Gyrokinetic large eddy simulations
Morel, P.; Navarro, A. Banon; Albrecht-Marc, M.; Carati, D.; Merz, F.; Goerler, T.; Jenko, F.
2011-07-15
The large eddy simulation approach is adapted to the study of plasma microturbulence in a fully three-dimensional gyrokinetic system. Ion temperature gradient driven turbulence is studied with the GENE code for both a standard resolution and a reduced resolution with a model for the sub-grid scale turbulence. A simple dissipative model for representing the effect of the sub-grid scales on the resolved scales is proposed and tested. Once calibrated, the model appears to be able to reproduce most of the features of the free energy spectra for various values of the ion temperature gradient.
Applied large eddy simulation.
Tucker, Paul G; Lardeau, Sylvain
2009-07-28
Large eddy simulation (LES) is now seen more and more as a viable alternative to current industrial practice, usually based on problem-specific Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods. Access to detailed flow physics is attractive to industry, especially in an environment in which computer modelling is bound to play an ever increasing role. However, the improvement in accuracy and flow detail has substantial cost. This has so far prevented wider industrial use of LES. The purpose of the applied LES discussion meeting was to address questions regarding what is achievable and what is not, given the current technology and knowledge, for an industrial practitioner who is interested in using LES. The use of LES was explored in an application-centred context between diverse fields. The general flow-governing equation form was explored along with various LES models. The errors occurring in LES were analysed. Also, the hybridization of RANS and LES was considered. The importance of modelling relative to boundary conditions, problem definition and other more mundane aspects were examined. It was to an extent concluded that for LES to make most rapid industrial impact, pragmatic hybrid use of LES, implicit LES and RANS elements will probably be needed. Added to this further, highly industrial sector model parametrizations will be required with clear thought on the key target design parameter(s). The combination of good numerical modelling expertise, a sound understanding of turbulence, along with artistry, pragmatism and the use of recent developments in computer science should dramatically add impetus to the industrial uptake of LES. In the light of the numerous technical challenges that remain it appears that for some time to come LES will have echoes of the high levels of technical knowledge required for safe use of RANS but with much greater fidelity. PMID:19531503
Mesoscale Ocean Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearson, Brodie; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Bachman, Scott; Bryan, Frank
2015-11-01
The highest resolution global climate models (GCMs) can now resolve the largest scales of mesoscale dynamics in the ocean. This has the potential to increase the fidelity of GCMs. However, the effects of the smallest, unresolved, scales of mesoscale dynamics must still be parametrized. One such family of parametrizations are mesoscale ocean large eddy simulations (MOLES), but the effects of including MOLES in a GCM are not well understood. In this presentation, several MOLES schemes are implemented in a mesoscale-resolving GCM (CESM), and the resulting flow is compared with that produced by more traditional sub-grid parametrizations. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate flows where the largest scales of turbulent motion are resolved, but the smallest scales are not resolved. LES has traditionally been used to study 3D turbulence, but recently it has also been applied to idealized 2D and quasi-geostrophic (QG) turbulence. The MOLES presented here are based on 2D and QG LES schemes.
Large Eddy Simulation of a Turbulent Jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webb, A. T.; Mansour, Nagi N.
2001-01-01
Here we present the results of a Large Eddy Simulation of a non-buoyant jet issuing from a circular orifice in a wall, and developing in neutral surroundings. The effects of the subgrid scales on the large eddies have been modeled with the dynamic large eddy simulation model applied to the fully 3D domain in spherical coordinates. The simulation captures the unsteady motions of the large-scales within the jet as well as the laminar motions in the entrainment region surrounding the jet. The computed time-averaged statistics (mean velocity, concentration, and turbulence parameters) compare well with laboratory data without invoking an empirical entrainment coefficient as employed by line integral models. The use of the large eddy simulation technique allows examination of unsteady and inhomogeneous features such as the evolution of eddies and the details of the entrainment process.
Temporal Large-Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pruett, C. D.; Thomas, B. C.
2004-01-01
In 1999, Stolz and Adams unveiled a subgrid-scale model for LES based upon approximately inverting (defiltering) the spatial grid-filter operator and termed .the approximate deconvolution model (ADM). Subsequently, the utility and accuracy of the ADM were demonstrated in a posteriori analyses of flows as diverse as incompressible plane-channel flow and supersonic compression-ramp flow. In a prelude to the current paper, a parameterized temporal ADM (TADM) was developed and demonstrated in both a priori and a posteriori analyses for forced, viscous Burger's flow. The development of a time-filtered variant of the ADM was motivated-primarily by the desire for a unifying theoretical and computational context to encompass direct numerical simulation (DNS), large-eddy simulation (LES), and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes simulation (RANS). The resultant methodology was termed temporal LES (TLES). To permit exploration of the parameter space, however, previous analyses of the TADM were restricted to Burger's flow, and it has remained to demonstrate the TADM and TLES methodology for three-dimensional flow. For several reasons, plane-channel flow presents an ideal test case for the TADM. Among these reasons, channel flow is anisotropic, yet it lends itself to highly efficient and accurate spectral numerical methods. Moreover, channel-flow has been investigated extensively by DNS, and a highly accurate data base of Moser et.al. exists. In the present paper, we develop a fully anisotropic TADM model and demonstrate its utility in simulating incompressible plane-channel flow at nominal values of Re(sub tau) = 180 and Re(sub tau) = 590 by the TLES method. The TADM model is shown to perform nearly as well as the ADM at equivalent resolution, thereby establishing TLES as a viable alternative to LES. Moreover, as the current model is suboptimal is some respects, there is considerable room to improve TLES.
Large-Eddy Simulation and Multigrid Methods
Falgout,R D; Naegle,S; Wittum,G
2001-06-18
A method to simulate turbulent flows with Large-Eddy Simulation on unstructured grids is presented. Two kinds of dynamic models are used to model the unresolved scales of motion and are compared with each other on different grids. Thereby the behavior of the models is shown and additionally the feature of adaptive grid refinement is investigated. Furthermore the parallelization aspect is addressed.
Large eddy simulation in the ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scotti, Alberto
2010-12-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a relative newcomer to oceanography. In this review, both applications of traditional LES to oceanic flows and new oceanic LES still in an early stage of development are discussed. The survey covers LES applied to boundary layer flows, traditionally an area where LES has provided considerable insight into the physics of the flow, as well as more innovative applications, where new SGS closure schemes need to be developed. The merging of LES with large-scale models is also briefly reviewed.
Large Eddy Simulation of Transitional Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayadi, Taraneh; Moin, Parviz
2009-11-01
A sixth order compact finite difference code is employed to investigate compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of subharmonic transition of a spatially developing zero pressure gradient boundary layer, at Ma = 0.2. The computational domain extends from Rex= 10^5, where laminar blowing and suction excites the most unstable fundamental and sub-harmonic modes, to fully turbulent stage at Rex= 10.1x10^5. Numerical sponges are used in the neighborhood of external boundaries to provide non-reflective conditions. Our interest lies in the performance of the dynamic subgrid scale (SGS) model [1] in the transition process. It is observed that in early stages of transition the eddy viscosity is much smaller than the physical viscosity. As a result the amplitudes of selected harmonics are in very good agreement with the experimental data [2]. The model's contribution gradually increases during the last stages of transition process and the dynamic eddy viscosity becomes fully active and dominant in the turbulent region. Consistent with this trend the skin friction coefficient versus Rex diverges from its laminar profile and converges to the turbulent profile after an overshoot. 1. Moin P. et. al. Phys Fluids A, 3(11), 2746-2757, 1991. 2. Kachanov Yu. S. et. al. JFM, 138, 209-247, 1983.
Statistical Ensemble of Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, Daniele; Rogers, Michael M.; Wray, Alan A.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A statistical ensemble of large eddy simulations (LES) is run simultaneously for the same flow. The information provided by the different large scale velocity fields is used to propose an ensemble averaged version of the dynamic model. This produces local model parameters that only depend on the statistical properties of the flow. An important property of the ensemble averaged dynamic procedure is that it does not require any spatial averaging and can thus be used in fully inhomogeneous flows. Also, the ensemble of LES's provides statistics of the large scale velocity that can be used for building new models for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. The ensemble averaged dynamic procedure has been implemented with various models for three flows: decaying isotropic turbulence, forced isotropic turbulence, and the time developing plane wake. It is found that the results are almost independent of the number of LES's in the statistical ensemble provided that the ensemble contains at least 16 realizations.
Large eddy simulation of longitudinal stationary vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreedhar, Madhu; Ragab, Saad
1994-07-01
The response of longitudinal stationary vortices when subjected to random perturbations is investigated using temporal large-eddy simulation. Simulations are obtained for high Reynolds numbers and at a low subsonic Mach number. The subgrid-scale stress tensor is modeled using the dynamic eddy-viscosity model. The generation of large-scale structures due to centrifugal instability and their subsequent breakdown to turbulence is studied. The following events are observed. Initially, ring-shaped structures appear around the vortex core. These structures are counter-rotating vortices similar to the donut-shaped structures observed in a Taylor-Couette flow between rotating cylinders. These structures subsequently interact with the vortex core resulting in a rapid decay of the vortex. The turbulent kinetic energy increases rapidly until saturation, and then a period of slow decay prevails. During the period of maximum turbulent kinetic energy, the normalized mean circulation profile exhibits a logarithmic region, in agreement with the universal inner profile of Hoffman and Joubert [J. Fluid Mech. 16, 395 (1963)].
Large-eddy Advection in Evapotranspiration Estimates from an Array of Eddy Covariance Towers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, X.; Evett, S. R.; Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Aiken, R.
2014-12-01
Evapotranspiration was continuously measured by an array of eddy covariance systems and large weighting lysimeter in a sorghum in Bushland, Texas in 2014. The advective divergence from both horizontal and vertical directions were measured through profile measurements above canopy. All storage terms were integrated from the depth of soil heat flux plate to the height of eddy covariance measurement. Therefore, a comparison between the eddy covariance system and large weighing lysimeter was conducted on hourly and daily basis. The results for the discrepancy between eddy covariance towers and the lysimeter will be discussed in terms of advection and storage contributions in time domain and frequency domain.
Large eddy simulations in 2030 and beyond.
Piomelli, U
2014-08-13
Since its introduction, in the early 1970s, large eddy simulations (LES) have advanced considerably, and their application is transitioning from the academic environment to industry. Several landmark developments can be identified over the past 40 years, such as the wall-resolved simulations of wall-bounded flows, the development of advanced models for the unresolved scales that adapt to the local flow conditions and the hybridization of LES with the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Thanks to these advancements, LES is now in widespread use in the academic community and is an option available in most commercial flow-solvers. This paper will try to predict what algorithmic and modelling advancements are needed to make it even more robust and inexpensive, and which areas show the most promise. PMID:25024415
Large eddy simulations in 2030 and beyond
Piomelli, U
2014-01-01
Since its introduction, in the early 1970s, large eddy simulations (LES) have advanced considerably, and their application is transitioning from the academic environment to industry. Several landmark developments can be identified over the past 40 years, such as the wall-resolved simulations of wall-bounded flows, the development of advanced models for the unresolved scales that adapt to the local flow conditions and the hybridization of LES with the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. Thanks to these advancements, LES is now in widespread use in the academic community and is an option available in most commercial flow-solvers. This paper will try to predict what algorithmic and modelling advancements are needed to make it even more robust and inexpensive, and which areas show the most promise. PMID:25024415
Autonomic Closure for Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Ryan; Hamlington, Peter; Dahm, Werner J. A.
2015-11-01
A new autonomic subgrid-scale closure has been developed for large eddy simulation (LES). The approach poses a supervised learning problem that captures nonlinear, nonlocal, and nonequilibrium turbulence effects without specifying a predefined turbulence model. By solving a regularized optimization problem on test filter scale quantities, the autonomic approach identifies a nonparametric function that represents the best local relation between subgrid stresses and resolved state variables. The optimized function is then applied at the grid scale to determine unknown LES subgrid stresses by invoking scale similarity in the inertial range. A priori tests of the autonomic approach on homogeneous isotropic turbulence show that the new approach is amenable to powerful optimization and machine learning methods and is successful for a wide range of filter scales in the inertial range. In these a priori tests, the autonomic closure substantially improves upon the dynamic Smagorinsky model in capturing the instantaneous, statistical, and energy transfer properties of the subgrid stress field.
Large eddy simulation applications in gas turbines.
Menzies, Kevin
2009-07-28
The gas turbine presents significant challenges to any computational fluid dynamics techniques. The combination of a wide range of flow phenomena with complex geometry is difficult to model in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers. We review the potential for large eddy simulation (LES) in modelling the flow in the different components of the gas turbine during a practical engineering design cycle. We show that while LES has demonstrated considerable promise for reliable prediction of many flows in the engine that are difficult for RANS it is not a panacea and considerable application challenges remain. However, for many flows, especially those dominated by shear layer mixing such as in combustion chambers and exhausts, LES has demonstrated a clear superiority over RANS for moderately complex geometries although at significantly higher cost which will remain an issue in making the calculations relevant within the design cycle. PMID:19531505
Application of large eddy interaction model to a mixing layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, S. N. B.
1989-01-01
The large eddy interaction model (LEIM) is a statistical model of turbulence based on the interaction of selected eddies with the mean flow and all of the eddies in a turbulent shear flow. It can be utilized as the starting point for obtaining physical structures in the flow. The possible application of the LEIM to a mixing layer formed between two parallel, incompressible flows with a small temperature difference is developed by invoking a detailed similarity between the spectra of velocity and temperature.
Large eddy simulations of laminar separation bubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadieux, Francois
The flow over blades and airfoils at moderate angles of attack and Reynolds numbers ranging from ten thousand to a few hundred thousands undergoes separation due to the adverse pressure gradient generated by surface curvature. In many cases, the separated shear layer then transitions to turbulence and reattaches, closing off a recirculation region -- the laminar separation bubble. To avoid body-fitted mesh generation problems and numerical issues, an equivalent problem for flow over a flat plate is formulated by imposing boundary conditions that lead to a pressure distribution and Reynolds number that are similar to those on airfoils. Spalart & Strelet (2000) tested a number of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models for a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate. Although results with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model were encouraging, none of the turbulence models tested reliably recovered time-averaged direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. The purpose of this work is to assess whether large eddy simulation (LES) can more accurately and reliably recover DNS results using drastically reduced resolution -- on the order of 1% of DNS resolution which is commonly achievable for LES of turbulent channel flows. LES of a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate are performed using a compressible sixth-order finite-difference code and two incompressible pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solvers at resolutions corresponding to approximately 3% and 1% of the chosen DNS benchmark by Spalart & Strelet (2000). The finite-difference solver is found to be dissipative due to the use of a stability-enhancing filter. Its numerical dissipation is quantified and found to be comparable to the average eddy viscosity of the dynamic Smagorinsky model, making it difficult to separate the effects of filtering versus those of explicit subgrid-scale modeling. The negligible numerical dissipation of the pseudo-spectral solvers allows an unambiguous
Large-Eddy Simulation of Aeroacoustic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pruett, C. David; Sochacki, James S.
1999-01-01
This report summarizes work accomplished under a one-year NASA grant from NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The effort culminates three years of NASA-supported research under three consecutive one-year grants. The period of support was April 6, 1998, through April 5, 1999. By request, the grant period was extended at no-cost until October 6, 1999. Its predecessors have been directed toward adapting the numerical tool of large-eddy simulation (LES) to aeroacoustic applications, with particular focus on noise suppression in subsonic round jets. In LES, the filtered Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse computational grid. Residual stresses, generated by scales of motion too small to be resolved on the coarse grid, are modeled. Although most LES incorporate spatial filtering, time-domain filtering affords certain conceptual and computational advantages, particularly for aeroacoustic applications. Consequently, this work has focused on the development of subgrid-scale (SGS) models that incorporate time-domain filters.
Parallel Optimization with Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talnikar, Chaitanya; Blonigan, Patrick; Bodart, Julien; Wang, Qiqi; Alex Gorodetsky Collaboration; Jasper Snoek Collaboration
2014-11-01
For design optimization results to be useful, the model used must be trustworthy. For turbulent flows, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) can capture separation and other phenomena that traditional models such as RANS struggle with. However, optimization with LES can be challenging because of noisy objective function evaluations. This noise is a consequence of the sampling error of turbulent statistics, or long time averaged quantities of interest, such as the drag of an airfoil or heat transfer to a turbine blade. The sampling error causes the objective function to vary noisily with respect to design parameters for finite time simulations. Furthermore, the noise decays very slowly as computational time increases. Therefore, robustness with noisy objective functions is a crucial prerequisite to optimization candidates for LES. One way of dealing with noisy objective functions is to filter the noise using a surrogate model. Bayesian optimization, which uses Gaussian processes as surrogates, has shown promise in optimizing expensive objective functions. The following talk presents a new approach for optimization with LES incorporating these ideas. Applications to flow control of a turbulent channel and the design of a turbine blade trailing edge are also discussed.
Large eddy simulation of trailing edge noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Jacob; Nitzkorski, Zane; Mahesh, Krishnan
2015-11-01
Noise generation is an important engineering constraint to many marine vehicles. A significant portion of the noise comes from propellers and rotors, specifically due to flow interactions at the trailing edge. Large eddy simulation is used to investigate the noise produced by a turbulent 45 degree beveled trailing edge and a NACA 0012 airfoil. A porous surface Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy is combined with a dynamic endcapping method to compute the sound. This methodology allows for the impact of incident flow noise versus the total noise to be assessed. LES results for the 45 degree beveled trailing edge are compared to experiment at M = 0 . 1 and Rec = 1 . 9 e 6 . The effect of boundary layer thickness on sound production is investigated by computing using both the experimental boundary layer thickness and a thinner boundary layer. Direct numerical simulation results of the NACA 0012 are compared to available data at M = 0 . 4 and Rec = 5 . 0 e 4 for both the hydrodynamic field and the acoustic field. Sound intensities and directivities are investigated and compared. Finally, some of the physical mechanisms of far-field noise generation, common to the two configurations, are discussed. Supported by Office of Naval research.
Large eddy simulation of turbulent cavitating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnanaskandan, A.; Mahesh, K.
2015-12-01
Large Eddy Simulation is employed to study two turbulent cavitating flows: over a cylinder and a wedge. A homogeneous mixture model is used to treat the mixture of water and water vapor as a compressible fluid. The governing equations are solved using a novel predictor- corrector method. The subgrid terms are modeled using the Dynamic Smagorinsky model. Cavitating flow over a cylinder at Reynolds number (Re) = 3900 and cavitation number (σ) = 1.0 is simulated and the wake characteristics are compared to the single phase results at the same Reynolds number. It is observed that cavitation suppresses turbulence in the near wake and delays three dimensional breakdown of the vortices. Next, cavitating flow over a wedge at Re = 200, 000 and σ = 2.0 is presented. The mean void fraction profiles obtained are compared to experiment and good agreement is obtained. Cavity auto-oscillation is observed, where the sheet cavity breaks up into a cloud cavity periodically. The results suggest LES as an attractive approach for predicting turbulent cavitating flows.
Large eddy simulation of powered Fontan hemodynamics.
