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1

Large deviations principles of Non-Freidlin-Wentzell type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized Large deviation principles of Non-Freidlin-Wentzell type was developed for weakly time inhomogeneous diffusions prove to be key tools for a treatment of the problem of diffusion exit from a domain and thus for the approach of stochastic resonance via transition probabilities between meta-stable states. We expand the classical theory of large deviations for randomly perturbed dynamical systems developed by

Jaykov Foukzon

2008-01-01

2

Large-deviation statistics of a diffusive quantum spin chain and the additivity principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the large-deviation formalism, we study the statistics of current fluctuations in a diffusive nonequilibrium quantum spin chain. The boundary-driven XX chain with dephasing consists of a coherent bulk hopping and a local dissipative dephasing. We analytically calculate the exact expression for the second current moment in a system of any length and then numerically demonstrate that in the thermodynamic limit, higher-order cumulants and the large-deviation function can be calculated using the additivity principle or macroscopic hydrodynamic theory. This shows that the additivity principle can also hold in systems that are not purely stochastic, and can in particular be valid in quantum systems. We also show that in large systems, the current fluctuations are the same as in the classical symmetric simple exclusion process.

Žnidari?, Marko

2014-04-01

3

GENERIC formalism of a Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation and connection to large-deviation principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the connections between a Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation and an underlying microscopic particle system, and we interpret those connections in the context of the GENERIC framework (Öttinger 2005 Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics (New York: Wiley-Interscience)). This interpretation provides (a) a variational formulation for GENERIC systems, (b) insight into the origin of this variational formulation, and (c) an explanation of the origins of the conditions that GENERIC places on its constitutive elements, notably the so-called degeneracy or non-interaction conditions. This work shows how the general connection between large-deviation principles on one hand and gradient-flow structures on the other hand extends to non-reversible particle systems.

Duong, Manh Hong; Peletier, Mark A.; Zimmer, Johannes

2013-11-01

4

Large-deviation principles, stochastic effective actions, path entropies, and the structure and meaning of thermodynamic descriptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The meaning of thermodynamic descriptions is found in large-deviations scaling (Ellis 1985 Entropy, Large Deviations, and Statistical Mechanics (New York: Springer); Touchette 2009 Phys. Rep. 478 1-69) of the probabilities for fluctuations of averaged quantities. The central function expressing large-deviations scaling is the entropy, which is the basis both for fluctuation theorems and for characterizing the thermodynamic interactions of systems. Freidlin-Wentzell theory (Freidlin and Wentzell 1998 Random Perturbations in Dynamical Systems 2nd edn (New York: Springer)) provides a quite general formulation of large-deviations scaling for non-equilibrium stochastic processes, through a remarkable representation in terms of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. A number of related methods now exist to construct the Freidlin-Wentzell Hamiltonian for many kinds of stochastic processes; one method due to Doi (1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1465-78 1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1479) and Peliti (1985 J. Physique 46 1469; 1986 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 19 L365, appropriate to integer counting statistics, is widely used in reaction-diffusion theory. Using these tools together with a path-entropy method due to Jaynes (1980 Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31 579-601), this review shows how to construct entropy functions that both express large-deviations scaling of fluctuations, and describe system-environment interactions, for discrete stochastic processes either at or away from equilibrium. A collection of variational methods familiar within quantum field theory, but less commonly applied to the Doi-Peliti construction, is used to define a 'stochastic effective action', which is the large-deviations rate function for arbitrary non-equilibrium paths. We show how common principles of entropy maximization, applied to different ensembles of states or of histories, lead to different entropy functions and different sets of thermodynamic state variables. Yet the relations among all these levels of description may be constructed explicitly and understood in terms of information conditions. Although the example systems considered are limited, they are meant to provide a self-contained introduction to methods that may be used to systematically construct descriptions with all the features familiar from equilibrium thermodynamics, for a much wider range of systems describable by stochastic processes.

Smith, Eric

2011-04-01

5

Asymptotically Efficient Simulation Of Large Deviation Probabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consider a family of probabilities for which the decay is governed by a large deviation principle. To find an estimate for a fixed member of this family, one is often forced to use simulation techniques. Direct Monte Carlo simulation, however, is often im...

A. B. Dieker M. R. H. Mandjes

2003-01-01

6

The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

Touchette, Hugo

2009-07-01

7

Large deviations of Lyapunov exponents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generic dynamical systems have ‘typical’ Lyapunov exponents, measuring the sensitivity to small perturbations of almost all trajectories. A generic system also has trajectories with exceptional values of the exponents, corresponding to unusually stable or chaotic situations. From a more mathematical point of view, large deviations of Lyapunov exponents characterize phase-space topological structures such as separatrices, homoclinic trajectories and degenerate tori. Numerically sampling such large deviations using the Lyapunov Weighted Dynamics allows one to pinpoint, for example, stable configurations in celestial mechanics or collections of interacting chaotic ‘breathers’ in nonlinear media. Furthermore, we show that this numerical method allows one to compute the topological pressure of extended dynamical systems, a central quantity in the thermodynamic of trajectories of Ruelle. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.

Laffargue, Tanguy; Nguyen Thu Lam, Khanh-Dang; Kurchan, Jorge; Tailleur, Julien

2013-06-01

8

Large deviations and portfolio optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

Sornette, Didier

9

Optimal hedging via large deviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The criterion of minimizing the cumulative hedged returns’ probability of underperforming a benchmark provides a framework for evaluating short-term hedges that are rolled over to produce longer-term hedges. Large deviations theory can be used to either parametrically or nonparametrically estimate underperformance probabilities for cumulative hedged returns produced by roll-overs, providing a straightforward way to find optimal hedge ratios. Optimal hedges using soybean futures are constructed to illustrate the procedures, and their relationship to the popular hedging criteria that are motivated by normality.

Stutzer, Michael

2013-08-01

10

Large Deviations for Stochastic Evolution Equations with Small Multiplicative Noise  

SciTech Connect

The Freidlin-Wentzell large deviation principle is established for the distributions of stochastic evolution equations with general monotone drift and small multiplicative noise. As examples, the main results are applied to derive the large deviation principle for different types of SPDE such as stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, stochastic porous media equations and fast diffusion equations, and the stochastic p-Laplace equation in Hilbert space. The weak convergence approach is employed in the proof to establish the Laplace principle, which is equivalent to the large deviation principle in our framework.

Liu Wei, E-mail: weiliu0402@yahoo.com.c [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik (Germany)

2010-02-15

11

Large Deviations for Nonlocal Stochastic Neural Fields  

PubMed Central

We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers’ law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20.

2014-01-01

12

The One-Shot-Deviation Principle for Sequential Rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium.Journal of Economic LiteratureClassification Number: C72.

Ebbe Hendon; Hans Jørgen Jacobsen; Birgitte Sloth

1996-01-01

13

Large-deviation properties of resilience of transportation networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributions of the resilience of transport networks are studied numerically, in particular the large-deviation tails. Thus, not only typical quantities like average or variance but the distributions over the (almost) full support can be studied. For a proof of principle, a simple transport model based on the edge-betweenness and three abstract yet widely studied random network ensembles are considered here: Erd?s-Rényi random networks with finite connectivity, small world networks and spatial networks embedded in a two-dimensional plane. Using specific numerical large-deviation techniques, probability densities as small as 10-80 are obtained here. This allows to study typical but also the most and the least resilient networks. The resulting distributions fulfill the mathematical large-deviation principle, i.e., can be well described by rate functions in the thermodynamic limit. The analysis of the limiting rate function reveals that the resilience follows an exponential distribution almost everywhere. An analysis of the structure of the network shows that the most-resilient networks can be obtained, as a rule of thumb, by minimizing the diameter of a network. Also, trivially, by including more links a network can typically be made more resilient. On the other hand, the least-resilient networks are very rare and characterized by one (or few) small core(s) to which all other nodes are connected. In total, the spatial network ensemble turns out to be most suitable for obtaining and studying resilience of real mostly finite-dimensional networks. Studying this ensemble in combination with the presented large-deviation approach for more realistic, in particular dynamic transport networks appears to be very promising.

Hartmann, Alexander K.

2014-05-01

14

Reflector surface deviations in large parabolic antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important factors affecting the efficiency of parabolic reflector antennas is the degree to which the surface of the reflector deviates from the true parabolic shape. For a given reflector surface it is also important to locate the focal point of the best-fit paraboloid relative to the existing feed support structure. A simple method is presented for making

L. Anderson; L. Groth

1963-01-01

15

Large deviations and approximations for slow-fast stochastic reaction-diffusion equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large deviation principle is derived for a class of stochastic reaction-diffusion partial differential equations with slow-fast components. The result shows that the rate function is exactly that of the averaged equation plus the fluctuating deviation which is a stochastic partial differential equation with small Gaussian perturbation. This result also confirms the effectiveness of the approximation of the averaged equation plus the fluctuating deviation to the slow-fast stochastic partial differential equations.

Wang, Wei; Roberts, A. J.; Duan, Jinqiao

16

Deviations and the breakdown of project management principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of how unexpected events (deviations) are handled and how the limited time available in a project affects the possibilities for reflection and knowledge creation. Since deviations will inevitably occur and they will substantially increase project costs, studies of them are imperative. When only a fraction of the

Markus Hällgren; Eva Maaninen-Olsson

2009-01-01

17

Sample-Path Large Deviations in Credit Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The event of large losses plays an important role in credit risk. As these large losses are typically rare, and portfolios usually consist of a large number of positions, large deviation theory is the natural tool to analyze the tail asymptotics of the pr...

M. R. H. Mandjes P. J. C. Spreij V. Leijdekker

2009-01-01

18

Path integrals and large deviations in stochastic hybrid systems.  

PubMed

We construct a path-integral representation of solutions to a stochastic hybrid system, consisting of one or more continuous variables evolving according to a piecewise-deterministic dynamics. The differential equations for the continuous variables are coupled to a set of discrete variables that satisfy a continuous-time Markov process, which means that the differential equations are only valid between jumps in the discrete variables. Examples of stochastic hybrid systems arise in biophysical models of stochastic ion channels, motor-driven intracellular transport, gene networks, and stochastic neural networks. We use the path-integral representation to derive a large deviation action principle for a stochastic hybrid system. Minimizing the associated action functional with respect to the set of all trajectories emanating from a metastable state (assuming that such a minimization scheme exists) then determines the most probable paths of escape. Moreover, evaluating the action functional along a most probable path generates the so-called quasipotential used in the calculation of mean first passage times. We illustrate the theory by considering the optimal paths of escape from a metastable state in a bistable neural network. PMID:24827272

Bressloff, Paul C; Newby, Jay M

2014-04-01

19

Path integrals and large deviations in stochastic hybrid systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a path-integral representation of solutions to a stochastic hybrid system, consisting of one or more continuous variables evolving according to a piecewise-deterministic dynamics. The differential equations for the continuous variables are coupled to a set of discrete variables that satisfy a continuous-time Markov process, which means that the differential equations are only valid between jumps in the discrete variables. Examples of stochastic hybrid systems arise in biophysical models of stochastic ion channels, motor-driven intracellular transport, gene networks, and stochastic neural networks. We use the path-integral representation to derive a large deviation action principle for a stochastic hybrid system. Minimizing the associated action functional with respect to the set of all trajectories emanating from a metastable state (assuming that such a minimization scheme exists) then determines the most probable paths of escape. Moreover, evaluating the action functional along a most probable path generates the so-called quasipotential used in the calculation of mean first passage times. We illustrate the theory by considering the optimal paths of escape from a metastable state in a bistable neural network.

Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

2014-04-01

20

Tutorial on large deviations for the binomial distribution.  

PubMed

We present, in an easy to use form, the large deviation theory of the binomial distribution: how to approximate the probability of k or more successes in n independent trials, each with success probability p, when the specified fraction of successes, a identical to k/n, satisfies 0 less than p less than a less than 1. PMID:2706397

Arratia, R; Gordon, L

1989-01-01

21

CLT-related large deviation bounds based on Stein's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large deviation estimates are derived for sums of random vari- ables with certain dependence structures. Our results cover local dependence (including U-statistics and Nash equilibria), finite pop- ulation statistics and random graphs. The argument is based on Stein's method, but with a novel modification of Stein's equation inspired by the Cramer transform.

Martin Raic

22

CLT-related large deviation bounds based on Stein's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large deviation estimates are derived for sums of random variables\\u000awith certain dependence structures, including finite population\\u000astatistics and random graphs. The argument is based on Stein's\\u000amethod, but with a novel modification of Stein's equation inspired\\u000aby the Cramér transform.

Martin Rai?

2007-01-01

23

Distributed Detection Over Noisy Networks: Large Deviations Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the large deviations performance of consensus+innovations distributed detection over noisy networks, where agents at a time step $k$ cooperate with their immediate neighbors (consensus) and assimilate their new observations (innovation.) We show that, under noisy communication, all agents can still achieve an exponential error rate, even when certain (or most) agents cannot detect the event of interest in

Dušan Jakovetic; José M. F. Moura; João Xavier

2012-01-01

24

Large Deviations for the Fermion Point Process Associated with the Exponential Kernel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the fermion point process on the whole complex plane associated with the exponential kernel e^{zbar{w}}, we show the central limit theorem for the random variable ?( D r , the number of points inside the ball D r of radius r, as r ? ? and we establish the large deviation principle for the random variables { r -2? ( D r ), r > 0}.

Shirai, Tomoyuki

2006-05-01

25

Large Deviations for Stochastic Tamed 3D Navier-Stokes Equations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, using weak convergence method, we prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for the stochastic tamed 3D Navier-Stokes equations driven by multiplicative noise, which was investigated in (Roeckner and Zhang in Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 145(1-2), 211-267, 2009).

Roeckner, Michael, E-mail: roeckner@math.uni-bielefeld.d [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik (Germany); Zhang, Tusheng, E-mail: tzhang@maths.man.ac.u [University of Manchester, School of Mathematics (United Kingdom); Zhang Xicheng, E-mail: XichengZhang@gmail.co [University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics (Australia)

2010-04-15

26

Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

Kushner, Harold J., E-mail: hjk@dam.brown.ed [Brown University, Applied Math (United States)

2010-12-15

27

Stochastic 2D Hydrodynamical Type Systems: Well Posedness and Large Deviations  

SciTech Connect

We deal with a class of abstract nonlinear stochastic models, which covers many 2D hydrodynamical models including 2D Navier-Stokes equations, 2D MHD models and the 2D magnetic Benard problem and also some shell models of turbulence. We state the existence and uniqueness theorem for the class considered. Our main result is a Wentzell-Freidlin type large deviation principle for small multiplicative noise which we prove by a weak convergence method.

Chueshov, Igor, E-mail: chueshov@univer.kharkov.u [Kharkov National University, Department of Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Millet, Annie, E-mail: amillet@univ-paris1.f [Universites Paris 6-Paris 7, Boite Courrier 188, Laboratoire de Probabilites et Modeles Aleatoires (France)

2010-06-15

28

Novel measurement principle of profile deviations evaluated through double-flank rolling test with rack probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally the profile deviations are measured through the generating method, the coordinate method and the meshing method by using gear measuring instruments (GMI) and coordinate measuring machines (CMM) in metrology room. But high-speed inspection of gear profile deviations at industrial scale manufacturing is a problem. To solve this problem, a novel measurement principle of profile deviations based on the double-flank rolling test with rack probe is introduced in this paper, and also the measuring system was given. The new methods will meet the demands of the high-speed gear measurement in shop floor.

Tang, Jie; Shi, Zhaoyao; Fang, Zhiqiang

2013-01-01

29

Limiting distributions and large deviations for random walks in random environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis concerns the study of random walks in random environments (RWRE). Since there are two levels of randomness for random walks in random environments, there are two different distributions for the random walk that can be studied. The quenched distribution is the law of the random walk conditioned on a given environment. The annealed distribution is the quenched law averaged over all environments. The main results of the thesis fall into two categories: quenched limiting distributions for one-dimensional, transient RWRE and annealed large deviations for multidimensional RWRE. The analysis of the quenched distributions for transient, one-dimensional RWRE falls into two separate cases. First, when an annealed central limit theorem holds, we prove that a quenched central limit theorem also holds but with a random (depending on the environment) centering. In contrast, when the annealed limit distribution is not Gaussian, we prove that there is no quenched limiting distribution for the RWRE. Moreover, we show that for almost every environment, there exist two random (depending on the environment) sequences of times, along which random walk has different quenched limiting distributions. While an annealed large deviation principle for multidimensional RWRE was known previously, very little qualitative information was available about the annealed large deviation rate function. We prove that if the law on environments is non-nestling, then the annealed large deviation rate function is analytic in a neighborhood of its unique zero (which is the limiting velocity of the RWRE).

Peterson, Jonathon

2008-10-01

30

Large deviations for local time fractional Brownian motion and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let be a fractional Brownian motion of Hurst index H[set membership, variant](0,1) with values in , and let be the local time process at zero of a strictly stable Lévy process of index 1<[alpha][less-than-or-equals, slant]2 independent of WH. The [alpha]-stable local time fractional Brownian motion is defined by ZH(t)=WH(Lt). The process ZH is self-similar with self-similarity index and is related to the scaling limit of a continuous time random walk with heavy-tailed waiting times between jumps [P. Becker-Kern, M.M. Meerschaert, H.P. Scheffler, Limit theorems for coupled continuous time random walks, Ann. Probab. 32 (2004) 730-756; M.M. Meerschaert, HEP. Scheffler, Limit theorems for continuous time random walks with infinite mean waiting times, J. Appl. Probab. 41 (2004) 623-638]. However, ZH does not have stationary increments and is non-Gaussian. In this paper we establish large deviation results for the process ZH. As applications we derive upper bounds for the uniform modulus of continuity and the laws of the iterated logarithm for ZH.

Meerschaert, Mark M.; Nane, Erkan; Xiao, Yimin

2008-10-01

31

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the realm of multiscale signal analysis, multifractal analysis provides a natural and rich framework to measure the roughness of a time series. As such, it has drawn special attention of both mathematicians and practitioners, and led them to characterize relevant physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding these considerable progresses, multifractal analysis almost exclusively developed around the concept of Legendre singularity spectrum, for which efficient and elaborate estimators exist, but which are structurally blind to subtle features like non-concavity or, to a certain extent, non scaling of the distributions. Large deviations theory allows bypassing these limitations but it is only very recently that performing estimators were proposed to reliably compute the corresponding large deviations singularity spectrum. In this article, we illustrate the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate signals from the Physionet public database. As conjectured, we verify that large deviations principles reveal significant information that otherwise remains hidden with classical approaches, and which can be reminiscent of some physiological characteristics. In particular we quantify the presence/absence of scale invariance of RR signals.

Loiseau, Patrick; Médigue, Claire; Gonçalves, Paulo; Attia, Najmeddine; Seuret, Stéphane; Cottin, François; Chemla, Denis; Sorine, Michel; Barral, Julien

2012-11-01

32

Synchronization of Stochastically Coupled Oscillators: Dynamical Phase Transitions and Large Deviations Theory (or Birds and Frogs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems of oscillators coupled non-linearly (stochastically or not) are ubiquitous in nature and can explain many complex phenomena: coupled Josephson junction arrays, cardiac pacemaker cells, swarms or flocks of insects and birds, etc. They are know to have a non-trivial phase diagram, which includes chaotic, partially synchronized, and fully synchronized phases. A traditional model for this class of problems is the Kuramoto system of oscillators, which has been studied extensively for the last three decades. The model is a canonical example for non-equilibrium, dynamical phase transitions, so little understood in physics. From a stochastic analysis point of view, the transition is described by the large deviations principle, which offers little information on the scaling behavior near the critical point. I will discuss a special case of the model, which allows a rigorous analysis of the critical properties of the model, and reveals a new, anomalous scaling behavior in the vicinity of the critical point.

Teodorescu, Razvan

2009-10-01

33

Mapping spatial persistent large deviations of nonequilibrium surface growth processes onto the temporal persistent large deviations of stochastic random walk processes.  

PubMed

Spatial persistent large deviations probability of surface growth processes governed by the Edwards-Wilkinson dynamics, Px(x,s), with -1< or =s< or =1 is mapped isomorphically onto the temporal persistent large deviations probability Pt(t,s) associated with the stochastic Markovian random walk problem. We show using numerical simulations that the infinite family of spatial persistent large deviations exponents thetax(s) characterizing the power-law decay of Px(x,s ) agrees, as predicted on theoretical grounds by Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3700 (2001)], with the numerical measurements of thetat(s), the continuous family of exponents characterizing the long-time power law behavior of Pt(t,s). We also discuss the simulations of the spatial persistence probability corresponding to a discrete model in the Mullins-Herring universality class, where our discrete simulations do not agree well with the theoretical predictions perhaps because of the severe finite-size corrections which are known to strongly inhibit the manifestation of the asymptotic continuum behavior in discrete models involving large values of the dynamical exponent and the associated extremely slow convergence to the asymptotic regime. PMID:15600416

Constantin, M; Das Sarma, S

2004-10-01

34

Living at the Edge: A Large Deviations Approach to the Outage MIMO Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a large deviations approach we calculate the probability distribution\\u000aof the mutual information of MIMO channels in the limit of large antenna\\u000anumbers. In contrast to previous methods that only focused at the distribution\\u000aclose to its mean (thus obtaining an asymptotically Gaussian distribution), we\\u000acalculate the full distribution, including its tails which strongly deviate\\u000afrom the Gaussian behavior

Pavlos Kazakopoulos; Panayotis Mertikopoulos; Aris L. Moustakas; Giuseppe Caire

2009-01-01

35

Deviations from Matthiessen's rule and resistivity saturation effects in Gd and Fe from first principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to earlier first-principles calculations, the spin-disorder contribution to the resistivity of rare-earth metals in the paramagnetic state is strongly underestimated if Matthiessen's rule is assumed to hold. To understand this discrepancy, the resistivity of paramagnetic Fe and Gd is evaluated by taking into account both spin and phonon disorder. Calculations are performed using the supercell approach within the linear muffin-tin orbital method. Phonon disorder is modeled by introducing random displacements of the atomic nuclei, and the results are compared with the case of fictitious Anderson disorder. In both cases, the resistivity shows a nonlinear dependence on the square of the disorder potential, which is interpreted as a resistivity saturation effect. This effect is much stronger in Gd than in Fe. The nonlinearity makes the phonon and spin-disorder contributions to the resistivity nonadditive, and the standard procedure of extracting the spin-disorder resistivity by extrapolation from high temperatures becomes ambiguous. An "apparent" spin-disorder resistivity obtained through such extrapolation is in much better agreement with experiment compared to the results obtained by considering only spin disorder. By analyzing the spectral function of the paramagnetic Gd in the presence of Anderson disorder, the resistivity saturation is explained by the collapse of a large area of the Fermi surface due to the disorder-induced mixing between the electron and hole sheets.

Glasbrenner, J. K.; Pujari, B. S.; Belashchenko, K. D.

2014-05-01

36

Computation of large deviation statistics via iterative measurement-and-feedback procedure.  

PubMed

We propose a computational method for large deviation statistics of time-averaged quantities in general Markov processes. In our proposed method, we repeat a response measurement against external forces, where the forces are determined by the previous measurement as feedback. Consequently, we obtain a set of stationary states corresponding to an exponential family of distributions, each of which shows rare events in the original system as the typical behavior. As a demonstration of our method, we study large deviation statistics of one-dimensional lattice gas models. PMID:24655236

Nemoto, Takahiro; Sasa, Shin-ichi

2014-03-01

37

The large deviation function for entropy production: the optimal trajectory and the role of fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the large deviation function for the entropy production rate in two driven one-dimensional systems: the asymmetric random walk on a discrete lattice and Brownian motion in a continuous periodic potential. We compare two approaches: using the Donsker-Varadhan theory and using the Freidlin-Wentzell theory. We show that the wings of the large deviation function are dominated by a single optimal trajectory: either in the forward direction (positive rate) or in the backward direction (negative rate). The joining of the two branches at zero entropy production implies a non-differentiability and thus the appearance of a ‘kink’. However, around zero entropy production, many trajectories contribute and thus the ‘kink’ is smeared out.

Speck, Thomas; Engel, Andreas; Seifert, Udo

2012-12-01

38

Large-visual-angle microstructure inspired from quantitative design of Morpho butterflies' lamellae deviation using the FDTD/PSO method.  

PubMed

The wide angular range of the treelike structure in Morpho butterfly scales was investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)/particle-swarm-optimization (PSO) analysis. Using the FDTD method, different parameters in the Morpho butterflies' treelike structure were studied and their contributions to the angular dependence were analyzed. Then a wide angular range was realized by the PSO method from quantitatively designing the lamellae deviation (?y), which was a crucial parameter with angular range. The field map of the wide-range reflection in a large area was given to confirm the wide angular range. The tristimulus values and corresponding color coordinates for various viewing directions were calculated to confirm the blue color in different observation angles. The wide angular range realized by the FDTD/PSO method will assist us in understanding the scientific principles involved and also in designing artificial optical materials. PMID:23454951

Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Wang; Chen, Weixin; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Deng, Tao; Zhang, Di

2013-01-15

39

How T-cells use large deviations to recognize foreign antigens.  

PubMed

A stochastic model for the activation of T-cells is analysed. T-cells are part of the immune system and recognize foreign antigens against a background of the body's own molecules. The model under consideration is a slight generalization of a model introduced by Van den Berg et al. (J Theor Biol 209:465-486, 2001), and is capable of explaining how this recognition works on the basis of rare stochastic events. With the help of a refined large deviation theorem and numerical evaluation it is shown that, for a wide range of parameters, T-cells can distinguish reliably between foreign antigens and self-antigens. PMID:18560834

Zint, Natali; Baake, Ellen; den Hollander, Frank

2008-12-01

40

The large deviation function and recurrent properties of large earthquakes in two-dimensional forest-fire models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time- or slip- predictable model for recurrence of large earthquakes assumes constant critical or residual stress, respectively. However, it has not been confirmed that the assumption of constant critical or residual stress is adequate. It is important to study the effect of the fluctuation of initial and final stress to elucidate the recurrence of large earthquakes. When we see earthquake sequence as a point process, the slip-predictable model corresponds to a renewal process and the fluctuation of residual stress can cause non-renewal properties of earthquake sequence. We conduct numerical simulations of earthquake recurrence by the use of two-dimensional forest-fire models. The idea of relating a cluster which appear in the forest-fire model to the size of an earthquake is after the work of Otsuka(ZISIN,Ser.II,29 137 (1976)). To study the effect of the fluctuation of the residual stress, we investigate two kinds of percolated earthquakes. One is a percolated earthquake that releases all stress in the system and is called a renewal earthquake. The other is a usual percolated earthquake where some stress is left on the model fault after the earthquake and is called a non-renewal earthquake. The model that contains renewal earthquakes corresponds to the renewal process and is called model R. The model that contains non-renewal earthquakes exhibits temporal fluctuation of the residual stress in the system, and is called model N. In the size-frequency distribution of simulated earthquakes, there is a sag of frequency between the percolated earthquakes and the other earthquakes in model R. In contrast, there is no sag in model N. We calculate the mean frequencies of the percolated earthquakes and their large deviation functions to compare the results between the two different percolated earthquakes. The large deviation function characterizes the probability of rare events which are far from the true mean. The large deviation function for the frequency of the percolated earthquakes deviates from that of the homogeneous Poisson process where the earthquakes occur randomly. The trough of the large deviation function of the renewal earthquakes is deeper than the non-renewal earthquakes. This indicates that the renewal earthquakes show higher periodicity than the non-renewal earthquakes.

Mitsudo, T.; Kato, N.

2012-12-01

41

Dissociated vertical deviation: an asymmetric condition treated with large bilateral superior rectus recession.  

PubMed

Bilateral superior rectus recessions were performed on 25 patients for dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). Large recessions (at least 10 mm from the original insertion) have proved effective and safe, although all patients were slightly undercorrected. There were no complications of ptosis, upper lid retraction, alterations of palpebral fissure width, failure of upgaze, oblique dysfunction or overcorrection. The DVD was always asymmetric, with the greater deviation in the non-dominant eye. Forty percent of the patients had a decompensated asymmetry manifested by unilateral hypertropia of at least 10 prism diopters in addition to the DVD. These patients require an asymmetrical amount of surgery. Two such patients required reoperation, not because of residual DVD, but because of failure to correct this hypertropia. Currently we do bilateral superior rectus recessions of greater than 10 mm OU for DVD, reserving unilateral surgery for the patient with such deep amblyopia that he will never fix with the operated eye. An eye with manifest hypertropia in addition to DVD requires at least five more millimeters (greater than 15 mm) than the fixating eye. Maximum amounts of recession have not yet been determined. PMID:7050333

Magoon, E; Cruciger, M; Jampolsky, A

1982-01-01

42

Exact Large-Deviation Statistics for a Nonequilibrium Quantum Spin Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a one-dimensional XX spin chain in a nonequilibrium setting with a Lindblad-type boundary driving. By calculating large-deviation rate function in the thermodynamic limit, a generalization of free energy to a nonequilibrium setting, we obtain a complete distribution of current, including closed expressions for lower-order cumulants. We also identify two phase-transition-like behaviors in either the thermodynamic limit, at which the current probability distribution becomes discontinuous, or at maximal driving, when the range of possible current values changes discontinuously. In the thermodynamic limit the current has a finite upper and lower bound. We also explicitly confirm nonequilibrium fluctuation relation and show that the current distribution is the same under mapping of the coupling strength ??1/?.

Žnidari?, Marko

2014-01-01

43

A Thermodynamic Formalism for Continuous Time Markov Chains with Values on the Bernoulli Space: Entropy, Pressure and Large Deviations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through this paper we analyze the ergodic properties of continuous time Markov chains with values on the one-dimensional spin lattice (also known as the Bernoulli space). Initially, we consider as the infinitesimal generator the operator [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], where [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is a discrete time Ruelle operator (transfer operator), and is a given fixed Lipschitz function. The associated continuous time stationary Markov chain will define the a priori probability. Given a Lipschitz interaction , we are interested in Gibbs (equilibrium) state for such V. This will be another continuous time stationary Markov chain. In order to analyze this problem we will use a continuous time Ruelle operator (transfer operator) naturally associated to V. Among other things we will show that a continuous time Perron-Frobenius Theorem is true in the case V is a Lipschitz function. We also introduce an entropy, which is negative (see also Lopes et al. in Entropy and Variational Principle for one-dimensional Lattice Systems with a general a-priori probability: positive and zero temperature. Arxiv, 2012), and we consider a variational principle of pressure. Finally, we analyze large deviations properties for the empirical measure in the continuous time setting using results by Y. Kifer (Tamsui Oxf. J. Manag. Sci. 321(2):505-524, 1990). In the last appendix of the paper we explain why the techniques we develop here have the capability to be applied to the analysis of convergence of a certain version of the Metropolis algorithm.

Lopes, Artur; Neumann, Adriana; Thieullen, Philippe

2013-09-01

44

Annual Rainfall Maxima: Large-Deviation Alternative to Extreme-Value and Extreme-Excess Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to common belief, Gumbel's extreme value (EV) and Pickands' extreme excess (EE) theories do not generally apply to rainfall maxima at the annual level. This is true not just for long averaging durations d, as one would expect, but also in the high-resolution limit as d â?? 0. We reach these conclusions by studying the annual maxima of scale-invariant rainfall models with a multiplicative structure. We find that for d â?? 0 the annual maximum rainfall intensity in d, Iyear(d), has a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution with a shape parameter k that is significantly higher than that predicted by Gumbel's theory and is always in the EV2 range. Under the same conditions, the excess above levels close to the annual maximum has generalized Pareto (GP) distribution with a parameter k that is always higher than that predicted by Pickands' theory. The proper tool to obtain these results is large deviation (LD) theory, a branch of probability that has been largely ignored in stochastic hydrology. In the classic EV and EE settings one considers a single random variable X and studies either the distribution of the maximum of n independent copies of X as n â??? or the distribution of the excess Xu = (X - u|X â?¥ u) as the threshold u â???. A well known result is that, if under renormalization these distributions approach non-degenerate limits, then the distribution of the maximum is GEV(k), the distribution of the excess above u is GP(k), and the common shape parameter k depends on the tail behavior of X. When applied to rainfall extremes, X is typically taken to be I(d), the rainfall intensity in a generic d interval. The problem with the EV approach is that the number of d intervals in one year, n(d) = 1yr?d, may be too small for convergence of Iyear(d) to the asymptotic GEV distribution. Likewise, in the EE approach, thresholds u on the order of the annual maximum may be too low for convergence of the excess to the asymptotic GP distribution. This is indeed what happens in multifractal (and likely other multiplicative) models of rainfall. In contrast to EV and EE theories, LD theory considers a sequence of random variables {Xn =  i=1nY i, n = 1, 2, â?¦} where Y 1, Y 2,... are independent copies of a non-negative random variable Y and evaluates the probability P[Xn > eγn] for given γ > 0 as n â???. For application to scale-invariant rainfall one writes I(d) = I(D)Xn=ln(D?d), where D is the outer limit of the scale-invariant behavior. By using LD results, one finds that as d â?? 0 the distribution of Iyear(d) is EV2(k) with k that depends on the body (not the tail) of the distribution of Y . One can use LD theory also to extend Pickands' EE results. In this case one considers the excess Xn,eγn = (Xn - eγn|Xn â?¥ eγn) where the threshold u is made to vary with n as u = eγn for some γ > 0. One finds that, when the threshold is set to values on the order of the annual maximum and d â?? 0, the excess of I(d) = I(D)Xn=ln(D?d) approaches a GP(k) distribution where k is the same as in the EV2(k) distribution of Iyear(d). For d finite, Iyear(d) does not have a GEV distribution, but one can use LD theory to find the best-fitting EV2(k) distribution within a given range of quantiles. The use of large-deviation theory rather than extreme-value or extreme-excess theories represents a significant conceptual change in the way annual rainfall maxima are viewed and evaluated. There are also practical implications. Use of LD theory to calculate the distribution of the annual maximum does not require knowledge of the upper tail behavior of I(d). Rather one needs to know the distribution of I(d) in a less extreme region with significant gains in estimation accuracy and robustness. Some of the practical implications are considered in a companion study (Lepore et al., "Annual Rainfall Maxima: Practical Estimation Based on Large-deviation Results," EGU 2009). This

Veneziano, D.; Langousis, A.; Lepore, C.

2009-04-01

45

Bohr correspondence principle for large quantum numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic systems are considered whose increments in quantum energy grow with quantum number. In the limit of large quantum number, systems are found to give correspondence in form between classical and quantum frequency-energy dependences. Solely passing to large quantum numbers, however, does not guarantee the classical spectrum. For the examples cited, successive quantum frequencies remain separated by the incrementhI\\u000a–1,

Richard L. Liboff

1975-01-01

46

Mechanical principles of large mirror supports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large thin meniscus mirrors use force-controlled shape actuators to obtain the required optical performance. The shape actuators can be interpreted as an advancement of classical mirror supports as whiffle trees or iso-static levers, which worked purely mechanical. The paper develops, after a short historical overview, the theoretical background of mirror mechanics. Different combinations of force-controlled shape actuators with mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic whiffle trees or iso-static levers are analyzed in regard of their impact on optical performance, dynamic and control behavior. The investigations were the basis for the choice of the shape actuator system for the E-ELT M2, executed by MT Mechatronics under an ESO contract in 2008-09.

Kärcher, Hans J.; Eisenträger, Peter; Süss, Martin

2010-07-01

47

Annual Rainfall Maxima: Practical Estimation Based on Large-Deviation Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a separate communication (Veneziano et al., "Annual Rainfall Maxima: Large-deviation Alternative to Extreme-Value and Extreme-Excess Methods," EGU 2009), we show that, at least for scale-invariant rainfall models, classical extreme value analysis based on Gumbel's extreme value (EV) theory and peak-over-threshold (PoT) analysis based on Pickands' extreme excess (EE) theory do not apply to annual rainfall maxima (AM). A more appropriate theoretical setting is provided by large-deviation (LD) theory. This paper delves with some practical implications of these findings. All above theories predict that, as the averaging durations d â?? 0, (1) the annual maximum rainfall intensity in d, Iyear(d), has generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution, (2) the excess of the average intensity in d, I(d), above a level u on the order of the annual maximum has generalized Pareto (GP) distribution, and (3) the GEV and GP distributions have the same shape parameter k. The value of k depends on the theory used. According to EV and EE theories, k is determined by the upper tail of I(d), whereas LD theory shows that k is determined by less extreme regions of the distribution of I(d). The LD parameter kLD is always in the EV2 range and is larger than the value kEV?EE predicted by EV and EE theories. Since all theories predict that the annual maxima have GEV distribution and the corresponding excesses have GP distribution, methods that directly fit GEV and GP distributions to the data without reference to its asymptotic value should not be affected by which theory is correct. However, the theoretical results have other significant practical implications: Accurate estimation of k from at-site data is difficult. For this reason, k is often estimated regionally. The estimate of k from LD theory is much more robust than that from EV and EE theories and relies on the scaling of the moments of rainfall of order 2.5-3.5. This scaling is nearly universal for rainfall, providing a good "prior" value of k (around 0.3-0.4), which can be used also at un-gauged sites. The shift of focus to regions of the marginal distribution of I(d) below the extreme upper tail, and the recognition that in practice one needs extreme rainfall estimates over a range of finite durations dfor which Iyear(d) does not have GEV distribution make non-asymptotic methods more attractive. These methods fit marginal distributions to the order statistics of I(d) or to PoT values above thresholds not much below the level of the annual maxima and estimate the distribution of Iyear(d) as P [Iyear(d) > x] ? {P [I(d) > x]}n(d) (1) P [Iyear(d) > x] ? e-λd,uP[IPoT(d;u)>x-u] (2) where n(d) is a parameter that gives the effective number of independent I(d) variables in one year, λd,u is the annual rate at which I(d) up-crosses level u, and IPoT(d;u) is the PoT intensity for averaging duration d and threshold u. We have implemented procedures based on these non-asymptotic approaches, with the following specific characteristics: The distributions of I(d) (in the upper region) and IPoT(d;u) are taken to have scaled lognormal shape, with 3 parameters (the mean value m, the variance 2, and a scaling factor c >0 on the probability density). This choice of distribution is based on both empirical evidence and asymptotic multifractal results; The unknown parameters {m, 2, c, n(d)} or {m, 2, c, λd,u} are estimated simultaneously from marginal or PoT and AM data (the latter data mainly constrain n(d) and λd,u) using maximum likelihood. The upper region for I(d) is chosen such that the predicted AM distribution from Eq. 1 closely matches the empirical AM distribution. Application to several actual and simulated rainfall records shows that this approach is superior in accuracy and robustness to conventional AM and PoT methods. This work is funded by project RISK (High Speed Rail) of the M.I.T.-Portugal Program.

