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1

The large deviation principle for the Erdos-Renyi random graph  

E-print Network

The large deviation principle for the Erdos-R´enyi random graph Sourav Chatterjee (Courant Institute, NYU) joint work with S. R. S. Varadhan Sourav Chatterjee Large deviations for random graphs #12;Main objective: how to count graphs with a given property Only consider finite undirected graphs

Durrett, Richard

2

Large-deviation statistics of a diffusive quantum spin chain and the additivity principle.  

PubMed

Using the large-deviation formalism, we study the statistics of current fluctuations in a diffusive nonequilibrium quantum spin chain. The boundary-driven XX chain with dephasing consists of a coherent bulk hopping and a local dissipative dephasing. We analytically calculate the exact expression for the second current moment in a system of any length and then numerically demonstrate that in the thermodynamic limit, higher-order cumulants and the large-deviation function can be calculated using the additivity principle or macroscopic hydrodynamic theory. This shows that the additivity principle can also hold in systems that are not purely stochastic, and can in particular be valid in quantum systems. We also show that in large systems, the current fluctuations are the same as in the classical symmetric simple exclusion process. PMID:24827225

Žnidari?, Marko

2014-04-01

3

On the relation between gradient flows and the large-deviation principle, with applications to Markov chains and diffusion  

E-print Network

Motivated by the occurrence in rate functions of time-dependent large-deviation principles, we study a class of non-negative functions $\\mathscr L$ that induce a flow, given by $\\mathscr L(\\rho_t,\\dot\\rho_t)=0$. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the unique existence of a generalized gradient structure for the induced flow, as well as explicit formulas for the corresponding driving entropy and dissipation functional. In particular, we show how these conditions can be given a probabilistic interpretation when $\\mathscr L$ is associated to the large deviations of a microscopic particle system. Finally, we illustrate the theory for independent Brownian particles with drift, which leads to the entropy-Wasserstein gradient structure, and for independent Markovian particles on a finite state space, which leads to a previously unknown gradient structure.

Alexander Mielke; D. R. Michiel Renger; Mark A. Peletier

2013-12-29

4

Large-deviation principles, stochastic effective actions, path entropies, and the structure and meaning of thermodynamic descriptions  

E-print Network

The meaning of thermodynamic descriptions is found in large-deviations scaling of the fluctuations probabilities. The primary large-deviations rate function is the entropy, which is the basis for both fluctuation theorems and for characterizing the thermodynamic interactions of systems. Freidlin-Wentzell theory provides a general formulation of large-deviations scaling for non-equilibrium stochastic processes, through a representation in terms of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. A number of related methods now exist to construct the Freidlin-Wentzell Hamiltonian for many kinds of stochastic processes; one method due to Doi and Peliti, appropriate to integer counting statistics, is widely used in reaction-diffusion theory. Using these tools together with a path-entropy method due to Jaynes, we show how to construct entropy functions that both express large-deviations scaling of fluctuations, and describe system-environment interactions, for discrete stochastic processes either at or away from equilibrium. A collection of variational methods familiar within quantum field theory, but less commonly applied to the Doi-Peliti construction, is used to define a "stochastic effective action", which is the large-deviations rate function for arbitrary non-equilibrium paths. We show how common principles of entropy maximization, applied to different ensembles of states or of histories, lead to different entropy functions and different sets of thermodynamic state variables. Yet the relations of among all these levels of description may be constructed explicitly and understood in terms of information conditions. The example systems considered introduce methods that may be used to systematically construct descriptions with all the features familiar from equilibrium thermodynamics, for a much wider range of systems describable by stochastic processes.

Eric Smith

2011-02-18

5

Large-deviation principles, stochastic effective actions, path entropies, and the structure and meaning of thermodynamic descriptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The meaning of thermodynamic descriptions is found in large-deviations scaling (Ellis 1985 Entropy, Large Deviations, and Statistical Mechanics (New York: Springer); Touchette 2009 Phys. Rep. 478 1-69) of the probabilities for fluctuations of averaged quantities. The central function expressing large-deviations scaling is the entropy, which is the basis both for fluctuation theorems and for characterizing the thermodynamic interactions of systems. Freidlin-Wentzell theory (Freidlin and Wentzell 1998 Random Perturbations in Dynamical Systems 2nd edn (New York: Springer)) provides a quite general formulation of large-deviations scaling for non-equilibrium stochastic processes, through a remarkable representation in terms of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. A number of related methods now exist to construct the Freidlin-Wentzell Hamiltonian for many kinds of stochastic processes; one method due to Doi (1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1465-78 1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1479) and Peliti (1985 J. Physique 46 1469; 1986 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 19 L365, appropriate to integer counting statistics, is widely used in reaction-diffusion theory. Using these tools together with a path-entropy method due to Jaynes (1980 Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31 579-601), this review shows how to construct entropy functions that both express large-deviations scaling of fluctuations, and describe system-environment interactions, for discrete stochastic processes either at or away from equilibrium. A collection of variational methods familiar within quantum field theory, but less commonly applied to the Doi-Peliti construction, is used to define a 'stochastic effective action', which is the large-deviations rate function for arbitrary non-equilibrium paths. We show how common principles of entropy maximization, applied to different ensembles of states or of histories, lead to different entropy functions and different sets of thermodynamic state variables. Yet the relations among all these levels of description may be constructed explicitly and understood in terms of information conditions. Although the example systems considered are limited, they are meant to provide a self-contained introduction to methods that may be used to systematically construct descriptions with all the features familiar from equilibrium thermodynamics, for a much wider range of systems describable by stochastic processes.

Smith, Eric

2011-04-01

6

Asymptotically Efficient Simulation Of Large Deviation Probabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consider a family of probabilities for which the decay is governed by a large deviation principle. To find an estimate for a fixed member of this family, one is often forced to use simulation techniques. Direct Monte Carlo simulation, however, is often im...

A. B. Dieker, M. R. H. Mandjes

2003-01-01

7

Detection of diffusion anisotropy due to particle asymmetry from single-particle tracking of Brownian motion by the large-deviation principle.  

PubMed

We show that the diffusion anisotropy due to the asymmetry of the particle can be extracted from the trajectory data without the information of the particle orientation. The subject of analysis is typical in single-particle tracking (SPT) experiments, and the analysis is based on the large-deviation principle in mathematics. We consider the model system of Langevin equations in two dimensions where a particle diffusion shows anisotropy depending on a single parameter defined by the two diffusion coefficients in the perpendicular directions of the frame fixed to the particle. We show how the large-deviation quantities depend on this parameter so that it can be used for the detection of the diffusion anisotropy. We also illustrate how the discreteness of the sampling interval in the SPT and the finiteness of the number of samples influence the results of the analysis. PMID:23004730

Hanasaki, Itsuo; Isono, Yoshitada

2012-05-01

8

Optimal hedging via large deviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The criterion of minimizing the cumulative hedged returns’ probability of underperforming a benchmark provides a framework for evaluating short-term hedges that are rolled over to produce longer-term hedges. Large deviations theory can be used to either parametrically or nonparametrically estimate underperformance probabilities for cumulative hedged returns produced by roll-overs, providing a straightforward way to find optimal hedge ratios. Optimal hedges using soybean futures are constructed to illustrate the procedures, and their relationship to the popular hedging criteria that are motivated by normality.

Stutzer, Michael

2013-08-01

9

Large Deviations for Stochastic Evolution Equations with Small Multiplicative Noise  

SciTech Connect

The Freidlin-Wentzell large deviation principle is established for the distributions of stochastic evolution equations with general monotone drift and small multiplicative noise. As examples, the main results are applied to derive the large deviation principle for different types of SPDE such as stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, stochastic porous media equations and fast diffusion equations, and the stochastic p-Laplace equation in Hilbert space. The weak convergence approach is employed in the proof to establish the Laplace principle, which is equivalent to the large deviation principle in our framework.

Liu Wei, E-mail: weiliu0402@yahoo.com.c [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik (Germany)

2010-02-15

10

Large deviation bounds for matrix Brownian motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We prove large deviation bounds for the convergence of Hermitian matrix valued Brownian motion towards free Brownian motion.\\u000a As a consequence, we obtain upper and lower bounds on the microstates entropy introduced by Voiculescu [24].

P. Biane; M. Capitaine; A. Guionnet

2003-01-01

11

Large deviations for nonlocal stochastic neural fields.  

PubMed

We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers' law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations.Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20. PMID:24742297

Kuehn, Christian; Riedler, Martin G

2014-01-01

12

Large deviations and universality in quantum quenches.  

PubMed

We study the large deviation statistics of the intensive work done by globally changing a control parameter in a thermally isolated quantum many-body system. We show that, upon approaching a critical point, large deviations well below the mean work display universal features related to the critical Casimir effect in the corresponding classical system. Large deviations well above the mean are, instead, of quantum nature and not captured by the quantum-to-classical correspondence. For a bosonic system we show that in this latter regime a transition from exponential to power-law statistics, analogous to the equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation, may occur depending on the parameters of the quench and on the spatial dimensionality. PMID:23368442

Gambassi, Andrea; Silva, Alessandro

2012-12-21

13

Nonequilibrium Markov processes conditioned on large deviations  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of conditioning a Markov process on a rare event and of representing this conditioned process by a conditioning-free process, called the effective or driven process. The basic assumption is that the rare event used in the conditioning is a large-deviation-type event, characterized by a convex rate function. Under this assumption, we construct the driven process via a generalization of Doob's $h$-transform, used in the context of bridge processes, and show that this process is equivalent to the conditioned process in the long-time limit. The notion of equivalence that we consider is based on the logarithmic equivalence of path measures, and implies that the two processes have the same typical states. In constructing the driven process, we also prove equivalence with the so-called exponential tilting of the Markov process, which is used with importance sampling to simulate rare events, and which gives rise, from the point of view of statistical mechanics, to a nonequilibrium version of the canonical ensemble. Other links between our results and the topics of bridge processes, quasi-stationary distributions, stochastic control, and conditional limit theorems are mentioned.

Raphael Chetrite; Hugo Touchette

2014-05-20

14

Elements of Statistical Mechanics and Large Deviation Theory  

E-print Network

Elements of Statistical Mechanics and Large Deviation Theory #12;#12;Contents Chapter 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics areas, namely Equilibirum Statistical Mechanics (ESM) and Large Deviation Th

Friedli, Sacha

15

Large deviations of cascade processes on graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple models of irreversible dynamical processes such as bootstrap percolation have been successfully applied to describe cascade processes in a large variety of different contexts. However, the problem of analyzing nontypical trajectories, which can be crucial for the understanding of out-of-equilibrium phenomena, is still considered to be intractable in most cases. Here we introduce an efficient method to find and analyze optimized trajectories of cascade processes. We show that for a wide class of irreversible dynamical rules, this problem can be solved efficiently on large-scale systems.

Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Dall'Asta, L.; Zecchina, R.

2013-06-01

16

Large scale deviations from the Hubble flow.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All standard Big Bang cosmologies have one thing in common. The initial state from which the Universe has developed, was homogeneous and isotropic to a "very high degree". Indeed we now observe that the distribution of galaxies is very homogeneous and isotropic when smoothed over a suitable large area of the sky. Also we observe that galaxies recede from one another in a universal manner described by the Hubble law, and this law is considered as valid on sufficiently "Iarge scales". There is additional observational evidence in the "very high degree" of isotropy of the microwave background radition, neglecting the very weil understood dipole anisotropy for the moment.

Hesselbjerg Christensen, J.

1988-06-01

17

Large deviations and approximations for slow-fast stochastic reaction-diffusion equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large deviation principle is derived for a class of stochastic reaction-diffusion partial differential equations with slow-fast components. The result shows that the rate function is exactly that of the averaged equation plus the fluctuating deviation which is a stochastic partial differential equation with small Gaussian perturbation. This result also confirms the effectiveness of the approximation of the averaged equation plus the fluctuating deviation to the slow-fast stochastic partial differential equations.

Wang, Wei; Roberts, A. J.; Duan, Jinqiao

18

Sample-Path Large Deviations in Credit Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The event of large losses plays an important role in credit risk. As these large losses are typically rare, and portfolios usually consist of a large number of positions, large deviation theory is the natural tool to analyze the tail asymptotics of the pr...

M. R. H. Mandjes, P. J. C. Spreij, V. Leijdekker

2009-01-01

19

Path integrals and large deviations in stochastic hybrid systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a path-integral representation of solutions to a stochastic hybrid system, consisting of one or more continuous variables evolving according to a piecewise-deterministic dynamics. The differential equations for the continuous variables are coupled to a set of discrete variables that satisfy a continuous-time Markov process, which means that the differential equations are only valid between jumps in the discrete variables. Examples of stochastic hybrid systems arise in biophysical models of stochastic ion channels, motor-driven intracellular transport, gene networks, and stochastic neural networks. We use the path-integral representation to derive a large deviation action principle for a stochastic hybrid system. Minimizing the associated action functional with respect to the set of all trajectories emanating from a metastable state (assuming that such a minimization scheme exists) then determines the most probable paths of escape. Moreover, evaluating the action functional along a most probable path generates the so-called quasipotential used in the calculation of mean first passage times. We illustrate the theory by considering the optimal paths of escape from a metastable state in a bistable neural network.

Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

2014-04-01

20

Large deviations for the stochastic derivative Ginzburg Landau equation with multiplicative noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper first proves the existence of a unique mild solution to the stochastic derivative Ginzburg-Landau equation. The fixed point theorem for the corresponding truncated equation is used as the main tool. Since we restrict our study to the one-dimensional case, it is not necessary to introduce another Banach space and thus the estimates of the stochastic convolutions in the Banach space are avoided. Secondly, we also consider large deviations for the stochastic derivative Ginzburg-Landau equation perturbed by a small noise. Since the underlying space considered is Polish, using the weak convergence approach, we establish a large deviations principle by proving a Laplace principle.

Yang, Desheng; Hou, Zhenting

2008-01-01

21

Small shape deviations causes complex dynamics in large electric generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove that combinations of small eccentricity, ovality and/or triangularity in the rotor and stator can produce complex whirling motions of an unbalanced rotor in large synchronous generators. It is concluded which structures of shape deviations that are more harmful, in the sense of producing complex whirling motions, than others. For each such structure, we derive simplified equations of motions from which we conclude analytically the relation between shape deviations and mass unbalance that yield non-smooth whirling motions. Finally we discuss validity of our results in the sense of modeling of the unbalanced magnetic pull force.

Lundström, Niklas L. P.; Grafström, Anton; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

2014-05-01

22

Large deviations and stochastic calculus for large random matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large random matrices appear in different fields of mathematics and physics such as combinatorics, probability theory, statistics, operator theory, number theory, quantum field theory, string theory etc... In the last ten years, they attracted lots of interests, in particular due to a serie of mathematical breakthroughs allowing for instance a better understanding of local properties of their spectrum, answering universality

Alice Guionnet

2004-01-01

23

Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case.

Callin, P.; Burgess, C. P.

2006-09-01

24

Deviations From Newton's Law in Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions  

E-print Network

Deviations from Newton's Inverse-Squared Law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the Cosmological Constant Problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the Dark Energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from General Relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's Law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case.

P. Callin; C. P. Burgess

2005-11-17

25

Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

Kushner, Harold J., E-mail: hjk@dam.brown.ed [Brown University, Applied Math (United States)

2010-12-15

26

Large-deviation properties of Brownian motion with dry friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate piecewise-linear stochastic models with regard to the probability distribution of functionals of the stochastic processes, a question that occurs frequently in large deviation theory. The functionals that we are looking into in detail are related to the time a stochastic process spends at a phase space point or in a phase space region, as well as to the motion with inertia. For a Langevin equation with discontinuous drift, we extend the so-called backward Fokker-Planck technique for non-negative support functionals to arbitrary support functionals, to derive explicit expressions for the moments of the functional. Explicit solutions for the moments and for the distribution of the so-called local time, the occupation time, and the displacement are derived for the Brownian motion with dry friction, including quantitative measures to characterize deviation from Gaussian behavior in the asymptotic long time limit.

Chen, Yaming; Just, Wolfram

2014-10-01

27

Condensation transition in joint large deviations of linear statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real space condensation is known to occur in stochastic models of mass transport in the regime in which the globally conserved mass density is greater than a critical value. It has been shown within models with factorized stationary states that the condensation can be understood in terms of sums of independent and identically distributed random variables: these exhibit condensation when they are conditioned to a large deviation of their sum. It is well understood that the condensation, whereby one of the random variables contributes a finite fraction to the sum, occurs only if the underlying probability distribution (modulo exponential) is heavy-tailed, i.e. decaying slower than exponential. Here we study a similar phenomenon in which condensation is exhibited for non-heavy-tailed distributions, provided random variables are additionally conditioned on a large deviation of certain linear statistics. We provide a detailed theoretical analysis explaining the phenomenon, which is supported by Monte Carlo simulations (for the case where the additional constraint is the sample variance) and demonstrated in several physical systems. Our results suggest that the condensation is a generic phenomenon that pertains to both typical and rare events.

Szavits-Nossan, Juraj; Evans, Martin R.; Majumdar, Satya N.

2014-11-01

28

Stochastic 2D Hydrodynamical Type Systems: Well Posedness and Large Deviations  

SciTech Connect

We deal with a class of abstract nonlinear stochastic models, which covers many 2D hydrodynamical models including 2D Navier-Stokes equations, 2D MHD models and the 2D magnetic Benard problem and also some shell models of turbulence. We state the existence and uniqueness theorem for the class considered. Our main result is a Wentzell-Freidlin type large deviation principle for small multiplicative noise which we prove by a weak convergence method.

Chueshov, Igor, E-mail: chueshov@univer.kharkov.u [Kharkov National University, Department of Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Millet, Annie, E-mail: amillet@univ-paris1.f [Universites Paris 6-Paris 7, Boite Courrier 188, Laboratoire de Probabilites et Modeles Aleatoires (France)

2010-06-15

29

Large Deviations, Dynamics and Phase Transitions in Large Stochastic and Disordered Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neuronal networks are characterized by highly heterogeneous connectivity, and this disorder was recently related experimentally to qualitative properties of the network. The motivation of this paper is to mathematically analyze the role of these disordered connectivities on the large-scale properties of neuronal networks. To this end, we analyze here large-scale limit behaviors of neural networks including, for biological relevance, multiple populations, random connectivities and interaction delays. Due to the randomness of the connectivity, usual mean-field methods (e.g. coupling) cannot be applied, but, similarly to studies developed for spin glasses, we will show that the sequences of empirical measures satisfy a large deviation principle, and converge towards a self-consistent non-Markovian process. From a mathematical viewpoint, the proof differs from previous works in that we are working in infinite-dimensional spaces (interaction delays) and consider multiple cell types. The limit obtained formally characterizes the macroscopic behavior of the network. We propose a dynamical systems approach in order to address the qualitative nature of the solutions of these very complex equations, and apply this methodology to three instances in order to show how non-centered coefficients, interaction delays and multiple populations networks are affected by disorder levels. We identify a number of phase transitions in such systems upon changes in delays, connectivity patterns and dispersion, and particularly focus on the emergence of non-equilibrium states involving synchronized oscillations.

Cabana, Tanguy; Touboul, Jonathan

2013-10-01

30

Irreversible Langevin samplers and variance reduction: a large deviation approach  

E-print Network

In order to sample from a given target distribution (often of Gibbs type), the Monte Carlo Markov chain method consists in constructing an ergodic Markov process whose invariant measure is the target distribution. By sampling the Markov process one can then compute, approximately, expectations of observables with respect to the target distribution. Often the Markov processes used in practice are time-reversible (i.e., they satisfy detailed balance), but our main goal here is to assess and quantify how the addition of a non-reversible part to the process can be used to improve the sampling properties. We focus on the diffusion setting (overdamped Langevin equations) where the drift consists of a gradient vector field as well as another drift which breaks the reversibility of the process but is chosen to preserve the Gibbs measure. In this paper we use the large deviation rate function for the empirical measure as a tool to analyze the speed of convergence to the invariant measure. We show that the addition of an irreversible drift leads to a larger rate function and it strictly improves the speed of convergence of ergodic average for (generic smooth) observables. We also deduce from this result that the asymptotic variance decreases under the addition of the irreversible drift and we give an explicit characterization of the observables whose do not see their variances reduced, in terms of a nonlinear Poisson equation. Our theoretical results are illustrated and supplemented by numerical simulations.

Luc Rey-Bellet; Kostantinos Spiliopoulos

2014-04-01

31

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the realm of multiscale signal analysis, multifractal analysis provides a natural and rich framework to measure the roughness of a time series. As such, it has drawn special attention of both mathematicians and practitioners, and led them to characterize relevant physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding these considerable progresses, multifractal analysis almost exclusively developed around the concept of Legendre singularity spectrum, for which efficient and elaborate estimators exist, but which are structurally blind to subtle features like non-concavity or, to a certain extent, non scaling of the distributions. Large deviations theory allows bypassing these limitations but it is only very recently that performing estimators were proposed to reliably compute the corresponding large deviations singularity spectrum. In this article, we illustrate the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate signals from the Physionet public database. As conjectured, we verify that large deviations principles reveal significant information that otherwise remains hidden with classical approaches, and which can be reminiscent of some physiological characteristics. In particular we quantify the presence/absence of scale invariance of RR signals.

Loiseau, Patrick; Médigue, Claire; Gonçalves, Paulo; Attia, Najmeddine; Seuret, Stéphane; Cottin, François; Chemla, Denis; Sorine, Michel; Barral, Julien

2012-11-01

32

FLUCTUATION EXPONENTS AND LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR DIRECTED POLYMERS IN A  

E-print Network

variables. Following Piza [16] we define the volume exponent (1.4) def = inf > 0 : 1(maxkn |Sk|n ) (n) 1 for large enough n . We shall establish a scaling inequality similar to the one obtained by Piza [16

Carmona, Philippe

33

Large and Moderate Deviations for Slowly Mixing Dynamical Systems  

E-print Network

. In other words, if # has polynomial decay of correlations against all L # test functions, then # has large dynamical systems (mod­ elled by Young towers with polynomial tails) for which the hypothesis of Theorem 1#eomorphisms modelled by Young towers with polynomial tails, and standard approximation arguments reduce both decay

34

Large and Moderate Deviations for Slowly Mixing Dynamical Systems  

E-print Network

. In other words, if has polynomial decay of correlations against all L test functions, then has large dynamical systems (mod- elled by Young towers with polynomial tails) for which the hypothesis of Theorem 1 towers with polynomial tails, and standard approximation arguments reduce both decay of correlations

35

On the concentration of large deviations for fat tailed distributions, with application to financial data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large deviations for fat tailed distributions, i.e. those that decay slower than exponential, are not only relatively likely, but they also occur in a rather peculiar way where a finite fraction of the whole sample deviation is concentrated on a single variable. The regime of large deviations is separated from the regime of typical fluctuations by a phase transition where the symmetry between the points in the sample is spontaneously broken. For stochastic processes with a fat tailed microscopic noise, this implies that, while typical realizations are well described by a diffusion process with continuous sample paths, large deviation paths are typically discontinuous. For eigenvalues of random matrices with fat tailed distributed elements, a large deviation where the trace of the matrix is anomalously large concentrates on just a single eigenvalue, whereas in the thin tailed world the large deviation affects the whole distribution. These results find a natural application to finance. Since the price dynamics of financial stocks are characterized by fat tailed increments, large fluctuations in stock prices are expected to be realized by discrete jumps. Interestingly, we find that large excursions of prices are more likely realized by continuous drifts rather than by discontinuous jumps. Indeed, auto correlations suppress the concentration of large deviations. Financial covariance matrices also exhibit an anomalously large eigenvalue, the market mode, as compared to the prediction of random matrix theory. We show that this is explained by a large deviation with excess covariance rather than by one with excess volatility.

Filiasi, Mario; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Peressi, Maria; Vesselli, Erik; Zarinelli, Elia

2014-09-01

36

Large deviations for many Brownian bridges with symmetrised initial-terminal condition  

E-print Network

Consider a large system of $N$ Brownian motions in $\\mathbb{R}^d$ with some non-degenerate initial measure on some fixed time interval $[0,\\beta]$ with symmetrised initial-terminal condition. That is, for any $i$, the terminal location of the $i$-th motion is affixed to the initial point of the $\\sigma(i)$-th motion, where $\\sigma$ is a uniformly distributed random permutation of $1,...,N$. Such systems play an important role in quantum physics in the description of Boson systems at positive temperature $1/\\beta$. In this paper, we describe the large-N behaviour of the empirical path measure (the mean of the Dirac measures in the $N$ paths) and of the mean of the normalised occupation measures of the $N$ motions in terms of large deviations principles. The rate functions are given as variational formulas involving certain entropies and Fenchel-Legendre transforms. Consequences are drawn for asymptotic independence statements and laws of large numbers. In the special case related to quantum physics, our rate function for the occupation measures turns out to be equal to the well-known Donsker-Varadhan rate function for the occupation measures of one motion in the limit of diverging time. This enables us to prove a simple formula for the large-N asymptotic of the symmetrised trace of ${\\rm e}^{-\\beta \\mathcal{H}_N}$, where $\\mathcal{H}_N$ is an $N$-particle Hamilton operator in a trap.

Stefan Adams; Wolfgang König

2006-03-30

37

Current fluctuations and statistics during a large deviation event in an exactly solvable transport model  

E-print Network

Current fluctuations and statistics during a large deviation event in an exactly solvable transport+17$30.00 #12;J.Stat.Mech.(2009)P02032 Current fluctuations and statistics during a large deviation event of Statistical Mechanics: An IOP and SISSA journalJ Theory and Experiment Current fluctuations and statistics

Garrido, Pedro L.

38

Large deviation functions in a system of diffusing particles with creation and annihilation.  

PubMed

Large deviation functions for an exactly solvable lattice gas model of diffusing particles on a ring, subject to pair annihilation and creation, are obtained analytically using exact free-fermion techniques. Our findings for the large deviation function for the current are compared to recent results of Appert-Rolland et al. [Phys. Rev. E 78, 021122 (2008)] for diffusive systems with conserved particle number. Unlike conservative dynamics, our nonconservative model has no universal finite-size corrections for the cumulants. However, the leading Gaussian part has the same variance as in the conservative case. We also elucidate some properties of the large deviation functions associated with particle creation and annihilation. PMID:21928973

Popkov, V; Schütz, G M

2011-08-01

39

Efficiency and large deviations in time-asymmetric stochastic heat engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a stochastic heat engine driven by a cyclic non-equilibrium protocol, fluctuations in work and heat give rise to a fluctuating efficiency. Using computer simulations and tools from large deviation theory, we have examined these fluctuations in detail for a model two-state engine. We find in general that the form of efficiency probability distributions is similar to those described by Verley et al (2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4721), in particular featuring a local minimum in the long-time limit. In contrast to the time-symmetric engine protocols studied previously, however, this minimum need not occur at the value characteristic of a reversible Carnot engine. Furthermore, while the local minimum may reside at the global minimum of a large deviation rate function, it does not generally correspond to the least likely efficiency measured over finite time. We introduce a general approximation for the finite-time efficiency distribution, P(? ), based on large deviation statistics of work and heat, that remains very accurate even when P(? ) deviates significantly from its large deviation form.

Gingrich, Todd R.; Rotskoff, Grant M.; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Geissler, Phillip L.

2014-10-01

40

Deviations from Matthiessen's rule and resistivity saturation effects in Gd and Fe from first principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to earlier first-principles calculations, the spin-disorder contribution to the resistivity of rare-earth metals in the paramagnetic state is strongly underestimated if Matthiessen's rule is assumed to hold. To understand this discrepancy, the resistivity of paramagnetic Fe and Gd is evaluated by taking into account both spin and phonon disorder. Calculations are performed using the supercell approach within the linear muffin-tin orbital method. Phonon disorder is modeled by introducing random displacements of the atomic nuclei, and the results are compared with the case of fictitious Anderson disorder. In both cases, the resistivity shows a nonlinear dependence on the square of the disorder potential, which is interpreted as a resistivity saturation effect. This effect is much stronger in Gd than in Fe. The nonlinearity makes the phonon and spin-disorder contributions to the resistivity nonadditive, and the standard procedure of extracting the spin-disorder resistivity by extrapolation from high temperatures becomes ambiguous. An "apparent" spin-disorder resistivity obtained through such extrapolation is in much better agreement with experiment compared to the results obtained by considering only spin disorder. By analyzing the spectral function of the paramagnetic Gd in the presence of Anderson disorder, the resistivity saturation is explained by the collapse of a large area of the Fermi surface due to the disorder-induced mixing between the electron and hole sheets.

Glasbrenner, J. K.; Pujari, B. S.; Belashchenko, K. D.

2014-05-01

41

Large deviations for random surfaces: the hyperbolic nature of Liouville Field Theory  

E-print Network

Liouville Field Theory (LFT) is a model of $2d$ random surfaces involved in $2d$ string theory or in the description of the fluctuations of metrics in $2d$ quantum gravity. This is a probabilistic model that consists in weighting the shifted Free Field action with an interaction term involving a cosmological constant $\\mu$ and a background tachyon, which is nothing but a Gaussian multiplicative chaos, formally the exponential of the Free Field times a constant $\\gamma$, called the Liouville conformal factor. We explain how to rigorously construct such a theory on the disk and review some of its properties, like the KPZ formulae. The main input of our work is the study of the semiclassical limit: when sending $\\gamma$ to $0$ while keeping the quantity $\\Lambda=\\mu\\gamma^2$ fixed (semiclassical limit regime), we derive exact formulas for the Laplace transform of the Liouville field. Then we prove that this field concentrates on the solution of the Liouville equation with prescribed negative curvature $8\\pi^2\\Lambda$: i.e. we prove convergence in probability and characterize the leading fluctuations, which are Gaussian and massive. Though considered as an ansatz in the whole physics literature, it seems that it is the first rigorous probabilistic derivation of the semiclassical limit of LFT. Also, we prove that this description of LFT as an hyperbolic geometry is rather sharp by establishing a large deviation principle with an explicit good rate function. The same analysis is carried out when we further weight the Liouville action with heavy matter operators. This procedure appears when computing the $n$-points correlation functions of LFT. We show that the Liouville metric concentrates on metrics with prescribed negative curvature $8\\pi^2\\Lambda$ and conical singularities at the places of insertion.

Hubert Lacoin; Rémi Rhodes; Vincent Vargas

2014-01-23

42

Robust estimates of certain large deviation probabilities and Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman-Isaacs  

E-print Network

Robust estimates of certain large deviation probabilities and Hamilton, Japan nagaih@kansai-u.ac.jp, nagai@sigmath.es.osaka-u.ac.jp We first consider minimizing the probability, and then study the asymptotic behavior of minimizing probability as T . We relate this asymptotic behavior

Ishii, Hitoshi

43

Application and Evaluation of Large Deviation Techniques for Traffic Engineering in Broadband Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate yet simple methods for traffic engineering are important for efficient dimensioning of broadband networks. The goal of this paper is to apply and evaluate large deviation techniques for traffic engineering. In particular, we employ the recently developed theory of . We show that this effective bandwidth definition can accurately quantify resource usage. Furthermore, we estimate and interpret values of

Costas Courcoubetis; Vasilios A. Siris; George D. Stamoulis

1998-01-01

44

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$  

E-print Network

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$ Patrick physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding these considerable progresses, multi the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate signals from the Physionet

Gonçalves, Paulo

45

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$  

E-print Network

Large deviations estimates for the multiscale analysis of heart rate variability$,$$ Patrick to characterize relevant physiological factors impacting the heart rate variability. Notwithstanding. In this article, we illustrate the relevance of this approach, on both theoretical objects and on human heart rate

Boyer, Edmond

46

Rapid Mixing of Glauber Dynamics of Gibbs Ensembles via Aggregate Path Coupling and Large Deviations Methods  

E-print Network

In this paper, we present a novel extension to the classical path coupling method to statistical mechanical models which we refer to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, we use this aggregate path coupling method to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. While the aggregate path coupling method is applied to statistical mechanical models in this paper, the general methodology can be applied to other relevant Markov chains.

Yevgeniy Kovchegov; Peter T. Otto

2013-12-24

47

Fine-structured large deviations and the fluctuation theorem: Molecular motors and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By considering subexponential contributions in large deviation theory, we determine the fine structure in the probability distribution of the observable displacement of a bead coupled to a molecular motor. More generally, for any stochastic motion along a periodic substrate, this approach reveals a discrete symmetry of this distribution for which hidden degrees of freedom lead to a periodic modulation of the slope typically associated with the fluctuation theorem. Contrary to previous interpretations of experimental data, the mean force exerted by a molecular motor is unrelated to the long-time asymptotics of this slope and must rather be extracted from its short-time limit.

Pietzonka, Patrick; Zimmermann, Eva; Seifert, Udo

2014-07-01

48

Universal large deviations for the tagged particle in single-file motion.  

PubMed

We consider a gas of point particles moving in a one-dimensional channel with a hard-core interparticle interaction that prevents particle crossings-this is called single-file motion. Starting from equilibrium initial conditions we observe the motion of a tagged particle. It is well known that if the individual particle dynamics is diffusive, then the tagged particle motion is subdiffusive, while for ballistic particle dynamics, the tagged particle motion is diffusive. Here we compute the exact large deviation function for the tagged particle displacement and show that this is universal, independent of the individual dynamics. PMID:25279614

Hegde, Chaitra; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Dhar, Abhishek

2014-09-19

49

Universal Large Deviations for the Tagged Particle in Single-File Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a gas of point particles moving in a one-dimensional channel with a hard-core interparticle interaction that prevents particle crossings—this is called single-file motion. Starting from equilibrium initial conditions we observe the motion of a tagged particle. It is well known that if the individual particle dynamics is diffusive, then the tagged particle motion is subdiffusive, while for ballistic particle dynamics, the tagged particle motion is diffusive. Here we compute the exact large deviation function for the tagged particle displacement and show that this is universal, independent of the individual dynamics.