Delorme, Y; Anupindi, K; Kerlo, A E; Shetty, D; Rodefeld, M; Chen, J; Frankel, S
2013-01-18
Children born with univentricular heart disease typically must undergo three open heart surgeries within the first 2-3 years of life to eventually establish the Fontan circulation. In that case the single working ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body and blood returns to the lungs flowing passively through the Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) rather than being actively pumped by a subpulmonary ventricle. The TCPC is a direct surgical connection between the superior and inferior vena cava and the left and right pulmonary arteries. We have postulated that a mechanical pump inserted into this circulation providing a 3-5 mmHg pressure augmentation will reestablish bi-ventricular physiology serving as a bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy as a "biventricular Fontan" circulation. The Viscous Impeller Pump (VIP) has been proposed by our group as such an assist device. It is situated in the center of the 4-way TCPC intersection and spins pulling blood from the vena cavae and pushing it into the pulmonary arteries. We hypothesized that Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using high-order numerical methods are needed to capture unsteady powered and unpowered Fontan hemodynamics. Inclusion of a mechanical pump into the CFD further complicates matters due to the need to account for rotating machinery. In this study, we focus on predictions from an in-house high-order LES code (WenoHemo(TM)) for unpowered and VIP-powered idealized TCPC hemodynamics with quantitative comparisons to Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Results are presented for both instantaneous flow structures and statistical data. Simulations show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with measured data. PMID:23177085
Large Eddy Simulation of Powered Fontan Hemodynamics
Delorme, Y.; Anupindi, K.; Kerlo, A.E.; Shetty, D.; Rodefeld, M.; Chen, J.; Frankel, S.
2012-01-01
Children born with univentricular heart disease typically must undergo three open heart surgeries within the first 2–3 years of life to eventually establish the Fontan circulation. In that case the single working ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body and blood returns to the lungs flowing passively through the Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) rather than being actively pumped by a subpulmonary ventricle. The TCPC is a direct surgical connection between the superior and inferior vena cava and the left and right pulmonary arteries. We have postulated that a mechanical pump inserted into this circulation providing a 3–5 mmHg pressure augmentation will reestablish bi-ventricular physiology serving as a bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy as a “biventricular Fontan” circulation. The Viscous Impeller Pump (VIP) has been proposed by our group as such an assist device. It is situated in the center of the 4-way TCPC intersection and spins pulling blood from the vena cavae and pushing it into the pulmonary arteries. We hypothesized that Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using high-order numerical methods are needed to capture unsteady powered and unpowered Fontan hemodynamics. Inclusion of a mechanical pump into the CFD further complicates matters due to the need to account for rotating machinery. In this study, we focus on predictions from an in-house high-order LES code (WenoHemo™) for unpowered and VIP-powered idealized TCPC hemodynamics with quantitative comparisons to Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Results are presented for both instantaneous flow structures and statistical data. Simulations show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with measured data. PMID:23177085
Large Eddy Simulation of Cirrus Clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Ting; Cotton, William R.
1999-01-01
The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) with mesoscale interactive nested-grids and a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) version of RAMS, coupled to two-moment microphysics and a new two-stream radiative code were used to investigate the dynamic, microphysical, and radiative aspects of the November 26, 1991 cirrus event. Wu (1998) describes the results of that research in full detail and is enclosed as Appendix 1. The mesoscale nested grid simulation successfully reproduced the large scale circulation as compared to the Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System's (MAPS) analyses and other observations. Three cloud bands which match nicely to the three cloud lines identified in an observational study (Mace et al., 1995) are predicted on Grid #2 of the nested grids, even though the mesoscale simulation predicts a larger west-east cloud width than what was observed. Large-eddy simulations (LES) were performed to study the dynamical, microphysical, and radiative processes in the 26 November 1991 FIRE 11 cirrus event. The LES model is based on the RAMS version 3b developed at Colorado State University. It includes a new radiation scheme developed by Harrington (1997) and a new subgrid scale model developed by Kosovic (1996). The LES model simulated a single cloud layer for Case 1 and a two-layer cloud structure for Case 2. The simulations demonstrated that latent heat release can play a significant role in the formation and development of cirrus clouds. For the thin cirrus in Case 1, the latent heat release was insufficient for the cirrus clouds to become positively buoyant. However, in some special cases such as Case 2, positively buoyant cells can be embedded within the cirrus layers. These cells were so active that the rising updraft induced its own pressure perturbations that affected the cloud evolution. Vertical profiles of the total radiative and latent heating rates indicated that for well developed, deep, and active cirrus clouds, radiative cooling and latent
Effects of Eddy Viscosity on Time Correlations in Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
He, Guowei; Rubinstein, R.; Wang, Lian-Ping; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large. eddy simulation (LES) have generally been evaluated by their ability to predict single-time statistics of turbulent flows such as kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses. Recent application- of large eddy simulation to the evaluation of sound sources in turbulent flows, a problem in which time, correlations determine the frequency distribution of acoustic radiation, suggest that subgrid models should also be evaluated by their ability to predict time correlations in turbulent flows. This paper compares the two-point, two-time Eulerian velocity correlation evaluated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) with that evaluated from LES, using a spectral eddy viscosity, for isotropic homogeneous turbulence. It is found that the LES fields are too coherent, in the sense that their time correlations decay more slowly than the corresponding time. correlations in the DNS fields. This observation is confirmed by theoretical estimates of time correlations using the Taylor expansion technique. Tile reason for the slower decay is that the eddy viscosity does not include the random backscatter, which decorrelates fluid motion at large scales. An effective eddy viscosity associated with time correlations is formulated, to which the eddy viscosity associated with energy transfer is a leading order approximation.
Time Filtering in Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, Daniele; Wray, Alan A.
2000-01-01
An explicit time filter is applied to the Navier-Stokes equation prior to a space filter. The time filter is supposed to be smooth, and an exact expansion depending on the time derivatives of the velocity is derived for the associated stress tensor. On the contrary, the effect of the space filter is treated as usual and an eddy viscosity model is introduced in the LES equation. The total stress is thus represented using a new class of mixed models combining time and space derivatives of the LES field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, M.; Chao, Y.
2001-01-01
Output of an eddy-resolving model of the North Atlantic is diagnosed in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream (GA), using quasigeostrophic potential voracity (QGPV), Ertel's potential voracity (PV), and particle trajectories. Time series of QGPV show strong input of QGPV by the GS in the top 100 m of the model ocean.
Large eddy interactions in a turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, S. K.
1985-01-01
The dynamic processes of large eddies in a turbulent channel flow have been examined by utilizing an orthogonal expansion of the velocity fluctuation, known in the literature as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Theorem. The mathematical form of these functions is unknown in contrast to the Fourier analysis. Attention is focused on the nonlinear, turbulence-turbulence interaction process in the dynamical equation for large eddies (the first term in the expansion). The nonlinear interactions of the components of the first mode are treated exactly, but influences of higher modes are modeled. This requires adjustment of both the skewness and the effective Reynolds number so that the energy equilibrium of the large eddies is ensured when the mean velocity distribution is assumed known for experiments. Computational results show that the first mode contributes significantly to turbulent intensities and possesses a structural and statistical character similar to that of the entire flow.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics: Preprint
Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Moriarty, P. J.; Martinez, L. A.; Leonardi, S.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J. G.
2012-01-01
In this work, we present results of a large-eddy simulation of the 48 multi-megawatt turbines composing the Lillgrund wind plant. Turbulent inflow wind is created by performing an atmospheric boundary layer precursor simulation and turbines are modeled using a rotating, variable-speed actuator line representation. The motivation for this work is that few others have done wind plant large-eddy simulations with a substantial number of turbines, and the methods for carrying out the simulations are varied. We wish to draw upon the strengths of the existing simulations and our growing atmospheric large-eddy simulation capability to create a sound methodology for performing this type of simulation. We have used the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox to create our solver.
Large Eddy Simulations and Turbulence Modeling for Film Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acharya, Sumanta
1999-01-01
The objective of the research is to perform Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) for film cooling process, and to evaluate and improve advanced forms of the two equation turbulence models for turbine blade surface flow analysis. The DNS/LES were used to resolve the large eddies within the flow field near the coolant jet location. The work involved code development and applications of the codes developed to the film cooling problems. Five different codes were developed and utilized to perform this research. This report presented a summary of the development of the codes and their applications to analyze the turbulence properties at locations near coolant injection holes.
Large Eddy Simulations using Lattice Boltzmann algorithms. Final report
Serling, J.D.
1993-09-28
This report contains the results of a study performed to implement eddy-viscosity models for Large-Eddy-Simulations (LES) into Lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithms for simulating fluid flows. This implementation requires modification of the LB method of simulating the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations to allow simulation of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations with some subgrid model for the Reynolds stress term. We demonstrate that the LB method can indeed be used for LES by simply locally adjusting the value of the BGK relaxation time to obtain the desired eddy-viscosity. Thus, many forms of eddy-viscosity models including the standard Smagorinsky model or the Dynamic model may be implemented using LB algorithms. Since underresolved LB simulations often lead to instability, the LES model actually serves to stabilize the method. An alternative method of ensuring stability is presented which requires that entropy increase during the collision step of the LB method. Thus, an alternative collision operator is locally applied if the entropy becomes too low. This stable LB method then acts as an LES scheme that effectively introduces its own eddy viscosity to damp short wavelength oscillations.
NASA's Large-Eddy Simulation Research for Jet Noise Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeBonis, James R.
2009-01-01
Research into large-eddy simulation (LES) for application to jet noise is described. The LES efforts include in-house code development and application at NASA Glenn along with NASA Research Announcement sponsored work at Stanford University and Florida State University. Details of the computational methods used and sample results for jet flows are provided.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics
Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Moriarty, P. J.; Martinez, L. A.; Leonardi, S.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J. G.
2012-01-01
In this work, we present results of a large-eddy simulation of the 48 multi-megawatt turbines composing the Lillgrund wind plant. Turbulent inflow wind is created by performing an atmospheric boundary layer precursor simulation, and turbines are modeled using a rotating, variable-speed actuator line representation. The motivation for this work is that few others have done large-eddy simulations of wind plants with a substantial number of turbines, and the methods for carrying out the simulations are varied. We wish to draw upon the strengths of the existing simulations and our growing atmospheric large-eddy simulation capability to create a sound methodology for performing this type of simulation. We used the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox to create our solver. The simulated time-averaged power production of the turbines in the plant agrees well with field observations, except with the sixth turbine and beyond in each wind-aligned. The power produced by each of those turbines is overpredicted by 25-40%. A direct comparison between simulated and field data is difficult because we simulate one wind direction with a speed and turbulence intensity characteristic of Lillgrund, but the field observations were taken over a year of varying conditions. The simulation shows the significant 60-70% decrease in the performance of the turbines behind the front row in this plant that has a spacing of 4.3 rotor diameters in this direction. The overall plant efficiency is well predicted. This work shows the importance of using local grid refinement to simultaneously capture the meter-scale details of the turbine wake and the kilometer-scale turbulent atmospheric structures. Although this work illustrates the power of large-eddy simulation in producing a time-accurate solution, it required about one million processor-hours, showing the significant cost of large-eddy simulation.
Constrained Large Eddy Simulation of Separated Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Zhenhua; Shi, Yipeng; Wang, Jianchun; Xiao, Zuoli; Yang, Yantao; Chen, Shiyi
2011-11-01
Constrained Large-eddy Simulation (CLES) has been recently proposed to simulate turbulent flows with massive separation. Different from traditional large eddy simulation (LES) and hybrid RANS/LES approaches, the CLES simulates the whole flow domain by large eddy simulation while enforcing a RANS Reynolds stress constraint on the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress models in the near-wall region. Algebraic eddy-viscosity models and one-equation Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) model have been used to constrain the Reynolds stress. The CLES approach is validated a posteriori through simulation of flow past a circular cylinder and periodic hill flow at high Reynolds numbers. The simulation results are compared with those from RANS, DES, DDES and other available hybrid RANS/LES methods. It is shown that the capability of the CLES method in predicting separated flows is comparable to that of DES. Detailed discussions are also presented about the effects of the RANS models as constraint in the near-wall layers. Our results demonstrate that the CLES method is a promising alternative towards engineering applications.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Evapotranspiration was continuously measured by an array of eddy covariance systems and large weighting lysimeter in a cotton field in Bushland, Texas. The advective divergence from both horizontal and vertical directions were measured through profile measurements above canopy. All storage terms wer...
Wall Modeled Large Eddy Simulation of Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocheemoolayil, Joseph; Lele, Sanjiva
2014-11-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) of airfoil trailing edge noise has largely been restricted to low Reynolds numbers due to prohibitive computational cost. Wall modeled LES (WMLES) is a computationally cheaper alternative that makes full-scale Reynolds numbers relevant to large wind turbines accessible. A systematic investigation of trailing edge noise prediction using WMLES is conducted. Detailed comparisons are made with experimental data. The stress boundary condition from a wall model does not constrain the fluctuating velocity to vanish at the wall. This limitation has profound implications for trailing edge noise prediction. The simulation over-predicts the intensity of fluctuating wall pressure and far-field noise. An improved wall model formulation that minimizes the over-prediction of fluctuating wall pressure is proposed and carefully validated. The flow configurations chosen for the study are from the workshop on benchmark problems for airframe noise computations. The large eddy simulation database is used to examine the adequacy of scaling laws that quantify the dependence of trailing edge noise on Mach number, Reynolds number and angle of attack. Simplifying assumptions invoked in engineering approaches towards predicting trailing edge noise are critically evaluated. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from GE Global Research and thank Cascade Technologies Inc. for providing access to their massively-parallel large eddy simulation framework.
Toward large eddy simulation of turbulent flow over an airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Haecheon
1993-01-01
The flow field over an airfoil contains several distinct flow characteristics, e.g. laminar, transitional, turbulent boundary layer flow, flow separation, unstable free shear layers, and a wake. This diversity of flow regimes taxes the presently available Reynolds averaged turbulence models. Such models are generally tuned to predict a particular flow regime, and adjustments are necessary for the prediction of a different flow regime. Similar difficulties are likely to emerge when the large eddy simulation technique is applied with the widely used Smagorinsky model. This model has not been successful in correctly representing different turbulent flow fields with a single universal constant and has an incorrect near-wall behavior. Germano et al. (1991) and Ghosal, Lund & Moin have developed a new subgrid-scale model, the dynamic model, which is very promising in alleviating many of the persistent inadequacies of the Smagorinsky model: the model coefficient is computed dynamically as the calculation progresses rather than input a priori. The model has been remarkably successful in prediction of several turbulent and transitional flows. We plan to simulate turbulent flow over a '2D' airfoil using the large eddy simulation technique. Our primary objective is to assess the performance of the newly developed dynamic subgrid-scale model for computation of complex flows about aircraft components and to compare the results with those obtained using the Reynolds average approach and experiments. The present computation represents the first application of large eddy simulation to a flow of aeronautical interest and a key demonstration of the capabilities of the large eddy simulation technique.
Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuka, V.; Brechler, J.
2013-04-01
We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model) to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.
Larsson, Johan; Wang, Qiqi
2014-08-13
In this paper, we try to look into the future to envision how large eddy and detached eddy simulations will be used in the engineering design process about 20-30 years from now. Some key challenges specific to the engineering design process are identified, and some of the critical outstanding problems and promising research directions are discussed. PMID:25024421
Larsson, Johan; Wang, Qiqi
2014-01-01
In this paper, we try to look into the future to envision how large eddy and detached eddy simulations will be used in the engineering design process about 20–30 years from now. Some key challenges specific to the engineering design process are identified, and some of the critical outstanding problems and promising research directions are discussed. PMID:25024421
Toward the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Speziale, C. G.; Zang, T. A.
1990-01-01
New subgrid-scale models for the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows are developed and tested based on the Favre-filtered equations of motion for an ideal gas. A compressible generalization of the linear combination of the Smagorinsky model and scale-similarity model, in terms of Favre-filtered fields, is obtained for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. An analogous thermal linear combination model is also developed for the subgrid-scale heat flux vector. The two dimensionless constants associated with these subgrid-scale models are obtained by correlating with the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence performed on a 96(exp 3) grid using Fourier collocation methods. Extensive comparisons between the direct and modeled subgrid-scale fields are provided in order to validate the models. A large-eddy simulation of the decay of compressible isotropic turbulence (conducted on a coarse 32(exp 3) grid) is shown to yield results that are in excellent agreement with the fine grid direct simulation. Future applications of these compressible subgrid-scale models to the large-eddy simulation of more complex supersonic flows are discussed briefly.
Applications of large eddy simulation methods to gyrokinetic turbulence
Bañón Navarro, A. Happel, T.; Teaca, B. [Applied Mathematics Research Centre, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB; Max-Planck für Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau; Max-Planck Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching; Max-Planck Hammett, G. W. [Max-Planck Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team
2014-03-15
The large eddy simulation (LES) approach—solving numerically the large scales of a turbulent system and accounting for the small-scale influence through a model—is applied to nonlinear gyrokinetic systems that are driven by a number of different microinstabilities. Comparisons between modeled, lower resolution, and higher resolution simulations are performed for an experimental measurable quantity, the electron density fluctuation spectrum. Moreover, the validation and applicability of LES is demonstrated through a series of diagnostics based on the free energetics of the system.
A subfilter-scale stress model for large eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouhi, Amirreza; Piomelli, Ugo
2013-11-01
In most large eddy simulations, the filter width is related to the grid. This method of specification, however, causes problems in complex flows where local refinement results in grid discontinuities. Following the work of Piomelli and Geurts (Proce. 8th Workshop on DLES, 2010) we propose an eddy-viscosity approach in which the filter width is based on the flow parameters only, with no explicit relationship to the grid size. This model can achieve grid-independent LES solutions, vanishing dynamically in the regions of low turbulence activity and a computational cost less than the dynamic models. The Successive Inverse Polynomial Interpolation (Geurts & Meyers Phys. Fluids 18, 2006) was used to calculate the model parameter. Calculating implicitly the eddy-viscosity at each time-step removes the numerical instabilities found in previous studies, while maintaining the local character of the model. Results of simulations of channel flow at Reτ up to 2,000, and forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence will be presented.
Minimum-dissipation models for large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozema, Wybe; Bae, Hyun J.; Moin, Parviz; Verstappen, Roel
2015-08-01
Minimum-dissipation eddy-viscosity models are a class of sub-filter models for large-eddy simulation that give the minimum eddy dissipation required to dissipate the energy of sub-filter scales. A previously derived minimum-dissipation model is the QR model. This model is based on the invariants of the resolved rate-of-strain tensor and has many desirable properties. It appropriately switches off for laminar and transitional flows, has low computational complexity, and is consistent with the exact sub-filter tensor on isotropic grids. However, the QR model proposed in the literature gives insufficient eddy dissipation. It is demonstrated that this can be corrected by increasing the model constant. The corrected QR model gives good results in simulations of decaying grid turbulence on an isotropic grid. On anisotropic grids the QR model is not consistent with the exact sub-filter tensor and requires an approximation of the filter width. It is demonstrated that the results of the QR model on anisotropic grids are primarily determined by the used filter width approximation, and that no approximation gives satisfactory results in simulations of both a temporal mixing layer and turbulent channel flow. A new minimum-dissipation model for anisotropic grids is proposed. This anisotropic minimum-dissipation (AMD) model generalizes the desirable practical and theoretical properties of the QR model to anisotropic grids and does not require an approximation of the filter width. The AMD model is successfully applied in simulations of decaying grid turbulence on an isotropic grid and in simulations of a temporal mixing layer and turbulent channel flow on anisotropic grids.
Large-eddy simulation of trans- and supercritical injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, H.; Niedermeier, C. A.; Jarczyk, M.; Pfitzner, M.; Hickel, S.; Adams, N. A.
2016-07-01
In a joint effort to develop a robust numerical tool for the simulation of injection, mixing, and combustion in liquid rocket engines at high pressure, a real-gas thermodynamics model has been implemented into two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, the density-based INCA and a pressure-based version of OpenFOAM. As a part of the validation process, both codes have been used to perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of trans- and supercritical nitrogen injection. Despite the different code architecture and the different subgrid scale turbulence modeling strategy, both codes yield similar results. The agreement with the available experimental data is good.