Lepore, C.; Veneziano, D.; Langousis, A.

2009-04-01

48

Deviation from tri-bimaximal mixing and large reactor mixing angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations for a non-zero ?13 have come from various experiments. We study a model of lepton mixing with a 2-3 flavor symmetry to accommodate the sizable ?13 measurement. In this work, we derive deviations from the tri-bimaximal (TBM) pattern arising from breaking the flavor symmetry in the neutrino sector, while the charged leptons contribution has been discussed in a previous work. Contributions from both sectors towards accommodating the non-zero ?13 measurement are presented.

Rashed, Ahmed

2013-09-01

49

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN FOR LARGE-SCALE NEURAL SIMULATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a review of design principles that are to be used for large-scale neural simu- lators. This paper emphasizes the most important problems encountered in the simulation of biologically plausible neural systems and provides some solutions derived from modern simulation techniques. We stress upon the idea that a modern simulator should be able to perform generic simulations of as

Raul C. Mure?an; Iosif Ignat

2004-01-01

50

Directed Network as a Chaotic Piece-Wise Linear One-Dimensional Map and Its Large-Deviation Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A directed network such as the WWW can be represented by a transition matrix. Comparing this matrix to a Frobenius-Perron matrix of a chaotic piecewise-linear one-dimensional map whose domain can be divided into Markov subintervals, we are able to relate the network structure itself to chaotic dynamics. Just like various large-deviation properties of local expansion rates (finite-time Lyapunov exponents) related to chaotic dynamics, we can also discuss those properties of network structure. Recurrence time statistics and their relationships to double time correlation functions and to power spectra are also considered.

Miyazaki, S.

51

[Penis deviation].  

PubMed

Penile deviation has been gaining in importance as a symptom of several diseases. There are congenital forms (congenital penile deviation, hypo- and epispadias) as well as acquired forms (induratio penis plastica, traumatic deviation, urethral manipulation syndrome). History and autophotography are the most important diagnostic procedures. The therapeutic procedure is corporaplasty according to Nesbit-Kelâmi. PMID:4012944

Kelâmi, A

1985-05-01

52

Differing Averaged and Quenched Large Deviations for Random Walks in Random Environments in Dimensions Two and Three  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the quenched and the averaged (or annealed) large deviation rate functions I q and I a for space-time and (the usual) space-only RWRE on {mathbb{Z}^d} . By Jensen’s inequality, I a ? I q . In the space-time case, when d ? 3 + 1, I q and I a are known to be equal on an open set containing the typical velocity ? o . When d = 1 + 1, we prove that I q and I a are equal only at ? o . Similarly, when d = 2 + 1, we show that I a < I q on a punctured neighborhood of ? o . In the space-only case, we provide a class of non-nestling walks on {mathbb{Z}^d} with d = 2 or 3, and prove that I q and I a are not identically equal on any open set containing ? o whenever the walk is in that class. This is very different from the known results for non-nestling walks on {mathbb{Z}^d} with d ? 4.

Yilmaz, Atilla; Zeitouni, Ofer

2010-11-01

53

Standard Deviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, by journalist Robert Niles, defines and explains standard deviation and the normal distribution. Graphs and a clear list of terms you need to know are given, and links to more of Niles' sites can be found by visitors on the right side of the screen.

Niles, Robert

2008-12-16

54

First-principles investigation of deviations from Matthiessen's rule due to the interplay of phonon and spin disorder scattering in iron and gadolinium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic materials contain an anomalous contribution to the electrical resistivity due to thermal spin fluctuations, which saturates in the disordered phase and is called the spin-disorder resistivity (SDR). Experimental determination of the SDR involves fitting to high-temperature resistivity data and extrapolating to T=0 K. Recent calculations of the SDR of the heavy rare-earth metals revealed strong underestimations of this quantity, particularly for Gd, while the results for transition metals were in good agreement with experiments. In order to understand this discrepancy, here we evaluate the mutual effects of phonon and spin-disorder scattering in Fe and Gd. Calculations are performed using the supercell approach within the linear muffin-tin orbital method. The atomic positions are displaced according to the Gaussian distribution, and the resistivity is evaluated as a function of the mean-square displacement 2?T. The deviations from Matthiessen's rule (DMR) are large in Gd and moderate in Fe. Fitting the linear region of ? vs 2? in Gd yields an intercept ˜2.5 times larger than the ``bare'' SDR, significantly improving the agreement with experiment. Large DMR suggest large variations of the relaxation time on the anisotropic Fermi surface.

Glasbrenner, James; Belashchenko, Kirill

2013-03-01

55

Cellular and molecular deviations in bovine in vitro-produced embryos are related to the large offspring syndrome.  

PubMed

The large offspring syndrome (LOS) is observed in bovine and ovine offspring following transfer of in vitro-produced (IVP) or cloned embryos and is characterized by a multitude of pathologic changes, of which extended gestation length and increased birthweight are predominant features. In the present study, we used bovine blastocysts to analyze cellular parameters, i.e., the number of cells in Day 7 blastocysts and the size of Day 12 elongating blastocysts, and molecular parameters, i.e., the relative abundance of developmentally important genes: glucose transporter (Glut) 1, Glut-2, Glut-3, Glut-4, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70.1, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), histone H4.1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I receptor (R), and IGFII-R. Some blastocysts were produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization followed by in vitro culture in synthetic oviduct fluid medium supplemented with BSA or human serum or by in vivo culture in the sheep oviduct. Other blastocysts were derived in vivo from the uterine horns of superovulated donors. The findings made in the early embryos were related to a representative number of calves obtained from each production system and from artificial insemination (AI). In vitro culture of bovine embryos in the presence of high concentrations of serum or BSA significantly increased the number of cells in Day 7 blastocysts, the size of blastocysts on Day 12, and the relative abundance of the transcripts for Hsp70.1, Cu/Zn-SOD, Glut-3, Glut-4, bFGF, and IGFI-R when compared with embryos from the in vivo production groups. Birthweights of calves derived from IVP embryos were significantly higher than those of calves derived from sheep oviduct culture, superovulation, or AI. The results support the hypothesis that persistence of early deviations in development is causally involved in the incidence of LOS, in particular in increased birthweights. The cellular and molecular parameters analyzed in this study can be considered early markers of LOS in cattle. PMID:12193383

Lazzari, Giovanna; Wrenzycki, Christine; Herrmann, Doris; Duchi, Roberto; Kruip, Theo; Niemann, Heiner; Galli, Cesare

2002-09-01

56

Large impurity effects in rubrene crystals: First-principles calculations  

SciTech Connect

Carrier mobilities of rubrene films are among the highest values reported for any organic semiconductor. Here, we probe with first-principles calculations the sensitivity of rubrene crystals on impurities. We find that isolated oxygen impurities create distinct peaks in the electronic density of states consistent with observations of defect levels in rubrene and that increased O content changes the position and shape of rubrene energy bands significantly. We also establish a dual role of hydrogen as individual H species and H impurity pairs create and annihilate deep carrier traps, respectively. The results are relevant to the performance and reliability of rubrene-based devices.