Hegde, Chaitra; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Dhar, Abhishek

2014-09-01

50

The large deviation function and recurrent properties of large earthquakes in two-dimensional forest-fire models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time- or slip- predictable model for recurrence of large earthquakes assumes constant critical or residual stress, respectively. However, it has not been confirmed that the assumption of constant critical or residual stress is adequate. It is important to study the effect of the fluctuation of initial and final stress to elucidate the recurrence of large earthquakes. When we see earthquake sequence as a point process, the slip-predictable model corresponds to a renewal process and the fluctuation of residual stress can cause non-renewal properties of earthquake sequence. We conduct numerical simulations of earthquake recurrence by the use of two-dimensional forest-fire models. The idea of relating a cluster which appear in the forest-fire model to the size of an earthquake is after the work of Otsuka(ZISIN,Ser.II,29 137 (1976)). To study the effect of the fluctuation of the residual stress, we investigate two kinds of percolated earthquakes. One is a percolated earthquake that releases all stress in the system and is called a renewal earthquake. The other is a usual percolated earthquake where some stress is left on the model fault after the earthquake and is called a non-renewal earthquake. The model that contains renewal earthquakes corresponds to the renewal process and is called model R. The model that contains non-renewal earthquakes exhibits temporal fluctuation of the residual stress in the system, and is called model N. In the size-frequency distribution of simulated earthquakes, there is a sag of frequency between the percolated earthquakes and the other earthquakes in model R. In contrast, there is no sag in model N. We calculate the mean frequencies of the percolated earthquakes and their large deviation functions to compare the results between the two different percolated earthquakes. The large deviation function characterizes the probability of rare events which are far from the true mean. The large deviation function for the frequency of the percolated earthquakes deviates from that of the homogeneous Poisson process where the earthquakes occur randomly. The trough of the large deviation function of the renewal earthquakes is deeper than the non-renewal earthquakes. This indicates that the renewal earthquakes show higher periodicity than the non-renewal earthquakes.

Mitsudo, T.; Kato, N.

2012-12-01

51

Exact large-deviation statistics for a nonequilibrium quantum spin chain.  

PubMed

We consider a one-dimensional XX spin chain in a nonequilibrium setting with a Lindblad-type boundary driving. By calculating large-deviation rate function in the thermodynamic limit, a generalization of free energy to a nonequilibrium setting, we obtain a complete distribution of current, including closed expressions for lower-order cumulants. We also identify two phase-transition-like behaviors in either the thermodynamic limit, at which the current probability distribution becomes discontinuous, or at maximal driving, when the range of possible current values changes discontinuously. In the thermodynamic limit the current has a finite upper and lower bound. We also explicitly confirm nonequilibrium fluctuation relation and show that the current distribution is the same under mapping of the coupling strength ??1/?. PMID:24580430

Znidari?, Marko

2014-01-31

52

Spectral order statistics of Gaussian random matrices: Large deviations for trapped fermions and associated phase transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the full order statistics of a one-dimensional gas of spinless fermions (or, equivalently, hard bosons) in a harmonic trap at zero temperature, including its large deviation tails. The problem amounts to computing the probability distribution of the k th smallest eigenvalue ?(k ) of a large dimensional Gaussian random matrix. We find that this probability behaves for large N as P [?(k )=x ] ?exp[-? N2? (k /N ,x ) ] , where ? is the Dyson index of the ensemble. The rate function ? (c ,x ) , computed explicitly as a function of x in terms of the intensive label c =k /N , has a quadratic behavior modulated by a weak logarithmic singularity at its minimum. This is shown to be related to phase transitions in the associated Coulomb gas problem. The connection with statistics of extreme eigenvalues and order stastistics of random matrices is also discussed. We find that, as a function of c and keeping the value of x fixed, the rate function ? (c ,x ) describes the statistics of the shifted index number, generalizing known results on its typical fluctuations; as a function of x and keeping the fraction c =k /N fixed, the rate function ? (c ,x ) also describes the statistics of the k th eigenvalue in the bulk, generalizing as well the results on its typical fluctuations. Moreover, for k =1 (respectively, for k =N ), the rate function captures both the fluctuations to the left and to the right of the typical value of ?(1 ) (respectively, of ?(N )).

Castillo, Isaac Pérez

2014-10-01

53

Heterogeneity-induced large deviations in activity and (in some cases) entropy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve a simple model that supports a dynamic phase transition and show conditions for the existence of the transition. Using methods of large deviation theory we analytically compute the probability distribution for activity and entropy production rates of the trajectories on a large ring with a single heterogeneous link. The corresponding joint rate function demonstrates two dynamical phases—one localized and the other delocalized, but the marginal rate functions do not always exhibit the underlying transition. Symmetries in dynamic order parameters influence the observation of a transition, such that distributions for certain dynamic order parameters need not reveal an underlying dynamical bistability. Solution of our model system furthermore yields the form of the effective Markov transition matrices that generate dynamics in which the two dynamical phases are at coexistence. We discuss the implications of the transition for the response of bacterial cells to antibiotic treatment, arguing that even simple models of a cell cycle lacking an explicit bistability in configuration space will exhibit a bistability of dynamical phases.

Gingrich, Todd R.; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Geissler, Phillip L.

2014-10-01

54

Large Deviations Upper Bounds for the Laws of Matrix-Valued Processes and Non-Communicative Entropies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Itô’s calculus, we study the large deviations\\u000aproperties of the law of the spectral measure of the Hermitian Brownian\\u000amotion.We extend this strategy to the symmetric, unitary and Wishart processes.\\u000aThis dynamical approach is generalized to the study of the large deviations of\\u000athe non-commutative laws of several independent Hermitian Brownian motions. As\\u000aa consequence, we can bound from

T. Cabanal Duvillard; A. Guionnet

2001-01-01

55

Dispersion in the large-deviation regime. Part II: cellular flow at large P\\'eclet number  

E-print Network

A standard model for the study of scalar dispersion through advection and molecular diffusion is a two-dimensional periodic flow with closed streamlines inside periodic cells. Over long time scales, the dispersion of a scalar in this flow can be characterised by an effective diffusivity that is a factor $\\mathrm{Pe}^{1/2}$ larger than molecular diffusivity when the P\\'eclet number $\\mathrm{Pe}$ is large. Here we provide a more complete description of dispersion in this regime by applying the large-deviation theory developed in Part I of this paper. We derive approximations to the rate function governing the scalar concentration at large time $t$ by carrying out an asymptotic analysis of the relevant family of eigenvalue problems. We identify two asymptotic regimes and make predictions for the rate function and spatial structure of the scalar. Regime I applies to distances from the release point that satisfy $|\\boldsymbol{x}| = O(\\mathrm{Pe}^{1/4} t)$ . The concentration in this regime is isotropic at large sc...

Haynes, P H

2014-01-01

56

Nonequilibrium ensemble inequivalence and large deviations of the density in the ABC model.  

PubMed

We consider the one-dimensional driven ABC model under particle-conserving and particle-nonconserving processes. Two limiting cases are studied: (a) The rates of the nonconserving processes are vanishingly slow compared with the conserving processes in the thermodynamic limit and (b) the two rates are comparable. For case (a) we provide a detailed analysis of the phase diagram and the large deviations function of the overall density, G(r). The phase diagram of the nonconserving model, derived from G(r), is found to be different from the conserving one. This difference, which stems from the nonconvexity of G(r), is analogous to ensemble inequivalence found in equilibrium systems with long-range interactions. An outline of the analysis of case (a) was given in an earlier letter. For case (b) we show that, unlike the conserving model, the nonconserving model exhibits a moving density profile in the steady state with a velocity that remains finite in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, in contrast with case (a), the critical lines of the conserving and nonconserving models do not coincide. These are new features which are present only when the rates of the conserving and nonconserving processes are comparable. In addition, we analyze G(r) in case (b) using macroscopic fluctuations theory. Much of the derivation presented in this paper is applicable to any driven-diffusive system coupled to an external particle bath via a slow dynamics. PMID:25122251

Cohen, O; Mukamel, D

2014-07-01

57

Annual Rainfall Maxima: Large-Deviation Alternative to Extreme-Value and Extreme-Excess Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to common belief, Gumbel's extreme value (EV) and Pickands' extreme excess (EE) theories do not generally apply to rainfall maxima at the annual level. This is true not just for long averaging durations d, as one would expect, but also in the high-resolution limit as d â?? 0. We reach these conclusions by studying the annual maxima of scale-invariant rainfall models with a multiplicative structure. We find that for d â?? 0 the annual maximum rainfall intensity in d, Iyear(d), has a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution with a shape parameter k that is significantly higher than that predicted by Gumbel's theory and is always in the EV2 range. Under the same conditions, the excess above levels close to the annual maximum has generalized Pareto (GP) distribution with a parameter k that is always higher than that predicted by Pickands' theory. The proper tool to obtain these results is large deviation (LD) theory, a branch of probability that has been largely ignored in stochastic hydrology. In the classic EV and EE settings one considers a single random variable X and studies either the distribution of the maximum of n independent copies of X as n â??? or the distribution of the excess Xu = (X - u|X â?¥ u) as the threshold u â???. A well known result is that, if under renormalization these distributions approach non-degenerate limits, then the distribution of the maximum is GEV(k), the distribution of the excess above u is GP(k), and the common shape parameter k depends on the tail behavior of X. When applied to rainfall extremes, X is typically taken to be I(d), the rainfall intensity in a generic d interval. The problem with the EV approach is that the number of d intervals in one year, n(d) = 1yr?d, may be too small for convergence of Iyear(d) to the asymptotic GEV distribution. Likewise, in the EE approach, thresholds u on the order of the annual maximum may be too low for convergence of the excess to the asymptotic GP distribution. This is indeed what happens in multifractal (and likely other multiplicative) models of rainfall. In contrast to EV and EE theories, LD theory considers a sequence of random variables {Xn =  i=1nY i, n = 1, 2, â?¦} where Y 1, Y 2,... are independent copies of a non-negative random variable Y and evaluates the probability P[Xn > eγn] for given γ > 0 as n â???. For application to scale-invariant rainfall one writes I(d) = I(D)Xn=ln(D?d), where D is the outer limit of the scale-invariant behavior. By using LD results, one finds that as d â?? 0 the distribution of Iyear(d) is EV2(k) with k that depends on the body (not the tail) of the distribution of Y . One can use LD theory also to extend Pickands' EE results. In this case one considers the excess Xn,eγn = (Xn - eγn|Xn â?¥ eγn) where the threshold u is made to vary with n as u = eγn for some γ > 0. One finds that, when the threshold is set to values on the order of the annual maximum and d â?? 0, the excess of I(d) = I(D)Xn=ln(D?d) approaches a GP(k) distribution where k is the same as in the EV2(k) distribution of Iyear(d). For d finite, Iyear(d) does not have a GEV distribution, but one can use LD theory to find the best-fitting EV2(k) distribution within a given range of quantiles. The use of large-deviation theory rather than extreme-value or extreme-excess theories represents a significant conceptual change in the way annual rainfall maxima are viewed and evaluated. There are also practical implications. Use of LD theory to calculate the distribution of the annual maximum does not require knowledge of the upper tail behavior of I(d). Rather one needs to know the distribution of I(d) in a less extreme region with significant gains in estimation accuracy and robustness. Some of the practical implications are considered in a companion study (Lepore et al., "Annual Rainfall Maxima: Practical Estimation Based on Large-deviation Results," EGU 2009). This

Veneziano, D.; Langousis, A.; Lepore, C.

2009-04-01

58

Bohr correspondence principle for large quantum numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic systems are considered whose increments in quantum energy grow with quantum number. In the limit of large quantum number, systems are found to give correspondence in form between classical and quantum frequency-energy dependences. Solely passing to large quantum numbers, however, does not guarantee the classical spectrum. For the examples cited, successive quantum frequencies remain separated by the incrementhI\\u000a–1,

Richard L. Liboff

1975-01-01

59

Large number coincidences and the anthropic principle in cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthropic principle, which asserts that what we can expect to observe must be restricted by the conditions necessary for our presence as observers, is discussed in relation to several large number coincidences. An illustration is given of the use of the 'strong' anthropic principle, which states that the Universe must be such as to admit the creation of observers

Brandon Carter; M. S. Longair

1974-01-01

60

LARGE DEVIATIONS FOR A MEAN FIELD MODEL OF SYSTEMIC JOSSELIN GARNIER, GEORGE PAPANICOLAOU, AND TZU-WEI YANG  

E-print Network

, large deviations, systemic risk, dynamic phase transitions. AMS subject classifications. 60F10, 60K35 of the individual components, in the sense that assessment of the risk of individual failure alone cannot provide an assessment of the systemic risk. The interconnectivity of the agents, its form and evolution, play

Garnier, Josselin

61

Large deviations and GallavottiCohen principle for dissipative PDE's with rough noise  

E-print Network

, Ginzburg�Landau equation, Burgers equation, reaction- diffusion system Contents 0 Introduction 2 1 Main . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.3 Burgers equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.4 Reaction by an unbounded kick force. Under some natural assumptions, the restrictions of solutions to in- teger times form

Jaksic, Vojkan

62

Large deviations and GallavottiCohen principle for dissipative PDE's with rough noise  

E-print Network

, Ginzburg­Landau equation, Burgers equation, reaction- diffusion system Contents 0 Introduction 2 1 Main . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.3 Burgers equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.4 Reaction by an unbounded kick force. Under some natural assumptions, the restrictions of solutions to in- teger times form

Boyer, Edmond

63

Large deviations and GallavottiCohen principle for dissipative PDE's with rough noise  

E-print Network

­Cohen fluctuation relation, Navier­ Stokes system, Ginzburg­Landau equation, Burgers equation, reaction- diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2 Complex Ginzburg­Landau equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.3 Burgers equation's perturbed by an unbounded kick force. Under some natural assumptions, the restrictions of solutions to in

64

Mechanical principles of large mirror supports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large thin meniscus mirrors use force-controlled shape actuators to obtain the required optical performance. The shape actuators can be interpreted as an advancement of classical mirror supports as whiffle trees or iso-static levers, which worked purely mechanical. The paper develops, after a short historical overview, the theoretical background of mirror mechanics. Different combinations of force-controlled shape actuators with mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic whiffle trees or iso-static levers are analyzed in regard of their impact on optical performance, dynamic and control behavior. The investigations were the basis for the choice of the shape actuator system for the E-ELT M2, executed by MT Mechatronics under an ESO contract in 2008-09.

Kärcher, Hans J.; Eisenträger, Peter; Süss, Martin

2010-07-01

65

Unification of Small and Large Time Scales for Biological Evolution: Deviations from Power Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a unified model that describes both “micro” and “macro” evolutions within a single theoretical framework. The ecosystem is described as a dynamic network; the population dynamics at each node of this network describes the “microevolution” over ecological time scales (i.e., birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms), while the appearance of new nodes, the slow changes of the links, and the disappearance of existing nodes accounts for the “macroevolution” over geological time scales (i.e., the origination, evolution, and extinction of species). In contrast to several earlier claims in the literature, we observe strong deviations from power law in the regime of long lifetimes.

Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kunwar, Ambarish

2003-02-01

66

Extending the Principles of Intensive Writing to Large Macroeconomics Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report on the design and implementation of a pilot program to extend the principles of intensive writing outlined by W. Lee Hansen (1998), Murray S. Simpson and Shireen E. Carroll (1999) and David Carless (2006) to large macroeconomics classes. The key aspect of this program was its collaborative nature, with staff from two specialist…

Docherty, Peter; Tse, Harry; Forman, Ross; McKenzie, Jo

2010-01-01

67

Large quantum-number states and the correspondence principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large principal-quantum-number limit is investigated. Several concrete examples are worked out and the correspondence principle is reexamined under the light shed by these calculations. In particular, it is shown that a simple linear combination of three one-dimensional harmonic-oscillator eigenstates leads to results at variance with classical physics, in the high quantum-number limit. The possibility of actually observing these phenomena

G. G. Cabrera; Miguel Kiwi

1987-01-01

68

Holographic principle and large scale structure in the universe  

E-print Network

A reasonable representation of large scale structure, in a closed universe so large it's nearly flat, can be developed by extending the holographic principle and assuming the bits of information describing the distribution of matter density in the universe remain in thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background radiation. The analysis identifies three levels of self-similar large scale structure, corresponding to superclusters, galaxies, and star clusters, between today's observable universe and stellar systems. The self-similarity arises because, according to the virial theorem, the average gravitational potential energy per unit volume in each structural level is the same and depends only on the gravitational constant. The analysis indicates stellar systems first formed at z\\approx62, consistent with the findings of Naoz et al, and self-similar large scale structures began to appear at redshift z\\approx4. It outlines general features of development of self-similar large scale structures at redshift z<4. The analysis is consistent with observations for angular momentum of large scale structures as a function of mass, and average speed of substructures within large scale structures. The analysis also indicates relaxation times for star clusters are generally less than the age of the universe and relaxation times for more massive structures are greater than the age of the universe.

T. R. Mongan

2010-09-08

69

Large deviations in stochastic heat-conduction processes provide a gradient-flow structure for heat conduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form -log ?; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ?2 for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ? for the nonlinear heat equation.

Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars

2014-09-01

70

Large Deviations in Stochastic Heat-Conduction Processes Provide a Gradient-Flow Structure for Heat Conduction  

E-print Network

We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter $m$, a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP$(m)$ and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the GBEP($a$). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP$(m)$, and give a formal derivation for the GBEP($a$). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form $-\\log \\rho$; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order $\\rho^2$ for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of $\\rho$ for the nonlinear heat equation.

Mark A. Peletier; Frank Redig; Kiamars Vafayi

2014-03-19

71

Standard Deviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, by journalist Robert Niles, defines and explains standard deviation and the normal distribution. Graphs and a clear list of terms you need to know are given, and links to more of Niles' sites can be found by visitors on the right side of the screen.

Niles, Robert

2008-12-16

72

First-principles investigation of deviations from Matthiessen's rule due to the interplay of phonon and spin disorder scattering in iron and gadolinium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic materials contain an anomalous contribution to the electrical resistivity due to thermal spin fluctuations, which saturates in the disordered phase and is called the spin-disorder resistivity (SDR). Experimental determination of the SDR involves fitting to high-temperature resistivity data and extrapolating to T=0 K. Recent calculations of the SDR of the heavy rare-earth metals revealed strong underestimations of this quantity, particularly for Gd, while the results for transition metals were in good agreement with experiments. In order to understand this discrepancy, here we evaluate the mutual effects of phonon and spin-disorder scattering in Fe and Gd. Calculations are performed using the supercell approach within the linear muffin-tin orbital method. The atomic positions are displaced according to the Gaussian distribution, and the resistivity is evaluated as a function of the mean-square displacement 2?T. The deviations from Matthiessen's rule (DMR) are large in Gd and moderate in Fe. Fitting the linear region of ? vs 2? in Gd yields an intercept ˜2.5 times larger than the ``bare'' SDR, significantly improving the agreement with experiment. Large DMR suggest large variations of the relaxation time on the anisotropic Fermi surface.

Glasbrenner, James; Belashchenko, Kirill

2013-03-01

73

Particle multiplicities at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and deviations from limiting fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

The pseudorapidity density of charged particles produced at collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are predicted by using two complementary production mechanisms with a set of consistent integrated and unintegrated parton distributions. We discuss the limiting fragmentation hypothesis and its possible violation, and we compare our model with other partonic models.

Ruan Jianhong; Zhu Wei [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

2010-05-15

74

Large deviations from the polarization-analyzing power equality and implied breakdown of time reversal invariance. [14 MeV  

SciTech Connect

The first test that compares the polarization (P) and the analyzing power (A) from measurements in a nuclear reaction and its inverse is reported. The reactions chosen for the P-A comparisons were the two-nucleon transfers /sup 7/Li(/sup 3/He,p)/sup 9/Be and /sup 9/Be(/sup 3/He,p)/sup 11/B, with 14-MeV incident /sup 3/He ions, and their inverses studied at the same CM energies. An astonishingly large P-A difference is found. The clear implication is that time-reversal invariance (TRI) is broken in some component of the nuclear interaction, since the polarization-analyzing power equality follows directly from TRI. 5 figures. (RWR)

Conzett, H.E.

1980-09-01

75

Bioinspired Principles for Large-Scale Networked Sensor Systems: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Biology has often been used as a source of inspiration in computer science and engineering. Bioinspired principles have found their way into network node design and research due to the appealing analogies between biological systems and large networks of small sensors. This paper provides an overview of bioinspired principles and methods such as swarm intelligence, natural time synchronization, artificial immune system and intercellular information exchange applicable for sensor network design. Bioinspired principles and methods are discussed in the context of routing, clustering, time synchronization, optimal node deployment, localization and security and privacy. PMID:22163841

Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Zhang, Qi; Toftegaard, Thomas Skj?deberg

2011-01-01

76

Implementing the "Marketing You" Project in Large Sections of Principles of Marketing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is mounting pressure on business education to increase experiential learning at the same time that budget constraints are forcing universities to increase class size. This article explains the design and implementation of the "Marketing You" project in two large sections of Principles of Marketing to bring experiential learning into the…

Smith, Karen H.

2004-01-01

77

Requirements and principles for the implementation and construction of large-scale geographic information systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a brief survey of the history, structure and functions of 'traditional' geographic information systems (GIS), and then suggests a set of requirements that large-scale GIS should satisfy, together with a set of principles for their satisfaction. These principles, which include the systematic application of techniques from several subfields of computer science to the design and implementation of GIS and the integration of techniques from computer vision and image processing into standard GIS technology, are discussed in some detail. In particular, the paper provides a detailed discussion of questions relating to appropriate data models, data structures and computational procedures for the efficient storage, retrieval and analysis of spatially-indexed data.

Smith, Terence R.; Menon, Sudhakar; Star, Jeffrey L.; Estes, John E.

1987-01-01

78

A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF4).

Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke

2014-06-01

79

November 25, 2010 17:30 WSPC/INSTRUCTION FILE tcell-act-dual-strat-JnBioSys-Two-level strategy for T-cell activation: a large deviation analysis for  

E-print Network

-level strategy for T-cell activation: a large deviation analysis for CD4 blocked situation. Janak R. Wedagedera of their T-cell re- ceptors (TCRs) with antigenic peptide bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC of the activation with regards to a T helper cell are cell proliferation and differentiation that lead to production

Wedagedera, Janak R.

80

The String Deviation Equation  

E-print Network

The relative motion of many particles can be described by the geodesic deviation equation. This can be derived from the second covariant variation of the point particle's action. It is shown that the second covariant variation of the string action leads to a string deviation equation.

Mark D. Roberts

1998-10-13

81

Single-field consistency relations of large scale structure part III: test of the equivalence principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10-3÷10-4 on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.

Creminelli, Paolo; Gleyzes, Jérôme; Hui, Lam; Simonovi?, Marko; Vernizzi, Filippo

2014-06-01

82

Deviation from secular equilibrium  

E-print Network

Laser exposure of gold nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of Uranium salt leads to accelerated decay of U238 nuclei and significant deviation from secular equilibrium. The samples demonstrate the enhanced gamma emission in the range of 54 keV during laser exposure.

A. V. Simakin; G. A. Shafeev

2010-01-20

83

Semantic deviation in Free Verse  

E-print Network

Abstract: The semantic deviation is one of the most effective ways of personification (Prosopopeia) in the language of the poem and defamiliarization in which many poets apply it for highlighting their poetry language. In this article, it is firstly pointed to Nima as the foundation of semantic deviation and the father of free verse, then his semantic deviation has been assessed efficiently. For the reason, it is firstly written an introduction about defamiliarization and its histoty, personification and semantic deviation; then, it is discussed on deviation in Nima free- verse and presented a apparently that he has used different semantic deviations for his verses personification; In continue, different semantic deviations along with Nima's free- verse samples have been evaluated; this study representing that although Nima has used efficiently different elements in semantic deviation, but the most common element is defamiliarization in his poems.

Hamidreza Farzi; Rostam Amani Astmal; Ali Dehghan

84

Between Same-Sex Marriages and the Large Hadron Collider : Making Sense of the Precautionary Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precautionary Principle is a guide to coping with scientific uncertainties in the assessment and management of risks.\\u000a In recent years, it has moved to the forefront of debates in policy and applied ethics, becoming a key normative tool in policy\\u000a discussions in such diverse areas as medical and scientific research, health and safety regulation, environmental regulation,\\u000a product development, international

Anton Petrenko; Dan McArthur

2010-01-01

85

Jrl Syst Sci & Complexity (2007) 20: 162172 AN INVARIANCE PRINCIPLE IN LARGE  

E-print Network

Science + Business Media, LLC Abstract We study large population stochastic dynamic games where the so DYNAMIC GAMES Minyi HUANG · Peter E. CAINES · Roland P. MALHAM´E Received: 1 February 2007 c 2007 Springer-called Nash certainty equivalence based control laws are implemented by the individual players. We first show

Huang, Minyi

86

Applying the principle of integrated navigation systems to estimating the motion of large vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining inertial sensors and GPS has led to integrated navigation systems of a performance surpassing classical navigation requirements. A utilisation of this technology suggests itself which considers not only the classical movement of a small, rigid body but expands the application range also to large aircraft, space stations and suchlike. The signals generated on this basis are usable both for vehicle

Jörg F Wagner; Günther Kasties

2004-01-01

87

Spatio-temporal spike train analysis for large scale networks using the maximum entropy principle and Monte Carlo method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dynamics of neural networks is a major challenge in experimental neuroscience. For that purpose, a modelling of the recorded activity that reproduces the main statistics of the data is required. In the first part, we present a review on recent results dealing with spike train statistics analysis using maximum entropy models (MaxEnt). Most of these studies have focused on modelling synchronous spike patterns, leaving aside the temporal dynamics of the neural activity. However, the maximum entropy principle can be generalized to the temporal case, leading to Markovian models where memory effects and time correlations in the dynamics are properly taken into account. In the second part, we present a new method based on Monte Carlo sampling which is suited for the fitting of large-scale spatio-temporal MaxEnt models. The formalism and the tools presented here will be essential to fit MaxEnt spatio-temporal models to large neural ensembles.

Nasser, Hassan; Marre, Olivier; Cessac, Bruno

2013-03-01

88

Geodesic deviation and gravitational waves  

E-print Network

The detection of gravitational waves based on the geodesic deviation equation is discussed. In particular, it is shown that the only non-vanishing components of the wave field in the conventional traceless-transverse gauge in linearized general relativity do not enter the geodesic deviation equation, and therefore, apparently, no effect is predicted by that equation in that specific gauge. The reason is traced back to the fact that the geodesic deviation equation is written in terms of a coordinate distance, which is not a directly measurable quantity. On the other hand, in the proper Lorentz frame of the detector, the conventional result described in standard textbooks holds.

M. Leclerc

2006-05-05

89

Large-scale first principles configuration interaction calculations of optical absorption in aluminum clusters.  

PubMed

We report the linear optical absorption spectra of aluminum clusters Aln (n = 2-5) involving valence transitions, computed using the large-scale all-electron configuration interaction (CI) methodology. Several low-lying isomers of each cluster were considered, and their geometries were optimized at the coupled-cluster singles-doubles (CCSD) level of theory. With these optimized ground-state geometries, excited states of different clusters were computed using the multi-reference singles-doubles configuration-interaction (MRSDCI) approach, which includes electron correlation effects at a sophisticated level. These CI wave functions were used to compute the transition dipole matrix elements connecting the ground and various excited states of different clusters, and thus their photoabsorption spectra. The convergence of our results with respect to the basis sets, and the size of the CI expansion, was carefully examined. Our results were found to be significantly different as compared to those obtained using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) [Deshpande et al. Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys., 2003, 68, 035428]. When compared to the available experimental data for the isomers of Al2 and Al3, our results are in very good agreement as far as important peak positions are concerned. The contribution of configurations to many body wave functions of various excited states suggests that in most cases optical excitations involved are collective, and plasmonic in nature. PMID:25162600

Shinde, Ravindra; Shukla, Alok

2014-10-14

90

Standard Deviation for Small Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

2006-01-01

91

Image thresholding using standard deviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Threshold selection using the within-class variance in Otsu's method is generally moderate, yet inappropriate for expressing class statistical distributions. Otsu uses a variance to represent the dispersion of each class based on the distance square from the mean to any data. However, since the optimal threshold is biased toward the larger variance among two class variances, variances cannot be used to denote the real class statistical distributions. Therefore, to express more accurate class statistical distributions, this paper proposes the within-class standard deviation as a criterion for threshold selection, and the optimal threshold is then determined by minimizing the within-class standard deviation. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method produced a better performance than existing algorithms.

Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Dae-Chul; Choi, Bong-Yeol; Ha, Yeong-Ho

2014-03-01

92

48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from the FAR or the EDAR must be approved by the Chief Acquisition Officer...

2013-10-01

93

48 CFR 1301.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMERCE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.404 Class deviations. The designee authorized to approve class deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...

2012-10-01

94

48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...

2013-10-01

95

48 CFR 1301.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMERCE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.404 Class deviations. The designee authorized to approve class deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...

2011-10-01

96

48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...

2010-10-01

97

48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...

2012-10-01

98

48 CFR 1301.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMERCE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.404 Class deviations. The designee authorized to approve class deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...

2013-10-01

99

48 CFR 1301.404 - Class deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMERCE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.404 Class deviations. The designee authorized to approve class deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM...

2010-10-01

100

41 CFR 105-1.110 - Deviation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...authorized designee. Deviations may be authorized by the Administrator of General Services or his authorized designee when so doing will be in the best interest of the Government. Request for deviations shall clearly state the nature of the deviation and the reasons for...

2010-07-01

101

41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...authorized designee. Deviations may be authorized by the Administrator of General Services or his authorized designee when so doing will be in the best interest of the Government. Request for deviations shall clearly state the nature of the deviation and the reasons for...

2010-07-01

102

The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

Yunis, Isam

2005-01-01

103

Accurate and Scalable O(N) Algorithm for First-Principles Molecular-Dynamics Computations on Large Parallel Computers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first truly scalable first-principles molecular dynamics algorithm with O(N) complexity and controllable accuracy, capable of simulating systems with finite band gaps of sizes that were previously impossible with this degree of accuracy. By avoiding global communications, we provide a practical computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic wave functions are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the components of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected elements of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to 101 952 atoms on 23 328 processors, with a wall-clock time of the order of 1 min per molecular dynamics time step and numerical error on the forces of less than 7×10-4 Ha/Bohr.

Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

104

Tolerancing Form Deviations for Rockwell Diamond Indenters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The form deviations of Rockwell diamond indenters can cause significant differences in Rockwell hardness readings. In order to control that effect, tolerances for form error deviations of Rockwell diamond indenters have been specified in both the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. In this paper, experimental data on the effects of

J. F. Song; L. Ma

2002-01-01

105

Typical support and Sanov large deviations of correlated states  

E-print Network

Discrete stationary classical processes as well as quantum lattice states are asymptotically confined to their respective typical support, the exponential growth rate of which is given by the (maximal ergodic) entropy. In the iid case the distinguishability of typical supports can be asymptotically specified by means of the relative entropy, according to Sanov's theorem. We give an extension to the correlated case, referring to the newly introduced class of HP-states.

I. Bjelakovic; J. -D. Deuschel; T. Krueger; R. Seiler; Ra. Siegmund-Schultze; A. Szkola

2007-03-27

106

Mathematical aspects The theory of large deviations and  

E-print Network

such phenomena as phase transitions, for example, the liquid�gas transition and spontaneous magnetization properties of physical systems such as an ideal gas, a ferromagnet, or a fluid? These properties include to describe coherent states. These are steady, stable mean flows composed of one or more vortices that persist

Ellis, Richard S.

107

Large Deviations Suppose you have a biased coin.  

E-print Network

epn(et -1) as (1 + a)n ean for all a > 0. c 2011 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page ] epn[ -(1+) ln(1+) ] . · The exponent expands to -2 2 + 3 6 - 4 12 + · · · for 0 1, which is less

Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

108

Path Deviation Equations in AP-Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it has been shown that Absolute Parallelism (AP) geometry admits paths that are naturally quantized. These paths have been used to describe the motion of spinning particles in a background gravitational field. In case of a weak static gravitational field limits, the paths are applied successfully to interpret the discrepancy in the motion of thermal neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field (COW-experiment). The aim of the present work is to explore the properties of the deviation equations corresponding to these paths. In the present work the deviation equations are derived and compared to the geodesic deviation equation of the Riemannian geometry.

Wanas, M. I.; Kahil, M. E.

2006-02-01

109

Prediction of a large number of electron pockets near the band edges in type-VIII clathrate Si46 and its physical properties from first principles.  

PubMed

The material design of type-VIII clathrate Si46 is presented based on first principles. The structural, electronic, elastic, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of this hypothetical material are presented. Our results predict that type-VIII clathrate Si46 is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.24 eV. The band structure revealed an interestingly large number of electron pockets near both conduction and valance band edges. Such a large density of states near the band edges, which is higher than that of the best thermoelectric materials discovered so far, can result in a large thermoelectric power factor (>0.004 W m(-1) K(-2)) making it a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications. The elastic properties as well as the vibrational modes and the phonon state densities of this material were also calculated. Our calculations predict that the heat capacity at constant volume (isochoric) of this clathrate increases smoothly with temperature and approaches the Dulong-Petit value near room temperature. The electronic band structure shows a large number of valleys closely packed around the valance band edge, which is rare among the known semiconducting materials. These valleys can contribute to transport at high temperature resulting in a possibly high performance (ZT > 1.5) p-type thermoelectric material. PMID:24172765

Norouzzadeh, Payam; Myles, Charles W; Vashaee, Daryoosh

2013-11-27

110

Evolutionary Implications of Genetic Code Deviations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By extending the standard genetic code into a temperature dependent regime, the authors propose a train of molecular events leading to alternative coding. The first few examples of these deviations have already been reported in some ciliated protozoans an...