Contrail Formation in Aircraft Wakes Using Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paoli, R.; Helie, J.; Poinsot, T. J.; Ghosal, S.
2002-01-01
In this work we analyze the issue of the formation of condensation trails ("contrails") in the near-field of an aircraft wake. The basic configuration consists in an exhaust engine jet interacting with a wing-tip training vortex. The procedure adopted relies on a mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian two-phase flow approach; a simple micro-physics model for ice growth has been used to couple ice and vapor phases. Large eddy simulations have carried out at a realistic flight Reynolds number to evaluate the effects of turbulent mixing and wake vortex dynamics on ice-growth characteristics and vapor thermodynamic properties.
Domain nesting for multi-scale large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuka, Vladimir; Xie, Zheng-Tong
2016-04-01
The need to simulate city scale areas (O(10 km)) with high resolution within street canyons in certain areas of interests necessitates different grid resolutions in different part of the simulated area. General purpose computational fluid dynamics codes typically employ unstructured refined grids while mesoscale meteorological models more often employ nesting of computational domains. ELMM is a large eddy simulation model for the atmospheric boundary layer. It employs orthogonal uniform grids and for this reason domain nesting was chosen as the approach for simulations in multiple scales. Domains are implemented as sets of MPI processes which communicate with each other as in a normal non-nested run, but also with processes from another (outer/inner) domain. It should stressed that the duration of solution of time-steps in the outer and in the inner domain must be synchronized, so that the processes do not have to wait for the completion of their boundary conditions. This can achieved by assigning an appropriate number of CPUs to each domain, and to gain high efficiency. When nesting is applied for large eddy simulation, the inner domain receives inflow boundary conditions which lack turbulent motions not represented by the outer grid. ELMM remedies this by optional adding of turbulent fluctuations to the inflow using the efficient method of Xie and Castro (2008). The spatial scale of these fluctuations is in the subgrid-scale of the outer grid and their intensity will be estimated from the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy in the outer grid.
Finecasting for renewable energy with large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonker, Harmen; Verzijlbergh, Remco
2016-04-01
We present results of a single, continuous Large-Eddy Simulation of actual weather conditions during the timespan of a full year, made possible through recent computational developments (Schalkwijk et al, MWR, 2015). The simulation is coupled to a regional weather model in order to provide an LES dataset that is representative of the daily weather of the year 2012 around Cabauw, the Netherlands. This location is chosen such that LES results can be compared with both the regional weather model and observations from the Cabauw observational supersite. The run was made possible by porting our Large-Eddy Simulation program to run completely on the GPU (Schalkwijk et al, BAMS, 2012). GPU adaptation allows us to reach much improved time-to-solution ratios (i.e. simulation speedup versus real time). As a result, one can perform runs with a much longer timespan than previously feasible. The dataset resulting from the LES run provides many avenues for further study. First, it can provide a more statistical approach to boundary-layer turbulence than the more common case-studies by simulating a diverse but representative set of situations, as well as the transition between situations. This has advantages in designing and evaluating parameterizations. In addition, we discuss the opportunities of high-resolution forecasts for the renewable energy sector, e.g. wind and solar energy production.
Large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.; Reynolds, W. C.; Ferziger, J. H.
1978-01-01
The three-dimensional, time-dependent primitive equations of motion were numerically integrated for the case of turbulent channel flow. A partially implicit numerical method was developed. An important feature of this scheme is that the equation of continuity is solved directly. The residual field motions were simulated through an eddy viscosity model, while the large-scale field was obtained directly from the solution of the governing equations. An important portion of the initial velocity field was obtained from the solution of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The pseudospectral method was used for numerical differentiation in the horizontal directions, and second-order finite-difference schemes were used in the direction normal to the walls. The large eddy simulation technique is capable of reproducing some of the important features of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The resolvable portions of the root-mean square wall pressure fluctuations, pressure velocity-gradient correlations, and velocity pressure-gradient correlations are documented.
Large Eddy Simulation of Multiple Turbulent Round Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balajee, G. K.; Panchapakesan, Nagangudy
2015-11-01
Turbulent round jet flow was simulated as a large eddy simulation with OpenFoam software package for a jet Reynolds number of 11000. The intensity of the fluctuating motion in the incoming nozzle flow was adjusted so that the initial shear layer development compares well with available experimental data. The far field development of averages of higher order moments up to fourth order were compared with experiments. The agreement is good indicating that the large eddy motions were being computed satisfactorily by the simulation. Turbulent kinetic energy budget as well as the quality of the LES simulations were also evaluated. These conditions were then used to perform a multiple turbulent round jets simulation with the same initial momentum flux. The far field of the flow was compared with the single jet simulation and experiments to test approach to self similarity. The evolution of the higher order moments in the development region where the multiple jets interact were studied. We will also present FTLE fields computed from the simulation to educe structures and compare it with those educed by other scalar measures. Support of AR&DB CIFAAR, and VIRGO cluster at IIT Madras is gratefully acknowledged.
Large-eddy simulation of flow past a circular cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mittal, R.
1995-01-01
Some of the most challenging applications of large-eddy simulation are those in complex geometries where spectral methods are of limited use. For such applications more conventional methods such as finite difference or finite element have to be used. However, it has become clear in recent years that dissipative numerical schemes which are routinely used in viscous flow simulations are not good candidates for use in LES of turbulent flows. Except in cases where the flow is extremely well resolved, it has been found that upwind schemes tend to damp out a significant portion of the small scales that can be resolved on the grid. Furthermore, it has been found that even specially designed higher-order upwind schemes that have been used successfully in the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows produce too much dissipation when used in conjunction with large-eddy simulation. The objective of the current study is to perform a LES of incompressible flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 3900 using a solver which employs an energy-conservative second-order central difference scheme for spatial discretization and compare the results obtained with those of Beaudan & Moin (1994) and with the experiments in order to assess the performance of the central scheme for this relatively complex geometry.
Large Eddy Simulation of Cryogenic Injection Processes at Supercritical Pressure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oefelein, Joseph C.; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper highlights results from the first of a series of hierarchical simulations aimed at assessing the modeling requirements for application of the large eddy simulation technique to cryogenic injection and combustion processes in liquid rocket engines. The focus is on liquid-oxygen-hydrogen coaxial injectors at a condition where the liquid-oxygen is injected at a subcritical temperature into a supercritical environment. For this situation a diffusion dominated mode of combustion occurs in the presence of exceedingly large thermophysical property gradients. Though continuous, these gradients approach the behavior of a contact discontinuity. Significant real gas effects and transport anomalies coexist locally in colder regions of the flow, with ideal gas and transport characteristics occurring within the flame zone. The current focal point is on the interfacial region between the liquid-oxygen core and the coaxial hydrogen jet where the flame anchors itself.
Large eddy simulation of turbulent channel flow: ILLIAC 4 calculation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, J.; Moin, P.
1979-01-01
The three-dimensional time dependent equations of motion were numerically integrated for fully-developed turbulent channel flow. A large scale flow field was obtained directly from the solution of these equations, and small scale field motions were simulated through an eddy viscosity model. The calculations were carried out on the ILLIAC 4 computer. The computed flow patterns show that the wall layer consists of coherent structures of low speed and high speed streaks alternating in the spanwise direction. These structures were absent in the regions away from the wall. Hot spots, small localized regions of very large turbulent shear stress, were frequently observed. The profiles of the pressure velocity-gradient correlations show a significant transfer of energy from the normal to the spanwise component of turbulent kinetic energy in the immediate neighborhood of the wall ('the splatting effect').
Large-eddy simulation using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.; Gresho, P.M.; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Kollmann, W.
1993-10-01
In a large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows, the large-scale motion is calculated explicitly (i.e., approximated with semi-empirical relations). Typically, finite difference or spectral numerical schemes are used to generate an LES; the use of finite element methods (FEM) has been far less prominent. In this study, we demonstrate that FEM in combination with LES provides a viable tool for the study of turbulent, separating channel flows, specifically the flow over a two-dimensional backward-facing step. The combination of these methodologies brings together the advantages of each: LES provides a high degree of accuracy with a minimum of empiricism for turbulence modeling and FEM provides a robust way to simulate flow in very complex domains of practical interest. Such a combination should prove very valuable to the engineering community.
A normal stress subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model in large eddy simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horiuti, K.; Mansour, N. N.; Kim, John J.
1993-01-01
The Smagorinsky subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model (SGS-EVM) is commonly used in large eddy simulations (LES) to represent the effects of the unresolved scales on the resolved scales. This model is known to be limited because its constant must be optimized in different flows, and it must be modified with a damping function to account for near-wall effects. The recent dynamic model is designed to overcome these limitations but is compositionally intensive as compared to the traditional SGS-EVM. In a recent study using direct numerical simulation data, Horiuti has shown that these drawbacks are due mainly to the use of an improper velocity scale in the SGS-EVM. He also proposed the use of the subgrid-scale normal stress as a new velocity scale that was inspired by a high-order anisotropic representation model. The testing of Horiuti, however, was conducted using DNS data from a low Reynolds number channel flow simulation. It was felt that further testing at higher Reynolds numbers and also using different flows (other than wall-bounded shear flows) were necessary steps needed to establish the validity of the new model. This is the primary motivation of the present study. The objective is to test the new model using DNS databases of high Reynolds number channel and fully developed turbulent mixing layer flows. The use of both channel (wall-bounded) and mixing layer flows is important for the development of accurate LES models because these two flows encompass many characteristic features of complex turbulent flows.
Sen, Baris Ali; Menon, Suresh
2010-01-15
A large eddy simulation (LES) sub-grid model is developed based on the artificial neural network (ANN) approach to calculate the species instantaneous reaction rates for multi-step, multi-species chemical kinetics mechanisms. The proposed methodology depends on training the ANNs off-line on a thermo-chemical database representative of the actual composition and turbulence (but not the actual geometrical problem) of interest, and later using them to replace the stiff ODE solver (direct integration (DI)) to calculate the reaction rates in the sub-grid. The thermo-chemical database is tabulated with respect to the thermodynamic state vector without any reduction in the number of state variables. The thermo-chemistry is evolved by stand-alone linear eddy mixing (LEM) model simulations under both premixed and non-premixed conditions, where the unsteady interaction of turbulence with chemical kinetics is included as a part of the training database. The proposed methodology is tested in LES and in stand-alone LEM studies of three distinct test cases with different reduced mechanisms and conditions. LES of premixed flame-turbulence-vortex interaction provides direct comparison of the proposed ANN method against DI and ANNs trained on thermo-chemical database created using another type of tabulation method. It is shown that the ANN trained on the LEM database can capture the correct flame physics with accuracy comparable to DI, which cannot be achieved by ANN trained on a laminar premix flame database. A priori evaluation of the ANN generality within and outside its training domain is carried out using stand-alone LEM simulations as well. Results in general are satisfactory, and it is shown that the ANN provides considerable amount of memory saving and speed-up with reasonable and reliable accuracy. The speed-up is strongly affected by the stiffness of the reduced mechanism used for the computations, whereas the memory saving is considerable regardless. (author)
A family of dynamic models for large-eddy simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, D.; Jansen, K.; Lund, T.
1995-01-01
Since its first application, the dynamic procedure has been recognized as an effective means to compute rather than prescribe the unknown coefficients that appear in a subgrid-scale model for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The dynamic procedure is usually used to determine the nondimensional coefficient in the Smagorinsky (1963) model. In reality the procedure is quite general and it is not limited to the Smagorinsky model by any theoretical or practical constraints. The purpose of this note is to consider a generalized family of dynamic eddy viscosity models that do not necessarily rely on the local equilibrium assumption built into the Smagorinsky model. By invoking an inertial range assumption, it will be shown that the coefficients in the new models need not be nondimensional. This additional degree of freedom allows the use of models that are scaled on traditionally unknown quantities such as the dissipation rate. In certain cases, the dynamic models with dimensional coefficients are simpler to implement, and allow for a 30% reduction in the number of required filtering operations.
Scale-Similar Models for Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarghini, F.
1999-01-01
Scale-similar models employ multiple filtering operations to identify the smallest resolved scales, which have been shown to be the most active in the interaction with the unresolved subgrid scales. They do not assume that the principal axes of the strain-rate tensor are aligned with those of the subgrid-scale stress (SGS) tensor, and allow the explicit calculation of the SGS energy. They can provide backscatter in a numerically stable and physically realistic manner, and predict SGS stresses in regions that are well correlated with the locations where large Reynolds stress occurs. In this paper, eddy viscosity and mixed models, which include an eddy-viscosity part as well as a scale-similar contribution, are applied to the simulation of two flows, a high Reynolds number plane channel flow, and a three-dimensional, nonequilibrium flow. The results show that simulations without models or with the Smagorinsky model are unable to predict nonequilibrium effects. Dynamic models provide an improvement of the results: the adjustment of the coefficient results in more accurate prediction of the perturbation from equilibrium. The Lagrangian-ensemble approach [Meneveau et al., J. Fluid Mech. 319, 353 (1996)] is found to be very beneficial. Models that included a scale-similar term and a dissipative one, as well as the Lagrangian ensemble averaging, gave results in the best agreement with the direct simulation and experimental data.
Film cooling from inclined cylindrical holes using large eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peet, Yulia V.
2006-12-01
The goal of the present study is to investigate numerically the physics of the flow, which occurs during the film cooling from inclined cylindrical holes, Film cooling is a technique used in gas turbine industry to reduce heat fluxes to the turbine blade surface. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed modeling a realistic film cooling configuration, which consists of a large stagnation-type reservoir, feeding an array of discrete cooling holes (film holes) flowing into a flat plate turbulent boundary layer. Special computational methodology is developed for this problem, involving coupled simulations using multiple computational codes. A fully compressible LES code is used in the area above the flat plate, while a low Mach number LES code is employed in the plenum and film holes. The motivation for using different codes comes from the essential difference in the nature of the flow in these different regions. Flowfield is analyzed inside the plenum, film hole and a crossflow region. Flow inside the plenum is stagnating, except for the region close to the exit, where it accelerates rapidly to turn into the hole. The sharp radius of turning at the trailing edge of the plenum pipe connection causes the flow to separate from the downstream wall of the film hole. After coolant injection occurs, a complex flowfield is formed consisting of coherent vortical structures responsible for bringing hot crossflow fluid in contact with the walls of either the film hole or the blade, thus reducing cooling protection. Mean velocity and turbulent statistics are compared to experimental measurements, yielding good agreement for the mean flowfield and satisfactory agreement for the turbulence quantities. LES results are used to assess the applicability of basic assumptions of conventional eddy viscosity turbulence models used with Reynolds-averaged (RANS) approach, namely the isotropy of an eddy viscosity and thermal diffusivity. It is shown here that these assumptions do not hold
Implicit large eddy simulation of shock-driven material mixing.
Grinstein, F F; Gowardhan, A A; Ristorcelli, J R
2013-11-28
Under-resolved computer simulations are typically unavoidable in practical turbulent flow applications exhibiting extreme geometrical complexity and a broad range of length and time scales. An important unsettled issue is whether filtered-out and subgrid spatial scales can significantly alter the evolution of resolved larger scales of motion and practical flow integral measures. Predictability issues in implicit large eddy simulation of under-resolved mixing of material scalars driven by under-resolved velocity fields and initial conditions are discussed in the context of shock-driven turbulent mixing. The particular focus is on effects of resolved spectral content and interfacial morphology of initial conditions on transitional and late-time turbulent mixing in the fundamental planar shock-tube configuration. PMID:24146010
Large Eddy Simulation of FDA's Idealized Medical Device.
Delorme, Yann T; Anupindi, Kameswararao; Frankel, Steven H
2013-12-01
A hybrid large eddy simulation (LES) and immersed boundary method (IBM) computational approach is used to make quantitative predictions of flow field statistics within the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) idealized medical device. An in-house code is used, hereafter (W enoHemo(™) ), that combines high-order finite-difference schemes on structured staggered Cartesian grids with an IBM to facilitate flow over or through complex stationary or rotating geometries and employs a subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model that more naturally handles transitional flows [2]. Predictions of velocity and wall shear stress statistics are compared with previously published experimental measurements from Hariharan et al. [6] for the four Reynolds numbers considered. PMID:24187599
Large Eddy Simulation of Aircraft Wake Vortices: Atmospheric Turbulence Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kao, C.-T.
1997-01-01
Crow instability can develop in most atmospheric turbulence levels, however, the ring vortices may not form in extremely strong turbulence cases due to strong dissipation of the vortices. It appears that strong turbulence tends to accelerate the occurrences of Crow instability. The wavelength of the most unstable mode is estimated to be about 5b(sub 0), which is less than the theoretical value of 8.6b(sub 0) (Crow, 1970) and may be due to limited domain size and highly nonlinear turbulent flow characteristics. Three-dimensional turbulence can decay wake vortices more rapidly. Axial velocity may be developed by vertical distortion of a vortex pair due to Crow instability or large turbulent eddy motion. More experiments with various non-dimensional turbulence levels are necessary to get useful statistics of wake vortex behavior due to turbulence. Need to investigate larger turbulence length scale effects by enlarging domain size or using grid nesting.
Large eddy simulation using the general circulation model ICON
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dipankar, Anurag; Stevens, Bjorn; Heinze, Rieke; Moseley, Christopher; Zängl, Günther; Giorgetta, Marco; Brdar, Slavko
2015-09-01
ICON (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic) is a unified modeling system for global numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate studies. Validation of its dynamical core against a test suite for numerical weather forecasting has been recently published by Zängl et al. (2014). In the present work, an extension of ICON is presented that enables it to perform as a large eddy simulation (LES) model. The details of the implementation of the LES turbulence scheme in ICON are explained and test cases are performed to validate it against two standard LES models. Despite the limitations that ICON inherits from being a unified modeling system, it performs well in capturing the mean flow characteristics and the turbulent statistics of two simulated flow configurations—one being a dry convective boundary layer and the other a cumulus-topped planetary boundary layer.
Time-Domain Filtering for Spatial Large-Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pruett, C. David
1997-01-01
An approach to large-eddy simulation (LES) is developed whose subgrid-scale model incorporates filtering in the time domain, in contrast to conventional approaches, which exploit spatial filtering. The method is demonstrated in the simulation of a heated, compressible, axisymmetric jet, and results are compared with those obtained from fully resolved direct numerical simulation. The present approach was, in fact, motivated by the jet-flow problem and the desire to manipulate the flow by localized (point) sources for the purposes of noise suppression. Time-domain filtering appears to be more consistent with the modeling of point sources; moreover, time-domain filtering may resolve some fundamental inconsistencies associated with conventional space-filtered LES approaches.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulence in steam generators
Bagwell, T.G.; Hassan, Y.A. ); Steininger D.A. )
1989-11-01
A major problem associated with steam generators is excessive tube vibration caused by turbulent-flow buffeting and fluid-elastic excitation. Vibration can lead to tube rupture or wear, necessitating tube plugging and reducing the availability of the steam generator. The fluid/structure interaction phenomenon that causes fluid-elastic tube excitation is unknown at present. The current investigation defines the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow entering the Westinghouse D4 steam generator tube bundles using the large-eddy simulation (LES) technique. Due to the recent availability of supercomputers, LES is being considered as a possible engineering design analysis tool. The information from this study will provide input for defining the temporally fluctuating forces on steam generator tube banks. The GUST code was used to analyze the water box of a Westinghouse model D4 steam generator.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent circular jet flows
Jones, S. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sale, M. J.