Tsetseris, L. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University

2008-01-01

57

Large deviations of the magnetic field from the Parker spiral in CRRs: Validity of the Schwadron model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1">A difference in solar wind speed inside and outside a Coronal Hole Boundary (CHB) causes the field and solar wind to expand rapidly with distance to form a Corotating Rarefaction Region (CRR). In the Parker model, field lines inside the CRR form spirals determined by the local solar wind speed. Observationally, however, CRR fields often diverge from the Parker spiral by tens of degrees and in a more radial direction. In a model developed by Schwadron (2002), in addition to the velocity gradient, the field lines rotate differentially across the CHB. The solar wind speed then varies along the field lines rather than remaining constant as in the Parker model. The plausibility of the model is supported by calculations using nominal model parameters that reproduce the systematic <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the Parker spiral. The present study establishes the validity of the model by comparing observations of nine CRRs between 1 and 4 AU with model predictions. Estimates are obtained for the width, velocity gradient, differential velocity of the CRR, and the transit time of the magnetic field. These parameters are obtained at the surface near 10 solar radii where the pressure of the coronal magnetic field first becomes balanced.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Edward J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54341931"> <span id="translatedtitle">DeltaT\\/T limits from the UCSB South Pole degree-scale experiment and constraints on the <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the Hubble flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The limits to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) temperature anisotropy derived from the results of the University of California at Santa Barbara South Pole degree-scale experiment are translated into upper bounds on <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the Hubble flow. The lack of measurable CBR anisotropy in this experiment implies very low upper bounds upon the rms amplitude V(R) of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krzysztof M. Gorski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30746349"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cellular and molecular <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in bovine in vitro-produced embryos are related to the <span class="hlt">large</span> offspring syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">large</span> offspring syndrome (LOS) is observed in bovine and ovine offspring following transfer of in vitro-produced (IVP) or cloned embryos and is characterized by a multitude of pathologic changes, of which extended gestation length and increased birthweight are predominant features. In the present study, we used bovine blastocysts to analyze cellular parameters, i.e., the number of cells in Day</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Lazzari; C. Wrenzycki; D. Herrmann; R. Duchi; T. Kruip; H. Niemann; C. Galli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD632150"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of an Experimental <span class="hlt">Large</span> Aperture Seismic Array (Lasa).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the most useful techniques for improving capability to observe small remote seismic events is to connect a <span class="hlt">large</span> number of seismic sensors distributed in the horizontal plane so as to form an array. This has proved to be of great interest in seismo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. E. Green R. A. Frosch C. F. Romney</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1965-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930026615&hterms=krzysztof&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dkrzysztof"> <span id="translatedtitle">deltaT/T limits from the UCSB South Pole degree-scale experiment and constraints on the <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the Hubble flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The limits to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) temperature anisotropy derived from the results of the University of California at Santa Barbara South Pole degree-scale experiment are translated into upper bounds on <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the Hubble flow. The lack of measurable CBR anisotropy in this experiment implies very low upper bounds upon the rms amplitude V(R) of the streaming motion within a Gaussian window of radius R: Vmax(R is greater than 4000 km/s) less than 200 km/s, and Vmax(R is greater than 7500 km/s) is less than 100 km/s. Thus, the smoothness of the CBR at about 1-2 deg and the apparent <span class="hlt">large</span>-amplitude (about 500 km/s) <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from pure Hubble flow at R greater than about 4000 km/s cannot be simultaneously explained in the framework of usual <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale structure formation models based on the assumptions involved in this calculation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorski, Krzysztof M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ITSP...61.4067C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Large</span> <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> Delay Analysis of Queue-Aware Multi-User MIMO Systems With Two-Timescale Mobile-Driven Feedback</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multi-user multi-input-multi-output (MU-MIMO) systems transmit data to multiple users simultaneously using the spatial degrees of freedom with user feedback channel state information (CSI). Most of the existing literatures on the reduced feedback user scheduling focus on the throughput performance and the user queueing delay is usually ignored. As the delay is very important for real-time applications, a low feedback queue-aware user scheduling algorithm is desired for the MU-MIMO system. This paper proposed a two-stage queue-aware user scheduling algorithm, which consists of a queue-aware mobile-driven feedback filtering stage and a SINR-based user scheduling stage, where the feedback filtering policy is obtained from the solution of an optimization problem. We evaluate the queueing performance of the proposed scheduling algorithm by using the sample path <span class="hlt">large</span> <span class="hlt">deviation</span> analysis. We show that the <span class="hlt">large</span> <span class="hlt">deviation</span> decay rate for the proposed algorithm is much larger than that of the CSI-only user scheduling algorithm. The numerical results also demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs much better than the CSI-only algorithm requiring only a small amount of feedback.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Junting; Lau, Vincent K. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22163841"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bioinspired <span class="hlt">principles</span> for <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale networked sensor systems: an overview.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biology has often been used as a source of inspiration in computer science and engineering. Bioinspired <span class="hlt">principles</span> have found their way into network node design and research due to the appealing analogies between biological systems and <span class="hlt">large</span> networks of small sensors. This paper provides an overview of bioinspired <span class="hlt">principles</span> and methods such as swarm intelligence, natural time synchronization, artificial immune system and intercellular information exchange applicable for sensor network design. Bioinspired <span class="hlt">principles</span> and methods are discussed in the context of routing, clustering, time synchronization, optimal node deployment, localization and security and privacy. PMID:22163841</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Zhang, Qi; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3231311"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bioinspired <span class="hlt">Principles</span> for <span class="hlt">Large</span>-Scale Networked Sensor Systems: An Overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biology has often been used as a source of inspiration in computer science and engineering. Bioinspired <span class="hlt">principles</span> have found their way into network node design and research due to the appealing analogies between biological systems and <span class="hlt">large</span> networks of small sensors. This paper provides an overview of bioinspired <span class="hlt">principles</span> and methods such as swarm intelligence, natural time synchronization, artificial immune system and intercellular information exchange applicable for sensor network design. Bioinspired <span class="hlt">principles</span> and methods are discussed in the context of routing, clustering, time synchronization, optimal node deployment, localization and security and privacy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Zhang, Qi; Toftegaard, Thomas Skj?deberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48261093"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new <span class="hlt">principle</span> and device for <span class="hlt">large</span> aircraft components gaining accurate support by ball joint</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">How to obtain an accurate support for <span class="hlt">large</span> components by ball joint is a key process in aircraft digital assembly. A novel\\u000a <span class="hlt">principle</span> and device is developed to solve the problem. Firstly, the working <span class="hlt">principle</span> of the device is introduced. When three\\u000a or four displacement sensors installed in the localizer are touched by the ball-head, the spatial relation is calculated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bao-gui Qiu; Jun-xia Jiang; Ying-lin Ke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.136m4101O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Large</span>-scale first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> molecular dynamics for electrochemical systems with O(N) methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on electrochemical systems has been developed by combining the effective screening medium (ESM) method with O(N) density functional theory (DFT). This implementation has been significantly simplified by the introduction of neutral atom potentials, which minimizes the modifications to existing DFT code. In order to demonstrate ability of this implementation, it has been applied to an electrochemical system consisting of a H-Si(111) electrode, which is a candidate anode for high-capacity Li-ion secondary batteries, and a propylene carbonate (PC) solvent to simulate how PC molecules in the vicinity of the electrode surface respond to an imposed electric field. The <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale MD simulation clearly demonstrates that the combination of the ESM and O(N) DFT methods provides a useful tool for first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> investigation of complicated electrochemical systems such as high-capacity batteries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Ozaki, Taisuke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041457&hterms=Information+Processing+Techniques&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DInformation%2BProcessing%2BTechniques"> <span id="translatedtitle">Requirements and <span class="hlt">principles</span> for the implementation and construction of <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale geographic information systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper provides a brief survey of the history, structure and functions of 'traditional' geographic information systems (GIS), and then suggests a set of requirements that <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale GIS should satisfy, together with a set of <span class="hlt">principles</span> for their satisfaction. These <span class="hlt">principles</span>, which include the systematic application of techniques from several subfields of computer science to the design and implementation of GIS and the integration of techniques from computer vision and image processing into standard GIS technology, are discussed in some detail. In particular, the paper provides a detailed discussion of questions relating to appropriate data models, data structures and computational procedures for the efficient storage, retrieval and analysis of spatially-indexed data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Terence R.; Menon, Sudhakar; Star, Jeffrey L.; Estes, John E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991CompM...8..221C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Large</span> strain analysis of rubber-like materials based on a perturbed Lagrangian variational <span class="hlt">principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A mixed finite element method is presented for the <span class="hlt">large</span> strain analysis of rubber-like materials, which are considered to be nearly incompressible. Two types of constitutive relations are included: generalized Rivlin and Ogden's models. The finite element equations are derived on the basis of a perturbed Lagrangian variational <span class="hlt">principle</span> from which both the displacement and pressure fields are independently approximated by appropriate shape functions. A physically meaningful pressure parameter is introduced in the expression of complementary energy. In the paper, a special effort is made to split the deformation energy into two distinct parts: isochoric and hydrostatic parts. By doing this, a quadratic convergence rate of nonlinear iterative solution is achieved, particularly for problems deformed in the <span class="hlt">large</span> strain range. The finite element equations are specialized for a two-dimensional 9-node Lagrange element with three-term pressure parameters. Five examples are given to demonstrate the application of the proposed numerical algorithm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, T. Y. P.; Saleeb, A. F.; Li, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7500E...2J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring <span class="hlt">principle</span> and technology of accumulate pitch error of <span class="hlt">large</span> gear</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On the basis of the research and analysis of measuring <span class="hlt">principle</span> of the gear accumulate pitch, it was concluded: spacing-tooth relative method was applied for the <span class="hlt">large</span> gear whose diameter was over 2.5m, to measure its accumulate pitch error so that measuring error was reduced, its measuring precision was improved. For the characteristics of gear's inertia in measuring process, on-machine measuring instrument of gear's total accumulative pitch error on <span class="hlt">large</span> hobbing machine was designed. The origin and compensation method of the measuring system error were analyzed and studied, which determined the formation cause and affect law measurement error resulted from comprehensive geometric eccentricity of measured gear installation, a rational error compensation method was proposed, which made measurement accuracy further improve.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jin, Jiaqi; Dong, Lei; Zhao, Fenghui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCAP...06..009C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single-field consistency relations of <span class="hlt">large</span> scale structure part III: test of the equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recently derived consistency relations for <span class="hlt">Large</span> Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence <span class="hlt">Principle</span> (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10?3÷10?4 on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Creminelli, Paolo; Gleyzes, Jérôme; Hui, Lam; Simonovi?, Marko; Vernizzi, Filippo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4003981"> <span id="translatedtitle">Subpixelic Measurement of <span class="hlt">Large</span> 1D Displacements: <span class="hlt">Principle</span>, Processing Algorithms, Performances and Software</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a visual measurement method able to sense 1D rigid body displacements with very high resolutions, <span class="hlt">large</span> ranges and high processing rates. Sub-pixelic resolution is obtained thanks to a structured pattern placed on the target. The pattern is made of twin periodic grids with slightly different periods. The periodic frames are suited for Fourier-like phase calculations—leading to high resolution—while the period difference allows the removal of phase ambiguity and thus a high range-to-resolution ratio. The paper presents the measurement <span class="hlt">principle</span> as well as the processing algorithms (source files are provided as supplementary materials). The theoretical and experimental performances are also discussed. The processing time is around 3 ?s for a line of 780 pixels, which means that the measurement rate is mostly limited by the image acquisition frame rate. A 3-? repeatability of 5 nm is experimentally demonstrated which has to be compared with the 168 ?m measurement range.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guelpa, Valerian; Laurent, Guillaume J.; Sandoz, Patrick; Zea, July Galeano; Clevy, Cedric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24985616"> <span id="translatedtitle">A method of orbital analysis for <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> simulations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF4). PMID:24985616</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23345038"> <span id="translatedtitle">The boron conundrum: which <span class="hlt">principles</span> underlie the formation of <span class="hlt">large</span> hollow boron cages?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extensive optimisation calculations are performed for the B(80) isomers in order to find out which <span class="hlt">principles</span> underlie the formation of <span class="hlt">large</span> hollow boron cages. Our analysis shows that the most stable isomers contain triangular B(10) or rhombohedral B(16) building blocks. The lowest-energy isomer has C(3v) symmetry and is characterised by a belt of three interconnected B(16) units and two separate B(10) units. At the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory, this newly discovered isomer is 2.29, 1.48, and 0.54 eV below the leapfrog B(80) of Szwacki et al., the T(h) -B(80) of Wang, and the D(3d) -B(80) of Pochet et al., respectively. Our C(3v) isomer is therefore identified as the most stable hollow cage isomer of B(80) presently known. Its HOMO-LUMO gap of 1.6 eV approaches that of the leapfrog B(80). The leapfrog <span class="hlt">principle</span> still remains a reliable scheme for producing boron cages with larger HOMO-LUMO gaps, whereas the thermodynamically most stable B(80) cages are formed when all pentagonal faces are capped. We show that <span class="hlt">large</span> hollow cages of boron retain a preference for fullerene frames. The additional capping is in accordance with the following rules: preference for capping of pentagonal faces, formation of B(10) and/or B(16) units, homogeneous distribution of the hexagonal caps, and hole density approaching 1/9. Although our most stable B(80) isomer still remains higher in energy than the B(80) core-shell structure, we show that by applying the bonding <span class="hlt">principles</span> to larger structures it is possible to construct boron cages with higher stabilisation energy per boron atom than the core-shell structure; a prototypical example is B(160). This clearly shows the continuous competition between the two suggested construction schemes, namely, the formation of multiple-shell structures and hollow cages. PMID:23345038</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muya, Jules Tshishimbi; Lijnen, Erwin; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Ceulemans, Arnout</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/A16252.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variance and Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This source, created by David M. Lane of Hyperstat Online, defines and explains variance and standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. The page intertwines mathematical formulas with text to best introduce the topic. While brief, it still provides a nice introduction to these methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lane, David M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16472897"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moderate <span class="hlt">deviations</span> for some point measures in geometric probability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Functionals in geometric probability are often expressed as sums of bounded functions exhibiting exponential stabilization. Methods based on cumulant techniques and exponential modifications of measures show that such functionals satisfy moderate <span class="hlt">deviation</span> <span class="hlt">principles</span>. This leads to moderate <span class="hlt">deviation</span> <span class="hlt">principles</span> and laws of the iterated logarithm for random packing models as well as for statistics associated with germ-grain models and $k$</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu Baryshnikov; P. Eichelsbacher; T. Schreiber; J. E. Yukich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ims.nus.edu.sg/preprints/2004-26.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moderate <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> and Cluster Measures in Geometric Probability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Functionals in geometric probability are often expressed as sums of bounded functions exhibiting exponential stabilization. Methods based on cumulant expansions and cluster mea- sures show that such functionals satisfy moderate <span class="hlt">deviation</span> <span class="hlt">principles</span>. This leads to moderate <span class="hlt">deviation</span> <span class="hlt">principles</span> and laws of the iterated logarithm for random packing models, the process of maximal points, as well as for statistics associated with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu Baryshnikov; P. Eichelsbacher; T. Schreiber; J. E. Yukich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/imperia/md/content/stochastik/veroeffentlichungen/besy.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moderate <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> for Some Point Measures in Geometric Probability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Functionals in geometric probability are often expressed as sums of bounded functions exhibiting exponential stabilization. Methods based on cumulant techniques and exponential modications of measures show that such functionals satisfy moderate <span class="hlt">deviation</span> <span class="hlt">principles</span>. This leads to moderate <span class="hlt">deviation</span> <span class="hlt">principles</span> and laws of the iterated logarithm for random packing models as well as for statistics associated with germ-grain models and k</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu Baryshnikov; P. Eichelsbacher; T. Schreiber; J. E. Yukich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3852868"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pleasure and Pain: Teaching Neuroscientific <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Hedonism in a <span class="hlt">Large</span> General Education Undergraduate Course</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a <span class="hlt">large</span> (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience <span class="hlt">principles</span> were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20–25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first and last pages. A draft of the first page, collected early in the term, was returned to each student by graduate TAs to provide individual feedback on scientific writing. Overall the course has run three times at ful or near enrollment capacity despite being held at an 8:00 AM time slot. Student-generated teaching evaluations place it well within the normal range, while this format importantly contributes to budget efficiency permitting the teaching of more required small-format courses (e.g., freshman writing). The demographics of the course have changed to one in which the vast majority of the students are now outside the disciplines of neuroscience or psychology and are taking the course to fulfill a General Education requirement. This pattern allows the wide dissemination of basic neuroscientific knowledge to a general college audience.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bodnar, Richard J.; Stellar, James R.; Kraft, Tamar T.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M.; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24319388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pleasure and pain: teaching neuroscientific <span class="hlt">principles</span> of hedonism in a <span class="hlt">large</span> general education undergraduate course.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a <span class="hlt">large</span> (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience <span class="hlt">principles</span> were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20-25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first and last pages. A draft of the first page, collected early in the term, was returned to each student by graduate TAs to provide individual feedback on scientific writing. Overall the course has run three times at ful or near enrollment capacity despite being held at an 8:00 AM time slot. Student-generated teaching evaluations place it well within the normal range, while this format importantly contributes to budget efficiency permitting the teaching of more required small-format courses (e.g., freshman writing). The demographics of the course have changed to one in which the vast majority of the students are now outside the disciplines of neuroscience or psychology and are taking the course to fulfill a General Education requirement. This pattern allows the wide dissemination of basic neuroscientific knowledge to a general college audience. PMID:24319388</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bodnar, Richard J; Stellar, James R; Kraft, Tamar T; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GReGr..43.3213E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Editorial note to: Brandon Carter, <span class="hlt">Large</span> number coincidences and the anthropic <span class="hlt">principle</span> in cosmology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is an editorial note to accompany reprinting as a Golden Oldie in the Journal of General Relativity and Gravitation of the famous paper by Brandon Carter on the anthropic <span class="hlt">principle</span> in cosmology \\cite{Car74}. This paper was presented at IAU Symposium No. 63, entitled Confrontation of cosmological theories with observational data, in 1973.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ellis, George F. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">4</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GReGr..43.3225C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Republication of: <span class="hlt">Large</span> number coincidences and the anthropic <span class="hlt">principle</span> in cosmology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a reprinting of the paper by Brandon Carter, first published in a little-known volume of conference proceedings in 1974, that moved the anthropic <span class="hlt">principle</span> from the realm of philosophical speculations to the subject of theoretical physics. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by George Ellis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carter, Brandon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/883590"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Large</span>-Scale First-<span class="hlt">Principles</span> Molecular Dynamics Simulations on the BlueGene/L Platform using the Qbox Code</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First-<span class="hlt">Principles</span> Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) is an accurate, atomistic simulation approach that is routinely applied to a variety of areas including solid-state physics, chemistry, biochemistry and nanotechnology. FPMD enables one to perform predictive materials simulations, as no empirical or adjustable parameters are used to describe a given system. Instead, a quantum mechanical description of electrons is obtained by solving the Kohn-Sham equations within a pseudopotential plane-wave formalism. This rigorous first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> treatment of electronic structure is computationally expensive and limits the size of tractable systems to a few hundred atoms on most currently available parallel computers. Developed specifically for <span class="hlt">large</span> parallel systems at LLNL's Center for Applied Scientific Computing, the Qbox implementation of the FPMD method shows unprecedented performance and scaling on BlueGene/L.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gygi, F; Draeger, E; de Supinski, B; Yates, R K; Franchetti, F; Kral, S; Lorenz, J; Ueberhueber, C; Gunnels, J A; Sexton, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17911673"> <span id="translatedtitle">Software engineering <span class="hlt">principles</span> applied to <span class="hlt">large</span> healthcare information systems--a case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil and one of the largest cities in the world. In 2004, São Paulo City Department of Health decided to implement a Healthcare Information System to support managing healthcare services and provide an ambulatory health record. The resulting information system is one of the largest public healthcare information systems ever built, with more than 2 million lines of code. Although statistics shows that most software projects fail, and the risks for the São Paulo initiative were enormous, the information system was completed on-time and on-budget. In this paper, we discuss the software engineering <span class="hlt">principles</span> adopted that allowed to accomplish that project's goals, hoping that sharing the experience of this project will help other healthcare information systems initiatives to succeed. PMID:17911673</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nardon, Fabiane Bizinella; de A Moura, Lincoln</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1050242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational Challenges of <span class="hlt">Large</span>-Scale Long-Time First-<span class="hlt">Principles</span> Molecular Dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plane-wave density functional calculations have traditionally been able to use the largest available supercomputing resources. We analyze the scalability of modern projector- augmented wave implementations to identify the challenges in performing molecular dynamics calculations of <span class="hlt">large</span> systems containing many thousands of electrons. Benchmark calculations on the Cray XT4 demonstrate that global linear-algebra operations are the primary reason for limited parallel scalability. Plane-wave related operations can be made sufficiently scalable. Improving parallel linear-algebra performance is an essential step to reaching longer timescales in future <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale molecular dynamics calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kent, Paul R [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE200315004531"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Large</span>-Scale Computations Leading to a First-<span class="hlt">Principles</span> Approach to Nuclear Structure.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors report on <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale applications of the ab initio, no-core shell model withe the primary goal of achieving an accurate description of nuclear structure from the fundamental inter-nucleon interactions. In particular, we show that realistic tw...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. E. Ormand P. Navratil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375580"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systematic, spatial imaging of <span class="hlt">large</span> multimolecular assemblies and the emerging <span class="hlt">principles</span> of supramolecular order in biological systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding biological systems at the level of their relational (emergent) molecular properties in functional protein networks relies on imaging methods, able to spatially resolve a tissue or a cell as a giant, non-random, topologically defined collection of interacting supermolecules executing myriads of subcellular mechanisms. Here, the development and findings of parameter-unlimited functional super-resolution microscopy are described-a technology based on the fluorescence imaging cycler (IC) <span class="hlt">principle</span> capable of co-mapping thousands of distinct biomolecular assemblies at high spatial resolution and differentiation (<40?nm distances). It is shown that the subcellular and transcellular features of such supermolecules can be described at the compositional and constitutional levels; that the spatial connection, relational stoichiometry, and topology of supermolecules generate hitherto unrecognized functional self-segmentation of biological tissues; that hierarchical features, common to thousands of simultaneously imaged supermolecules, can be identified; and how the resulting supramolecular order relates to spatial coding of cellular functionalities in biological systems. A <span class="hlt">large</span> body of observations with IC molecular systems microscopy collected over 20?years have disclosed <span class="hlt">principles</span> governed by a law of supramolecular segregation of cellular functionalities. This pervades phenomena, such as exceptional orderliness, functional selectivity, combinatorial and spatial periodicity, and hierarchical organization of <span class="hlt">large</span> molecular systems, across all species investigated so far. This insight is based on the high degree of specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity of molecular recognition processes for fluorescence imaging beyond the spectral resolution limit, using probe libraries controlled by ICs. PMID:24375580</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schubert, Walter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSMTE..03..006N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal spike train analysis for <span class="hlt">large</span> scale networks using the maximum entropy <span class="hlt">principle</span> and Monte Carlo method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the dynamics of neural networks is a major challenge in experimental neuroscience. For that purpose, a modelling of the recorded activity that reproduces the main statistics of the data is required. In the first part, we present a review on recent results dealing with spike train statistics analysis using maximum entropy models (MaxEnt). Most of these studies have focused on modelling synchronous spike patterns, leaving aside the temporal dynamics of the neural activity. However, the maximum entropy <span class="hlt">principle</span> can be generalized to the temporal case, leading to Markovian models where memory effects and time correlations in the dynamics are properly taken into account. In the second part, we present a new method based on Monte Carlo sampling which is suited for the fitting of <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale spatio-temporal MaxEnt models. The formalism and the tools presented here will be essential to fit MaxEnt spatio-temporal models to <span class="hlt">large</span> neural ensembles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nasser, Hassan; Marre, Olivier; Cessac, Bruno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MAR.C1238S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constitutive Description of <span class="hlt">Large</span> Elastic Deformations in Diamond and Silicon Crystals from First-<span class="hlt">Principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Within a continuum approach, the prediction of the mechanical response of single crystals at <span class="hlt">large</span> elastic deformations relies on the accurate description of the strain energy density function ?. The coupling of hydrostatic and deviatoric terms at high compressions is of particular interest for applications, and the effect is generally not taken into account by current models available in the literature [1,2]. We present a general approach that leads to the construction of strain energy density functions of cubic single crystals based on data obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We connect the deformation-induced energy changes and Cauchy stress calculated from DFT calculations to the Lagrangian description frequently adopted within the continuum theory of hyperelasticity [3]. In particular, we adopt a coordinate--free invariant formulation [4] that intrinsically preserves the properties of the cubic symmetry group. We present results on diamond and silicon single crystals, and highlight both similarities and striking differences. [1] R.G.Veprek et. al, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 4248, 366-378 (2007) [2] B.P Gearing, L. Anand, Int. J. Solids Struct. 41, 827-845 (2004) [3] A.N. Norris, J. Mech. Mater. Struct. 3, No.2, 243-260 (2008) [4] J.P. Boehler, Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 59, 157-167 (1979)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salvetti, M.; Duchenne, S.; Parks, D. M.; Marzari, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARJ32015H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Large</span>-scale surface reconstructions from first <span class="hlt">principles</span>: Au(100) and Pt(100) by all-electron DFT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We show that the <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale, quasihexagonal surface reconstructions of Au(100) and Pt(100) are captured by all-electron density functional theory (DFT) in the local-density approximation and PBE generalized gradient approximation in excellent agreement with experiment. While the superstructure is often approximated as (5x1) in first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> calculations, larger, more realistic approximants turn out to be important for some aspects. For example, the reconstruction energy for Au(100) approximately doubles compared to (5x1) when considering the much larger, more realistic series (5xN) (N=10,15,20,25,30). For Pt(100), where an experimental reconstruction energy estimate exists [1], DFT based on these approximants is in close agreement. In addition to the energetics, our calculations reveal the full local surface geometry, and corroborrate relativistically enhanced d-d hybridization as the electronic reconstruction driving force. Our calculations are based on 5-layer asymmetric slab geometries, two layers of which are fully relaxed, i.e. up to 786 atoms, with 336 relaxed, and are performed using the efficient, accurate all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims [2]. [1] W.A. Brown, R. Kose, D.A. King, Chem. Rev. 98, 797 (1998) [2] V. Blum et al, Comp. Phys. Comm. 180, 2175 (2009).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Havu, Paula; Blum, Volker; Havu, Ville; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23841453"> <span id="translatedtitle">Free energies of binding from <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> quantum mechanical calculations: application to ligand hydration energies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Schemes of increasing sophistication for obtaining free energies of binding have been developed over the years, where configurational sampling is used to include the all-important entropic contributions to the free energies. However, the quality of the results will also depend on the accuracy with which the intermolecular interactions are computed at each molecular configuration. In this context, the energy change associated with the rearrangement of electrons (electronic polarization and charge transfer) upon binding is a very important effect. Classical molecular mechanics force fields do not take this effect into account explicitly, and polarizable force fields and semiempirical quantum or hybrid quantum-classical (QM/MM) calculations are increasingly employed (at higher computational cost) to compute intermolecular interactions in free-energy schemes. In this work, we investigate the use of <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale quantum mechanical calculations from first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> as a way of fully taking into account electronic effects in free-energy calculations. We employ a one-step free-energy perturbation (FEP) scheme from a molecular mechanical (MM) potential to a quantum mechanical (QM) potential as a correction to thermodynamic integration calculations within the MM potential. We use this approach to calculate relative free energies of hydration of small aromatic molecules. Our quantum calculations are performed on multiple configurations from classical molecular dynamics simulations. The quantum energy of each configuration is obtained from density functional theory calculations with a near-complete psinc basis set on over 600 atoms using the ONETEP program. PMID:23841453</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fox, Stephen J; Pittock, Chris; Tautermann, Christofer S; Fox, Thomas; Christ, Clara; Malcolm, N O J; Essex, Jonathan W; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Sample+Size%22&pg=4&id=EJ736503"> <span id="translatedtitle">Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> for Small Samples</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050182986&hterms=Sandra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2522Sandra%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perception of aircraft <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> Cues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft <span class="hlt">deviating</span> outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a <span class="hlt">deviation</span> while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10953845"> <span id="translatedtitle">A review of practical guidelines for correction of the <span class="hlt">deviated</span>, asymmetric nose.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Repair of the twisted nose presents a challenge, as often functional problems as well as aesthetic deformities must be addressed. Traditional correction of the <span class="hlt">deviated</span> nose involves septal correction, separation of both upper lateral cartilages from the septum and bony pyramid manipulation after osteotomies. Nowadays autogenous cartilage grafts are being used for repositioning, reinforcement, recontouring and reconstruction of virtually every component of the nasal skeleton. These restructuring techniques follow the modern <span class="hlt">principles</span> mentioned above and may well be applied to the <span class="hlt">deviated</span> asymmetric nose. The grafting manoeuvres increase the stability of the realigned cartilaginous nasal framework, including the nasal septum, but may also be used for camouflaging purposes. The <span class="hlt">large</span> number of possible individual anatomic variations including facial asymmetry does call for a systematic approach based on succinct individualised analysis. PMID:10953845</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vuyk, H D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15452653"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Principles</span> of callus distraction].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Callus distraction is based on the <span class="hlt">principle</span> of regenerating bone by continuous distraction of proliferating callus tissue. It has become the standard treatment of significant leg shortening and <span class="hlt">large</span> bone defects. Due to many problems and complications, exact preoperative planning, operative technique and careful postoperative follow-up are essential. External fixators can be used for all indications of callus distraction. However, due to pin tract infections, pain and loss of mobility caused by soft tissue transfixation, fixators are applied in patients with open growth plates, simultaneous lengthening with continuous deformity corrections, and increased risk of infection. Distraction over an intramedullary nail allows removal of the external fixator at the end of distraction before callus consolidation (monorail method). The intramedullary nail protects newly formed callus tissue and reduces the risk of axial <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and refractures. Recently developed, fully intramedullary lengthening devices eliminate fixator-associated complications and accelerate return to normal daily activities. This review describes <span class="hlt">principles</span> of callus distraction, potential complications and their management. PMID:15452653</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hankemeier, S; Bastian, L; Gosling, T; Krettek, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyA..391.2883H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Allan <span class="hlt">deviation</span> analysis of financial return series</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV <span class="hlt">deviates</span> from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for <span class="hlt">large</span> observation intervals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hernández-Pérez, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA597858"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> Detection and Optimal Thresholds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The PDDOT program is to provide a method of continuously monitoring military plans during execution for <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from expected performance. Determining such <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in critical to the success of military operations where the complexity of the battle ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Fahey J. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol6-sec2001-404.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 2001.404 - Class <span class="hlt">deviations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Class <span class="hlt">deviations</span>. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> From the FAR and the NRCAR...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol6-sec2001-403.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual <span class="hlt">deviations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Individual <span class="hlt">deviations</span>. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> From the FAR and the NRCAR...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19339062"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and acute myocardial infarction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has been rarely reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has been also rarely reported during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation too or at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in a 77-year-old Italian woman admitted to the Cardiology Unit with an acute myocardial infarction. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and acute myocardial infarction. PMID:19339062</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro; Dattilo, Giuseppe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24580471"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accurate and scalable O(N) algorithm for first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> molecular-dynamics computations on <span class="hlt">large</span> parallel computers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first truly scalable first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> molecular dynamics algorithm with O(N) complexity and controllable accuracy, capable of simulating systems with finite band gaps of sizes that were previously impossible with this degree of accuracy. By avoiding global communications, we provide a practical computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic wave functions are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the components of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected elements of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to 101,952 atoms on 23,328 processors, with a wall-clock time of the order of 1 min per molecular dynamics time step and numerical error on the forces of less than 7×10(-4)??Ha/Bohr. PMID:24580471</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120001364&hterms=statistics+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstatistics%2Benvironment"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> of Launch Vehicle Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and it is better to use a typical standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> for the source environment and the payload environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yunis, Isam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..88n4306L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phonon-isotope scattering and thermal conductivity in materials with a <span class="hlt">large</span> isotope effect: A first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interplay between phonon-isotope and phonon-phonon scattering in determining lattice thermal conductivities in semiconductors and insulators is examined using an ab initio Boltzmann transport equation approach. We identify materials with <span class="hlt">large</span> enhancements to their thermal conductivities with isotopic purification, known as the isotope effect, and we focus in particular on results for beryllium-VI compounds and cubic germanium carbide. We find that germanium carbide and beryllium selenide have very <span class="hlt">large</span> room temperature isotope effects of 450%, far larger than in any other material. Thus, isotopic purification in these materials gives surprisingly high intrinsic room temperature thermal conductivities, over 1500 Wm-1 K-1 for germanium carbide and over 600 Wm-1 K-1 for beryllium selenide, well above those of the best metals. In compound semiconductors, a <span class="hlt">large</span> mass ratio of the constituent atoms and <span class="hlt">large</span> isotope mixture for the heavier atom gives enhanced isotope scattering. A frequency gap between acoustic and optic phonons (also due to a <span class="hlt">large</span> mass ratio) and bunching of the acoustic phonon branches give weak anharmonic scattering. Combined, weak anharmonic phonon scattering and strong isotope scattering give a <span class="hlt">large</span> isotope effect in the materials examined here. The physical insights discussed in this work will help guide the efficient manipulation of thermal transport properties of compound semiconductors through isotopic modification.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Reinecke, T. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JChPh.131r4511P"> <span id="translatedtitle">High sensitivity of 17O NMR to p-d hybridization in transition metal perovskites: First <span class="hlt">principles</span> calculations of <span class="hlt">large</span> anisotropic chemical shielding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A first <span class="hlt">principles</span> embedded cluster approach is used to calculate O chemical shielding tensors, ??, in prototypical transition metal oxide ABO3 perovskite crystals. Our principal findings are (1) a <span class="hlt">large</span> anisotropy of ?? between deshielded ?x~=?y and shielded ?z components (z along the Ti-O bond); (2) a nearly linear variation, across all the systems studied, of the isotropic ?iso and uniaxial ?ax components, as a function of the B-O-B bond asymmetry. We show that the anisotropy and linear variation arise from <span class="hlt">large</span> paramagnetic contributions to ?x and ?y due to virtual transitions between O(2p) and unoccupied B(nd) states. The calculated isotropic ?iso and uniaxial ?ax chemical shifts are in good agreement with recent BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 single crystal 17O NMR measurements. In PbTiO3 and PbZrO3, calculated ?iso are also in good agreement with NMR powder spectrum measurements. In PbZrO3, ?iso calculations of the five chemically distinct sites indicate a correction of the experimental assignments. The strong dependence of ?? on covalent O(2p)-B(nd) interactions seen in our calculations indicates that 17O NMR spectroscopy, coupled with first <span class="hlt">principles</span> calculations, can be an especially useful tool to study the local structure in complex perovskite alloys.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pechkis, Daniel L.; Walter, Eric J.; Krakauer, Henry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARV24009P"> <span id="translatedtitle">High sensitivity of ^17O NMR to p-d hybridization in transition metal perovskites: first <span class="hlt">principles</span> calculations of <span class="hlt">large</span> anisotropic chemical shielding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First <span class="hlt">principles</span> calculations are used to show that O chemical shielding tensors, ?, are a sensitive indicator of local structure in transition metal ABO3 perovskites, due to their strong dependence on covalent O(2p)-B(nd) interactions.footnotetextPechkis et al., JCP 131, 184511 (2009); references therein. This indicates that ^17O NMR spectroscopy, coupled with first <span class="hlt">principles</span> calculations, can be an especially useful tool to study the local structure in complex perovskite alloys. Our principal findings are 1) a <span class="hlt">large</span> anisotropy between deshielded ?x˜?y and shielded ?z components; 2) a nearly linear variation of isotropic ?iso and uniaxial ?ax components, as a function of the B-O-B bond asymmetry, across all the systems studied; 3) the demonstration that the anisotropy and linear variation arise from <span class="hlt">large</span> paramagnetic contributions to ?x and ?y, due to virtual transitions between O(2p) and unoccupied B(nd) states. 4) Very good agreement with recent BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 single crystal ^17O NMR measurements of isotropic ?iso and uniaxial ?ax chemical shifts, and good agreement with PbTiO3 and PbZrO3 powder spectrum ?iso measurements.footnotetextmark[2</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pechkis, Daniel L.; Walter, Eric J.; Krakauer, Henry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24431778"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acceptable <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> between Facial and Dental Midlines in Dentate Population.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The success of the dental restorations <span class="hlt">largely</span> depends on its esthetics, although various literature reviews recommend that anterior teeth midline be placed coinciding the facial midline, the amount of acceptable <span class="hlt">deviation</span> between facial and dental midline has not been fully investigated. To observe the acceptable <span class="hlt">deviation</span> between the dental and facial midline. Facial photographs of 200 students aged about 18-30 years of both sexes, without any missing teeth, with complete alignment of anterior teeth, were selected and scanned on to computer screen. Using specialized programme, the crown width of the central incisor in the mouth and on photograph was ensured constant. The distance between the facial midline, (obtained by bisecting intercanthal line) and the mesial surfaces of the central incisors were read on the computer. 44.4 % Boys and 55 % of Girls showed <span class="hlt">deviation</span> between dental and facial midline in the range of 0-1 mm. while, 54 % of boys and 33 % of girls showed <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the dental and facial midline in the range 1-2 mm. 37 % of boys and 8 % of girls showed <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of dental midline with facial midline with the range of 2-3 mm. 80 % of the study population showed maxillary and mandibular dental midlines never coincide. Majority of the study population showed <span class="hlt">deviation</span> between facial midline and anterior teeth midline within the range of 0-1 mm. PMID:24431778</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jayalakshmi, N S; Ravindra, S; Nagaraj, K R; Rupesh, P L; Harshavardhan, M P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22histogram%22&pg=3&id=EJ847406"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/971017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Source coding, <span class="hlt">large</span> <span class="hlt">deviations</span>, and approximate pattern matching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a development of parts of rate-distortion theory and pattern-matching algorithms for lossy data compression, centered around a lossy version of the asymptotic equipartition property (AEP). This treatment closely parallels the corresponding development in lossless compression, a point of view that was advanced in an important paper of Wyner and Ziv in 1989. In the lossless case, we review</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amir Dembo; Ioannis Kontoyiannis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006tmgm.meet.1440W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Path <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> Equations in AP-Geometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, it has been shown that Absolute Parallelism (AP) geometry admits paths that are naturally quantized. These paths have been used to describe the motion of spinning particles in a background gravitational field. In case of a weak static gravitational field limits, the paths are applied successfully to interpret the discrepancy in the motion of thermal neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field (COW-experiment). The aim of the present work is to explore the properties of the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> equations corresponding to these paths. In the present work the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> equations are derived and compared to the geodesic <span class="hlt">deviation</span> equation of the Riemannian geometry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wanas, M. I.; Kahil, M. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learningcenter.nsta.org/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/4/tst04_071_07_51"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bernoulli's <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many physics teachers have an unclear understanding of Bernoulli's <span class="hlt">principle</span>, particularly when the <span class="hlt">principle</span> is applied to aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's <span class="hlt">principle</span> to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's <span class="hlt">principle</span> too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it altogether. The following simplified treatment of the <span class="hlt">principle</span> ignores most of the complexities of aerodynamics and hopefully will encourage teachers to bring Bernoulli back into the classroom.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hewitt, Paul G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol3-sec201-404.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 201.404 - Class <span class="hlt">deviations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Army, Navy, and Air Force, and the Directors of the Defense Commissary Agency, the Defense Contract Management Agency, and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, other than those described in 201.402(1), that...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD658787"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of Ranges of Correlated <span class="hlt">Deviates</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The correlation between ranges of correlated normal <span class="hlt">deviates</span> is assessed, exactly for ranges of 2 and 3, approximately for ranges of 4 or more, with results modifying those of Hartley (1950). The approximation is asymptotic in the correlation between the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. E. Kurtz R. F. Link J. W. Tukey D. L. Wallace</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol3-sec201-404.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 201.404 - Class <span class="hlt">deviations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Army, Navy, and Air Force, and the Directors of the Defense Commissary Agency, the Defense Contract Management Agency, and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, other than those described in 201.402(1), that...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol3-sec201-404.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 201.404 - Class <span class="hlt">deviations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Army, Navy, and Air Force, and the Directors of the Defense Commissary Agency, the Defense Contract Management Agency, and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, other than those described in 201.402(1), that...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol3-sec201-404.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 201.404 - Class <span class="hlt">deviations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Army, Navy, and Air Force, and the Directors of the Defense Commissary Agency, the Defense Contract Management Agency, and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, other than those described in 201.402(1), that...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www1.kcn.ne.jp/~h-uchii/mach.pr.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Machâs <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This page, from Kyoto University, provides a discussion of Machâs <span class="hlt">Principle</span>, a concept that played an important role in forming Einstein's theory of general relativity. Excerpts from Machâs original text are examined and discussed for his ideas that are closely related to this <span class="hlt">principle</span>. The general ambiguity of Machâs <span class="hlt">Principle</span>, and Einsteinâs interpretations of it are also presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Uchii, Soshichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900003719&hterms=sleep+hours+tiredness&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsleep%2Bhours%2Btiredness"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatigue, pilot <span class="hlt">deviations</span> and time of day</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationships between pilot fatigue, pilot <span class="hlt">deviations</span>, reported incidents, and time of day are examined. A sample of 200 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports were analyzed from 1985 and 200 reports from 1987, plus 100 reports from late 1987 and early 1988 that were selected because of possible association with fatigue. The FAA pilot <span class="hlt">deviation</span> data and incident data were analyzed in relation to denominator data that summarized the hourly operations (landings and takeoffs of scheduled flights) at major U.S. airports. Using as numerators FAA data on pilot <span class="hlt">deviations</span> and incidents reported to the FAA, the rates by time of day were calculated. Pilot age was also analyzed in relation to the time of day, phase of flight, and type of incident.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baker, Susan P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42000860"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviation</span> from reciprocity in bidirectional reflectance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The subject of the paper is to discuss and quantify <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from reciprocity of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), i.e., the difference of BRDF obtained when inverting illumination and viewing directions. Directional reciprocity is not valid in general, because when the illumination beam has a spatial extension larger than the viewed area (as is most often the case for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marc Leroy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://trs-new.jpl.nasa.gov/dspace/bitstream/2014/18056/1/99-1513.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in software quality by using relative critical value <span class="hlt">deviation</span> metrics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a new metric, relative critical value <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (RCVD), for classifying and predicting software quality. The RCVD is based on the concept that the extent to which a metric's value <span class="hlt">deviates</span> from its critical value, normalized by the scale of the metric, indicates the degree to which the item being measured does not conform to a specified norm. For</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Norman F. Schneidewind; A. P. Nikora</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870040493&hterms=remarks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dremarks"> <span id="translatedtitle">Galaxy distances and <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the Hubble flow - Summary remarks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A summary is presented of the issues addressed by the papers delivered at this conference. Papers addressing classical cosmological topics, including the distances to nearby objects, the intermediate scale distance determination, the local peculiar velocity, the local Hubble constant and other age parameters, and the density parameter from Virgo infall are reviewed. Papers discussing new cosmological developments, including <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale inhomogeneities, <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from Hubble flow, and the origin of the velocity and density inhomogeneities are briefly summarized. Prospects for the next 10 years are examined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ostriker, Jeremiah P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50892687"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correction and data processing for tooth surface <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of hypoid gear</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The correction and the data processing for tooth surface <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of hypoid gear are a key link to the realization of the digitized closed loop manufacture. Based on one-dimensional probe, the method of error compensation for hypoid gears is studied. By means of the <span class="hlt">principle</span> of the proportional correction of spiral bevel gears, the theory and the method of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tianxing Li; Xiaozhong Deng; Bingyang Wei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790048105&hterms=overpopulation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Doverpopulation"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from LTE in a stellar atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23935971"> <span id="translatedtitle">Note onset <span class="hlt">deviations</span> as musical piece signatures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset <span class="hlt">deviations</span>. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3729570"> <span id="translatedtitle">Note Onset <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> as Musical Piece Signatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset <span class="hlt">deviations</span>. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Serra, Joan; Ozaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760010311&hterms=slinger+seal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dslinger%2Bseal"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic sealing <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fundamental <span class="hlt">principles</span> governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these <span class="hlt">principles</span>. Despite the <span class="hlt">large</span> variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic <span class="hlt">principles</span>, or combinations of basic <span class="hlt">principles</span>, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these <span class="hlt">principles</span> are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zuk, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pasc.