J. Chela Flores

1986-01-01

111

45 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT...statute. However, in the interest of maximum uniformity, exceptions from the...unless the deviation would impair the integrity of the program. [59 FR 43760,...

2010-10-01

112

34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT...

2010-07-01

113

Deviated drilling method for water production  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Method for drilling horizontal or deviated fresh water wells through such volcanics as occur in Hawaii, including hard lavas and fragmented interbeds that are prone to caving. The method provides effective means to drill into basal aquifers directly underlain by salt water, or into compartmented or confined aquifers or perched aquifers. The method uses deviated drilling and may use formation grouting, casing or drill-stem drilling, percussion or rotary drilling and all combinations thereof.

2010-02-02

114

Bernoulli's Principle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

Hewitt, Paul G.

2004-01-01

115

The therapeutic relationship and deviations in technique.  

PubMed

This paper is a study of the framework and boundaries of the patient-analyst and patient-therapist relationships, and is based on the thesis that the manner in which the therapist manages these ground rules implicitly conveys important information about him to the patient, and influences both the patient's ongoing incorporative identification with the therapist and the "field" or person onto whom he projects his intrapsychic fantasies and with whom he interacts. After a review of the relevant literature, a series of fifteen postulates, drawn from previous observations in this area, are presented; each relates to the boundaries of the therapeutic relationship, and to the consequences of deviations and modifications of these boundaries and of the techniques of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. The main clinical presentation is drawn from the psychotherapy of a patient whose therapist made several deviations in technique, and this is supplemented by the review of several vignettes from the psychotherapeutic and psychoanalytic literature. In concluding, the following are discussed: the manner in which maintenance of the ground rules reflects the intrapsychic state of the therapist; the consequences of deviations in these ground rules, especially on the patient's incorporative identification with the therapist; the manner in which deviations in technique are antithetical to a sound therapeutic alliance, unless a clearcut emergency exists; the unconscious meanings of unneeded deviations in technique for both the patient and therapist; the technical measures needed to modify as far as possible the consequences of an unnecessary deviation in technique; the need for flexibility and humanity within the basic ground rules of therapy and analysis; and the importance of the actualities of the therapist in the therapeutic relationship. PMID:1158594

Langs, R J

1975-01-01

116

Bernoulli's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many physics teachers have an unclear understanding of Bernoulli's principle, particularly when the principle is applied to aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it altogether. The following simplified treatment of the principle ignores most of the complexities of aerodynamics and hopefully will encourage teachers to bring Bernoulli back into the classroom.

Hewitt, Paul G.

2004-09-01

117

Deviation of natural gas from Boyle's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for determining the deviation of natural gas from Boyle's law. The method consists primarily of accurate measurement by water displacement of the volume of gas at approximately atmospheric pressure which resulted from the expansion of a known volume of gas under high pressure. The measured gas volume is compared to that calculated by Boyle's law to

T. W. Johnson; W. B. Berwald

1932-01-01

118

Manifestations of Deviation in the Adolescent Subculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors look at questions relating to school students' attitudes toward types of deviation such as smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotics. The empirical material is divided into the following topics: how widespread these forms of behavior are; motives that cause adolescents to start smoking, using alcohol, and taking…

Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.

2005-01-01

119

Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

2012-01-01

120

Note Onset Deviations as Musical Piece Signatures  

PubMed Central

A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

Serra, Joan; Ozaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

2013-01-01

121

Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.  

PubMed

A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

2013-01-01

122

Machâs Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from Kyoto University, provides a discussion of Machâs Principle, a concept that played an important role in forming Einstein's theory of general relativity. Excerpts from Machâs original text are examined and discussed for his ideas that are closely related to this principle. The general ambiguity of Machâs Principle, and Einsteinâs interpretations of it are also presented.

Uchii, Soshichi

2007-10-10

123

Electron density and transport in top-gated graphene nanoribbon devices: First-principles Green function algorithms for systems containing a large number of atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent fabrication of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) field-effect transistors poses a challenge for first-principles modeling of carbon nanoelectronics due to many thousand atoms present in the device. The state of the art quantum transport algorithms, based on the nonequilibrium Green function formalism combined with the density-functional theory (NEGF-DFT), were originally developed to calculate self-consistent electron density in equilibrium and at finite bias voltage (as a prerequisite to obtain conductance or current-voltage characteristics, respectively) for small molecules attached to metallic electrodes where only a few hundred atoms are typically simulated. Here we introduce combination of two numerically efficient algorithms which make it possible to extend the NEGF-DFT framework to device simulations involving large number of atoms. Our first algorithm offers an alternative to the usual evaluation of the equilibrium part of electron density via numerical contour integration of the retarded Green function in the upper complex half-plane. It is based on the replacement of the Fermi function f(E) with an analytic function f˜(E) coinciding with f(E) inside the integration range along the real axis, but decaying exponentially in the upper complex half-plane. Although f˜(E) has infinite number of poles, whose positions and residues are determined analytically, only a finite number of those poles have non-negligible residues. We also discuss how this algorithm can be extended to compute the nonequilibrium contribution to electron density, thereby evading cumbersome real-axis integration (within the bias voltage window) of NEGFs which is very difficult to converge for systems with large number of atoms while maintaining current conservation. Our second algorithm combines the recursive formulas with the geometrical partitioning of an arbitrary multiterminal device into nonuniform segments in order to reduce the computational complexity of the retarded Green function evaluation by extracting only its submatrices required for electron density and transmission function. We illustrate fusion of these two algorithms into the NEGF-DFT-type code by computing charge transfer, charge redistribution and conductance in zigzag- GNR?variable -width-armchair- GNR?zigzag -GNR two-terminal device covered with a gate electrode made of graphene layer as well. The total number of carbon and edge-passivating hydrogen atoms within the simulated central region of this device is ?7000 . Our self-consistent modeling of the gate voltage effect suggests that rather large gate voltage ?3eV might be required to shift the band gap of the proposed AGNR interconnect and switch the transport from insulating into the regime of a single open conducting channel.

Areshkin, Denis A.; Nikoli?, Branislav K.

2010-04-01

124

The LARGE Principle of Cellular Reprogramming: Lost, Acquired and Retained Gene Expression in Foreskin and Amniotic Fluid-Derived Human iPS Cells  

PubMed Central

Human amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) are routinely obtained for prenatal diagnostics procedures. Recently, it has been illustrated that these cells may also serve as a valuable model system to study developmental processes and for application in regenerative therapies. Cellular reprogramming is a means of assigning greater value to primary AFCs by inducing self-renewal and pluripotency and, thus, bypassing senescence. Here, we report the generation and characterization of human amniotic fluid-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (AFiPSCs) and demonstrate their ability to differentiate into the trophoblast lineage after stimulation with BMP2/BMP4. We further carried out comparative transcriptome analyses of primary human AFCs, AFiPSCs, fibroblast-derived iPSCs (FiPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This revealed that the expression of key senescence-associated genes are down-regulated upon the induction of pluripotency in primary AFCs (AFiPSCs). By defining distinct and overlapping gene expression patterns and deriving the LARGE (Lost, Acquired and Retained Gene Expression) Principle of Cellular Reprogramming, we could further highlight that AFiPSCs, FiPSCs and ESCs share a core self-renewal gene regulatory network driven by OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. Nevertheless, these cell types are marked by distinct gene expression signatures. For example, expression of the transcription factors, SIX6, EGR2, PKNOX2, HOXD4, HOXD10, DLX5 and RAXL1, known to regulate developmental processes, are retained in AFiPSCs and FiPSCs. Surprisingly, expression of the self-renewal-associated gene PRDM14 or the developmental processes-regulating genes WNT3A and GSC are restricted to ESCs. Implications of this, with respect to the stability of the undifferentiated state and long-term differentiation potential of iPSCs, warrant further studies. PMID:21060825

Wolfrum, Katharina; Wang, Ying; Prigione, Alessandro; Sperling, Karl; Lehrach, Hans; Adjaye, James

2010-01-01

125

Perception via the Deviated Eye in Strabismus  

PubMed Central

Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color (“red” or “blue”) revealed which eye’s image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus. PMID:22836262

Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.

2012-01-01

126

Deviation Analysis: A New Use of Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inaccuracies, or deviations, in the measurements of monitored variables in a control system are facts of life that control software must accommodate. Deviation analysis can be used to determine how a software specification will behave in the face of such deviations. Deviation analysis is intended to answer questions such as \\

Mats Per Erik Heimdahl; Yunja Choi; Michael W. Whalen

2005-01-01

127

Buridan's Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

Lamport, Leslie

2012-08-01

128

Pascal's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from HyperPhysics provides a description of Pascal's Principle, which explains how pressure is transmitted in an enclosed fluid. Drawings and sample calculations are provided. Examples illustrating the principle include a hydraulic press and an automobile hydraulic lift.

Nave, Carl R.

2011-11-28

129

Lab#1: Icebergs: Raising Sea Level and Archimedes' Principle What is density? Can the density of an object change? Are large objects more dense than  

E-print Network

Lab#1: Icebergs: Raising Sea Level and Archimedes' Principle Questions What is density? Can icebergs add to sea level change? How much water do icebergs displace? Will melting land-based glaciers add to sea level change? Overview Icebergs are constantly calving (breaking) off of glaciers that reach

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

130

Deviated wellbore drilling system and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system of apparatus for the drilling of a deviated wellbore into the earth. It comprises a drill string extending into a well bore in the earth, a fluid operated drill motor and drill bit operatively secured on the bottom end of the drill string, the drill motor being connected at its upper end to the drill string and at its lower end to the drill bit for rotating the drill bit independently of rotation of the drill string, the drill motor having a tubular drive section housing with the longitudinal axis of its upper end angularly displaced from the longitudinal axis of its lower end for directing the axis of rotation of the drill bit such that is angularly displaced from the axis of the drill string for effecting a curved path for the wellbore, the motor comprises a rubber stator in the housing and a steel rotor rotatable therein, the stator fits the angular configuration of the housing, and the drill motor drive section housing directs the axis of the drill bit to effect a curved path having a radius of curvature of from approximately 10 to approximately 1,000 feet relative to a vertical or near vertical wellbore, the flexibility of the rotor and compressibility of the stator permitting rotation of the rotor without undue binding.

Maurer, W.C.; McDonald, W.J.

1991-06-11

131

The standard deviation in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.  

PubMed Central

The standard deviation (SD) in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has been mostly neglected in applications. However, the knowledge of the correct SD is necessary for an accurate data evaluation, especially when fitting theoretical models to experimental data. In this work, an algorithm is presented that considers the essential features of FCS. It allows prediction of the performance of FCS measurements in various cases, which is important for finding optimal experimental conditions. The program calculates the SD of the experimental autocorrelation function online. This procedure leads to improved parameter estimation, compared to currently used theoretical approximations for the SD. Three methods for the calculation of the SD are presented and compared to earlier analytical solutions (D. E. Koppel. 1974. Phys. Rev. A. 10:1938-1945.), calculation directly from fluorescence intensity values, by averaging several FCS measurements, or by dividing one measurement into a set of shorter data packages. Although the averaging over several measurements yields accurate estimates for the SD, the other two methods are considerably less time consuming, can be run online, and yield comparable results. PMID:11371471

Wohland, T; Rigler, R; Vogel, H

2001-01-01

132

9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated with... (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan for thermally processed/commercially sterile...

2010-01-01

133

7 CFR 3015.3 - Conflicting policies and deviations.  

...2014-01-01 false Conflicting policies and deviations. 3015.3... § 3015.3 Conflicting policies and deviations. (a) Statutory...Register and (2) give the public an opportunity to comment before making the regulations final....

2014-01-01

134

Borehole deviation surveys are necessary for hydraulic fracture monitoring Leo Eisner, Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Petr Bulant, Charles University in Prague, Jol H. Le Calvez*,  

E-print Network

Borehole deviation surveys are necessary for hydraulic fracture monitoring Leo Eisner, Schlumberger Not performing accurate borehole deviation surveys for hydraulic fracture monitoring (HFM) and neglecting fracture parameters. Introduction Recently a large number of hydraulic fracture treatments have been

Cerveny, Vlastislav

135

Configuration mixing and deviations of magnetic moments from Schmidt lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deviations of nuclear magnetic moments of oddA nuclei from the Schmidt lines are explained by configuration mixing. The general results obtained are applied to several nuclei and the magnitudes of the admixture coefficients necessary to explain the deviations are estimated. The results show that the deviations can be successfully explained only for those nuclei, in which possible configuration admixtures give

P. Vogel

1961-01-01

136

Moderate deviations for the blockwise bootstrap Amir Dembo  

E-print Network

Moderate deviations for the blockwise bootstrap Amir Dembo #3; Departments of Mathematics Abbreviated title: Moderate deviations for blockwise bootstrap Abstract We study the moderate deviations for the empirical process of the blockwise bootstrap estimator for stationary sequences. In this context we show

Dembo, Amir

137

38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Deviations; changes of identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 ...36.4304 Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent...proceeds of the loan, or a change in the identity of the property upon which the...

2010-07-01

138

Principles of Physical Cosmology  

E-print Network

Principles of Physical Cosmology P.J.E. Peebles Jim Peebles, Albert Ein- stein Professor of Sci in observational and theo- retical cosmology, motivating new three-dimensional surveys of up to a million galaxies. In this rapidly developing discipline, Peebles's books, particu- larly Physical Cosmology (1971) and The Large

Landweber, Laura

139

Rocket Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site from the NASA Glenn Research Center Learning Technologies Project, the science and history of rocketry is explained. Visitors will find out how rocket principles illustrate Newton's Laws of Motion. There is a second page of this site, Practical Rocketry, which discusses the workings of rockets, including propellants, engine thrust control, stability and control systems, and mass.

2008-07-29

140

Bernoulli's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bernoulli's principle relates the pressure of a fluid to its elevation and its speed. Bernoulli's equation can be used to approximate these parameters in water, air or any fluid that has very low viscosity. Students learn about the relationships between the components of the Bernoulli equation through real-life engineering examples and practice problems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory

141

Fighting the curse of dimensionality in first-principles semiclassical calculations: Non-local reference states for large number of dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiclassical methods face numerical challenges as the dimensionality of the system increases. In the general context of the theory of differential equations, this is known as the ``curse of dimensionality.'' In the present manuscript, we apply the recently-introduced multi-coherent states semiclassical initial value representation (MC-SC-IVR) approach to extend the applicability of first-principles semiclassical calculations. The proposed strategy involves the use of non-local coherent states with the goal of increasing accuracy in the Fourier transforms, and on the other hand, allows for the selection of peaks of different frequencies. The ability to filter desired peaks is important for analyzing the power spectra of complex systems. The MC-SC-IVR approach allows us to solve a 19-dimensional test system and to resolve on-the-fly the power spectra of the formaldehyde molecule with very few classical trajectories.

Ceotto, Michele; Tantardini, Gian Franco; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2011-12-01

142

Radar principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

Sato, Toru

1989-01-01

143

21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.100 Written procedures; deviations. (a) There...

2012-04-01

144

21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.100 Written procedures; deviations. (a) There...

2013-04-01

145

21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.100 Written procedures; deviations. (a) There...

2014-04-01

146

A truncated Floquet wave diffraction method for the full wave analysis of large phased arrays. I. Basic principles and 2-D cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part sequence deals with the formulation of an efficient method for the full wave analysis of large phased array antennas. This is based on the method of moments (MoM) solution of a fringe integral equation (IE) in which the unknown function is the difference between the exact solution of the finite array and that of the associated infinite array.

Andrea Neto; Stefano Maci; Giuseppe Vecchi; Marco Sabbadini

2000-01-01

147

Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

Goldberg, Fred M.

1985-01-01

148

Chi Square Test of Deviations from Expected Frequencies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The applet allows users to sample from a normal distribution or from a uniform distribution. It shows the expected values and the observed values and computes the deviation. Then, a chi-square test shows if the deviations are significant for both the normal and uniform distributions.

Lane, David M.

2009-02-06

149

Structure validation by C? geometry: ?,? and C? deviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometrical validation around the C is described, with a new C measure and up- dated Ramachandran plot. Deviation of the ob- served C atom from ideal position provides a single measure encapsulating the major structure-valida- tion information contained in bond angle distor- tions. C deviation is sensitive to incompatibilities between sidechain and backbone caused by misfit conformations or inappropriate refinement

Simon C. Lovell; Ian W. Davis; W. Bryan Arendall; Paul I. W. de Bakker; J. Michael Word; Michael G. Prisant; Jane S. Richardson; David C. Richardson

2003-01-01

150

The Influence of Motor Parameter Deviations in Feedforward Field Orientation Drive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the value of the time constant used in the slip calculator of a feedforward field orientation drive system deviates from the correct value, the decoupling of flux and torque is lost, and both steady-state and transient response is degraded. An analysis of detuned operation shows that the amount of performance degradation is strongly dependent on machine parameters. The large

Kamarudin B. Nordin; Donald W. Novotny; Donald S. Zinger

1985-01-01

151

[Minimal deviation endocervical adenocarcinoma--clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical study].  

PubMed

Minimal deviation endocervical adenocarcinoma (MDA) is a rare form of adenocarcinoma which differentiates well, grows rapidly, spreads early and has poor prognosis. In this series, 9 cases of MDA and its clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics are reported. The main clinical pictures were enlarged cervix with marked increase in vaginal discharge (7 cases) and irregular vaginal bleeding (2 cases). Histologically, this neoplasm was composed of structures almost identical to normal endocervical glandular patterns characterized by a haphazard proliferation of both large claw-shaped glands and small, slit-shaped, pointed glands which penetrated into the wall of the cervix beyond 5 mm in depth. Focal mild cytologic atypia was demonstrated in each case. Immunohistochemical stains showed focal cytoplasmic carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in each neoplasm. Seven of the nine patients were followed: four died of their neoplasms, one survived for more than 2 years, one for 1 year, and one was a new case. The diagnostic features and characteristics of immunohistochemistry of this cancer are described and its nomenclature, clinical manifestations and prognosis and discussed. PMID:2625109

Zhang, J M

1989-07-01

152

Principles of Medical Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, patients rarely questioned the therapeutic decisions made by their physicians. Physicians, in turn, were guided\\u000a by the principle of “doing onto others as you would have done onto you” and were largely limited by their clinical experiences.\\u000a Today, evidence-based medicine dictates most treatment decisions, and the role of the physician in educating patients about\\u000a available therapeutic options

Tarek Mekhail; Rony Abou-Jawde; Maurie Markman

153

Are scalar and tensor deviations related in modified gravity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified gravity theories on cosmic scales have three key deviations from general relativity. They can cause cosmic acceleration without a physical, highly negative pressure fluid, can cause a gravitational slip between the two metric potentials, and can cause gravitational waves to propagate differently, e.g. with a speed different from the speed of light. We examine whether the deviations in the metric potentials as observable through modified Poisson equations for scalar density perturbations are related to or independent from deviations in the tensor gravitational waves. We show analytically that they are independent instantaneously in covariant Galileon gravity—e.g. at some time one of them can have the general relativity value while the other deviates—though related globally—if one deviates over a finite period, the other at some point shows a deviation. We present expressions for the early-time and late-time de Sitter limits and numerically illustrate their full evolution. This in(ter)dependence of the scalar and tensor deviations highlights complementarity between cosmic structure surveys and future gravitational wave measurements.

Linder, Eric V.

2014-10-01

154

Recognizing deviations from normalcy for brain tumor segmentation  

E-print Network

A framework is proposed for the segmentation of brain tumors from MRI. Instead of training on pathology, the proposed method trains exclusively on healthy tissue. The algorithm attempts to recognize deviations from normalcy ...

Gering, David T. (David Thomas), 1971-

2003-01-01

155

48 CFR 570.704 - Deviations to provisions and clauses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...officer also needs an approved deviation to modify the language of a provision or clause mandated by statute (e...52.222-35, Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era; and 52.222-36,...

2013-10-01

156

48 CFR 570.704 - Deviations to provisions and clauses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...officer also needs an approved deviation to modify the language of a provision or clause mandated by statute (e...52.222-35, Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era; and 52.222-36,...

2011-10-01

157

48 CFR 570.704 - Deviations to provisions and clauses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...officer also needs an approved deviation to modify the language of a provision or clause mandated by statute (e...52.222-35, Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era; and 52.222-36,...

2012-10-01

158

41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.  

...2012-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management ...MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

2014-07-01

159

41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management ...MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

2011-07-01

160

41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management ...MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

2012-07-01

161

41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management ...MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

2013-07-01

162

41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management ...MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

2010-07-01

163

9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i...sterile product does not address food safety hazards associated...proposed. (iv) Product handled in accordance with...

2013-01-01

164

Spin-geodesic deviations in the Schwarzschild spacetime  

E-print Network

The deviation of the path of a spinning particle from a circular geodesic in the Schwarzschild spacetime is studied by an extension of the idea of geodesic deviation. Within the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model and assuming the spin parameter to be sufficiently small so that it makes sense to linearize the equations of motion in the spin variables as well as in the geodesic deviation, the spin-curvature force adds an additional driving term to the second order system of linear ordinary differential equations satisfied by nearby geodesics. Choosing initial conditions for geodesic motion leads to solutions for which the deviations are entirely due to the spin-curvature force, and one finds that the spinning particle position for a given fixed total spin oscillates roughly within an ellipse in the plane perpendicular to the motion, while the azimuthal motion undergoes similar oscillations plus an additional secular drift which varies with spin orientation.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Robert T. Jantzen

2014-08-21

165

Spin-geodesic deviations in the Schwarzschild spacetime  

E-print Network

The deviation of the path of a spinning particle from a circular geodesic in the Schwarzschild spacetime is studied by an extension of the idea of geodesic deviation. Within the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model and assuming the spin parameter to be sufficiently small so that it makes sense to linearize the equations of motion in the spin variables as well as in the geodesic deviation, the spin-curvature force adds an additional driving term to the second order system of linear ordinary differential equations satisfied by nearby geodesics. Choosing initial conditions for geodesic motion leads to solutions for which the deviations are entirely due to the spin-curvature force, and one finds that the spinning particle position for a given fixed total spin oscillates roughly within an ellipse in the plane perpendicular to the motion, while the azimuthal motion undergoes similar oscillations plus an additional secular drift which varies with spin orientation.

Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T

2014-01-01

166

Spin-geodesic deviations in the Schwarzschild spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deviation of the path of a spinning particle from a circular geodesic in the Schwarzschild spacetime is studied by an extension of the idea of geodesic deviation. Within the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model and assuming the spin parameter to be sufficiently small so that it makes sense to linearize the equations of motion in the spin variables as well as in the geodesic deviation, the spin-curvature force adds an additional driving term to the second order system of linear ordinary differential equations satisfied by nearby geodesics. Choosing initial conditions for geodesic motion leads to solutions for which the deviations are entirely due to the spin-curvature force, and one finds that the spinning particle position for a given fixed total spin oscillates roughly within an ellipse in the plane perpendicular to the motion, while the azimuthal motion undergoes similar oscillations plus an additional secular drift which varies with spin orientation.

Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

2011-04-01

167

Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors

Tasker, G.D.; Gilroy, E.J.

1982-01-01

168

Spin-geodesic deviations in the Schwarzschild spacetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deviation of the path of a spinning particle from a circular geodesic in the Schwarzschild spacetime is studied by an\\u000a extension of the idea of geodesic deviation. Within the Mathisson–Papapetrou–Dixon model and assuming the spin parameter to\\u000a be sufficiently small so that it makes sense to linearize the equations of motion in the spin variables as well as in

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Robert T. Jantzen

2011-01-01

169

THE SECOND CYBERNETICS Deviation-Amplifying Mutual Causal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its inception, cybernetics was more or less identified as a science of self-regulating and equilibrating systems. Thermostats, physiological regulation of body temperature, automatic steering devices, economic and political processes were studied under a general mathematical model of deviation-counteracting feedback networks. By focusing on the deviation-counteracting aspect of the mutual causal relationships however, the cyberneticians paid less attention to the

MAGOROH MARUYAMA

1963-01-01

170

Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (?) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO (<1 ppbv to a peak of 295 ppbv), NO2 (<2 ppbv-47 ppbv) and O3 (4 ppbv-95 ppbv) mixing ratios, all of which showed strong diurnal variation. The ? values showed large deviations from unity over the measurement period, with mostly negative deviations (? < 1), showing that the air masses were dominated by local sources of NOx and that the PSS was not achieved. Positive deviations (? > 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

2014-10-01

171

Equivalence principles and electromagnetism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

Ni, W.-T.

1977-01-01

172

Archimedes' Principle, Pascal's Law and Bernoulli's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle and Bernoulli's principle. Fundamental definitions, equations, practice problems and engineering applications are supplied. A PowerPoint® presentation, practice problems and grading rubric are provided.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

173

Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.  

PubMed

Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered. PMID:21477097

Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael

2012-08-01

174

Deviations from piecewise linearity in the solid-state limit with approximate density functionals  

E-print Network

In exact density functional theory (DFT) the total ground-state energy is a series of linear segments between integer electron points, a condition known as "piecewise linearity". Deviation from this condition is indicative of poor predictive capabilities for electronic structure, in particular of ionization energies, fundamental gaps, and charge transfer. In this article, we take a new look at the deviation from linearity (i.e., curvature) in the solid-state limit by considering two different ways of approaching it: a large finite system of increasing size and a crystal represented by an increasingly large reference cell with periodic boundary conditions. We show that the curvature approaches vanishing values in both limits, even for functionals which yield poor predictions of electronic structure, and therefore can not be used as a diagnostic or constructive tool in solids. We find that the approach towards zero curvature is different in each of the two limits, owing to the presence of a compensating backgro...

Vl?ek, Vojt?ch; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Kronik, Leeor; Baer, Roi

2014-01-01

175

A study of course deviations during cross-country soaring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several models are developed for studying the impact of deviations from course during cross country soaring flights. Analyses are performed at the microstrategy and macrostrategy levels. Two types of lift sources are considered: concentrated thermals and thermal streets. The sensitivity of the optimum speed solutions to various model, piloting and performance parameters is evaluated. Guides are presented to provide the pilot with criterions for making in-flight decisions. In general, course deviations are warranted during weak lift conditions, but are less justifiable with moderate to strong lift conditions.

Sliwa, S. M.; Sliwa, D. J.

1979-01-01

176

Bioreactor principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

177

Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.  

PubMed Central

Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed. PMID:1184490

Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M

1975-01-01

178

Geodesic Deviation of Photons in Einstein and Higher Derivative Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the wave equation obeyed by electromagnetic fields in curved spacetime. We find that there are Riemann and Ricci curvature coupling terms to the photon polarisation which result in a polarisation dependent deviation of the photon trajectories from null geodesics. Photons are found to have an effective mass in an external gravitational field and their velocity in a local

Subhendra Mohanty; A. R. Prasanna

1997-01-01

179

Path and path deviation equations for p-branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Path and path deviation equations for neutral, charged, spinning and spinning charged test particles, using a modified Bazanski Lagrangian, are derived. We extend this approach to strings and branes. We show how the Bazanski Lagrangian for charged point particles and charged branes arises à la Kaluza-Klein from the Bazanski Lagrangian in 5-dimensions.

Pavši?, Matej; Kahil, Magd E.

2012-04-01

180

The Effect of Type of Punishment on Resistance to Deviation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comparative effectiveness of an aversive stimulus, withholding of resources, withdrawal of love and reasoning, when used alone and combined with praise, was assessed in the standard laboratory punishment paradigm using 120 first and second graders as subjects. Resistance to deviation was used as the measure of punishment effectiveness. Sex of…

LaVoie, Joseph C.

181

DRUIDSFDetection of Regions With Unexpected Internal Deviation From Stationarity  

E-print Network

3 School of Computational Science and Information Technology 150-A Dirac Science Library, Florida in the software package DRUIDS (Detecting Regions of Unexpected Internal Deviation from Stationarity), available duplication (Page and Cotton, 2002), to estimate the function of unidentified genes using orthology (Storm

Naylor, Gavin

182

Standard Deviation of Monthly Average Temperature in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maps of the distribution of standard deviation of monthly average temperature over the United States are given. These are based on the 1941-1970 period. A brief history of the derivation of United States normal temperatures and of past work on standard de...

R. M. Whiting

1978-01-01

183

Gait Recognition at a Distance Based on Energy Deviation Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silhouettes extracted from the videos collected with complex background at a relatively far distance are generally of low quality. Gait Energy Image (GEI) has been reported as a good feature robust to silhouette errors and image noise, but it ignores some gait motion information. This paper proposes to generate energy deviation image (EDI) based on the differences between the GEI

Qinyong Ma; Shenkang Wang; Dongdong Nie; Jianfeng Qiu

2007-01-01

184

Inverse Document Frequency (IDF): A Measure of Deviations from Poisson  

E-print Network

by a Poisson process, p. The probability of k instances of a word w is p(q , k) where q ~ ~ D f w ___ : #12; p(q , k) = k! e - q q k _______ for k = 0 , 1 , . . . Poisson In particular, the probability that wInverse Document Frequency (IDF): A Measure of Deviations from Poisson Kenneth W. Church William A

Church, Kenneth W.

185

Using Datacube Aggregates for Approximate Querying and Deviation Detection  

E-print Network

Using Datacube Aggregates for Approximate Querying and Deviation Detection Themis Palpanas, Nick to the efficient computation of relational aggregations and, specifically, the efficient execution of the datacube about it. We then show how approximate queries on the data from which the aggregates were derived can

Palpanas, Themis

186

Numerical Simulation of Mud-Filtrate Invasion in Deviated Wells  

E-print Network

of deviated wells. We simulate numerically the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in vertical, horizontal by introducing an effective-flow-rate function that describes the evo- lution in time of the rate of invasion (numerically and in the laboratory) the physics of mud-filtrate invasion. Drilling variables such as mud

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

187

Principles and Methods Chromatography  

E-print Network

Edition AC 18-1022-29 Principles and Methods Affinity Chromatography #12;Antibody Purification-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Ion Exchange Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1114-21 Affinity Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1022-29 Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Principles

Lebendiker, Mario

188

Deviations from Liquidlike Behaviorinmolten Polymer Films at Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

We have performed x-ray specular and diffuse scattering on liquid polymer films and analyzed the spectra as a function of film thickness and molecular weight. The results show that films whose molecular weight is close to the entanglement length behave as simple liquids except that the shortest wavelength is determined by the radius of gyration (Rg) rather than the monomer-monomer distance. When the molecular weight is higher than the entanglement length, the strong deviations from liquidlike behavior are observed. We find that the long wavelength cutoff vector, ql, c, scales with film thickness, d as d{sup -1.1{+-}0.1} rather than the usual d{sup -2} expected for simple liquids. If we assume that these deviations are due to surface pinning of the polymer chains, then our results are consistent with the formalism developed by Fredrickson et al. to explain the capillary wave spectrum that can propagate in a polymer brush.

Seo,Y.; Koga, T.; Sokolov, J.; Rafailovich, M.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.

2005-01-01

189

Method for improving cuttings transport in deviated wells  

SciTech Connect

An improved method of drilling a deviated well is effected by injecting a slug or series of slugs of a shear thickening fluid down the drill string ahead of the drilling fluid and into the annulus formed about the drill string to displace cuttings that accumulate in the annular regions where the drill string lies near the lower side of the deviated portion of the borehole thereby increasing cuttings transport efficiency. The shear thickening fluid has characteristics that enable it to dislodge and disperse the accumulated cuttings in that it undergoes a reversible, isothermal, increase in viscosity when subjected to an increasing shear rate. Slug volumes vary between 0.05 and 5 percent of the annulus volume between the drill string and the wellbore wall.

Savins, J. G.

1985-01-29

190

Linear response deviations during recording of diffraction gratings in photopolymers.  

PubMed

In a holographic recording is advisable that the diffraction efficiency increases linearly with the exposure in a wide zone of the curve of diffraction efficiency versus energetic exposure and the slope of the curve must be approximately constant before saturation in order to improve the energetic sensitivity and to get reproducibility in different recordings with the same kind of photopolymer, although to find examples of deviations to this behavior it is usual. The more important deviation experimentally observed in photopolymers with high thickness happen when the first maximum in the curve is lower than the second one. This effect is opposed to an overmodulation. We present a main hypothesis related to the dye concentration into the layer and with the molecular weight of the polymer chains generated in the polymerization process in order to explain this effect. PMID:19654725

Ortuño, M; Neipp, C; Gallego, S; Beléndez, A

2009-07-20

191

The psychopathic deviate scale of the MMPI in police selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) Scale of the MMPI is often used by police departments in police selection. Unfortunately very\\u000a little research data exists to substantiate the power of the Pd scale in police selection. In this study, self-ratings of\\u000a satisfaction and performance of police officers were assessed using the Zytowski Personal Data Questionnaire. The Pd scale\\u000a showed promise but the

William U. Weiss; Kevin Buehler; David Yates

1995-01-01

192

Explorations in statistics: standard deviations and standard errors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in Advances in Physiology Education provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle with which to explore basic concepts in statistics, I provide the requisite R commands. In this inaugural paper we explore the essential distinction between standard deviation and standard error: a standard deviation estimates the variability among sample observations whereas a standard error of the mean estimates the variability among theoretical sample means. If we fail to report the standard deviation, then we fail to fully report our data. Because it incorporates information about sample size, the standard error of the mean is a misguided estimate of variability among observations. Instead, the standard error of the mean provides an estimate of the uncertainty of the true value of the population mean.