2002-07-01
This report presents a numerical method for carrying out large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent free shear flows and an application of a method to simulate the flow generated by a nozzle discharging into a stagnant reservoir. The objective of the study was to elucidate the complex features of the instantaneous flow field to help interpret the results of recent biological experiments in which live fish were exposed to the jet shear zone. The fish-jet experiments were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program. The experiments were designed to establish critical thresholds of shear and turbulence-induced loads to guide the development of innovative, fish-friendly hydropower turbine designs.
Large-eddy simulation of cavitating nozzle and jet flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Örley, F.; Trummler, T.; Hickel, S.; Mihatsch, M. S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A.
2015-12-01
We present implicit large-eddy simulations (LES) to study the primary breakup of cavitating liquid jets. The considered configuration, which consists of a rectangular nozzle geometry, adopts the setup of a reference experiment for validation. The setup is a generic reproduction of a scaled-up automotive fuel injector. Modelling of all components (i.e. gas, liquid, and vapor) is based on a barotropic two-fluid two-phase model and employs a homogenous mixture approach. The cavitating liquid model assumes thermodynamic- equilibrium. Compressibility of all phases is considered in order to capture pressure wave dynamics of collapse events. Since development of cavitation significantly affects jet break-up characteristics, we study three different operating points. We identify three main mechanisms which induce primary jet break-up: amplification of turbulent fluctuations, gas entrainment, and collapse events near the liquid-gas interface.
Large eddy breakup devices as low Reynolds number airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anders, John B.
1986-01-01
Turbulent drag reduction downstream of large-eddy breakup (LEBU) devices is analyzed from the viewpoint of low-Reynolds number airfoil aerodynamics. It is argued that the variability of results between different research labs is primarily due to low Reynolds number 'phenomena' associated with unsteady separation/transition of the LEBU device boundary layer. LEBU drag reduction is shown to be an extremely sensitive function of device microgeometry at the low Reynolds numbers of all current investigations, and by analogy with conventional low-Reynolds number airfoil testing, the conclusion is drawn that the full potential for LEBU drag reduction must be explored at chord Reynolds numbers of 300,000 and above.
Large Eddy Simulation in a Channel with Exit Boundary Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cziesla, T.; Braun, H.; Biswas, G.; Mitra, N. K.
1996-01-01
The influence of the exit boundary conditions (vanishing first derivative of the velocity components and constant pressure) on the large eddy simulation of the fully developed turbulent channel flow has been investigated for equidistant and stretched grids at the channel exit. Results show that the chosen exit boundary conditions introduce some small disturbance which is mostly damped by the grid stretching. The difference between the fully developed turbulent channel flow obtained with LES with periodicity condition and the inlet and exit and the LES with fully developed flow at the inlet and the exit boundary condition is less than 10% for equidistant grids and less than 5% for the case grid stretching. The chosen boundary condition is of interest because it may be used in complex flows with backflow at exit.
Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamsoddin, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is combined with a turbine model to investigate the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) in a three dimensional turbulent flow. Two methods are used to model the subgrid-scale (SGS) stresses: (a) the Smagorinsky model, and (b) the modulated gradient model. To parameterize the effects of the VAWT on the flow, two VAWT models are developed: (a) the actuator surface model (ASM), in which the time-averaged turbine-induced forces are distributed on a surface swept by the turbine blades, i.e. the actuator surface, and (b) the actuator line model (ALM), in which the instantaneous blade forces are only spatially distributed on lines representing the blades, i.e. the actuator lines. This is the first time that LES is applied and validated for simulation of VAWT wakes by using either the ASM or the ALM techniques. In both models, blade-element theory is used to calculate the lift and drag forces on the blades. The results are compared with flow measurements in the wake of a model straight-bladed VAWT, carried out in the Institute de Méchanique et Statistique de la Turbulence (IMST) water channel. Different combinations of SGS models with VAWT models are studied and a fairly good overall agreement between simulation results and measurement data is observed. In general, the ALM is found to better capture the unsteady-periodic nature of the wake and shows a better agreement with the experimental data compared with the ASM. The modulated gradient model is also found to be a more reliable SGS stress modeling technique, compared with the Smagorinsky model, and it yields reasonable predictions of the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of a VAWT wake using its theoretically-determined model coefficient. Keywords: Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs); VAWT wake; Large-eddy simulation; Actuator surface model; Actuator line model; Smagorinsky model; Modulated gradient model
Large eddy simulation of a lifted turbulent jet flame
Ferraris, S.A.; Wen, J.X.
2007-09-15
The flame index concept for large eddy simulation developed by Domingo et al. [P. Domingo, L. Vervisch, K. Bray, Combust. Theory Modell. 6 (2002) 529-551] is used to capture the partially premixed structure at the leading point and the dual combustion regimes further downstream on a turbulent lifted flame, which is composed of premixed and nonpremixed flame elements each separately described under a flamelet assumption. Predictions for the lifted methane/air jet flame experimentally tested by Mansour [M.S. Mansour, Combust. Flame 133 (2003) 263-274] are made. The simulation covers a wide domain from the jet exit to the far flow field. Good agreement with the data for the lift-off height and the mean mixture fraction has been achieved. The model has also captured the double flames, showing a configuration similar to that of the experiment which involves a rich premixed branch at the jet center and a diffusion branch in the outer region which meet at the so-called triple point at the flame base. This basic structure is contorted by eddies coming from the jet exit but remains stable at the lift-off height. No lean premixed branches are observed in the simulation or and experiment. Further analysis on the stabilization mechanism was conducted. A distinction between the leading point (the most upstream point of the flame) and the stabilization point was made. The later was identified as the position with the maximum premixed heat release. This is in line with the stabilization mechanism proposed by Upatnieks et al. [A. Upatnieks, J. Driscoll, C. Rasmussen, S. Ceccio, Combust. Flame 138 (2004) 259-272]. (author)
Large-Eddy Simulation Code Developed for Propulsion Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeBonis, James R.
2003-01-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES) code was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide more accurate and detailed computational analyses of propulsion flow fields. The accuracy of current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods is limited primarily by their inability to properly account for the turbulent motion present in virtually all propulsion flows. Because the efficiency and performance of a propulsion system are highly dependent on the details of this turbulent motion, it is critical for CFD to accurately model it. The LES code promises to give new CFD simulations an advantage over older methods by directly computing the large turbulent eddies, to correctly predict their effect on a propulsion system. Turbulent motion is a random, unsteady process whose behavior is difficult to predict through computer simulations. Current methods are based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier- Stokes (RANS) analyses that rely on models to represent the effect of turbulence within a flow field. The quality of the results depends on the quality of the model and its applicability to the type of flow field being studied. LES promises to be more accurate because it drastically reduces the amount of modeling necessary. It is the logical step toward improving turbulent flow predictions. In LES, the large-scale dominant turbulent motion is computed directly, leaving only the less significant small turbulent scales to be modeled. As part of the prediction, the LES method generates detailed information on the turbulence itself, providing important information for other applications, such as aeroacoustics. The LES code developed at Glenn for propulsion flow fields is being used to both analyze propulsion system components and test improved LES algorithms (subgrid-scale models, filters, and numerical schemes). The code solves the compressible Favre-filtered Navier- Stokes equations using an explicit fourth-order accurate numerical scheme, it incorporates a compressible form of
Large Eddy Simulation and the Filtered Probability Density Function Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, W. P.; Navarro-Martinez, S.
2009-12-01
Recently there is has been increased interest in modelling combustion processes with high-levels of extinction and re-ignition. Such system often lie beyond the scope of conventional single scalar-based models. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has shown a large potential for describing turbulent reactive systems, though combustion occurs at the smallest unresolved scales of the flow and must be modelled. In the sub-grid Probability Density Function (pdf) method approximations are devised to close the evolution equation for the joint-pdf which is then solved directly. The paper describes such an approach and concerns, in particular, the Eulerian stochastic field method of solving the pdf equation. The paper examines the capabilities of the LES-pdf method in capturing auto-ignition and extinction events in different partially premixed configurations with different fuels (hydrogen, methane and n-heptane). The results show that the LES-pdf formulation can capture different regimes without any parameter adjustments, independent of Reynolds numbers and fuel type.
Large eddy simulation modelling of combustion for propulsion applications.
Fureby, C
2009-07-28
Predictive modelling of turbulent combustion is important for the development of air-breathing engines, internal combustion engines, furnaces and for power generation. Significant advances in modelling non-reactive turbulent flows are now possible with the development of large eddy simulation (LES), in which the large energetic scales of the flow are resolved on the grid while modelling the effects of the small scales. Here, we discuss the use of combustion LES in predictive modelling of propulsion applications such as gas turbine, ramjet and scramjet engines. The LES models used are described in some detail and are validated against laboratory data-of which results from two cases are presented. These validated LES models are then applied to an annular multi-burner gas turbine combustor and a simplified scramjet combustor, for which some additional experimental data are available. For these cases, good agreement with the available reference data is obtained, and the LES predictions are used to elucidate the flow physics in such devices to further enhance our knowledge of these propulsion systems. Particular attention is focused on the influence of the combustion chemistry, turbulence-chemistry interaction, self-ignition, flame holding burner-to-burner interactions and combustion oscillations. PMID:19531515
Large Eddy Simulation of Mixing within a Hypervelocity Scramjet Combustor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petty, David; Wheatley, Vincent; Pantano, Carlos; Smart, Michael
2013-11-01
The turbulent mixing of parallel hypervelocity (U = 3230 m/sec, M = 3.86) air-streams with a sonic stream of gaseous hydrogen is simulated using large eddy simulation. The resultant mixing layers are characterized by a convective Mach number of 1.20. This configuration represents parallel slot injection of hydrogen via an intrusive centerbody within a constant area rectangular combustor. A hybrid shock-capturing/zero numerical dissipation (WENO/TCD) switch method designed for simulations of compressible turbulent flows was utilized. Sub-grid scale turbulence was modeled using the stretched vortex model. Visualizations of the three dimensional turbulent structures generated behind the centerbody will be presented. It has been observed that a span-wise instability of the wake behind the centerbody is initially dominant. Further downstream, the shear-layers coalesce into a mixing wake and develop the expected large-scale coherent span-wise vortices. Ph.D. Candidate, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, Centre for Hypersonics.
Large eddy simulation of flame flashback in a turbulent channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanaly, Malik; Lietz, Christopher; Raman, Venkat; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline; Gruber, Andrea; Computational Flow Physics Group Team
2014-11-01
In high-hydrogen content gas turbines, the propagation of a premixed flame along with boundary layers on the combustor walls is a source of failure, whereby the flame could enter the fuel-air premixing region that is not designed to hold high-temperature fluid. In order to develop models for predicting this phenomenon, a large eddy simulation (LES) based study is carried out here. The flow configuration is based on a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent channel, where an initial planar flame is allowed to propagate upstream in a non-periodic channel. The LES approach uses a flamelet-based combustion model along with standard models for the unresolved subfilter flux terms. It is found that the LES are very accurate in predicting the structure of the turbulent flame front. However, there was a large discrepancy for the transient evolution of the flame, indicating that the flame-boundary layer interaction modulates flame propagation significantly, and the near-wall flame behavior may be non-flamelet like due to the anisotropic of the flow in this region.
Large Eddy Simulation of Flow and Sediment Transport over Dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agegnehu, G.; Smith, H. D.
2012-12-01
Understanding the nature of flow over bedforms has a great importance in fluvial and coastal environments. For example, a bedform is one source of energy dissipation in water waves outside the surf zone in coastal environments. In rivers, the migration of dunes often affects the stability of the river bed and banks. In general, when a fluid flows over a sediment bed, the sediment transport generated by the interaction of the flow field with the bed results in the periodic deformation of the bed in the form of dunes. Dunes generally reach an equilibrium shape, and slowly propagate in the direction of the flow, as sand is lifted in the high shear regions, and redeposited in the separated flow areas. Different numerical approaches have been used in the past to study the flow and sediment transport over bedforms. In most research works, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations are employed to study fluid motions over ripples and dunes. However, evidences suggests that these models can not represent key turbulent quantities in unsteady boundary layers. The use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) can resolve a much larger range of smaller scales than RANS. Moreover, unsteady simulations using LES give vital turbulent quantities which can help to study fluid motion and sediment transport over dunes. For this steady, we use a three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic model, OpenFOAM. It is a freely available tool which has different solvers to simulate specific problems in engineering and fluid mechanics. Our objective is to examine the flow and sediment transport from numerical stand point for bed geometries that are typical of fixed dunes. At the first step, we performed Large Eddy Simulation of the flow over dune geometries based on the experimental data of Nelson et al. (1993). The instantaneous flow field is investigated with special emphasis on the occurrence of coherent structures. To assess the effect of bed geometries on near bed turbulence, we considered different
Estimation of turbulence dissipation rate by Large eddy PIV method in an agitated vessel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kysela, Bohuš; Jašíková, Darina; Konfršt, Jiří; Šulc, Radek; Ditl, Pavel
2015-05-01
The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate is important for design of mixing apparatuses in chemical industry. Generally used experimental methods of velocity measurements for measurement in complex geometries of an agitated vessel disallow measurement in resolution of small scales close to turbulence dissipation ones. Therefore, Particle image velocity (PIV) measurement method improved by large eddy Ply approach was used. Large eddy PIV method is based on modeling of smallest eddies by a sub grid scale (SGS) model. This method is similar to numerical calculations using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and the same SGS models are used. In this work the basic Smagorinsky model was employed and compared with power law approximation. Time resolved PIV data were processed by Large Eddy PIV approach and the obtained results of turbulent kinetic dissipation rate were compared in selected points for several operating conditions (impeller speed, operating liquid viscosity).
Improved engine wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plengsaard, Chalearmpol
Improved wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are presented in this research. The classical Werner-Wengle (WW) wall shear stress model is used along with near-wall sub-grid scale viscosity. A sub-grid scale turbulent kinetic energy is employed in a model for the eddy viscosity. To gain better heat flux results, a modified classical variable-density wall heat transfer model is also used. Because no experimental wall shear stress results are available in engines, the fully turbulent developed flow in a square duct is chosen to validate the new wall models. The model constants in the new wall models are set to 0.01 and 0.8, respectively and are kept constant throughout the investigation. The resulting time- and spatially-averaged velocity and temperature wall functions from the new wall models match well with the law-of-the-wall experimental data at Re = 50,000. In order to study the effect of hot air impinging walls, jet impingement on a flat plate is also tested with the new wall models. The jet Reynolds number is equal to 21,000 and a fixed jet-to-plate spacing of H/D = 2.0. As predicted by the new wall models, the time-averaged skin friction coefficient agrees well with experimental data, while the computed Nusselt number agrees fairly well when r/D > 2.0. Additionally, the model is validated using experimental data from a Caterpillar engine operated with conventional diesel combustion. Sixteen different operating engine conditions are simulated. The majority of the predicted heat flux results from each thermocouple location follow similar trends when compared with experimental data. The magnitude of peak heat fluxes as predicted by the new wall models is in the range of typical measured values in diesel combustion, while most heat flux results from previous LES wall models are over-predicted. The new wall models generate more accurate predictions and agree better with experimental data.
Large-eddy simulation of unidirectional turbulent flow over dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidyeganeh, Mohammad
We performed large eddy simulation of the flow over a series of two- and three-dimensional dune geometries at laboratory scale using the Lagrangian dynamic eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale model. First, we studied the flow over a standard 2D transverse dune geometry, then bedform three-dimensionality was imposed. Finally, we investigated the turbulent flow over barchan dunes. The results are validated by comparison with simulations and experiments for the 2D dune case, while the results of the 3D dunes are validated qualitatively against experiments. The flow over transverse dunes separates at the dune crest, generating a shear layer that plays a crucial role in the transport of momentum and energy, as well as the generation of coherent structures. Spanwise vortices are generated in the separated shear; as they are advected, they undergo lateral instabilities and develop into horseshoe-like structures and finally reach the surface. The ejection that occurs between the legs of the vortex creates the upwelling and downdrafting events on the free surface known as "boils". The three-dimensional separation of flow at the crestline alters the distribution of wall pressure, which may cause secondary flow across the stream. The mean flow is characterized by a pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, with core radii of the order of the flow depth. Staggering the crestlines alters the secondary motion; two pairs of streamwise vortices appear (a strong one, centred about the lobe, and a weaker one, coming from the previous dune, centred around the saddle). The flow over barchan dunes presents significant differences to that over transverse dunes. The flow near the bed, upstream of the dune, diverges from the centerline plane; the flow close to the centerline plane separates at the crest and reattaches on the bed. Away from the centerline plane and along the horns, flow separation occurs intermittently. The flow in the separation bubble is routed towards the horns and leaves
Large eddy simulation of boundary layer flow under cnoidal waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yin-Jun; Chen, Jiang-Bo; Zhou, Ji-Fu; Zhang, Qiang
2016-02-01
Water waves in coastal areas are generally nonlinear, exhibiting asymmetric velocity profiles with different amplitudes of crest and trough. The behaviors of the boundary layer under asymmetric waves are of great significance for sediment transport in natural circumstances. While previous studies have mainly focused on linear or symmetric waves, asymmetric wave-induced flows remain unclear, particularly in the flow regime with high Reynolds numbers. Taking cnoidal wave as a typical example of asymmetric waves, we propose to use an infinite immersed plate oscillating cnoidally in its own plane in quiescent water to simulate asymmetric wave boundary layer. A large eddy simulation approach with Smagorinsky subgrid model is adopted to investigate the flow characteristics of the boundary layer. It is verified that the model well reproduces experimental and theoretical results. Then a series of numerical experiments are carried out to study the boundary layer beneath cnoidal waves from laminar to fully developed turbulent regimes at high Reynolds numbers, larger than ever studied before. Results of velocity profile, wall shear stress, friction coefficient, phase lead between velocity and wall shear stress, and the boundary layer thickness are obtained. The dependencies of these boundary layer properties on the asymmetric degree and Reynolds number are discussed in detail.
Large-eddy simulation of sand dune morphodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota Team
2015-11-01
Sand dunes are natural features that form under complex interaction between turbulent flow and bed morphodynamics. We employ a fully-coupled 3D numerical model (Khosronejad and Sotiropoulos, 2014, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 753:150-216) to perform high-resolution large-eddy simulations of turbulence and bed morphodynamics in a laboratory scale mobile-bed channel to investigate initiation, evolution and quasi-equilibrium of sand dunes (Venditti and Church, 2005, J. Geophysical Research, 110:F01009). We employ a curvilinear immersed boundary method along with convection-diffusion and bed-morphodynamics modules to simulate the suspended sediment and the bed-load transports respectively. The coupled simulation were carried out on a grid with more than 100 million grid nodes and simulated about 3 hours of physical time of dune evolution. The simulations provide the first complete description of sand dune formation and long-term evolution. The geometric characteristics of the simulated dunes are shown to be in excellent agreement with observed data obtained across a broad range of scales. This work was supported by NSF Grants EAR-0120914 (as part of the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Large eddy simulation and its implementation in the COMMIX code.
Sun, J.; Yu, D.-H.
1999-02-15
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a numerical simulation method for turbulent flows and is derived by spatial averaging of the Navier-Stokes equations. In contrast with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) method, LES is capable of calculating transient turbulent flows with greater accuracy. Application of LES to differing flows has given very encouraging results, as reported in the literature. In recent years, a dynamic LES model that presented even better results was proposed and applied to several flows. This report reviews the LES method and its implementation in the COMMIX code, which was developed at Argonne National Laboratory. As an example of the application of LES, the flow around a square prism is simulated, and some numerical results are presented. These results include a three-dimensional simulation that uses a code developed by one of the authors at the University of Notre Dame, and a two-dimensional simulation that uses the COMMIX code. The numerical results are compared with experimental data from the literature and are found to be in very good agreement.