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pascal's <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site from HyperPhysics provides a description of Pascal's <span class="hlt">Principle</span>, which explains how pressure is transmitted in an enclosed fluid. Drawings and sample calculations are provided. Examples illustrating the <span class="hlt">principle</span> include a hydraulic press and an automobile hydraulic lift.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nave, Carl R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012FoPh...42.1056L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Buridan's <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Buridan's <span class="hlt">principle</span> asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the <span class="hlt">principle</span> could have serious consequences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lamport, Leslie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7275E...7P"> <span id="translatedtitle">2D design rule and layout analysis using novel <span class="hlt">large</span>-area first-<span class="hlt">principles</span>-based simulation flow incorporating lithographic and stress effects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As design rules and corresponding logic standard cell layouts continue to shrink node-on-node in accordance with Moore's law, complex 2D interactions, both intra-cell and between cells, become much more prominent. For example, in lithography, lack of scaling of ?/NA implies aggressive use of resolution enhancement techniques to meet logic scaling requirements-resulting in adverse effects such as 'forbidden pitches'-and also implies an increasing range of optical influence relative to cell size. These adverse effects are therefore expected to extend well beyond the cell boundary, leading to lithographic marginalities that occur only when a given cell is placed "in context" with other neighboring cells in a variable design environment [1]. This context dependence is greatly exacerbated by increased use of strain engineering techniques such as SiGe and dual-stress liners (DSL) to enhance transistor performance, both of which also have interaction lengths on the order of microns. The use of these techniques also breaks the formerly straightforward connection between lithographic 'shapes' and end-of-line electrical performance, thus making the formulation of design rules that are robust to process variations and complex 2D interactions more difficult. To address these issues, we have developed a first-<span class="hlt">principles</span>-based simulation flow to study contextdependent electrical effects in layout, arising not only from lithography, but also from stress and interconnect parasitic effects. This flow is novel in that it can be applied to relatively <span class="hlt">large</span> layout clips- required for context-dependent analysis-without relying on semi-empirical or 'black-box' models for the fundamental electrical effects. The first-<span class="hlt">principles</span>-based approach is ideal for understanding contextdependent effects early in the design phase, so that they can be mitigated through restrictive design rules. The lithographic simulations have been discussed elsewhere [1] and will not be presented in detail. The stress calculations are based on a finite-element method, extrapolated to mobility using internal algorithms. While these types of calculations are common in '1D' TCAD space, we have modified them to handle ~10 ?m X 10 ?m clips in reasonable runtime based on advances in software and optimization of computing resources, structural representations and simulation grids. In this paper, we discuss development and validation of the simulation flow, and show representative results of applying this flow to analyze context-dependent problems in a 32-nm low-power CMOS process. Validation of the flow was accomplished using a well-characterized 40/45-nm CMOS process incorporating both DSL and SiGe. We demonstrate the utility of this approach not only to establishing restrictive design rules for avoiding catastrophic context-dependent effects, but also to flag individual cells and identify cell design practices that exhibit unacceptable levels of context-dependent variability. We further show how understanding the sources of stress variation is vital to appropriately anchoring SPICE models to capture the impact of context-dependent electrical effects. We corroborate these simulations with data from electrical test structures specifically targeted to elucidate these effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prins, Steven L.; Blatchford, James; Olubuyide, Oluwamuyiwa; Riley, Deborah; Chang, Simon; Hong, Qi-Zhong; Kim, T. S.; Borges, Ricardo; Lin, Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720043970&hterms=standard+deviation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dstandard%2Bdeviation"> <span id="translatedtitle">Standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of scatterometer measurements from space.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fischer, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3435149"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perception via the <span class="hlt">Deviated</span> Eye in Strabismus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color (“red” or “blue”) revealed which eye’s image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the <span class="hlt">deviated</span> eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21039096"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviation</span> from {lambda}CDM: Pressure parametrization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most parametrizations for dark energy involve the equation of state w of the dark energy. In this work, we choose the pressure of the dark energy to parametrize. As p=constant essentially gives a cosmological constant, we use the Taylor expansion around this behavior p=-p{sub 0}+(1-a)p{sub 1}+... to study the small <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the cosmological constant. In our model, the departure from the cosmological constant behavior has been modeled by the presence of extra K-essence fields while keeping the cosmological constant term untouched. The model is similar to an assisted inflation scenario in a sense that for any higher order <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in terms of Taylor series expansion, one needs multiple K-essence fields. We have also tested our model with the recent observational data coming from Supernova type Ia measurements, the baryon oscillations peak (BAO), and the gas mass fraction of the galaxy clusters inferred from x-ray observations and obtain constraints for our model parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sen, A. A. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Davison&id=EJ867884"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> for <span class="hlt">Large</span>-Scale Classroom-Based Teacher Assessment of English Learners' Language: An Initial Framework from School-Based Assessment in Hong Kong</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Davison and Leung (this issue) describe the field of teacher-based English language assessment as having "much variability, a lack of systematic <span class="hlt">principles</span> and procedures and a dearth of information as to the impact of teacher-based assessments on learning and teaching" (p. 389). In this article, the author briefly explores an example of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamp-Lyons, Liz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learningcenter.nsta.org/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781935155058.32"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bernoulli's <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this lab, students will use a little background information about Bernoulli's <span class="hlt">principle</span> to figure out how the spinning of a moving ball affects its trajectory. The activity is inquiry in that students will be discovering this relationship on their own.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horton, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.teachengineering.org/view_lesson.php?url=collection/cub_/lessons/cub_bernoulli/cub_bernoulli_lesson01.xml"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bernoulli's <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bernoulli's <span class="hlt">principle</span> relates the pressure of a fluid to its elevation and its speed. Bernoulli's equation can be used to approximate these parameters in water, air or any fluid that has very low viscosity. Students learn about the relationships between the components of the Bernoulli equation through real-life engineering examples and practice problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/TRC/Rockets/rocket_principles.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rocket <span class="hlt">Principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On this site from the NASA Glenn Research Center Learning Technologies Project, the science and history of rocketry is explained. Visitors will find out how rocket <span class="hlt">principles</span> illustrate Newton's Laws of Motion. There is a second page of this site, Practical Rocketry, which discusses the workings of rockets, including propellants, engine thrust control, stability and control systems, and mass.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56125289"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radar <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The basic operating <span class="hlt">principles</span>, design, and applications of radars are discussed in an introductory text intended for first-year graduate students. Topics addressed include radar measurements, radar target cross sections, radar detection, ground effects, matched filters, ambiguity functions, coded radar signals, and radar measurement accuracy. Consideration is given to processing coherent pulse trains, moving-target indicators, CFAR, SAR, and monopulse antenna tracking.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nadav Levanon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930068778&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of stress on energy flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of ultrasonic waves in GR/EP composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in graphite/epoxy because of the <span class="hlt">large</span> anisotropy. The angle of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis (fiber axis) and the x1 for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as <span class="hlt">large</span> as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers a new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3018272"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the haptic and visual <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in a parallelity task</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> in both haptic and visual spatial experiments are thought to be caused by a biasing influence of an egocentric reference frame. The strength of this influence is strongly participant-dependent. By using a parallelity test, it is studied whether this strength is modality-independent. In both haptic and visual conditions, <span class="hlt">large</span>, systematic and participant-dependent <span class="hlt">deviations</span> were found. However, although the correlation between the haptic and visual <span class="hlt">deviations</span> was significant, the explained variance due to a common factor was only 20%. Therefore, the degree to which a participant is “egocentric” depends on modality and possibly even more generally, on experimental condition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schakel, Wouter B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.genetics.org/cgi/reprint/107/4/703.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">DEVIATIONS</span> FROM HARDY-WEINBERG PROPORTIONS: SAMPLING VARIANCES AND USE IN ESTIMATION OF INBREEDING COEFFICIENTS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis is made of the distribution of <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from Hardy-Weinberg proportions with k alleles and of estimates of inbreeding coefficients (f) ob- tained from these <span class="hlt">deviations</span>.-If f is small, the best estimate off in <span class="hlt">large</span> samples is shown to be 2x,(T.\\/N,)\\/(k - I), where T. is an unbiased measure of the excess of the ith homozygote and N, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ALAN ROBERTSON; WILLIAM G. HILL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2009-title7-vol6-sec400-204.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from standards.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2009-01-01 false Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from standards. 400.204 Section 400.204...Agency Sales and Service Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from standards. A Contractor shall...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol6-sec400-204.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from standards.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-01-01 false Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from standards. 400.204 Section 400.204...Agency Sales and Service Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from standards. A Contractor shall...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988wi...book.....L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radar <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The basic operating <span class="hlt">principles</span>, design, and applications of radars are discussed in an introductory text intended for first-year graduate students. Topics addressed include radar measurements, radar target cross sections, radar detection, ground effects, matched filters, ambiguity functions, coded radar signals, and radar measurement accuracy. Consideration is given to processing coherent pulse trains, moving-target indicators, CFAR, SAR, and monopulse antenna tracking. Extensive diagrams and graphs are provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levanon, Nadav</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910017301&hterms=ionospheric+observation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522ionospheric%2Bobservation%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radar <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler <span class="hlt">principle</span>, and velocity field measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sato, Toru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2798818"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in Parental and Unaffected Sibling Genotype Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Genotyping error can increase both type I and II errors. In order to elucidate potential genotyping errors, data quality control often includes testing genotype data for <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE). Methods The Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium (HWD) coefficient and the ability to reject the null hypothesis of HWE were calculated analytically for genotype data from parents and unaffected siblings of affected probands. Results Genotype data from parents and unaffected siblings display <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from HWE when functional or markers in LD with functional locus are tested. For the parental genotype data all <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from HWE are negative, indicating an excess of heterozygous genotypes with the strongest <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from HWE observed for the multiplicative model. In contrast, for affected proband genotype data, there is no <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from HWE under the multiplicative model and the <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from HWE for the recessive model are positive. For the unaffected sibling data, patterns of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from HWE are similar to those observed in the proband data with the exception of the multiplicative model where the HWD coefficient although close to 0 can be either positive or negative depending on the allele frequency. Conclusion <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from HWE in parental and unaffected sibling genotype data could be due to an association with the functional locus. However these <span class="hlt">deviations</span> for genotypic relative risk ?2.0 are not <span class="hlt">large</span> and therefore the power to detect them is usually low. Testing for <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from HWE in parental and unaffected sibling genotype data is still beneficial for quality control even though functional loci, in parental and unaffected sibling genotype data, can produce an association signal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Bingshan; Leal, Suzanne M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27051548"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frequency <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of thermal power plants due to wind farms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the results of a study on the frequency <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the utility grid due to wind power fluctuations. The <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is estimated by a deterministic method based on the transfer functions of system components. As the grid frequency is regulated, the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> can limit high wind power penetration. The research identifies speed governors as one key component</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Changling Luo; Boon-Teck Ooi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..84g5304S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visible-light absorption and <span class="hlt">large</span> band-gap bowing of GaN1-xSbx from first <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Applicability of the Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting water under visible light irradiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Lisenkov, Sergey; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Mahendra K.; Menon, Madhu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.140n4503M"> <span id="translatedtitle">First <span class="hlt">principles</span> calculation of a <span class="hlt">large</span> variation in dielectric tensor through the spin crossover in the CsFe[Cr(CN)6] Prussian blue analogue</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dielectric response of spin-crossover (SCO) materials is a key property facilitating their use in next-generation information processing technologies. Solid state hybrid density functional theory calculations show that the temperature-induced and strongly hysteretic SCO transition in the Cs+Fe2+[Cr3+(CN-)6] Prussian blue analogue (PBA) is associated with a <span class="hlt">large</span> change (?) in both the static, ??0(HS - LS), and high frequency, ???(HS - LS) dielectric constants. The SCO-induced variation in CsFe[Cr(CN)6] is significantly greater than the experimental ?? values observed previously in other SCO materials. The phonon contribution, ??phon(HS - LS), determined within a lattice dynamics approach, dominates over the clamped nuclei term, ???(HS - LS), and is in turn dominated by the low-frequency translational motions of Cs+ cations within the cubic voids of the Fe[Cr(CN)6]- framework. The Cs+ translational modes couple strongly to the <span class="hlt">large</span> unit cell volume change occurring through the SCO transition. PBAs and associated metal-organic frameworks emerge as a potentially fruitful class of materials in which to search for SCO transitions associated with <span class="hlt">large</span> changes in dielectric response and other macroscopic properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Middlemiss, Derek S.; Deeth, Robert J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24735301"> <span id="translatedtitle">First <span class="hlt">principles</span> calculation of a <span class="hlt">large</span> variation in dielectric tensor through the spin crossover in the CsFe[Cr(CN)?] Prussian blue analogue.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dielectric response of spin-crossover (SCO) materials is a key property facilitating their use in next-generation information processing technologies. Solid state hybrid density functional theory calculations show that the temperature-induced and strongly hysteretic SCO transition in the Cs(+)Fe(2+)[Cr(3+)(CN(-))6] Prussian blue analogue (PBA) is associated with a <span class="hlt">large</span> change (?) in both the static, ??(0)(HS - LS), and high frequency, ??(?)(HS - LS) dielectric constants. The SCO-induced variation in CsFe[Cr(CN)6] is significantly greater than the experimental ?? values observed previously in other SCO materials. The phonon contribution, ??(phon)(HS - LS), determined within a lattice dynamics approach, dominates over the clamped nuclei term, ??(?)(HS - LS), and is in turn dominated by the low-frequency translational motions of Cs(+) cations within the cubic voids of the Fe[Cr(CN)6](-) framework. The Cs(+) translational modes couple strongly to the <span class="hlt">large</span> unit cell volume change occurring through the SCO transition. PBAs and associated metal-organic frameworks emerge as a potentially fruitful class of materials in which to search for SCO transitions associated with <span class="hlt">large</span> changes in dielectric response and other macroscopic properties. PMID:24735301</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Middlemiss, Derek S; Deeth, Robert J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H24F..02O"> <span id="translatedtitle">On combination of strict Bayesian <span class="hlt">principles</span> with model reduction technique or how stochastic model calibration can become feasible for <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. Calibration on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for calibration are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian <span class="hlt">principles</span>. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model reduction. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of calibrated model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of accurate filtering become very feasible for our suggested aPC-based calibration framework. However, the power of aPC-based Bayesian updating strongly depends on the accuracy of prior information. In the current study, the prior assumptions on the model parameters were not satisfactory and strongly underestimate the reservoir pressure. Thus, the aPC-based response surface used in Bootstrap filtering is fitted to a distant and poorly chosen region within the parameter space. Thanks to the iterative procedure suggested in [2] we overcome this drawback with small computational costs. The iteration successively improves the accuracy of the expansion around the current estimation of the posterior distribution. The final result is a calibrated model of the site that can be used for further studies, with an excellent match to the data. References [1] Oladyshkin S. and Nowak W. Data-driven uncertainty quantification using the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 106:179-190, 2012. [2] Oladyshkin S., Class H., Nowak W. Bayesian updating via Bootstrap filtering combined with data-driven polynomial chaos expansions: methodology and application to history matching for carbon dioxide storage in geological formations. Computational Geosciences, 17 (4), 671-687, 2013.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040129649&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave <span class="hlt">deviates</span> from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. The energy flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite <span class="hlt">large</span> because of their high anisotropy. The flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Refraction&pg=6&id=EJ312596"> <span id="translatedtitle">Refraction in Terms of the <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> of the Light.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discusses refraction in terms of the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goldberg, Fred M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biochem.arizona.edu/classes/bioc565/cordes_files/lovell.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure validation by C? geometry: ?,? and C? <span class="hlt">deviation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geometrical validation around the C is described, with a new C measure and up- dated Ramachandran plot. <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> of the ob- served C atom from ideal position provides a single measure encapsulating the major structure-valida- tion information contained in bond angle distor- tions. C <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is sensitive to incompatibilities between sidechain and backbone caused by misfit conformations or inappropriate refinement</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simon C. Lovell; Ian W. Davis; W. Bryan Arendall; Paul I. W. de Bakker; J. Michael Word; Michael G. Prisant; Jane S. Richardson; David C. Richardson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol13-sec63-1965.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a <span class="hlt">deviation</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...63.1990. For the purposes of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, <span class="hlt">deviations</span> include the items in paragraphs...monitoring periods within the hour. (c) A <span class="hlt">deviation</span> occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site. [68 FR...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45439823"> <span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> between Observed and Theoretically Estimated Values on Additivity-Law Failures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors have reported in the previous studies that the average observed results are about a half of the corresponding predictions on the experiments with <span class="hlt">large</span> additivity-law failures. One of the reasons of the <span class="hlt">deviations</span> is studied and clarified by using the original observed data on additivity-law failures in the Nakano experiment. The conclusion from the observations and their analyses</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshinobu Nayatani; Hiroaki Sobagaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23984492"> <span id="translatedtitle">The precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span>: is it safe.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> is generally acknowledged to be a powerful tool for protecting health but it was originally invoked by policy makers for dealing with environmental issues. In the 1990s, the <span class="hlt">principle</span> was incorporated into many legislative and regulatory texts in international law. One can consider that the precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> has turned into "precautionism" necessary to prove to the people, taking account of risk in decisions. There is now a risk that these abuses will deprive the <span class="hlt">principle</span> of its meaning and value. When pushed to its limits, the precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> can even be dangerous when applied to the healthcare field. This is why a critical analysis of the <span class="hlt">principle</span> is necessary. Through the literature, it sometimes seems to <span class="hlt">deviate</span> somehow from the essence of the precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> as it is commonly used in relation to health. We believe that educational work is necessary to familiarize professionals, policy makers and public opinion of the precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> and avoid confusion. We propose a critical analysis of the use and misuse of the precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span>. PMID:23984492</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gignon, Maxime; Ganry, Olivier; Jardé, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24420640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic analysis of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from the undifferentiated state in colonies of human induced pluripotent stem cells on feeder layers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that govern unintentional differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provides key strategies to maintain their undifferentiated state during cell expansion. This study focused on <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from the undifferentiated state in hiPSC colonies during culture with feeder cells. <span class="hlt">Deviated</span> cells from the undifferentiated state of hiPSCs in cultures with SNL and MEF feeder cells were observed at the center and periphery of the colonies, respectively, accompanied by dramatic changes in the cell morphology from small to <span class="hlt">large</span> flattened shapes. It was found that the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of undifferentiated hiPSCs in culture with SNL feeder cells caused <span class="hlt">deviated</span> cells in the center of the colony through spontaneous occurrence in a colony size-dependent manner, whereas the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of undifferentiated hiPSCs in culture with MEF feeder cells caused <span class="hlt">deviated</span> cells in the periphery of the colonies through accidental events during migration in a colony size-independent manner. Based on a kinetic analysis of time-lapse images of single hiPSC colonies, the specific growth rate for replication of <span class="hlt">deviated</span> cells from the undifferentiated state in culture with SNL feeder cells was 1.83 and 3.57 times higher than those of undifferentiated cells and transformation, respectively, meaning that the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of undifferentiated hiPSCs dramatically expanded through replication of <span class="hlt">deviated</span> cells from the undifferentiated state and transformation once <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from the undifferentiated state had occurred. In the case of MEF feeder cells, the specific growth rates for replication of <span class="hlt">deviated</span> cells from the undifferentiated state was 3.12 times higher than that of undifferentiated cells, whereas the rate by transformation exhibited a negligible level compared with the rates of replication for undifferentiated cells and <span class="hlt">deviated</span> cells from undifferentiated state, meaning that <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of undifferentiated hiPSCs dramatically expanded only through replication of <span class="hlt">deviated</span> cells from the undifferentiated state. These results suggest that once <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has occurred in a colony, the <span class="hlt">deviated</span> cells from undifferentiated state undertake dramatic invasion to occupy the colony. Maintenance of the undifferentiated state in subcultures inevitably requires vigilant care to remove any colonies that include <span class="hlt">deviated</span> cells from the undifferentiated state. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1128-1138. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24420640</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Mee-Hae; Masuda, Eri; Kino-Oka, Masahiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770039590&hterms=Electromagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DElectromagnetism"> <span id="translatedtitle">Equivalence <span class="hlt">principles</span> and electromagnetism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The implications of the weak equivalence <span class="hlt">principles</span> are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span>) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span>. However, the Galileo <span class="hlt">principle</span> plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein <span class="hlt">principle</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ni, W.-T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12801895"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Cyberwarfare</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes some <span class="hlt">principles</span> of cyber- warfare. The <span class="hlt">principles</span> of warfare are well documented, but are not always applicable to cyber-warfare. Differences between cyberspace and the real world suggest some additional <span class="hlt">principles</span>. This is not intended to be a comprehensive listing of such <span class="hlt">principles</span> but suggestions leading toward discussion and dialogue. The current candidate list of <span class="hlt">principles</span> of cyber-warfare</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raymond C. Parks; David P. Duggan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol4-sec211-100.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; <span class="hlt">deviations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...<span class="hlt">deviations</span>. 211.100 Section 211.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.100 Written...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9127558"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computerized Inspection of Real Surfaces and Minimization of Their <span class="hlt">Deviations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method is developed for the minimization of gear tooth surface <span class="hlt">deviations</span> between theoretical and real surfaces for the improvement of precision of surface manufacture. Coordinate measurement machinery is used to determine a grid of surface coordinates....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. L. Litvin Y. Zhang C. Kuan R. F. Handschuh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Hassani%22&id=EJ910486"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Note on Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> and Standard Error</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many students confuse the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> 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showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol11-sec1724-52.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from RUS construction standards.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false Permitted <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from RUS construction standards. 1724.52...52 Permitted <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from RUS construction standards. The provisions... (2) Any <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from the RUS construction standards for...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18867592"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating inelastic collisions by the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> curve from Druyvesteyn distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In laser plasma, the real experimental electron energy distribution(EED) f <span class="hlt">deviates</span> from Druyveteyn distribution fD. This paper suggests that the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (f-fD) of Druyvesteyn distribution, instead of EEDS, can be used to show clearly some details of excitation and ionization of atoms(molecules), and also gives some examples of CO2, N2, He, Ne and Ar.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mingjiang Yang; Chaohua Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011291"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of estimators of standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> for hydrologic time series.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tasker, G. D.; Gilroy, E. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988ChPhL...5..109Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating inelastic collisions by the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> curve from Druyvesteyn distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In laser plasma, the real experimental electron energy distribution(EED) f <span class="hlt">deviates</span> from Druyveteyn distribution fD. This paper suggests that the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (f-fD) of Druyvesteyn distribution, instead of EEDS, can be used to show clearly some details of excitation and ionization of atoms(molecules), and also gives some examples of CO2, N2, He, Ne and Ar.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Mingjiang; Wang, Chaohua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0101739&hterms=prostate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dprostate"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bioreactor <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of <span class="hlt">large</span>, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MeScT..22k5104Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement errors caused by radius <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of base disc in double-disc instrument for measuring an involute</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A double-disc instrument for measuring an involute is introduced, whose measuring <span class="hlt">principle</span> is the same as the 'rolling artifact method' developed by PTB. In this paper, measurement error and generation length <span class="hlt">deviation</span> caused by radius <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the base disc are analyzed. In order to simplify the error compensation model and increase compensation accuracy, a new method, called the coordinate transformation method, is used to analyze measurement data, which can remove measurement errors caused by radius <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the base disc in theory. Two measurement experiments with different base discs prove the feasibility of the coordinate transformation method, and the consistency error of the measurements is 0.2 µm when the same involute tooth profile was measured.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhifeng, Lou; Liding, Wang; Xiaodong, Wang; Yong, Ma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvD..87l5021B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing the equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span> with unstable particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a framework to test the equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span> under conditions where the quantum aspects of nature cannot be neglected, specifically in the context of interference phenomena with unstable particles. We derive the nonrelativistic quantum equation that describes the evolution of the wave function of unstable particles under the assumption of the validity of the equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span> and when small <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are assumed to occur. As an example, we study the propagation of unstable particles in a COW experiment, and we briefly discuss the experimental implications of our formalism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bonder, Y.; Fischbach, E.; Hernandez-Coronado, H.; Krause, D. E.; Rohrbach, Z.; Sudarsky, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptEn..50b3001C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reflector design for <span class="hlt">large</span>-size spherical surface sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a novel method for designing reflectors with <span class="hlt">large</span>-size spherical surface sources. The center portion of the reflector is designed using the edge-ray <span class="hlt">principle</span>, while the rim portion is designed based on the variable-separation mapping method. Step discontinuities are introduced during rim surface construction to control the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> caused by error in normal vectors, and a feedback modification is adopted to compensate for the illuminance <span class="hlt">deviation</span> produced by the <span class="hlt">large</span> size of sources. As an example, a streetlamp with a desired rectangular illuminance distribution on the road is designed using a spherical surface source (10 cm diam) and a compact reflector. It has an illuminance uniformity of 60.2% and utilance of 66.9%, considerably improved from the traditional values of 35 and 40%, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cao, Liangliang; Luo, Yi; Han, Yanjun; Feng, Zexin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121063&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Stress on Energy Flux <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> of Ultrasonic Waves in Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in graphite/epoxy because of the <span class="hlt">large</span> anisotropy. The angle of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis fiber axis) and the x1 axis for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as <span class="hlt">large</span> as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790018901&hterms=cross+country&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522cross%2Bcountry%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">A study of course <span class="hlt">deviations</span> during cross-country soaring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several models are developed for studying the impact of <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from course during cross country soaring flights. Analyses are performed at the microstrategy and macrostrategy levels. Two types of lift sources are considered: concentrated thermals and thermal streets. The sensitivity of the optimum speed solutions to various model, piloting and performance parameters is evaluated. Guides are presented to provide the pilot with criterions for making in-flight decisions. In general, course <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are warranted during weak lift conditions, but are less justifiable with moderate to strong lift conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sliwa, S. M.; Sliwa, D. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39249692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal network anomaly detection by assessing <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of empirical measures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce an Internet traffic anomaly detection mechanism based on <span class="hlt">large</span> <span class="hlt">deviations</span> results for empirical measures. Using past traffic traces we characterize network traffic during various time-of-day intervals, assuming that it is anomaly-free. We present two different approaches to characterize traffic: (i) a model-free approach based on the method of types and Sanov's theorem, and (ii) a model-based approach modeling</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ioannis Ch. Paschalidis; Georgios Smaragdakis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ionia.bu.edu/Publications/papers/anomaly-TNET-09.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal network anomaly detection by assessing <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of empirical measures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce an Internet traffic anomaly detec- tion mechanism based on <span class="hlt">large</span> <span class="hlt">deviations</span> results for empirical measures. Using past traffic traces we characterize network traffic during various time-of-day intervals, assuming that it is anomaly-free. We present two different approaches to characterize traffic: (i) a model-free approach based on the method of types and Sanov's theorem, and (ii) a model-based approach</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ioannis Ch. Paschalidis; Georgios Smaragdakis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhLA..373.2935A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from isothermality of ions on the propagation of localized dust-acoustic waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from isothermality of ions on arbitrary amplitude dust-acoustic solitary structures is studied in an unmagnetized dusty plasma which consists of a negative charged dust fluid, free electrons and hot ions obeying a trapped distribution. For the finite <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from isothermality of ions, the basic properties of <span class="hlt">large</span> amplitude solitary waves are studied by employing pseudo-potential approach. It is shown that the effect of such ion behavior changes the maximum values of the Mach number and the amplitude for which solitary wave can exist. For the case that the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from isothermality due to nonlinear resonant particle effects is small, calculations by reductive perturbation method leads to a generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation with mixed nonlinearity. The latter admits a stationary dust-acoustic solitary solution with similar width and qualitatively different amplitude in comparison to the case that <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from isothermality are finite. Furthermore, effects of the equilibrium free electron density and such trapped ions on the amplitude of solitary structures imply a non-uniform transition from the Boltzmann ion distribution to the trapped ion one.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alinejad, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1835758"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automatic white balancing using standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of RGB components</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A good automatic white balancing algorithm is an essential image pre-processing component in consumer digital still cameras, and it can greatly improve the final image quality. In this paper, an automatic white balancing algorithm based on the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of RGB components of the pre-captured image is proposed. A light source model for evaluation of an automatic white balancing is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hong-kwai Lam; Oscar C. Au; Chi-wah Wong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1311850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual <span class="hlt">deviations</span> by audiotaped descriptions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual <span class="hlt">deviates</span>. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36898056"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aversion therapy for sexual <span class="hlt">deviation</span>: Contingent shock and covert sensitization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studied 2 different aversion therapy approaches to the treatment of sexual <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (e.g., homosexuality) in 6 clinical referrals. Covert sensitization, which provides an imagined aversive event following imagined sexual behavior, was compared with contingent shock, which provides a physical aversive event following erection to slides depicting sexually deviant material. Replicated, counterbalanced within-S presentations of each technique were used. Treatment effects</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edward J. Callahan; Harold Leitenberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=power+AND+electronics+AND+projects&pg=3&id=EJ801528"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mini-Muddling: Learning from Project Plan <span class="hlt">Deviations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the informal and incidental learning that takes place in project work among individuals who must adapt to <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from project plans. Design/methodology/approach: Reflections in the study are built on four power plant projects found in an integrated provider of projects of this…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hallgren, Markus; Wilson, Timothy L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008OptEL...4...45R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical vibration and <span class="hlt">deviation</span> measurement of rotating machine parts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is of interest to get appropriate information about the dynamic behaviour of rotating machinery parts in service. This paper presents an approach of optical vibration and <span class="hlt">deviation</span> measurement of such parts. Essential of this method is an image derotator combined with a high speed camera or a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reithmeier, Eduard; Mirzaei, Sahar; Kasyanenko, Natallia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.princeton.edu/~aaradill/powell_1984.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Least absolute <span class="hlt">deviations</span> estimation for the censored regression model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes an alternative to maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of the censored regression (or censored 'Tobit') model. The proposed estimator is a generalization of least absolute <span class="hlt">deviations</span> estimation for the standard linear model, and, unlike estimation methods based on the assumption of normally distributed error terms, the estimator is consistent and asymptoti- cally normal for a wide</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James L. Powell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28778726"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dissociated vertical <span class="hlt">deviation</span>: Etiology, mechanism, and associated phenomena</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The etiology and mechanism of dissociated vertical <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (DVD) are explored. Methods: In 6 young adults with DVD, the simultaneous horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements for both eyes were recorded by using dual-coil scleral search coils. Analysis of the simultaneous vertical and torsional movements that occurred during the DVD response identified the primary muscles acting in the vergences</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David L. Guyton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reduce+AND+sample+AND+size&pg=4&id=EJ757695"> <span id="translatedtitle">Some Posterior Standard <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> in Item Response Theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The procedures required to obtain the approximate posterior standard <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of the parameters in the three commonly used item response models for dichotomous items are described and used to generate values for some common situations. The results were compared with those obtained from maximum likelihood estimation. It is shown that the use of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Seock-Ho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5630791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bahadur representations for the median absolute <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and its modifications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The median absolute <span class="hlt">deviation</span> about the median (MAD) is an important univariate spread measure having wide appeal due to its highly robust sample version. A powerful tool in treating the asymptotics of a statistic is a linearization, i.e., a Bahadur representation. Here we establish both strong and weak Bahadur representations for the sample MAD. The strong version is the first</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Satyaki Mazumder; Robert Serfling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EL....10654002R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Babinet's <span class="hlt">principle</span> in double-refraction systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Babinet's <span class="hlt">principle</span> applied to systems with double refraction is shown to involve spatial interchanges between the ordinary and extraordinary patterns observed through two complementary screens. As in the case of metamaterials, the extraordinary beam does not follow the Snell-Descartes refraction law, the superposition <span class="hlt">principle</span> has to be applied simultaneously at two points. Surprisingly, by contrast to the intuitive impression, in the presence of the screen with an opaque region, we observe that the emerging extraordinary photon pattern, which however has undergone a <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, remains fixed when a natural birefringent crystal is rotated while the ordinary one rotates with the crystal. The twofold application of Babinet's <span class="hlt">principle</span> implies intensity and polarization interchanges but also spatial and dynamic interchanges which should occur in birefringent metamaterials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ropars, Guy; Le Floch, Albert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JSASS..54..210K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variational <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Extensible Elastica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An extensible elastica is a rigorous mathematical model of the Bernoulli-Euler beam whose cross-sections remain plane and normal to the axis after deformations. The <span class="hlt">principle</span> of virtual work for the extensible elastica expressed in terms of the normal strain and rotation of the axis is derived from the <span class="hlt">principle</span> of virtual work in the three-dimensional elasticity. And it is shown that the derived <span class="hlt">principle</span> yields the exact equilibrium equations for a beam in the <span class="hlt">large</span> deformations and rotations. Utilizing linear constitutive equations, we get the theorem of stationary potential energy expressed also in terms of the axial strain and rotation. And, from the Trefftz criterion on the second variation of the potential energy, we get the buckling equations for the extensible elastica, which give the buckling load higher than the Euler load for a cantilever elastica subjected to compressive end load.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kondo, Kyohei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820009047&hterms=CeCl&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCeCl"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of project management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The basic <span class="hlt">principles</span> of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These <span class="hlt">principles</span> are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aspirin&pg=3&id=EJ075205"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">Principls</span> Exemplified</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating <span class="hlt">principles</span> of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating <span class="hlt">principles</span> of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plumb, Robert C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2003102077"> <span id="translatedtitle">Questioning the Equivalence <span class="hlt">Principle</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Equivalence <span class="hlt">Principle</span> (EP) is not one of the 'universal' <span class="hlt">principles</span> of physics (like the Action <span class="hlt">Principle</span>). It is a heuristic hypothesis which was introduced by Einstein in 1907, and used by him to construct his theory of General Relativity. In modern...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Damour</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55622766"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of plasma diagnostics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Plasma Diagnostics provides a detailed derivation and discussion of the plasma physics <span class="hlt">principles</span> on which diagnostics are base, including magnetic measurements, electric probes, refractive index, radiation emission and scattering, and ionic processes. The text is based on first-<span class="hlt">principles</span> development of the required concepts and includes examples of diagnostics in action taken from fusion research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ian H. Hutchinson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=phase+AND+kinetics&pg=3&id=EJ026116"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">Principles</span> Exemplified</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical <span class="hlt">principles</span>. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating <span class="hlt">principles</span> of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating <span class="hlt">principles</span> of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plumb, Robert C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19975270"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconsidering Archimedes' <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Archimedes' <span class="hlt">principle</span> as stated originally by Archimedes and in modern texts can lead to an incorrect prediction if the submerged object is in contact with a solid surface. In this paper we look experimentally at a submerged object and show that though the theoretical explanations of the <span class="hlt">principle</span> are valid, the statement of the <span class="hlt">principle</span> needs clarification.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeffrey Bierman; Eric Kincanon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5680162"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of barite sag important in <span class="hlt">deviated</span> drilling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Very low shear rate and oscillation rheometry techniques provide insight into the properties of drilling fluids that are associated with barite sag observed during drilling operations. This paper provides detailed study of the rheological behavior of four field muds completed with a controlled-stress rheometer. The techniques verified that detailed rheological studies of muds are needed to explain barite sag. Barite sag can be the source of severe drilling and well control problems during the drilling of <span class="hlt">deviated</span> wells. In a <span class="hlt">deviated</span> well this phenomenon results from the gravitationally induced settling of the barite to form either a density gradient or a barite sedimentation bed. Barite sag results if the rheological properties of the drilling fluid are inadequate to keep the weighting agent suspended. Improved rheological characterization of drilling fluids leads to a better understanding of barite sag and to the improvement of fluid properties that prevent sag.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saasen, A.; Marken, C.; Sterri, N. (Rogaland Research, Stavanger (NO)); Jakobsen, J. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Tananger (NO))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-08-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhLB..675...18K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar radiation pressure and <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from Keplerian orbits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, potentially rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5394932"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors contributing to cement sheath deposition in casing under highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> well conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deposition of a cement sheath inside 9 5/8-in. intermediate casings cemented in highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> North Sea wells often required reaming before drilling operations could be resumed. Attempts to remove or prevent solids deposition by means of additional wiper plugs, flushes, or flow-rate variation were ineffective and led to a laboratory investigation of the factors contributing to the cement sheath formation in highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> wells. The laboratory study was conducted in a <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale cement-displacement test facility previously used in similar investigations to simulate field conditions in scale-model proportions with actual field operation pumping equipment, materials, and techniques. This paper describes the identification of cement sheath deposition through case histories, test facilities, conditions, and results and indicates a satisfactory resolution for this problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sabins, F.L.; Smith, R.C.; Broussard, M.D.; Talbot, K.J.; Olaussen, S.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3328046"> <span id="translatedtitle">Limit theory for moderate <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from a unit root</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An asymptotic theory is given for autoregressive time series with a root of the form ?n=1+c\\/kn, which represents moderate <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from unity when (kn)n?N is a deterministic sequence increasing to infinity at a rate slower than n, so that kn=o(n) as n??. For c0, the results provide a nkn rate of convergence and asymptotic normality for the first order serial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Charles Bonest PHILLIPS; Tassos Magadalinos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ecice06.com/qikan/manage/wenzhang/0817-18b.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Outlier Detection Algorithm Based on Local <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> Factor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">?Abstract?Outlier detection is a hot research field in knowledge discovery in databases, such as credit card fraud, and intrusion detection, etc. Finding the rare abnormal,behaviors or the outliers can be more,interesting than finding the common,patterns. This paper proposes a new outlier detection algorithm based on Local <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> Factor(LDF). This algorithm counts the number of eachpoint’s LDF to reflect its isolation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">TAN Qing; ZHANG Rui-ling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/193113"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geodesics and geodesic <span class="hlt">deviation</span> for impulsive gravitational waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The geometry of impulsive pp-waves is explored via the analysis of the\\u000ageodesic and geodesic <span class="hlt">deviation</span> equation using the distributional form of the\\u000ametric. The geodesic equation involves formally ill-defined products of\\u000adistributions due to the nonlinearity of the equations and the presence of the\\u000aDirac $\\\\de$-distribution in the space time metric. Thus, strictly speaking, it\\u000acannot be treated within</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roland Steinbauer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012699"> <span id="translatedtitle">OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT <span class="hlt">DEVIATIONS</span> FROM DARCY'S LAW.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olsen, Harold, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16474816"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moderate <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> of Dependent Random Variables Related to CLT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper consists of three-parts. In the first-part, we find a common condition-the $C^2$ regularity--both for CLT and for moderate <span class="hlt">deviations</span>. We show that this condition is verified in two important situations: the Lee-Yang theorem case and the FKG system case. In the second part, we apply the previous results to the additive functionals of a Markov process. By means</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu Liming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15489020"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human sensorimotor tracking of continuous subliminal <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from isochrony.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We show that people continuously react to time perturbations in the range 3-96 ms in otherwise isochronous sound sequences. Musically trained and untrained participants were asked to synchronize with a sequence of sounds, and these two groups performed almost equally below the threshold for conscious detection of the perturbations. Above this threshold the motor reactions accounted for a larger proportion of the stimulus <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in musically trained participants. PMID:15489020</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madison, Guy; Merker, Björn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.apsarchive.org/resource.cfm?submissionID=2657&BEN=1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explorations in statistics: standard <span class="hlt">deviations</span> and standard errors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in Advances in Physiology Education provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle with which to explore basic concepts in statistics, I provide the requisite R commands. In this inaugural paper we explore the essential distinction between standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and standard error: a standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> estimates the variability among sample observations whereas a standard error of the mean estimates the variability among theoretical sample means. If we fail to report the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, then we fail to fully report our data. Because it incorporates information about sample size, the standard error of the mean is a misguided estimate of variability among observations. Instead, the standard error of the mean provides an estimate of the uncertainty of the true value of the population mean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">PhD Douglas Curran-Everett (National Jewish Medical and Research Center Div. Biostatistics, Depts. Prev. Med./Biometrics, Physiology/Biophys)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1957909"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visual-evoked cortical potentials in dissociated vertical <span class="hlt">deviation</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is debatable whether chiasmatic misrouting of temporal optic-nerve fibers (similar to that found in ocular albinism) is also characteristic of dissociated vertical <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. Pattern appearance, pattern reversal, and diffuse-flash, monocular full-field visual-evoked cortical potentials were recorded from albino and normal human subjects and subjects with dissociated vertical <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. Pattern appearance was the most reliable stimulus for evaluating lateralization (albino-type misrouting) in adult albino patients, and diffuse-flash stimulation was almost as reliable in children. Pattern reversal was found to be an unreliable indicator. Lateralization was not evident among patients with dissociated vertical <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, as determined by the three modes of stimulation. Our data supported earlier findings that pattern appearance is the most appropriate technique to detect lateralization. Our findings differed from those of previous reports in demonstrating that reliability of the lateralization phenomenon increases with age up to approximately 15 years. Pattern reversal stimulation was not reliable in patients with horizontal nystagmus. PMID:1957909</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zubcov, A A; Fendick, M G; Gottlob, I; Wizov, S S; Reinecke, R D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4801843"> <span id="translatedtitle">How T-cells use <span class="hlt">large</span> <span class="hlt">deviations</span> to recognize foreign antigens</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A stochastic model for the activation of T-cells is analysed. T-cells are part of the immune system and recognize foreign antigens against a background of the body's own molecules. The model under consideration is a slight generalization of a model introduced by Van den Berg, Rand and Burroughs in 2001, and is capable of explaining how this recognition works on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Natali Zint; Ellen Baake; Frank den Hollander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16139216"> <span id="translatedtitle">How T-cells use <span class="hlt">large</span> <span class="hlt">deviations</span> to recognize foreign antigens</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A stochastic model for the activation of T-cells is analysed. T-cells are part of the immune system and recognize foreign\\u000a antigens against a background of the body’s own molecules. The model under consideration is a slight generalization of a model\\u000a introduced by Van den Berg et al. (J Theor Biol 209:465–486, 2001), and is capable of explaining how this recognition</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Natali Zint; Ellen Baake; Frank den Hollander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52441209"> <span id="translatedtitle">COMMUNICATIONS OF THE MOSCOW MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY: Probabilities of <span class="hlt">large</span> <span class="hlt">deviations</span> for Gaussian vector processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. L. Mikhaleva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55132297"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synchronization of Stochastically Coupled Oscillators: Dynamical Phase Transitions and <span class="hlt">Large</span> <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> Theory (or Birds and Frogs)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Systems of oscillators coupled non-linearly (stochastically or not) are ubiquitous in nature and can explain many complex phenomena: coupled Josephson junction arrays, cardiac pacemaker cells, swarms or flocks of insects and birds, etc. They are know to have a non-trivial phase diagram, which includes chaotic, partially synchronized, and fully synchronized phases. A traditional model for this class of problems is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Razvan Teodorescu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA249185"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Large</span> <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> Rate and Central Limit Theorem for Horton Ratios. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although originating in hydrology, the classical Horton analysis is based on a geometric progression that is widely used in the empirical analysis of branching patterns found in biology, atmospheric science, plant pathology, etc., and more recently in tre...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. X. Wang E. C. Waymire</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA187436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear Filtering and <span class="hlt">Large</span> <span class="hlt">Deviations</span>: A PDE-Control Theoretic Approach,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the asymptotic nonlinear filtering problem dx = f(x) dt + sq. rt. epsilon, dy = h(x) dt + sq. rt. epsilon, and obtain the limit as epsilon approaches 0 of epsilon log (q(xt) to the epsilon power) = - W(x, t) for unnormalised conditional densit...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. R. James J. S. Baras</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1641148"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance prediction methodology for biometric systems using a <span class="hlt">large</span> <span class="hlt">deviations</span> approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the selection of biometrics for use in a recognition system and in the subsequent design of the system, the predicted performance is a key consideration. The realizations of the biometric signatures or vectors of features extracted from the signatures can be modeled as realizations of random processes. These random processes and the resulting distributions on the measurements determine bounds</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. A. Schmid; J. A. O'Sullivan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=61351"> <span id="translatedtitle">Driving Toward Guiding <span class="hlt">Principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As health care moves from paper to electronic data collection, providing easier access and dissemination of health information, the development of guiding privacy, confidentiality, and security <span class="hlt">principles</span> is necessary to help balance the protection of patients' privacy interests against appropriate information access. A comparative review and analysis was done, based on a compilation of privacy, confidentiality, and security <span class="hlt">principles</span> from many sources. <span class="hlt">Principles</span> derived from ten identified sources were compared with each of the compiled <span class="hlt">principles</span> to assess support level, uniformity, and inconsistencies. Of 28 compiled <span class="hlt">principles</span>, 23 were supported by at least 50 percent of the sources. Technology could address at least 12 of the <span class="hlt">principles</span>. Notable consistencies among the <span class="hlt">principles</span> could provide a basis for consensus for further legislative and organizational work. It is imperative that all participants in our health care system work actively toward a viable resolution of this information privacy debate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buckovich, Suzy A.; Rippen, Helga E.; Rozen, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec21-14.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 21.14 - <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from standard organization of the Code...Numbering § 21.14 <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from standard organization of the Code...Regulations. (a) Any <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from standard Code of Federal...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Important+AND+Discoveries&pg=6&id=EJ912896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teaching Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> by Building from Student Invention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics <span class="hlt">principles</span> and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTPE.129.1081D"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Fuzzy Based Coordinated Control Method for Isolated Power Utility Connected Multiple PV Systems to Reduce Frequency <span class="hlt">Deviations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A PV system output is not constant and varies depending on climate conditions. Varying PV power causes frequency <span class="hlt">deviations</span> and decrease in reliability of the isolated power utility when <span class="hlt">large</span> PV power from multiple PV systems is fed in the utility. In this paper, to overcome this problem, a simple coordinated control method based on fuzzy reasoning is proposed to reduce the frequency <span class="hlt">deviations</span>. Here, the power command is formed in two steps: central and local. Fuzzy control is applied to produce the central power command considering average insolation, change of insolation, and frequency <span class="hlt">deviations</span>. In the local step, a simple coordination is kept between the central power command and the local power commands by producing a common tuning factor. The proposed method is compared with the method where extracted maximum power is supplied to the utility without coordination. Simulation results show that the proposed method is feasible to reduce the frequency <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of the isolated power utility and delivers PV power near the maximum PV power. Usually, to reduce frequency <span class="hlt">deviations</span>, PV power is smoothed; however, propose method reduces the frequency <span class="hlt">deviation</span> without smoothing of the PV power variations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Datta, Manoj; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi; Funabashi, Toshihisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol6-sec400-174.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from financial standards.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from financial standards. 400.174 Section...Reinsurance Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations...174 Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from financial standards. An insurer...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title7-vol6/pdf/CFR-2009-title7-vol6-sec400-174.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from financial standards.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from financial standards. 400.174 Section...Reinsurance Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations...174 Notification of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from financial standards. An insurer...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48352803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Architecture <span class="hlt">Principle</span> Specifications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a This chapter is concerned with the specification of architecture <span class="hlt">principles</span>. The focus of this chapter is on the specification\\u000a itself, and not on the process of specifying. It shows how architectural information, such as architecture <span class="hlt">principles</span>, can\\u000a be classified in multiple dimensions. Specifically, architecture <span class="hlt">principles</span> can be classified along the dimensions: type of\\u000a information, scope, genericity, detail level, stakeholder, transformation,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Danny Greefhorst; Erik Proper</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940011077&hterms=breakdown+strength&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dbreakdown%2Bstrength"> <span id="translatedtitle">Altitude <span class="hlt">deviations</span>: Breakdowns of an error-tolerant system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pilot reports of aviation incidents to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) provide a window on the problems occurring in today's airline cockpits. The narratives of 10 pilot reports of errors made in the automation-assisted altitude-change task are used to illustrate some of the issues of pilots interacting with automatic systems. These narratives are then used to construct a description of the cockpit as an information processing system. The analysis concentrates on the error-tolerant properties of the system and on how breakdowns can occasionally occur. An error-tolerant system can detect and correct its internal processing errors. The cockpit system consists of two or three pilots supported by autoflight, flight-management, and alerting systems. These humans and machines have distributed access to clearance information and perform redundant processing of information. Errors can be detected as <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from either expected behavior or as <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from expected information. Breakdowns in this system can occur when the checking and cross-checking tasks that give the system its error-tolerant properties are not performed because of distractions or other task demands. Recommendations based on the analysis for improving the error tolerance of the cockpit system are given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, Everett A.; Hutchins, Edwin L.; Ritter, Richard D.; Vancleemput, Inge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20979440"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from the local field approximation in negative streamer heads</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Negative streamer ionization fronts in nitrogen under normal conditions are investigated both in a particle model and in a fluid model in local field approximation. The parameter functions for the fluid model are derived from swarm experiments in the particle model. The front structure on the inner scale is investigated in a one-dimensional setting, allowing reasonable run time and memory consumption and high numerical accuracy without introducing superparticles. If the reduced electric field immediately before the front is {<=}50 kV/(cm bar), solutions of fluid and particle model agree very well. If the field increases up to 200 kV/(cm bar), the solutions of particle and fluid model <span class="hlt">deviate</span>, in particular, the ionization level behind the front becomes up to 60% higher in the particle model while the velocity is rather insensitive. Particle and fluid model <span class="hlt">deviate</span> because electrons with high energies do not yet fully run away from the front, but are somewhat ahead. This leads to increasing ionization rates in the particle model at the very tip of the front. The energy overshoot of electrons in the leading edge of the front actually agrees quantitatively with the energy overshoot in the leading edge of an electron swarm or avalanche in the same electric field.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li Chao; Brok, W. J. M.; Ebert, Ute; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M. [Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI), P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI), P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam. Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven. Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhFl...26e1702G"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from parallel shear flow as an indicator of linear eddy-viscosity model inaccuracy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A marker function designed to indicate in which regions of a generic flow field the results from linear eddy-viscosity turbulence models are plausibly inaccurate is introduced. The marker is defined to identify regions that <span class="hlt">deviate</span> from parallel shear flow. For two different flow fields it is shown that these regions <span class="hlt">largely</span> coincide with regions where the prediction of the Reynolds stress divergence is inaccurate. The marker therefore offers a guideline for interpreting results obtained from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations and provides a basis for the further development of turbulence model-form uncertainty quantification methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorlé, C.; Larsson, J.; Emory, M.; Iaccarino, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=MBR&pg=2&id=EJ327027"> <span id="translatedtitle">Instructional Software Design <span class="hlt">Principles</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discusses learner/computer interaction, learner control, sequencing of instructional events, and graphic screen design as effective <span class="hlt">principles</span> for the design of instructional software, including tutorials. (MBR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hazen, Margret</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985AmJPh..53..335R"> <span id="translatedtitle">The anthropic <span class="hlt">principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The anthropic <span class="hlt">principle</span> states that the fact of existence of intelligent beings may be a valid explanation of why the universe and laws of physics are as they are. The origin and some of the deeper implications of the <span class="hlt">principle</span> are investigated. The discussion involves considerations of physics and metaphysics, unified schemes and holism, the nature of physical explanation, realism and idealism, and symmetry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosen, Joe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/pauli.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pauli Exclusion <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This tutorial provides instruction on Pauli's exclusion <span class="hlt">principle</span>, formulated by physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, which states that no two electrons in an atom can have identical quantum numbers. Topics include a mathematical statement of the <span class="hlt">principle</span>, descriptions of some of its applications, and its role in ionic and covalent bonding, nuclear shell structure, and nuclear binding energy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nave, Rod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hamilton&pg=4&id=EJ829405"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hamilton's <span class="hlt">Principle</span> for Beginners</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's <span class="hlt">principle</span>, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted <span class="hlt">principle</span>: that of a free particle moving along a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brun, J. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59943339"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global Ethics and <span class="hlt">Principlism</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-<span class="hlt">principles</span> approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-<span class="hlt">principles</span> approach is a good model for a global bioethics by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John-Stewart Gordon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4005173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment <span class="hlt">Principles</span> and Tools</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Competence can only be determined by appropriately assessing resident performance. There are accepted guiding <span class="hlt">principles</span> that should be applied to competence assessment methods. These <span class="hlt">principles</span> are enumerated herein and ophthalmology-specific assessment tools that are available are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Golnik, Karl C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mapping&pg=6&id=EJ839268"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principled</span> Grammar Teaching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A key aspect of the acquisition of grammar for second language learners involves learning how to make appropriate connections between grammatical forms and the meanings which they typically signal. We argue that learning form/function mappings involves three interrelated <span class="hlt">principles</span>. The first is the Given-to-New <span class="hlt">Principle</span>, where existing world…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Batstone, Rob; Ellis, Rod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53311969"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variation <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Hydrodynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that the Lagrangian equations for the motion of both incompressible and compressible fluids can be derived from variation <span class="hlt">principles</span>. As has been pointed out by C. C. Lin, an important feature of these <span class="hlt">principles</span> is the boundary condition: The coordinates of each particle (and not merely the normal component of its velocity) must be specified. A systematic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carl Eckart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1960-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/421525"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrocardiographic axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in Navajo and Apache indians.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been our clinical impression that the range of the mean frontal-plane electrocardiographic QRS axis was greater than might have been anticipated in healthy Navajo and Apache Indians. To determine whether this clinical impression was correct, electrocardiograms were obtained from 146 Navajo, 144 Apache, and 159 non-Navajo non-Apache schoolchildren with normal findings on cardiovascular examinations. A mean frontal-plane QRS axis between -1 degrees and -90 degrees was present in 19 percent of the Navajo, 12 percent of the Apache, and 2 percent of the control schoolchildren. A mean frontal-plane QRS axis between +91 degrees and +180 degrees was present in 18 percent of the Navajo, 19 percent of the Apache, and 5 percent of the control schoolchildren. There is a high incidence of electrocardiographic mean frontal-plane QRS axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in healthy Navajo and Apache schoolchildren. PMID:421525</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ewy, G A; Okada, R D; Marcus, F I; Goldberg, S J; Phibbs, B P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3330636"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of Consistency and <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> in Therapists' Countertransference Feelings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The author addressed the question of consistency in psychotherapists' countertransference feelings. Research findings have indicated that the therapist's own personal feeling style may be more important than the patient's impact on the therapist's feelings. In this study, the feelings of 9 psychotherapists toward 28 patients were followed by using checklist self-report after each session during moderately long psychotherapies. ANOVAs and discriminant analyses showed that the therapists were very consistent in their feeling style over different patients and over time. The consistency in feelings toward the individual patients was smaller. <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from consistency are analyzed, and their importance for the understanding of different aspects of the countertransference is discussed. It is suggested that a meaningful use of the countertransference concept ought to be based on systematic identifications of recurrent and deviant patterns in the therapist's reactions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holmqvist, Rolf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21325348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mach's holographic <span class="hlt">principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mach's <span class="hlt">principle</span> is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's <span class="hlt">principle</span>. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection <span class="hlt">principle</span> is applied to their solutions; Mach's <span class="hlt">principle</span> is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in <span class="hlt">principle</span>, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khoury, Justin [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Center for Particle Cosmology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Parikh, Maulik [Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Pune 411007 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100003002&hterms=energetic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Denergetic"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Principle</span> of Energetic Consistency</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the <span class="hlt">principle</span> of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the <span class="hlt">principle</span> of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a <span class="hlt">large</span>, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The <span class="hlt">principle</span> of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the <span class="hlt">principle</span> of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The <span class="hlt">principle</span> of energetic consistency implies that, to precisely the extent that growing modes are important in data assimilation, this term is also important.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cohn, Stephen E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8416E..2AZ"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two-dimensional of uniform irradiation on target with the use of the concentricity <span class="hlt">deviation</span> lens arrays focus system of variable focus length</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An optical system consisted of lens array with variable focus width has been proposed for providing uniform irradiation on targets in inertial confinement fusion. This system was composed of two lenses arrays and the aspheric lens. Based on the adaxial matrix optics and the generalized diffraction integral theory, the <span class="hlt">principle</span> of controllable focus profile was analyzed and the optimum design of the system parameters were presented, respectively. The simulated results showed that two-dimensional uniform focusing of laser beams with controllable width in the range of several hundred microns to several millimeters can be achieved by choosing appropriate system parameters. The system converted a circular laser beam into a flat-top square focused spot, presenting the transformation of beamshape and the uniform distribution of the spatial intensity at the same time. Appropriate concentricity <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of LA was made in the design of LA focus system, so that the diffraction patterns of different beamlets did not completely overlap and the <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale intensity fluctuation reduced effectively, and a well-irradiated laser spot and great energy efficiency can be obtained in this scheme.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zheng, Jian-zhou; Yu, Qing-xu; Lu, Yong-jun; Guan, Shou-hua; Dong, Bin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23208755"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel "Integrated Biomarker Response" calculation based on reference <span class="hlt">deviation</span> concept.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multi-biomarker approaches are used to assess ecosystem health and identify impacts of environmental stress on organisms. However, exploration of <span class="hlt">large</span> datasets by environmental managers represents a major challenge for regulatory application of this tool. Several integrative tools were developed to summarize biomarker responses. The aim of the present paper is to update calculation of the "Integrated Biological Response" (IBR) described by Beliaeff and Burgeot (Environ Toxicol Chem 21:1316-1322, 2002) to avoid weaknesses of this integrative tool. In the present paper, a novel index named "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" based on the reference <span class="hlt">deviation</span> concept is presented. It allows a clear discrimination of sampling sites as for the IBR, but several differences are observed for contaminated sites according to up- and downregulation of biomarker responses. This novel tool could be used to integrate multi-biomarker responses not only in <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale monitoring but also in upstream/downstream investigations. PMID:23208755</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanchez, Wilfried; Burgeot, Thierry; Porcher, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JLVEn..27..150N"> <span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> between Observed and Theoretically Estimated Values on Additivity-Law Failures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors have reported in the previous studies that the average observed results are about a half of the corresponding predictions on the experiments with <span class="hlt">large</span> additivity-law failures. One of the reasons of the <span class="hlt">deviations</span> is studied and clarified by using the original observed data on additivity-law failures in the Nakano experiment. The conclusion from the observations and their analyses clarified that it was essentially difficult to have a good agreement between the average observed results and the corresponding theoretical predictions in the experiments with <span class="hlt">large</span> additivity-law failures. This is caused by a kind of unavoidable psychological pressure existing in subjects participated in the experiments. We should be satisfied with the agreement in trend between them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Sobagaki, Hiroaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNG11A1578L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviation</span> from Power Law Behavior in Landslide Phenomenon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Power law distribution of magnitude is widely observed in many natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, floods, tornadoes, and forest fires). Landslide is unique as the size distribution of landslide is characterized by a power law decrease with a rollover in the small size end. Yet, the emergence of the rollover, i.e., the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from power law behavior for small size landslides, remains a mystery. In this contribution, we grouped the forces applied on landslide bodies into two categories: 1) the forces proportional to the volume of failure mass (gravity and friction), and 2) the forces proportional to the area of failure surface (cohesion). Failure occurs when the forces proportional to volume exceed the forces proportional to surface area. As such, given a certain mechanical configuration, the failure volume to failure surface area ratio must exceed a corresponding threshold to guarantee a failure. Assuming all landslides share a uniform shape, which means the volume to surface area ratio of landslide regularly increase with the landslide volume, a cutoff of landslide volume distribution in the small size end can be defined. However, in realistic landslide phenomena, where heterogeneities of landslide shape and mechanical configuration are existent, a simple cutoff of landslide volume distribution does not exist. The stochasticity of landslide shape introduce a probability distribution of the volume to surface area ratio with regard to landslide volume, with which the probability that the volume to surface ratio exceed the threshold can be estimated regarding values of landslide volume. An experiment based on empirical data showed that this probability can induce the power law distribution of landslide volume roll down in the small size end. We therefore proposed that the constraints on the failure volume to failure surface area ratio together with the heterogeneity of landslide geometry and mechanical configuration attribute for the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from power law behavior in landslide phenomenon. Figure shows that a rollover of landslide size distribution in the small size end is produced as the probability for V/S (the failure volume to failure surface ratio of landslide) exceeding the mechanical threshold applied to the power law distribution of landslide volume.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, L.; Lan, H.; Wu, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50691993"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implicit learning of arithmetic <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Past research has investigated childrenpsilas knowledge of arithmetic <span class="hlt">principles</span> over development. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in acquiring <span class="hlt">principle</span> knowledge. We hypothesize that experience with equations that violate a to-be-learned <span class="hlt">principle</span> will lead to changes in equation encoding, which in turn will promote acquisition of <span class="hlt">principle</span> knowledge. Adultspsila knowledge of an arithmetic <span class="hlt">principle</span> was evaluated before and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard W. Prather; Martha W. Alibali</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=500693"> <span id="translatedtitle">Screening INR <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of local prothrombin time systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To assess the reliability of local international normalised ratios (INR) using a set of three international reference preparation (IRP) certified freeze dried plasmas. METHODS: 55 centres in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland participated; 36 centres employed coagulometers and 19 a manual prothrombin time technique, all with the same batch of routine commercial thromboplastin. The plasmas had certified INR with the manual technique using a thromboplastin IRP, and results were provided graphically to participants for self assessment. An INR <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of more than +/- 10% from the certified INR with any of the screening plasmas was regarded as unsatisfactory and clinically significant. Sets of 20 freeze dried plasmas were provided for local ISI calibrations and sets of seven freeze dried normals were provided for supplementary exercises where screening results were unsatisfactory. RESULTS: 15 of 38 coagulometers, but only three of the 19 manual prothrombin time test techniques, gave unsatisfactory results. With 10 of the 15 unsatisfactory coagulometer results the problem was resolved by local ISI calibrations with plasma calibrant sets provided. Unsatisfactory results with manual technique in all four instances were corrected by substitution of the mean result with freeze dried normal plasmas provided. CONCLUSIONS: The freeze dried plasma screening set was useful in detecting incorrect INR in a high proportion of coagulometer users and a smaller number of participants using the manual technique.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poller, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2700846"> <span id="translatedtitle">Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> Method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n?1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Lan; Li, Runze</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AVA08053VM00"> <span id="translatedtitle">DC Motor <span class="hlt">Principles</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Explains the basic <span class="hlt">principles</span> of dc motor operation by a progressive development of magnetic fields and shows how a current-carrying device acts when placed in these fields. Explains the positions of maximum and minimum torque.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=METHANOL&pg=3&id=EJ067100"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">Principles</span> Exemplified</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Collection of two short descriptions of chemical <span class="hlt">principles</span> seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plumb, Robert C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51247054"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of plasma electrodynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of the linear electrodynamics of uniform plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium are presented. Linear electromagnetic effects in nonequilibrium, spatially nonuniform plasma (plasma equilibrium theory) are studied. Methods for analysis of nonlinear electrodynamic processes in plasma are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. F. Aleksandrov; L. S. Bogdankevich; A. A. Rukhadze</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA217035"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Nonlinear Optics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report contains a summary of essential <span class="hlt">principles</span> of nonlinear optics such as optical bistability, phase conjugation, and harmonic generation. The origins of nonlinearity are described, tracing it back to its manifestation as the modification of the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. P. Banerjee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22073817"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global ethics and <span class="hlt">principlism</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-<span class="hlt">principles</span> approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-<span class="hlt">principles</span> approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The <span class="hlt">principle</span> of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-<span class="hlt">principles</span> approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together. PMID:22073817</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gordon, John-Stewart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/demonstrations/examples/Buoyancy.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Buoyancy and Archimedes <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Buoyancy is based on Archimedes' <span class="hlt">Principle</span> which states that the buoyant force acting upward on an object completely or partially immersed in a fluid equals the weight of the fluid displaced by the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=archimedes&id=EJ774349"> <span id="translatedtitle">Archimedes' <span class="hlt">Principle</span> in Action</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' <span class="hlt">principle</span> can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kires, Marian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24095895"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro-induced cell-mediated immune <span class="hlt">deviation</span> to encephalitogenic antigens.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The injection of antigens into the Anterior Chamber (AC) of the eye induces Anterior Chamber Associated Immune <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> (ACAID), which is a potent form of immune <span class="hlt">deviation</span> that is <span class="hlt">largely</span> attributed to the effect of TGF?2 in the aqueous humor on ocular antigen-presenting cells (APCs). ACAID antigen presentation via APCs and B cells leads to the generation of antigen-specific T regulatory cells. The encephalitogenic antigens Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and Myelin basic protein (MBP) have an obvious clinical relevance. We hypothesized that the intravenous injection of in vitro-generated ACAID APCs or in vitro-generated ACAID B cells specific to the encephalitogenic antigens MOG35-55/MBP induces specific peripheral tolerance in recipient BALB/c mice. We examined the suppression of MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific inflammatory responses using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assays and Local Adoptive Transfer (LAT) assays. Results indicated that MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific tolerance was generated after the intravenous injections of MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID APCs, MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID B cells, and MOG35-55-specific/MBP-specific ACAID T regulatory cells. The specific immune <span class="hlt">deviation</span> was in vitro-induced, cell-mediated, and specific to the encephalitogenic antigens MOG35-55/MBP. This in vitro-mediated approach for the generation of MOG35-55/MBP-specific tolerance opens up avenues for the application of ACAID as a tool for the therapy of Multiple Sclerosis, Schizophrenia, and other diseases. PMID:24095895</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farooq, Shukkur M; Ashour, Hossam M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hops.wharton.upenn.edu/forecast/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Forecasting Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Directed by J. Scott Armstrong at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, the <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Forecasting Project seeks to "develop a comprehensive and structured review of the state of knowledge in the field of forecasting" in order to aid future research. The project will lead to a book entitled <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Forecasting: A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners, and sample chapters, contact information, updates, and links to forecasting resources add value to this expanding compilation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19670382"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new computing <span class="hlt">principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  In 1954 while reviewing the theory of communication and cybernetics the late Professor Dennis Gabor presented a new mathematical\\u000a <span class="hlt">principle</span> for the design of advanced computers. During our work on these computers we found that the Gabor formulation can\\u000a be further advanced to include more recent developments in Lie algebras and geometric probability, giving rise to a new computing\\u000a <span class="hlt">principle</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. A. Fatmi; G. Resconi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/WindTunnel/Activities/buoy_Archimedes.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Buoyancy: Archimedes <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site describes bouyancy (the difference between the upward and downward forces acting on the bottom and the top of an object) and the Archimedes <span class="hlt">Principle</span>, which states that the buoyant force on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced by it. It consists of text descriptions of these <span class="hlt">principles</span>, using the examples of metal cubes suspended in water and hot air baloons in the atmosphere. Mathematical word problems are included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900010647&hterms=leaning+tower+pisa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dleaning%2Btower%2Bpisa%252C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Stanford equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span> program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Stanford Equivalence <span class="hlt">Principle</span> Program (Worden, Jr. 1983) is intended to test the uniqueness of free fall to the ultimate possible accuracy. The program is being conducted in two phases: first, a ground-based version of the experiment, which should have a sensitivity to differences in rate of fall of one part in 10(exp 12); followed by an orbital experiment with a sensitivity of one part in 10(exp 17) or better. The ground-based experiment, although a sensitive equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span> test in its own right, is being used for technology development for the orbital experiment. A secondary goal of the experiment is a search for exotic forces. The instrument is very well suited for this search, which would be conducted mostly with the ground-based apparatus. The short range predicted for these forces means that forces originating in the Earth would not be detectable in orbit. But detection of Yukawa-type exotic forces from a nearby <span class="hlt">large</span> satellite (such as Space Station) is feasible, and gives a very sensitive and controllable test for little more effort than the orbiting equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span> test itself.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Worden, Paul W., Jr.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Bye, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=201367"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Relative Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span>: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of <span class="hlt">large</span> numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JaJAP..50h0213A"> <span id="translatedtitle">First-<span class="hlt">Principles</span> Calculation of the Interlayer Distance of the Two-Layer Graphene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By using first <span class="hlt">principles</span> calculations, we study the interlayer distance of the two-layer graphene. We use a recently developed van der Waals density functional theory (VDWDFT) as well as the local density approximation (LDA). Both methods give successful results for graphite; i.e., the calculated interlayer distances are comparable with the experimental value. We find that the interlayer distance of the two-layer graphene is close to that of graphite. We also find that the AA stacking structure of the two-layer graphene has higher energy than that of the AB stacking one and the layer distance of the AA stacking is larger than that of the AB stacking. It is thus suggested that the interlayer distance becomes somewhat <span class="hlt">large</span> when the stacking <span class="hlt">deviates</span> from the AB stacking.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Lin, Jianbo; Saito, Mineo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24498519"> <span id="translatedtitle">Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of <span class="hlt">deviated</span> nasal septum.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the <span class="hlt">deviated</span> nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (-0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ?0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice. PMID:24498519</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manjunatha, Roopa G; Rajanna, Konandur; Mahapatra, Roy D; Dorasala, Srinivas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29026316"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium <span class="hlt">deviation</span> on allele-based risk effect of genetic association studies and meta-analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in control subjects may bias the estimates of genetic effects in genetic\\u000a association studies (GAS) and meta-analysis. A <span class="hlt">large</span> empirical evaluation was carried out to evaluate the impact of HWE <span class="hlt">deviation</span>\\u000a and explore the effect of variance adjustment for the allele-based odds ratio in 833 individual GAS and 72 meta-analyses.\\u000a In individual GAS, the variance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elias Zintzaras</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4815834"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary validation of on-line correction of process <span class="hlt">deviations</span> without extending process time in batch retorting: Any low-acid canned foods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This short communication describes a practical and efficient method for on-line correction of thermal process <span class="hlt">deviations</span> during retort sterilization of canned foods without upsetting retort operating schedules in <span class="hlt">large</span> cook room operations. The strategy is a modification of a recently developed “proportional-corrected” process method that accomplishes the on-line correction after recovery of the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> by operating the retort at a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Simpson; I. Figueroa; D. Llanos; A. Teixeira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-05/pdf/E9-31196.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon <span class="hlt">Deviating</span> From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...FDA-2008-N-0119] Canned Pacific Salmon <span class="hlt">Deviating</span> From Identity Standard...as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that <span class="hlt">deviate</span> from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32024726"> <span id="translatedtitle">Congenital Penile <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> and Straightening of the Penis Using the Nesbit-Kelâmi Technique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simpler and more effective technique for the treatment of congenital penile <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is described. From a total of 80 patients operated on for congenital penile <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, 45 were treated successfully according to this new technique.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alpay Kelâmi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-24/pdf/2013-23074.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 58546 - State System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single-Case <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> From Competition...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single- Case <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> From Competition Requirements AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration...HHS). ACTION: Notice of Single-Case <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> from Competition Requirements for the Maternal and Child Health (MCH)...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title21-vol7/pdf/CFR-2009-title21-vol7-sec600-14.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product <span class="hlt">deviations</span> by licensed manufacturers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...14 Reporting of biological product <span class="hlt">deviations</span>...manufacturer who holds the biological product license and who had control over the product...should report a biological product <span class="hlt">deviation</span>...step under your control, acquire...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19923019"> <span id="translatedtitle">Revelation of changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> at the end of atrial fibrillation without acute myocardial infarction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has been reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has been also reported during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation too or at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of revelation of changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> at the end of atrial fibrillation without acute myocardial infarction in a 74-year-old Italian man. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. PMID:19923019</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdSpR..54..595Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation study on slant-to-vertical <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in two dimensional TEC mapping over the ionosphere equatorial anomaly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the rapid increase of GPS/GNSS receivers being deployed and operated in China, real-time GPS data from nearly a thousand sites are available at the National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorology Administration. However, it is challenging to generate a high-quality regional total electron content (TEC) map with the traditional two-dimensional (2-D) retrieval scheme because a <span class="hlt">large</span> horizontal gradient has been reported over east-south Asia due to the northern equatorial ionization anomaly. We developed an Ionosphere Data Assimilation Analysis System (IDAAS), which is described in this study, using an International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model as the background and applying a Kalman filter for updated observations. The IDAAS can reconstruct a three-dimensional ionosphere with the GPS slant TEC. The inverse slant TEC correlates well with observations both for GPS sites involved in the reconstruction and sites that are not involved. Based on the IDAAS, simulations were performed to investigate the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> relative to the slant-to-vertical conversion (STV). The results indicate that the relative <span class="hlt">deviation</span> induced by slant-to-vertical conversion may be significant in certain instances, and the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> varies from 0% to 40% when the elevation decreases from 90° to 15°, while the relative IDAAS <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is much smaller and varies from -5% to 15% without an elevation dependence. Compared with ‘true TEC’ map derived from the model, there is <span class="hlt">large</span> difference in STV TEC map but no obvious discrepancy in IDAAS map. Generally, the IDAAS TEC map is much closer to the “true TEC” than is STV TEC map is. It is suggested that three-dimensional inversion technique is necessary for GPS observations of low elevation at an equatorial anomaly region, wherein the high horizontal electron density gradient may produce significant slant-to-vertical <span class="hlt">deviations</span> using the two-dimensional STV inversion method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, Tao; Mao, Tian; Wang, Yungang; Zeng, Zhongcao; Xia, Chunliang; Wu, Fenglei; Wang, Le</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=numerical+AND+analysis&pg=6&id=EJ722831"> <span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting a 90-Year-Old Debate: The Advantages of the Mean <span class="hlt">Deviation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the reliance of numerical analysis on the concept of the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, and its close relative the variance. It suggests that the original reasons why the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> concept has permeated traditional statistics are no longer clearly valid, if they ever were. The absolute mean <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, it is argued here, has many…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorard, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56702779"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of Ray <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> in an Optically Inhomogeneous Field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">T has been suggested by Horman! that holograms can be used for making Schlieren photographs. This has been demon­ strated experimentally by Tanner,' by Chau and Horman,3 and by Story et al. 4 These authors have pointed out that a transient phenomenon can be captured in hologram form using a pulsed laser and reconstructed at leisure. A <span class="hlt">large</span> amount of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert L. Bond; George S. Ballard; Joseph B. Story</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs61.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Core <span class="hlt">Principles</span> Methodology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This newly published document from the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank of International Settlements considers the methodology used in determining The Core <span class="hlt">Principles</span> for Effective Banking Supervision, "a global standard for prudential regulation and supervision," which has been endorsed by many countries worldwide. There are three sections to the report. The first chapter looks at the background for the core <span class="hlt">principles</span> and "the preconditions for effective banking supervision." The second chapter "raises a few basic considerations regarding the conduct of an assessment and the compilation and presentation of the results," and the last chapter discusses each core <span class="hlt">principle</span> individually. The 56-page document is available in .pdf format. A thumbnail map of each page, shown on the left, is the best way to navigate the report.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010foan.book..473I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Basic <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Chromatography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the <span class="hlt">principles</span> of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed <span class="hlt">principles</span> and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general <span class="hlt">principles</span> of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S11A2308F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Travel time delays and slowness vector <span class="hlt">deviations</span> interpretation of multiply reflected P waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">From a previous study we have shown that it was possible to observe multiply reflected P waves such as PPP, PPPP, PPPPP, PPPPPP. Despite the ray theoretical prediction that at a certain distance most of their compressional energy is converted to shear waves. A 1D P-velocity model for the pacific region was also proposed. The purpose of this new study is to make measurements of travel time delay and slowness vector <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of these waves. We used about 400 events of magnitude Mw > 6.1 recorded from the dense network of US ARRAY, which allows us to make a very <span class="hlt">large</span> number of travel time delays and slowness vector perturbation measurements of multiply reflected P waves. These measurements show that multiply reflected P wave are of great interests when studying the Upper mantle structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foundotos, M.; Nolet, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EL....10150004G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential Landauer's <span class="hlt">principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Landauer's <span class="hlt">principle</span> states that the erasure of information must be a dissipative process. In this paper, we carefully analyze the recording and erasure of information on a physical memory. On the one hand, we show that, in order to record some information, the memory has to be driven out of equilibrium. On the other hand, we derive a differential version of Landauer's <span class="hlt">principle</span>: We link the rate at which entropy is produced at every time of the erasure process to the rate at which information is erased.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Granger, Léo; Kantz, Holger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3298912"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Shakespearean <span class="hlt">Principle</span> Revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Let every eye negotiate for itself and trust no agent. That line is from William Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. 1 To me, it is a fundamental doctrine of patient care, and I have named it the Shakespearean <span class="hlt">Principle</span>.2 It stimulates skepticism,3 promotes doubt,4 improves communication, fosters proper decision-making, and protects against a malady that currently plagues our profession—herd mentality.5 This editorial shows what can happen when doctors violate the Shakespearean <span class="hlt">Principle</span>. The story is real and tells of a woman whose doctor unintentionally killed her. To ensure anonymity, the time and place of the tragedy, as well as the players involved, have been changed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fred, Herbert L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810024029&hterms=teaching&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dteaching"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teaching/learning <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying <span class="hlt">principles</span> may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying <span class="hlt">principle</span> involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089781&hterms=chlorella&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dchlorella"> <span id="translatedtitle">The August Krogh <span class="hlt">principle</span> applies to plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Krogh <span class="hlt">principle</span> refers to the use of a <span class="hlt">large</span> number of animals to study the <span class="hlt">large</span> number of physiological problems, rather than limiting study to a particular organism for all problems. There may be organisms that are more suited to study of a particular problem than others. This same <span class="hlt">principle</span> applies to plants. The authors are concerned with the recent trend in plant biology of using Arabidopsis thaliana as the "organism of choice." Arabidopsis is an excellent organism for molecular genetic research, but other plants are superior models for other research areas of plant biology. The authors present examples of the successful use of the Krogh <span class="hlt">principle</span> in plant cell biology research, emphasizing the particular characteristics of the selected research organisms that make them the appropriate choice.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.ru.nl/~heunen/publications/2008/tovariance/tovariance.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Principle</span> of General Tovariance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We tentatively propose two guiding <span class="hlt">principles</span> for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These <span class="hlt">principles</span> are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his <span class="hlt">principle</span> of general covariance and his equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span>, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. M. Heunen; N. P. Landsman; B. A. W. Spitters</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stat.ucla.edu/%7Esczhu/papers/technometrics.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical <span class="hlt">Principles</span> in Image Modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Images of natural scenes contain a rich variety of visual patterns. To learn and recognize these patterns from natural images, it is necessary to construct statistical models for these patterns. In this review arti- cle we describe three statistical <span class="hlt">principles</span> for modeling image patterns: the sparse coding <span class="hlt">principle</span>, the minimax entropy <span class="hlt">principle</span>, and the meaningful alignment <span class="hlt">principle</span>. We explain these</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ying Nian Wu; Jinhui Li; Ziqiang Liu; Song-Chun Zhu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED490073.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Readability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">principles</span> of readability are in every style manual. Readability formulas are in every writing aid. What is missing is the research and theory on which they stand. This short review of readability research spans 100 years. The first part covers the history of adult literacy studies in the U.S., establishing the stratified nature of the adult…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DuBay, William H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=41996"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PRINCIPLES</span> OF WATER FILTRATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews <span class="hlt">principles</span> involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB96209135"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Action <span class="hlt">Principle</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a new action <span class="hlt">principle</span> to be associated with a noncommutative space (A,H,D). The universal formula for the spectral action is (psi,Dpsi) + Trace (X(D/lambda)) where psi is a spinor on the Hilbert space, lambda is a scale and x a positive functi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. H. Chamseddine A. Connes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mathematics/18-311-principles-of-applied-mathematics-spring-2009/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Applied Mathematics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This course, presented by MIT and taught by professor Aslan Kasimov, describes basic <span class="hlt">principles</span> of applied mathematics. Specifically, the material looks at mathematical analysis of continuum models of various natural phenomena. The course materials include student assignments and exams. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kasimov, Aslan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52144878"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Plasma Diagnostics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book provides a systematic introduction to the physics of plasma diagnostics measurements. It develops from first <span class="hlt">principles</span> the concepts needed to plan, execute and interpret plasma measurements, making it a suitable book for graduate students and professionals with little plasma physics background. The book will also be a valuable reference for seasoned plasma physicists, both experimental and theoretical, as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. H. Hutchinson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/m6j2v807u3454662.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of antimicrobial prophylaxis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The most important <span class="hlt">principle</span> in surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is to ensure high blood levels of antibiotic at the time of anticipated wound contamination. This is best achieved by intravenous administration commenced at the time of induction of anesthesia. The continued efficacy of prophylaxis depends on the implementation of policies that minimize the opportunities for bacteria to acquire resistance to antibiotics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas W. Burdon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12586164"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mirror <span class="hlt">Principle</span> I</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose and study the following Mirror <span class="hlt">Principle</span>: certain sequences of multiplicative equivariant characteristic classes on Kontsevich's stable map moduli spaces can be computed in terms of certain hypergeometric type classes. As applications, we compute the equivariant Euler classes of obstruction bundles induced by any concavex bundles -- including any direct sum of line bundles -- on $\\\\P^n$. This includes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bong H. Lian; Kefeng Liu; S. T. Yau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24512103"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of sound ecotoxicology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have become progressively more concerned about the quality of some published ecotoxicology research. Others have also expressed concern. It is not uncommon for basic, but extremely important, factors to apparently be ignored. For example, exposure concentrations in laboratory experiments are sometimes not measured, and hence there is no evidence that the test organisms were actually exposed to the test substance, let alone at the stated concentrations. To try to improve the quality of ecotoxicology research, we suggest 12 basic <span class="hlt">principles</span> that should be considered, not at the point of publication of the results, but during the experimental design. These <span class="hlt">principles</span> range from carefully considering essential aspects of experimental design through to accurately defining the exposure, as well as unbiased analysis and reporting of the results. Although not all <span class="hlt">principles</span> will apply to all studies, we offer these <span class="hlt">principles</span> in the hope that they will improve the quality of the science that is available to regulators. Science is an evidence-based discipline and it is important that we and the regulators can trust the evidence presented to us. Significant resources often have to be devoted to refuting the results of poor research when those resources could be utilized more effectively. PMID:24512103</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harris, Catherine A; Scott, Alexander P; Johnson, Andrew C; Panter, Grace H; Sheahan, Dave; Roberts, Mike; Sumpter, John P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1757237"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of respiratory protection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review describes the various types of respiratory protective devices used in Israel during the Persian Gulf war, and summarizes the relevant physiological concepts of respiratory protection. Physiological <span class="hlt">principles</span> of modern devices with powered air supply are discussed in detail. Our experience may be useful in the evaluation of new respirators and in finding solutions for problematic subpopulations. PMID:1757237</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arad, M; Epstein, Y; Krasner, E; Danon, Y L; Atsmon, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N7421226"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Maximum <span class="hlt">Principle</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A relatively simple proof of the maximum <span class="hlt">principle</span> is presented. The main objective was to obtain a proof, similar to that due to Halkin, but replacing the use of Brouwer's fixed point theorem by an easily proven contraction mapping theorem. The first use...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. F. Bryant D. Q. Mayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750040001&hterms=perceptron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dperceptron"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pattern recognition <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present work gives an account of basic <span class="hlt">principles</span> and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED452106.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Matters of <span class="hlt">Principle</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at individuals who have stood on <span class="hlt">principle</span> against authority or popular opinion. The first article investigates John Adams and his defense of British soldiers at the Boston Massacre trials. The second article explores Archbishop Thomas Becket's fatal conflict with England's King Henry II. The final…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martz, Carlton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mirage&pg=3&id=EJ426343"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fermat's <span class="hlt">Principle</span> Revisited.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">principle</span> is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kamat, R. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3516124"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Biomedical Ethics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this presentation, I will discuss the <span class="hlt">principles</span> of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Athar, Shahid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1640044"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple target tracking using maximum likelihood <span class="hlt">principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Proposes a method (tracking algorithm (TAL)) based on the maximum likelihood (ML) <span class="hlt">principle</span> for multiple target tracking in near-field using outputs from a <span class="hlt">large</span> uniform linear array of passive sensors. The targets are assumed to be narrowband signals and modeled as sample functions of a Gaussian stochastic process. The phase delays of these signals are expressed as functions of both</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Satish; Rangasami L. Kashyap</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61232771"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear reactor safety goals and assessment <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although regulatory requirements for the safety of nuclear reactors are still <span class="hlt">largely</span> deterministic, two national regulatory authorities have recently introduced the use of quantitative evaluations of risks based on the probabilities of accidents. These developments are contained in the safety assessment <span class="hlt">principles</span> promulgated in 1979 and used in licensing by the United Kingdom (UK) Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Higson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24011993"> <span id="translatedtitle">T-wave axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and left ventricular hypertrophy interaction in diabetes and hypertension.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electrocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) and T-wave axis (TA) <span class="hlt">deviation</span> are independent predictors of fatal and non fatal events. We assessed the prevalence of ECG-LVH, TA abnormalities and their combination according to the presence or absence of diabetes and/or hypertension in a <span class="hlt">large</span> sample of the adult general Italian population. Data from 10,184 women (54 ± 11 years) and 8775 men (54 ± 11 years) were analyzed from the Moli-sani cohort, a database of randomly recruited adults (age >35) from the general population of Molise, a central region of Italy that includes collection of standard 12-lead resting ECG. Subjects with previous myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular disease or left bundle brunch block or missing values for TA or ECG-LVH have been excluded. TA was measured from the standard 12-lead ECG and it was defined as the rotation of the T wave in the frontal plane as computed by a proprietary algorithm (CalECG/Bravo, AMPS-LLC, NY). ECG-LVH was defined as Sokolow Lyon voltage (SLv) >35 mm or Cornell voltage duration Product (CP) >= 2440 mm*ms. Among subjects with ECG-LVH, prevalence of hypertension was 59.0% and 49.7%, respectively for men and women, whereas that of diabetes was 10.7% and 5.7%. In hypertensives, TA was normal in 72.3% of subjects, borderline in 24.8% and abnormal in 2.9%. In diabetics, TA was normal in 70.4% of subjects, borderline in 26.5% and abnormal in 3.1%. In both hypertensive and diabetic subjects, the prevalence of ECG-LVH, was significantly greater in subjects with borderline or abnormal TA. Hypertension was an independent predictor of abnormal TA (odd ratio: 1.38, P = .025). These results suggest that hypertension might play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of TA <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. PMID:24011993</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Assanelli, Deodato; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Rago, Livia; Badilini, Fabio; Vinetti, Giovanni; Gianfagna, Francesco; Salvetti, Massimo; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20705584"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the 2-3 lepton mixing from maximal with atmospheric neutrinos</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The measurement of the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the 2-3 leptonic mixing from maximal, D{sub 23}{identical_to}1/2-sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 23}, is one of the key issues for understanding the origin of the neutrino masses and mixing. In the 3{nu} context we study the dependence of various observables in the atmospheric neutrinos on D{sub 23}. We perform the global 3{nu}-analysis of the atmospheric and reactor neutrino data taking into account the effects of both the oscillations driven by the solar parameters ({delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} and {theta}{sub 12}) and the 1-3 mixing. The departure from the one-dominant mass scale approximation results into the shift of the 2-3 mixing from maximal by {delta}sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 23}{approx_equal}0.04, so that D{sub 23}{approx}0.04{+-}0.07 (1{sigma}). Though the value of the shift is not statistically significant, the tendency of the allowed region to move towards smaller values of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 23} is robust. The shift is induced by the excess of the e-like events in the sub-GeV sample. We show that future <span class="hlt">large</span> scale water Cherenkov detectors can determine D{sub 23} with accuracy of a few percent, comparable with the sensitivity of future long-baseline experiments. Moreover, the atmospheric neutrinos will provide unique information on the sign of the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (octant of {theta}{sub 23})</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C. [Physics Department, Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3840 (United States); IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-C.S.I.C., Apt. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Maltoni, M. [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3840 (United States); Smirnov, A.Yu. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, I-34100 Trieste (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACP....11.8497H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxidation photochemistry in the Southern Atlantic boundary layer: unexpected <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of photochemical steady state</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant, an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas. As the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) it strongly affects the oxidation power of the atmosphere. The remote marine boundary layer (MBL) is considered an important region in terms of chemical O3 loss; however surface-based atmospheric observations are sparse and the photochemical processes are not well understood. To investigate the photochemistry under the clean background conditions of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, ship measurements of NO, NO2, O3, JNO2, J(O1D), HO2, OH, ROx and a range of meteorological parameters were carried out. The concentrations of NO and NO2 measured on board the French research vessel Marion-Dufresne (28° S-57° S, 46° W-34° E) in March 2007, are among the lowest yet observed. The data is evaluated for consistency with photochemical steady state (PSS) conditions, and the calculations indicate substantial <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from PSS (?>1). The <span class="hlt">deviations</span> observed under low NOx conditions (5-25 pptv) demonstrate a remarkable upward tendency in the Leighton ratio (used to characterize PSS) with increasing NOx mixing ratio and JNO2 intensity. It is a paradigm in atmospheric chemistry that OH <span class="hlt">largely</span> controls the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere. However, evidence is growing that for unpolluted low-NOx (NO + NO2) conditions the atmospheric oxidant budget is poorly understood. Nevertheless, for the very cleanest conditions, typical for the remote marine boundary layer, good model agreement with measured OH and HO2 radicals has been interpreted as accurate understanding of baseline photochemistry. Here we show that such agreement can be deceptive and that a yet unidentified oxidant is needed to explain the photochemical conditions observed at 40°-60° S over the Atlantic Ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H. D.; Martinez, M.; Sander, R.; Williams, J.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Lelieveld, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACPD...11.7045H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxidation photochemistry in the Southern Atlantic boundary layer: unexpected <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of photochemical steady state</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant, an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas. As the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) it strongly affects the oxidation power of the atmosphere. The remote marine boundary layer (MBL) is considered an important region in terms of chemical O3 loss; however surface-based atmospheric observations are sparse and the photochemical processes are not well understood. To investigate the photochemistry under the clean background conditions of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, ship measurements of NO, NO2, O3, JNO2, J(O1D), HO2, OH, ROx and a range of meteorological parameters were carried out. The concentrations of NO and NO2 measured on board the French research vessel Marion-Dufresne (28° S-57° S, 46° W-34° E) in March 2007, are among the lowest yet observed. The data is evaluated for consistency with photochemical steady state (PSS) conditions, and the calculations indicate substantial <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from PSS (?>1). The <span class="hlt">deviations</span> observed under low NOx conditions (5-25 pptv) demonstrate a remarkable upward tendency in the Leighton ratio (used to characterize PSS) with increasing NOx mixing ratio and JNO2 intensity. It is a paradigm in atmospheric chemistry that OH <span class="hlt">largely</span> controls the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere. However, evidence is growing that for unpolluted low-NOx (NO + NO2) conditions the atmospheric oxidant budget is poorly understood. Nevertheless, for the very cleanest conditions, typical for the remote marine boundary layer, good model agreement with measured OH and HO2 radicals has been interpreted as accurate understanding of baseline photochemistry. Here we show that such agreement can be deceptive and that a yet unidentified oxidant is needed to explain the photochemical conditions observed at 40°-60° S over the Atlantic Ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H. D.; Martinez, M.; Sander, R.; Williams, J.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Lelieveld, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ecee.colorado.edu/~bart/book/title.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Semiconductor Devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Home page of an online and interactive textbook, <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Semiconductor Devices., written by Bart J. Van Zeghbroeck, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The goal of this text is to provide the basic <span class="hlt">principles</span> of common semiconductor devices, with a special focus on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs). A browser environment was chosen so that text, figures and equations can be linked for easy reference. A table of contents, a glossary, active figures and some study aids are integrated with the text with the intention to provide a more effective reference and learning environment. Chapter titles include: Semiconductor Fundamentals, Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, p-n Junctions, Bipolar Transistors, MOS Capacitors, and MOSFET.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Zeghbroeck, Bart J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3713936"> <span id="translatedtitle">Common <span class="hlt">Principles</span> and Multiculturalism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized <span class="hlt">principles</span> would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental <span class="hlt">principles</span> instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6746054"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of nuclear geology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book treats the basic <span class="hlt">principles</span> of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aswathanarayana, U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pilotsweb.com/principle.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Flight</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Principle</span>'s of Flight Web site is offered by the Pilot's Web Aviation Journal and contains an excellent introduction to the physics of flight. Topics include Newton's laws of motion and force, airfoils, lift and drag, forces acting on an airplane, speed, flight maneuvers, the effects of roll, and more. Each topic contains good illustrations, descriptions, and equations. Overall, the site is an interesting and informative look behind the science of flight.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6068885"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of lake sedimentology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological <span class="hlt">principles</span> for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Janasson, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760019725&hterms=perinatal+hypoxia+motor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dperinatal%2Bhypoxia%2Bmotor"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of gravitational biology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Physical <span class="hlt">principles</span> of gravitation are enumerated, including gravitational and inertial forces, weight and mass, weightlessness, size and scale effects, scale limits of gravitational effects, and gravity as biogenic factor. Statocysts, otolithic organs of vertebrates, gravity reception in plants, and clinostat studies for gravitation orientation are reviewed. Chronic acceleration is also studied, as well as physiology of hyper and hypodynamic fields. Responses of animals to a decreased acceleration field are examined, considering postural changes, work capacity, growth, and physiologic deadaptation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, A. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6864249"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of fluid mechanics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity <span class="hlt">principle</span>; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kreider, J.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16753716"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teaching professionalism: general <span class="hlt">principles</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are educational <span class="hlt">principles</span> that apply to the teaching of professionalism during undergraduate education and postgraduate training. It is axiomatic that there is a single cognitive base that applies with increasing moral force as students enter medical school, progress to residency or registrar training, and enter practice. While parts of this body of knowledge are easier to teach and learn at different stages of an individual's career, it remains a definable whole at all times and should be taught as such. While the <span class="hlt">principle</span> that self-reflection on theoretical and real issues encountered in the life of a student, resident or practitioner is essential to the acquisition of experiential learning and the incorporation of the values and behaviors of the professional, the opportunities to provide situations where this can take place will change as an individual progresses through the system, as will the sophistication of the level of learning. Teaching the cognitive base of professionalism and providing opportunities for the internalization of its values and behaviors are the cornerstones of the organization of the teaching of professionalism at all levels. Situated learning theory appears to provide practical guidance as to how this may be implemented. While the application of this theory will vary with the type of curriculum, the institutional culture and the resources available, the <span class="hlt">principles</span> outlined should remain constant. PMID:16753716</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.423.1973A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probing Mach's <span class="hlt">principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">principle</span> of least action in its original form á la Maupertuis is used to explain geodetic and frame-dragging precessions which are customarily accounted for a curved space-time in general relativity. The least-time equations of motion agree with observations and are also in concert with general relativity. Yet according to the least-time <span class="hlt">principle</span>, gravitation does not relate to the mathematical metric of space-time, but to a tangible energy density embodied by photons. The density of free space is in balance with the total mass of the Universein accord with the Planck law. Likewise, a local photon density and its phase distribution are in balance with the mass and charge distribution of a local body. Here gravitational force is understood as an energy density difference that will diminish when the oppositely polarized pairs of photons co-propagate from the energy-dense system of bodies to the energy-sparse system of the surrounding free space. Thus when the body changes its state of motion, the surrounding energy density must accommodate the change. The concurrent resistance in restructuring the surroundings, ultimately involving the entire Universe, is known as inertia. The all-around propagating energy density couples everything with everything else in accord with Mach’s <span class="hlt">principle</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Annila, Arto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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<div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' 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showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20053467"> <span id="translatedtitle">Left bundle branch block and changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> during acute myocardial infarction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has been reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has been also reported during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation too or at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. Left bundle branch block is usually associated with normal or left axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. Rarely the ECG shows a left bundle branch block with changing QRS morphology and changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. We present a case of a left bundle branch block with changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in an 86-year-old Italian man admitted to the Cardiology Unit with an acute myocardial infarction. Also this case focuses attention on left bundle branch block with changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. PMID:20053467</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x130678uh5w71u77.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technology Neutral <span class="hlt">Principles</span> and Concepts for Autonomic Networking</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2006 MACE workshop [1, 28] has presented the drivers and challenges of Autonomic Networking [2] and fostered an understanding of emerging <span class="hlt">principles</span> for this new type of networks [3]. In this paper, we present concepts and <span class="hlt">principles</span> that define a technological neutral, architectural perspective of Autonomic\\u000a Networks. The work presented in <span class="hlt">largely</span> based on work within the Architecture team</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sven van der Meer; Joel Fleck; Martin Huddleston; Dave Raymer; John Strassner; Willie Donnelly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.icee.usm.edu/ICEE/conferences/FIEC2008/papers/1782.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Learning software engineering <span class="hlt">principles</span> using open source software</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traditional lectures espousing software engineering <span class="hlt">principles</span> hardly engage studentspsila attention due to the fact that students often view software engineering <span class="hlt">principles</span> as mere academic concepts without a clear understanding of how they can be used in practice. Some of the issues that contribute to this perception include lack of experience in writing and understanding <span class="hlt">large</span> programs, and lack of opportunities</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jagadeesh Nandigam; Venkat N Gudivada; Abdelwahab Hamou-Lhadj</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56976524"> <span id="translatedtitle">Graduation design process inspired by classical <span class="hlt">principles</span> of software engineering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The classical <span class="hlt">principles</span> of software engineering include life-cycle plan, paying attention to the value of all stages, postponed implementation and so on. Graduation project is an important means of testing the learning outcomes in college., Graduation project should be completed as a <span class="hlt">large</span> software project, based on guiding ideology of the classical software engineering <span class="hlt">principles</span>. So can we achieve the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li Chao; Li Zengxue; Zuo Yong; Dai Xujing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930035676&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle implies the energy <span class="hlt">deviates</span> away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative <span class="hlt">deviation</span> means that the energy <span class="hlt">deviates</span> toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves <span class="hlt">deviates</span> toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode <span class="hlt">deviates</span> away from the fibers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol2-sec585-658.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 585.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction <span class="hlt">deviate</span> from my approved COP or GAP?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2013-07-01 false Can my cable or pipeline construction <span class="hlt">deviate</span> from my approved COP...and Information Requirements Cable and Pipeline <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> § 585.658 Can my cable or pipeline construction <span class="hlt">deviate</span> from my approved...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2005100868"> <span id="translatedtitle">Guiding <span class="hlt">Principles</span> for Diabetes Care.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) has developed these Guiding <span class="hlt">Principles</span> for Diabetes Care to help the health care team manage the disease effectively. The <span class="hlt">principles</span> outline seven essential components of quality diabetes care that form the b...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20588589"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of white LEDs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work presents a novel "pulsed spray (PS)" process for the coating of yellow YAG:Ce(3+) phosphor on blue InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). To coat a phosphor layer of high quality on an LED chip surface, the PS approach is used and studied because of the uniform color distribution, providing a wide range of color temperatures. This PS coating approach applies phosphor by exploiting mechanical <span class="hlt">principles</span> without risk of chemical pollution. Additionally, it can be applied to wire-bonded LEDs and an array of LED chips on a substrate to fabricate a <span class="hlt">large</span>-area, planar illumination system of high optical quality, which is easy to manufacture. PMID:20588589</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Hsin-Tao; Tsai, Chuang-Chuang; Huang, Yi-Pai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=archimedes&id=EJ880917"> <span id="translatedtitle">Archimedes' <span class="hlt">Principle</span> in General Coordinates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Archimedes' <span class="hlt">principle</span> is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' <span class="hlt">principle</span> is derived from first <span class="hlt">principles</span> by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ridgely, Charles T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvL.104f1601B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complex Correspondence <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence <span class="hlt">principle</span> states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bender, Carl M.; Hook, Daniel W.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Wang, Qing-Hai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/sp/ssdan/examples/31593.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Sociology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity is used in <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at the labor force and factors that affect occupation over time in the United States on a state-by-state basis. This activity uses a customized data set made from combining census information from 1950-1990. It guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ciabattari, Theresa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..297H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Environmental Chemistry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Roy M. Harrison, Editor RSC Publishing; ISBN 0854043713; x + 363 pp.; 2006; $69.95 Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes chemistry of the air, water, and soil. Although it may be confused with green chemistry, which deals with potential pollution reduction, environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical <span class="hlt">principles</span> that occur in nature. Therefore, it is the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, water, and soil environments, and the effect of human activity on them. Environmental chemistry not only explores each of these environments, but also closely examines the interfaces and boundaries where the environments intersect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hathaway, Ruth A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lack+AND+foster+AND+parents&pg=6&id=ED181689"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prevention of Some Common Developmental <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> Associated with Deafness: The Contribution of the Mental Health Professional.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deafness often leads to unnecessary communication deficits which produce developmental <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in the psychological development of children. These <span class="hlt">deviations</span> mesh with environmental frustrations and with a continuing lack of reciprocity in human relationships to produce psychopathological symptoms. The primary intervention in work with deaf…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brinich, Paul M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26255142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Basal shear and normal stresses of dry and wet snow avalanches after a slope <span class="hlt">deviation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Basal shear and normal force measurements of dry and wet snow avalanches and slush flows from the Weissfluhjoch snow chute are presented. This chute contains two slope angle transitions in order to measure the effect of slope <span class="hlt">deviations</span> on the normal and shear force distributions. Slope <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are typically encountered near snow sheds and the dynamic forces resulting from them</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Platzer; P. Bartelt; C. Jaedicke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19171707"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of Zero-Point Spin <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> in Antiferromagnetic K3Fe(CN)6</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spin-wave theories of antiferromagnets predict a zero-point spin <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from the completely ordered state. In antiferromagnetic K3Fe(CN)6, a spin <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of approximately 18% has been observed by the Mössbauer spectra of 57Fe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Ôno; M. Shinohara; A. Ito; N. Sakai; M. Suenaga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49108028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bounds for a multivariate extension of range over standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> based on the Mahalanobis distance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The range over standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of a set of univariate data points is given a natural multivariate extension through the Mahalanobis distance. The problem of finding extrema of this multivariate extension of “range over standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span>” is investigated. The supremum (maximum) is found using Lagrangian methods and an interval is given for the infinimum. The independence of optimizing the Mahalanobis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. G. Gath; K. Hayes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49635705"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical investigation of septal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> effect on deposition of nano\\/microparticles in human nasal passage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three dimensional computational models of both sides of human nasal passages were developed to investigate the effect of septal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> on the flow patterns and deposition of micro\\/nano-particles in the realistic human nasal airways before and after septoplasty. A series of coronal CT scan images from a live 25-year old nonsmoking male with septal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in his right nasal passage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Moghadas; O. Abouali; A. Faramarzi; G. Ahmadi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2492105"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Safety Pharmacology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic <span class="hlt">principles</span> of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of <span class="hlt">principles</span> that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21607894"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principle</span> of relative locality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a deepening of the relativity <span class="hlt">principle</span> according to which the invariant arena for nonquantum physics is a phase space rather than spacetime. Descriptions of particles propagating and interacting in spacetimes are constructed by observers, but different observers, separated from each other by translations, construct different spacetime projections from the invariant phase space. Nonetheless, all observers agree that interactions are local in the spacetime coordinates constructed by observers local to them. This framework, in which absolute locality is replaced by relative locality, results from deforming energy-momentum space, just as the passage from absolute to relative simultaneity results from deforming the linear addition of velocities. Different aspects of energy-momentum space geometry, such as its curvature, torsion and nonmetricity, are reflected in different kinds of deformations of the energy-momentum conservation laws. These are in <span class="hlt">principle</span> all measurable by appropriate experiments. We also discuss a natural set of physical hypotheses which singles out the cases of energy-momentum space with a metric compatible connection and constant curvature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita 'La Sapienza', and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P. le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2Y5 (Canada); Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Pl. Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22098951"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reliable detection of fluence anomalies in EPID-based IMRT pretreatment quality assurance using pixel intensity <span class="hlt">deviations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning <span class="hlt">deviations</span>. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity <span class="hlt">deviations</span> (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional <span class="hlt">deviations</span> produce <span class="hlt">large</span> intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of {>=}5% in {approx}1 mm{sup 2} areas and {>=}2% in {approx}20 mm{sup 2} areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences ({<=}2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24787870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detection and compensation of basis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in satellite-to-ground quantum communications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Basis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is the reference-frame <span class="hlt">deviation</span> between a sender and receiver caused by satellite motion in satellite-to-ground quantum communications. It increases the quantum-bit error ratio of the system and must be compensated for to guarantee reliable quantum communications. We present a new scheme for compensating for basis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> that employs a BB84 decoding module to detect basis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and half-wave plate to provide compensation. Based on this detection scheme, we design a basis-<span class="hlt">deviation</span> compensation approach and test its feasibility in a voyage experiment. Unlike other polarization-correction schemes, this compensation scheme is simple, convenient, and can be easily implemented in satellite-to-ground quantum communications without increased burden to the satellite. PMID:24787870</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jincai; Yang, Shiji; Wan, Xiong; He, Zhiping; Jia, Jianjun; Citrin, D S; Wang, Jianyu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19419783"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute myocardial infarction and left bundle branch block with changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has been reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has been also reported during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation too or at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. Left bundle branch block is usually associated with normal or left axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. Rarely the ECG shows a LBBB with changing QRS morphology and changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. There are several possible explanations for the intermittent shift in the QRS axis in the presence of complete left bundle branch block. The most plausible explanation is the coexistence of left posterior hemiblock and predivisional left bundle branch block. We present a case of a left bundle branch block with changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in a 93-year-old Italian woman admitted to the Cardiology Unit with an acute myocardial infarction. PMID:19419783</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Dattilo, Giuseppe; Sturiale, Mauro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19448096"> <span id="translatedtitle">Illusory shadow person causing paradoxical gaze <span class="hlt">deviations</span> during temporal lobe seizures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Generally, activation of the frontal eye field during seizures can cause versive (forced) gaze <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, while non-versive head <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is hypothesised to result from ictal neglect after inactivation of the ipsilateral temporo-parietal area. Almost all non-versive head <span class="hlt">deviations</span> occurring during temporal lobe seizures are directed to the side of seizure onset, so in derogatory cases it is worth while explaining the paradoxical event. We present a patient with a paradoxical direction of gaze <span class="hlt">deviation</span> during temporal lobe seizures with an unexpected explanation. Electrocortical stimulation of the temporo-parieto-occipital junction elicited an irrepressible urge to look towards an illusory shadow person besides the patient. Paradoxical non-versive gaze <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in temporal lobe seizures may be due to illusory experiences masked by postictal amnesia. PMID:19448096</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zijlmans, M; van Eijsden, P; Ferrier, C H; Kho, K H; van Rijen, P C; Leijten, F S S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MeScT..23k5002L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A kind of multi-step method for measuring pitch <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of a gear</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inspection of a gear's pitch <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is one of the most important tests on gears. The specifications of gears are usually assessed using gear measuring instruments or coordinate measuring machines. The National Metrology Institute of Japan and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt proposed the closure technique for measuring gear pitch <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, which can eliminate the systematic errors in pitch measurement, and can also be used for calibrating pitch standards. The reference to a closure technique—a kind of multi-step method for measuring pitch <span class="hlt">deviation</span>—is introduced, of which the measurement process is relatively simple, and systematic errors can also be eliminated. Two gears’ pitch <span class="hlt">deviations</span> were measured by adopting the closure technique and multi-step method, respectively. The result shows that the multi-step method can also be used for highly accurate measurements of pitch <span class="hlt">deviation</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lou, Zhifeng; Ling, Siying; He, Haizhao; Wang, Xiaodong; Ma, Yong; Wang, Liding</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991953"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global optimization of data quality checks on 2-D and 3-D networks of GPR cross-well tomographic data for automatic correction of unknown well <span class="hlt">deviations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Significant errors related to poor time zero estimation, well <span class="hlt">deviation</span> or mislocation of the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) stations can render even the most sophisticated modeling and inversion routine useless. Previous examples of methods for the analysis and correction of data errors in geophysical tomography include the works of Maurer and Green (1997), Squires et al. (1992) and Peterson (2001). Here we follow the analysis and techniques of Peterson (2001) for data quality control and error correction. Through our data acquisition and quality control procedures we have very accurate control on the surface locations of wells, the travel distance of both the transmitter and receiver within the boreholes, and the change in apparent zero time. However, we often have poor control on well <span class="hlt">deviations</span>, either because of economic constraints or the nature of the borehole itself prevented the acquisition of well <span class="hlt">deviation</span> logs. Also, well <span class="hlt">deviation</span> logs can sometimes have significant errors. Problems with borehole <span class="hlt">deviations</span> can be diagnosed prior to inversion of travel-time tomography data sets by plotting the apparent velocity of a straight ray connecting a transmitter (TX) to a receiver (RX) against the take-off angle of the ray. Issues with the time-zero pick or distances between wells appear as symmetric smiles or frown in these QC plots. Well <span class="hlt">deviation</span> or dipping-strong anisotropy will result in an asymmetric correlation between apparent velocity and take-off angle (Figure 1-B). In addition, when a network of interconnected GPR tomography data is available, one has the additional quality constraint of insuring that there is continuity in velocity between immediately adjacent tomograms. A sudden shift in the mean velocity indicates that either position <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are present or there is a shift in the pick times. Small errors in well geometry may be effectively treated during inversion by including weighting, or relaxation, parameters into the inversion (e.g. Bautu et al., 2006). In the technique of algebraic reconstruction tomography (ART), which is used herein for the travel time inversion (Peterson et al., 1985), a small relaxation parameter will smooth imaging artifacts caused by data errors at the expense of resolution and contrast (Figure 2). However, <span class="hlt">large</span> data errors such as unaccounted well <span class="hlt">deviations</span> cannot be adequately suppressed through inversion weighting schemes. Previously, problems with tomograms were treated manually. However, in <span class="hlt">large</span> data sets and/or networks of data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Mislocation of the transmitter and receiver stations of GPR cross-well tomography data sets can lead to serious imaging artifacts if not accounted for prior to inversion. Previously, problems with tomograms have been treated manually prior to inversion. In <span class="hlt">large</span> data sets and/or networks of tomographic data sets, trial and error changes to well geometries become increasingly difficult and ineffective. Our approach is to use cross-well data quality checks and a simplified model of borehole <span class="hlt">deviation</span> with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to automatically correct for source and receiver locations prior to tomographic inversion. We present a simple model of well <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, which is designed to minimize potential corruption of actual data trends. We also provide quantitative quality control measures based on minimizing correlations between take-off angle and apparent velocity, and a quality check on the continuity of velocity between adjacent wells. This methodology is shown to be accurate and robust for simple 2-D synthetic test cases. Plus, we demonstrate the method on actual field data where it is compared to <span class="hlt">deviation</span> logs. This study shows the promise for automatic correction of well <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in GPR tomographic data. Analysis of synthetic data shows that very precise estimates of well <span class="hlt">deviation</span> can be made for small <span class="hlt">deviations</span>, even in the presence of static data errors. However, the analysis of the synthetic data and the application of </p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sassen, D. S.; Peterson, J. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1016620"> <span id="translatedtitle">Providing Runtime Clock Synchronization With Minimal Node-to-Node Time <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> on XT4s and XT5s</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a new high precision clock synchronization algorithm designed for <span class="hlt">large</span> XT4 and XT5 leadership-class machines. The algorithm, which is designed to support OS noise reduction through co-scheduling, is suitable for usage cases requiring low overhead and minimal time <span class="hlt">deviation</span> between nodes. Unlike most high-precision algorithms which reach their precision in a post-mortem analysis after the application has completed, the new ORNL developed algorithm rapidly provides precise results during runtime. Previous to our work, the leading high-precision clock synchronization algorithms that made results available during runtime relied on probabilistic schemes that are not guaranteed to result in an answer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Koenig, Gregory A [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030066106&hterms=tide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtide"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviation</span> of Long-Period Tides from Equilibrium: Kinematics and Geostrophy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New empirical estimates of the long-period fortnightly (Mf) tide obtained from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter data confirm significant basin-scale <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from equilibrium. Elevations in the low-latitude Pacific have reduced amplitude and lag those in the Atlantic by 30 deg or more. These interbasin amplitude and phase variations are robust features that are reproduced by numerical solutions of the shallow-water equations, even for a constant-depth ocean with schematic interconnected rectangular basins. A simplified analytical model for cooscillating connected basins also reproduces the principal features observed in the empirical solutions. This simple model is <span class="hlt">largely</span> kinematic. Zonally averaged elevations within a simple closed basin would be nearly in equilibrium with the gravitational potential, except for a constant offset required to conserve mass. With connected basins these offsets are mostly eliminated by interbasin mass flux. Because of rotation, this flux occurs mostly in a narrow boundary layer across the mouth and at the western edge of each basin, and geostrophic balance in this zone supports small residual offsets (and phase shifts) between basins. The simple model predicts that this effect should decrease roughly linearly with frequency, a result that is confirmed by numerical modeling and empirical T/P estimates of the monthly (Mm) tidal constituent. This model also explains some aspects of the anomalous nonisostatic response of the ocean to atmospheric pressure forcing at periods of around 5 days.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Egbert, Gary D.; Ray, Richard D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2830444"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Ensemble-Average Pairwise Root Mean-Square <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> from Experimental B-Factors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Root mean-square <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (RMSD) after roto-translational least-squares fitting is a measure of global structural similarity of macromolecules used commonly. On the other hand, experimental x-ray B-factors are used frequently to study local structural heterogeneity and dynamics in macromolecules by providing direct information about root mean-square fluctuations (RMSF) that can also be calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. We provide a mathematical derivation showing that, given a set of conservative assumptions, a root mean-square ensemble-average of an all-against-all distribution of pairwise RMSD for a single molecular species, <RMSD2>1/2, is directly related to average B-factors (<B>) and <RMSF2>1/2. We show this relationship and explore its limits of validity on a heterogeneous ensemble of structures taken from molecular dynamics simulations of villin headpiece generated using distributed-computing techniques and the Folding@Home cluster. Our results provide a basis for quantifying global structural diversity of macromolecules in crystals directly from x-ray experiments, and we show this on a <span class="hlt">large</span> set of structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. In particular, we show that the ensemble-average pairwise backbone RMSD for a microscopic ensemble underlying a typical protein x-ray structure is ?1.1 Å, under the assumption that the principal contribution to experimental B-factors is conformational variability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuzmanic, Antonija; Zagrovic, Bojan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=liboff&id=EJ293873"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Correspondence <span class="hlt">Principle</span> Revisited.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Addresses the question of frequency correspondence in the domain of <span class="hlt">large</span> quantum numbers, with reference to periodic systems. Provides two simple counterexamples (a particle in a cubical box and a rigid rotator) to show that the classical result is not always recovered in the limit of <span class="hlt">large</span> quantum numbers. (JM)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liboff, Richard L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12566154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculated follicle <span class="hlt">deviation</span> using segmented regression for modeling diameter differences in cattle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Segmented linear regression alone or in combination with simple linear regression was evaluated as an objective method to calculate the beginning of follicle <span class="hlt">deviation</span> by modeling the sequential (Experiment 1) and non-sequential or single-point (Experiment 2) differences in diameter between the future dominant (F1) and largest subordinate (F2) follicles of Wave 1 in cattle. The segmented regression consisted of Segment 1 representing the common growth phase, Segment 2 representing the period of dominance, and a Join Point connecting the two segments and representing the end of the common growth phase and the beginning of <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. The model was fit to the diameter differences for each heifer in Experiment 1 (n=15) and the group of heifers in Experiment 2 (n=40). The optimal Join Point value that corresponded to the maximum R(2) was designated the calculated hour (Experiment 1) or diameter of F1 (Experiment 2) at the beginning of <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. In Experiment 1, simple linear regression was used to calculate the corresponding diameter of F1 at the beginning of <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. Observed <span class="hlt">deviation</span> was determined by inspection of the diameter profiles of F1 and F2 for comparison to calculated <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. In Experiment 1, the observed method determined the beginning of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in 80% of the heifers, whereas, the regression method calculated <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in 93% of the heifers including two of the three heifers in which observed <span class="hlt">deviation</span> was not discernable (no significant difference between methods). The mean hours of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> after wave emergence (Hour 0) and diameters of F1 at the corresponding hours were not significantly different between the observed (62 h and 8.4 mm) and calculated (61 h and 8.8 mm) methods. In Experiment 2, the diameter of F1 at the beginning of calculated <span class="hlt">deviation</span> was 8.2 mm. The results indicated that the segmented regression model can provide an objective and more accurate alternative to estimate follicle <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, especially when observed <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is obscured by the complexity of follicle development in some waves. PMID:12566154</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bergfelt, D R; Sego, L H; Beg, M A; Ginther, O J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.entnet.org/HealthInformation/deviatedSeptum.cfm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviated</span> Septum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... this severe disorder will be achieved. Find an ENT Last Name ZIP Code More Options About Otolaryngology ... United States. Otolaryngologists are commonly referred to as ENT physicians. Learn More Free Download AAO-HNS MarketPlace ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21013701"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical <span class="hlt">principles</span> in neuroscience</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic <span class="hlt">principles</span>, first <span class="hlt">principles</span> governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I. [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States) and GNB, Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States) and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States); Department of Physics and Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0402, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22723119"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving regions of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> gait symmetry analysis with pointwise T tests.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The regions of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> method has been proposed as a technique for identifying regions of the gait cycle where joint motion <span class="hlt">deviates</span> from normal (Shorter et al., 2008). The original statistical analysis distinguished only peak values during stance and swing. In the current article, we extend the approach by examining <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from normal throughout the entire gait cycle using pointwise t tests. These methods were demonstrated on hind-limb joint angles of 21 Labrador Retrievers without and with cranial cruciate ligament disease. Results were compared with peak difference analysis previously performed on these subjects. All points in the gait cycle where symmetry <span class="hlt">deviations</span> were significantly affected by cranial cruciate ligament disease (via pointwise t tests) were defined as regions of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from symmetry. Discriminant function analysis was used to consider single subjects and validate that these regions were truly areas of difference between groups. Regions of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> encompassed previously determined significant peak differences, while extending analysis to additional areas of asymmetry. Discriminant function analysis suggested that the region of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> method is a viable approach for distinguishing motion pattern differences. This enhanced method may help researchers better understand the mechanisms behind lameness and compensation. PMID:22723119</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DiBerardino, Louis A; Ragetly, Chantal A; Hong, Sungjin; Griffon, Dominique J; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88b2601L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> of the glass transition temperature in amorphous conjugated polymer thin films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in thin films of an amorphous conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine) (TFB) are reported. Monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are observed in TFB thin films supported on Si-SiOx and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. A three-layer model is developed to fit both monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in these films. A 5-nm PEDOT:PSS capping layer was not found to be effective to remove the free-surface effect in Si-SiOx supported TFB films.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Dan; Osuna Orozco, Rodrigo; Wang, Tao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24071372"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carpentering in septorhinoplasty: a novel technique to straighten the <span class="hlt">deviated</span> nasal septum.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Septal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> presents a considerable challenge in septorhinoplasty because it leads to functional and esthetic problems. This deformity may displace the nasal tip, disturb nasal valve patency, and affect the final outcomes of septorhinoplasty. This report describes an innovative technique that can be used in patients with C-shaped <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the septum in a cephalocaudal direction. Because the procedure is similar to carpentering, it was named a "carpenter spreader graft." In this technique, the <span class="hlt">deviated</span> dorsal cartilage is separated and displaced to a new straightened position. PMID:24071372</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nazari, Shahriar; Bohluli, Behnam; Varedi, Payam; Besharatizade, Rozina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980JPSJ...49.1887D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviation</span> from the Curie-Weiss Law in KH2PO4</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dielectric constants of KH2PO4 along the c- and a-axes have been measured precisely in the paraelectric phase at T-Tc?230 K. Slight <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from the Curie-Weiss law was found for \\varepsilonc and \\varepsilona in the range T-Tc?25 K. The <span class="hlt">deviation</span> can not be explained by the electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction. The short range correlation taken in Slater’s theory of KH2PO4 is a possible origin of this <span class="hlt">deviation</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deguchi, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Eiji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16834620"> <span id="translatedtitle">The precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> is incoherent.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article argues that no version of the precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> can be reasonably applied to decisions that may lead to fatal outcomes. In support of this strong claim, a number of desiderata are proposed, which reasonable rules for rational decision making ought to satisfy. Thereafter, two impossibility theorems are proved, showing that no version of the precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> can satisfy the proposed desiderata. These theorems are directly applicable to recent discussions of the precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> in medicine, biotechnology, environmental management, and related fields. The impossibility theorems do not imply, however, that the precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> is of no relevance at all in policy discussions. Even if it is not a reasonable rule for rational decision making, it is possible to interpret the precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> in other ways, e.g., as an argumentative tool or as an epistemic <span class="hlt">principle</span> favoring a reversed burden of proof. PMID:16834620</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peterson, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/y635032x71604463.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk Management <span class="hlt">Principles</span> for Nanotechnology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Risk management of nanotechnology is challenged by the enormous uncertainties about the risks, benefits, properties, and future\\u000a direction of nanotechnology applications. Because of these uncertainties, traditional risk management <span class="hlt">principles</span> such as acceptable\\u000a risk, cost–benefit analysis, and feasibility are unworkable, as is the newest risk management <span class="hlt">principle</span>, the precautionary\\u000a <span class="hlt">principle</span>. Yet, simply waiting for these uncertainties to be resolved before undertaking</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gary E. Marchant; Douglas J. Sylvester; Kenneth W. Abbott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IJTIA.127.1013H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elucidation of DC Magnetic <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> in Converter Transformers Used for a Self-Commutated BTB System during Single-Line-to-Ground Faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with a 50-MW self-commutated BTB (Back-To-Back) system intended for power-flow control between transmission networks. It focuses on the dynamic behavior of the BTB system during single-line-to-ground (SLG) faults. During an SLG fault, a dc magnetic <span class="hlt">deviation</span> appears in the converter-transformers used for the BTB system just after the occurrence and restoration of the fault. It is indispensable to understand an amount of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> because it may bring magnetic saturation as well as a <span class="hlt">large</span> amount of magnetizing current to the transformers. This paper derives theoretical equations related to the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> during the SLG fault. The theoretical analysis developed in this paper would make significant contributions to designing the transformers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hagiwara, Makoto; Pham, Phuong Viet; Akagi, Hirofumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10183230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Giant magnetoresistance calculated from first <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Layer Korringa Kohn Rostoker-Coherent Potential Approximation technique was used to calculate the low temperature Giant Magnetoresistance from first <span class="hlt">principles</span> for Co{vert_bar}Cu and permalloy{vert_bar}Cu superlattices. Our calculations predict <span class="hlt">large</span> giant magnetoresistance ratios for Co{vert_bar}Cu and extremely <span class="hlt">large</span> ratios for permalloy{vert_bar}Cu for current perpendicular to the layers. Mechanisms such as spin-orbit coupling which mix spin channels are expected to greatly reduce the GMR effect for permalloy{vert_bar}Cu.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Butler, W.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); MacLaren, J.M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Zhang, X.G. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Computational Sciences</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8789E..0GE"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement based simulation of microscope <span class="hlt">deviations</span> for evaluation of stitching algorithms for the extension of Fourier-based alignment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Image stitching is a technique used to measure <span class="hlt">large</span> surface areas with high resolution while maintaining a <span class="hlt">large</span> field of view. We work on improving data fusion by stitching in the field of microscopic analysis of technical surfaces for structures and roughness. Guidance errors and imaging errors such as noise cause problems for seamless image fusion of technical surfaces. The optical imaging errors of 3D Microscopes, such as confocal microscopes and white light interferometers, as well as the guidance errors of their automated positioning systems have been measured to create a software to simulate automated measurements of known surfaces with specific <span class="hlt">deviations</span> to test new stitching algorithms. We measured and incorporated radial image distortion, interferometer reference mirror shape <span class="hlt">deviations</span>, statistical noise, drift of the positional axis, on-axis-accuracy and repeatability of the used positioning stages and misalignment of the CCD-Chip with respect to the axes of motion. We used the resulting simulation of the measurement process to test a new image registration technique that allows for the use of correlation of images by fast fourier transform for small overlaps between single measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Engelke, Florian; Kästner, Markus; Reithmeier, Eduard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD636737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the Mean and Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> from a Bruceton Statistical Analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The maximum likelihood equations used to determine estimates of the mean and standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> for the Bruceton method of statistical analysis were solved numerically. A digital computer algorithm was developed to reduce the time associated with the nume...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Shainheit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol7/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol7-sec600-14.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product <span class="hlt">deviations</span> by licensed manufacturers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Persons who manufacture only in vitro diagnostic products that are not subject to licensing under section 351 of the Public Health Service Act do not report biological product <span class="hlt">deviations</span> for those products under this section but must report in...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA029688"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of the Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> of the Logistic Distribution by the Use of Selected Order Statistics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A technique is applied to obtain unbiased estimators with minimum variance among the class of linear estimators for the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of a logistic population with known mean. Coefficients for multiplying ordered observations are developed for comple...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. N. Beyer A. H. Moore H. L. Harter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB97191530"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preference Threshold Procedure for Statistical Selection: Robustness against <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from Normality.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we investigate the robustness of the preference threshold procedure, introduced by Verheijen, Coolen and Van der Laan (PB97-191498), with respect to <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the normality assumption. The preference threshold procedure is a combinatio...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. P. A. Coolen J. H. M. Verheijen P. van der Laan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3507660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of using the tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle as a warning sign of a stroke</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The symptom of tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is observed in a stroke or transient ischemic attack. Nevertheless, there is much room for the interpretation of the tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> test. The crucial factor is the lack of an effective quantification method of tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. If we can quantify the features of the tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and scientifically verify the relationship between the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle and a stroke, the information provided by the tongue will be helpful in recognizing a warning of a stroke. Methods In this study, a quantification method of the tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle was proposed for the first time to characterize stroke patients. We captured the tongue images of stroke patients (15 males and 10 females, ranging between 55 and 82 years of age); transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients (16 males and 9 females, ranging between 53 and 79 years of age); and normal subjects (14 males and 11 females, ranging between 52 and 80 years of age) to analyze whether the method is effective. In addition, we used the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for the sensitivity analysis, and determined the threshold value of the tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle for the warning sign of a stroke. Results The means and standard <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of the tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angles of the stroke, TIA, and normal groups were: 6.9?±?3.1, 4.9?±?2.1 and 1.4?