PhD Douglas Curran-Everett (National Jewish Medical and Research Center Div. Biostatistics, Depts. Prev. Med./Biometrics, Physiology/Biophys)

2008-05-06

193

Sample path large deviations of Poisson shot noise with heavy tail semi-exponential distributions  

E-print Network

manifests itself through the LDP having the same rate function as for a compound Poisson process; Poisson shot noise. AMS 2000 Subject Classification: Primary 60F10. 1 Introduction Shot noise processes properties of the Poisson process in conjunc- tion with delicate estimates to create a process

Duffy, Ken

194

Large deviations for singular and degenerate diffusion models in adaptive evolution  

E-print Network

competing for limited resources. Models of evolution of the dominant trait in the space of phenotypic traits, called phenotypic traits: morphological traits like body size, physiological traits like the rate of food intake, life-history traits like the age at maturity. Such traits are heritable yet not perfectly trans

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Large deviations for singular and degenerate diusion models in adaptive evolution  

E-print Network

resources. Models of evolution of the dominant trait in the space of phenotypic traits are usually of two traits: morphological traits like body size, physiological traits like the rate of food intake, life-history traits like the age at maturity. Such traits are heritable yet not perfectly trans- mitted from parents

Champagnat, Nicolas - Institut de Mathématiques �lie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

196

Hausdorff and Packing Spectra, Large Deviations, and Free Energy for Branching Random Walks in  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider an -valued branching random walk (BRW) on a supercritical Galton Watson tree. Without any assumption on the distribution of this BRW we compute, almost surely and simultaneously, the Hausdorff and packing dimensions of the level sets E( K) of infinite branches in the boundary of the tree (endowed with its standard metric) along which the averages of the BRW have a given closed connected set of limit points K. This goes beyond multifractal analysis, which only considers those level sets when K ranges in the set of singletons . We also give a 0-? law for the Hausdorff and packing measures of the level sets E({ ?}), and compute the free energy of the associated logarithmically correlated random energy model in full generality. Moreover, our results complete the previous works on multifractal analysis by including the levels ? which do not belong to the range of the gradient of the free energy. This covers in particular a situation that was until now badly understood, namely the case where a first order phase transition occurs. As a consequence of our study, we can also describe the whole singularity spectrum of Mandelbrot measures, as well as the associated free energy function (or L q -spectrum), when a first order phase transition occurs.

Attia, Najmeddine; Barral, Julien

2014-10-01

197

Guesswork, large deviations and Shannon entropy Mark M. Christiansen and Ken R. Duffy  

E-print Network

under Grant No. 11/PI/1177 and by the Irish Higher Educational Authority (HEA) PRTLI Network Mathematics is that of a typical password entry system based on a cryptographic hash function, where an adversary can ask about

Duffy, Ken

198

Large Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations in the Daphnia longispina of Lake El Tobar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population structure of Daphnia longispina in Lake El Tobar, Spain was studied by measuring variation at the aldehyde oxidase (AO), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) and phosphoglucose mutase (PGM) loci in each of 1337 individuals from four collections. In 9 of the 12 comparisons between observed allele frequencies and those expected by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium there was an excess of heterozygotes. We

Charles E. King; Maria R. Miracle; Eduardo Vicente

1995-01-01

199

Nonlinear Filtering and Large Deviations: A PDE-Control Theoretic Approach,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We consider the asymptotic nonlinear filtering problem dx = f(x) dt + sq. rt. epsilon, dy = h(x) dt + sq. rt. epsilon, and obtain the limit as epsilon approaches 0 of epsilon log (q(xt) to the epsilon power) = - W(x, t) for unnormalised conditional densit...

M. R. James, J. S. Baras

1987-01-01

200

A contribution to the theory of large deviations for sums of independent random variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

sums. The classical central limit formulation is for Pr (Zn <= Xn) where xn = 0 (1) as n -+ co and thus gives only trivial information in the case where xn ~ cr as n-~ ~. However, we often require information on Pr(Zn > xn) under these circumstances. This type of problem is called a problem on the probability

C. C. Heyde

1967-01-01

201

Large-deviation analysis and applications Of learning tree-structured graphical models  

E-print Network

The design and analysis of complexity-reduced representations for multivariate data is important in many scientific and engineering domains. This thesis explores such representations from two different perspectives: deriving ...

Tan, Vincent Yan Fu

2011-01-01

202

A gait index may underestimate changes of gait: a comparison of the Movement Deviation Profile and the Gait Deviation Index.  

PubMed

The ability of the Movement Deviation Profile (MDP) and Gait Deviation Index (GDI) to detect gait changes was compared in a child with cerebral palsy who underwent game training. Conventional gait analysis showed that sagittal plane angles became mirrored about normality after training. Despite considerable gait changes, the GDI showed minimal change, while the MDP detected a difference equal to a shift between 10-9 on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire scale. Responses of the GDI and MDP were examined during a synthetic transition of the patient's curves from before intervention to a state mirrored about normality. The GDI showed a symmetric response on the two opposite sides of normality but the neural network based MDP gave an asymmetric response reflecting faithfully the unequal biomechanical consequences of joint angle changes. In conclusion, the MDP can detect altered gait even if the changes are missed by the GDI. PMID:23521124

Barton, Gabor J; Hawken, Malcolm B; Holmes, Gill; Schwartz, Michael H

2015-01-01

203

48 CFR 601.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. 601.405... 601.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. The Procurement...determine whether a deviation pertaining to treaties and executive agreements is...

2010-10-01

204

Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…

Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

2010-01-01

205

New Robotics: Design Principles for Intelligent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Robotics designates an approach to robotics that, in contrast to traditional robotics, employs ideas and principles from biology. While in the traditional approach there are generally accepted methods (e.g. from control theory), designing agents in the New Robotics approach is still largely considered an art. In recent years, we have been developing a set of heuristics or design principles,

Rolf Pfeifer; Fumiya Iida; Josh C. Bongard

2005-01-01

206

14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2010-01-01

207

14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.  

...2014-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2014-01-01

208

14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2013-01-01

209

14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2011-01-01

210

14 CFR 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles. Sec. 2-1 Section...LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

2012-01-01

211

Quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle  

E-print Network

A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and show that a violation of the equivalence principle does not occur when the measurement is made far from the turning point of the classical trajectory. I conclude with some remarks about the strong equivalence principle in quantum mechanics.

P. C. W. Davies

2004-03-03

212

Light deviation based optical techniques applied to solid propellant combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Investigation in Combustion of Energetic Materials (InCoME) program is aimed at validating the numerical simulation of composite propellant combustion using nonintrusive optical techniques. The Focusing Schlieren Technique (FST) was selected; it allows catching light deviation from a thin vertical planar section centered above the propellant combustion surface. The optical system is described in the paper. Significant results are presented showing the capabilities of this technique when applied to solid propellant combustion in terms of studying flame structure, flame propagation, and particle tracking.

Cauty, F.; Eradès, C.; Desse, J.-M.

2011-10-01

213

Charts determine hole cleaning requirements in deviated wells  

SciTech Connect

A set of simple charts can help engineers at the rig site quickly determine hole cleaning requirements for drilling deviated or horizontal wells. The charts can also quantify the effect of hole enlargement, which adversely affects hole cleaning. These charts have been derived from a computer model based on both laboratory and field measurements. The mud flow rate, penetration rate, and mud rheology are the key variables for optimizing hole cleaning. An example problem illustrates how the charts can determine the influence of these major drilling variables on hole cleaning requirements.

Luo, Y.; Berns, P. (BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)); Kellingray, D.; Chamber, B. (BP Exploration, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

1994-07-11

214

Fast and slow flexural waves in a deviated borehole in homogeneous and layered anisotropic formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dipole acoustic fields in an arbitrarily deviated well penetrating a homogeneous as well as a stratified transversely isotropic formation are simulated using a 3-D finite-difference time-domain algorithm in cylindrical coordinates. The modelling results show that a dipole source can excite a fast- and a slow-flexural mode due to the shear wave anisotropy when the borehole is inclined with respect to the symmetry axis of transverse isotropy. Both flexural slownesses change with the wellbore deviation angle. The splitting of flexural modes is prominent in full wave arrays when the shear anisotropy is strong enough. It is revealed that the dipole orientation influences the relative amplitudes of the fast- and slow-flexural waves but it has no effect on their slownesses or phases. In a vertical well parallel to the symmetry axis, the two flexural waves degenerate and propagate at the same speed. The degenerated flexural wave travels approximately at the shear speed along the borehole wall except in a few formations. Our study shows, for example, that it is about 10 per cent slower than the shear wave in Mesaverde clayshale 5501. Even in that kind of formations, however, extraction of the fast- and slow-shear velocities from the flexural modes is still possible if the borehole deviation is large enough. To examine the effect of layering, we modelled the full waves in a formation with a sandwich. When the well is perpendicular to the layer interfaces, reflection is obvious and can be recognized. It becomes weaker or even invisible as the deviation angle increases, so it is difficult to detect a thin layer embedded in a formation directly from reflected waves. The sandwich can, instead, be recognized from the irregularity in the spectra of the full waveforms displayed versus depth. [Correction added after online publication 25th February 2009; the original spelling of `homogenous' in the title has been corrected to `homogeneous'.[

He, Xiao; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei

2010-04-01

215

Chemical Principls Exemplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

Plumb, Robert C.

1973-01-01

216

Pauli's Exclusion Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. The exclusion principle: a philosophical overview; 2. The origins of the exclusion principle: an extremely natural prescriptive rule; 3. From the old quantum theory to the new quantum theory: reconsidering Kuhn's incommensurability; 4. How Pauli's rule became the exclusion principle: from the Fermi-Dirac statistics to the spin-statistics theorem; 5. The exclusion principle opens up new avenues: from the eightfold way to quantum chromodynamics.

Massimi, Michela

2012-10-01

217

Altitude deviations: Breakdowns of an error-tolerant system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot reports of aviation incidents to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) provide a window on the problems occurring in today's airline cockpits. The narratives of 10 pilot reports of errors made in the automation-assisted altitude-change task are used to illustrate some of the issues of pilots interacting with automatic systems. These narratives are then used to construct a description of the cockpit as an information processing system. The analysis concentrates on the error-tolerant properties of the system and on how breakdowns can occasionally occur. An error-tolerant system can detect and correct its internal processing errors. The cockpit system consists of two or three pilots supported by autoflight, flight-management, and alerting systems. These humans and machines have distributed access to clearance information and perform redundant processing of information. Errors can be detected as deviations from either expected behavior or as deviations from expected information. Breakdowns in this system can occur when the checking and cross-checking tasks that give the system its error-tolerant properties are not performed because of distractions or other task demands. Recommendations based on the analysis for improving the error tolerance of the cockpit system are given.

Palmer, Everett A.; Hutchins, Edwin L.; Ritter, Richard D.; Vancleemput, Inge

1993-01-01

218

Effects of experimentally deviated mandibular position on stress response.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of stress on -prefrontal cortex (PFC), emotion (using visual analogue scale, VAS, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Two types of stress were applied: (1) malocclusion-induced physical stress and (2) mental stress induced by an arithmetic task. Malocclusion was induced using an experimentally deviated mandibular device (EDMD) to obtain an experimentally deviated mandibular position (EDMP). A total of 11 healthy volunteers participated in the study. On day 1 they performed a pretrial arithmetic task followed by a 10-min rest, after which they performed a posttrial EDMD + arithmetic task or rest device + arithmetic task. These two tasks were selected at random and assigned at the rate of one per day. Activity in the PFC tended to show an increase in the pretrial arithmetic tasks and rest device + arithmetic task, but a decrease in the EDMD + arithmetic task compared with the rest device + arithmetic task. Heart rate significantly increased during the rest device + arithmetic task, whereas no significant difference was observed during the EDMD + arithmetic task. The EDMD + arithmetic task significantly increased STAI scores (p = 0.0047), and the significant decrease in VAS indicated "unpleasant" (p = 0.035). These findings suggest that EDMP-induced reduction in the level of PFC activity was a response to discomfort, indicating that EDMP affects systemic function such as that of the ANS as an unpleasant stressor. PMID:22879007

Amemiya, Ai; Takeda, Tomotaka; Nakajima, Kazunori; Ishigami, Keiichi; Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru

2013-01-01

219

The relationship between middle ear pressure and deviated nasal septum.  

PubMed

The deviated nasal septum may be associated with middle ear problems, particularly on the side of nasal obstruction. This study aims to find out whether middle ear pressure (MEP) correlates with the degree of nasal obstruction secondary to a deviated nasal septum, and to examine changes in MEP following septal surgery. Patencies of the nasal passages (measured with a peak nasal inspiratory flowmeter) and MEP (measured with a tympanometer) of 55 patients were obtained prior to surgery and 7.5 (6-10) months post-operatively [median (range)]. Forty patients completed the study. Results were analysed by linear regression. In the ear on the side of nasal blockage, MEP was -25.7 +/- 28.4 mm water pre-operatively, and following surgery increased significantly to -2.9 +/- 30.4 mm water (mean +/- SD) (P < 0.001). Pre-operatively, it was inversely related to the difference in patencies between the two nasal passages (r = -0.32, P < 0.02). Post-operatively, its improvement correlated with the degree of reduction of asymmetry of airway patency (r = 0.56, P < 0.001). PMID:8877192

Low, W K; Willatt, D J

1993-08-01

220

Chemical Principles Exemplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

Plumb, Robert C.

1970-01-01

221

Reconsidering Archimedes' Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archimedes' principle as stated originally by Archimedes and in modern texts can lead to an incorrect prediction if the submerged object is in contact with a solid surface. In this paper we look experimentally at a submerged object and show that though the theoretical explanations of the principle are valid, the statement of the principle needs clarification.

Jeffrey Bierman; Eric Kincanon

2003-01-01

222

Deriving Acquisition Principles from Tutoring Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our analysis of the literature on tutorial dialogues and presents a compilation of useful principles\\u000a that students and teachers typically follow in making tutoring interactions successful. The compilation is done in the context\\u000a of making use of those principles in building knowledge acquisition interfaces since acquisition interfaces can be seen as\\u000a students acquiring knowledge from the user.

Jihie Kim; Yolanda Gil

2002-01-01

223

Low-energy magnetic radiation: Deviations from GOE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pronounced spike at low energy in the strength function for magnetic radiation (LEMAR) is found by means of Shell Model calculations, which explains the experimentally observed enhancement of the dipole strength. LEMAR originates from statistical low-energy M1-transitions between many excited complex states. Re-coupling of the proton and neutron high-j orbitals generates the strong magnetic radiation. LEMAR is closely related to Magnetic Rotation. LEMAR is predicted for nuclides participating in the r-process of element synthesis and is expected to change the reaction rates. An exponential decrease of the strength function and a power law for the size distribution of the B(M1) values are found, which strongly deviate from the ones of the GOE of random matrices, which is commonly used to represent complex compound states.

Frauendorf, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wimmer, K.

2014-10-01

224

Geodesic Deviation of Photons in Einstein and Higher Derivative Gravity  

E-print Network

We derive the wave equation obeyed by electromagnetic fields in curved spacetime. We find that there are Riemann and Ricci curvature coupling terms to the photon polarisation which result in a polarisation dependent deviation of the photon trajectories from null geodesics. Photons are found to have an effective mass in an external gravitational field and their velocity in a local inertial frame is in general less than $c$. The effective photon mass in the Schwarzschild metric is $m_\\gamma = ( 2GM/r^3 )^{1/2}$ and near the horizon it is larger than the Hawking temperature of the blackhole. Our result implies that Hawking radiation of photons would not take place. We also conclude that there is no superluminal photon velocity in higher derivative gravity theories (arising from QED radiative corrections), as has been claimed in literature. We show that these erroneous claims are due to the neglect of the Riemann and Ricci coupling terms which exist in Einstein's gravity.

Subhendra Mohanty; A. R. Prasanna

1997-01-07

225

Geodesic Deviation of Photons in Einstein and Higher Derivative Gravity  

E-print Network

We derive the wave equation obeyed by electromagnetic fields in curved spacetime. We find that there are Riemann and Ricci curvature coupling terms to the photon polarisation which result in a polarisation dependent deviation of the photon trajectories from null geodesics. Photons are found to have an effective mass in an external gravitational field and their velocity in a local inertial frame is in general less than c. The effective photon mass in the Schwarzschild metric is $m_\\gamma = ( 2GM/r^3 )^{1/2}$ and near the horizon it is larger than the Hawking temperature of the blackhole. Our result implies that Hawking radiation of photons would not take place. We also conclude that there is no superluminal photon velocity in higher derivative gravity theories (arising from QED radiative corrections), as has been claimed in literature. We show that these erroneous claims are due to the neglect of the Riemann and Ricci coupling terms which exist in Einstein's gravity.

Mohanty, S; Mohanty, Subhendra

1997-01-01

226

Low-energy magnetic radiation: deviations from GOE  

E-print Network

A pronounced spike at low energy in the strength function for magnetic radiation (LEMAR) is found by means of Shell Model calculations, which explains the experimentally observed enhancement of the dipole strength. LEMAR originates from statistical low-energy M1-transitions between many excited complex states. Re-coupling of the proton and neutron high-j orbitals generates the strong magnetic radiation. LEMAR is closely related to Magnetic Rotation. LEMAR is predicted for nuclides participating in the r-process of element synthesis and is expected to change the reaction rates. An exponential decrease of the strength function and a power law for the size distribution of the $B(M1)$ values are found, which strongly deviate from the ones of the GOE of random matrices, which is commonly used to represent complex compound states.

S. Frauendorf; R. Schwengner; K. Wimmer

2014-07-07

227

The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene  

PubMed Central

An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310?/? and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately. PMID:25364316

2014-01-01

228

Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model  

SciTech Connect

The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt`s Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong [National Chiao Tung Univ., Taiwan (China)

1996-12-31

229

Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

1997-01-01

230

Regulation on radial position deviation for vertical AMB systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a source of model uncertainty, gyroscopic effect, depending on rotor speed, is studied for the vertical active magnetic bearing (VAMB) systems which are increasingly used in various industries such as clean rooms, compressors and satellites. This research applies H? controller to regulate the rotor position deviations of the VAMB systems in four degrees of freedom. The performance of H? controller is examined by experimental simulations to inspect its closed-loop stiffness, rise time and capability to suppress the high frequency disturbances. Although the H? is inferior to the LQR in position deviation regulation, the required control current in the electromagnetic bearings is much less than that for LQR or PID and the performance robustness is well retained. In order to ensure the stability robustness of H? controller, two approaches, by Kharitonov polynomials and TITO (two inputs & two outputs) Nyquist Stability Criterion, are employed to synthesize the control feedback loop. A test rig is built to further verify the efficacy of the proposed H? controller experimentally. Two Eddy-current types of gap sensors, perpendicular to each other, are included to the realistic rotor-bearing system. A four-pole magnetic bearing is used as the actuator for generation of control force. The commercial I/O module unit with A/D and D/A converters, dSPACE DS1104, is integrated to the VAMB, gap sensors, power amplifiers and signal processing circuits. The H? is designed on the basis of rotor speed 10 K rpm but in fact it is significantly robust with respect to the rotor speed, varying from 6.5 to 13.5 K rpm.

Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Kuo, Chien-Hsien; Lee, Rong-Mao

2007-10-01

231

Uncertainty Principle Consequences at Thermal Equilibrium  

E-print Network

Contrary to the conventional wisdom that deviations from standard thermodynamics originate from the strong coupling to the bath, it is shown that these deviations are intimately linked to the power spectrum of the thermal bath. Specifically, it is shown that the lower bound of the dispersion of the total energy of the system, imposed by the uncertainty principle, is dominated by the bath power spectrum and therefore, quantum mechanics inhibits the system thermal-equilibrium-state from being described by the canonical Boltzmann's distribution. This is in sharp contrast to the classical case, for which the thermal equilibrium distribution of a system interacting via central forces with pairwise-self-interacting environment, irrespective of the interaction strength, is shown to be \\emph{exactly} characterized by the canonical Boltzmann distribution. As a consequence of this analysis, we define an \\emph{effective coupling} to the environment that depends on all energy scales in the system and reservoir interactio...

Pachon, Leonardo A; Zueco, David; Brumer, Paul

2014-01-01

232

Deviation from Power Law Behavior in Landslide Phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power law distribution of magnitude is widely observed in many natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, floods, tornadoes, and forest fires). Landslide is unique as the size distribution of landslide is characterized by a power law decrease with a rollover in the small size end. Yet, the emergence of the rollover, i.e., the deviation from power law behavior for small size landslides, remains a mystery. In this contribution, we grouped the forces applied on landslide bodies into two categories: 1) the forces proportional to the volume of failure mass (gravity and friction), and 2) the forces proportional to the area of failure surface (cohesion). Failure occurs when the forces proportional to volume exceed the forces proportional to surface area. As such, given a certain mechanical configuration, the failure volume to failure surface area ratio must exceed a corresponding threshold to guarantee a failure. Assuming all landslides share a uniform shape, which means the volume to surface area ratio of landslide regularly increase with the landslide volume, a cutoff of landslide volume distribution in the small size end can be defined. However, in realistic landslide phenomena, where heterogeneities of landslide shape and mechanical configuration are existent, a simple cutoff of landslide volume distribution does not exist. The stochasticity of landslide shape introduce a probability distribution of the volume to surface area ratio with regard to landslide volume, with which the probability that the volume to surface ratio exceed the threshold can be estimated regarding values of landslide volume. An experiment based on empirical data showed that this probability can induce the power law distribution of landslide volume roll down in the small size end. We therefore proposed that the constraints on the failure volume to failure surface area ratio together with the heterogeneity of landslide geometry and mechanical configuration attribute for the deviation from power law behavior in landslide phenomenon. Figure shows that a rollover of landslide size distribution in the small size end is produced as the probability for V/S (the failure volume to failure surface ratio of landslide) exceeding the mechanical threshold applied to the power law distribution of landslide volume.

Li, L.; Lan, H.; Wu, Y.

2013-12-01

233

Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed "cookbook" instructions are given. Recent studies indicate that this approach leaves students with a poor conceptual understanding of one of the most important features of laboratory physics and of the real world of science, in general: the development of an understanding of the nature of measurement and its attendant uncertainty . While students might be able to reproduce certain technical manipulations of data, as novice thinkers they lack the mental scaffolding that allows an expert to organize and apply this knowledge.2,3 Our goal is to put novices on the path to expertise, so that they will be able to transfer their knowledge to novel situations.

Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

2010-11-01

234

Bateman's principle and immunity.  

PubMed Central

The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) of Folstad and Karter has inspired a large number of studies that have tried to understand the causal basis of parasite-mediated sexual selection. Even though this hypothesis is based on the double function of testosterone, a hormone restricted to vertebrates, studies of invertebrates have tended to provide central support for specific predictions of the ICHH. I propose an alternative hypothesis that explains many of the findings without relying on testosterone or other biochemical feedback loops. This alternative is based on Bateman's principle, that males gain fitness by increasing their mating success whilst females increase fitness through longevity because their reproductive effort is much higher. Consequently, I predict that females should invest more in immunity than males. The extent of this dimorphism is determined by the mating system and the genetic correlation between males and females in immune traits. In support of my arguments, I mainly use studies on insects that share innate immunity with vertebrates and have the advantage that they are easier to study. PMID:11958720

Rolff, Jens

2002-01-01

235

Large Nc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1/Nc expansion of QCD with Nc = 3 has been successful in explaining a wide variety of QCD phenomenology. Here I focus on the contracted spin-flavor symmetry of baryons in the large-Nc limit and deviations from spin-flavor symmetry due to corrections suppressed by powers of 1/Nc. Baryon masses provide an important example of the 1/Nc expansion, and successful predictions of masses of heavy-quark baryons continue to be tested by experiment. The ground state charmed baryon masses have all been measured, and five of the eight ground state bottom baryon masses have been found. Results of the 1/Nc expansion can aid in the discovery of the remaining bottom baryons. The brand new measurement of the ?b- mass by the CDF collaboration conflicts with the original D0 discovery value and is in excellent agreement with the prediction of the 1/Nc expansion.

Jenkins, Elizabeth E.

2009-12-01

236

Spectral Relative Standard Deviation: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...

237

Hamilton's Principle for Beginners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…

Brun, J. L.

2007-01-01

238

Assessment Principles and Tools  

PubMed Central

The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Competence can only be determined by appropriately assessing resident performance. There are accepted guiding principles that should be applied to competence assessment methods. These principles are enumerated herein and ophthalmology-specific assessment tools that are available are described. PMID:24791100

Golnik, Karl C.

2014-01-01

239

Identifying Product Scaling Principles  

E-print Network

Figure 33: Original rear housing with axles and differential simplified to a solid rear axle design with incorporated brake and pulley grasped through the application of the ?simplify system? principle (Ezgo, 2011) ............................. 86... Figure 34: Potential suspension and steering configurations derived by applying the ?change method? principle ................................................................................. 87 Figure 35: Golf cart brake and parking brake pedal...

Perez, Angel 1986-

2011-06-02

240

Principles of Paleogeography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broad general principles of paleogeography, which I would cite as most fundamental, are as follows: 1. Ocean basins are permanent hollows of the earth's surface and have occupied their present sites since an early date in the development of geographic features. This principle does not exclude notable changes in the positions of their margins, which on the whole have

Bailey Willis

1910-01-01

241

The genetic difference principle.  

PubMed

In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice. PMID:15186680

Farrelly, Colin

2004-01-01

242

Buoyancy: Archimedes Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applied mathematics lesson describes the mathematic principles behind buoyancy in aerostatic machines. In it, students are given an introduction to the forces at work in buoyancy, including Archimedes Principle, and are asked to solve problems relating to volume, density, weight, and buoyancy of objects in particular environments.

Hodanbosi, Carol

1996-08-01

243

Pauli Exclusion Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides instruction on Pauli's exclusion principle, formulated by physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, which states that no two electrons in an atom can have identical quantum numbers. Topics include a mathematical statement of the principle, descriptions of some of its applications, and its role in ionic and covalent bonding, nuclear shell structure, and nuclear binding energy.

Nave, Rod

244

The Principle of Energetic Consistency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of energetic consistency implies that, to precisely the extent that growing modes are important in data assimilation, this term is also important.

Cohn, Stephen E.

2009-01-01

245

Principles for system level electrochemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.

Thaller, L. H.

1986-01-01

246

[Genetics and the precautionary principle].  

PubMed

It is very important to follow the Precautionary Principles with regard to genetics because of its fast development and of its impact in the public imaginer. In that regard gene grafts, OGM or recombinant drugs are pre-eminently be suspected to transmit human or animal viruses and/or to induce severe allergies. Pharmaceutical Industry has conducted large reflexions on such problems and are using drastic rules to prevent them. By contrast, academic research laboratories are handicapped by the problem of fund seeking. At the genetic disease level and mainly because the fast development of Predictive Medicine, patient and family councelling requires a great lot of reflexion and carefulness. Memorization of the presence of abnormal genes in the history of families also constitutes an important problem. We believe that, to be in accordance with the Precautionary Principles, an important work of formation and information is required. PMID:11077717

Rosa, J

2000-01-01

247

75 FR 67093 - Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FDA-2010-P-0517] Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard...temporary permit has been issued to Iceberg Canada Corp., to market test a product designated as ``GLACE Rare Iceberg Water'' that deviates from the...

2010-11-01

248

Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity  

E-print Network

We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can...

Sun, Qingqing; Shahriar, M. Selim; Zubairy, M. Suhail

2010-01-01

249

Simulation study on slant-to-vertical deviation in two dimensional TEC mapping over the ionosphere equatorial anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid increase of GPS/GNSS receivers being deployed and operated in China, real-time GPS data from nearly a thousand sites are available at the National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorology Administration. However, it is challenging to generate a high-quality regional total electron content (TEC) map with the traditional two-dimensional (2-D) retrieval scheme because a large horizontal gradient has been reported over east-south Asia due to the northern equatorial ionization anomaly. We developed an Ionosphere Data Assimilation Analysis System (IDAAS), which is described in this study, using an International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model as the background and applying a Kalman filter for updated observations. The IDAAS can reconstruct a three-dimensional ionosphere with the GPS slant TEC. The inverse slant TEC correlates well with observations both for GPS sites involved in the reconstruction and sites that are not involved. Based on the IDAAS, simulations were performed to investigate the deviation relative to the slant-to-vertical conversion (STV). The results indicate that the relative deviation induced by slant-to-vertical conversion may be significant in certain instances, and the deviation varies from 0% to 40% when the elevation decreases from 90° to 15°, while the relative IDAAS deviation is much smaller and varies from -5% to 15% without an elevation dependence. Compared with ‘true TEC’ map derived from the model, there is large difference in STV TEC map but no obvious discrepancy in IDAAS map. Generally, the IDAAS TEC map is much closer to the “true TEC” than is STV TEC map is. It is suggested that three-dimensional inversion technique is necessary for GPS observations of low elevation at an equatorial anomaly region, wherein the high horizontal electron density gradient may produce significant slant-to-vertical deviations using the two-dimensional STV inversion method.

Yu, Tao; Mao, Tian; Wang, Yungang; Zeng, Zhongcao; Xia, Chunliang; Wu, Fenglei; Wang, Le

2014-08-01

250

Editorial: The Principle of Personhood: The Field's Transcendent Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the names of these principles that come immediately to mind are such principles as person involvement, growth orientation, hope, self-determination and choice. My next problem was I could not perfectly recall the definitions of the several principles that I could remember! If I could not remember all these important principles and their definitions, then how could these principles

William A. Anthony

251

2-D Fourier domain SAR raw signal simulation accounting for sensor trajectory deviations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extended scene SAR raw signal simulator accounting for sensor trajectory deviation is here presented. A general Fourier Domain formulation of the SAR raw signal in presence of arbitrary trajectory deviations is obtained, and it is shown that, under the assumption that the radar beam is sufficiently small and the trajectory deviations are sufficiently slow, a very efficient full 2-D

Giorgio Franceschetti; Antonio Iodice; S. Perna; D. Riccio

2005-01-01

252

The Behavior of Option Implied Standard Deviations around Merger and Acquisition Announcements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the behavior of option implied standard deviations around merger and acquisition announcements. The implied standard deviations of target firms increase significantly three days prior to the announcement. The bidding firm implied standard deviations are not affected. The analysis is extended to the equity market to determine which market reacts first to the merger or acquisition announcement. Target

Haim Levy; James A. Yoder

1993-01-01

253

Paul Withers Were slopes on Mars once flat? -Systematic Deviations  

E-print Network

highlands in the southern hemisphere and lightly cratered plains in the northern hemisphere. The southern an Equipotential Surface Abstract On Mars, the northern lowlands and floors of the two largest impact craters were of a huge melt sheet followed by infill of erosional debris. A large portion of the northern hemisphere

Withers, Paul

254

5 Thermodynamics 5.1 Deviations from Equilibrium  

E-print Network

where its concen- tration is xi. This equation is represented graphically in Fig. 5.1, from which it can minimum in free energy but does not exclude the existence of other deeper minima. The laws governing containing a large density of interfaces (Table 5.1). Thus, bainitic steels can be welded whereas all

Cambridge, University of

255

Physical Principles of Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical biology is incomplete without a comprehensive theory of evolution, since evolution is at the core of biological thought. Evolution is visualized as a migration process in genotype or sequence space that is either an adaptive walk driven by some fitness gradient or a random walk in the absence of (sufficiently large) fitness differences. The Darwinian concept of natural selection consisting in the interplay of variation and selection is based on a dichotomy: All variations occur on genotypes whereas selection operates on phenotypes, and relations between genotypes and phenotypes, as encapsulated in a mapping from genotype space into phenotype space, are central to an understanding of evolution. Fitness is conceived as a function of the phenotype, represented by a second mapping from phenotype space into nonnegative real numbers. In the biology of organisms, genotype-phenotype maps are enormously complex and relevant information on them is exceedingly scarce. The situation is better in the case of viruses but so far only one example of a genotype-phenotype map, the mapping of RNA sequences into RNA secondary structures, has been investigated in sufficient detail. It provides direct information on RNA selection in vitro and test-tube evolution, and it is a basis for testing in silico evolution on a realistic fitness landscape. Most of the modeling efforts in theoretical and mathematical biology today are done by means of differential equations but stochastic effects are of undeniably great importance for evolution. Population sizes are much smaller than the numbers of genotypes constituting sequence space. Every mutant, after all, has to begin with a single copy. Evolution can be modeled by a chemical master equation, which (in principle) can be approximated by a stochastic differential equation. In addition, simulation tools are available that compute trajectories for master equations. The accessible population sizes in the range of 10^7le Nle 10^8 molecules are commonly too small for problems in chemistry but sufficient for biology.

Schuster, Peter

256

Principles of animal extrapolation  

SciTech Connect

Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

Calabrese, E.J.

1991-01-01

257

Isochromatic lines as extension of Helmholtz reciprocity principle for effect paints.  

PubMed

Flake-based parameters were recently introduced as a physical concept to predict a series of measurement geometries producing similar reflection data for effect paints. We derive expressions to calculate these so-called isochromatic lines, connecting the two Helmholtz-reciprocal in-plane geometries with a series of out-of-plane geometries. Thus isochromatic lines can be regarded as an extension of the Helmholtz reciprocity principle, which is valid for effect paints. We experimentally studied seven effect paint samples with large angular color variation along the length of four isochromatic lines. A change in illumination angles by up to 75° while following isochromatic lines led to a standard deviation in color parameters of less than two units. When isochromatic lines were not followed, these colorimetric parameters varied by more than 10 units already by change in detection angle of 10°. Therefore the concept of isochromatic lines works well for effect paints. PMID:25121544

Kirchner, Eric; Ferrero, Alejandro

2014-08-01

258

Uncertainty Principle Consequences at Thermal Equilibrium  

E-print Network

Contrary to the conventional wisdom that deviations from standard thermodynamics originate from the strong coupling to the bath, it is shown that these deviations are intimately linked to the power spectrum of the thermal bath. Specifically, it is shown that the lower bound of the dispersion of the total energy of the system, imposed by the uncertainty principle, is dominated by the bath power spectrum and therefore, quantum mechanics inhibits the system thermal-equilibrium-state from being described by the canonical Boltzmann's distribution. This is in sharp contrast to the classical case, for which the thermal equilibrium distribution of a system interacting via central forces with pairwise-self-interacting environment, irrespective of the interaction strength, is shown to be \\emph{exactly} characterized by the canonical Boltzmann distribution. As a consequence of this analysis, we define an \\emph{effective coupling} to the environment that depends on all energy scales in the system and reservoir interaction. Sample computations in regimes predicted by this effective coupling are demonstrated. For example, for the case of strong effective coupling, deviations from standard thermodynamics are present and, for the case of weak effective coupling, quantum features such as stationary entanglement are possible at high temperatures.