Towards Large Eddy Simulation of gas turbine compressors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMullan, W. A.; Page, G. J.
2012-07-01
With increasing computing power, Large Eddy Simulation could be a useful simulation tool for gas turbine axial compressor design. This paper outlines a series of simulations performed on compressor geometries, ranging from a Controlled Diffusion Cascade stator blade to the periodic sector of a stage in a 3.5 stage axial compressor. The simulation results show that LES may offer advantages over traditional RANS methods when off-design conditions are considered - flow regimes where RANS models often fail to converge. The time-dependent nature of LES permits the resolution of transient flow structures, and can elucidate new mechanisms of vorticity generation on blade surfaces. It is shown that accurate LES is heavily reliant on both the near-wall mesh fidelity and the ability of the imposed inflow condition to recreate the conditions found in the reference experiment. For components embedded in a compressor this requires the generation of turbulence fluctuations at the inlet plane. A recycling method is developed that improves the quality of the flow in a single stage calculation of an axial compressor, and indicates that future developments in both the recycling technique and computing power will bring simulations of axial compressors within reach of industry in the coming years.
Possible modifications to implicit large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonough, J. M.
2009-11-01
Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) provides an advantage over more usual LES approaches in that its construction does not involve filtering of the governing equations and, as a consequence, removal of the need to develop sub-grid scale (SGS) models to represent artificial stresses arising from this filtering. At the same time, it is clear that ILES is simply an under-resolved direct numerical simulation with advanced treatments of advection terms to better control numerical stability via dissipation that otherwise would have been provided by a SGS model. As such it cannot be expected to accurately predict interactions of fluid turbulence with other physical phenomena (e.g., heat and mass transfer, chemical kinetics) on subgrid scales---as is also true of usual forms of LES. In this talk we describe a straightforward technique, based on formal multi-scale methods, whereby SGS interactions can be introduced to enhance resolved-scale results computed as in ILES, and we discuss derivation of a class of efficient models based on the ``poor man's Navier--Stokes equation'' (McDonough, Phys.Rev. E 79, 2009; McDonough and Huang, Int.J.Numer. Meth. Fluids 44, 2004). Properties of these models will be presented for a moderate-Re 3-D lid-driven cavity problem.
Large-eddy simulation of density currents on inclined beds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chawdhary, Saurabh; Khosronejad, Ali; Christodoulou, George; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2013-11-01
Density currents are stratified flow in presence of density differential and gravity field. We carry out Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to simulate the flow of a density current formed over sloped bed due to an incoming jet of heavy density salty water for two different cases of bed slope: (a) 5 degrees and (b) 15 degrees. The Reynolds and Richardson numbers based on inlet height and inlet velocity were (a) 1100 and 0.471, and (b) 2000 and 0.0355, respectively. The Schmidt number is set equal to 620, which corresponds to the value for salt-water. The computed results are compared with laboratory experiments in terms of overall shape of the heavy-density plume and its spreading rate and are shown to be in reasonable agreement. The instantaneous LES flow fields are further analyzed to gain novel insights into the rich dynamics of coherent vortical structures in the flow. The half-width of the plume is plotted as a function of downstream length and found to exhibit three different regions on a log scale, in agreement with previous experimental findings. We acknowledge computational support from the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Final Report: "Large-Eddy Simulation of Anisotropic MHD Turbulence"
Zikanov, Oleg
2008-06-23
To acquire better understanding of turbulence in flows of liquid metals and other electrically conducting fluids in the presence of steady magnetic fields and to develop an accurate and physically adequate LES (large-eddy simulation) model for such flows. The scientific objectives formulated in the project proposal have been fully completed. Several new directions were initiated and advanced in the course of work. Particular achievements include a detailed study of transformation of turbulence caused by the imposed magnetic field, development of an LES model that accurately reproduces this transformation, and solution of several fundamental questions of the interaction between the magnetic field and fluid flows. Eight papers have been published in respected peer-reviewed journals, with two more papers currently undergoing review, and one in preparation for submission. A post-doctoral researcher and a graduate student have been trained in the areas of MHD, turbulence research, and computational methods. Close collaboration ties have been established with the MHD research centers in Germany and Belgium.
Large-eddy simulation of pulverized coal swirl jet flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone
2013-11-01
Coal is an important energy resource for future demand for electricity, as coal reserves are much more abundant than those of other fossil fuels. In pulverized coal fired power plants, it is very important to improve the technology for the control of environmental pollutants such as nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide and ash particles including unburned carbon. In order to achieve these requirements, understanding the pulverized coal combustion mechanism is necessary. However, the combustion process of the pulverized coal is not well clarified so far since pulverized coal combustion is a complicated phenomenon in which the maximum flame temperature exceeds 1500 degrees Celsius and some substances which can hardly be measured, for example, radical species and highly reactive solid particles are included. Accordingly, development of new combustion furnaces and burners requires high cost and takes a long period. In this study, a large-eddy simulation (LES) is applied to a pulverized coal combustion field and the results will be compared with the experiment. The results show that present LES can capture the general feature of the pulverized coal swirl jet flame.
Large eddy simulation of a pumped- storage reservoir
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Launay, Marina; Leite Ribeiro, Marcelo; Roman, Federico; Armenio, Vincenzo
2016-04-01
The last decades have seen an increasing number of pumped-storage hydropower projects all over the world. Pumped-storage schemes move water between two reservoirs located at different elevations to store energy and to generate electricity following the electricity demand. Thus the reservoirs can be subject to important water level variations occurring at the daily scale. These new cycles leads to changes in the hydraulic behaviour of the reservoirs. Sediment dynamics and sediment budgets are modified, sometimes inducing problems of erosion and deposition within the reservoirs. With the development of computer performances, the use of numerical techniques has become popular for the study of environmental processes. Among numerical techniques, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has arisen as an alternative tool for problems characterized by complex physics and geometries. This work uses the LES-COAST Code, a LES model under development in the framework of the Seditrans Project, for the simulation of an Upper Alpine Reservoir of a pumped-storage scheme. Simulations consider the filling (pump mode) and emptying (turbine mode) of the reservoir. The hydraulic results give a better understanding of the processes occurring within the reservoir. They are considered for an assessment of the sediment transport processes and of their consequences.
Large eddy simulations of a forced semiconfined circular impinging jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, M.; Fuchs, L.
1998-02-01
Large eddy simulations (LES) of a forced semiconfined circular impinging jet were carried out. The Reynolds number was 104 and the inflow was forced at a Strouhal number of 0.27. The separation between the jet inlet and the opposing wall was four jet inlet diameters. Four different simulations were made. Two simulations were performed without any explicit sub-grid-scale (SGS) model using 1283 and 963 grid points, respectively. Two simulations were performed with two different SGS-models using 963 grid points; one with a dynamic Smagorinsky based model and one with a stress-similarity model. The simulations were performed to study the mean velocity, the turbulence statistics, the SGS-model effects, the dynamic behavior of the jet with a focus on the near wall region. The existence of separation vortices in the wall jet region was confirmed. These secondary vortices were found to be related to the radially deflected primary vortices generated by the circular shear layer of the jet. It was also shown that the primary vortex structures that reach the wall were helical and not axisymmetric. A quantitative gain was found in the simulations with SGS-models. The stress-similarity model simulation correlated slightly better with the higher resolution simulation than the other coarse grid simulations. The variations in the results predicted by the different simulations were larger for the turbulence statistics than for the mean velocity. However, the variation among the different simulations in terms of the turbulence intensity was less than 10%.
Unsteady RANS and Large Eddy simulations of multiphase diesel injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philipp, Jenna; Green, Melissa; Akih-Kumgeh, Benjamin
2015-11-01
Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of two-phase flow and evaporation of high pressure diesel injection into a quiescent, high temperature environment is investigated. Unsteady RANS and LES are turbulent flow simulation approaches used to determine complex flow fields. The latter allows for more accurate predictions of complex phenomena such as turbulent mixing and physio-chemical processes associated with diesel combustion. In this work we investigate a high pressure diesel injection using the Euler-Lagrange method for multiphase flows as implemented in the Star-CCM+ CFD code. A dispersed liquid phase is represented by Lagrangian particles while the multi-component gas phase is solved using an Eulerian method. Results obtained from the two approaches are compared with respect to spray penetration depth and air entrainment. They are also compared with experimental data taken from the Sandia Engine Combustion Network for ``Spray A''. Characteristics of primary and secondary atomization are qualitatively evaluated for all simulation modes.
Large eddy simulation of controlled transition to turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayadi, Taraneh; Moin, Parviz
2012-11-01
Large eddy simulation of H- and K-type transitions in a spatially developing zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer at Ma∞ = 0.2 is investigated using several subgrid scale (SGS) models including constant coefficient Smagorinsky and Vreman models and their dynamic extensions, dynamic mixed scale-similarity, dynamic one-equation kinetic energy model, and global coefficient Vreman models. A key objective of this study is to assess the capability of SGS models to predict the location of transition and the skin friction throughout the transition process. The constant coefficient models fail to detect transition, but the dynamic procedure allows for a negligible turbulent viscosity in the early transition region. As a result, the "point" of transition is estimated correctly. However, after secondary instabilities set in and result in the overshoot in the skin friction profile, all models fail to produce sufficient subgrid scale shear stress required for the correct prediction of skin friction and the mean velocity profile. The same underprediction of skin friction persists into the turbulent region. Spatially filtered direct numerical simulation data in the same boundary layers are used to provide guidelines for SGS model development and validation.
Large eddy simulation predictions of absolutely unstable round hot jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boguslawski, A.; Tyliszczak, A.; Wawrzak, K.
2016-02-01
The paper presents a novel view on the absolute instability phenomenon in heated variable density round jets. As known from literature the global instability mechanism in low density jets is released when the density ratio is lower than a certain critical value. The existence of the global modes was confirmed by an experimental evidence in both hot and air-helium jets. However, some differences in both globally unstable flows were observed concerning, among others, a level of the critical density ratio. The research is performed using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method with a high-order numerical code. An analysis of the LES results revealed that the inlet conditions for the velocity and density distributions at the nozzle exit influence significantly the critical density ratio and the global mode frequency. Two inlet velocity profiles were analyzed, i.e., the hyperbolic tangent and the Blasius profiles. It was shown that using the Blasius velocity profile and the uniform density distribution led to a significantly better agreement with the universal scaling law for global mode frequency.
Inviscid Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulations for Improved Efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aikens, Kurt; Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew
2015-11-01
The accuracy of an inviscid flow assumption for wall-modeled large eddy simulations (LES) is examined because of its ability to reduce simulation costs. This assumption is not generally applicable for wall-bounded flows due to the high velocity gradients found near walls. In wall-modeled LES, however, neither the viscous near-wall region or the viscous length scales in the outer flow are resolved. Therefore, the viscous terms in the Navier-Stokes equations have little impact on the resolved flowfield. Zero pressure gradient flat plate boundary layer results are presented for both viscous and inviscid simulations using a wall model developed previously. The results are very similar and compare favorably to those from another wall model methodology and experimental data. Furthermore, the inviscid assumption reduces simulation costs by about 25% and 39% for supersonic and subsonic flows, respectively. Future research directions are discussed as are preliminary efforts to extend the wall model to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.
Large Eddy Simulation of a Sooting Jet Diffusion Flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanquart, Guillaume; Pitsch, Heinz
2007-11-01
The understanding of soot particle dynamics in combustion systems is a key issue in the development of low emission engines. Of particular importance are the processes shaping the soot particle size distribution function (PSDF). However, it is not always necessary to represent exactly the full distribution, and often information about its moments only is sufficient. The Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) allows for an efficient and accurate prediction of the moments of the soot PSDF. This method has been validated for laminar premixed and diffusion flames with detailed chemistry and is now implemented in a semi-implicit low Mach-number Navier-Stokes solver. A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of a piloted sooting jet diffusion flame (Delft flame) is performed to study the dynamics of soot particles in a turbulent environment. The profiles of temperature and major species are compared with the experimental measurements. Soot volume fraction profiles are compared with the recent data of Qamar et al. (2007). Aggregate properties such as the diameter and the fractal shape are studied in the scope of DQMOM.
Large-eddy simulations of contrails in a turbulent atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picot, J.; Paoli, R.; Thouron, O.; Cariolle, D.
2014-11-01
In this work, the evolution of contrails in the vortex and dissipation regimes is studied by means of fully three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES) coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking method to treat the ice phase. This is the first paper where fine-scale atmospheric turbulence is generated and sustained by means of a stochastic forcing that mimics the properties of stably stratified turbulent flows as those occurring in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The initial flow-field is composed by the turbulent background flow and a wake flow obtained from separate LES of the jet regime. Atmospheric turbulence is the main driver of the wake instability and the structure of the resulting wake is sensitive to the intensity of the perturbations, primarily in the vertical direction. A stronger turbulence accelerates the onset of the instability, which results in shorter contrail decent and more effective mixing in the interior of the plume. However, the self-induced turbulence that is produced in the wake after the vortex break-up dominates over background turbulence at the end of the vortex regime and dominates the mixing with ambient air. This results in global microphysical characteristics such as ice mass and optical depth that are be slightly affected by the intensity of atmospheric turbulence. On the other hand, the background humidity and temperature have a first order effect on the survival of ice crystals and particle size distribution, which is in line with recent and ongoing studies in the literature.
Large Eddy Simulations of Colorless Distributed Combustion Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdulrahman, Husam F.; Jaberi, Farhad; Gupta, Ashwani
2014-11-01
Development of efficient and low-emission colorless distributed combustion (CDC) systems for gas turbine applications require careful examination of the role of various flow and combustion parameters. Numerical simulations of CDC in a laboratory-scale combustor have been conducted to carefully examine the effects of these parameters on the CDC. The computational model is based on a hybrid modeling approach combining large eddy simulation (LES) with the filtered mass density function (FMDF) equations, solved with high order numerical methods and complex chemical kinetics. The simulated combustor operates based on the principle of high temperature air combustion (HiTAC) and has shown to significantly reduce the NOx, and CO emissions while improving the reaction pattern factor and stability without using any flame stabilizer and with low pressure drop and noise. The focus of the current work is to investigate the mixing of air and hydrocarbon fuels and the non-premixed and premixed reactions within the combustor by the LES/FMDF with the reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the same flow conditions and configurations investigated experimentally. The main goal is to develop better CDC with higher mixing and efficiency, ultra-low emission levels and optimum residence time. The computational results establish the consistency and the reliability of LES/FMDF and its Lagrangian-Eulerian numerical methodology.
On the Computation of Sound by Large-Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piomelli, Ugo; Streett, Craig L.; Sarkar, Sutanu
1997-01-01
The effect of the small scales on the source term in Lighthill's acoustic analogy is investigated, with the objective of determining the accuracy of large-eddy simulations when applied to studies of flow-generated sound. The distribution of the turbulent quadrupole is predicted accurately, if models that take into account the trace of the SGS stresses are used. Its spatial distribution is also correct, indicating that the low-wave-number (or frequency) part of the sound spectrum can be predicted well by LES. Filtering, however, removes the small-scale fluctuations that contribute significantly to the higher derivatives in space and time of Lighthill's stress tensor T(sub ij). The rms fluctuations of the filtered derivatives are substantially lower than those of the unfiltered quantities. The small scales, however, are not strongly correlated, and are not expected to contribute significantly to the far-field sound; separate modeling of the subgrid-scale density fluctuations might, however, be required in some configurations.
Large-eddy simulations of unidirectional water flow over dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoriadis, D. G. E.; Balaras, E.; Dimas, A. A.
2009-06-01
The unidirectional, subcritical flow over fixed dunes is studied numerically using large-eddy simulation, while the immersed boundary method is implemented to incorporate the bed geometry. Results are presented for a typical dune shape and two Reynolds numbers, Re = 17,500 and Re = 93,500, on the basis of bulk velocity and water depth. The numerical predictions of velocity statistics at the low Reynolds number are in very good agreement with available experimental data. A primary recirculation region develops downstream of the dune crest at both Reynolds numbers, while a secondary region develops at the toe of the dune crest only for the low Reynolds number. Downstream of the reattachment point, on the dune stoss, the turbulence intensity in the developing boundary layer is weaker than in comparable equilibrium boundary layers. Coherent vortical structures are identified using the fluctuating pressure field and the second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor. Vorticity is primarily generated at the dune crest in the form of spanwise "roller" structures. Roller structures dominate the flow dynamics near the crest, and are responsible for perturbing the boundary layer downstream of the reattachment point, which leads to the formation of "horseshoe" structures. Horseshoe structures dominate the near-wall dynamics after the reattachment point, do not rise to the free surface, and are distorted by the shear layer of the next crest. The occasional interaction between roller and horseshoe structures generates tube-like "kolk" structures, which rise to the free surface and persist for a long time before attenuating.
Thermobaric cabbeling over Maud Rise: Theory and large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harcourt, Ramsey R.
2005-10-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the wintertime upper ocean below seasonal Antarctic ice cover over Maud Rise was carried out using observed time-dependent surface forcing from 1994 Antarctic Zone Flux Experiment (ANZFLUX) observations. Surface ice formation increases the density of the cold, fresher Surface Mixed Layer (SML), that overlies warmer, saltier Weddell Deep Water (WDW). This reduces the stability of the thermocline until it reaches a critical point for instabilities arising from the nonlinear equation of state (NES) for seawater density ρ. This simulation was intended to model the thermobaric detrainment of SML fluid, a NES instability predicted to result from the dependence of seawater density on the product θP of temperature and pressure. Instead, model results demonstrate a different instability arising from the combination of thermobaricity with cabbeling, the NES effect due primarily to the dependence of ρ on θ2. This combined thermobaric cabbeling instability drives turbulent convection in a deep interior mixed layer (IML) that may grow hundreds of meters thick below the thermocline, largely decoupled from SML dynamics. In the LES, thermobaric cabbeling and IML convection shoals the SML through entrainment from below until ice motion increases in the observationally-based model forcing. Increased upper ocean model heat flux due to higher ice speed melts surface ice, increasing thermocline stratification and eventually bringing the simulated instability to a halt. In an auxiliary simulation the lull preceding strong ice motion in field observations is artificially extended by temporarily holding model surface forcing constant until the SML shoals entirely, bringing the modified WDW of the IML, 2 °C above freezing, directly to the surface. Subsequently, reverting to the observed surface forcing and its attendant strong ice motion melts the ice cover entirely, demonstrating a possible mechanism for open ocean Antarctic polynya formation. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhongming; Liu, Heping; Russell, Eric S.; Huang, Jianping; Foken, Thomas; Oncley, Steven P.
2016-02-01
The effects of large eddies on turbulence structures and flux transport were studied using data collected over a flat cotton field during the Energy Balance Experiment 2000 in the San Joaquin Valley of California in August 2000. Flux convergence (FC; larger fluxes at 8.7 m than 2.7 m) and divergence (FD) in latent heat flux (LE) were observed in a disturbed, unstable atmospheric surface layer, and their magnitudes largely departed from the prediction of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. From our wavelet analysis, it was identified that large eddies affected turbulence structures, scalar distribution, and flux transport differently at 8.7 m and 2.7 m under the FC and FD conditions. Using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition, time series data were decomposed into large eddies and small-scale background turbulence, the time-domain characteristics of large eddies were examined, and the flux contribution by large eddies was also determined quantitatively. The results suggest that large eddies over the frequency range of 0.002 Hz < f < 0.02 Hz (predominantly 300-400 m) enhanced the vertical velocity spectra more significantly at 8.7 m than 2.7 m, leading to an increased magnitude of the cospectra and thus LE at 8.7 m. In the FD case, however, these large eddies were not present and even suppressed in the vertical velocity spectra at 8.7 m. Consequently, the cospectra divergence over the low-frequency ranges primarily caused the LE divergence. This work implies that large eddies may either improve or degrade the surface energy balance closure by increasing or decreasing turbulent fluxes, respectively.