±?0.8 degrees, respectively. Analyzed by the unpaired Student’s t-test, the p-value between the stroke group and the TIA group was 0.015 (>0.01), indicating no significant difference in the tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle. The p-values between the stroke group and the normal group, as well as between the TIA group and the normal group were both less than 0.01. These results show the significant differences in the tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle between the patient groups (stroke and TIA patients) and the normal group. These results also imply that the tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle can effectively identify the patient group (stroke and TIA patients) and the normal group. With respect to the visual examination, 40% and 32% of stroke patients, 24% and 16% of TIA patients, and 4% and 0% of normal subjects were found to have tongue <span class="hlt">deviations</span> when physicians “A” and “B” examined them. The variation showed the essentiality of the quantification method in a clinical setting. In the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the Area Under Curve (AUC, = 0.96) indicates good discrimination. The tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle more than the optimum threshold value (= 3.2°) predicts a risk of stroke. Conclusions In summary, we developed an effective quantification method to characterize the tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle, and we confirmed the feasibility of recognizing the tongue <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle as an early warning sign of an impending stroke.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22489636"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability of fluctuations in the number of the nearest neighbours in a hard-sphere liquid: Probabilities of <span class="hlt">large</span> <span class="hlt">deviations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper analyzes the physical implications of the result obtained in the work [1] that a random variable — the number of\\u000a the nearest neighbors M\\u000a ? in a fluid consisting of N hard spheres in the Gibbs canonical ensemble — can be expressed as a sum of N independent and similarly distributed random variables. The mean value of a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu. T. Pavlyukhin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CMaPh.tmp..218A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hausdorff and Packing Spectra, <span class="hlt">Large</span> <span class="hlt">Deviations</span>, and Free Energy for Branching Random Walks in {mathbb{R}^d}</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Consider an {mathbb{R}^d} -valued branching random walk (BRW) on a supercritical Galton Watson tree. Without any assumption on the distribution of this BRW we compute, almost surely and simultaneously, the Hausdorff and packing dimensions of the level sets E(K) of infinite branches in the boundary of the tree (endowed with its standard metric) along which the averages of the BRW have a given closed connected set of limit points K. This goes beyond multifractal analysis, which only considers those level sets when K ranges in the set of singletons {\\{?\\}, ? in mathbb{R}^d} . We also give a 0-? law for the Hausdorff and packing measures of the level sets E({?}), and compute the free energy of the associated logarithmically correlated random energy model in full generality. Moreover, our results complete the previous works on multifractal analysis by including the levels ? which do not belong to the range of the gradient of the free energy. This covers in particular a situation that was until now badly understood, namely the case where a first order phase transition occurs. As a consequence of our study, we can also describe the whole singularity spectrum of Mandelbrot measures, as well as the associated free energy function (or L q -spectrum), when a first order phase transition occurs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Attia, Najmeddine; Barral, Julien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ppewww.physics.gla.ac.uk/~doherty/CoreMemIndex.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Core Memory <span class="hlt">Principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A researcher from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow provides this website on Magnetic RAM (MRAM) -- a non-volatile memory storage system similar to Flash memory except that it uses less power and switches faster. Predicting that "2005 could see mass production of MRAM parts" to be used in powering instant-on computers and computers that are in stand-by power-savings mode (as is currently done with PDAs and laptops), the author reviews some of the physical challenges yet to be overcome. The website provides some basic information on magnetic memory and binary notation, as well as sections on: the <span class="hlt">Principle</span> of the Magnetic Memory, The Rectangular Hysterisis Loop, A Magnetic Memory Element, Arrangement of Magnetic Core Memories, Relation between the Decimal and Binary Codes, How Numbers Are Stored in a Memory, How a Binary-Coded Decimal Digit is 'written in,' How a Digit is 'read out,' and a Complete Wiring Diagram of a Matrix Plane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doherty, Frederico A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5394654"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviation</span> of longitudinal and shear waves in austenitic stainless steel weld metal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the difficulties associated with the ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel weld metal is the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the ultrasonic beams. This can lead to errors in determining both the location and size of reflectors. The present paper compares experimental and theoretical data related to beam steering for longitudinal and shear waves in a sample of 308 SS weld metal. Agreement between predicted and measured beam <span class="hlt">deviations</span> is generally good. Reasons for discrepancies are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27531524"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Use of Low-Density Particles for Gravel Packing a Highly <span class="hlt">Deviated</span> Well</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Packing the annulus and perforations with gravel in highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> wells, especially horizontal wells, is difficult. As well <span class="hlt">deviation</span> increases, pump rates and carrier-fluid viscosities must be increased to prevent particle settling. Increasing the viscosity reduces fluid leakoff and perforation-pack efficiency. Placement efficiency improves as particle density, ρ{sub p}, and carrier-fluid density, ρ{sub c}, become closer. In an ideal system,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Bryant; T. E. Hudson; S. W. Hoover</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19499706"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviation</span> from the Curie-Weiss Law in KH2PO4</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dielectric constants of KH2PO4 along the c- and a-axes have been measured precisely in the paraelectric phase at T-Tc≲230 K. Slight <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from the Curie-Weiss law was found for \\\\varepsilonc and \\\\varepsilona in the range T-Tc≲25 K. The <span class="hlt">deviation</span> can not be explained by the electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction. The short range correlation taken in Slater's theory of KH2PO4 is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kiyoshi Deguchi; Eiji Nakamura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130474"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in high-intensity discharge lamps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE <span class="hlt">deviations</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan, Monastir (Tunisia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39725087"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> of kerf by handsaws III: the bend of saw blade by unsymmetrical set</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To clarify the inducing mechanism of kerf <span class="hlt">deviation</span> caused by unsymmetrical set of the handsaw, we hypothesized that the moment\\u000a on the bottom edge of the saw blade, which is generated by the unsymmetrical set on handsaw teeth, bends the saw blade and\\u000a this deformation should be one factor of the kerf <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. To verify this hypothesis, the bend of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seiji Hirata; Masamitsu Ohta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23312633"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motor learning <span class="hlt">principles</span> for neurorehabilitation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neurorehabilitation is based on the assumption that motor learning contributes to motor recovery after injury. However, little is known about how learning itself is affected by brain injury, how learning mechanisms interact with spontaneous biological recovery, and how best to incorporate learning <span class="hlt">principles</span> into rehabilitation training protocols. Here we distinguish between two types of motor learning, adaptation and skill acquisition, and discuss how they relate to neurorehabilitation. Functional recovery can occur through resolution of impairment (reacquisition of premorbid movement patterns) and through compensation (use of alternative movements or effectors to accomplish the same goal); both these forms of recovery respond to training protocols. The emphasis in current neurorehabilitation practice is on the rapid establishment of independence in activities of daily living through compensatory strategies, rather than on the reduction of impairment. Animal models, however, show that after focal ischemic damage there is a brief, approximately 3-4-week, window of heightened plasticity, which in combination with training protocols leads to <span class="hlt">large</span> gains in motor function. Analogously, almost all recovery from impairment in humans occurs in the first 3 months after stroke, which suggests that targeting impairment in this time-window with intense motor learning protocols could lead to gains in function that are comparable in terms of effect size to those seen in animal models. PMID:23312633</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kitago, Tomoko; Krakauer, John W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5441792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental <span class="hlt">principles</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A <span class="hlt">large</span>, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental <span class="hlt">principles</span> of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fuehrer, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8906E..29Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Real time basis-<span class="hlt">deviation</span> measurement system based on BB84 module</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to present a real time basis-<span class="hlt">deviation</span> measurement system based on BB84 module. As BB84 module is the essential module in QKD receiver system, the basis-<span class="hlt">deviation</span> measurement system can be directly implanted into the QKD receiver system to detect the polarization of photon current in real time during quantum key distribution. BB84 module distributes the incident photon current into four photon currents with the polarization of H (Horizontal), V (Vertical), + (+45°) and - (-45°). Their energies can be detected by four APD photon-detectors. Basis-<span class="hlt">deviation</span> compute equation is deduced with the Stocks-vector of the optical devices path in BB84 module. The energies of the four distributed photon currents are collected in real time and then input to basis-<span class="hlt">deviation</span> compute equation to calculate the basis-<span class="hlt">deviation</span>. There is error bears on the effects produced by the optical elements in the BB84 module, so we built a set of software module to foundation the process of the real time polarization measurement system working. Thus we can see how all the parameters of the optical elements effects the calculation results. At last, we built a polarization photon current generator which can produce photon current with continuous changing polarization and a real time basis-<span class="hlt">deviation</span> measurement system based on BB84 module in laboratory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Ming; Wu, Jin-cai; Zhang, Liang; Jia, Jian-jun; He, Zhi-pin; Yang, Shi-ji; Qian, Feng; Wang, Jian-yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3533464"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inferior Oblique Muscle Weakening: Is It Possible to Quantify Its Effects on Horizontal <span class="hlt">Deviations</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective. To evaluate and quantify the effect of inferior oblique muscle weakening on horizontal <span class="hlt">deviations</span>. Methods. The medical files of patients who had undergone an inferior oblique weakening as a single procedure were all reviewed. The main measures were the type of inferior oblique overaction (IOOA), pre- and postoperative amount of IOOA, and horizontal <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in primary position. Results. The study was conducted with 66 patients (30 males, 36 females). The median age was 11 years (1–49). Of the 66 patients, 30 (45.5%) had primary and 36 (54.5%) had secondary IOOA. The most common procedure was inferior oblique anteriorization in 32 patients (48.5%). The mean postoperative horizontal and vertical <span class="hlt">deviations</span> and the amount of IOOA were decreased postoperatively (p = 0.001 for all). The median amount of correction of horizontal near and distance <span class="hlt">deviations</span> was 4? (0–20). The preoperative amount of IOOA, the presence of fourth nerve palsy, and the type of the weakening procedure had no significant effect on the amount of correction of horizontal <span class="hlt">deviations</span>. Conclusion. The inferior oblique weakening procedures have secondary effects and warrant reduction of horizontal <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in varying degrees. This should be borne in mind in planning a simultaneous horizontal muscle surgery and setting the surgical amount.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylan Sekeroglu, Hande; Dikmetas, Ozlem; Sanac, Ali Sefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur; Arslan, Umut</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16245595"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancements to GPS operations and clock evaluations using a "total" Hadamard <span class="hlt">deviation</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe a method based on the total <span class="hlt">deviation</span> approach whereby we improve the confidence of the estimation of the Hadamard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> that is used primarily in global positioning system (GPS) operations. The Hadamard-total <span class="hlt">deviation</span> described in this paper provides a significant improvement in confidence indicated by an increase of 1.3 to 3.4 times the one degree of freedom of the plain Hadamard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> at the longest averaging time. The new Hadamard-total <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is slightly negatively biased with respect to the usual Hadamard <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, and tau values are restricted to less than or equal to T/3, to be consistent with the usual Hadamard's definition. We give a method of automatically removing bias by a power-law detection scheme. We review the relationship between Kalman filter parameters and the Hadamard and Allan variances, illustrate the operational problems associated with estimating these parameters, and discuss how the Hadamard-total variance can improve management of present and future GPS satellite clocks. PMID:16245595</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Howe, David A; Beard, Ron L; Greenhall, Charles A; Vernotte, François; Riley, William J; Peppler, Trudi K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ece.ut.ac.ir/dbrg/seminars/SpecialDB/2006/Keykhah/Data+Mining/ref/mit+press+-+principles+of+data+mining.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Data Mining</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The growing interest in data mining is motivated by a common problem across disciplines: how does one store, access, model, and ultimately describe and understand very <span class="hlt">large</span> data sets? Historically, different aspects of data mining have been addressed independently by different disciplines. This is the first truly interdisciplinary text on data mining, blending the contributions of information science, computer science,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David J. Hand; Heikki Mannila; Padhraic Smyth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA525717"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Jointness.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite all the attention given to jointness since World War II, there is no comprehensive theory that underpins the concept in doctrine. This is unusual in light of the <span class="hlt">large</span> body of literature on operational art. Most military practitioners find operati...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. C. Rubel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24983582"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Ethical <span class="hlt">principles</span> in psychiatric action].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is no specific psychiatric ethic. The ethical <span class="hlt">principles</span> for practical actions in psychiatry have to be adapted on the basis of the generally accepted ethical <span class="hlt">principles</span>, which are based on psychobiologically developed ethic of love: honesty, discretion, empathy, patience, distance, consistency, accountability, tolerance, economic neutrality. PMID:24983582</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rüther, Eckart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/sept_05_re.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of instructed language learning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general <span class="hlt">principles</span> for language pedagogy. These <span class="hlt">principles</span> address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on meaning and on form, the need to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rod Ellis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hci.usask.ca/publications/2005/HCI_TR_2005_02_Design.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design <span class="hlt">Principles</span> for Children's Technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Designers of children's technology and software face distinctive challenges. Many design <span class="hlt">principles</span> used for adult interfaces cannot be applied to children's products because the needs, skills, and expectations of this user population are drastically different than those of adults. In recent years, designers have started developing design <span class="hlt">principles</span> for children, but this work has not been collected in one place.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sonia Chiasson; Carl Gutwin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Input%2c+AND+interaction+AND+second+AND+language+AND+production&id=EJ803869"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Instructed Language Learning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general <span class="hlt">principles</span> for language pedagogy. These <span class="hlt">principles</span> address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ellis, Rod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mathlearningcenter.org/media/Bridges_Gr5_OnlineSupplement/B5SUP-E2_DataCntPrinc_0809.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data Anlaysis: Fundamental Counting <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson plan presents an activity where students use charts and tree diagrams to show the possible outcomes of probability experiments and the likelihood of each event. In the plan the teacher guides the class to understand and apply the fundamental counting <span class="hlt">principle</span>. Two independent worksheets provide students with more practice creating sample spaces and applying the fundamental counting <span class="hlt">principle</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mcox.org/introspect/logic-reflect.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reflection <span class="hlt">principles</span> in computational logic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce the concept of reflection <span class="hlt">principle</span> as a knowledge representation paradigm in a computational logic setting. Reflection <span class="hlt">principles</span> are expressed as certain kinds of logic schemata intended to capture the basic properties of the domain knowledge to be modelled. Reflection is then used to instantiate these schemata to answer specific queries about the domain. This differs from other approaches</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonas Barklund; Pierangelo Dell'acqua; Stefania Costantini; Gaetano Aurelio Lanzarone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gatsby.ucl.ac.uk/~zoubin/papers/natneuro.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational <span class="hlt">principles</span> of movement neuroscience</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unifying <span class="hlt">principles</span> of movement have emerged from the computational study of motor control. We review several of these <span class="hlt">principles</span> and show how they apply to processes such as motor planning, control, estimation, prediction and learning. Our goal is to demonstrate how specific models emerging from the computational approach provide a theoretical framework for movement neuroscience.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zoubin Ghahramani; Daniel M. Wolpert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3738420"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lateralized olfactory difference in patients with a nasal septal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> before and after septoplasty*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Patients with a smell disorder and less often, healthy people, exhibit an olfactory difference between the two sides of the nose. Higher olfactory thresholds are correlated with the obstructed side of a nasal septal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (NSD). With this prospective study we sought to investigate if a NSD compromises the olfactory identification. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with nasal obstruction due to a NSD were recruited. The patients were listed for primary septoplasty with or without radiofrequency reduction of the inferior turbinates. Pre- and postoperatively, patients were assessed by visual analogue scales for symptoms and by the bilateral nasal spirometry (nasal partitioning ratio-NPR) for the side/degree of obstruction. Olfactory identification was tested separately for each nasal cavity by means of the 12 item Sniffin Sticks test (12-SS test) and a 3-point difference between the nasal sides was considered significant. Results: The mean age of patients (25 males/5 females) was 33 years (range 17-52). No complications or anosmia were reported postoperatively. Subjective hyposmia, nasal obstruction and the NPR were reduced (p<0.001). Significant lateralized differences were present in 20% and 13% of patients before and after septoplasty respectively; the change was not significant (p=0.754). Patients with a significant lateralized olfactory difference had a greater NPR pre- (p=0.031) but not postoperatively (p=0.783). The sides of obstruction and worst olfactory performance did not differ in these patients before surgery. Conclusions: Olfactory identification may be compromised on the convex side of a <span class="hlt">large</span> NSD. Post-operatively, patients exhibit a lateralised smell identification difference as often as healthy people. The effect of a clinically significant NSD on the different aspects of olfactory performance warrants further study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fyrmpas, G; Tsalighopoulos, M; Constantinidis, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1982/0307/report.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrotectonics; <span class="hlt">principles</span> and relevance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydrotectonics combines the <span class="hlt">principles</span> of hydraulics and rock mechanics. The hypothesis assumes that: (1) no faults are truly planar, (2) opposing noncongruent wavy wallrock surfaces form chambers and bottlenecks along the fault, and (3) most thrusting occurs beneath the water table. These physical constraints permit the following dynamics. Shear displacement accompanying faulting must constantly change the volume of each chamber. Addition of ground water liquefies dry fault breccia to a heavy incompressible viscous muddy breccia I call fault slurry. When the volume of a chamber along a thrust fault decreases faster than its fault slurry can escape laterally, overpressurized slurry is hydraulically injected into the base of near-vertical fractures in the otherwise impervious overriding plate. Breccia pipes commonly form where such fissures intersect. Alternating decrease and increase in volume of the chamber subjects this injection slurry to reversible surges that not only raft and abrade huge clasts sporadically spalled from the walls of the conduit but also act as a forceful hydraulic ram which periodically widens the conduit and extends its top. If the pipe perforates a petroleum reservoir, leaking hydrocarbons float to its top. Sudden faulting may generate a powerful water hammer that can be amplified at some distal narrow ends of the anastomosing plumbing system, where the shock may produce shatter cones. If vented on the Earth's surface, the muddy breccia, now called extrusion slurry, forms a mud volcano. This hypothesis suggests that many highly disturbed features presently attributed to such catastrophic processes as subsurface explosions or meteorite impacts are due to the rheology of tectonic slurry in an intermittently reactivated pressure-relief tube rooted in a powerful reciprocating hydrotectonic pump activated by a long-lived deep-seated thrust fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kopf, R. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23240942"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of periodontology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Periodontal diseases are among the most common diseases affecting humans. Dental biofilm is a contributor to the etiology of most periodontal diseases. It is also widely accepted that immunological and inflammatory responses to biofilm components are manifested by signs and symptoms of periodontal disease. The outcome of such interaction is modulated by risk factors (modifiers), either inherent (genetic) or acquired (environmental), significantly affecting the initiation and progression of different periodontal disease phenotypes. While definitive genetic determinants responsible for either susceptibility or resistance to periodontal disease have yet to be identified, many factors affecting the pathogenesis have been described, including smoking, diabetes, obesity, medications, and nutrition. Currently, periodontal diseases are classified based upon clinical disease traits using radiographs and clinical examination. Advances in genomics, molecular biology, and personalized medicine may result in new guidelines for unambiguous disease definition and diagnosis in the future. Recent studies have implied relationships between periodontal diseases and systemic conditions. Answering critical questions regarding host-parasite interactions in periodontal diseases may provide new insight in the pathogenesis of other biomedical disorders. Therapeutic efforts have focused on the microbial nature of the infection, as active treatment centers on biofilm disruption by non-surgical mechanical debridement with antimicrobial and sometimes anti-inflammatory adjuncts. The surgical treatment aims at gaining access to periodontal lesions and correcting unfavorable gingival/osseous contours to achieve a periodontal architecture that will provide for more effective oral hygiene and periodontal maintenance. In addition, advances in tissue engineering have provided innovative means to regenerate/repair periodontal defects, based upon <span class="hlt">principles</span> of guided tissue regeneration and utilization of growth factors/biologic mediators. To maintain periodontal stability, these treatments need to be supplemented with long-term maintenance (supportive periodontal therapy) programs. PMID:23240942</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dentino, Andrew; Lee, Seokwoo; Mailhot, Jason; Hefti, Arthur F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SSEle..80..118T"> <span id="translatedtitle">IGBT scaling <span class="hlt">principle</span> toward CMOS compatible wafer processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A scaling <span class="hlt">principle</span> for trench gate IGBT is proposed. CMOS technology on <span class="hlt">large</span> diameter wafer enables to produce various digital circuits with higher performance and lower cost. The transistor cell structure becomes laterally smaller and smaller and vertically shallower and shallower. In contrast, latest IGBTs have rather deeper trench structure to obtain lower on-state voltage drop and turn-off loss. In the aspect of the process uniformity and wafer warpage, manufacturing such structure in the CMOS factory is difficult. In this paper, we show the scaling <span class="hlt">principle</span> toward shallower structure and better performance. The <span class="hlt">principle</span> is theoretically explained by our previously proposed "Structure Oriented" analytical model. The <span class="hlt">principle</span> represents a possibility of technology direction and roadmap for future IGBT for improving the device performance consistent with lower cost and high volume productivity with CMOS compatible <span class="hlt">large</span> diameter wafer technologies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanaka, Masahiro; Omura, Ichiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18518434"> <span id="translatedtitle">A test of the Copernican <span class="hlt">principle</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The blackbody nature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation spectrum is used in a modern test of the Copernican <span class="hlt">principle</span>. The reionized universe serves as a mirror to reflect CMB photons, thereby permitting a view of ourselves and the local gravitational potential. By comparing with measurements of the CMB spectrum, a limit is placed on the possibility that we occupy a privileged location, residing at the center of a <span class="hlt">large</span> void. The Hubble diagram inferred from lines of sight originating at the center of the void may be misinterpreted to indicate cosmic acceleration. Current limits on spectral distortions are shown to exclude the largest voids which mimic cosmic acceleration. More sensitive measurements of the CMB spectrum could prove the existence of such a void or confirm the validity of the Copernican <span class="hlt">principle</span>. PMID:18518434</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caldwell, R R; Stebbins, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1764183"> <span id="translatedtitle">Milk Fever Control <span class="hlt">Principles</span>: A Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three main preventive <span class="hlt">principles</span> against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each <span class="hlt">principle</span> was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%–60% in terms of milk fever prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) <span class="hlt">principle</span>, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K) – (Cl + S)) significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD <span class="hlt">principle</span> is a palatability problem. The <span class="hlt">principle</span> of feeding rations low in calcium is highly efficient in milk fever prevention provided the calcium intake in the dry period is kept below 20 g per day. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a very low mean RR (between 0 and 0.20) (daily calcium intake below versus above 20 g/d). The main problem in implementing the low-Ca <span class="hlt">principle</span> is difficulties in formulating rations sufficiently low in calcium when using commonly available feeds. The use of <span class="hlt">large</span> doses of vitamin D metabolites and analogues for milk fever prevention is controversial. Due to toxicity problems and an almost total lack of recent studies on the subject this <span class="hlt">principle</span> is not described in detail. A few management related issues were discussed briefly, and the following conclusions were made: It is important to supply the periparturient cow with sufficient magnesium to fulfil its needs, and to prevent the dry cows from being too fat. Available information on the influence of carbohydrate intake, and on the effect of the length of the dry period and prepartum milking, is at present insufficient to include these factors in control programmes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1945026"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local sequence alignments statistics: <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from Gumbel statistics in the rare-event tail</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The optimal score for ungapped local alignments of infinitely long random sequences is known to follow a Gumbel extreme value distribution. Less is known about the important case, where gaps are allowed. For this case, the distribution is only known empirically in the high-probability region, which is biologically less relevant. Results We provide a method to obtain numerically the biologically relevant rare-event tail of the distribution. The method, which has been outlined in an earlier work, is based on generating the sequences with a parametrized probability distribution, which is biased with respect to the original biological one, in the framework of Metropolis Coupled Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Here, we first present the approach in detail and evaluate the convergence of the algorithm by considering a simple test case. In the earlier work, the method was just applied to one single example case. Therefore, we consider here a <span class="hlt">large</span> set of parameters: We study the distributions for protein alignment with different substitution matrices (BLOSUM62 and PAM250) and affine gap costs with different parameter values. In the logarithmic phase (<span class="hlt">large</span> gap costs) it was previously assumed that the Gumbel form still holds, hence the Gumbel distribution is usually used when evaluating p-values in databases. Here we show that for all cases, provided that the sequences are not too long (L > 400), a "modified" Gumbel distribution, i.e. a Gumbel distribution with an additional Gaussian factor is suitable to describe the data. We also provide a "scaling analysis" of the parameters used in the modified Gumbel distribution. Furthermore, via a comparison with BLAST parameters, we show that significance estimations change considerably when using the true distributions as presented here. Finally, we study also the distribution of the sum statistics of the k best alignments. Conclusion Our results show that the statistics of gapped and ungapped local alignments <span class="hlt">deviates</span> significantly from Gumbel in the rare-event tail. We provide a Gaussian correction to the distribution and an analysis of its scaling behavior for several different scoring parameter sets, which are commonly used to search protein data bases. The case of sum statistics of k best alignments is included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolfsheimer, Stefan; Burghardt, Bernd; Hartmann, Alexander K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014quwo.book....1B"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Inconvenient <span class="hlt">Principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At the end of the XIXth century, physics was dominated by two main theories: classical (or Newtonian) mechanics and electromagnetism. To be entirely correct, we should add thermodynamics, which seemed to be grounded on different <span class="hlt">principles</span>, but whose links with mechanics were progressively better understood thanks to the work of Maxwell and Boltzmann, among others. Classical mechanics, born with Galileo and Newton, claimed to explain the motion of lumps of matter under the action of forces. The paradigm for a lump of matter is a particle, or a corpuscle, which one can intuitively think of as a billiard ball of tiny dimensions, and which will be dubbed a micro-billiard ball in what follows. The second main component of XIXth century physics, electromagnetism, is a theory of the electric and magnetic fields and also of optics, thanks to the synthesis between electromagnetism and optics performed by Maxwell, who understood that light waves are nothing other than a particular case of electromagnetic waves. We had, on the one hand, a mechanical theory where matter exhibiting a discrete character (particles) was carried along well localized trajectories and, on the other hand, a wave theory describing continuous phenomena which did not involve transport of matter. The two theories addressed different domains, the only obvious link being the law giving the force on a charged particle submitted to an electromagnetic field, or Lorentz force. In 1905, Einstein put an end to this dichotomic wave/particle view and launched two revolutions of physics: special relativity and quantum physics. First, he showed that Newton's equations of motion must be modified when the particle velocities are not negligible with respect to that of light: this is the special relativity revolution, which introduces in mechanics a quantity characteristic of optics, the velocity of light. However, this is an aspect of the Einsteinian revolution which will not interest us directly, with the exception of Chapter 7. Then Einstein introduced the particle aspect of light: in modern language, he introduced the quantum properties of the electromagnetic field, epitomized by the concept of photon. After briefly recalling the main properties of waves in classical physics, this chapter will lead us to the heart of the quantum world, elaborating on an example which is studied in some detail, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This apparatus is widely used today in physics laboratories, but we shall limit ourselves to a schematic description, at the level of what my experimental colleagues would call "a theorist's version of an interferometer".</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bellac, Michel Le</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MeScR..13...56L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Outlier Detection and Correction for the <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> of Tooth Profiles of Gears</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To decrease the influence of outlier on the measurement of tooth profiles, this paper proposes a method of outlier detection and correction based on the grey system theory. After studying the characteristics of outliers from the <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of tooth profiles, this paper proposes a preprocessing method for the modeling data which include abnormal value, and establishes an outlier detection and correction model for the <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of tooth profiles. Simulation results show that the precision of ONDGM(1,1)(one order and one variable non-homogenous discrete grey model whose outlier is processed by the preprocessing method proposed in this paper) is higher than that of NDGM(1,1)(one order and one variable non-homogenous discrete grey model), and the ONDGM(1,1) is more suitable than the NDGM(1,1) for dealing with the outliers from the <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of tooth profiles. The experiment results show that the outlier detection and correction model detects and corrects the outliers from the <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of tooth profiles, and the correction value of the outlier is basically in accordance with the actual <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. Therefore, the method of outlier detection and correction decreases the influence of outlier and improves the precision in the measurement of tooth profiles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lianfu, Han; Changfeng, Fu; Jun, Wang; Wenyan, Tang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJTJE..30..179L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A More Realistic Scheme of <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> Error Representation for Gas Turbine Diagnostics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gas turbine diagnostic algorithms widely use fault simulation schemes, in which measurement errors are usually given by theoretical random number distributions, like the Gaussian probability density function. The scatter of simulated noise is determined on the basis of known information on maximum errors for every sensor type. Such simulation differs from real diagnosis because instead of measurements themselves the diagnostic algorithms work with their <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from an engine baseline. In addition to simulated measurement inaccuracy, the <span class="hlt">deviations</span> computed for real data have other error components. In this way, simulated and real <span class="hlt">deviation</span> errors differ by amplitude and distribution. As a result, simulation-based investigations might result in too optimistic conclusions on gas turbine diagnosis reliability. To understand error features, <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of real measurements are analyzed in the present paper. To make error presentation more realistic, it is proposed to extract an error component from real <span class="hlt">deviations</span> and to integrate it in fault description. Finally, the effect of the new noise representation mode on diagnostic reliability is estimated. It is shown that the reliability change due to inexact error simulation can be significant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loboda, Igor; Yepifanov, Sergiy; Feldshteyn, Yakov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMP....53l2208H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linear maps preserving maximal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and the Jordan structure of quantum systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of a quantum observable is the largest statistical <span class="hlt">deviation</span> one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal <span class="hlt">deviations</span> is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnár.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamhalter, Jan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22094004"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linear maps preserving maximal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and the Jordan structure of quantum systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of a quantum observable is the largest statistical <span class="hlt">deviation</span> one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal <span class="hlt">deviations</span> is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJP..129..102K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conservative relativity <span class="hlt">principle</span>: Logical ground and analysis of relevant experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We suggest a new relativity <span class="hlt">principle</span>, which asserts the impossibility to distinguish the state of rest and the state of motion at the constant velocity of a system, if no work is done to the system in question during its motion. We suggest calling this new rule as "conservative relativity <span class="hlt">principle</span>" (CRP). In the case of an empty space, CRP is reduced to the Einstein special relativity <span class="hlt">principle</span>. We also show that CRP is compatible with the general relativity <span class="hlt">principle</span>. One of important implications of CRP is the dependence of the proper time of a charged particle on the electric potential at its location. In the present paper we consider the relevant experimental facts gathered up to now, where the latter effect can be revealed. We show that in atomic physics the introduction of this effect furnishes a better convergence between theory and experiment than that provided by the standard approach. Finally, we reanalyze the Mössbauer experiments in rotating systems and show that the obtained recently puzzling <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the relative energy shift between emission and absorption lines from the relativistic prediction can be explained by the CRP.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kholmetskii, Alexander; Yarman, Tolga; Missevitch, Oleg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MeScT..21g4001G"> <span id="translatedtitle">A liquid-independent volume flow measurement <span class="hlt">principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel flow measurement <span class="hlt">principle</span> is presented enabling non-intrusive volume flow measurements of liquids in the ml/min range. It is based on an opto-acoustical time-of-flight <span class="hlt">principle</span>, where the time interval is recorded in which a thermal label travels a known distance through a flow channel. Big advantages are the insensitivity to temperature drift and the fact that user calibration is unnecessary. The paper presents a set of physics-based criteria that define the working range of the measurement <span class="hlt">principle</span>. A prototype of a flow meter was developed and evaluated in a test rig with flows of water, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and mixtures of both liquids. Pure water and IPA flows of 0.1 to 2 ml min-1 were measured and found to coincide with the reference flows within 4%. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of the fluctuations did not exceed 3%. For flows of 2 ml min-1 the limited power of the laser source caused <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of 7% with 5% fluctuations. Finally, flow measurements were done in water-IPA mixtures with concentrations between 10% and 90%-w/w at a flow rate of 15 g h-1 (?0.3 ml min-1). The ratio of measured and reference flow appeared to be 4% to 5% below the theoretical value, but it was hardly a function of mixture composition. Hence, liquid independence of the measurement <span class="hlt">principle</span> was proven.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geers, L. F. G.; Volker, A. W. F.; Hunter, T. P. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25v5202D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Europium doping induced symmetry <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and its impact on the second harmonic generation of doped ZnO nanowires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we investigated the effects of europium doping on the second harmonic generation (SHG) of ZnO nanowires (NWs). A non-monotonic enhancement in the SHG is observed with the increase of the europium concentration. Maximum SHG is observed from the 1 at.% europium doped ZnO NWs with an enhancement factor of 4.5. To understand the underlying mechanism, the effective second order non–linear coefficient (deff) is calculated from the theoretical fitting with consideration of the absorption effect. Microstructural characterization reveals the structural deformation of the ZnO NWs caused by europium doping. We estimated the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in the crystal site symmetry around the Eu3+ ions (defined as the asymmetric factor) from photoluminescence measurement and it is found to be strongly correlated with the calculated deff value. A strong linear dependence between the magnitudes of deff and the asymmetric factor suggests that <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in the local site symmetry of the ZnO crystal by europium doping could be the most probable origin of the observed <span class="hlt">large</span> second order non-linearity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dhara, Soumen; Imakita, Kenji; Mizuhata, Minoru; Fujii, Minoru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24205158"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reducing the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in multiple-assay experiments where the variation matters but the absolute value does not.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When the value of a quantity x for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems' averages present standard <span class="hlt">deviations</span> that are too <span class="hlt">large</span> to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of x matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of x must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty. PMID:24205158</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OptLT..50...25S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motion <span class="hlt">deviation</span> rectifying method of dynamically measuring rail wear based on multi-line structured-light vision</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rail wear dynamic measurement techniques are important to ensure the security of railway system and the efficiency of maintaining. Nowadays, a widely used approach is based on structured-light vision sensor, which includes a camera and a laser projector generating a light plane on the inner side of the rail. Considering the sensor installation error and vibration of running train, it is difficult to ensure the perpendicularity between the light plane and the rail, which leads to <span class="hlt">large</span> measurement error. In order to overcome the problem, a motion <span class="hlt">deviation</span> rectifying method is proposed. Rail section profiles are obtained by a multi-line structured-light vision sensor with multiple parallel light planes. Each profile can be segmented into two curves. One representing the rail waist is used to fit the rail longitudinal axis (parallel to train running direction) and establish an auxiliary plane perpendicular to the direction. <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> rectifying process is to project the rail section profiles onto the auxiliary plane to recover perpendicularity between the light plane and the rail. Then another curve representing the rail head is used to calculate the rail wear based on the standard profile. The experimental results indicate that the method reduces the rail wear measurement error, meeting the requirements for real-time dynamic measurement of rail wear.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, Junhua; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Yuntao; Liu, Qianzhe; Zhang, Guangjun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3329413"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gender and line size factors modulate the <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of the subjective visual vertical induced by head tilt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The subjective visual vertical (SVV, the visual estimation of gravitational direction) is commonly considered as an indicator of the sense of orientation. The present study examined the impact of two methodological factors (the angle size of the stimulus and the participant's gender) on <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of the SVV caused by head tilt. Forty healthy participants (20 men and 20 women) were asked to make visual vertical adjustments of a light bar with their head held vertically or roll-tilted by 30° to the left or to the right. Line angle sizes of 0.95° and 18.92° were presented. Results The SVV tended to move in the direction of head tilt in women but away from the direction of head tilt in men. Moreover, the head-tilt effect was also modulated by the stimulus' angle size. The <span class="hlt">large</span> angle size led to <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in the direction of head-tilt, whereas the small angle size had the opposite effect. Conclusions Our results showed that gender and line angle size have an impact on the evaluation of the SVV. These findings must be taken into account in the growing body of research that uses the SVV paradigm in disease settings. Moreover, this methodological issue may explain (at least in part) the discrepancies found in the literature on the head-tilt effect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24806742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Europium doping induced symmetry <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and its impact on the second harmonic generation of doped ZnO nanowires.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we investigated the effects of europium doping on the second harmonic generation (SHG) of ZnO nanowires (NWs). A non-monotonic enhancement in the SHG is observed with the increase of the europium concentration. Maximum SHG is observed from the 1 at.% europium doped ZnO NWs with an enhancement factor of 4.5. To understand the underlying mechanism, the effective second order non-linear coefficient (deff) is calculated from the theoretical fitting with consideration of the absorption effect. Microstructural characterization reveals the structural deformation of the ZnO NWs caused by europium doping. We estimated the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in the crystal site symmetry around the Eu(3+) ions (defined as the asymmetric factor) from photoluminescence measurement and it is found to be strongly correlated with the calculated deff value. A strong linear dependence between the magnitudes of deff and the asymmetric factor suggests that <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in the local site symmetry of the ZnO crystal by europium doping could be the most probable origin of the observed <span class="hlt">large</span> second order non-linearity. PMID:24806742</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dhara, Soumen; Imakita, Kenji; Mizuhata, Minoru; Fujii, Minoru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2168027"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Pharmacotherapy: I. Pharmacodynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper and the ensuing series present the <span class="hlt">principles</span> guiding and affecting the ability of drugs to produce therapeutic benefit or untoward harm. The <span class="hlt">principles</span> of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, the physiologic basis of adverse drug reactions and suitable antidotal therapy, and the biologic basis of drug allergy, drug-drug interactions, pharmacogenetics, teratology and hematologic reactions to chemicals are explored. These <span class="hlt">principles</span> serve to guide those administering and using drugs to attain the maximum benefit and least attendant harm from their use. Such is the goal of rational therapeutics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pallasch, Thomas J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16877128"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ethical <span class="hlt">principles</span>--emergency medicine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neither law nor religion, bioethics absorbs and applies elements of both. Its theories, <span class="hlt">principles</span>, and methods stem from various philosophical schools. Practitioners use case-based reasoning to apply bioethics to clinical situations, usually giving most weight to patients' autonomy and values, but also incorporating other relevant bioethical <span class="hlt">principles</span>, including those encompassed in professional oaths and codes. Emergency clinicians must be able to recognize bioethical dilemmas, have action plans based on their readings and discussions, and have a method through which to apply ethical <span class="hlt">principles</span> in clinical settings. This article provides an overview of ethical considerations and guidelines for emergency clinicians. PMID:16877128</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iserson, Kenneth V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.oecd.org/daf/governance/principles.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">OECD <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Corporate Governance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Corporate Governance" sets out a structure for directing and controlling corporate businesses. This document (html or .pdf) consists of five sections detailing the <span class="hlt">principles</span>: "The rights of shareholders," "The equitable treatment of shareholders," "The role of stakeholders in corporate governance," "Disclosure and transparency," and "The responsibilities of the board," as well as annotations for each of the sections. Be sure to visit the OECD <span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Corporate Governance Q&A page, linked at the top of the page.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26288365"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimization <span class="hlt">principles</span> for convective heat transfer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optimization for convective heat transfer plays a significant role in energy saving and high-efficiency utilizing. We compared two optimization <span class="hlt">principles</span> for convective heat transfer, the minimum entropy generation <span class="hlt">principle</span> and the entransy dissipation extremum <span class="hlt">principle</span>, and analyzed their physical implications and applicability. We derived the optimization equation for each optimization <span class="hlt">principle</span>. The theoretical analysis indicates that both <span class="hlt">principles</span> can be</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qun Chen; Moran Wang; Ning Pan; Zeng-Yuan Guo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910000314&hterms=entropy+fluid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dentropy%2Bfluid"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extrema <span class="hlt">Principles</span> Of Dissipation In Fluids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Report discusses application of <span class="hlt">principle</span> of least action and other variational or extrema <span class="hlt">principles</span> to dissipation of energy and production of entropy in fluids. <span class="hlt">Principle</span> of least action applied successfully to dynamics of particles and to quantum mechanics, but not universally accepted that variational <span class="hlt">principles</span> applicable to thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. Report argues for applicability of some extrema <span class="hlt">principles</span> to some simple flows.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24032856"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> of the glass transition temperature in amorphous conjugated polymer thin films.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of the glass transition temperature (T(g)) in thin films of an amorphous conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine) (TFB) are reported. Monotonic and nonmonotonic T(g) <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are observed in TFB thin films supported on Si-SiOx and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. A three-layer model is developed to fit both monotonic and nonmonotonic T(g) <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in these films. A 5-nm PEDOT:PSS capping layer was not found to be effective to remove the free-surface effect in Si-SiOx supported TFB films. PMID:24032856</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Dan; Osuna Orozco, Rodrigo; Wang, Tao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1096.1341F"> <span id="translatedtitle">a Scaling Law for Nondestructive Evaluation of Shot Peening Induced Surface Material Property <span class="hlt">Deviations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shot peening is frequently used to improve mechanical characteristics of metallic components' surfaces. The physical properties of shot peened surfaces exhibit <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from their bulk values. This paper shows that there exists a scaling law (universality) among seemingly unrelated material property <span class="hlt">deviations</span> and among different peening conditions. We present examples and support for scaling behaviors based on experimental data on Almen strip deflection, cold work and residual stress profiles of a shot peened nickel-base superalloy (Waspaloy), and swept frequency eddy current signals used for NDE studies of another shot peened nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718). In addition, a fast impedance calculation formula for a coil placed on a metal with small, continuous conductivity <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is presented and used for analytical and numerical study of eddy current signals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frishman, A. M.; Lo, C. C. H.; Shen, Y.; Nakagawa, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4062944"> <span id="translatedtitle">Highly <span class="hlt">Deviated</span> Asymmetric Division in Very Low Proportion of Mycobacterial Mid-log Phase Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we show that about 20% of the septating Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium xenopi cells in the exponential phase populationdivideasymmetrically, with an unusually high <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (17 ± 4%) in the division site from the median, to generate short cells and long cells, thereby generating population heterogeneity. This mode of division is very different from the symmetric division of themajority (about 80%) of the septating cells in the Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG exponential phase population, with 5-10% <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in the division site from the mid-cell site, as reported by recent studies. The short cells and the long cells further grew and divided to generate a population. We speculate that the generation of the short cells and the long cells through the highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> asymmetric divisionin the low proportions of mycobacterial population may have a role in stress tolerance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vijay, Srinivasan; Mukkayyan, Nagaraja; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3601950"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiotherapy Protocol <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> and Clinical Outcomes: A Meta-analysis of Cooperative Group Clinical Trials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Noncompliance with radiotherapy (RT) protocol guidelines has been linked to inferior clinical outcomes. We performed a meta-analysis of cooperative group trials to examine the association between RT quality assurance (QA) <span class="hlt">deviations</span> and disease control and overall survival (OS). Methods We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for multi-institutional trials that reported clinical outcomes in relation to RT QA results. Hazard ratios (HRs) describing the association between RT protocol noncompliance and patient outcomes were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Inverse variance meta-analyses were performed to assess the association between RT QA <span class="hlt">deviations</span> and OS. A second meta-analysis tested the association between RT QA <span class="hlt">deviations</span> and secondary outcomes, including local or locoregional control, event-free survival, and relapse. Random-effects models were used in cases of statistically significant (P < .10) effect heterogeneity. The Egger test was used to detect publication bias. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Eight studies (four pediatric, four adult) met all inclusion criteria and were incorporated into this analysis. The frequency of RT QA <span class="hlt">deviations</span> ranged from 8% to 71% (median = 32%). In a random-effects model, RT <span class="hlt">deviations</span> were associated with a statistically significant decrease in OS (HR of death = 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28 to 2.35; P < .001). A similar effect was seen for secondary outcomes (HR of treatment failure = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.15 to 2.78; P = .009). No evidence of publication bias was detected. Conclusion In clinical trials, RT protocol <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are associated with increased risks of treatment failure and overall mortality.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DOEET5308819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Principle</span> with Global Invariants.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A variational <span class="hlt">principle</span> is proposed for constructing equilibria with minimum energy in a toroidal plasma. The total energy is minimized subject to global invariants which act as constraints during relaxation of the plasma. These global integrals of motion...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Bhattacharjee R. L. Dewar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6589596"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fundamental <span class="hlt">principles</span> of particle detectors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector <span class="hlt">principles</span> are given. 14 refs., 11 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernow, R.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N7828434"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modern Measurement <span class="hlt">Principles</span> Moderne Messprinzipien.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent measurement techniques involving piezoelectric sensors, piezoresistive sensors, sensors using the servo <span class="hlt">principle</span>, incremental sensors, coded sensors, gyroscopic technique, strain gages, radar, optical sensors, and lasers were evaluated. An example...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Mettin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=yellowstone+AND+national+AND+park&id=EJ510772"> <span id="translatedtitle">Get Provoked: Applying Tilden's <span class="hlt">Principles</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This address given to the Division of Interpretation, Yellowstone National Park, Interpretive Training, June 1993, examines successes and failures in interpretive programs for adults and children in light of Tilden's <span class="hlt">principles</span>. (LZ)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shively, Carol A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA041692"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of the Dynamic Theory.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Generalizations of the classical Thermodynamic Laws are adopted as the fundamental <span class="hlt">principles</span> of the proposed theory, hereafter called the Dynamic Theory. An important role is played by an integrating factor which makes the energy exchange with the enviro...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. E. Williams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22069074"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of soft x-ray wide-band multilayer gratings for constant <span class="hlt">deviation</span> monochromators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Constant <span class="hlt">deviation</span> condition performing scanning energy by the rotation of grating around itself is the one of the most practical mounting for grating monochromators. Conventional multilayer coating can obtain high diffraction efficiency merely in a narrow band width. It is found that a new modified multilayer structure on the laminar-type grating intended to enhance the diffraction efficiency for constant <span class="hlt">deviation</span> condition shows the diffraction efficiency over 5% in a wide band range of 1.5-2.5 keV in calculation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koike, Masato; Imazono, Takashi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/43/5/012"> <span id="translatedtitle">Set standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The set standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span>, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12443130"> <span id="translatedtitle">ac conductivity spectra of alkali tellurite glasses: composition-dependent <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the Summerfield scaling.