Leonardo A. Pachon; Johan F. Triana; David Zueco; Paul Brumer

2014-01-07

259

Chemical Principles Exemplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)

Plumb, Robert C.

1972-01-01

260

Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary Buoyancy is based on Archimedes' Principle which states that the buoyant force acting upward on an object completely or partially immersed in a fluid equals the weight of the fluid displaced by the ...

261

Archimedes' Principle in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

Kires, Marian

2007-01-01

262

Principles of Forecasting Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Directed by J. Scott Armstrong at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, the Principles of Forecasting Project seeks to "develop a comprehensive and structured review of the state of knowledge in the field of forecasting" in order to aid future research. The project will lead to a book entitled Principles of Forecasting: A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners, and sample chapters, contact information, updates, and links to forecasting resources add value to this expanding compilation.

263

Economic uncertainty principle? Alexander Harin  

E-print Network

Economic uncertainty principle? Alexander Harin This preliminary paper presents a qualitative description of the economic principle of (hidden, latent) uncertainty. Mathematical expressions of principle problems are reviewed. Contents Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Archimedes' Principle and Applications Objectives  

E-print Network

Lab 9 Archimedes' Principle and Applications Objectives: Upon successful completion of this exercise you will have ... 1. ... utilized Archimedes' principle to determine the density and specific gravity of a variety of substances. 2. ... utilized Archimedes' principle to determine the density

Yu, Jaehoon

265

Deviation from optimal vascular caliber control at middle cerebral artery bifurcations harboring aneurysms.  

PubMed

Cerebral aneurysms form preferentially at arterial bifurcations. The vascular optimality principle (VOP) decrees that minimal energy loss across bifurcations requires optimal caliber control between radii of parent (r0) and daughter branches (r1 and r2): r0(n)=r1(n)+r2(n), with n approximating three. VOP entails constant wall shear stress (WSS), an endothelial phenotype regulator. We sought to determine if caliber control is maintained in aneurysmal intracranial bifurcations. Three-dimensional rotational angiographic volumes of 159 middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcations (62 aneurysmal) were processed using 3D gradient edge-detection filtering, enabling threshold-insensitive radius measurement. Radius ratio (RR)=r0(3)/(r1(3)+r2(3)) and estimated junction exponent (n) were compared between aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal bifurcations using Student t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis. The results show that non-aneurysmal bifurcations display optimal caliber control with mean RR of 1.05 and median n of 2.84. In contrast, aneurysmal bifurcations had significantly lower RR (0.76, p<.0001) and higher n (4.28, p<.0001). Unexpectedly, 37% of aneurysmal bifurcations revealed a daughter branch larger than its parent vessel, an absolute violation of optimality, not witnessed in non-aneurysmal bifurcations. The aneurysms originated more often off the smaller daughter (52%) vs. larger daughter branch (16%). Aneurysm size was not statistically correlated to RR or n. Aneurysmal males showed higher deviation from VOP. Non-aneurysmal MCA bifurcations contralateral to aneurysmal ones showed optimal caliber control. Aneurysmal bifurcations, in contrast to non-aneurysmal counterparts, disobey the VOP and may exhibit dysregulation in WSS-mediated caliber control. The mechanism of this focal divergence from optimality may underlie aneurysm pathogenesis and requires further study. PMID:25242132

Baharoglu, Merih I; Lauric, Alexandra; Wu, Chengyuan; Hippelheuser, James; Malek, Adel M

2014-10-17

266

Median absolute deviation to improve hit selection for genome-scale RNAi screens.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening (HTS) of large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) libraries has become an increasingly popular method of functional genomics in recent years. Cell-based assays used for RNAi screening often produce small dynamic ranges and significant variability because of the combination of cellular heterogeneity, transfection efficiency, and the intrinsic nature of the genes being targeted. These properties make reliable hit selection in the RNAi screen a difficult task. The use of robust methods based on median and median absolute deviation (MAD) has been suggested to improve hit selection in such cases, but mean and standard deviation (SD)-based methods are still predominantly used in many RNAi HTS. In an experimental approach to compare these 2 methods, a genome-scale small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen was performed, in which the identification of novel targets increasing the therapeutic index of the chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MMC) was sought. MAD values were resistant to the presence of outliers, and the hits selected by the MAD-based method included all the hits that would be selected by SD-based method as well as a significant number of additional hits. When retested in triplicate, a similar percentage of these siRNAs were shown to genuinely sensitize cells to MMC compared with the hits shared between SD- and MAD-based methods. Confirmed hits were enriched with the genes involved in the DNA damage response and cell cycle regulation, validating the overall hit selection strategy. Finally, computer simulations showed the superiority and generality of the MAD-based method in various RNAi HTS data models. In conclusion, the authors demonstrate that the MAD-based hit selection method rescued physiologically relevant false negatives that would have been missed in the SD-based method, and they believe it to be the desirable 1st-choice hit selection method for RNAi screen results. PMID:18216396

Chung, Namjin; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas; Kreamer, Anthony; Locco, Louis; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Bartz, Steven; Linsley, Peter S; Ferrer, Marc; Strulovici, Berta

2008-02-01

267

Applying the four principles  

PubMed Central

Gillon is correct that the four principles provide a sound and useful way of analysing moral dilemmas. As he observes, the approach using these principles does not provide a unique solution to dilemmas. This can be illustrated by alternatives to Gillon's own analysis of the four case scenarios. In the first scenario, a different set of factual assumptions could yield a different conclusion about what is required by the principle of beneficence. In the second scenario, although Gillon's conclusion is correct, what is open to question is his claim that what society regards as the child's best interest determines what really is in the child's best interest. The third scenario shows how it may be reasonable for the principle of beneficence to take precedence over autonomy in certain circumstances, yet like the first scenario, the ethical conclusion relies on a set of empirical assumptions and predictions of what is likely to occur. The fourth scenario illustrates how one can draw different conclusions based on the importance given to the precautionary principle. PMID:14519836

Macklin, R

2003-01-01

268

The August Krogh principle applies to plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Krogh principle refers to the use of a large number of animals to study the large number of physiological problems, rather than limiting study to a particular organism for all problems. There may be organisms that are more suited to study of a particular problem than others. This same principle applies to plants. The authors are concerned with the recent trend in plant biology of using Arabidopsis thaliana as the "organism of choice." Arabidopsis is an excellent organism for molecular genetic research, but other plants are superior models for other research areas of plant biology. The authors present examples of the successful use of the Krogh principle in plant cell biology research, emphasizing the particular characteristics of the selected research organisms that make them the appropriate choice.

Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.

1996-01-01

269

Teaching/learning principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

270

Is there a relationship between cribriform plate dimensions and septal deviation angle?  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between cribriform plate (CP) dimensions and septal deviation degree. Coronal paranasal CT scans of 99 patients were reviewed. We measured depth and width of cribriform plate on both sides and compared with septal deviation side and septal deviation degree. Deviation angles were 6.85 ± 1.47° for right deviations; and 7.11 ± 1.63° for the left deviations. The mean depth of CP was 5.08 ± 1.57 mm at the right side and 5.06 ± 1.59 mm at the left side; and the mean width of CP was found 4.71 ± 1.36 mm at the right side and 4.56 ± 1.51 mm at the left side. When CP dimensions were evaluated according to the septal deviation side, mean width of CP was 4.69 ± 1.36 mm at ipsilateral side (deviated side); and 4.58 ± 1.51 mm at the contralateral side. The mean depth of CP was 4.9 ± 1.56 mm at the ipsilateral side (deviated side); and 5.22 ± 1.58 mm at the contralateral side. The CP depth at the contralateral side was significantly higher than that of the ipsilateral side (deviated side). In right SD, ipsilateral and contralateral CP depth increased. As deviation angle increased, ipsilateral and contralateral CP width, right and left CP width increased. Ipsilateral and contralateral CP width; and additionally ipsilateral and contralateral CP depth increased together. In other words, right and left CP width; and CP depth increased simultaneously. It is well known that the higher incidence of intracranial penetration is on the side where the position of the ethmoid roof (ER) is lower. The presence of septal deviation, the possibility of the deeper CP at the contralateral side should be taken into consideration to avoid iatrogenic injury. PMID:23982666

Saylisoy, Suzan; Acar, Mustafa; San, Turhan; Karabag, Aral; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Cingi, Cemal

2014-05-01

271

Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.

Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

1992-01-01

272

Nurses's knowledge of heart failure education principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this study was to determine nurses' knowledge of heart failure (HF) self-management education principles. Design: The study was exploratory and descriptive and included a convenience sample. Setting: Research took place in a large midwestern health care system that included a university-based hospital, community hospitals, and home or palliative care. Subjects: Subjects included 300 nurses who provide

Nancy M. Albert; Susan Collier; Veronica Sumodi; Sandra Wilkinson; Jeffrey P. Hammel; Linda Vopat; Cindy Willis; Barb Bittel

2002-01-01

273

An Improved Inertia Principle  

E-print Network

We show that for isolated relativistic systems with spin the conservation of total angular momentum implies that, instead of the center of mass, it is a modified center of mass and spin which behaves inertially. This requires a change in the the statement of the Principle of Inertia.

Rodrigo Medina; J. Stephany

2014-04-06

274

An Improved Inertia Principle  

E-print Network

We show that for isolated relativistic systems with spin the conservation of total angular momentum implies that, instead of the center of mass, it is a modified center of mass and spin which behaves inertially. This requires a change in the the statement of the Principle of Inertia.

Medina, Rodrigo

2014-01-01

275

Principles of interactional psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the principles of interactional psychotherapy which have evolved from 30 yrs of practice in treating the emotionally ill. Disturbed people should be thought of as having problems that involve experiences of futility and lack of meaning in life, rather than as having a mental disease. This approach acknowledges the importance of parental influences in emotional problems but emphasizes that

Benjamin B. Wolman

1975-01-01

276

Laboratory Safety Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workshop covers major principles and regulations pertinent to working in laboratories with hazardous materials. It is divided into 45 minute segments dealing with: Radioactive Materials (Staiger); Toxic, Reactive, Carcinogenic, and Teratogenic Chemicals (Carlson); Infectious Agents (Laver); and Fire Safety Concepts and Physical Hazards (Arnston).

Jerry Staiger, Keith Carlson, Jim Laver, Ray Arntson (University of Minnesota;); Keith Carlson (University of Minnesota;); Jim Lauer (University of Minnesota;); Ray Amtson (University of Minnesota;)

2008-04-11

277

First Principles of Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines instructional design theories and elaborates principles about when learning is promoted, i.e., when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems, when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge, and when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner, applied by the learner, and integrated into the learner's…

Merrill, M. David

2002-01-01

278

The Proposal Design Principles  

E-print Network

satisfactory connections with Worcester Place, Walton Street and the broader community. #12;49 Urban Design Architects consider Exeter College's Walton Street Quad as an urban design project. With its very longThe Proposal 5.0 #12;48 Design Principles 5.1 Existing ground floor plan showing extent of retained

Flynn, E. Victor

279

Principles of Software Testing  

E-print Network

of a failure and usually of a fault. (I follow the IEEE standard terminology: An unsatisfactory program by agile methods, has brought tests to the center stage, but testing is about producing failures. AugustSeven Principles of Software Testing Bertrand Meyer, ETH Zürich and Eiffel Software W hile everyone

Meyer, Bertrand

280

Principles of Object Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on human infants has begun to shed light on early-developing processes for segmenting perceptual arrays into objects. Infants appear to perceive obiects by analyzing three-dlmensional surface arrangements and motions. Their per- ception does not accord with a general tendency to maximize figural goodness or to attend to nonaccldentol geometric relations in visual arrays. Object perceptlan does accord with principles

Elizabeth S. Spelke

1990-01-01

281

Basic Comfort Heating Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

Dempster, Chalmer T.

282

Practical Doping Principles  

SciTech Connect

'Theoretical investigations of doping of several wide-gap materials suggest a number of rather general, practical"doping principles" that may help guide experimental strategies of overcoming doping bottlenecks. This paper will be published as a journal article in the future.

Zunger, A.

2003-05-01

283

BASIC ELECTRICAL CONNECTION PRINCIPLES  

E-print Network

involving aluminum conductors than those encountered in copper to copper connections. CREEP (COLD FLOW is the conductor as compared to copper, since its creep rate is many times that of copper. Effect of Creep: FigureBURNDY Reference BASIC ELECTRICAL CONNECTION PRINCIPLES Basic Factors: The basic factors which

Johnson, Eric E.

284

PRINCIPLES OF WATER FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews principles involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...

285

41 CFR 102-39.30 - How do I request a deviation from this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false How do I request a deviation from this part? 102-39.30 Section 102-39.30 Public Contracts and Property Management...PURSUANT TO THE EXCHANGE/SALE AUTHORITY General § 102-39.30 How do I request a deviation from...

2010-07-01

286

Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson  

E-print Network

Software Deviation Analysis: A ``Safeware'' Technique \\Lambda Jon Damon Reese and Nancy G. Leveson be a mixture of humans, hardware, and software. This paper describes one of the Safeware hazard analysis techniques, Software Deviation Analysis, that incorporates the beneficial fea­ tures of HAZOP (such

Leveson, Nancy

287

Galvanic vestibular stimulation in humans produces online arm movement deviations when reaching towards memorized  

E-print Network

Galvanic vestibular stimulation in humans produces online arm movement deviations when reaching galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), we tested whether a change in vestibular input at the onset of goal. The likely goal of these online deviations of arm trajectory was to compensate for a vestibular

Jirsa, Viktor

288

48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. 2901.405 Section 2901.405...From the FAR and DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS...

2010-10-01

289

48 CFR 1.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. 1.405...FAR 1.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) Executive...from the FAR required to comply with a treaty to which the United States is a...

2010-10-01

290

48 CFR 1401.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. 1401.405 Section 1401.405...from the FAR and DIAR 1401.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, PAM,...

2010-10-01

291

ARTISTIC IMAGE GENERATION BY DEVIATION MAPPING Microsoft Research China, 49 Zhichun Road, Beijing 100080, China  

E-print Network

technique (deviation mapping) that generates images with artistic appearances, e.g., spray painted wall, embossment, cashmere painting, etc. Our technique employs a deviation map constructed from a single is then painted with a foreground image and illuminated to generate the final result. Interestingly

Rajamani, Sriram K.

292

Minimal principle for rotor filaments  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional rotors, or scroll waves, provide essential insight into the activity of excitable media. They also are a suspected cause in the formation and maintenance of ventricular fibrillation, whose lethality is well known. It is therefore of considerable interest to find out what configurations can be adopted by such pathologies. A scroll's behavior is embodied in its organizing center or filament, a largely quiescent tube about which the scroll rotates. Predicting filament shape has normally required computer-intensive simulations of the whole scroll in time. We have found a fast and robust principle that yields the prediction for stationary filaments on a purely geometrical basis, blind to the reaction parameters of the medium. The procedure is to calculate the filament shape as a minimal path. We work in singly diffusive media whose diffusivity tensor—and no other feature—varies spatially. Mathematical and numerical evidence is presented for the proposition that a stable filament is a geodesic in a three-dimensional space whose metric is given by the inverse diffusivity tensor of the medium. Away from the boundaries, a stable filament is unaffected by the reaction parameters. The algorithmic aspects of this work are subsidiary to our main purpose of drawing attention to the universal and unexpectedly exact fit of an elementary geodesic principle within reaction–diffusion theories. PMID:12048234

Wellner, Marcel; Berenfeld, Omer; Jalife, José; Pertsov, Arkady M.

2002-01-01

293

A kind of multi-step method for measuring pitch deviation of a gear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inspection of a gear's pitch deviation is one of the most important tests on gears. The specifications of gears are usually assessed using gear measuring instruments or coordinate measuring machines. The National Metrology Institute of Japan and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt proposed the closure technique for measuring gear pitch deviation, which can eliminate the systematic errors in pitch measurement, and can also be used for calibrating pitch standards. The reference to a closure technique—a kind of multi-step method for measuring pitch deviation—is introduced, of which the measurement process is relatively simple, and systematic errors can also be eliminated. Two gears’ pitch deviations were measured by adopting the closure technique and multi-step method, respectively. The result shows that the multi-step method can also be used for highly accurate measurements of pitch deviation.

Lou, Zhifeng; Ling, Siying; He, Haizhao; Wang, Xiaodong; Ma, Yong; Wang, Liding

2012-11-01

294

Is Cost Accounting the Answer?: Comparison of Two Behaviorally Based Methods for Estimating the Standard Deviation of Job Performance in Dollars With a Cost-Accounting-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimation of the standard deviation of job performance in dollars (SDy) can improve the precision of utility estimates of expected payoffs from personnel programs. The purpose of this study was to compare directly the estimates of SDy obtained using a cost-accounting-based estimate of SDy, the Global Estimation Model, and the CREPID procedure. The study was conducted in a large,

Olen L. Greer; Wayne F. Cascio

1987-01-01

295

Basic Principles of Ultrasound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.

2004-01-01

296

Principles of Semiconductor Devices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Home page of an online and interactive textbook, Principles of Semiconductor Devices., written by Bart J. Van Zeghbroeck, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The goal of this text is to provide the basic principles of common semiconductor devices, with a special focus on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs). A browser environment was chosen so that text, figures and equations can be linked for easy reference. A table of contents, a glossary, active figures and some study aids are integrated with the text with the intention to provide a more effective reference and learning environment. Chapter titles include: Semiconductor Fundamentals, Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, p-n Junctions, Bipolar Transistors, MOS Capacitors, and MOSFET.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart J.

2011-06-13

297

The Shakespearean Principle Revisited  

PubMed Central

Let every eye negotiate for itself and trust no agent. That line is from William Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. 1 To me, it is a fundamental doctrine of patient care, and I have named it the Shakespearean Principle.2 It stimulates skepticism,3 promotes doubt,4 improves communication, fosters proper decision-making, and protects against a malady that currently plagues our profession—herd mentality.5 This editorial shows what can happen when doctors violate the Shakespearean Principle. The story is real and tells of a woman whose doctor unintentionally killed her. To ensure anonymity, the time and place of the tragedy, as well as the players involved, have been changed. PMID:22412219

Fred, Herbert L.

2012-01-01

298

Deviations from Tribimaximal Neutrino Mixing using a Model with $?(27)$ Symmetry  

E-print Network

We present a model of neutrino mixing based on the flavour group $\\Delta(27)$ in order to account for the observation of a non-zero reactor mixing angle ($\\theta_{13}$). The model provides a common flavour structure for the charged-lepton and the neutrino sectors, giving their mass matrices a `circulant-plus-diagonal' form. Mass matrices of this form readily lead to mixing patterns with realistic deviations from tribimaximal mixing, including non-zero $\\theta_{13}$. With the parameters constrained by existing measurements, our model predicts an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We obtain two distinct sets of solutions in which the atmospheric mixing angle lies in the first and the second octants. The first (second) octant solution predicts the lightest neutrino mass, $m_3 \\sim 29~\\text{meV}$ ($m_3 \\sim 65~\\text{meV}$) and the $CP$ phase, $\\delta_{CP} \\sim -\\frac{\\pi}{4}$ ($\\delta_{CP} \\sim \\frac{\\pi}{2}$), offering the possibility of large observable $CP$ violating effects in future experiments.

P. F. Harrison; R. Krishnan; W. G. Scott

2014-06-08

299

Principles of gravitational biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical principles of gravitation are enumerated, including gravitational and inertial forces, weight and mass, weightlessness, size and scale effects, scale limits of gravitational effects, and gravity as biogenic factor. Statocysts, otolithic organs of vertebrates, gravity reception in plants, and clinostat studies for gravitation orientation are reviewed. Chronic acceleration is also studied, as well as physiology of hyper and hypodynamic fields. Responses of animals to a decreased acceleration field are examined, considering postural changes, work capacity, growth, and physiologic deadaptation.

Smith, A. H.

1975-01-01

300

Principles of lake sedimentology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

Janasson, L.

1983-01-01

301

Principles of nuclear geology  

SciTech Connect

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

Aswathanarayana, U.

1985-01-01

302

A biomechanical inactivation principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops the mathematical side of a theory of inactivations in human biomechanics. This theory has been validated\\u000a by practical experiments, including zero-gravity experiments. The theory mostly relies on Pontryagin’s maximum principle on\\u000a the one side and on transversality theory on the other side. It turns out that the periods of silence in the activation of\\u000a muscles that are

Jean-Paul Gauthier; Bastien Berret; Frédéric Jean

2010-01-01

303

White coat principles.  

PubMed

The White Coat Ceremony, which many dental schools use to mark the transition to patient care, is an opportunity to reflect on the values of dental practice. Eight principles are offered for consideration: 1 ) patient care is the point of practice; 2) the doctor-patient relationship is essential; 3) discuss options and possibilities; 4) mistakes will be made; 5) tell the truth; be assertive; 7 ) consult; and 8) manage your stress and your life. PMID:15948496

Peltier, Bruce N

2004-01-01

304

A phenomenological model for the structure-composition relationship of the high Tc cuprates based on simple chemical principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple phenomenological model for the relationship between structure and composition of the high Tc cuprates is presented. The model is based on two simple crystal chemistry principles: unit cell doping and charge balance within unit cells. These principles are inspired by key experimental observations of how the materials accommodate large deviations from stoichiometry. Consistent explanations for significant HTSC properties can be explained without any additional assumptions while retaining valuable insight for geometric interpretation. Combining these two chemical principles with a review of Crystal Field Theory (CFT) or Ligand Field Theory (LFT), it becomes clear that the two oxidation states in the conduction planes (typically d8 and d9) belong to the most strongly divergent d-levels as a function of deformation from regular octahedral coordination. This observation offers a link to a range of coupling effects relating vibrations and spin waves through application of Hund’s rules. An indication of this model’s capacity to predict physical properties for HTSC is provided and will be elaborated in subsequent publications. Simple criteria for the relationship between structure and composition in HTSC systems may guide chemical syntheses within new material systems.

Alarco, J. A.; Talbot, P. C.

2012-06-01

305

Deviated Septum  

MedlinePLUS

... determine the cause of your chronic sinusitis and nasal obstruction. Your First Visit: After discussing your symptoms, the primary care physician or specialist will inquire if you have ever incurred severe trauma to your nose and if you have had previous nasal surgery. ...

306

Mechanisms that Amplify, Attenuate and Deviate Glacier Response to Climate Change in Central East Greenland. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidecadal review of glacier fluctuations and case-studies of glacier processes and environments in central East Greenland will be used to demonstrate Mechanisms that Amplify, Attenuate and Deviate glacier response to climate forcings (MAAD). The different spatial and temporal scales at which MAAD affect mass balance and ice flow may complicate interpretation and longterm extrapolation of glacier response to climate change. A framework of MAAD characterisation and best-practice for interpreting climate signals while taking into account MAAD will be proposed. Glaciers in the Watkins Bjerge, Geikie Plateau and Stauning Alps regions of central East Greenland (68°-72°N) contain about 50000 km2 of glacierized area peripheral to the Greenland Ice Sheet. Within the region, large north-south and coast-inland climatic gradients, as well as complicated topography and glacier dynamics, result in discrepant glacier behaviour. Average retreat rates have doubled from about 2 to 4 km2 a-1 between the late 20th and early 21st centuries. However, glaciers terminating along the Atlantic coast display two times the retreat, thinning, and acceleration rates compared to glaciers terminating in inland fjords or on land. Despite similar climatic forcing variable glacier behaviour is apparent: individual glacier length change ranges from +57 m a-1 to -428 m a-1, though most retreat -20 to -100 m a-1. Interacting dynamic, mass balance and glacio-morphological mechanisms can amplify, attenuate or deviate glacier response (MAAD) to climate change, thus complicating the climatological interpretation of glacier length, area, and thickness changes. East Greenland MAAD include a range of common positive and negative feedback mechanisms in surface mass balance and terminus and subglacial boundary conditions affecting ice flow, but also mechanisms that have longterm or delayed effects. Certain MAAD may affect glacier change interpretation on multiple timescales: e.g. surging glaciers do not only pose problems for the direct interpretation of climate change from length and volume changes due to their dynamically-driven advance and retreat regimes, but also for the reconstruction of LIA extents from trimlines and moraines, and the reconstruction of surface mass balance due to crevasses, potholes or debris-cover. This presentation will address a range of MAAD, including thermal regime transitions; ocean influences on tidewater-terminating glaciers; glacier fragmentation and tributary-trunk interaction; glacier surging and tidewater behaviour; seasonal variations; glacier hypsometry and morphology; terrain and substrate; melt-albedo and melt-ice flow feedbacks; and ice marginal lakes.

Jiskoot, H.

2013-12-01

307

Principles of Public Paul Tabbush  

E-print Network

access for recreation or health initiatives, using forests and woodlands as the sites for public eventsPrinciples of Public Engagement Paul Tabbush Bianca Ambrose-Oji #12;Principles of Public Engagement for this document is: Tabbush, P., and Ambrose-Oji, B., 2011, Principles of Public Engagement. Forest Research

308

Is the precautionary principle unscientific?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precautionary principle holds that we should not allow scientific uncertainty to prevent us from taking precautionary measures in response to potential threats that are irreversible and potentially disastrous. Critics of the principle claim that it deters progress and development, is excessively risk-aversive and is unscientific. This paper argues that the principle can be scientific provided that (1) the threats

David B. Resnik

2003-01-01

309

Principles of Sociology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in Principles of Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at the labor force and factors that affect occupation over time in the United States on a state-by-state basis. This activity uses a customized data set made from combining census information from 1950-1990. It guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Ciabattari, Theresa

310

Complex Correspondence Principle  

SciTech Connect

Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Hook, Daniel W. [Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wang Qinghai [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2010-02-12

311

Remote Sensing Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introduction to Earth observation includes definitions of several terms, examples taken from real situations, and questions, answers, and exercises. A simple example of traditional chorological mapping methods and is used to show some fundamental principles of satellite images. Histogram, pixel and classification are introduced. There are discussions about remote sensing, the history of Earth observation, and geostationary and solar synchronous orbits. In addition, the basic physical concepts underlying remote sensing are explained, with the help of some relatively simple viewgraphs. This site is also available in German, French, Italian and Spanish.

312

Measurement based simulation of microscope deviations for evaluation of stitching algorithms for the extension of Fourier-based alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image stitching is a technique used to measure large surface areas with high resolution while maintaining a large field of view. We work on improving data fusion by stitching in the field of microscopic analysis of technical surfaces for structures and roughness. Guidance errors and imaging errors such as noise cause problems for seamless image fusion of technical surfaces. The optical imaging errors of 3D Microscopes, such as confocal microscopes and white light interferometers, as well as the guidance errors of their automated positioning systems have been measured to create a software to simulate automated measurements of known surfaces with specific deviations to test new stitching algorithms. We measured and incorporated radial image distortion, interferometer reference mirror shape deviations, statistical noise, drift of the positional axis, on-axis-accuracy and repeatability of the used positioning stages and misalignment of the CCD-Chip with respect to the axes of motion. We used the resulting simulation of the measurement process to test a new image registration technique that allows for the use of correlation of images by fast fourier transform for small overlaps between single measurements.

Engelke, Florian; Kästner, Markus; Reithmeier, Eduard

2013-05-01

313

LARGE DEVIATIONS ANALYSIS FOR THE DETECTION OF 2D HIDDEN GAUSS-MARKOV RANDOM FIELDS USING SENSOR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

in such a design: How do the field correlation and measurement signal-to-noise (SNR) affect the detection. Sung was supported in part by Brain Korea 21 Project, the School of Information Technology, KAIST. of Electrical Engineering, Korea Ad- vanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701, South

Sung, Youngchul

314

Exact Large Deviation Function in the Asymmetric Exclusion Process Bernard Derrida y and Joel L. Lebowitz z  

E-print Network

an expression very similar to the pressure (as a function of the density) of an ideal Bose or Fermi gas in 3d the exact diffusion constant obtained earlier and calculate as well some higher cumulants. The distribution and in the physical literature [3--5]. It describes a driven lattice gas with hard core exclusion and under suitable

315

21 CFR 113.89 - Deviations in processing, venting, or control of critical factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...deviations involving a failure to satisfy the minimum requirements of the scheduled process, including emergencies arising from a jam or breakdown of a continuous agitating retort necessitating cooling the retort for repairs, shall be recorded and made the...

2010-04-01

316

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...

2013-01-01

317

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...

2012-01-01

318

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...

2010-01-01

319

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.  

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...

2014-01-01

320

14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and...

2011-01-01

321

32 CFR 21.340 - What are the procedures for requesting and documenting deviations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requests for class deviations to: Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering, ATTN: Basic Research, 3080 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-3080. (b) Grants officers and agreements officers must maintain copies of requests and...

2011-07-01

322

Principle of relative locality  

SciTech Connect

We propose a deepening of the relativity principle according to which the invariant arena for nonquantum physics is a phase space rather than spacetime. Descriptions of particles propagating and interacting in spacetimes are constructed by observers, but different observers, separated from each other by translations, construct different spacetime projections from the invariant phase space. Nonetheless, all observers agree that interactions are local in the spacetime coordinates constructed by observers local to them. This framework, in which absolute locality is replaced by relative locality, results from deforming energy-momentum space, just as the passage from absolute to relative simultaneity results from deforming the linear addition of velocities. Different aspects of energy-momentum space geometry, such as its curvature, torsion and nonmetricity, are reflected in different kinds of deformations of the energy-momentum conservation laws. These are in principle all measurable by appropriate experiments. We also discuss a natural set of physical hypotheses which singles out the cases of energy-momentum space with a metric compatible connection and constant curvature.

Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita 'La Sapienza', and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P. le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2Y5 (Canada); Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Pl. Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

2011-10-15

323

Great Lakes Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

2011-03-01

324

Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle.  

PubMed

Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

Evers, Ellen R K; Lakens, Daniël

2014-01-01

325

Principles of Safety Pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.). PMID:18604233

Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

2008-01-01

326

SAR raw data simulation including arbitrary trajectory deviations in hybrid domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate synthetic aperture radar (SAR) raw data of extended scenes in the presence of arbitrary trajectory deviations, an efficient simulation scheme in hybrid domain is proposed. We firstly present a novel target-to-antenna distance model which takes the three-dimensional components of the trajectory deviations into consideration. Then a general and compact hybrid domain formulation of the SAR raw data in

Hao Lu; Ning Cao; Bolin Wang

2008-01-01

327

Path and Path Deviation Equations in Kaluza-Klein Type Theories  

E-print Network

Path and path deviation equations for charged, spinning and spinning charged objects in different versions of Kaluza-Klein (KK) theory using a modified Bazanski Lagrangian have been derived. The significance of motion in five dimensions, especially for a charged spinning object, has been examined. We have also extended the modified Bazanski approach to derive the path and path deviation equations of a test particle in a version of non-symmetric KK theory.

M. E. Kahil

2005-11-07

328

Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can be controlled with an accuracy of 10{sup -4}. The laser phase noise decreases the dispersion magnitude while the amplitude noise increases it. Although we can always adjust the parameters to satisfy the white light condition, both types of noise make the cavity transmission curve uneven.

Sun Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail [Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Shahriar, M. Selim [Departments of EECS and Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3118 (United States)

2010-03-15

329

Noise and deviation effects in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity  

E-print Network

We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements such as gravitational wave detection. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can be controlled within $10^{-4}$. The laser phase noise decreases the dispersion magnitude while the amplitude noise increases it. Although we can always adjust the parameters to satisfy the white light condition, both noises make the cavity transmission curve uneven.

Qingqing Sun; M. Selim Shahriar; M. Suhail Zubairy

2009-09-30

330

The Correspondence Principle Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the question of frequency correspondence in the domain of large quantum numbers, with reference to periodic systems. Provides two simple counterexamples (a particle in a cubical box and a rigid rotator) to show that the classical result is not always recovered in the limit of large quantum numbers. (JM)

Liboff, Richard L.

1984-01-01

331

Principles of Digital Computing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Principles of Digital Computing, is the sixteenth chapter in Volume IV âÂÂDigital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: a binary adder; look-up tables; finite state machines; microprocessors; and microprocessor planning. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-29

332

The Quantum Gauge Principle  

E-print Network

We consider the evolution of quantum fields on a classical background space-time, formulated in the language of differential geometry. Time evolution along the worldlines of observers is described by parallel transport operators in an infinite-dimensional vector bundle over the space-time manifold. The time evolution equation and the dynamical equations for the matter fields are invariant under an arbitrary local change of frames along the restriction of the bundle to the worldline of an observer, thus implementing a ``quantum gauge principle''. We derive dynamical equations for the connection and a complex scalar quantum field based on a gauge field action. In the limit of vanishing curvature of the vector bundle, we recover the standard equation of motion of a scalar field in a curved background space-time.