Large-eddy simulation in complex domains using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.; Kornblum, B.T.; Kollman, W.
1996-11-12
Finite element methods (FEM) are demonstrated in combination with large-eddy simulations (LES) as a valuable tool for the study of turbulent, separating channel flows, specifically the flow over a backward facing step.
Modelling of eddy currents related to large angle magnetic suspension test fixture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britcher, Colin P.; Foster, Lucas E.
1994-01-01
This report presents a preliminary analysis of the mathematical modelling of eddy current effects in a large-gap magnetic suspension system. It is shown that eddy currents can significantly affect the dynamic behavior and control of these systems, but are amenable to measurement and modelling. A theoretical framework is presented, together with a comparison of computed and experimental data related to the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture at NASA Langley Research Center.
Large Eddy Simulation Study for Fluid Disintegration and Mixing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi
2011-01-01
A new modeling approach is based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES) within which the large scales are computed and the small scales are modeled. The new approach is expected to retain the fidelity of the physics while also being computationally efficient. Typically, only models for the small-scale fluxes of momentum, species, and enthalpy are used to reintroduce in the simulation the physics lost because the computation only resolves the large scales. These models are called subgrid (SGS) models because they operate at a scale smaller than the LES grid. In a previous study of thermodynamically supercritical fluid disintegration and mixing, additional small-scale terms, one in the momentum and one in the energy conservation equations, were identified as requiring modeling. These additional terms were due to the tight coupling between dynamics and real-gas thermodynamics. It was inferred that if these terms would not be modeled, the high density-gradient magnitude regions, experimentally identified as a characteristic feature of these flows, would not be accurately predicted without the additional term in the momentum equation; these high density-gradient magnitude regions were experimentally shown to redistribute turbulence in the flow. And it was also inferred that without the additional term in the energy equation, the heat flux magnitude could not be accurately predicted; the heat flux to the wall of combustion devices is a crucial quantity that determined necessary wall material properties. The present work involves situations where only the term in the momentum equation is important. Without this additional term in the momentum equation, neither the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Smagorinsky model nor the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Gradient model could reproduce in LES the pressure field or the high density-gradient magnitude regions; the SGS-flux constant- coefficient Scale-Similarity model was the most successful in this endeavor although not
Large Eddy Simulation of Crashback in Marine Propulsors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Hyunchul
Crashback is an operating condition to quickly stop a propelled vehicle, where the propeller is rotated in the reverse direction to yield negative thrust. The crashback condition is dominated by the interaction of the free stream flow with the strong reverse flow. This interaction forms a highly unsteady vortex ring, which is a very prominent feature of crashback. Crashback causes highly unsteady loads and flow separation on the blade surface. The unsteady loads can cause propulsor blade damage, and also affect vehicle maneuverability. Crashback is therefore well known as one of the most challenging propeller states to analyze. This dissertation uses Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to predict the highly unsteady flow field in crashback. A non-dissipative and robust finite volume method developed by Mahesh et al. (2004) for unstructured grids is applied to flow around marine propulsors. The LES equations are written in a rotating frame of reference. The objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to understand the flow physics of crashback in marine propulsors with and without a duct, (2) to develop a finite volume method for highly skewed meshes which usually occur in complex propulsor geometries, and (3) to develop a sliding interface method for simulations of rotor-stator propulsor on parallel platforms. LES is performed for an open propulsor in crashback and validated against experiments performed by Jessup et al. (2004). The LES results show good agreement with experiments. Effective pressures for thrust and side-force are introduced to more clearly understand the physical sources of thrust and side-force. Both thrust and side-force are seen to be mainly generated from the leading edge of the suction side of the propeller. This implies that thrust and side-force have the same source---the highly unsteady leading edge separation. Conditional averaging is performed to obtain quantitative information about the complex flow physics of high- or low-amplitude events. The
Minimum-dissipation models for large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Hyunji Jane; Rozema, Wybe; Moin, Parviz; Verstappen, Roel
2015-11-01
Minimum-dissipation eddy-viscosity models are a class of subgrid scale models for LES that give the minimum eddy dissipation required to dissipate the energy of subgrid scales. The QR minimum-dissipation model [Verstappen, J. Sci. Comp., 2011] gives good results in simulations of decaying grid turbulence carried out on an isotropic grid. In particular, due to the minimum dissipation property of the model, the predicted energy spectra are in very good agreement with the DNS results up to the cut-off wave number unlike other methods. However, its results on anisotropic grids are often unsatisfactory because the model does not properly incorporate the grid anisotropy. We propose the anisotropic minimum-dissipation (AMD) model [Rozema et al., submitted for publication, 2015], a minimum-dissipation model that generalizes the QR model to anisotropic grids. The AMD model is more cost effective than the dynamic Smagorinsky model, appropriately switches off in laminar and transitional flow on anisotropic grids, and its subgrid scale model is consistent with the theoretic subgrid tensor. Experiments show that the AMD model is as accurate as the dynamic Smagorinsky model and Vreman model in simulations of isotropic turbulence, temporal mixing layer, and turbulent channel flow. H. J. Bae acknowledges support from SGF. W. Rozema and R. Verstappen acknowledge sponsoring by NWO for the use of supercomputing facilities and the financial support to attend the CTR SP 2014.
The Effects of Eddy-Induced Ekman Pumping on Mesoscale and Large-Scale Ocean Circulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chelton, D. B., Jr.; Matano, R. P.; Combes, V.; Schlax, M.
2014-12-01
The simultaneous availability of scatterometer measurements of surface winds, microwave measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) and altimeter measurements of sea surface height (SSH) allows a quantitative assessment of the two mechanisms for self-induced Ekman pumping by oceanic mesoscale eddies. Analysis of these combined satellite datasets reveals that the effects of eddy-induced surface currents on the surface stress usually dominate the effects of air-sea interaction from the influence of eddy-induced SST anomalies on the surface wind field (see figure). The former arises from the surface current effect on the relative wind that determines the surface stress. The latter arises from the effects of SST on vertical mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer. Although this SST influence is generally weaker than the surface current effect, it is not negligible. While the effects of mesoscale eddies on Ekman pumping are clearly documented from the satellite data, it is not yet known how the feedback of this Ekman pumping on the ocean affect the kinematic properties and evolution of oceanic mesoscale eddies. This is being investigated from empirically coupled numerical model simulations in which the SST and surface current effects on eddy-induced Ekman pumping are imposed individually and together, and the resulting ocean circulation is compared with a Control run in which the eddy-induced Ekman pumping is turned off. Preliminary results have found that both SST and surface currents attenuate the mesoscale eddy field. Consistent with the analysis of QuikSCAT and other satellite data, surface current effects attenuate the eddy field more than SST effects. The SST effects are not negligible, however. They alter the eddy fields in the numerical simulations in more subtle but significant ways. The effects of eddy-induced Ekman pumping on the large-scale circulation will also be investigated from the various numerical simulations. Figure Caption: Maps of Ekman pumping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baurle, R. A.
2015-01-01
Steady-state and scale-resolving simulations have been performed for flow in and around a model scramjet combustor flameholder. The cases simulated corresponded to those used to examine this flowfield experimentally using particle image velocimetry. A variety of turbulence models were used for the steady-state Reynolds-averaged simulations which included both linear and non-linear eddy viscosity models. The scale-resolving simulations used a hybrid Reynolds-averaged / large eddy simulation strategy that is designed to be a large eddy simulation everywhere except in the inner portion (log layer and below) of the boundary layer. Hence, this formulation can be regarded as a wall-modeled large eddy simulation. This effort was undertaken to formally assess the performance of the hybrid Reynolds-averaged / large eddy simulation modeling approach in a flowfield of interest to the scramjet research community. The numerical errors were quantified for both the steady-state and scale-resolving simulations prior to making any claims of predictive accuracy relative to the measurements. The steady-state Reynolds-averaged results showed a high degree of variability when comparing the predictions obtained from each turbulence model, with the non-linear eddy viscosity model (an explicit algebraic stress model) providing the most accurate prediction of the measured values. The hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large eddy simulation results were carefully scrutinized to ensure that even the coarsest grid had an acceptable level of resolution for large eddy simulation, and that the time-averaged statistics were acceptably accurate. The autocorrelation and its Fourier transform were the primary tools used for this assessment. The statistics extracted from the hybrid simulation strategy proved to be more accurate than the Reynolds-averaged results obtained using the linear eddy viscosity models. However, there was no predictive improvement noted over the results obtained from the explicit
Large Eddy Simulation of Wake Vortices in the Convective Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Yuh-Lang; Han, Jongil; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Feng; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.
2000-01-01
The behavior of wake vortices in a convective boundary layer is investigated using a validated large eddy simulation model. Our results show that the vortices are largely deformed due to strong turbulent eddy motion while a sinusoidal Crow instability develops. Vortex rising is found to be caused by the updrafts (thermals) during daytime convective conditions and increases with increasing nondimensional turbulence intensity eta. In the downdraft region of the convective boundary layer, vortex sinking is found to be accelerated proportional to increasing eta, with faster speed than that in an ideal line vortex pair in an inviscid fluid. Wake vortices are also shown to be laterally transported over a significant distance due to large turbulent eddy motion. On the other hand, the decay rate of the, vortices in the convective boundary layer that increases with increasing eta, is larger in the updraft region than in the downdraft region because of stronger turbulence in the updraft region.
Gomez, T; Sagaut, P; Schilling, O; Zhou, Y
2006-07-05
A spectral subggrid-scale eddy viscosity and magnetic resisitivity model based on the eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian (EDQNM) spectral kinetic and magnetic energy transfer presented in [12] is used in large-eddy simulation (LES) of large kinetic and magnetic Reynold number magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The proposed model is assessed via a posteri tests on three-dimensional, incompressible, isotropic, non-helical, freely-decaying MHD turbulence at asymptotically large Reynolds numbers. Using LES with an initial condition characterized by an Alfv{acute e}n ratio of kinetic to magnetic energy {tau}{sub A} equal to unity, it is shown that at the kinetic energy spectrum E{sub K}(k) and magnetic energy spectrum E{sub M}(k) exhibit Kolmogorov -5/3 inertial subrange scalings in the LES, consistent with the EDQNM model.
Forced turbulence in large-eddy simulation of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Chernyshov, A. A.; Karelsky, K. V.; Petrosyan, A. S.
2010-10-15
We present the large-eddy simulation method for studying forced compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The proposed method is based on a solution of the filtered basic equations of magnetohydrodynamics by finite-difference methods and on a linear representation of the driving forces in the momentum conservation equation and the magnetic induction equation. These forces supply the production of kinetic and magnetic energies. The emphasis is placed upon the important, and not investigated, question about the ability of the large-eddy simulation approach to reproduce Kolmogorov and Iroshnikov-Kraichnan scale-invariant spectra in compressible magnetohydrodynamic flows.
Computation of turbulent channel flow using Large-Eddy Interaction Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, S. K.; Payne, F. R.
1987-01-01
The objective of the paper is to investigate the nature and values of closure parameters appearing in the proposed Large-Eddy Interaction Model for prediction of turbulent flow field. Effects of two closure parameters on predicted Reynolds stresses and other turbulence structural quantities are examined for channel flows at two Reynolds numbers.
A posterirori study of models for large eddy simulations of drop-laden flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leboissetier, A.; Okong'o, N. A.; Bellan, J.
2003-01-01
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is conducted of a three-dimensional temporal mixing layer whose stream is initially laden with liquid drops which may evaporate during the simulation. The gas-phase equations are written in Eulerian frame for two perfect gas species (carrier gas and vapor emanating from the drops), while the liquid-phase equations are written in a Lagrangian frame.
Turbulent Eddy Viscosity and Large-Scale Convection in the Sun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stothers, Richard B.
2000-01-01
It is suggested here that the laminar character of the large-scale deep convective flows appearing in numerical simulations of the Sun's convective envelope arises from the effect of turbulent eddy viscosity. Previously, M. Schwarzchild suggested the same idea to explain the observed surface granulation in the Sun.
Wind Energy-Related Atmospheric Boundary Layer Large-Eddy Simulation Using OpenFOAM: Preprint
Churchfield, M.J.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J.G.; Moriarty, P.J.
2010-08-01
This paper develops and evaluates the performance of a large-eddy simulation (LES) solver in computing the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over flat terrain under a variety of stability conditions, ranging from shear driven (neutral stratification) to moderately convective (unstable stratification).
Large-Eddy Simulations and Lidar Measurements of Vortex-Pair Breakup in Aircraft Wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewellen, D. C.; Lewellen, W. S.; Poole, L. R.; DeCoursey, R. J.; Hansen, G. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kent, G. S.
1998-01-01
Results of large-eddy simulations of an aircraft wake are compared with results from ground-based lidar measurements made at NASA Langley Research Center during the Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interaction Flight Experiment field tests. Brief reviews of the design of the field test for obtaining the evolution of wake dispersion behind a Boeing 737 and of the model developed for simulating such wakes are given. Both the measurements and the simulations concentrate on the period from a few seconds to a few minutes after the wake is generated, during which the essentially two-dimensional vortex pair is broken up into a variety of three-dimensional eddies. The model and experiment show similar distinctive breakup eddies induced by the mutual interactions of the vortices, after perturbation by the atmospheric motions.
Large Eddy Simulation in the Computation of Jet Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, R. R.; Goldstein, M. E.; Povinelli, L. A.; Hayder, M. E.; Turkel, E.
1999-01-01
Noise can be predicted by solving Full (time-dependent) Compressible Navier-Stokes Equation (FCNSE) with computational domain. The fluctuating near field of the jet produces propagating pressure waves that produce far-field sound. The fluctuating flow field as a function of time is needed in order to calculate sound from first principles. Noise can be predicted by solving the full, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations with the computational domain extended to far field - but this is not feasible as indicated above. At high Reynolds number of technological interest turbulence has large range of scales. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) can not capture the small scales of turbulence. The large scales are more efficient than the small scales in radiating sound. The emphasize is thus on calculating sound radiated by large scales.
Large-eddy simulation of very-large-scale motions in atmospheric boundary-layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Jiannong; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-04-01
In the last few decades, laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers, performed at low to moderate Reynolds numbers, have found very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) in the logarithmic and outer regions. The size of VLSMs was found to be 10-20 times as large as the boundary-layer thickness. Recently, few studies based on field experiments examined the presence of VLSMs in neutral atmospheric boundary-layer flows, which are invariably at very high Reynolds numbers. Very large scale structures similar to those observed in laboratory-scale experiments have been found and characterized. However, it is known that field measurements are more challenging than laboratory-based measurements, and can lack resolution and statistical convergence. Such challenges have implications on the robustness of the analysis, which may be further adversely affected by the use of Taylor's hypothesis to convert time series to spatial data. We use large-eddy simulation (LES) to investigate VLSMs in atmospheric boundary-layer flows. In order to make sure that the largest flow structures are properly resolved, the horizontal domain size is chosen to be much larger than the standard domain size. It is shown that the contributions to the resolved turbulent kinetic energy and shear stress from VLSMs are significant. Therefore, the large computational domain adopted here is essential for the purpose of investigating VLSMs. The spatially coherent structures associated with VLSMs are characterized through flow visualization and statistical analysis. The instantaneous velocity fields in horizontal planes give evidence of streamwise-elongated flow structures of low-speed fluid with negative fluctuation of the streamwise velocity component, and which are flanked on either side by similarly elongated high-speed structures. The pre-multiplied power spectra and two-point correlations indicate that the scales of these streak-like structures are very large. These features
Large-eddy simulation of an infinitely large wind farm in a stable atmospheric boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, H.; Porté-Agel, F.
2010-09-01
When deployed as large arrays, wind turbines interact among themselves and with atmospheric boundary layer. To optimize their geometric arrangements, accurate knowledge of wind-turbine array boundary layer is of great importance. In this study, we integrated large eddy simulation with an actuator line technique, and used it to study the characteristics of wind-turbine wake in an idealized wind farm inside a stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SBL). The wind turbines, with a rotor diameter of 112m and a tower height of 119m, were placed in a well-known SBL turbulent case that has a boundary layer height of approximately 180m. The super-geostrophic nocturnal jet near the top of the boundary layer was eliminated due to the energy extraction and the enhanced mixing of momentum. Non-axisymmetric behavior of wake structure was observed in response to the non-uniform incoming turbulence, the Coriolis effects, and the rotational effects induced by blade motions. The turbulence intensity in the simulated turbine wakes was found to reach a maximum at the top-tip level and a downwind distance of approximately 3-5 rotor diameters from the turbines. The Coriolis effects caused a skewed spatial structure and drove certain amount of turbulent energy away from the center of the wake. The SBL height was increased, while the magnitudes of the surface momentum flux and the surface buoyancy flux were reduced by approximately 30%. The wind farm was also found to have a strong effect on area-averaged vertical turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat, which highlights the potential impact of wind farms on local meteorology.
Development of Large-Eddy Interaction Model for inhomogeneous turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, S. K.; Payne, F. R.
1987-01-01
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of a currently proposed model, with minimum empiricism, for calculation of the Reynolds stresses and other turbulence structural quantities in a channel. The current Large-Eddy Interaction Model not only yields Reynolds stresses but also presents an opportunity to illuminate typical characteristic motions of large-scale turbulence and the phenomenological aspects of engineering models for two Reynolds numbers.
Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent mixing layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, N. N.; Ferziger, J. H.; Reynolds, W. C.
1978-01-01
The three dimensional, time dependent (incompressible) vorticity equations were used to simulate numerically the decay of isotropic box turbulence and time developing mixing layers. The vorticity equations were spatially filtered to define the large scale turbulence field, and the subgrid scale turbulence was modeled. A general method was developed to show numerical conservation of momentum, vorticity, and energy. The terms that arise from filtering the equations were treated (for both periodic boundary conditions and no stress boundary conditions) in a fast and accurate way by using fast Fourier transforms. Use of vorticity as the principal variable is shown to produce results equivalent to those obtained by use of the primitive variable equations.
Localized dynamic kinetic-energy-based models for stochastic coherent adaptive large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Stefano, Giuliano; Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Goldstein, Daniel E.
2008-04-01
Stochastic coherent adaptive large eddy simulation (SCALES) is an extension of the large eddy simulation approach in which a wavelet filter-based dynamic grid adaptation strategy is employed to solve for the most "energetic" coherent structures in a turbulent field while modeling the effect of the less energetic background flow. In order to take full advantage of the ability of the method in simulating complex flows, the use of localized subgrid-scale models is required. In this paper, new local dynamic one-equation subgrid-scale models based on both eddy-viscosity and non-eddy-viscosity assumptions are proposed for SCALES. The models involve the definition of an additional field variable that represents the kinetic energy associated with the unresolved motions. This way, the energy transfer between resolved and residual flow structures is explicitly taken into account by the modeling procedure without an equilibrium assumption, as in the classical Smagorinsky approach. The wavelet-filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for the velocity field, along with the additional evolution equation for the subgrid-scale kinetic energy variable, are numerically solved by means of the dynamically adaptive wavelet collocation solver. The proposed models are tested for freely decaying homogeneous turbulence at Reλ=72. It is shown that the SCALES results, obtained with less than 0.5% of the total nonadaptive computational nodes, closely match reference data from direct numerical simulation. In contrast to classical large eddy simulation, where the energetic small scales are poorly simulated, the agreement holds not only in terms of global statistical quantities but also in terms of spectral distribution of energy and, more importantly, enstrophy all the way down to the dissipative scales.