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report, for the first time, <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the Summerfield scaling in the ac conductivity spectra of single ion conducting glasses. In contrast to the extensively studied borate and germanate glasses, the conductivity isotherms of alkali tellurite glasses do not superimpose upon application of the Summerfield scaling. The <span class="hlt">deviations</span> depend on the alkali oxide content as well as on the type of the alkali ion. Remarkably, our experimental findings differ considerably from theoretical results describing the hopping dynamics of charge carriers in random barrier landscapes. PMID:12443130</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murugavel, S; Roling, B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/u28733045h4k2032.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asymptomatic Lacrimal Flow Abnormalities in Patients with Septal <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> and Turbinate Hypertrophy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background:  This study aimed to investigate the lacrimal flow in patients affected by septal <span class="hlt">deviations</span> and turbinate hypertrophy and\\u000a to evaluate changes after rhinoseptoplasty with dacryocystography (DCT) and computed tomographic dacryocystography (CT-DCT).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:  The study prospectively recruited patients having septal <span class="hlt">deviations</span> with or without turbinate hypertrophy who underwent surgical\\u000a evaluation for correction of their respiratory symptoms and were not referred for epiphora.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. Cervelli; G. Gravante; G. M. Colicchia; M. Grimaldi; D. J. Bottini; P. L. Torcia; F. Garzione</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987KFNT....3...36S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from LTE in the solar Fraunhofer spectrum - Oxygen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The formation of neutral O I 130.2-130.6, 135.6-135.9, 777.2-777.5, 844.6 nm lines observable in quiet regions on the solar disk is considered with allowance for <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from LTE. The non-LTE equivalent width of the triplet 772.2-775.5 nm is highly sensitive to temperature, which may ultimately lead to variations of the flux and equivalent width of the triplet in stellar spectra. The influence of LTE <span class="hlt">deviations</span> on the characteristics of the O I line profiles considered is greater than the errors of precision solar observations and must be accounted for in their interpretation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shchukina, N. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.physics.leidenuniv.nl/sections/cm/ip/group/Principle_of_SPM.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principles</span> of Scanning Probe Microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site offers a beautifully illustrated introduction to the <span class="hlt">principles</span> of scanning probe microscopy. The text is interspersed with links to additional information, much of it from the Interface Physics Group at Leiden University. There are several animations included and links to visual galleries which illustrate both <span class="hlt">principles</span> and utilization of scanning probe microscopy. An additional "links" page takes the user to sites of research groups involved in ongoing developmental work in surface science.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frenken, Joost</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-10/pdf/2010-10969.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 25844 - Class <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> From FAR 52.219-7, Notice of Partial Small Business Set-Aside</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...of the Secretary Class <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> From FAR 52.219-7, Notice of Partial Small Business...Defense approval of a class <span class="hlt">deviation</span> to FAR 52.219-7, to revise an existing class...requesting a class <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from FAR Clause 52.219-7, Notice of Partial Small...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930091468&hterms=mite+sound&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmite%2Bsound"> <span id="translatedtitle">A New <span class="hlt">Principle</span> of Sound Frequency Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In connection with the study of aircraft and propeller noises, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has developed an instrument for sound-frequency analysis which differs fundamentally from previous types, and which, owing to its simplicity of <span class="hlt">principle</span>, construction, and operation, has proved to be of value in this investigation. The method is based on the well-known fact that the Ohmic loss in an electrical resistance is equal to the sum of the losses of the harmonic components of a complex wave, except for the case in which any two components approach or attain vectorial identity, in which case the Ohmic loss is increased by a definite amount. The <span class="hlt">principle</span> of frequency analysis has been presented mathematically and a number of distinct advantages relative to previous methods have been pointed out. An automatic recording instrument embodying this <span class="hlt">principle</span> is described in detail. It employs a beat-frequency oscillator as a source of variable frequency. A <span class="hlt">large</span> number of experiments have verified the predicted superiority of the method. A number of representative records are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Theodorsen, Theodore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1932-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489210"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developmental <span class="hlt">principles</span>: fact or fiction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying <span class="hlt">principles</span> that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful <span class="hlt">principles</span> that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental <span class="hlt">principles</span>, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate <span class="hlt">principles</span> associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental <span class="hlt">principles</span> (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are <span class="hlt">principles</span> outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them. PMID:22489210</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Durston, A J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3296223"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developmental <span class="hlt">Principles</span>: Fact or Fiction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying <span class="hlt">principles</span> that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful <span class="hlt">principles</span> that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental <span class="hlt">principles</span>, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate <span class="hlt">principles</span> associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental <span class="hlt">principles</span> (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are <span class="hlt">principles</span> outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Durston, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920031853&hterms=dark+matter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ddark%2Bmatter"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dark matter and the equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence <span class="hlt">principle</span>. The astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter are discussed and rather tight constraints on its strength are found. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). Such an interaction also has unusual implications for the growth of <span class="hlt">large</span>-scale structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Nanot..24u4001S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Principle</span> and applications of terahertz molecular imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">principle</span>, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are <span class="hlt">large</span> in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Son, Joo-Hiuk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title16-vol1/pdf/CFR-2009-title16-vol1-sec260-6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">16 CFR 260.6 - General <span class="hlt">principles</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...CLAIMS § 260.6 General <span class="hlt">principles</span>. The following general <span class="hlt">principles</span> apply to all environmental...relative type size and proximity to the claim being qualified...exceptions to this general <span class="hlt">principle</span>. For example, if an...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........32W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design, construction, and operation of an apparatus for detecting short-length-scale <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from Newtonian gravity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A variety of recent theories of physics beyond the standard model would, if true, lead to <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from Newtonian gravity on experimentally accessible length scales. A few of the most important theoretical proposals along these lines are <span class="hlt">large</span> extra spatial dimensions, string theoretic dilatons and moduli, and scalar particles in hidden supersymmetric sectors. This list is not exhaustive---there are many reasons to investigate the behavior of gravity at small length scales, perhaps the most compelling of which is the fact that it is <span class="hlt">largely</span> unexplored territory. To detect or constrain <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from Newtonian gravity, we have constructed a second-generation cantilever-based probe to directly measure the force between two masses separated by tens of microns. The drive mass in our experiment consists of a metal disc with trenches machined in its face. The trenches are filled with a lighter material and covered with gold so that only the density (and not the conductivity or height) is modulated with the proper periodicity. This mass is rotated by a cryogenic helium gas bearing, producing an AC force on a gold test mass. The test mass sits on a silicon nitride cantilever enclosed in a sealed micromachined cavity maintained at low pressure by an integrated cryopump. The cantilever's displacement is recorded by a focused fiber interferometer and correlated with the rotation of the drive mass. This signal can be averaged over many drive mass rotations and used as a measurement of the force between the drive mass and the test mass. This measured force can be compared to calculations of the predicted force from various Yukawa-type interactions. This dissertation describes the design and construction of the apparatus, presents the first data from it, and discusses the prospects for increased precision in constraint or detection of non-Newtonian effects using this probe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weld, David Minot</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ASAJ..115.2462D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hamilton's <span class="hlt">principle</span> applied to piezomagnetism and related variational <span class="hlt">principles</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In piezomagnetism, the fundamental equations have been developed in differential form [e.g., V. I. Alshits and A. N. Darinskii, Wave Motion 15, 265-283 (1992)]. Alternatively, they may be expressed in variational form with its well-known features; this is the topic of this paper. First, the magnetic vector, that is, the gradient of the magnetic potential, is introduced [cf. the authors, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 4699-4706 (2003)]. Second, the sufficient conditions based on the energy argument are enumerated for a unique solution in the fundamental equations. Third, Hamilton's <span class="hlt">principle</span> is stated and a three-field variational <span class="hlt">principle</span> is obtained. The <span class="hlt">principle</span> yields only the divergence equations and some natural boundary conditions, and it has the remaining fundamental equations as its constraint conditions. The conditions are generally undesirable in computation, and they are accordingly removed through an involutory transformation [e.g., the authors, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 40, 457-489 (2002)]. Thus, a unified variational <span class="hlt">principle</span> operating on all the field variables is derived in piezomagnetism. The <span class="hlt">principle</span> is shown, as special cases, to recover some of earlier ones. [Work supported by TUBA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dokmeci, M. Cengiz; Altay, Gulay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3633251"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviating</span> From the Norm: Body Mass Index (BMI) Differences and Psychosocial Adjustment Among Early Adolescent Girls</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective?To examine whether <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from one’s ethnic group norm on body mass index (BMI) was related to psychosocial maladjustment among early adolescent girls, and whether specific ethnic groups were more vulnerable to maladjustment.?Methods?Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted on self- and peer-report measures from an ethnically diverse sample of sixth-grade girls (N = 2,636).?Results?African Americans and Latinas had a higher mean BMI than Asians and Whites. As <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from their ethnic group BMI norm increased, girls reported greater social anxiety, depression, peer victimization, and lower self-worth, and had lower peer-reported social status. Associations were specific to girls <span class="hlt">deviating</span> toward obesity status. Ethnic differences revealed that Asian girls <span class="hlt">deviating</span> toward obesity status were particularly vulnerable to internalizing symptoms.?Conclusions?Emotional maladjustment may be more severe among overweight/obese girls whose ethnic group BMI norm is furthest away from overweight/obesity status. Implications for obesity work with ethnically diverse adolescents were discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26991411"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Metal Ion Polymerization in Beer's Law <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> Using Extractive-Colorimetric Procedures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the solvent extraction of metal chelates, the presence of polymerized metal ion in either the aqueous or organic layer, can cause the efficiency of extraction to vary throughout a range of metal ion concentrations. Should an extractive-colorimetric determination be employed, a <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from Beer's Law can result in addition to other intrinsic causes. In this study, the nature of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Selman A. Berger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptSp.116..538O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviation</span> of the O-H chemical bond of the H2O molecule</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angles of the O-H bond for water molecules in the gaseous state are calculated ab initio. The Hartree-Fock method with various basis sets of the Gaussian 09 package is used. The calculation results correlate with previous estimates based on experimental data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Okhrimenko, B. A.; Yablochkova, K. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ece.umassd.edu/Faculty/acosta/ICASSP/Icassp_2004/pdfs/0300493.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">AUTOMATIC WHITE BALANCING USING LUMINANCE COMPONENT AND STANDARD <span class="hlt">DEVIATION</span> OF RGB COMPONENTS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Automatic white balancing is an essential image pre- processing component in consumer digital still cameras, and it can greatly improve the final image quality of the captured image. In this paper, a novel automatic white balancing algorithm based on both luminance component and standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of RGB components of the pre- captured image is proposed. A light source model for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hong-Kwai LAM; Oscar C. AU; Chi-Wah WONG</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50365124"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automatic white balancing using luminance component and standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of RGB components [image preprocessing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Automatic white balancing is an essential image preprocessing component in consumer digital still cameras, and it can greatly improve the final image quality of the captured image. In this paper, a novel automatic white balancing algorithm based on both the luminance component and standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of RGB components of the pre-captured image is proposed. A light source model for evaluation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hong-Kwai Lam; Oscar C. AU; Chi-Wah Wong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21349536"> <span id="translatedtitle">MUSiC - An Automated Scan for <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meyer, Arnd [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/siepr/cgi-bin/siepr/?q=system/files/shared/pubs/papers/pdf/04-05.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cost Contingency as the Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> of the Cost Estimate for Cost Engineering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traditional cost contingency estimation relies heavily on expert judgment based on various cost-engineering standards. This paper compares project stages, accuracy ranges, and cost contingencies recommended by the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International and the Electric Power Research Institute. It shows that current guidelines are consistent with contingencies equal to the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the cost estimate. It</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geoffrey Rothwell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51133217"> <span id="translatedtitle">The research on the detection method of belt <span class="hlt">deviation</span> by video in coal mine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Belt <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is the most common failure during the operation of belt conveyor, and may cause tremendous harmfulness. In order to improve the intelligence of traditional video monitoring system of belt in coal mine, according to the deficiency of traditional system, we deeply studied various types of edge detection algorithm, and proposed an improved algorithm to achieve the edge extraction</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu Aichun; Hua Gang; Wang Yongxing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19359055"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia and changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> associated with scleroderma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rhythm disturbances have been described in immunological and connective diseases. Scleroderma is a fibrotic condition characterized by immunological abnormalities, vascular injury and increased accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins. The heart is one of the major organs involved in scleroderma, the involvement of which can be manifested by myocardial disease, conduction system abnormalities, arrhythmias, or pericardial disease. Additionally, scleroderma renal crisis and pulmonary hypertension lead to significant cardiac dysfunction secondary to damage in the kidney and lung. Changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has been reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has been also reported during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation too or at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia and changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> in a 61-year-old Italian woman with scleroderma. This case focuses attention on changing axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and on the presentation of arrhythmias in scleroderma. The underlying arrhythmogenic mechanisms are probably multiple and intriguing, even though the myocardial fibrosis and immunological autoantibody-mediated mechanisms seem to play a pivotal role. PMID:19359055</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro; Dattilo, Giuseppe; Luzza, Francesco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012TMP...173.1720F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asymptotic behavior of small <span class="hlt">deviations</span> for Bogoliubov's Gaussian measure in the L p norm, 2 ? p ? ?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We prove several results on exact asymptotic formulas for small <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in the Lp-norm with 2 ˜ p ˜ ? for Bogoliubov's stationary Gaussian process ?(t). We prove the property of mutual absolute continuity for the conditional Bogoliubov measure and the conditional Wiener measure and calculate the Radon-Nikodym derivative.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fatalov, V. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20979482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity factor of the axial-symmetric transmission gauge: <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> and long-term variation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the sensitivity factors for about 50 sensors of the axial-symmetric transmission gauge (ATG) was examined. The <span class="hlt">deviation</span> has been compared with that for about 30 sensors of the B-A gauge and for about 30 sensors of the extractor gauge. Almost the same <span class="hlt">deviations</span> are found for the above three types of gauges. The long-term variations of the sensitivity factors for two sensors of the ATG were also measured during four years. After the initial change with operating time, the sensitivity factor stabilized after long-term operation. The room temperature effect of the sensitivity factor plays an important role on the total pressure measurement by an ionization gauge, but the change of the sensitivity factor was larger than the room temperature effect. The reason for the change of the factor is estimated in connection with the annealing and the alignment of the filament and with the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the place of electron emission on the filament.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takahashi, N.; Tuzi, Y.; Arakawa, I. [ULVAC, Inc., 2500 Hagisono, Chigasaki, Kanagawa 253-8543 (Japan); Department of Physics, Gakushuin University, Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=standard+AND+mean+AND+difference&pg=6&id=EJ769812"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> of a Response Time Distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kuwait&pg=7&id=EJ967396"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the Experience of the Arab Open University with the Standard <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> Method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Arab Open University (AOU) has adopted the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> method (SDM) as a grading system in replacement of a fixed scale. Adopting SDM was intended to remedy a problem that has resulted from discrepancies between AOU's graduation requirements and those of its partner, UK Open University. This paper aims mainly at investigating whether…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Eisa, Abdulkarim S.; Alhemoud, Abdulla M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3692298"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from Ideal Sublimation Vapor Pressure Behavior in Mixtures of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds with Interacting Heteroatoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the relatively small atomic fraction of a given heteroatom in a binary mixture of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), the inclusion of heteroatomic substituted compounds can significantly impact mixture vapor pressure behavior over a wide range of temperatures. The vapor pressures of several binary PAC mixtures containing various heteroatoms show varying behavior, from practically ideal behavior following Raoult’s law to significant <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from ideality depending on the heteroatom(s) present in the mixture. Mixtures were synthesized using the quench-cool technique with equimolar amounts of two PAC, both containing heteroatoms such as aldehyde, carboxyl, nitrogen, and sulfur substituent groups. For some mixtures, <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from ideality is inversely related to temperature, though in other cases we see <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from ideality increasing with temperature, whereas some appear independent of temperature. Most commonly we see lower vapor pressures than predicted by Raoult’s law, which indicates that the interacting heteroatoms prefer the solid mixture phase as opposed to the vapor phase. Although negative <span class="hlt">deviations</span> predominate from Raoult’s Law, the varying mixtures investigated show both higher and lower enthalpies and entropies of sublimation than predicted. In each mixture, a higher enthalpy of sublimation leads to higher entropy of sublimation than predicted, and vice versa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goldfarb, Jillian L.; Suuberg, Eric M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57999390"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive Evaluation on the Agricultural Sustainable Development with the Smallest Generalized <span class="hlt">Deviation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evaluation index system of agricultural sustainable development is constructed with the four components of social index, agricultural economic index, resources index, and environment index. According to the comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the participation of single person, comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the smallest generalized <span class="hlt">deviation</span> and the participation of many people is established.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tian-yi Lan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=italians+AND+dialects&pg=2&id=EJ111136"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from Standard Italian in the Victorian H.S.C. Examinations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of observations are made of <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from standard Italian made by students, both of Italian and non-Italian origin, in the Victorian H.S.C. examinations, with discussion of probable English, French and Italian dialectal influences. (RM)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Streager, H. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61324027"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developments in petroleum engineering. Volume 1: Stability of tubulars - <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book is a compilation of the technical papers on various aspects of drilling and well completions. The papers span a period of nearly 40 years. The book is divided into two main sections: stability of tubulars and <span class="hlt">deviation</span> control. The contents discussed are: A study of buckling of rotary drilling strings. Influence of tension and compression on straightness and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Miska; A. Lubinski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol5-sec1401-405.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">48 CFR 1401.405 - <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...executive agreements. (a) The Director, PAM, is responsible for transmitting to the...FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, PAM, shall process the request for <span class="hlt">deviation</span>...be submitted by the HCA to the Director, PAM for further...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-25/pdf/2010-3847.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 8697 - Notice of Availability of Class <span class="hlt">Deviation</span>; Disputes Resolution Procedures Related to Clean Water...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document provides notice of availability of a Class <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> from EPA's assistance agreement dispute procedures and also sets forth the procedures that will apply to the resolution of disputes that may arise in connection with the CWSRF and DWSRF reallocation decisions made by EPA under the ARRA. Currently, with respect to states and local governments, assistance agreement disputes and......</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40810817"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reexamination of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angles from exact CSL misorientations in early work on grain boundary characterization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two grain boundary studies examined with a geometrical method to determine <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from exact CSL misorientations were reexamined with the analytic method. In one of the studies, dislocation structures of aluminum grain boundaries whose sliding behavior during high temperature creep deformation had already been studied, were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Two types of specimens of pure aluminum were used</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Kokawa; T. Watanabe; S. Karashima</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Mental+Health%22&pg=7&id=EJ991972"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Deviations</span> from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--<span class="hlt">deviation</span> from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carlson, Daniel L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.440.1950R"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel method to bracket the corotation radius in galaxy discs: vertex <span class="hlt">deviation</span> maps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We map the kinematics of stars in simulated galaxy discs with spiral arms using the velocity ellipsoid vertex <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (l_v). We use test particle simulations, and for the first time, fully self-consistent high-resolution N-body models. We compare our maps with the tight winding approximation model analytical predictions. We see that for all barred models, spiral arms rotate closely to a rigid body manner and the vertex <span class="hlt">deviation</span> values correlate with the density peak's position bounded by overdense and underdense regions. In such cases, vertex <span class="hlt">deviation</span> sign changes from negative to positive when crossing the spiral arms in the direction of disc rotation, in regions where the spiral arms are in between corotation radius (CR) and the Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR). By contrast, when the arm sections are inside the CR and outside the OLR, l_v changes from negative to positive. We propose that measurements of the vertex <span class="hlt">deviation</span>'s pattern can be used to trace the position of the main resonances of the spiral arms. We propose that this technique might exploit future data from Gaia and APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) surveys. For unbarred N-body simulations with spiral arms corotating with disc material at all radii, our analysis suggests that no clear correlation exists between l_v and density structures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Antoja, Teresa; Figueras, Francesca; Valenzuela, Octavio; Romero-Gómez, Mercè; Pichardo, Bárbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21590476"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Patient Residual <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> and Its Impact on Dose Distribution for Proton Radiotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The residual <span class="hlt">deviations</span> after final patient repositioning based on bony anatomy and the impact of such <span class="hlt">deviations</span> on the proton dose distributions was investigated. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and kilovoltage (kV) 'portal verification' images from 10 patients treated with passively scattered proton radiotherapy was used to estimate the residual <span class="hlt">deviation</span>. These changes were then applied to the location of isocenter points that, in effect, moved the isocenter relative to the apertures and compensators. A composite verification plan was obtained and compared with the original clinical treatment plan to evaluate any changes in dose distributions. The residual <span class="hlt">deviations</span> were fitted to a Gaussian distribution with {mu} = -0.9 {+-} 0.1 mm and {sigma} = 2.55 {+-} 0.07 mm. The dose distribution showed under- and overcovered dose spots with complex dose distributions both in the target volumes and in the organs at risk. In some cases, this amounts to 63.5% above the intended clinical plan. Although patient positioning is carefully verified before treatment delivery and setup uncertainties are accounted for by using compensator smearing and aperture margins, a residual shift in a patient's position can considerably affect the dose distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arjomandy, Bijan, E-mail: arjomandy_2000@yahoo.com</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7169358"> <span id="translatedtitle">The use of low-density particles for gravel packing a highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> well</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Packing the annulus and perforations with gravel in highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> wells, especially horizontal wells, is difficult. As well <span class="hlt">deviation</span> increases, pump rates and carrier-fluid viscosities must be increased to prevent particle settling. Increasing the viscosity reduces fluid leakoff and perforation-pack efficiency. Placement efficiency improves as particle density, {rho}{sub p}, and carrier-fluid density, {rho}{sub c}, become closer. In an ideal system, these densities would be equal, {rho}{sub p}/{rho}{sub c} = 1, and no viscosity would be required, thereby improving fluid leakoff and perforation packing. Using sand as the packing material causes hydrostatic overbalance, thus limiting the application of this system. The use of this technique with a pack material having a density of 40% less than that of sand eliminates the overbalance. This paper provides technology applicable to gravel packing highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> (horizontal) wells and describes a new method for completing highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> wells with low-density particles (LDP's) and low {rho}{sub p}/{rho}{sub c} ratios, computer simulations used to aid in the design of completion techniques, printouts of the screenout pressure and pump rates, well design schematics, pack logs, and well performance data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bryant, D. (Mobil E and P U.S. Inc., New Orleans, LA (US)); Hudson, T.E. (Dowell Schlumberger, Inc., Tulsa, OK (US)); Hoover, S.W. (Dowell Schlumberger, Inc., New Orleans, LA (US))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1200..293M"> <span id="translatedtitle">MUSiC-An Automated Scan for <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meyer, Arnd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415974"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protecting Patients from an Unsafe System: The Etiology & Recovery of Intra-Operative <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> in Care</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To understand the etiology and resolution of unanticipated events in the operating room (OR). Background The majority of surgical adverse events occur intra-operatively. The OR represents a complex, high-risk system. The influence of different human, team, and organizational/environmental factors on safety and performance is unknown. Methods We video-recorded and transcribed 10 high-acuity operations, representing 43.7 hours of patient care. <span class="hlt">Deviations</span>, defined as delays and/or episodes of decreased patient safety, were identified by majority consensus of a multidisciplinary team. Factors that contributed to each event and/or mitigated its impact were determined and attributed to the patient, providers, or environment/organization. Results Thirty-three <span class="hlt">deviations</span> (10 delays, 17 safety compromises, 6 both) occurred – with a mean of one every 79.4 minutes. These <span class="hlt">deviations</span> were multifactorial (mean 3.1 factors). Problems with communication and organizational structure appeared repeatedly at the root of both types of <span class="hlt">deviations</span>. Delays tended to be resolved with vigilance, communication, coordination, and cooperation, while mediation of safety compromises was most frequently accomplished with vigilance, leadership, communication, and/or coordination. The organization/environment was not found to play a direct role in compensation. Conclusions Unanticipated events are common in the OR. <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> result from poor organizational/environmental design and suboptimal team dynamics, with caregivers compensating to avoid patient harm. While recognized in other high risk domains, such human resilience has not yet been described in surgery and has major implications for the design of safety interventions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, Yue-Yung; Arriaga, Alexander F.; Roth, Emilie M.; Peyre, Sarah E.; Corso, Katherine A.; Swanson, Richard S.; Osteen, Robert T.; Schmitt, Pamela; Bader, Angela M.; Zinner, Michael J.; Greenberg, Caprice C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4075098"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating underlying <span class="hlt">principles</span> to guide health impact assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, <span class="hlt">largely</span> reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying <span class="hlt">principles</span> in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized <span class="hlt">principles</span>. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the <span class="hlt">principles</span> that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these <span class="hlt">principles</span> were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA <span class="hlt">principles</span>. Investigating the HIA <span class="hlt">principles</span> from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying <span class="hlt">principles</span> to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the <span class="hlt">principles</span> of HIA from peer-reviewed papers provides an opportunity for guiding HIA practice comprehensively. It seems to be feasible to develop a universal guide that covers all <span class="hlt">principles</span> required.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24987717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating underlying <span class="hlt">principles</span> to guide health impact assessment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, <span class="hlt">largely</span> reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying <span class="hlt">principles</span> in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized <span class="hlt">principles</span>. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the <span class="hlt">principles</span> that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these <span class="hlt">principles</span> were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA <span class="hlt">principles</span>. Investigating the HIA <span class="hlt">principles</span> from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying <span class="hlt">principles</span> to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the <span class="hlt">principles</span> of HIA from peer-reviewed papers provides an opportunity for guiding HIA practice comprehensively. It seems to be feasible to develop a universal guide that covers all <span class="hlt">principles</span> required. PMID:24987717</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21057305"> <span id="translatedtitle">The 4th Thermodynamic <span class="hlt">Principle</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It should be emphasized that the 4th <span class="hlt">Principle</span> above formulated is a thermodynamic <span class="hlt">principle</span> and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic <span class="hlt">Principle</span>, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz [Institute for Scientific and Technological Information (IDICT), National Capitol, Havana (Cuba); Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960025016&hterms=gauge+boson&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DZ%2527%2Bgauge%2Bboson"> <span id="translatedtitle">Squeezed States, Uncertainty Relations and the Pauli <span class="hlt">Principle</span> in Composite and Cosmological Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The importance of not only uncertainty relations but also the Pauli exclusion <span class="hlt">principle</span> is emphasized in discussing various 'squeezed states' existing in the universe. The contents of this paper include: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear Physics in the Quark-Shell Model; (3) Hadron Physics in the Standard Quark-Gluon Model; (4) Quark-Lepton-Gauge-Boson Physics in Composite Models; (5) Astrophysics and Space-Time Physics in Cosmological Models; and (6) Conclusion. Also, not only the possible breakdown of (or <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from) uncertainty relations but also the superficial violation of the Pauli <span class="hlt">principle</span> at short distances (or high energies) in composite (and string) models is discussed in some detail.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Terazawa, Hidezumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50473273"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond Bellman's <span class="hlt">principle</span> of optimality; the <span class="hlt">principle</span> of \\</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bellman's <span class="hlt">principle</span> of optimality and his dynamic programming technique for computing optimal sequential-decisions may not apply to problems involving uncertain, non-noisy exogenous-variables. In this paper, we show that if the uncertain behavior of non-noisy exogenous-variables can be modeled by a class of spline-expressions, with known basis-functions and unknown, \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. D. Johnson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6106064"> <span id="translatedtitle">On an invariance <span class="hlt">principle</span> for phase separation lines ? ? Partly supported by the EU Network Postdoctoral Training Program in Mathematical Analysis of <span class="hlt">Large</span> Quantum Systems under the contract HPRN-CT-2002-00277 and by the Senior Visiting Fellowship at the Isaac Newton Institute in the framework of the IGS Programme</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We prove invariance <span class="hlt">principles</span> for phase separation lines in the two dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model up to the critical temperature and for connectivity lines in the general context of high temperature finite range ferromagnetic Ising models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lev Greenberg; Dmitry Ioffe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20023854"> <span id="translatedtitle">Green chemistry: <span class="hlt">principles</span> and practice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve <span class="hlt">Principles</span>, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the <span class="hlt">Principles</span> as a cohesive design system (93 references). PMID:20023854</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3025247"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ilizarov <span class="hlt">principles</span> of deformity correction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ilizarov frames provide a versatile fixation system for the management of bony deformities, fractures and their complications. The frames give stability, soft tissue preservation, adjustability and functionality allowing bone to realise its full osteogenic potential. It is important that we have a clear and concise understanding of the Ilizarov <span class="hlt">principles</span> of deformity correction to best make use of this fixation system. In this review article, the history of Ilizarov frame, the basic sciences behind it, the mechanical <span class="hlt">principles</span> governing its use and the clinical use of the fixation system are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spiegelberg, B; Parratt, T; Dheerendra, SK; Khan, WS; Jennings, R; Marsh, DR</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8171E..64L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Farther discussion of Huygens-Fresnel <span class="hlt">principle</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Huygens-Fresnel <span class="hlt">principle</span> is well used in analyzing wavefront propagation in vacuum. However, we should clear if this <span class="hlt">principle</span> is available in the space including absorptive objection, such as a grating. In this paper we analyze if a grating can diffract a beam when the grating set on the focus point and the grating pitch is larger than the Airy disc, especially the phenomenon in a special interferometer [1]. The special interferometer shown in reference [1] has an extended incoherent light source modulated by a binary grating. The light source is imaged onto a sinusoidal transmission grating by the tested lens. The pitch of the binary grating is half of the period of the sinusoidal grating. Light coming from an arbitrary point of the light source is focused onto the sinusoidal grating. Two kinds of analysis method are considered. One is using Huygens-Fresnel <span class="hlt">principle</span> as described in reference [1]: the concave beam can be resolved to a pair of waves. Each wave is diffracted by the sinusoidal grating. By using the modulated extended light source, only one color interferogram interfered by -1st and +1st order beams can be observed. By shifting the sinusoidal grating; the phase of the interferogram can be modulated; therefore, the intensity after the grating will change. The intensity variation is the contrast of the interferogram. The other analysis method is to calculate the intensity after the sinusoidal grating as in a normal Ronchi test. If two points on the light source separated by distance of the binary grating's pitch is picked up, the intensity of each point after the grating changes sinusoidally when the sinusoidal grating is shifted. Because the period of the modulation grating is half of the sinusoidal grating's pitch, the intensities of the two points change with "pi" phase difference. The total intensity after the sinusoidal grating does not change even if the sinusoidal grating is shifted. We found that the confusion in reference of complex transmission and amplitude transmission is one reason of the difference. We also reviewed the developing of Huygens-Fresnel <span class="hlt">principle</span> from Maxwell equations. To get Huygens-Fresnel <span class="hlt">principle</span>, condition of non absorptive elements is needed. Because transmission grating is an absorptive element, wavelet should be integrated before the grating. We also found that the substrate influences the phase of complex transmission when NA of the test is <span class="hlt">large</span>. We performed an experiment to show that the contrast is almost zero, not 21% as calculated by the theory shown in the paper of refer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Zhiqiang; Uchikawa, Kiyoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1049817"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design <span class="hlt">Principles</span> for Effective Knowledge Discovery from Big Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Big data phenomenon refers to the practice of collection and processing of very <span class="hlt">large</span> data sets and associated systems and algorithms used to analyze these massive datasets. Architectures for big data usually range across multiple machines and clusters, and they commonly consist of multiple special purpose sub-systems. Coupled with the knowledge discovery process, big data movement offers many unique opportunities for organizations to benefit (with respect to new insights, business optimizations, etc.). However, due to the difficulty of analyzing such <span class="hlt">large</span> datasets, big data presents unique systems engineering and architectural challenges. In this paper, we present three sys- tem design <span class="hlt">principles</span> that can inform organizations on effective analytic and data collection processes, system organization, and data dissemination practices. The <span class="hlt">principles</span> presented derive from our own research and development experiences with big data problems from various federal agencies, and we illustrate each <span class="hlt">principle</span> with our own experiences and recommendations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Horey, James L [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5166309"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drilling highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> wells in Umm Shaif field: problems and solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three years ago, ADMA-OPCO, started mainly drilling highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> wells in Umm Shaif field for development and reservoir reasons. To achieve this objective and to overcome drilling difficulties, more refined techniques have been used, namely: The use of hole cleaning and stiff 17 1/2'' bottom hole assemblies, in addition to non rotating sleeve stabilizers, which reduces lost time in 17 1/2'' phase; Turbodrilling using hydraulic stratapax bits to enable setting 9 5/8'' casing in base of Thamama V; and Turbodrilling short section of the 8 1/2'' phase which eliminates the problems in this section and cuts short most of the completion and testing difficulties. The application of the above techniques has led to ADMA-OPCO successfully drilling highly <span class="hlt">deviated</span> wells with minimum time and low cost.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aggour, S.B.; Rouatbi, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860037364&hterms=axial+compressor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2522axial%2Bcompressor%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the 3-D flow effects on <span class="hlt">deviation</span> angle for axial compressor middle stages</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model of the spanwise variation of the three-dimensional flow effects on <span class="hlt">deviation</span> is proposed for middle-stage rotors and stators. This variation is taken as the difference above or below that predicted by blade element theory at any spanwise location. It was found that the stator variation is strongly affected by the end-wall boundary-layer thickness as well as camber, solidity, and blade channel aspect ratio. Rotor variation was found to depend on end-wall boundary layer thickness and tip clearance normalized by blade span. If these parameters are known or can be calculated, the models provide a reasonable approximation to the spanwise variation of <span class="hlt">deviation</span> for middle compressor stages operating at low to high subsonic inlet Mach numbers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roberts, W. B.; Serovy, G. K.; Sandercock, D. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21464714"> <span id="translatedtitle">LOCAL GROUP DWARF SPHEROIDALS: CORRELATED <span class="hlt">DEVIATIONS</span> FROM THE BARYONIC TULLY-FISHER RELATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Local Group dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies are the faintest extragalactic stellar systems known. We examine recent data for these objects in the plane of the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation (BTFR). While some dwarf spheroidals adhere to the BTFR, others <span class="hlt">deviate</span> substantially. We examine the residuals from the BTFR and find that they are not random. The residuals correlate with luminosity, size, metallicity, ellipticity, and susceptibility of the dwarfs to tidal disruption in the sense that fainter, more elliptical, and tidally more susceptible dwarfs <span class="hlt">deviate</span> farther from the BTFR. These correlations disfavor stochastic processes and suggest a role for tidal effects. We identify a test to distinguish between {Lambda}CDM and MOND based on the orbits of the dwarf satellites of the Milky Way and how stars are lost from them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGaugh, Stacy S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Wolf, Joe, E-mail: ssm@astro.umd.ed, E-mail: wolfj@uci.ed [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24189074"> <span id="translatedtitle">A computer assessment of the effect of hindfoot alignment on mechanical axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lower limb malalignment is a common cause of disability that increases risk of osteoarthritis (OA). Treatment of OA may require an osteotomy or arthroplasty, which mandate accurate evaluation of mechanical loading on the limbs to achieve optimal alignment and minimal implant wear. Surgical planning uses a conventional method of mechanical axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (MADC) measured from the center of the femoral head to the center of the ankle. This method fails to account for hindfoot deformity distal to the ankle. We used a computer model to compare MADC with the ground mechanical axis <span class="hlt">deviation</span> (MADG), drawn from the center of the hip to the ground reaction point. Average anatomic measurements were analyzed with a range of knee and hindfoot angle variation in single leg stance, double leg stance, toe off and heel strike. MADG was consistently higher than MADC, suggesting a more complete estimate of weight-bearing axis that considers hindfoot deformity. PMID:24189074</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duggal, Naven; Paci, Gabrielle M; Narain, Abhinav; Bournissaint, Leandro Grimaldi; Nazarian, Ara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..APR.D9007P"> <span id="translatedtitle">MUSiC - Model-independent search for <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from Standard Model predictions in CMS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an approach for a model independent search in CMS. Systematically scanning the data for <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the standard model Monte Carlo expectations, such an analysis can help to understand the detector and tune event generators. By minimizing the theoretical bias the analysis is furthermore sensitive to a wide range of models for new physics, including the uncounted number of models not-yet-thought-of. After sorting the events into classes defined by their particle content (leptons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy), a minimally prejudiced scan is performed on a number of distributions. Advanced statistical methods are used to determine the significance of the <span class="hlt">deviating</span> regions, rigorously taking systematic uncertainties into account. A number of benchmark scenarios, including common models of new physics and possible detector effects, have been used to gauge the power of such a method. )</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pieta, Holger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16304930"> <span id="translatedtitle">Precaution, law and <span class="hlt">principles</span> of good administration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span> is a legal <span class="hlt">principle</span> concerned with the process of how decisions are made. In implementing and interpreting it regard must be had to the surrounding legal culture and in particular the <span class="hlt">principles</span> of good administration in operation. Highlighting those <span class="hlt">principles</span> emphasises that within a particular jurisdiction there is often very little agreement over their nature. Within the European Union contradictory <span class="hlt">principles</span> are the product of: assumptions about risk problem-solving, the ambiguous nature of European administration, a concern with accountability in the face of recent food controversies, and the impact of international trade rules. These contradictory <span class="hlt">principles</span> present a number of challenges for implementing the precautionary <span class="hlt">principle</span>. PMID:16304930</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fisher, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/dq07834035p67t36.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mean-absolute <span class="hlt">deviation</span> portfolio optimization for mortgage-backed securities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop an integrated simulation\\/optimization model for managing portfolios of mortgage-backed securities. The mortgage portfolio problem is viewed in the same spirit of models used for the management of portfolios of equities. That is, it trades off rates of return with a suitable measure of risk. In this respect we employ amean-absolute <span class="hlt">deviation</span> model which is consistent with the asymmetric</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stavros A. Zenios; Pan Kang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21455194"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">DEVIATIONS</span> FROM THE SCHMIDT-KENNICUTT RELATIONS DURING EARLY GALAXY EVOLUTION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We utilize detailed time-varying models of the coupled evolution of stars and the H I, H{sub 2}, and CO-bright H{sub 2} gas phases in galaxy-sized numerical simulations to explore the evolution of gas-rich and/or metal-poor systems, which are expected to be numerous in the early universe. The inclusion of the CO-bright H{sub 2} gas phase and the realistic rendering of star formation as an H{sub 2}-regulated process (and the new feedback processes that this entails) allow the most realistic tracking of strongly evolving galaxies and much better comparison with observations. We find that while galaxies eventually settle into states conforming to the Schmidt-Kennicutt (S-K) relations, significant and systematic <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of their star formation rates (SFRs) from the latter occur, and are especially pronounced and prolonged for metal-poor systems. The largest such <span class="hlt">deviations</span> occur for gas-rich galaxies during not only the early evolutionary stages but also during brief periods at later stages. Given that gas-rich and/or metal-poor states of present-epoch galaxies are expected in the early universe while a much larger number of mergers frequently reset non-isolated systems to gas-rich states, even brief periods of sustained <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of their SFRs from those expected from the S-K relations may come to characterize significant periods of their stellar mass built-up. This indicates potentially serious limitations of S-K-type relations as reliable sub-grid elements of star formation physics in simulations of structure formation in the early universe. We anticipate that galaxies with marked <span class="hlt">deviations</span> from the S-K relations will be found at high redshifts as unbiased inventories of total gas mass become possible with ALMA and the EVLA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papadopoulos, Padelis P. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Pelupessy, Federico I. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">461</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6056883"> <span id="translatedtitle">From Web Service Policies to Automatic <span class="hlt">Deviation</span> Handling: Supporting Semantic Description of Reactions to Policy Violations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In scenarios where Web services are involved, Quality of Service (QoS) parameters play an important role when it comes to service selection, service compositions, and run-time behavior of the execution environment, e.g. a workflow engine. Required or guaranteed QoS levels are often described by means of Web service policies. However, policy languages do usually not include the handling of <span class="hlt">deviations</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stefan Schulte; Nicolas Repp; Dieter Schuller; Ralf Steinmetz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">462</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720032305&hterms=standard+deviation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dstandard%2Bdeviation"> <span id="translatedtitle">An estimator for the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of a natural frequency. I.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A brief review of mean-square approximate systems is given. The case in which the masses are deterministic is considered first in the derivation of an estimator for the upper bound of the standard <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of a natural frequency. Two examples presented include a two-degree-of-freedom system and a case in which the disorder in the springs is perfectly correlated. For purposes of comparison, a Monte Carlo simulation was done on a digital computer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schiff, A. J.; Bogdanoff, J. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">463</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2023594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis of the <span class="hlt">deviation</span> of the Reynolds stress from its eddy-viscosity representation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An improvement of the eddy-viscosity representation for Reynolds stress is made from the statistical viewpoint. The Reynolds stress is calculated with the aid of the two-scale direct-interaction formalism, and its <span class="hlt">deviation</span> from the eddy-viscosity representation is found under general mean flows. This result theoretically elucidates the noncoincidence of the zeros of Reynolds stress and mean strain, which is frequently observed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akira Yoshizawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">464</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26433122"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computer-aided manufacturing of spiral bevel and hypoid gears with minimum surface-<span class="hlt">deviation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The linear regression method to minimize the <span class="hlt">deviations</span> of a real cut gear-tooth-surface is investigated in this paper. Based on the Gleason hypoid gear generator, a mathematical model of the tooth surface is proposed. Applying the proposed mathematical model, the sensitivities of tooth surface due to the variations of machine-tool setting are also investigated. The corrective machine-tool settings, calculated by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chung-Yunn Lin; Chung-Biau Tsay; Zhang-Hua Fong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">465</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/230224"> <span id="translatedtitle">A rigorous solution concept for geodesic and geodesic <span class="hlt">deviation</span> equations in impulsive gravitational waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The geodesic as well as the geodesic <span class="hlt">deviation</span> equation for impulsive gravitational waves involve highly singular products of distributions (thetadelta,theta2delta,delta2). A solution concept for these equations based on embedding the distributional metric into the Colombeau algebra of generalized functions is presented. Using a universal regularization procedure we prove existence and uniqueness results and calculate the distributional limits of these solutions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Kunzinger; Roland Steinbauer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">466</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40611322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculated follicle <span class="hlt">deviation</span> using segmented regression for modeling diameter differences in cattle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Segmented linear regression alone or in combination with simple linear regression was evaluated as an objective method to calculate the beginning of follicle <span class="hlt">deviation</span> by modeling the sequential (Experiment 1) and non-sequential or single-point (Experiment 2) differences in diameter between the future dominant (F1) and largest subordinate (F2) follicles of Wave 1 in cattle. The segmented regression consisted of Segment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. R Bergfelt; L. H Sego; M. A Beg; O. J Ginther</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">467</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3604639"> <span id="translatedtitle">Individuality That is Unheard of: Systematic Temporal <span class="hlt">Deviations</span> in Scale Playing Leave an Inaudible Pianistic Fingerprint</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Whatever we do, we do it in our own way, and we recognize master artists by small samples of their work. This study investigates individuality of temporal <span class="hlt">deviations</span> in musical scales in pianists in the absence of deliberate expressive intention. Note-by-note timing <span class="hlt">deviations</span> away from regularity form a remarkably consistent “pianistic fingerprint.” First, eight professional pianists played C-major scales in two sessions, separated by 15?min. Euclidian distances between <span class="hlt">deviation</span> traces originating from different pianists were reliably larger than traces originating from the same pianist. As a result, a simple classifier that matched <span class="hlt">deviation</span> traces by minimizing their distance was able to recognize each pianist with 100% accuracy. Furthermore, within each pianist, fingerprints produced by the same movements were more similar than fingerprints resulting in the same scale sound. This allowed us to conclude that the fingerprints are mostly neuromuscular rather than intentional or expressive in nature. However, human listeners were not able to distinguish the temporal fingerprints by ear. Next, 18 pianists played C-major scales on a normal or muted piano. Recognition rates ranged from 83 to 100%, further supporting the view that auditory feedback is not implicated in the creation of the temporal signature. Finally, 20 pianists were recognized 20?months later at above chance level, showing signature effects to be long lasting. Our results indicate that even non-expressive playing of scales reveals consistent, partially effector-unspecific, but inaudible inter-individual differences. We suggest that machine learning studies into individuality in performance will need to take into account unintentional but consistent variability below the perceptual threshold.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmuller, Eckart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">468</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19568438"> <span id="translatedtitle">Holographic concave gratings for use with an off-plane constant-<span class="hlt">deviation</span> monochromator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Design procedures and performance equations are presented for holographic concave gratings applicable to the off-plane mounting of a constant-<span class="hlt">deviation</span> monochromator. In this configuration, the off-plane aberration is compensated for through the introduction of off-plane recording. Experimental results obtained for gratings applied to a visible and near-UV monochromator exhibit a resolution that is comparable with that of an in-plane monochromator, as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masato Koike; Kunih