Dirk Graudenz

1996-04-29

333

Fault Management Guiding Principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

2011-01-01

334

The nonholonomic variational principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variational principle for mechanical systems and fields subject to nonholonomic constraints is found, providing Chetaev-reduced equations as equations for extremals. Investigating nonholonomic variations of the Chetaev type and their properties, we develop foundations of the calculus of variations on constraint manifolds, modelled as fibred submanifolds in jet bundles. This setting is appropriate to study general first-order 'nonlinear nonitegrable constraints' that locally are given by a system of first-order ordinary or partial differential equations. We obtain an invariant constrained first variation formula and constrained Euler-Lagrange equations both in intrinsic and coordinate forms, and show that the equations are the same as Chetaev equations 'without Lagrange multipliers', introduced recently by other methods. We pay attention to two possible settings: first, when the constrained system arises from an unconstrained Lagrangian system defined in a neighbourhood of the constraint, and second, more generally, when an 'internal' constrained system on the constraint manifold is given. In the latter case a corresponding unconstrained system need not be a Lagrangian, nor even exist. We also study in detail an important particular case: nonholonomic constraints that can be alternatively modelled by means of (co)distributions in the total space of the fibred manifold; in nonholonomic mechanics this happens whenever constraints affine in velocities are considered. It becomes clear that (and why) if the distribution is completely integrable (= the constraints are semiholonomic), the principle of virtual displacements holds and can be used to obtain the constrained first variational formula by a more or less standard procedure, traditionally used when unconstrained or holonomic systems are concerned. If, however, the constraint is nonintegrable, no significant simplifications are available. Among others, some properties of nonholonomic systems are clarified that without a deeper insight seem rather mysterious.

Krupková, Olga

2009-05-01

335

Design principles of large quadrotors for practical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all quadrotors used in research weigh less than 2 kg, and carry payload measured in hundreds of grams. To be useful platforms for expanded operations, these vehicles must be capable of carrying greater weight. Several obstacles in aerodynamics, design and control must be overcome to enable the construction of larger craft with payloads in excess of 1 kg. We

Paul Pounds; Robert Mahony

2009-01-01

336

NANOMETER PRECISION IN LARGE SURFACE PROFILOMETRY.  

SciTech Connect

The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is in use at many synchrotron radiation (SR) laboratories throughout the world and by a number of manufacturers who specialize in fabricating grazing incidence mirrors for SR and x-ray telescope applications. Recent improvements in the design and operation of the LTP system have reduced the statistical error in slope profile measurement to the 1 standard deviation level of 0.3 microradian for 0.5 meter long mirrors. This corresponds to a height error on the order of 10-20 nanometers. This level of performance allows one to measure with confidence the absolute shape of large cylindrical aspheres and spheres that have kilometer radii of curvature in the axial direction. The LTP is versatile enough to make measurements of a mirror in the face up, sideways, and face down configurations. We will illustrate the versatility of the current version of the instrument, the LTP II, and present results from two new versions of the instrument: the in situ LTP (ISLTP) and the Vertical Scan LTP (VSLTP). Both of them are based on the penta prism LTP (ppLTP) principle that utilizes a stationary optical head and moving penta prism. The ISLTP is designed to measure the distortion of high heat load mirrors during actual operation in SR beam lines. The VSLTP is designed to measure the complete 3-dimensional shape of x-ray telescope cylinder mirrors and mandrels in a vertical configuration. Scans are done both in the axial direction and in the azimuthal direction.

TAKACS,P.Z.

1999-08-30

337

A study on the calibration of pitch-angle deviation for airborne lidar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne Lidar measurement technology, as an efficient way of acquiring three-dimensional geographic information, plays an important role in building DSM and DEM rapidly. Because the airborne Lidar measurement system usually integrates multiple devices including GPS receiver, INS, laser rangefinder and CCD camera, the relative geometric position and attitude relationships among these devices must be accurately measured in order to get the points with high precision and thereby satisfy the accuracy requirements of produced DSM and DEM. It is proved that the misalignment of airborne Lidar system, which is represented by angle deviations of yaw, pitch and roll, is the most significant source of systematic error in airborne Lidar measurement. In this paper, the effect of pitch angle error on the 3D coordinates of measured point is firstly analyzed. On this basis, a calibration method of the pitch angle deviation for airborne Lidar system by using the geometric characteristics of spire houses is put forward. The proposed pitch angle deviation calibration method consists of four key steps: (1) Initial pitch angle calculation. In the light of the offset distance between the ridge lines of the same house acquired by airborne Lidar system flying in opposite directions, an initial pitch angle deviation can be calculated. After separating the effect of pitch angle deviation, the rectified laser point cloud data are obtained. (2) Roof plane equation determination. The plane equations of both roof slopes are determined by fitting algorithms with the 3D coordinates of points located in the same spire roof. (3) Distance standard error calculation. The distance of each point to the roof plane is computed and applied to the calculation of distance standard error. (4) Final pitch angle deviation calculation. Taking the distance standard error as the overlapping criterion, the pitch angle deviation correction is iteratively calculated according to the aforesaid procedure until the distance standard error is less than a given value. The final pitch angle deviation is the sum of all the pitch angle deviation corrections. Experiments show that the proposed calibration method is correct and effective.

Jiang, Lixing; Hao, Xiangyang; Zhang, Weiqiang

2013-05-01

338

Incompatibility between the principle of the constancy of the speed of light and the Lorentz contraction in the GPS Experiment  

E-print Network

Incompatibility between the principle of the constancy of the speed of light and the Lorentz contraction in the global positioning system (GPS) is discussed. The GPS works precisely in the earth-centered locally inertial (ECI) coordinate system on the condition that the speed of light c is assumed to be constant regardless of the inertial motion of the GPS satellites and the earth. The inertial system of the earth travels not only in the solar system at the velocity 30 km/s but also in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at the velocity 700 km/s. The deviation on the car navigation system by the Lorentz contraction of 700 km/s is maximally estimated as 54 m. However, such a large deviation is not observed: that is, the Lorentz contraction is not observed in the gravitational field of the earth. If there is a Lorentz contraction, the GPS cannot work so precisely. The GPS satellites are in the gravitational field of the earth, therefore the system should be interpreted by the theory of general relativity as well as special relativity.

Masanori Sato

2007-03-12

339

Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems  

SciTech Connect

In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-12-15

340

Avoiding moving obstacles by deviation from a mobile robot`s nominal path  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the problem of obstacle avoidance by deviation from the nominal path. Deviation is the only option available to the robot when the acceleration or deceleration plan on the nominal path fails to produce a viable avoidance strategy. The obstacle avoidance on the nominal path was dealt with in the authors` previous development, where the robot`s motion was only subject to an upper bound on its speed. When the robot has to deviate, its motion is subject to a maximum steering constraint and a maximum deviation constraint in addition to the maximum speed constraint. The problem is solved geometrically by identifying final states for the robot that are reachable, satisfy all the constraints, and guarantee collision avoidance. The final state-reachability conditions that the authors obtain in the process ensure that no unnecessary deviation plan is initiated. These conditions, along with the simplicity of the geometric arguments they employ, make the scheme an attractive option for on-line implementation. The only significant complexity arises when minimizing the performance index. They have suggested dynamic programming as an optimization took, but any other nonlinear optimization technique can be adopted.

Tsoularis, A.; Kambhampati, C. [Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights (United Kingdom). Dept. of Cybernetics] [Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights (United Kingdom). Dept. of Cybernetics

1999-05-01

341

Moral principles as moral dispositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are moral principles? In particular, what are moral principles of the sort that (if they exist) ground moral obligations or—at the very least—particular moral truths? I argue that we can fruitfully conceive of such principles\\u000a as real, irreducibly dispositional properties of individual persons (agents and patients) that are responsible for and thereby\\u000a explain the moral properties of (e.g.) agents

Luke Robinson

342

Motion deviation rectifying method of dynamically measuring rail wear based on multi-line structured-light vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rail wear dynamic measurement techniques are important to ensure the security of railway system and the efficiency of maintaining. Nowadays, a widely used approach is based on structured-light vision sensor, which includes a camera and a laser projector generating a light plane on the inner side of the rail. Considering the sensor installation error and vibration of running train, it is difficult to ensure the perpendicularity between the light plane and the rail, which leads to large measurement error. In order to overcome the problem, a motion deviation rectifying method is proposed. Rail section profiles are obtained by a multi-line structured-light vision sensor with multiple parallel light planes. Each profile can be segmented into two curves. One representing the rail waist is used to fit the rail longitudinal axis (parallel to train running direction) and establish an auxiliary plane perpendicular to the direction. Deviation rectifying process is to project the rail section profiles onto the auxiliary plane to recover perpendicularity between the light plane and the rail. Then another curve representing the rail head is used to calculate the rail wear based on the standard profile. The experimental results indicate that the method reduces the rail wear measurement error, meeting the requirements for real-time dynamic measurement of rail wear.

Sun, Junhua; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Yuntao; Liu, Qianzhe; Zhang, Guangjun

2013-09-01

343

The precautionary principle: a dialectical reconsideration.  

PubMed

This essay examines an overlooked element of the precautionary principle: a prudent assessment of the long-range or remote catastrophes possibly associated with technological development must include the catastrophes that may take place because of the absence of such technologies. In short, this brief essay attempts to turn the precautionary principle on its head by arguing that, (1) if the long-term survival of any life form is precarious, and if the survival of the current human population is particularly precarious, especially given contemporary urban population densities, and (2) if technological innovation and progress are necessary in order rapidly to adapt humans to meet environmental threats that would otherwise be catastrophic on a large scale (e.g., pandemics of highly lethal diseases), then (3) the development of biomedical technologies in many forms, but in particular including human germ-line genetic engineering, may be required by the precautionary principle, given the prospect of the obliteration of humans in the absence of such enhanced biotechnology. The precautionary principle thus properly understood requires an ethos that should generally support technological innovation, at least in particular areas of biotechnology. PMID:15512974

Engelhardt, H Tristram; Jotterand, Fabrice

2004-06-01

344

Towards first-principles electrochemistry  

E-print Network

This doctoral dissertation presents a comprehensive computational approach to describe quantum mechanical systems embedded in complex ionic media, primarily focusing on the first-principles representation of catalytic ...

Dabo, Ismaila

2008-01-01

345

9 CFR 317.7 - Products for foreign commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. 317...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. ...commerce may be printed in a foreign language and may show the statement of...

2011-01-01

346

9 CFR 317.7 - Products for foreign commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. 317...commerce; printing labels in foreign language permissible; other deviations. ...commerce may be printed in a foreign language and may show the statement of...

2010-01-01

347

41 CFR 102-2.95 - What information must agencies include in their deviation letters to GSA?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01...include in their deviation letters to GSA? 102-2...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...GENERAL 2-FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM ...include in their deviation letters to GSA?...

2010-07-01

348

Effect of light-beam deviation on the instrument matrix of the four-detector photopolarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical geometry, ray tracing, and the Mueller-matrix calculus are used to determine the calibration matrix of the four-detector photopolarimeter (FDP) when the incident light beam deviates from the optical axis of the instrument. Detectors of the FDP are represented by their surface equations in Cartesian coordinates. The instrument matrices corresponding to angular deviations of plus or minus 0.5 and plus or minus 1.0 deg in reference horizontal and vertical planes, and their differences from the unperturbed matrix are given for two FDP configurations. Output Stokes parameters that correspond to several typical input states of polarization are calculated to demonstrate the effects of light-beam deviation.

Liu, Jian; Azzam, Rasheed M.

1997-03-01

349

Galvanic vestibular stimulation in humans produces online arm movement deviations when reaching towards memorized visual targets.  

PubMed

Using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), we tested whether a change in vestibular input at the onset of goal-directed arm movements induces deviations in arm trajectory. Eight head-fixed standing subjects were instructed to reach for memorized visual targets in complete darkness. In half of the trials, randomly-selected, a 3 mA bipolar binaural galvanic stimulation of randomly alternating polarity was triggered by the movement onset. Results revealed significant GVS-induced directional shifts of reaching movements towards the anode side. The earliest significant deviations of hand path occurred 240 ms after stimulation onset. The likely goal of these online deviations of arm trajectory was to compensate for a vestibular-evoked apparent change in the spatial relationship between the target and the hand. PMID:11786219

Bresciani, J P; Blouin, J; Popov, K; Bourdin, C; Sarlegna, F; Vercher, J L; Gauthier, G M

2002-01-18

350

"Oops, It didn't arm." - A Case Study of Two Automation Assisted Altitude Deviations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Altitude deviations are the most common pilot error reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. Last year, altitude deviations were reported to the ASRS at the rate of about one per hour. The reporting pilot's narrative is usually our only source of information about what happened in these incidents. In a recent line-oriented, simulator study, twenty-two airline crews flew a realistic, two-hour mission in a DC-9 and an MD-88 aircraft. This paper will describe and analyze two of the five altitude deviations that were observed during this study. The paper focuses on the flight crews' use (or misuse) of the autopilot and autothrottle during these incidents.

Plamer, Everett; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

351

Deviations of the glass transition temperature in amorphous conjugated polymer thin films.  

PubMed

The deviations of the glass transition temperature (T(g)) in thin films of an amorphous conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine) (TFB) are reported. Monotonic and nonmonotonic T(g) deviations are observed in TFB thin films supported on Si-SiOx and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. A three-layer model is developed to fit both monotonic and nonmonotonic T(g) deviations in these films. A 5-nm PEDOT:PSS capping layer was not found to be effective to remove the free-surface effect in Si-SiOx supported TFB films. PMID:24032856

Liu, Dan; Osuna Orozco, Rodrigo; Wang, Tao

2013-08-01

352

Radiotherapy Protocol Deviations and Clinical Outcomes: A Meta-analysis of Cooperative Group Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Noncompliance with radiotherapy (RT) protocol guidelines has been linked to inferior clinical outcomes. We performed a meta-analysis of cooperative group trials to examine the association between RT quality assurance (QA) deviations and disease control and overall survival (OS). Methods We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for multi-institutional trials that reported clinical outcomes in relation to RT QA results. Hazard ratios (HRs) describing the association between RT protocol noncompliance and patient outcomes were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Inverse variance meta-analyses were performed to assess the association between RT QA deviations and OS. A second meta-analysis tested the association between RT QA deviations and secondary outcomes, including local or locoregional control, event-free survival, and relapse. Random-effects models were used in cases of statistically significant (P < .10) effect heterogeneity. The Egger test was used to detect publication bias. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Eight studies (four pediatric, four adult) met all inclusion criteria and were incorporated into this analysis. The frequency of RT QA deviations ranged from 8% to 71% (median = 32%). In a random-effects model, RT deviations were associated with a statistically significant decrease in OS (HR of death = 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28 to 2.35; P < .001). A similar effect was seen for secondary outcomes (HR of treatment failure = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.15 to 2.78; P = .009). No evidence of publication bias was detected. Conclusion In clinical trials, RT protocol deviations are associated with increased risks of treatment failure and overall mortality. PMID:23468460

2013-01-01

353

Detection of two cracks in a rotor-bearing system using amplitude deviation curve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics and diagnostics of cracked rotors have been gaining importance in recent years. Relatively few authors have addressed the problem of multi-crack assessment for rotors. In many cases there exist more than one crack on the shaft. Then the solutions or the combinations of parameters characterizing the cracks are more and the problem becomes more complicated. In this study, a new technique called amplitude deviation curve (ADC) or slope deviation curve (SDC) has been developed, which is a modification of the operational deflection shape (ODS). The effectiveness of the SDC over ODS for small cracks detection has been demonstrated in the present paper.

Ramesh Babu, T.; Sekhar, A. S.

2008-07-01

354

Principles of Instructed Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

Ellis, Rod

2005-01-01

355

Meaty Principles for Environmental Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that educated persons should be exposed to a body of conceptual knowledge which includes basic principles of the biological and physical sciences. Practical examples involving force, sound, light, waves, and density of water are cited. A lesson on animal tracks using principles of force and pressure is also described. (DH)

Rockcastle, V. N.

1985-01-01

356

Kautilya on principles of taxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present Kautilya's principles of taxation during the fourth century BCE. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Modern tools of economic analysis are used to present Kautilya's principles on income taxation. Findings – Kautilya implicitly suggests a linear income tax. He emphasizes fairness, stability of tax structure, fiscal federalism, avoidance of heavy taxation, ensuring of tax

Balbir S. Sihag

2009-01-01

357

Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics  

E-print Network

1 Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics Instructors: Dr. Steven M. Carr B Molecular Genetics Dr. David J. Innes B MendelianGenetics Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics Lab Instructor: Valerie Power Genetics Laboratory: SN-4110 (Lab. organization meeting week of Sept. 13: Groups A &B) Lab. Demonstrators

Innes, David J.

358

Design Principles for Children's Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designers of children's technology and software face distinctive challenges. Many design principles used for adult interfaces cannot be applied to children's products because the needs, skills, and expectations of this user population are drastically different than those of adults. In recent years, designers have started developing design principles for children, but this work has not been collected in one place.

Sonia Chiasson; Carl Gutwin

359

Black swans or dragon kings? A simple test for deviations from the power law  

E-print Network

We develop a simple test for deviations from power law tails, which is based on the asymptotic properties of the empirical distribution function. We use this test to answer the question whether great natural disasters, financial crashes or electricity price spikes should be classified as dragon kings or 'only' as black swans.

Janczura, Joanna

2011-01-01

360

Comparison of MMPI psychopathic deviate scores of battered and nonbattered women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the voluminous research using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, little research has been done evaluating the MMPI for assessing personality profiles and psychopathology in victims of domestic violence. The current study focused on the Psychopathic Deviate scale (scale 4), and the Harris and Lingoes subscales measuring specific aspects of this concept. The objective was to evaluate whether a clinical

Nancy R. Rhodes

1992-01-01

361

Ecology and taxonomy-driven deviations in the frog callbody size relationship across the diverse Australian  

E-print Network

Ecology and taxonomy-driven deviations in the frog call­body size relationship across the diverse Australian frog fauna C. J. Hoskin1,2 , S. James2 & G. C. Grigg2 1 School of Botany & Zoology, The Australian, St Lucia, Qld, Australia Keywords frog call; body size; signal evolution; environmental noise

Keogh, Scott

362

FOREIGN TRAVEL DEBRIEFING a. Did you deviate from the itinerary you provided prior to your departure?  

E-print Network

of possible approach/efforts to compromise by a Foreign Intelligence Service? ___Yes___No ____Yes____f. NoFOREIGN TRAVEL DEBRIEFING a. Did you deviate from the itinerary you provided prior to yourDid you meet a foreign national who request future contact? g. Has any other agency or official debriefed

Alabama in Huntsville, University of

363

Periodic solutions for Lienard type p-Laplacian equation with a deviating argument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use the coincidence degree theory to establish new results on the existence of T-periodic solutions for the Lienard type p-Laplacian equation with a deviating argument of the form:([phi]p(x'(t)))'+f(x(t))x'(t)+g(t,x(t-[tau](t)))=e(t).

Liu, Bingwen

2008-04-01

364

MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation  

SciTech Connect

A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

Meyer, Arnd [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

2010-02-10

365

Deviation of hydraulic fractures through poroelastic stress changes induced by fluid injection and pumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the deviation of hydraulic fractures associated with the poroelastic change of the in situ stress field caused by fluid injection and pumping in the reservoir. This mechanism is studied within the confines of a simple model involving one injection and one pumping well, and a hydraulic fracture propagating along the path initially equidistant from

I. Berchenko; E. Detournay

1997-01-01

366

Optical analysis of deviations in a concentrating photovoltaics central receiver system with a flux homogenizer.  

PubMed

The application of a kaleidoscope as a flux homogenizer to a concentrating photovoltaics system with a central receiver is investigated. The optical setup of a primary dish-type concentrator, a secondary homogenizer optics, and a photovoltaic receiver is simulated using ray tracing. The influence of various deviations from the ideal-namely sunshape (circumsolar radiation), shading, tracking error, and shape of the primary optical concentrator-on the performance of the homogenizer is analyzed quantitatively using the optical efficiency and the normalized standard deviation as a measure of inhomogeneity. Flux distributions for different progressively increasing deviations are discussed qualitatively. Experimental validation of the simulation is presented. It is demonstrated that the performance of the homogenizer is not particularly sensitive to sunshape. If sufficient length is provided, the homogenizer effectively compensates for tracking error, misalignment, and shape deviations of the primary concentrator. Yet despite the presence of the homogenizer, shading due to the holder of the receiver significantly affects the flux distribution at the receiver. PMID:23669763

Helmers, Henning; Thor, Wei Yi; Schmidt, Thomas; van Rooyen, De Wet; Bett, Andreas W

2013-05-01

367

Fast quantitative correlation analysis and information deviation analysis for evaluating the performances of image fusion techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion is becoming one of the hottest techniques in image processing. Its performance evaluation method that can compare and analyze different fusion techniques is an essential part of image fusion techniques. In this paper, we proposed two intuitive schemes - correlation and information deviation schemes - for evaluating the performances of image fusion techniques. The former scheme is a

Qiang Wang; Yi Shen; Ye Zhang; Jian Qiu Zhang

2004-01-01

368

On local attractivity of solutions of a functional integral equation of fractional order with deviating arguments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the existence of solutions of a nonlinear functional integral equation of fractional order with deviating arguments. This equation is considered in the Banach space of real functions defined, continuous and bounded on an unbounded interval. Moreover, we show that solutions of this integral equation are locally attractive. An example is provided to illustrate the theory.

Balachandran, K.; Park, J. Y.; Diana Julie, M.

2010-10-01

369

Enhanced Angular Domain Optical Imaging by Background Scattered Light Subtraction from a Deviated Laser Source  

E-print Network

Enhanced Angular Domain Optical Imaging by Background Scattered Light Subtraction from a Deviated challenge faced by optical imaging in biological tissue is tissue's high level of light scattering in optical tomography. 2. Light-tissue interaction Tissues and bioliquids have low light absorption levels

Chapman, Glenn H.

370

The rule of negative deviation from the additivity of bulk modules for solid solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rule of negative deviation from additivity for bulk modules of solid solutions is considered. The rule is substantiated in terms of the phenomenological theory, which is based on experimental data on the physical properties of crystals. The theory is confirmed by atomistic calculations by the authors for a halite-sylvine solid solution and for various binary oxide, silicate, phosphate, and carbonate systems.

Urusov, V. S.; Eremin, N. N.

2013-10-01

371

TOLERANCING FORM DEVIATIONS FOR NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL (SRM) 2809 ROCKWELL DIAMOND INDENTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is developing Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2809* Rockwell Diamond Indenter to support Rockwell hardness standardization. Most tolerances of the SRM indenters are adopted from those of the calibration grade Rockwell indenters specified in ASTM and ISO standards except the form deviations from tip radius. Based on the historical data of geometrical measurements

John Song; Li Ma

372

IL4-induced immune deviation as antigen-specific therapy for inflammatory autoimmune disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organ-specific autoimmune diseases arc mediated by interferon ? (IFN-?)-producing T helper 1 (Th1) cells. Here, Martin Röcken and colleagues review the experimental basis for an antigen-specific therapeutic approach to inflammatory autoimmune diseases. This strategy involves selective deviation of harmful Th1 responses towards an anti-inflammatory, interleukin 4 (IL-4)-producing Th2 phenotype.

Martin Röcken; Michael Racke; Ethan M. Shevach

1996-01-01

373

Convective cloud identification and classification in daytime satellite imagery using standard deviation limited adaptive clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a statistical clustering approach toward the classification of cloud types within meteorological satellite imagery, specifically, visible and infrared data. The method is based on the Standard Deviation Limited Adaptive Clustering (SDLAC) procedure, which has been used to classify a variety of features within both polar orbiting and geostationary imagery, including land cover, volcanic ash, dust, and clouds

Todd A. Berendes; John R. Mecikalski; Wayne M. MacKenzie Jr.; Kristopher M. Bedka

2008-01-01

374

Bibliography [1] A.V. Aho, R. Sethi, J.D. Ullman, Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools, Addison-  

E-print Network

Bibliography [1] A.V. Aho, R. Sethi, J.D. Ullman, Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools-power digital systems based on adiabatic- switching principles," IEEE Trans. on Very Large Scale Integration

Silvano, Cristina

375

Conservative relativity principle: Logical ground and analysis of relevant experiments  

E-print Network

We suggest a new relativity principle, which asserts the impossibility to distinguish the state of rest and the state of motion at the constant velocity of a system, if no work is done to the system in question during its motion. We suggest calling this new rule as "conservative relativity principle" (CRP). In the case of an empty space, CRP is reduced to the Einstein special relativity principle. We also show that CRP is compatible with the general relativity principle. One of important implications of CRP is the dependence of the proper time of a charged particle on the electric potential at its location. In the present paper we consider the relevant experimental facts gathered up to now, where the latter effect can be revealed. We show that in atomic physics the introduction of this effect furnishes a better convergence between theory and experiment than that provided by the standard approach. Finally, we reanalyze the Moessbauer experiments in rotating systems and show that the obtained recently puzzling deviation of the relative energy shift between emission and absorption lines from the relativistic prediction can be explained by the CRP.

Alexander Kholmetskii; Tolga Yarman; Oleg Missevitch

2014-05-08

376

Conservative relativity principle: Logical ground and analysis of relevant experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest a new relativity principle, which asserts the impossibility to distinguish the state of rest and the state of motion at the constant velocity of a system, if no work is done to the system in question during its motion. We suggest calling this new rule as "conservative relativity principle" (CRP). In the case of an empty space, CRP is reduced to the Einstein special relativity principle. We also show that CRP is compatible with the general relativity principle. One of important implications of CRP is the dependence of the proper time of a charged particle on the electric potential at its location. In the present paper we consider the relevant experimental facts gathered up to now, where the latter effect can be revealed. We show that in atomic physics the introduction of this effect furnishes a better convergence between theory and experiment than that provided by the standard approach. Finally, we reanalyze the Mössbauer experiments in rotating systems and show that the obtained recently puzzling deviation of the relative energy shift between emission and absorption lines from the relativistic prediction can be explained by the CRP.

Kholmetskii, Alexander; Yarman, Tolga; Missevitch, Oleg

2014-05-01

377

An Inconvenient Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the XIXth century, physics was dominated by two main theories: classical (or Newtonian) mechanics and electromagnetism. To be entirely correct, we should add thermodynamics, which seemed to be grounded on different principles, but whose links with mechanics were progressively better understood thanks to the work of Maxwell and Boltzmann, among others. Classical mechanics, born with Galileo and Newton, claimed to explain the motion of lumps of matter under the action of forces. The paradigm for a lump of matter is a particle, or a corpuscle, which one can intuitively think of as a billiard ball of tiny dimensions, and which will be dubbed a micro-billiard ball in what follows. The second main component of XIXth century physics, electromagnetism, is a theory of the electric and magnetic fields and also of optics, thanks to the synthesis between electromagnetism and optics performed by Maxwell, who understood that light waves are nothing other than a particular case of electromagnetic waves. We had, on the one hand, a mechanical theory where matter exhibiting a discrete character (particles) was carried along well localized trajectories and, on the other hand, a wave theory describing continuous phenomena which did not involve transport of matter. The two theories addressed different domains, the only obvious link being the law giving the force on a charged particle submitted to an electromagnetic field, or Lorentz force. In 1905, Einstein put an end to this dichotomic wave/particle view and launched two revolutions of physics: special relativity and quantum physics. First, he showed that Newton's equations of motion must be modified when the particle velocities are not negligible with respect to that of light: this is the special relativity revolution, which introduces in mechanics a quantity characteristic of optics, the velocity of light. However, this is an aspect of the Einsteinian revolution which will not interest us directly, with the exception of Chapter 7. Then Einstein introduced the particle aspect of light: in modern language, he introduced the quantum properties of the electromagnetic field, epitomized by the concept of photon. After briefly recalling the main properties of waves in classical physics, this chapter will lead us to the heart of the quantum world, elaborating on an example which is studied in some detail, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This apparatus is widely used today in physics laboratories, but we shall limit ourselves to a schematic description, at the level of what my experimental colleagues would call "a theorist's version of an interferometer".

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

378

Principles of Pharmacotherapy: I. Pharmacodynamics  

PubMed Central

This paper and the ensuing series present the principles guiding and affecting the ability of drugs to produce therapeutic benefit or untoward harm. The principles of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, the physiologic basis of adverse drug reactions and suitable antidotal therapy, and the biologic basis of drug allergy, drug-drug interactions, pharmacogenetics, teratology and hematologic reactions to chemicals are explored. These principles serve to guide those administering and using drugs to attain the maximum benefit and least attendant harm from their use. Such is the goal of rational therapeutics. PMID:3046440

Pallasch, Thomas J.

1988-01-01

379

OECD Principles of Corporate Governance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Principles of Corporate Governance" sets out a structure for directing and controlling corporate businesses. This document (html or .pdf) consists of five sections detailing the principles: "The rights of shareholders," "The equitable treatment of shareholders," "The role of stakeholders in corporate governance," "Disclosure and transparency," and "The responsibilities of the board," as well as annotations for each of the sections. Be sure to visit the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance Q&A page, linked at the top of the page.

380

Extrema Principles Of Dissipation In Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses application of principle of least action and other variational or extrema principles to dissipation of energy and production of entropy in fluids. Principle of least action applied successfully to dynamics of particles and to quantum mechanics, but not universally accepted that variational principles applicable to thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. Report argues for applicability of some extrema principles to some simple flows.

Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

1991-01-01

381

Methodological principles of modern thermodynamics  

E-print Network

The article describes basic principles of the theory which unites thermodynamics of reversible and irreversible processes also extends them methods on processes of transfer and transformation of any forms of energy

V. A. Etkin

2014-01-02

382

Dark matter and the equivalence principle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence principle. The astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter are discussed and rather tight constraints on its strength are found. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). Such an interaction also has unusual implications for the growth of large-scale structure.

Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

1991-01-01

383

Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe.

Son, Joo-Hiuk

2013-05-01

384

Population subdivision and the Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade test: testing for deviations from the neutral model in organelle genomes.  

PubMed

The Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade (HKA) test is based on the prediction from the neutral theory that levels of polymorphism within a species and the divergence between two closely related species should be correlated. Population subdivision has been shown to alter both the amounts of polymorphism segregating within species and the rate of divergence between species, meaning that genomic regions with different population structures also differ in their divergence to polymorphism ratios. Population subdivision may hence hamper the utility of the HKA test for detecting deviations from the standard neutral model, especially for organelle genomes that often have different patterns of population structure compared with nuclear genes. In this paper, I show that population subdivision inflates the number of instances where the HKA test detects deviations from the neutral model. Using coalescent simulations I show that this bias is most apparent when population subdivision is strong and differs substantially between the loci included. However, if divergence time is large and population structure substantial even changes in the levels of polymorphism and divergence associated with differences in the effective population size between two loci is enough to substantially alter the number of significant outcomes of the HKA test. A dataset on cytoplasmic diversity in Sileine vulgaris and S. latifolia (Ingvarsson & Taylor, 2002) is also reanalysed. The previous study had shown a marked excess of intraspecific polymorphism in both species. However, when effects of population subdivision were removed, ad hoc, levels of intraspecific polymorphism were no longer significantly different from neutral expectations, suggesting that population subdivision contributed to the observed excess of intraspecific polymorphism seen in both species of Silene. PMID:15125064

Ingvarsson, Pär K

2004-02-01

385

Developmental principles: fact or fiction.  

PubMed

While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them. PMID:22489210

Durston, A J

2012-01-01

386

Repelling the Young and Attracting the Old: Examining Age-Related Differences in Saccade Trajectory Deviations  

PubMed Central

The present study examined age-related differences in saccade curvature as older and younger adults looked to an “X” target that appeared concurrently with an “O” distractor. A fixation gap procedure was used to introduce variance into the saccadic latencies of both groups. Consistent with earlier findings, younger adults’ early-onset saccades curved towards the distractor (as the distractor competed with the target for response selection), while late-onset saccades curved away from the distractor (as the distractor location became inhibited over time). In contrast, older adults’ saccades gradually decreased in curvature towards the distractor, but at no point along the latency continuum did they show deviations away. These results suggest that while the local inhibitory mechanisms responsible for decreases in curvature towards distractors may be preserved with age, aging may lead to a selective decline in the frontal inhibitory mechanisms responsible for deviations away from distractors. PMID:19290747

Campbell, Karen L.; Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Pratt, Jay; Hasher, Lynn

2012-01-01

387

Segmented Zero-Deviation Cross-Dispersion Prisms for the Hectochelle Multiobject Spectrograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a design for a zero-deviation cross-disperser to be used with Hectochelle, a fiber-fed echelle spectrograph. Hectochelle was originally designed to be operated as a multiobject spectrograph in a single order (or overlapping orders) selected with order-separating filters. With cross-dispersion, the multiplex advantage can be traded for spectral coverage using order-separating filters and masks at the fiber slit. The options range from using two fibers delivering the full 365-980 nm passband to 240 fibers delivering a single order (~10-20 nm). The cross-disperser is a novel segmented prism design, which is compact, efficient, and economical compared to a monolithic zero-deviation prism. Conveniently, the cross-disperser can be mounted in the existing Hectochelle spectrograph without mechanical modifications or optical realignment.

Fabricant, Daniel G.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Epps, Harland W.

2003-02-01

388

Measurement of two-dimensional small angle deviation with a prism interferometer  

SciTech Connect

A new technique for the measurement of two-dimensional small angular deviation is presented. A compound prism, which effectively produces a combination of two right-angled prisms in orthogonal directions, and plane reference surfaces have been utilized for the measurement of the orthogonal components of the angular tilt of an incident plane wavefront. Each orthogonal component of the angular tilt is separately measured from the angular rotation of the resultant wedge fringes between two plane wavefronts generated due to splitting of the incident plane wavefront by the corresponding set of right-angled prism and plane reference surface. The technique is shown to have high sensitivity for the measurement of small angle deviation. A monolithic prism interferometer, which is practically insensitive to vibration, is also proposed. Results obtained for the measurement of a known tilt angle are presented.