Large Eddy Simulations of Severe Convection Induced Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmad, Nash'at; Proctor, Fred
2011-01-01
Convective storms can pose a serious risk to aviation operations since they are often accompanied by turbulence, heavy rain, hail, icing, lightning, strong winds, and poor visibility. They can cause major delays in air traffic due to the re-routing of flights, and by disrupting operations at the airports in the vicinity of the storm system. In this study, the Terminal Area Simulation System is used to simulate five different convective events ranging from a mesoscale convective complex to isolated storms. The occurrence of convection induced turbulence is analyzed from these simulations. The validation of model results with the radar data and other observations is reported and an aircraft-centric turbulence hazard metric calculated for each case is discussed. The turbulence analysis showed that large pockets of significant turbulence hazard can be found in regions of low radar reflectivity. Moderate and severe turbulence was often found in building cumulus turrets and overshooting tops.
High Speed Jet Noise Prediction Using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lele, Sanjiva K.
2002-01-01
Current methods for predicting the noise of high speed jets are largely empirical. These empirical methods are based on the jet noise data gathered by varying primarily the jet flow speed, and jet temperature for a fixed nozzle geometry. Efforts have been made to correlate the noise data of co-annular (multi-stream) jets and for the changes associated with the forward flight within these empirical correlations. But ultimately these emipirical methods fail to provide suitable guidance in the selection of new, low-noise nozzle designs. This motivates the development of a new class of prediction methods which are based on computational simulations, in an attempt to remove the empiricism of the present day noise predictions.
Three regularization models as large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, Jonathan; Holm, Darryl; Mininni, Pablo; Pouquet, Annick
2006-11-01
We test three regularizations, the α-model, Leray-α, and Clark-α, as sub-grid models for LES by comparison with a 1024^3 direction numerical simulation (DNS), Rλ 800, with a Taylor-Green forcing. Both the α-model and Clark-α are able to reproduce the large-scale anisotropy of the flow as well as the time scale of developing turbulence. Leray-α fails in both these regards. We study intermittency corrections through pdfs and the anomalous scaling of the velocity increment structure functions. Leray-α is somewhat less intermittent than the DNS and produces an energy spectrum that is too shallow in the inertial range, while Clark-α produces a broad k-5/3 spectrum and stronger intermittency corrections. Finally, the agreement of the DNS and α-model spectra, in disparity with results for lower Reynolds number simulations, is worse than in the Clark-α model. We conjecture that this enhanced intermittency in the α model is related to the steeper than k-5/3 spectrum now reported for the very highest Reynolds number simulations and atmospheric observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei
2011-11-01
In this investigation, we implement a high-order three-dimensional spectral difference (SD) method to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on an unstructured moving deformable grid. Presently, the SD method is used to perform simulations of compressible flow past an oscillating circular cylinder. Oscillations parallel and normal to the free stream are considered at a fixed Reynolds number of 4000, oscillation frequency of 1 Hz , and oscillation amplitude of 20% cylinder diameter. We extend this study to large eddy simulations with the integration of a Smagorinsky-type subgrid-scale (SGS) model. Computational results will be compared to experimental data. The effectiveness of the large eddy simulation in capturing the vortex dynamics in the wake is analyzed. This work is funded by the Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Department at George Washington University
Large eddy simulation of mixing between hot and cold sodium flows - comparison with experiments
Simoneau, J.P.; Noe, H.; Menant, B.
1995-09-01
The large eddy simulation is becoming a potential powerful tool for the calculation of turbulent flows. In nuclear liquid metal cooled fast reactors, the knowledge of the turbulence characteristics is of great interest for the prediction and the analysis of thermal stripping phenomena. The objective of this paper is to give a contribution in the evaluation of the large eddy simulation technique is an individual case. The problem chosen is the case of the mixing between hot and cold sodium flows. The computations are compared with available sodium tests. This study shows acceptable qualitative results but the simple model used is not able to predict the turbulence characteristics. More complex models including larger domains around the fluctuating zone and fluctuating boundary conditions could be necessary. Validation works are continuing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardino, J.; Ferziger, J. H.; Reynolds, W. C.
1983-01-01
The physical bases of large eddy simulation and subgrid modeling are studied. A subgrid scale similarity model is developed that can account for system rotation. Large eddy simulations of homogeneous shear flows with system rotation were carried out. Apparently contradictory experimental results were explained. The main effect of rotation is to increase the transverse length scales in the rotation direction, and thereby decrease the rates of dissipation. Experimental results are shown to be affected by conditions at the turbulence producing grid, which make the initial states a function of the rotation rate. A two equation model is proposed that accounts for effects of rotation and shows good agreement with experimental results. In addition, a Reynolds stress model is developed that represents the turbulence structure of homogeneous shear flows very well and can account also for the effects of system rotation.
A modified Darcy's law . Large eddy simulation of turbulent flows through a fractal model city
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gisinger, Sonja; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Schröttle, Josef
2015-08-01
An approach to describe the turbulent flow through a complex geometry (e.g., urban area) by means of an analogy to flows through porous media is presented. Therefore, a modification of the original Darcy's law is proposed, and its application is tested in a prototype problem with an idealized complex geometry using large eddy simulations. The numerical results indicate the validity of the modified Darcy's law for the chosen setup.
Structural subgrid-scale modeling for large-eddy simulation: A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Hao; Rutland, Christopher J.
2016-03-01
Accurately modeling nonlinear interactions in turbulence is one of the key challenges for large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulence. In this article, we review recent studies on structural subgrid scale modeling, focusing on evaluating how well these models predict the effects of small scales. The article discusses a priori and a posteriori test results. Other nonlinear models are briefly discussed, and future prospects are noted.
Structural subgrid-scale modeling for large-eddy simulation: A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Hao; Rutland, Christopher J.
2016-08-01
Accurately modeling nonlinear interactions in turbulence is one of the key challenges for large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulence. In this article, we review recent studies on structural subgrid scale modeling, focusing on evaluating how well these models predict the effects of small scales. The article discusses a priori and a posteriori test results. Other nonlinear models are briefly discussed, and future prospects are noted.
Prediction and control of turbulent aero-optical distortion using large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Childs, Robert E.
1993-06-01
The problem of aero-optical distortion caused by turbulence in high speed mixing layers was studied using large eddy simulation (LES) as the model of turbulence. The accuracy of LES is established for global features of the mixing layer, such as mean growth rate and statistics of turbulent velocity fluctuations. LES was then used to assess two concepts for suppressing density fluctuations and aero-optical distortion, lateral convergence and streamline curvature, and one of these was found to be reasonably effective.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Coherent Flow Structures within a Cubical Canopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inagaki, Atsushi; Castillo, Marieta Cristina L.; Yamashita, Yoshimi; Kanda, Manabu; Takimoto, Hiroshi
2012-02-01
Instantaneous flow structures "within" a cubical canopy are investigated via large-eddy simulation. The main topics of interest are, (1) large-scale coherent flow structures within a cubical canopy, (2) how the structures are coupled with the turbulent organized structures (TOS) above them, and (3) the classification and quantification of representative instantaneous flow patterns within a street canyon in relation to the coherent structures. We use a large numerical domain (2,560 m × 2,560 m × 1,710 m) with a fine spatial resolution (2.5 m), thereby simulating a complete daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as well as explicitly resolving a regular array of cubes (40 m in height) at the surface. A typical urban ABL is numerically modelled. In this situation, the constant heat supply from roof and floor surfaces sustains a convective mixed layer as a whole, but strong wind shear near the canopy top maintains the surface layer nearly neutral. The results reveal large coherent structures in both the velocity and temperature fields "within" the canopy layer. These structures are much larger than the cubes, and their shapes and locations are shown to be closely related to the TOS above them. We classify the instantaneous flow patterns in a cavity, specifically focusing on two characteristic flow patterns: flushing and cavity-eddy events. Flushing indicates a strong upward motion, while a cavity eddy is characterized by a dominant vortical motion within a single cavity. Flushing is clearly correlated with the TOS above, occurring frequently beneath low-momentum streaks. The instantaneous momentum and heat transport within and above a cavity due to flushing and cavity-eddy events are also quantified.
Direct-Numerical and Large-Eddy Simulations of a Non-Equilibrium Turbulent Kolmogorov Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodruff, S. L.; Shebalin, J. V.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1999-01-01
A non-equilibrium form of turbulent Kolmogorov flow is set up by making an instantaneous change in the amplitude of the spatially-periodic forcing. It is found that the response of the flow to this instantaneous change becomes more dramatic as the wavenumber of the forcing is increased, and, at the same time, that the faithfulness with which the large-eddy-simulation results agree with the direct-numerical results decreases.
Large-eddy simulation of free-surface decaying turbulence with dynamic subgrid-scale models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvetti, M. V.; Zang, Y.; Street, R. L.; Banerjee, S.
1997-08-01
This paper describes large-eddy simulations of decaying turbulence in an open channel, using different dynamic subgrade-scale models, viz. the dynamic model of Germano et al. [Phys. Fluids A 3, 1790 (1991)] (DSM), the dynamic mixed model in Zang et al. [Phys. Fluids A 5, 3186 (1993)] (DMM), and the dynamic two-parameter model of Salvetti and Banerjee [Phys. Fluids 7, 2831 (1995)] (DTM). These models are incorporated in a finite-volume solver of the Navier-Stokes equations. A direct numerical simulation of this flow conducted by Pan and Banerjee [Phys. Fluids 7, 1649 (1995)] showed that near the free surface turbulence has a quasi-two-dimensional behavior. Moreover, the quasi-two-dimensional region increases in thickness with the decay time, although the structure remains three-dimensional in the central regions of the flow. The results of the large-eddy simulations show that both the DMM and the DTM are able to reproduce the features of the decay process observed in the direct simulation and to handle the anisotropic nature of the flow. Nevertheless, the addition of the second model coefficient in the DTM improves the agreement with the direct simulation. When the DSM is used, significant discrepancies are observed between the large-eddy and the direct simulations during the decay process at the free surface.
Numerical simulation of a closed rotor-stator system using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amouyal, Solal Abraham Teva
A large eddy simulation of an enclosed annular rotor stator cavity is presented. The geometry is characterized by a large aspect ratio G = (b-a)/h = 18.32 and a small radius ratio a/b = 0.152, where a and b are the inner and outer radii of the rotating disk and h is the interdisk spacing. The rotation rate o under consideration is equivalent to the rotational Reynolds number Re = o b2 /nu= 9.5x104 , where nu is the kinematic viscosity. The main objective of this study is to correctly simulate the rotor stator cavity using a low order numerical scheme on unstructured grids. The numerical simulations were run on the software AVBP developed by the Centre Europeen de Recherche et de Formation Avancee en Calcul Scientific. The results were compared to the experimental results obtained by Sebastien Poncet of Universit e Aix-Marseille. Two large eddy simulations techniques were used: the Smagorinsky and Wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity models. The simulations were run on three set of grids, each with a different cell resolution-14, 35 and 50- along the thickness of the system. Results from each mesh show a good qualitative agreement of the mean velocity field with Poncet's experimental results. It was found that the Samgorinsky model to be more appropriate for this configuration.
Calibration of a new very large eddy simulation (VLES) methodology for turbulent flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, XingSi; Ye, TaoHong; Chen, YiLiang
2012-10-01
Following the idea of Speziale's Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES) method, a new unified hybrid simulation approach was proposed which can change seamlessly from RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) to LES (Large Eddy Simulation) method depending on the numerical resolution. The model constants were calibrated in accordance with other hybrid methods. Besides being able to approach the two limits of RANS and LES, the new model also provides a proper VLES mode between the two limits, and thus can be used for a wide range of mesh resolutions. Also RANS simulation can be recovered near the wall which is similar to the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) concept. This new methodology was implemented into Wilcox's k-ω model and applications were conducted for fully developed turbulent channel flow at Re τ = 395 and turbulent flow past a square cylinder at Re = 22000. Results were compared with LES predictions and other studies. The new method is found to be quite efficient in resolving large flow structures, and can predict satisfactory results on relative coarse mesh.
Nesting Large-Eddy Simulations Within Mesoscale Simulations for Wind Energy Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundquist, J. K.; Mirocha, J. D.; Chow, F. K.; Kosovic, B.; Lundquist, K. A.
2008-12-01
With increasing demand for more accurate atmospheric simulations for wind turbine micrositing, for operational wind power forecasting, and for more reliable turbine design, simulations of atmospheric flow with resolution of tens of meters or higher are required. These time-dependent large-eddy simulations (LES) account for complex terrain and resolve individual atmospheric eddies on length scales smaller than turbine blades. These small-domain high-resolution simulations are possible with a range of commercial and open- source software, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In addition to "local" sources of turbulence within an LES domain, changing weather conditions outside the domain can also affect flow, suggesting that a mesoscale model provide boundary conditions to the large-eddy simulations. Nesting a large-eddy simulation within a mesoscale model requires nuanced representations of turbulence. Our group has improved the Weather and Research Forecating model's (WRF) LES capability by implementing the Nonlinear Backscatter and Anisotropy (NBA) subfilter stress model following Kosoviæ (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005). We have also implemented an immersed boundary method (IBM) in WRF to accommodate complex terrain. These new models improve WRF's LES capabilities over complex terrain and in stable atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate approaches to nesting LES within a mesoscale simulation for farms of wind turbines in hilly regions. Results are sensitive to the nesting method, indicating that care must be taken to provide appropriate boundary conditions, and to allow adequate spin-up of turbulence in the LES domain. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Nesting large-eddy simulations within mesoscale simulations for wind energy applications
Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D; Chow, F K; Kosovic, B; Lundquist, K A
2008-09-08
With increasing demand for more accurate atmospheric simulations for wind turbine micrositing, for operational wind power forecasting, and for more reliable turbine design, simulations of atmospheric flow with resolution of tens of meters or higher are required. These time-dependent large-eddy simulations (LES), which resolve individual atmospheric eddies on length scales smaller than turbine blades and account for complex terrain, are possible with a range of commercial and open-source software, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In addition to 'local' sources of turbulence within an LES domain, changing weather conditions outside the domain can also affect flow, suggesting that a mesoscale model provide boundary conditions to the large-eddy simulations. Nesting a large-eddy simulation within a mesoscale model requires nuanced representations of turbulence. Our group has improved the Weather and Research Forecasting model's (WRF) LES capability by implementing the Nonlinear Backscatter and Anisotropy (NBA) subfilter stress model following Kosovic (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005). We have also implemented an immersed boundary method (IBM) in WRF to accommodate complex terrain. These new models improve WRF's LES capabilities over complex terrain and in stable atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate approaches to nesting LES within a mesoscale simulation for farms of wind turbines in hilly regions. Results are sensitive to the nesting method, indicating that care must be taken to provide appropriate boundary conditions, and to allow adequate spin-up of turbulence in the LES domain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schalkwijk, Jerôme; Jonker, Harm J. J.; Siebesma, A. Pier
2016-07-01
The low-frequency contribution to the systematic and random sampling errors in single-tower eddy-covariance flux measurements is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). We use a continuous LES integration that covers a full year of realistic weather conditions over Cabauw, the Netherlands, and emulate eddy-covariance measurements. We focus on the daytime flux imbalance, when the turbulent flux is sufficiently resolved. Averaged over the year, daytime single-tower eddy-covariance flux measurements lead to a significant systematic underestimation of the turbulent flux. This underestimation depends on the averaging period and measurement height. For a 3600-s averaging period at 16-m height, the systematic underestimation reduces to a few percent, but for 900-s averaged tall-tower measurements at 100-m height, the fluxes are systematically underestimated by over 20 %. The year-long dataset facilitates an investigation into the environmental conditions that influence the eddy-covariance flux imbalance. The imbalance problem is found to vary widely from day to day, strongly dependent on the flow regime. In general, the imbalance problem reduces with increased mean wind speed, but days having the largest imbalance (over twice the average) are characterized by roll vortices that occur for average wind speeds, typically having a boundary-layer height (z_i) to Obukhov length ( L) ratio of 10 < -z_i/L < 100.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schalkwijk, Jerôme; Jonker, Harm J. J.; Siebesma, A. Pier
2016-03-01
The low-frequency contribution to the systematic and random sampling errors in single-tower eddy-covariance flux measurements is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). We use a continuous LES integration that covers a full year of realistic weather conditions over Cabauw, the Netherlands, and emulate eddy-covariance measurements. We focus on the daytime flux imbalance, when the turbulent flux is sufficiently resolved. Averaged over the year, daytime single-tower eddy-covariance flux measurements lead to a significant systematic underestimation of the turbulent flux. This underestimation depends on the averaging period and measurement height. For a 3600-s averaging period at 16-m height, the systematic underestimation reduces to a few percent, but for 900-s averaged tall-tower measurements at 100-m height, the fluxes are systematically underestimated by over 20 %. The year-long dataset facilitates an investigation into the environmental conditions that influence the eddy-covariance flux imbalance. The imbalance problem is found to vary widely from day to day, strongly dependent on the flow regime. In general, the imbalance problem reduces with increased mean wind speed, but days having the largest imbalance (over twice the average) are characterized by roll vortices that occur for average wind speeds, typically having a boundary-layer height (z_i) to Obukhov length (L) ratio of 10 < -z_i/L < 100.
Fast solver for large scale eddy current non-destructive evaluation problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Naiguang
Eddy current testing plays a very important role in non-destructive evaluations of conducting test samples. Based on Faraday's law, an alternating magnetic field source generates induced currents, called eddy currents, in an electrically conducting test specimen. The eddy currents generate induced magnetic fields that oppose the direction of the inducing magnetic field in accordance with Lenz's law. In the presence of discontinuities in material property or defects in the test specimen, the induced eddy current paths are perturbed and the associated magnetic fields can be detected by coils or magnetic field sensors, such as Hall elements or magneto-resistance sensors. Due to the complexity of the test specimen and the inspection environments, the availability of theoretical simulation models is extremely valuable for studying the basic field/flaw interactions in order to obtain a fuller understanding of non-destructive testing phenomena. Theoretical models of the forward problem are also useful for training and validation of automated defect detection systems. Theoretical models generate defect signatures that are expensive to replicate experimentally. In general, modelling methods can be classified into two categories: analytical and numerical. Although analytical approaches offer closed form solution, it is generally not possible to obtain largely due to the complex sample and defect geometries, especially in three-dimensional space. Numerical modelling has become popular with advances in computer technology and computational methods. However, due to the huge time consumption in the case of large scale problems, accelerations/fast solvers are needed to enhance numerical models. This dissertation describes a numerical simulation model for eddy current problems using finite element analysis. Validation of the accuracy of this model is demonstrated via comparison with experimental measurements of steam generator tube wall defects. These simulations generating two
Reynolds-constrained large-eddy simulation of compressible flow over a compression ramp
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Zuoli; Chen, Liang
2015-11-01
A novel large-eddy simulation (LES) method is introduced for numerical simulation of wall-bounded compressible turbulent flows. The subgrid-scale (SGS) model in this method is designed to be composed of two parts depending on the distance to the nearest wall. In the near-wall region, both the mean SGS stress and heat flux are constrained by external Reynolds stress and heat flux to ensure the total target quantities, while the fluctuating SGS stress and heat flux are closed in a traditional fashion but using residual model parameterizations. In the far-wall region, the conventional SGS model is directly employed with necessary smoothing operation in the neighborhood of the constrained-unconstrained interface, which might be different for the stress and heat flux depending on the flow configuration. Compressible flow over a compression ramp is numerically studied using the new LES technique. The results are compared with the available experimental and direct numerical simulation (DNS) data, and those from traditional LES and detached-eddy simulation (DES). It turns out that the Reynolds-constrained large-eddy simulation (RCLES) method can predict the size of the separation bubble, mean flow profile, and friction force, etc. more accurately than traditional LES and DES techniques. Moreover, the RCLES method proves to be much less sensitive to the grid resolution than traditional LES method, and makes pure LES of flows of engineering interest feasible with moderate grids.
