…

Urban, Richard J.

2012-01-01

498

Principles of Science Principles of Biology Reference Edition

topics such as cancer, climate change and ocean health #12;How can the Principles of Biology Reference for scientists and students · Articles on scientific research that affects our day to day lives on current hot · animal physiology · plant physiology · biodiversity · chemistry · ecology To learn more about

Cai, Long

499

Three basic principles of success.

Basic business principles all but ensure success when they are followed consistently. Putting strategies, objectives and tactics in place i