Chatterjee, Sanjib; Kumar, Y. Pavan

2008-09-20

389

LOCAL GROUP DWARF SPHEROIDALS: CORRELATED DEVIATIONS FROM THE BARYONIC TULLY-FISHER RELATION  

SciTech Connect

Local Group dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies are the faintest extragalactic stellar systems known. We examine recent data for these objects in the plane of the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation (BTFR). While some dwarf spheroidals adhere to the BTFR, others deviate substantially. We examine the residuals from the BTFR and find that they are not random. The residuals correlate with luminosity, size, metallicity, ellipticity, and susceptibility of the dwarfs to tidal disruption in the sense that fainter, more elliptical, and tidally more susceptible dwarfs deviate farther from the BTFR. These correlations disfavor stochastic processes and suggest a role for tidal effects. We identify a test to distinguish between {Lambda}CDM and MOND based on the orbits of the dwarf satellites of the Milky Way and how stars are lost from them.

McGaugh, Stacy S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Wolf, Joe, E-mail: ssm@astro.umd.ed, E-mail: wolfj@uci.ed [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States)

2010-10-10

390

Deviation equations of Synge and Schild over spaces with affine connections and metrics  

E-print Network

Deviation equation of Synge and Schild has been investigated over spaces with affine connections and metrics. It is shown that the condition for the vanishing of the Lie derivative of a vector field along a given non-null (non-isotropic) vector field u for obtaining this equation is only a sufficient (but not necessary) condition. By means of the vector field u and the projective metric (orthogonal to it) projected deviation equations of Synge and Schild have been obtained for a vector field, orthogonal to the given vector field u, as well as for the square of its length. For a given non-isotropic, auto-parallel and normalized vector field u this equation could have some simple solutions. PACS numbers: 02.90; 04.50+h; 04.90.+e: 04.30.+x

S. Manoff

2000-12-05

391

Undergraduates regard deviation from occupational gender stereotypes as costly for women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies from the 1970s have shown deviation from norms defining the gender-appropriateness of occupations to be costly for both women and men. Two hundred thirty undergraduates wrote open-ended stories and rated a stimulus person, Anne or John, who was described at the top of his\\/her class in medicine or one of four persistently gender-skewed fields: nursing, day care, electrical engineering,

Janice D. Yoder; Thomas L. Schleicher

1996-01-01

392

Maintaining Standards: Differences between the Standard Deviation and Standard Error, and  

E-print Network

of the findings. (Can J Psychiatry 1996;41:498­502) Key Words: statistics, standard deviation, standard error 1996. This article is the eleventh in the series on Research Methods in Psychiatry. For previous articles please see Can J Psychiatry 1990;35:616­20, 1991; 36:357­62, 1993;38:9­13, 1993;38:140­8, 1994

California at Santa Cruz, University of

393

Galvanic vestibular stimulation in humans produces online arm movement deviations when reaching towards memorized visual targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), we tested whether a change in vestibular input at the onset of goal-directed arm movements induces deviations in arm trajectory. Eight head-fixed standing subjects were instructed to reach for memorized visual targets in complete darkness. In half of the trials, randomly-selected, a 3 mA bipolar binaural galvanic stimulation of randomly alternating polarity was triggered by

J.-P. Bresciani; J. Blouin; K. Popov; C. Bourdin; F. Sarlegna; J.-L. Vercher; G. M. Gauthier

2002-01-01

394

Impact of Violations and Deviations in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium on Postulated Gene-Disease Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated whether statistically significant violations of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) or the magnitude of deviations from HWE may contribute to the problem of replicating postulated gene-disease associ- ations across different studies. Forty-two gene-disease associations assessed in meta-analyses of 591 studies were examined. Studies with disease-free controls in which HWE was violated gave significantly different results from HWE-conforming studies in

Thomas A. Trikalinos; Georgia Salanti; Muin J. Khoury; John P. A. Ioannidis

2006-01-01

395

Periodic solutions for a kind of Liénard equation with a deviating argument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Liénard equation with a deviating argument x''(t)+f1(t,x(t))x'(t)+f2(x(t))(x'(t))2+g(t,x(t-[tau](t)))=p(t) is studied. By applying the coincidence degree theory, we obtain some new results on the existence and uniqueness of T-periodic solutions to this equation. Our results improve and extend some existing ones in the literature.

Shao, Jianying; Wang, Lijuan; Yu, Yuehua; Zhou, Jinglei

2009-06-01

396

Periodic solutions for Liénard type p-Laplacian equation with two deviating arguments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Liénard type p-Laplacian equation with two deviating arguments ([phi]p(x'(t)))'+f(x(t))x'(t)+g1(t,x(t-[tau]1(t)))+g2(t,x(t-[tau]2(t)))=e(t) is studied. By applying the coincidence degree theory, we obtain some new results on the existence of periodic solutions to this equation. Our results improve and extend some existing ones in the literature.

Wang, Lijuan; Shao, Jianying; Meng, Hua; Xiao, Bing; Long, Fei

2009-02-01

397

Novel mathematical method for quantitative expression of deviation from the Higuchi model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple mathematical method to express the deviation in release profile of a test product following Higuchi's kinetics from\\u000a an ideal Higuchi release profile was developed. The method is based on calculation of area under the curve (AUC) by using\\u000a the trapezoidal rule. The precision of prediction depends on the number of data points. The method is exemplified for 2

Mukesh C. Gohel; Maulik K. Panchal; Viral V. Jogani

2000-01-01

398

The sea surface temperature deviation and the heat flow at the sea-air interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deviation of the sea surface temperature from the water temperature below is calculated as a function of the heat flow through the air-sea interface, using wind tunnel determinations of the effective thermal diffusivity in a boundary layer. The influence ofQ, shortwave radiation, andH, latent and sensible heat transfer plus effective back radiation, and U, wind speed, can be described

Lutz Hasse

1971-01-01

399

Productivity, Preferences and UIP Deviations in an Open Economy Business Cycle Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that a flex-price two-sector open economy DSGE model can explain the poor degree of international risk sharing and exchange rate disconnect. We use a suite of model evaluation measures\\u000a and examine the role of (1) traded and non-traded sectors; (2) financial market incompleteness; (3) preference shocks; (4)\\u000a deviations from UIP condition for the exchange rates; and (5) creditor

Arnab Bhattacharjee; Jagjit S. Chadha; Qi Sun

2010-01-01

400

Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: Empirical results and theoretical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study annual logarithmic growth rates R of various economic variables such as exports, imports, and foreign debt. For each of these variables we find that the distributions of R can be approximated by double exponential (Laplace) distributions in the central parts and power-law distributions in the tails. For each of these variables we further find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation ?(R) on the average size of the economic variable with a scaling exponent surprisingly close to that found for the gross domestic product (GDP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3275 (1998)]. By analyzing annual logarithmic growth rates R of wages of 161 different occupations, we find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation ?(R) on the average value of the wages with a scaling exponent ??0.14 close to those found for the growth of exports, imports, debt, and the growth of the GDP. In contrast to these findings, we observe for payroll data collected from 50 states of the USA that the standard deviation ?(R) of the annual logarithmic growth rate R increases monotonically with the average value of payroll. However, also in this case we observe a power-law dependence of ?(R) on the average payroll with a scaling exponent ??-0.08 . Based on these observations we propose a stochastic process for multiple cross-correlated variables where for each variable (i) the distribution of logarithmic growth rates decays exponentially in the central part, (ii) the distribution of the logarithmic growth rate decays algebraically in the far tails, and (iii) the standard deviation of the logarithmic growth rate depends algebraically on the average size of the stochastic variable.

Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Pammolli, Fabio; Wang, Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Grosse, I.

2008-05-01

401

From Web Service Policies to Automatic Deviation Handling: Supporting Semantic Description of Reactions to Policy Violations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In scenarios where Web services are involved, Quality of Service (QoS) parameters play an important role when it comes to service selection, service compositions, and run-time behavior of the execution environment, e.g. a workflow engine. Required or guaranteed QoS levels are often described by means of Web service policies. However, policy languages do usually not include the handling of deviations

Stefan Schulte; Nicolas Repp; Dieter Schuller; Ralf Steinmetz

2009-01-01

402

Individuality That is Unheard of: Systematic Temporal Deviations in Scale Playing Leave an Inaudible Pianistic Fingerprint  

PubMed Central

Whatever we do, we do it in our own way, and we recognize master artists by small samples of their work. This study investigates individuality of temporal deviations in musical scales in pianists in the absence of deliberate expressive intention. Note-by-note timing deviations away from regularity form a remarkably consistent “pianistic fingerprint.” First, eight professional pianists played C-major scales in two sessions, separated by 15?min. Euclidian distances between deviation traces originating from different pianists were reliably larger than traces originating from the same pianist. As a result, a simple classifier that matched deviation traces by minimizing their distance was able to recognize each pianist with 100% accuracy. Furthermore, within each pianist, fingerprints produced by the same movements were more similar than fingerprints resulting in the same scale sound. This allowed us to conclude that the fingerprints are mostly neuromuscular rather than intentional or expressive in nature. However, human listeners were not able to distinguish the temporal fingerprints by ear. Next, 18 pianists played C-major scales on a normal or muted piano. Recognition rates ranged from 83 to 100%, further supporting the view that auditory feedback is not implicated in the creation of the temporal signature. Finally, 20 pianists were recognized 20?months later at above chance level, showing signature effects to be long lasting. Our results indicate that even non-expressive playing of scales reveals consistent, partially effector-unspecific, but inaudible inter-individual differences. We suggest that machine learning studies into individuality in performance will need to take into account unintentional but consistent variability below the perceptual threshold. PMID:23519688

Van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmuller, Eckart

2013-01-01

403

Growth-deviation model to understand the perceived variety of falling snow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is the source of snow-crystal variety? This question is answered using a model of snow-crystal growth in a cloud. In the model, crystals start under various initial cloud-crystal conditions, and then encounter growth perturbations from random air-temperature deviations along simple crystal trajectories. To obtain distributions of these deviations, I analyzed recent high-resolution measurements of cloud updrafts and temperatures. The trajectories and distributions are used to estimate the number of possible snow crystal shapes, to a given viewing resolution, from a range of initial conditions. The logarithm of this number, defined here as the perceived shape variety or "diversity", is dominated not by the range of conditions, but rather by the air-temperature deviations along a trajectory. This qualitative result is independent of the viewing resolution. Thus, temperature deviations are the main source of crystal diversity. When plotted against the crystal's initial temperature (here -11 to -19°C), the curve is mitten-shaped, with a main peak at -15.4°C and a smaller, sharper peak near -14.4°C. The mitten shape arises from temperature trends in the crystal's terminal fallspeed and prism-face growth rate. Specifically, the two diversity peaks are due to maxima in growth-rate sensitivity to temperature near -15.4 and -14.0°C. Applying the results to all snow crystals ever formed, then, to 1-?m resolution, all crystals that began near -15°C would appear unique, but some that began near -11°C would not.

Nelson, J.

2008-03-01

404

Determination of Ensemble-Average Pairwise Root Mean-Square Deviation from Experimental B-Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root mean-square deviation (RMSD) after roto-translational least-squares fitting is a measure of global structural similarity of macromolecules used commonly. On the other hand, experimental x-ray B-factors are used frequently to study local structural heterogeneity and dynamics in macromolecules by providing direct information about root mean-square fluctuations (RMSF) that can also be calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. We provide a mathematical derivation

Antonija Kuzmanic; Bojan Zagrovic

2010-01-01

405

Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits of Signal Averaging in Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS)," Applied Physics, B57, pp 131-139, April 1993

Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

2014-05-01

406

Deviations from the born-oppenheimer approximation in nonlinear X2Y molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full electron-nuclear operator of a nonlinear molecule is diagonalized on the (nondegenerate) basis of electron states. Corrections to the vibration-rotation Hamiltonian of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation are derived from it. Corrections to harmonic frequencies and reciprical moments of inertia, generated by deviations from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, are obtained for molecules of the H2O type.

Yu. S. Makushkin; O. N. Ulenikov

1975-01-01

407

Deviations from the born-oppenheimer approximation in nonlinear X 2 Y molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full electron-nuclear operator of a nonlinear molecule is diagonalized on the (nondegenerate) basis of electron states. Corrections to the vibration-rotation Hamiltonian of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation are derived from it. Corrections to harmonic frequencies and reciprical moments of inertia, generated by deviations from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, are obtained for molecules of the H2O type.

Yu. S. Makushkin; O. N. Ulenikov

1975-01-01

408

Data Communication Principles Reliable Data Transfer  

E-print Network

Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer Data Communication Basics Mahalingam Ramkumar Mississippi State University, MS September 8, 2014 Ramkumar CSE 4153 / 6153 #12;Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer 1 Data Communication Principles Data Rate of a Communication

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

409

Of Atkins and men: deviations from clinical definitions of mental retardation in death penalty cases.  

PubMed

Under Atkins v. Virginia, the Eighth Amendment exempts from execution individuals who meet the clinical definitions of mental retardation set forth by the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and the American Psychiatric Association. Both define mental retardation as significantly subaverage intellectual functioning accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning, originating before the age of 18. Since Atkins, most jurisdictions have adopted definitions of mental retardation that conform to those definitions. But some states, looking often to stereotypes of persons with mental retardation, apply exclusion criteria that deviate from and are more restrictive than the accepted scientific and clinical definitions. These state deviations have the effect of excluding from Atkins's reach some individuals who plainly fall within the class it protects. This article focuses on the cases of Roger Cherry, Jeffrey Williams, Michael Stallings, and others, who represent an ever-growing number of individuals inappropriately excluded from Atkins. Left unaddressed, the state deviations discussed herein permit what Atkins does not: the death-sentencing and execution of some capital defendants who have mental retardation. PMID:19845060

Blume, John H; Johnson, Sheri Lynn; Seeds, Christopher

2009-01-01

410

Genetic code deviations in the ciliates: evidence for multiple and independent events.  

PubMed Central

In several species of ciliates, the universal stop codons UAA and UAG are translated into glutamine, while in the euplotids, the glutamine codon usage is normal, but UGA appears to be translated as cysteine. Because the emerging position of this monophyletic group in the eukaryotic lineage is relatively late, this deviant genetic code represents a derived state of the universal code. The question is therefore raised as to how these changes arose within the evolutionary pathways of the phylum. Here, we have investigated the presence of stop codons in alpha tubulin and/or phosphoglycerate kinase gene coding sequences from diverse species of ciliates scattered over the phylogenetic tree constructed from 28S rRNA sequences. In our data set, when deviations occur they correspond to in frame UAA and UAG coding for glutamine. By combining these new data with those previously reported, we show that (i) utilization of UAA and UAG codons occurs to different extents between, but also within, the different classes of ciliates and (ii) the resulting phylogenetic pattern of deviations from the universal code cannot be accounted for by a scenario involving a single transition to the unusual code. Thus, contrary to expectations, deviations from the universal genetic code have arisen independently several times within the phylum. PMID:7621837

Tourancheau, A B; Tsao, N; Klobutcher, L A; Pearlman, R E; Adoutte, A

1995-01-01

411

Native Gating Behavior of Ion Channels in Neurons with Null-Deviation Modeling  

PubMed Central

Computational modeling has emerged as an indispensable approach to resolve and predict the intricate interplay among the many ion channels underlying neuronal excitability. However, simulation results using the classic formula-based Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) model or the superior Markov kinetic model of ion channels often deviate significantly from native cellular signals despite using carefully measured parameters. Here we found that the filters of patch-clamp amplifier not only delayed the signals, but also introduced ringing, and that the residual series resistance in experiments altered the command voltages, which had never been fully eliminated by improving the amplifier itself. To remove all the above errors, a virtual device with the parameters exactly same to that of amplifier was introduced into Markov kinetic modeling so as to establish a null-deviation model. We demonstrate that our novel null-deviation approach fully restores the native gating-kinetics of ion-channels with the data recorded at any condition, and predicts spike waveform and firing patterns clearly distinctive from those without correction. PMID:24204745

Yang, Yimei; Xiao, Feng; Yuchi, Ming; Qu, Anlian; Wang, Luyang; Ding, Jiuping

2013-01-01

412

Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.  

PubMed

Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance. PMID:23876006

Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno

2014-01-01

413

Minimum Principle for Indefinite Mean-Field Free Energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of Bogoliubov Jr.’s minimax principle to biaxial nematic liquid crystals has recently made it possible to derive the universal mean-field phase diagram for all quadrupolar interactions between nematogenic biaxial molecules, including those rendering the mean-field free energy {fancyscript{F}_0} indefinite. To justify this extension, so far largely based on heuristic arguments, we prove here a minimum principle that also applies when {fancyscript{F}_0} is indefinite. Bogoliubov Jr.’s minimax principle then emerges as a characterization of this minimum principle. The theory presented here is more general than its application to biaxial nematic liquid crystals could reveal. It essentially builds upon a concavity property of {fancyscript{F}_0} in the order tensor associated with the repulsive component of the molecular interaction.

Gartland, Eugene C.; Virga, Epifanio G.

2010-04-01

414

On an invariance principle for phase separation lines ? ? Partly supported by the EU Network Postdoctoral Training Program in Mathematical Analysis of Large Quantum Systems under the contract HPRN-CT-2002-00277 and by the Senior Visiting Fellowship at the Isaac Newton Institute in the framework of the IGS Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove invariance principles for phase separation lines in the two dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model up to the critical temperature and for connectivity lines in the general context of high temperature finite range ferromagnetic Ising models.

Lev Greenberg; Dmitry Ioffe

2005-01-01

415

Quantum gravity effects in geodesic motion and predictions of equivalence principle violation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the Equivalence Principle is violated by Quantum Gravity (QG) effects. The predicted violations are compared to experimental observations for Gravitational Redshift, Law of Reciprocal Action and Universality of Free Fall. This allows us to derive explicit bounds for ?—the QG scale. In our approach, there appears a deviation in the geodesic motion of a particle. This deviation is induced by a non-commutative spacetime, consistent with a Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). GUP admits the presence of a minimum length scale, that is advocated by QG theories. Remarkably, the GUP induced corrections are quite robust since the bound on ? obtained by us, in General Relativity scenario in an essentially classical setting of modified geodesic motion, is closely comparable to similar bounds in recent literature (Das and Vagenas 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 221301). The latter are computed in purely quantum physics domain in flat spacetime.

Ghosh, Subir

2014-01-01

416

Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the principles of HIA from peer-reviewed papers provides an opportunity for guiding HIA practice comprehensively. It seems to be feasible to develop a universal guide that covers all principles required. PMID:24987717

Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

2014-01-01

417

Large Artificial Nerve Net (LANNET)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the implementation of a high speed self-organizing system based on the reinforcement principle. The self-organizing binary logical network is used as the primary component in the system. The learning system is a 1024 decision element netwolk with a general purpose program to enable the operator to simulate a large number of problems to study machine learning. The

David F. Guinn

1963-01-01

418

Principles of Virus Structural Organization  

PubMed Central

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

419

The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?  

SciTech Connect

It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.

Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz [Institute for Scientific and Technological Information (IDICT), National Capitol, Havana (Cuba); Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

2007-04-28

420

Design Principles for Effective Knowledge Discovery from Big Data  

SciTech Connect

Big data phenomenon refers to the practice of collection and processing of very large data sets and associated systems and algorithms used to analyze these massive datasets. Architectures for big data usually range across multiple machines and clusters, and they commonly consist of multiple special purpose sub-systems. Coupled with the knowledge discovery process, big data movement offers many unique opportunities for organizations to benefit (with respect to new insights, business optimizations, etc.). However, due to the difficulty of analyzing such large datasets, big data presents unique systems engineering and architectural challenges. In this paper, we present three sys- tem design principles that can inform organizations on effective analytic and data collection processes, system organization, and data dissemination practices. The principles presented derive from our own research and development experiences with big data problems from various federal agencies, and we illustrate each principle with our own experiences and recommendations.

Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Horey, James L [ORNL

2012-01-01

421

Efficient Levenberg-Marquardt minimization of the maximum likelihood estimator for Poisson deviates  

SciTech Connect

Histograms of counted events are Poisson distributed, but are typically fitted without justification using nonlinear least squares fitting. The more appropriate maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for Poisson distributed data is seldom used. We extend the use of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm commonly used for nonlinear least squares minimization for use with the MLE for Poisson distributed data. In so doing, we remove any excuse for not using this more appropriate MLE. We demonstrate the use of the algorithm and the superior performance of the MLE using simulations and experiments in the context of fluorescence lifetime imaging. Scientists commonly form histograms of counted events from their data, and extract parameters by fitting to a specified model. Assuming that the probability of occurrence for each bin is small, event counts in the histogram bins will be distributed according to the Poisson distribution. We develop here an efficient algorithm for fitting event counting histograms using the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for Poisson distributed data, rather than the non-linear least squares measure. This algorithm is a simple extension of the common Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) algorithm, is simple to implement, quick and robust. Fitting using a least squares measure is most common, but it is the maximum likelihood estimator only for Gaussian-distributed data. Non-linear least squares methods may be applied to event counting histograms in cases where the number of events is very large, so that the Poisson distribution is well approximated by a Gaussian. However, it is not easy to satisfy this criterion in practice - which requires a large number of events. It has been well-known for years that least squares procedures lead to biased results when applied to Poisson-distributed data; a recent paper providing extensive characterization of these biases in exponential fitting is given. The more appropriate measure based on the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for the Poisson distribution is also well known, but has not become generally used. This is primarily because, in contrast to non-linear least squares fitting, there has been no quick, robust, and general fitting method. In the field of fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy and imaging, there have been some efforts to use this estimator through minimization routines such as Nelder-Mead optimization, exhaustive line searches, and Gauss-Newton minimization. Minimization based on specific one- or multi-exponential models has been used to obtain quick results, but this procedure does not allow the incorporation of the instrument response, and is not generally applicable to models found in other fields. Methods for using the MLE for Poisson-distributed data have been published by the wider spectroscopic community, including iterative minimization schemes based on Gauss-Newton minimization. The slow acceptance of these procedures for fitting event counting histograms may also be explained by the use of the ubiquitous, fast Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) fitting procedure for fitting non-linear models using least squares fitting (simple searches obtain {approx}10000 references - this doesn't include those who use it, but don't know they are using it). The benefits of L-M include a seamless transition between Gauss-Newton minimization and downward gradient minimization through the use of a regularization parameter. This transition is desirable because Gauss-Newton methods converge quickly, but only within a limited domain of convergence; on the other hand the downward gradient methods have a much wider domain of convergence, but converge extremely slowly nearer the minimum. L-M has the advantages of both procedures: relative insensitivity to initial parameters and rapid convergence. Scientists, when wanting an answer quickly, will fit data using L-M, get an answer, and move on. Only those that are aware of the bias issues will bother to fit using the more appropriate MLE for Poisson deviates. However, since there is a simple, analytical formula for the appropriate MLE measur

Laurence, T; Chromy, B

2009-11-10

422

Principles of Science Principles of Biology Reference Edition  

E-print Network

a mature understanding of scientific concepts. Our unique interactive design turns students into active the publishers of Nature and Scientific American. The Principles of Biology Reference Edition includes in science related courses · High academic achievement for all learning styles at all levels of education

Cai, Long

423

Branching and path-deviation of positive streamers resulting from statistical photon transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The branching and change in direction of propagation (path-deviation) of positive streamers in molecular gases such as air likely require a statistical process which perturbs the head of the streamer and produces an asymmetry in its space charge density. In this paper, the mechanisms for path-deviation and branching of atmospheric pressure positive streamer discharges in dry air are numerically investigated from the viewpoint of statistical photon transport and photoionization. A statistical photon transport model, based on randomly selected emitting angles and mean-free-path for absorption, was developed and embedded into a fluid-based plasma transport model. The hybrid model was applied to simulations of positive streamer coaxial discharges in dry air at atmospheric pressure. The results show that secondary streamers, often spatially isolated, are triggered by the random photoionization and interact with the thin space charge layer (SCL) of the primary streamer. This interaction may be partly responsible for path-deviation and streamer branching. The general process consists of random remote photo-electron production which initiates a back-traveling electron avalanche, collision of this secondary avalanche with the primary streamer and the subsequent perturbation to its SCL. When the SCL is deformed from a symmetric to an asymmetric shape, the streamer can experience an abrupt change in the direction of propagation. If the SCL is sufficiently perturbed and essentially broken, local maxima in the SCL can develop into new streamers, leading to streamer branching. During the propagation of positive streamers, this mechanism can take place repetitively in time and space, thus producing multi-level branching and more than two branches within one level.

Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

2014-12-01

424

Green chemistry: principles and practice.  

PubMed

Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references). PMID:20023854

Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

2010-01-01

425

Doing without the Equivalence Principle  

E-print Network

In Einstein's general relativity, geometry replaces the concept of force in the description of the gravitation interaction. Such an approach rests on the universality of free-fall--the weak equivalence principle--and would break down without it. On the other hand, the teleparallel version of general relativity, a gauge theory for the translation group, describes the gravitational interaction by a force similar to the Lorentz force of electromagnetism, a non-universal interaction. It is shown that, similarly to the Maxwell's description of electromagnetism, the teleparallel gauge approach provides a consistent theory for gravitation even in the absence of the weak equivalence principle.

R. Aldrovandi; J. G. Pereira; K. H. Vu

2004-10-08

426

Surface composition deviation of Cu2ZnSnS4 derivative powdered samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powdered samples of Cu2ZnSnS4 derivatives prepared through a solid-state route were investigated by both bulk (electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and surface-sensitive (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) methods. We observe a deviation in composition between the surface and the bulk for all non-stoichiometric samples (both Cu-poor and Cu-rich). This behavior has already been observed for slightly Cu-poor CZTS thin films and is reminiscent of that of CIGSe compounds.

Harel, S.; Guillot-Deudon, C.; Choubrac, L.; Hamon, J.; Lafond, A.

2014-06-01

427

Experimental Device for Determining Deviations in the Thoracolumbar Part of the Human Back  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article deals with the design and construction of an experimental device for measuring deviations in the thoracolumbar area of the human back. The article describes the devices construction, processing of measured data in the program MATLAB and the interpretation of the data in the form of a 3-D model. From this experimental device we would like to contribute to existing measuring devices with similar accuracy albeit in a more compact and user friendly package, which doesn't require a high degree of qualification to operate.

Horvát, František; Hu?ko, Branislav; ?ekan, Michal; Šoltés, Lukáš

2012-12-01

428

Existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions for a kind of Lienard equation with two deviating arguments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a kind of Lienard equation with two deviating arguments of the formx''(t)+f(x(t))x'(t)+g1(t,x(t-[tau]1(t)))+g2(t,x(t-[tau]2(t)))=p(t)is considered. We derive some new sufficient conditions for checking uniqueness of T-periodic solutions of this equation. By using coincidence degree theory, we also establish some new results on the existence and uniqueness of T-periodic solutions for this equation, which are new and complement previously known results.

Zhou, Qiyuan; Long, Fei

2007-09-01

429

Deviation from Berry's adiabatic geometric phase in a [sup 131]Xe nuclear gyroscope  

SciTech Connect

The concept of geometric phase is demonstrated in a nuclear gyroscope using [sup 131]Xe nuclear spins ([ital I]=3/2) as sensors for quantum-phase accumulation. By spatial rotation sub-Hertz splittings due to geometric phases are resolved in nuclear-quadrupole spectra. Deviations from Berry's adiabatic geometric phase appear in the regime of nonadiabatic rotation. The observed frequency splittings are no longer linear in the rotational frequency, as expected from adiabatic rotations, and all possible transitions, namely, six in this partially degenerate spin-3/3 system, are observed experimentally.

Appelt, S.; Waeckerle, G.; Mehring, M. (2. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany))

1994-06-20

430

30 CFR 285.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP? 285.658 Section 285.658 Mineral...construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP? (a) You must make every effort...easement in connection with your COP or GAP. (c) If, after construction,...

2011-07-01

431

30 CFR 285.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP? 285.658 Section 285.658 Mineral...construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP? (a) You must make every effort...easement in connection with your COP or GAP. (c) If, after construction,...

2010-07-01

432

30 CFR 585.658 - Can my cable or pipeline construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP? 585.658 Section 585.658 Mineral...construction deviate from my approved COP or GAP? (a) You must make every effort...easement in connection with your COP or GAP. (c) If, after construction,...

2012-07-01

433

DEVIATIONS OF GENOTYPIC STRUCTURES FROM HARDY WEINBERG PROPORTIONS UNDER RANDOM MATING AND DIFFERENTIAL SELECTION BETWEEN THE SEXES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population genetic models, such as differential viability selection between the sexes and differential multiplicative fecundity contributions of the sexes, are considered for a single multiallelic locus. These selection models usually produce deviations of the zygotic genotype frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg proportions. The deviations are investigated (with special emphasis put on equilibrium states) to quantify the effect of selective asymmetry in the

MARTIN ZIEHE; HANS-ROLF GREGORIUS

434

THE MORAL FOUNDATION OF THE PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Commission's recent interpretation of the Precautionary Principle is used as starting point for an analysis of the moral foundation of this principle. The Precau- tionary Principle is shown to have the ethical status of an amendment to a liberal principle to the effect that a state only may restrict a person's actions in order to prevent unacceptable harm to

KARSTEN KLINT JENSEN

2002-01-01

435

Geometric Variational Principles for Stochastic Fluid Dynamics  

E-print Network

This paper derives stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) for fluid dynamics from a stochastic variational principle (SVP). Both Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches are applied in the derivation of the stochastic dynamics. The paper proceeds by: taking variations in the SVP to derive stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations; writing their It\\^o representation; taking the expectation (or mean) of the It\\^o equations; and then investigating the properties of these stochastic fluid models in comparison with the corresponding deterministic fluid models. The circulation properties of the stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations are found to closely mimic those of the deterministic ideal fluid models. However, the It\\^o case deviates considerably because of the difference in the drift velocities. For example, the Kelvin theorem for preservation of circulation in a deterministic ideal incompressible fluid flow continues to hold in the Stratonovich case, provided the circulation loop follows the Stratonovich stochastic path. However, circulation is not preserved when the loop follows the stochastic path in the It\\^o case, because of the additional quadratic term that appears in It\\^o calculus. Motion along the stochastic Stratonovich paths also preserves the helicity of the vortex field lines in incompressible stochastic flows, but not so for stochastic It\\^o paths. The paper also derives motion equations for two examples of stochastic geophysical fluid dynamics (SGFD). The importance of Kelvin's circulation theorem in the example of Stratonovich SGFD equations is emphasised by deriving a conservation law for the potential vorticity of fluid particles moving along Stratonovich stochastic paths in both the Euler-Boussinesq and quasigeostropic approximations. However, again, the corresponding potential vorticity conservation results do not hold for It\\^o flows.

Darryl D. Holm

2014-10-30

436

Assessment of a Diversity Assignment in a PR Principles Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses an assignment for incorporating diversity into the principles of public relations course. The assignment is tailored to the challenges of using an active learning approach in a large lecture class. For the assignment, students write a goal, objectives, strategies, an identification of tactics, and evaluation plans for either…

Gallicano, Tiffany Derville; Stansberry, Kathleen

2012-01-01

437

The Contact Principle and Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…

Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

2010-01-01

438

High performance first principles method for complex magnetic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of metallic magnetism is of fundamental importance for a wide range of technological applications ranging from thin film disc drive read heads to bulk magnets used in motors and power generation. In this submission for the Gordon Bell Prize we use the power of massively parallel processing (MPP) computers to perform first principles calculations of large system models

B. Ujfalussy; Xindong Wang; Xiaoguang Zhang; D. M. C. Nicholson; W. A. Shelton; G. M. Stocks; A. Canning; Yang Wang; B. L. Gyorffy

1998-01-01

439

Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

2011-01-01

440

Aesthetic Principles for Instructional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers principles that contribute to developing the aesthetics of instructional design. Rather than describing merely the surface qualities of things and events, the concept of aesthetics as applied here pertains to heightened, integral experience. Aesthetic experiences are those that are immersive, infused with meaning, and felt as…

Parrish, Patrick E.

2009-01-01

441

CURRICULUM PRINCIPLES FOR PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO TEST THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO APPROACHES TO TEACHING PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS HOW TO SELECT APPROPRIATE INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES, 127 SECONDARY EDUCATION STUDENTS WERE PLACED IN TWO SAMPLE GROUPS AND TAUGHT DIFFERENT CURRICULUM PRINCIPLES. GROUP I WAS TAUGHT THE FIVE POINT RATIONALE DEVELOPED BY TYLER WHILE GROUP II USED THE BLOOM CLASSIFICATION OF…

BAKER, EVA L.; POPHAM, W. JAMES

442

Principles of Condensed Matter Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are many books on solid state physics and condensed matter, I suspect very few cover the same content as that found in {\\\\it Principles of Condensed Matter Physics} by Chaikin and Lubensky. The title is rather misleading as it suggests a survey of the important concepts in condensed matter. In spite of this there is much to commend

C C Matthai

2000-01-01

443

Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics  

E-print Network

and random Ultimate source of genetic variation Cancer: Proto-oncogene àoncogene à cancer mutation "...in1 Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics Announcements Lab 4 Information: B2250 (Innes) webpage, Wed., Thr or by appointment: 737-4754, dinnes@mun.ca Mendelian Genetics Topics: -Transmission of DNA

Innes, David J.

444

Principles and practice of sonography  

SciTech Connect

This book is a text of sonographic technique, emphasizing clinical and diagnostic procedures. Ultrasound images and explanatory line drawings are placed side-by-side to facilitate interpretation. This book covers instrumentation and scanning principles, obstetric, gynecologic, abdominal, renal and urologic, pediatric, plus superficial structure sonography.

Fleischer, A.C.; James, A.E.

1987-01-01

445

Principles of Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This modern textbook provides a complete survey of the broad field of statistical mechanics. Based on a series of lectures, it adopts a special pedagogical approach. The authors, both excellent lecturers, clearly distinguish between general principles and their applications in solving problems. Analogies between phase transitions in fluids and magnets using continuum and spin models are emphasized, leading to a

Debashish Chowdhury; Dietrich Stauffer

2000-01-01

446

Sociology 110 PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY  

E-print Network

Sociology 110 PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY Spring, 2008 Instructor Rob Balch, SS 325 Phone: 243 Sociology is the study of human social behavior. Sociologists are especially interested in groups, from sociological concepts to describe face-to-face interaction, small groups, communities, complex organizations

Vonessen, Nikolaus

447

Principles of Infectious Disease Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, principles and concepts of modern infectious disease epidemiology Epidemiology are presented. We delineate\\u000a the role of epidemiology for public health and discuss the characteristics of infectious disease epidemiology. This chapter\\u000a also includes definitions of important terms used in infectious disease epidemiology.

Alexander Krämer; Manas Akmatov; Mirjam Kretzschmar

448

On the Dirichlet's Box Principle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

2008-01-01

449

Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between aromaticity and stability in molecules on the basis of quantities such as hardness and electrophilicity is explored. The findings reveal that aromatic molecules are less energetic, harder, less polarizable, and less electrophilic as compared to antiaromatic molecules, as expected from the electronic structure principles.

Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R.

2007-01-01

450

Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.

2003-01-01

451

Novel interpretation of synchro principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a now interpretation of synchro principles. Approximate equations for currant and torque in a synchro may be established directly from synchronous machine theory. However, this analysis is built up from fundamental laws in order to establish a theory especially adapted to synchros.The investigation centres on obtaining the basic mathematical relations governing the electro-mechanical operation of a

F. L. N-NAGY; B. D. McNULTY

1969-01-01

452

Variational Principles for Water Waves  

E-print Network

We describe the Hamiltonian structures, including the Poisson brackets and Hamiltonians, for free boundary problems for incompressible fluid flows with vorticity. The Hamiltonian structure is used to obtain variational principles for stationary gravity waves both for irrotational flows as well as flows with vorticity.

Boris Kolev; David H. Sattinger

2007-12-01

453

Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics  

E-print Network

1 Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics Instructors: Dr. Steven M. Carr B Molecular Genetics Dr. David J. Innes B Mendelian Genetics Course Web Pages Dr.Innes: www.mun.ca/biology/dinnes/B2250/B2250 Structure and function of DNA and genes Innes: Oct. 13 ­ Nov. 15 Mendelian Genetics Carr: Nov. 22 ­ Dec. 1

Innes, David J.

454

Gerbes and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle  

E-print Network

We prove that a gerbe with a connection can be defined on classical phase space, taking the U(1)-valued phase of certain Feynman path integrals as Cech 2-cocycles. A quantisation condition on the corresponding 3-form field strength is proved to be equivalent to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

J. M. Isidro

2005-12-19

455

Particle dynamics and deviation effects in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some strong field effects on test particle motion associated with the propagation of a plane electromagnetic wave in the exact theory of general relativity are investigated. Two different profiles of the associated radiation flux are considered in comparison, corresponding to either constant or oscillating electric and magnetic fields with respect to a natural family of observers. These are the most common situations to be experimentally explored, and have a well known counterpart in the flat spacetime limit. The resulting line elements are determined by a single metric function, which turns out to be expressed in terms of standard trigonometric functions in the case of a constant radiation flux, and in terms of special functions in the case of an oscillating flux, leading to different features of test particle motion. The world line deviation between both uncharged and charged particles on different spacetime trajectories due to the combined effect of gravitational and electromagnetic forces is studied. The interaction of charged particles with the background radiation field is also discussed through a general relativistic description of the inverse Compton effect. Motion as well as deviation effects on particles endowed with spin are studied too. Special situations may occur in which the direction of the spin vector changes during the interaction, leading to observable effects like spin flip.

Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Haney, Maria; Ortolan, Antonello

2014-05-01

456

Repeatability and validation of gait deviation index in children: typically developing and cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) is a dimensionless parameter that evaluates the deviation of kinematic gait from a control database. The GDI can be used to stratify gait pathology in children with cerebral palsy (CP). In this paper the repeatability and uncertainty of the GDI were evaluated. The Correlation between the GDI and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was studied for different groups of children with CP (hemiplegia, diplegia, triplegia and quadriplegia). Forty-nine, typically developing children (TD) formed our database. A retrospective study was conducted on our 3D gait data and clinical exams and 134 spastic children were included. Sixteen TD children completed the gait analysis twice to evaluate the repeatability of the GDI (test-retest evaluation). Monte Carlo simulations were applied for all groups (TD and children with CP) in order to evaluate the propagation of errors stemming from kinematics. The repeatability coefficient (2SD of test-retest differences), obtained on the GDI for the 16 TD children (32 lower limbs) was ± 10. Monte Carlo simulations showed an uncertainty ranging between 0.8 and 1.3 for TD children and all groups with CP. The Spearman Rank correlation showed a moderate correlation between the GDI and the GMFCS (r=-0.44, p<0.0001). PMID:24079975

Massaad, Abir; Assi, Ayman; Skalli, Wafa; Ghanem, Ismat

2014-01-01

457

GTA weld penetration and the effects of deviations in machine variables  

SciTech Connect

Analytical models for predicting the temperature distribution during GTA welding are reviewed with the purpose of developing a procedure for investigating the effects of deviations in machine parameters. The objective was to determine the accuracy required in machine settings to obtain reproducible results. This review revealed a wide range of published values (21 to 90%) for the arc heating efficiency. Low values (21 to 65%) were associated with evaluation of efficiency using constant property conduction models. Values from 75 to 90% were determined from calorimetric type measurements and are applicable for more accurate numerical solution procedures. Although numerical solutions can yield better overall weld zone predictions, calculations are lengthy and complex. In view of this and the indication that acceptable agreement with experimental measurements can be achieved with the moving-point-source solution, it was utilized to investigate the effects of deviations or errors in voltage, current, and travel speed on GTA weld penetration. Variations resulting from welding within current goals for voltage (+-0.1 V), current (+-3.0 A), and travel speed (+-2.0%) were found to be +-2 to 4%, with voltage and current being more influential than travel speed.

Giedt, W.H.

1987-07-01

458

Allan deviation computations of a linear frequency synthesizer system using frequency domain techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Allan Deviation computations of linear frequency synthesizer systems have been reported previously using real-time simulations. Even though it takes less time compared with the actual measurement, it is still very time consuming to compute the Allan Deviation for long sample times with the desired confidence level. Also noises, such as flicker phase noise and flicker frequency noise, can not be simulated precisely. The use of frequency domain techniques can overcome these drawbacks. In this paper the system error model of a fictitious linear frequency synthesizer is developed and its performance using a Cesium (Cs) atomic frequency standard (AFS) as a reference is evaluated using frequency domain techniques. For a linear timing system, the power spectral density at the system output can be computed with known system transfer functions and known power spectral densities from the input noise sources. The resulting power spectral density can then be used to compute the Allan Variance at the system output. Sensitivities of the Allan Variance at the system output to each of its independent input noises are obtained, and they are valuable for design trade-off and trouble-shooting.

Wu, Andy

1995-01-01

459

First order variation of the dispersion function with particle energy deviation  

SciTech Connect

The variation of the dispersion function with the particle energy deviation can presently be calculated from second order transfer matrices; its periodic solution is determined numerically. The general differential equations for the dispersion function deduced from the complete equation of motion to second order are solved, using Green's function integral leading to an analytical expression of the periodic solution of the dispersion function D/sub 0/ and of the first order perturbation, D/sub 1/, with respect to energy deviation. The same method can be extended to higher order perturbations of the dispersion function. The determination of the periodic solution as well as the transportation of these two dispersion functions through any element depends only on two particular integrals. These integrals are derived for the general case of a combined function magnet, with up to second order components. The derivation includes the contribution from the edges. Chapter 2 and 3 deal with closed machines, chapter 4 applies these results to beam transport lines. These analytical expressions are then applied to a typical machine in order to illustrate the most important driving terms; the results do agree with those obtained by optics programs like MAD or DIMAT based on second order transfer matrices.

Delahaye, J.P.; Jaeger, J.

1984-12-01

460

Analysis of Flatness Deviations for Austenitic Stainless Steel Workpieces after Efficient Surface Machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following work is an analysis of flatness deviations of a workpiece made of X2CrNiMo17-12-2 austenitic stainless steel. The workpiece surface was shaped using efficient machining techniques (milling, grinding, and smoothing). After the machining was completed, all surfaces underwent stylus measurements in order to obtain surface flatness and roughness parameters. For this purpose the stylus profilometer Hommel-Tester T8000 by Hommelwerke with HommelMap software was used. The research results are presented in the form of 2D surface maps, 3D surface topographies with extracted single profiles, Abbott-Firestone curves, and graphical studies of the Sk parameters. The results of these experimental tests proved the possibility of a correlation between flatness and roughness parameters, as well as enabled an analysis of changes in these parameters from shaping and rough grinding to finished machining. The main novelty of this paper is comprehensive analysis of measurement results obtained during a three-step machining process of austenitic stainless steel. Simultaneous analysis of individual machining steps (milling, grinding, and smoothing) enabled a complementary assessment of the process of shaping the workpiece surface macro- and micro-geometry, giving special consideration to minimize the flatness deviations

Nadolny, K.; Kap?onek, W.

2014-08-01

461

Picture independent quantum action principle  

SciTech Connect

The Schwinger action principle for quantum mechanics is extended into a picture independent form. This displays the quantum connection. Time variations are formulated as variations of a time variable and included into the kinematical variations. Kets and bras represent experimental operations. Experimental operations at different times cannot be identified. The ket and the bra spaces are fiber bundles over time. The same applies to the classical configuration space. For the classical action principle the action can be varied by changing the path or the classical variables. The latter variation of classical functions corresponds to kinematical variations of quantum variables. The picture independent formulation represents time evolution by a connection. A standard experiment is represented by a ket, a connection and a bra. For particular start and end times of experiments, the action and the contraction into a transition amplitude are elements of a new tensor space of quantum correspondents of path functionals. The classical correspondent of the transition amplitude is the probability for a specified state to evolve along a particular path segment. The elements of the dual tensor space represent standard experiments or superpositions thereof. The kinematical variations of the quantum variables are commuting numbers. Variations that include the effect of Poincare or gauge transformations have different commutator properties. The Schwinger action principle is derived from the Feynman path integral formulation. The limitations from the time-energy uncertainty relation might be accommodated by superposing experiments that differ in their start- and end-times. In its picture independent form the action principle can be applied to all superpositions of standard experiments. This may involve superpositions of different connections. The extension of the superposition principle to connections allows representation of a quantum field by a part of the connection.

Mantke, W.J.

1992-01-01

462

Principles of silicon surface chemistry from first principles  

SciTech Connect

First principles theoretical studies of dissociative adsorption of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, SiH{sub 4} and other species on Si(100)-2x1 demonstrate some common principles that permit qualitative understanding of the mechanisms of reactive adsorption on Si. The structures of transition states and the interactions among surface sites can also be understood in terms of correlations between surface structure and local electron density. For example, the transition states for dissociative adsorption involve buckled surface dimers, which present both electrophilic and nucleophilic reaction sites and allow efficient addition across the dimer. A surface Diels-Alder reaction will also be described, in which symmetric addition to an unbuckled surface dimer is allowed by orbital symmetry. The Diets-Alder product establishes novel reactive surface sites that may be useful for subsequent surface modification. This work has been done in collaboration with Sharmila Pai, Robert Konecny and Anita Robinson Brown.

Doren, D.J. [Univ. of Delaware Newark, DE (United States)

1996-10-01

463

Maximisation Principles in Foodwebs and Daisyworlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using computer simulation we investigate whether the steady-state time averaged state of a self-organising system with many internal degrees of freedom can be described by optimising a single quantity. Our open systems follow evolutionary dynamics hence the conservation laws and energy-based state probabilities which underpin Hamiltonian dynamics do not apply. We find that these dynamics observe a novel optimality principle, that the system self-organises to a state which maximises the sustainable amount of replicating objects. We have studied a number of mathematical models of evolving replicating systems: daisyworlds[1], logistic map and generalized Lotka Volterra foodwebs[2]. Each is characterised by being (1) "open" - resources flow into and out of the system. (2) "self-regulating" - the inflow/outflow of resources is not fixed externally. (3) "evolving" - the increase in population at the next timestep depends on the population at the current timestep. These properties violate the assumptions made in deriving optimality principles such as free energy minimisation, maximum/mimimum entropy production etc., so it is unsurprising that they are not observed. The absence of a Hamiltonian for ecosystems is particularly problematic for coupled models of life and the environment - moreover there is ambiguity in defining an entropy for an ecosystem. By considering large and small species within the 2D daisyworld model we show that the appropriate measure comes from the interaction with the rest of the system, not the information theoretic entropy of the daisy field. We introduce evolution within the classic Lotka-Volterra model for interaction between species in an ecosystem. Generalisation to many species is straightforward, but the resulting network is usually unstable. By restricting the number of links between species it is possible to form a stable network by evolution - allowing some species to go extinct. This method can be used to generate arbitrarily large network, from which a treelike structure of trophic levels emerges, but typically the number of connection is much smaller than in real ecosystems. Here, we show that applying evolution to the strength of the links, rather than simply their existence, stabilises the entire network and generates a power-law distribution of link strengths. The network dynamics are chaotic, but as a whole tend towards maximising the use of resources. If the dynamics are linearised to remove the chaos, the scale-free link strengths also disappear. [1] Maximisation Principles and Daisyworld G.J. Ackland J.Theo.Bio. 227, 121, (2004) [2] Stabilization of large generalized Lotka-Volterra foodwebs by evolutionary feedback G.J. Ackland and I.D. Gallagher Phys Rev Lett 93 158701 2004

Ackland, G. J.; Gallagher, I. D.

2005-12-01

464

GPU-Q-J, a fast method for calculating root mean square deviation (RMSD) after optimal superposition  

PubMed Central

Background Calculation of the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the atomic coordinates of two optimally superposed structures is a basic component of structural comparison techniques. We describe a quaternion based method, GPU-Q-J, that is stable with single precision calculations and suitable for graphics processor units (GPUs). The application was implemented on an ATI 4770 graphics card in C/C++ and Brook+ in Linux where it was 260 to 760 times faster than existing unoptimized CPU methods. Source code is available from the Compbio website http://software.compbio.washington.edu/misc/downloads/st_gpu_fit/ or from the author LHH. Findings The Nutritious Rice for the World Project (NRW) on World Community Grid predicted de novo, the structures of over 62,000 small proteins and protein domains returning a total of 10 billion candidate structures. Clustering ensembles of structures on this scale requires calculation of large similarity matrices consisting of RMSDs between each pair of structures in the set. As a real-world test, we calculated the matrices for 6 different ensembles from NRW. The GPU method was 260 times faster that the fastest existing CPU based method and over 500 times faster than the method that had been previously used. Conclusions GPU-Q-J is a significant advance over previous CPU methods. It relieves a major bottleneck in the clustering of large numbers of structures for NRW. It also has applications in structure comparison methods that involve multiple superposition and RMSD determination steps, particularly when such methods are applied on a proteome and genome wide scale. PMID:21453553

2011-01-01

465

Metabolic principles of river basin organization  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber’s law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K.; Rinaldo, Andrea

2011-01-01

466

Metabolic principles of river basin organization.  

PubMed

The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

2011-07-19

467

Law of Large Numbers-Hospital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity discusses probability topics, such as: sample space, independent events, Law of Large Numbers, deviation percentage. The resource is structured in a seven step process, these steps include: probability topics, assumed prior experience, rationale, learning objectives, materials and technology needed, procedure, and finally, assessment. An Excel-like program is required for this activity, which can be reached via the website.

2009-03-20

468

Large intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The large intestine is larger and shorter than the small intestine and connects to the small intestine and the anus. Nutrient deficient material from the small intestine travels through the large intestine to the anus. This material is called feces and is excreted. Feces is made up of material that our bodies cannot break down into smaller parts to be used by the body.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)

2007-08-18

469

Particle dynamics and deviation effects in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave  

E-print Network

Some strong field effects on test particle motion associated with the propagation of a plane electromagnetic wave in the exact theory of general relativity are investigated. Two different profiles of the associated radiation flux are considered in comparison, corresponding to either constant or oscillating electric and magnetic fields with respect to a natural family of observers. These are the most common situations to be experimentally explored, and have a well known counterpart in the flat spacetime limit. The resulting line elements are determined by a single metric function, which turns out to be expressed in terms of standard trigonometric functions in the case of a constant radiation flux, and in terms of special functions in the case of oscillating flux, leading to different features of test particle motion. The world line deviation between both uncharged and charged particles on different spacetime trajectories due to the combined effect of gravitational and electromagnetic forces is studied. The int...

Bini, Donato; Haney, Maria; Ortolan, Antonello

2014-01-01

470

Continuous-flow electrophoresis: Membrane-associated deviations of buffer pH and conductivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The deviations in buffer pH and conductivity which occur near the electrode membranes in continuous-flow electrophoresis were studied in the Beckman charged particle electrophoresis system and the Hanning FF-5 preparative electrophoresis instrument. The nature of the membranes separating the electrode compartments from the electrophoresis chamber, the electric field strength, and the flow rate of electrophoresis buffer were all found to influence the formation of the pH and conductivity gradients. Variations in electrode buffer flow rate and the time of electrophoresis were less important. The results obtained supported the hypothesis that a combination of Donnan membrane effects and the differing ionic mobilities in the electrophoresis buffer was responsible for the formation of the gradients. The significance of the results for the design and stable operation of continuous-flow electrophoresis apparatus was discussed.

Smolka, A. J. K.; Mcguire, J. K.

1978-01-01

471

DEVIATION OF STELLAR ORBITS FROM TEST PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES AROUND SGr A* DUE TO TIDES AND WINDS  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring the orbits of stars around Sgr A* offers the possibility of detecting the precession of their orbital planes due to frame dragging, of measuring the spin and quadrupole moment of the black hole, and of testing the no-hair theorem. Here we investigate whether the deviations of stellar orbits from test-particle trajectories due to wind mass loss and tidal dissipation of the orbital energy compromise such measurements. We find that the effects of stellar winds are, in general, negligible. On the other hand, for the most eccentric orbits (e > 0.96) for which an optical interferometer, such as GRAVITY, will detect orbital plane precession due to frame dragging, the tidal dissipation of orbital energy occurs at timescales comparable to the timescale of precession due to the quadrupole moment of the black hole. As a result, this non-conservative effect is a potential source of systematic uncertainty in testing the no-hair theorem with stellar orbits.

Psaltis, Dimitrios [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Li, Gongjie; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: gli@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)

2013-11-01

472

What to use to express the variability of data: Standard deviation or standard error of mean?  

PubMed Central

Statistics plays a vital role in biomedical research. It helps present data precisely and draws the meaningful conclusions. While presenting data, one should be aware of using adequate statistical measures. In biomedical journals, Standard Error of Mean (SEM) and Standard Deviation (SD) are used interchangeably to express the variability; though they measure different parameters. SEM quantifies uncertainty in estimate of the mean whereas SD indicates dispersion of the data from mean. As readers are generally interested in knowing the variability within sample, descriptive data should be precisely summarized with SD. Use of SEM should be limited to compute CI which measures the precision of population estimate. Journals can avoid such errors by requiring authors to adhere to their guidelines. PMID:23125963

Barde, Mohini P.; Barde, Prajakt J.

2012-01-01

473

New apparatus for detecting micron-scale deviations from Newtonian gravity  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design and construction of a new apparatus for detecting or constraining deviations from Newtonian gravity at short length scales. The apparatus consists of a new type of probe with rotary mass actuation and cantilever-based force detection which is used to directly measure the force between two micromachined masses separated by tens of microns. We present the first data from the experiment, and discuss the prospects of more precisely constraining or detecting non-Newtonian effects using this probe. Currently, the sensitivity to attractive mass-dependent forces is equal to the best existing limits at length scales near 5 {mu}m. No non-Newtonian effects are detected at that level.

Weld, David M.; Xia Jing; Cabrera, Blas [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kapitulnik, Aharon [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2008-03-15

474

A study of decision-making behavior of aircraft pilots deviating from a planned flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines an investigation into the worth structures of pilots facing a deviation from a planned flight. A 'paper and pencil' simulation was used to frame the situation into which pilots interjected their own decision making skills in a simple ranking of candidate diversion airports with varying locational, navigational aid, radar and weather attributes. Using the conjoint measurement technique, attribute worth functions of 30 pilots were constructed. It was discovered that systematic differences in the worth functions of the pilots did not occur as a result of dividing the pilot sample according to any measure of flight hour experience. However, differences were found when the pilot sample was grouped according to grade of pilot certificate, type of pilot training, and type of flying most commonly done.

Flather, G. W., II; Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.

1981-01-01

475

Deviations from uniform power-law scaling due to exposure to high altitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge in biological physics is the analysis of time series that are typically highly nonstationary. Viswanathan et al. (Phys. Rev. E 55 (1) (1997) 845-899) using techniques based on the Fano factor and the Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis showed that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems in normal conditions are more stable than those of pathological systems-there is underlying loss of uniform power-law scaling in disease. Here we test, using the same techniques as Viswanathan et al. (1997), the hypothesis that deviations from uniform power-law scaling, similar to those seen in heart failure and deep apnea syndrome occur also for healthy subjects under pathological conditions (hypoxaemic stress during exposure to high altitude, over 6000 m).

Posiewnik, A.

2002-12-01

476

Macroscopic characterization of data sets by using the average absolute deviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method for getting a synthesis of the knowledge about a given system, assuming that a data set x of measurements of a variable ? is known: i.e., separate data are combined in order to form a coherent whole, à la thermodynamics. For getting the macroscopic characterization of time series data, one takes advantage of the average absolute deviation concept together with an already known thermodynamic-like approach. The method is applied to the macroscopic characterization of existing time series for the Vostok Antarctica ice cores (deuterium content of the ice and temperature variation) for a depth range between 0 and 3,310 meters, and the age of the ice between 0 and 422,766 years before the present.

Campos, Diógenes

2014-01-01

477

Modeling of 3-D losses and deviations in a throughflow analysis tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution is dedicated to the modeling of the end-wall flows in a throughflow model for turbomachinery applications. The throughflow model is based on the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations solved by a Finite-Volume technique. Two approaches are presented for the end-wall modeling. The first one is based on an inviscid formulation with dedicated 3-D distributions of loss coefficient and deviation in the end-wall regions. The second approach is directly based on a viscous formulation with no-slip boundary condition along the annular end-walls and blade force modification in the region close to the end-walls. The throughflow results are compared to a series of 3-D Navier-Stokes calculations averaged in the circumferential direction. These 3-D calculations were performed on the three rotors of a low pressure axial compressor, for a series of tip clearance values.

Simon, Jean-François; Léonard, Olivier

2007-08-01

478

Rhythmic and melodic deviations in musical sequences recruit different cortical areas for mismatch detection  

PubMed Central

The mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential (ERP) representing the violation of an acoustic regularity, is considered as a pre-attentive change detection mechanism at the sensory level on the one hand and as a prediction error signal on the other hand, suggesting that bottom-up as well as top-down processes are involved in its generation. Rhythmic and melodic deviations within a musical sequence elicit a MMN in musically trained subjects, indicating that acquired musical expertise leads to better discrimination accuracy of musical material and better predictions about upcoming musical events. Expectation violations to musical material could therefore recruit neural generators that reflect top-down processes that are based on musical knowledge. We describe the neural generators of the musical MMN for rhythmic and melodic material after a short-term sensorimotor-auditory (SA) training. We compare the localization of musical MMN data from two previous MEG studies by applying beamformer analysis. One study focused on the melodic harmonic progression whereas the other study focused on rhythmic progression. The MMN to melodic deviations revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior frontal cortex (IFC), and the superior frontal (SFG) and orbitofrontal (OFG) gyri. IFC and SFG activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. In contrast, beamformer analysis of the data from the rhythm study revealed bilateral activation within the vicinity of auditory cortices and in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), an area that has recently been implied in temporal processing. We conclude that different cortical networks are activated in the analysis of the temporal and the melodic content of musical material, and discuss these networks in the context of the dual-pathway model of auditory processing. PMID:23759929

Lappe, Claudia; Steinstrater, Olaf; Pantev, Christo

2013-01-01

479

Uncertainty Principles for Compact Groups  

E-print Network

We establish an operator-theoretic uncertainty principle over arbitrary compact groups, generalizing several previous results. As a consequence, we show that if f is in L^2(G), then the product of the measures of the supports of f and its Fourier transform ^f is at least 1; here, the dual measure is given by the sum, over all irreducible representations V, of d_V rank(^f(V)). For finite groups, our principle implies the following: if P and R are projection operators on the group algebra C[G] such that P commutes with projection onto each group element, and R commutes with left multiplication, then the squared operator norm of PR is at most rank(P)rank(R)/|G|.

Gorjan Alagic; Alexander Russell

2006-08-28

480

Mechanics, cosmology and Mach's principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that recent cosmological findings seem to support the view that the mass/energy distribution of the universe defines the Newtonian inertial frames, as originally suggested by Mach. The background concepts of inertial frame, Newton's second law and fictitious forces are clarified. A precise definition of Mach's principle is suggested. Then, an approximation to general relativity discovered by Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann is used and it is found that this precise formulation of Mach's principle is realized provided the mass/energy density of the universe has a specific value. This value turns out to be twice the critical density. The implications of this approximate result are put into context.

Essén, Hanno

2013-01-01

481

Equivalence principle for scalar forces.  

PubMed

The equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses is a defining feature of general relativity. Here, we clarify the status of the equivalence principle for interactions mediated by a universally coupled scalar, motivated partly by recent attempts to modify gravity at cosmological distances. Although a universal scalar-matter coupling is not mandatory, once postulated, it is stable against classical and quantum renormalizations in the matter sector. The coupling strength itself is subject to renormalization, of course. The scalar equivalence principle is violated only for objects for which either the graviton self-interaction or the scalar self-interaction is important--the first applies to black holes, while the second type of violation is avoided if the scalar is Galilean symmetric. PMID:21231444

Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto

2010-12-01

482

Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications  

SciTech Connect

The book covers the principles of AI, the main areas of application, as well as considering some of the social implications. The applications chapters have a common format structured as follows: definition of the topic; approach with conventional computing techniques; why 'intelligence' would provide a better approach; and how AI techniques would be used and the limitations. The contents discussed are: Principles of artificial intelligence; AI programming environments; LISP, list processing and pattern-making; AI programming with POP-11; Computer processing of natural language; Speech synthesis and recognition; Computer vision; Artificial intelligence and robotics; The anatomy of expert systems - Forsyth; Machine learning; Memory models of man and machine; Artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; Breaking out of the chinese room; Social implications of artificial intelligence; and Index.

Yazdami, M.

1985-01-01

483

The Principles of Phototransferred Thermoluminescence  

SciTech Connect

The principles of phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) are described, and some of the basic theoretical ideas underlying this technique are presented. It is demonstrated that the PTTL efficiency is dependent on the photon energy as well as on the activation energies of the various traps involved in the process. A simple two-traps-one-recombination-center model is capable of predicting a variety of different PTTL behaviors, some already were observed experimentally.

Moscovitch, Marko [Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

2011-05-05

484

Discrepancy principle for DSM II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let Ay = f, A is a linear operator in a Hilbert space H, y ? N( A) ? { u : Au = 0}, R( A) ? { h : h = Au, u ? D( A)} is not closed, ? f? - f? ? ?. Given f?, one wants to construct u? such that lim ??0 ? u? - y? = 0. Two versions of discrepancy principles for the DSM (dynamical systems method) for finding the stopping time and calculating the stable solution u? to the original equation Ay = f are formulated and mathematically justified.

Ramm, A. G.

2008-09-01

485

Principles of Charged Particle Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning resources comprise a healthy introduction to charged particle acceleration. The site, by Stanley Humphries, a professor of electrical and computer engineering at University of New Mexico, amounts to an online textbook (.pdf) introducing the theory of charged particle acceleration. The book's fifteen chapters (with bibliography) summarize "the principles underlying all particle accelerators" and provide "a reference collection of equations and material essential to accelerator development and beam applications."

486

Archimedes' principle for Brownian liquid  

E-print Network

We consider a family of hard core objects moving as independent Brownian motions confined to a vessel by reflection. These are subject to gravitational forces modeled by drifts. The stationary distribution for the process has many interesting implications, including an illustration of the Archimedes' principle. The analysis rests on constructing reflecting Brownian motion with drift in a general open connected domain and studying its stationary distribution. In dimension two we utilize known results about sphere packing.

Krzysztof Burdzy; Zhen-Qing Chen; Soumik Pal

2009-12-30

487

Archimedes' principle for Brownian liquid  

E-print Network

We consider a family of hard core objects moving as independent Brownian motions confined to a vessel by reflection. These are subject to gravitational forces modeled by drifts. The stationary distribution for the process has many interesting implications, including an illustration of the Archimedes' principle. The analysis rests on constructing reflecting Brownian motion with drift in a general open connected domain and studying its stationary distribution. In dimension two we utilize known results about sphere packing.

Burdzy, Krzysztof; Pal, Soumik

2009-01-01

488

Variational principles for circle patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Delaunay cell decomposition of a surface with constant curvature gives rise to a circle pattern, consisting of the circles which are circumscribed to the facets. We treat the problem whether there exists a Delaunay cell decomposition for a given (topological) cell decomposition and given intersection angles of the circles, whether it is unique and how it may be constructed. Somewhat more generally, we allow cone-like singularities in the centers and intersection points of the circles. We prove existence and uniqueness theorems for the solution of the circle pattern problem using a variational principle. The functionals (one for the euclidean, one for the hyperbolic case) are convex functions of the radii of the circles. The analogous functional for the spherical case is not convex, hence this case is treated by stereographic projection to the plane. From the existence and uniqueness of circle patterns in the sphere, we derive a strengthened version of Steinitz' theorem on the geometric realizability of abstract polyhedra. We derive the variational principles of Colin de Verdière, Brägger, and Rivin for circle packings and circle patterns from our variational principles. In the case of Brägger's and Rivin's functionals. Leibon's functional for hyperbolic circle patterns cannot be derived directly from our functionals. But we construct yet another functional from which both Leibon's and our functionals can be derived. We present Java software to compute and visualize circle patterns.

Springborn, Boris A.

2003-12-01

489

Fermat's principle of least time predicts refraction of ant trails at substrate borders.  

PubMed

Fermat's principle of least time states that light rays passing through different media follow the fastest (and not the most direct) path between two points, leading to refraction at medium borders. Humans intuitively employ this rule, e.g., when a lifeguard has to infer the fastest way to traverse both beach and water to reach a swimmer in need. Here, we tested whether foraging ants also follow Fermat's principle when forced to travel on two surfaces that differentially affected the ants' walking speed. Workers of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, established "refracted" pheromone trails to a food source. These trails deviated from the most direct path, but were not different to paths predicted by Fermat's principle. Our results demonstrate a new aspect of decentralized optimization and underline the versatility of the simple yet robust rules governing the self-organization of group-living animals. PMID:23527263

Oettler, Jan; Schmid, Volker S; Zankl, Niko; Rey, Olivier; Dress, Andreas; Heinze, Jürgen

2013-01-01

490

Fermat's Principle of Least Time Predicts Refraction of Ant Trails at Substrate Borders  

PubMed Central

Fermat’s principle of least time states that light rays passing through different media follow the fastest (and not the most direct) path between two points, leading to refraction at medium borders. Humans intuitively employ this rule, e.g., when a lifeguard has to infer the fastest way to traverse both beach and water to reach a swimmer in need. Here, we tested whether foraging ants also follow Fermat’s principle when forced to travel on two surfaces that differentially affected the ants’ walking speed. Workers of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, established “refracted” pheromone trails to a food source. These trails deviated from the most direct path, but were not different to paths predicted by Fermat’s principle. Our results demonstrate a new aspect of decentralized optimization and underline the versatility of the simple yet robust rules governing the self-organization of group-living animals. PMID:23527263

Zankl, Niko; Rey, Olivier; Dress, Andreas; Heinze, Jurgen

2013-01-01

491

Re-Examining the Norm Concept in Cephalometrics: Associations Between Subjective Assessments and Deviations from Cephalometric Norms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of agreement between deviations from cephalometric norms and clinicians' subjective assessments of treatment difficulty and success. Six orthodontists subjectively assessed and ranked complete pre- a...

J. Y. De Jesus

2000-01-01

492

Methods of determining loads and fiber orientations in anisotropic non-crystalline materials using energy flux deviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrasonic wave is applied to an anisotropic sample material in an initial direction and an angle of flux deviation of the ultrasonic wave front is measured from this initial direction. This flux deviation angle is induced by the unknown applied load. The flux shift is determined between this flux deviation angle and a previously determined angle of flux deviation of an ultrasonic wave applied to a similar anisotropic reference material under an initial known load condition. This determined flux shift is then compared to a plurality of flux shifts of a similarly tested, similar anisotropic reference material under a plurality of respective, known load conditions, whereby the load applied to the particular anisotropic sample material is determined. A related method is disclosed for determining the fiber orientation from known loads and a determined flux shift.

Prosser, William H.; Kriz, Ronald D.; Fitting, Dale W.

1993-05-01

493

40 CFR 62.15255 - May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Stack Testing § 62.15255 May I deviate from the 13-month...which you would otherwise have been required to conduct the next stack test. Other Monitoring...

2010-07-01

494

40 CFR 60.1310 - May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Stack Testing § 60.1310 May I deviate from the 13-month testing...which you would otherwise have been required to conduct the next stack test. Other Monitoring...

2010-07-01

495