A study of differentiation errors in large-eddy simulations based on the EDQNM theory
Berland, J. Bogey, C.; Bailly, C.
2008-09-10
This paper is concerned with the investigation of numerical errors in large-eddy simulations by means of two-point turbulence modeling. Based on the eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian (EDQNM) theory, a stochastic model is developed in order to predict the time evolution of the kinetic energy spectrum obtained by a large-eddy simulation (LES), including the effects of the numerics. Using this framework, the influence of the accuracy of the approximate space differencing schemes on LES quality is studied, for decaying homogeneous isotropic incompressible turbulence, with Reynolds numbers Re{sub {lambda}} based on the transverse Taylor scale equal to 780, 2500 and 8000. The results show that the discretization of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations leads to differentiation and aliasing errors. Error spectra are also presented, and indicate that the numerical errors are mainly originating from the approximate differentiation. In addition, increasing the order of accuracy of the differencing schemes or using algorithms optimized in the Fourier space is found to widen the range of well-resolved scales. Unfortunately, for all the schemes, the smaller scales with wavenumbers close to the grid cut-off wavenumber, are badly calculated and generate differentiation errors over the whole energy spectrum. The eventual use of explicit filtering to remove spurious motions with short wavelength is finally shown to significantly improve LES accuracy.
Application of large-eddy simulation for trailing-edge noise prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Meng; Moin, Parviz
Turbulent boundary layers near the trailing-edge of a lifting surface are known to generate intense, broadband scattering noise as well as surface pressure fluctuations. To numerically predict the trailing-edge noise requires that the noise-generating eddies over a wide range of length scales be adequately represented. Large-eddy simulation technique provides a promising tool for obtaining the unsteady wall-pressure fields and the acoustic source functions. In the present work, a large-eddy simulation is carried out for turbulent boundary layer flow past an asymmetrically beveled trailing-edge of a flat strut at a chord Reynolds number of 2.15 × 106. The computed velocity and surface pressure statistics compare reasonably well with the experimental measurements of Blake. The far-field acoustic calculation is facilitated by the integral solution to the Lighthill equation derived by Ffowcs Williams & Hall. Computations have been carried out to determine the far-field noise spectra, the source-term characteristics, and the requirement for the integration domain size. It is found that the present LES is adequate for predicting noise radiation over a wide frequency range. At the low frequency end, however, the spanwise source coherence estimated based on surface pressure fluctuations does not decay sufficiently, suggesting the need for a wider computational domain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, X.
2014-12-01
Thermal stratification of the atmospheric surface layer has strong impact on the land-atmosphere exchange of turbulent, heat, and pollutant fluxes. Few studies have been carried out for the interaction of the weakly to moderately stable stratified atmosphere and the urban canopy. This study performs a large-eddy simulation of a modeled street canyon within a weakly to moderately stable atmosphere boundary layer. To better resolve the smaller eddy size resulted from the stable stratification, a higher spatial and temporal resolution is used. The detailed flow structure and turbulence inside the street canyon are analyzed. The relationship of pollutant dispersion and Richardson number of the atmosphere is investigated. Differences between these characteristics and those under neutral and unstable atmosphere boundary layer are emphasized.
Large eddy simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method
Darlington, R
1999-12-01
This research addresses the application of a large eddy simulation (LES) to Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. First, ALE simulations of simplified Rayleigh-Taylor instability are studied. The advantages of ALE over Eulerian simulations are shown. Next, the behavior of the LES is examined in a more complicated ALE simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The effects of eddy viscosity and stochastic backscatter are examined. The LES is also coupled with ALE to increase grid resolution in areas where it is needed. Finally, the methods studied above are applied to two sets of experimental simulations. In these simulations, ALE allows the mesh to follow expanding experimental targets, while LES can be used to mimic the effect of unresolved instability modes.
Developments and applications of dynamic models for large eddy simulation of complex flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moin, P.; Carati, D.; Lund, T.; Ghosal, S.; Akselvoll, K.
1994-12-01
The dynamic modeling procedure for large eddy simulation of turbulent flows is reviewed and recent developments in the theoretical aspects and applications are described. Methods for inclusion of backscatter of energy from small to large scale motions are presented. New formulations of the dynamic procedure are proposed which are optimized based on the subgrid scale flux vector or the energy dissipation rate instead of the subgrid scale stress tensor. Recent results from application of the model to forced isotropic turbulence with an inertial subrange, flow over a backward facing step at Reynolds number of 28000, and flow over a concave curved surface are presented.
Effect of large eddies on atmospheric surface layer turbulence and the underlying wave field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savtchenko, Andrey
1999-02-01
To improve existing models for air-sea interaction, a better understanding of the energy transfer across the boundary layer and in particular of the coupling of large atmospheric eddies with the air-sea interface is needed. Recent investigations have already shown a possible coupling of large structures in atmospheric turbulence and surface ripples. This was done using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of ocean surface and almost simultaneous advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) imagery of cloud streets at a cold-air outbreak. The intent of our study is to further validate this hypothesis in a general case of coastal circulation. For this purpose we analyze a suite of collocated simultaneous records of airflow, radar return, and surface elevations from a coastal platform. We investigate the influence of large eddies (20-60 min) on the turbulent properties of the airflow in the first 2 m above the ocean surface. The analysis shows very prominent peaks in the magnitude of 12- to 16-min fluctuations which are further modulated in 20- to 40-min intervals. These scales and modulations are characteristic for all variables of interest here. The detected scales and their modulation suggest significant interaction of surface layer within the first 1-2 m with large eddies of scales of O(1) and O(10) km. The intermittent structure of turbulence responds by alternating contributions from bursts and sweeps; the frequency of occurrence of bursts and sweeps also reveals the influence of large structures. The instantaneous cross correlation between the shorter scales of momentum flux and radar return, corresponding to the individual burst events, can be 4 times as strong as the overall cross correlation.
Coelho, P.J.
2009-05-15
An analysis of the relevance of turbulence-radiation interaction in the numerical simulation of turbulent reactive flows is presented. A semi-causal stochastic model was used to generate a time-series of turbulent scalar fluctuations along optical paths of Sandia flame D, a widely studied piloted turbulent jet nonpremixed flame. The radiative transfer equation was integrated along these paths for every realization using a grid resolution typical of a direct numerical simulation. The correlated k-distribution method was employed to compute the radiative properties of the medium. The results were used to determine the ensemble average, as well as the extreme values, of quantities that indicate the importance of the turbulence-radiation interaction. Several approximate methods are then proposed to solve the filtered radiative transfer equation in the framework of large eddy simulations. The proposed methods are applicable along with combustion models that either assume the filtered probability density function of a conserved scalar or solve a transport equation for a joint scalar or joint scalar/velocity filtered density function. It is concluded that the errors resulting from neglecting the turbulence-radiation interaction in large eddy simulations are much lower than those found in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations. The optically thin fluctuation approximation may be extended to large eddy simulations yielding predictions in excellent agreement with the reference solution. If the turbulence-radiation interaction is accounted for using this approximation, the average relative error of the filtered total radiation intensity is generally below 0.3% for the studied flame. (author)
Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged/Large-Eddy Simulations of a Coaxial Supersonic Free-Jet Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baurle, Robert A.; Edwards, Jack R.
2010-01-01
Reynolds-averaged and hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations have been applied to a supersonic coaxial jet flow experiment. The experiment was designed to study compressible mixing flow phenomenon under conditions that are representative of those encountered in scramjet combustors. The experiment utilized either helium or argon as the inner jet nozzle fluid, and the outer jet nozzle fluid consisted of laboratory air. The inner and outer nozzles were designed and operated to produce nearly pressure-matched Mach 1.8 flow conditions at the jet exit. The purpose of the computational effort was to assess the state-of-the-art for each modeling approach, and to use the hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations to gather insight into the deficiencies of the Reynolds-averaged closure models. The Reynolds-averaged simulations displayed a strong sensitivity to choice of turbulent Schmidt number. The initial value chosen for this parameter resulted in an over-prediction of the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, but the opposite trend was observed when argon was used as the injectant. A larger turbulent Schmidt number greatly improved the comparison of the results with measurements for the helium simulations, but variations in the Schmidt number did not improve the argon comparisons. The hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations also over-predicted the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, while under-predicting the rate of mixing when argon was used as the injectant. The primary reason conjectured for the discrepancy between the hybrid simulation results and the measurements centered around issues related to the transition from a Reynolds-averaged state to one with resolved turbulent content. Improvements to the inflow conditions were suggested as a remedy to this dilemma. Second-order turbulence statistics were also compared to their modeled Reynolds-averaged counterparts to evaluate the effectiveness of common turbulence closure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monod, R.; Brillant, G.; Toutant, A.; Bataille, F.
2012-11-01
Thermal striping is one of the possible initiator of pipe rupture. In this framework, thermal fluctuations in a heated periodic channel have been calculated using Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The fluid Prandtl number is set to 0.01 and the friction Reynolds number to 395. The Werner and Wengle Wall Function is used with the Navier-Stokes equations to reduce the computational cost. Satisfactory results can be noticed on the temperature fluctuations for low Prandtl number fluids. Several boundary conditions are considered, namely isothermal, isoflux, and conjugate heat transfer. The impacts of the wall properties on the temperature statistics for conjugated heat transfer boundary conditions are deeply analysed.
Evidence of Organized Large Eddies by Ground-Based Doppler Lidar, Sonic Anemometer and Sodar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drobinski, Philippe; Brown, Robert A.; Flamant, Pierre H.; Pelon, Jacques
In an experiment investigating the planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind and temperature fields, and PBL inversion height recorded by various instruments, the results reveal the presence of organized large eddies (OLE) or rolls. The measurements by lidars, anemometers, soundings and sodar gave an overview of the characteristics of the rolls and sources of energy production that maintain them. The experimental results obtained on two consecutive days are compared to model outputs. The agreement is excellent, showing that thermal stratification and wind shear are important factors in the structure and dynamics of OLE. A heterodyne Doppler lidar (HDL) is shown to be a useful tool in the study of OLE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nouri Gheimassi, Arash; Givi, Peyman; Nik, Mehdi B.; Pope, Stephen B.
2015-11-01
A new model is developed which accounts for the effects of subgrid scale pressure in the context of the filtered density function (FDF) formulation. This results in a pressure-velocity-scalar filtered mass density function (PVS-FMDF), which is suitable for large eddy simulation of compressible turbulence. Following its mathematical definition, an exact transport equation is derived for the PVS-FMDF. This equation is modeled in a probabilistic manner by a system of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The consistency and the predictive capability of the model are established by conducting LES of a three-dimensional compressible mixing layer, and comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data.
Large eddy simulation of vortex shedding and pressure fluctuation in aerostatic bearings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jincheng; Chen, Han; Chen, Xuedong
2013-07-01
In aerostatic bearings, high speed air flow may induce small vibration, which has been harmful to the improvement of moving and positioning accuracy of aerostatically supported devices in ultra-precision applications. In this paper, the transient flow field in the aerostatic bearing is numerically investigated using the large eddy simulation method. Turbulent structures are studied and vortex shedding phenomenon is discovered in the bearing recess. Our computational results demonstrate that vortex shedding causes pressure fluctuation in the bearing clearance. Relationship between pressure fluctuation and bearing vibration is established based on our simulation results and experimentally measured vibration strength.
Dynamic optimization methodology based on subgrid-scale dissipation for large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Changping; Xiao, Zuoli; Li, Xinliang
2016-01-01
A dynamic procedure based on subgrid-scale dissipation is proposed for large eddy simulation of turbulent flows. In the new method, the model coefficients are determined by minimizing the square error of the resolved dissipation rate based on the Germano identity. A dynamic two-term mixed model is tested and evaluated both a priori and a posteriori in simulations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. The new dynamic procedure proves to be more effective to optimize the model coefficients as compared with traditional method. The corresponding dynamic mixed model can predict the physical quantities more accurately than traditional dynamic mixed model.
Large Eddy Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities at high Reynolds number stratified flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Dana; Goodman, Lou; Raessi, Mehdi
2015-11-01
Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz Instabilities (KHI) at high Reynolds numbers are performed using the Large Eddy Simulation technique. Reynolds numbers up to 100,000 are achieved using our model. The resulting data set is used to examine the effect of Reynolds number on various statistics, including dissipation flux coefficient, turbulent kinetic energy budget, and Thorpe length scale. It is shown that KHI are qualitatively different at high Re, up to and including the onset of vortex pairing and billow collapse and quantitatively different afterward. The effect of Richardson number is also examined. The results are discussed as they apply to ocean experiments.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Madnia, Cyrus K.; Steinberger, Craig J.
1990-01-01
This research is involved with the implementation of advanced computational schemes based on large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing and its coupling with chemical reactions in compressible turbulent flows. In the efforts related to LES, a research program to extend the present capabilities of this method was initiated for the treatment of chemically reacting flows. In the DNS efforts, the focus is on detailed investigations of the effects of compressibility, heat release, and non-equilibrium kinetics modelings in high speed reacting flows. Emphasis was on the simulations of simple flows, namely homogeneous compressible flows, and temporally developing high speed mixing layers.
Large Eddy Simulation of a Cavitating Multiphase Flow for Liquid Injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cailloux, M.; Helie, J.; Reveillon, J.; Demoulin, F. X.
2015-12-01
This paper presents a numerical method for modelling a compressible multiphase flow that involves phase transition between liquid and vapour in the context of gasoline injection. A discontinuous compressible two fluid mixture based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) implementation is employed to represent the phases of liquid, vapour and air. The mass transfer between phases is modelled by standard models such as Kunz or Schnerr-Sauer but including the presence of air in the gas phase. Turbulence is modelled using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to catch instationnarities and coherent structures. Eventually the modelling approach matches favourably experimental data concerning the effect of cavitation on atomisation process.
Large eddy simulation model for wind-driven sea circulation in coastal areas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petronio, A.; Roman, F.; Nasello, C.; Armenio, V.
2013-12-01
In the present paper a state-of-the-art large eddy simulation model (LES-COAST), suited for the analysis of water circulation and mixing in closed or semi-closed areas, is presented and applied to the study of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Muggia bay, the industrial harbor of the city of Trieste, Italy. The model solves the non-hydrostatic, unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, under the Boussinesq approximation for temperature and salinity buoyancy effects, using a novel, two-eddy viscosity Smagorinsky model for the closure of the subgrid-scale momentum fluxes. The model employs: a simple and effective technique to take into account wind-stress inhomogeneity related to the blocking effect of emerged structures, which, in turn, can drive local-scale, short-term pollutant dispersion; a new nesting procedure to reconstruct instantaneous, turbulent velocity components, temperature and salinity at the open boundaries of the domain using data coming from large-scale circulation models (LCM). Validation tests have shown that the model reproduces field measurement satisfactorily. The analysis of water circulation and mixing in the Muggia bay has been carried out under three typical breeze conditions. Water circulation has been shown to behave as in typical semi-closed basins, with an upper layer moving along the wind direction (apart from the anti-cyclonic veering associated with the Coriolis force) and a bottom layer, thicker and slower than the upper one, moving along the opposite direction. The study has shown that water vertical mixing in the bay is inhibited by a large level of stable stratification, mainly associated with vertical variation in salinity and, to a minor extent, with temperature variation along the water column. More intense mixing, quantified by sub-critical values of the gradient Richardson number, is present in near-coastal regions where upwelling/downwelling phenomena occur. The analysis of instantaneous fields has detected the presence of
Large eddy simulation of plume dispersion in a convective boundary layer
Fosberry, L.P.; Tsang, T.T.H.
1996-12-31
Plume dispersion in a convective boundary layer is dependent on release height. When a neutrally buoyant contaminant is released from an elevated point in the convective boundary layer at z {approximately} 0.5h, where h is the height of the boundary layer, the plume descends and a concentration maximum is observed at ground level. Alternately, when the contaminant is released from a surface source at z < {approximately} 0.2h, the plume lifts off and a maximum concentration is observed near the inversion layer. Neutrally buoyant plume dispersion in the convective atmospheric boundary layer were simulated by a mixed pseudospectral finite difference Large Eddy Simulation (LES).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juhui, Chen; Yanjia, Tang; Dan, Li; Pengfei, Xu; Huilin, Lu
2013-07-01
Flow behavior of gas and particles is predicted by the large eddy simulation of gas-second order moment of solid model (LES-SOM model) in the simulation of flow behavior in CFB. This study shows that the simulated solid volume fractions along height using a two-dimensional model are in agreement with experiments. The velocity, volume fraction and second-order moments of particles are computed. The second-order moments of clusters are calculated. The solid volume fraction, velocity and second order moments are compared at the three different model constants.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow Around a NACA 4412 Airfoil Using Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jansen, Kenneth
1996-01-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) has matured to the point where application to complex flows is described. The extension to higher Reynolds numbers leads to an impractical number of grid points with existing structured-grid methods. Furthermore, most real world flows are rather difficult to represent geometrically with structured grids. Unstructured-grid methods offer a release from both of these constraints. However, just as it took many years for structured-grid methods to be well understood and reliable tools for LES, unstructured-grid methods must be carefully studied before we can expect them to attain their full potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
Flow induced vibration in primary cooling system of the Japan Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) has been investigated. The primary cooling system consists of a large diameter pipe and a pipe elbow with short curvature radius corresponding to its diameter (short-elbow). Flow-induced vibration by flow through the short-elbow is an important issue in design study of the JSFR, because it may affect to structural integrity of the piping. In this paper, numerical simulations for several pipe elbows with different pipe diameters and curvature radii in literature were conducted at Reynolds number conditions from Re=500 to 1.47x107 to investigate unsteady flow behavior through the short-elbow, including validation study of an in-house LES code (MUGTHES). Numerical results in each condition were compared with the experimental results in literature. Unsteady flow characteristics and pressure fluctuation generation mechanism in the short-elbow were clarified in relation to the large-scale eddy motion.
Influence of grid aspect ratio on planetary boundary layer turbulence in large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishizawa, S.; Yashiro, H.; Sato, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Tomita, H.
2015-10-01
We examine the influence of the grid aspect ratio of horizontal to vertical grid spacing on turbulence in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in a large-eddy simulation (LES). In order to clarify and distinguish them from other artificial effects caused by numerical schemes, we used a fully compressible meteorological LES model with a fully explicit scheme of temporal integration. The influences are investigated with a series of sensitivity tests with parameter sweeps of spatial resolution and grid aspect ratio. We confirmed that the mixing length of the eddy viscosity and diffusion due to sub-grid-scale turbulence plays an essential role in reproducing the theoretical -5/3 slope of the energy spectrum. If we define the filter length in LES modeling based on consideration of the numerical scheme, and introduce a corrective factor for the grid aspect ratio into the mixing length, the theoretical slope of the energy spectrum can be obtained; otherwise, spurious energy piling appears at high wave numbers. We also found that the grid aspect ratio has influence on the turbulent statistics, especially the skewness of the vertical velocity near the top of the PBL, which becomes spuriously large with large aspect ratio, even if a reasonable spectrum is obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Wan; Samtaney, Ravi
2013-11-01
We present results of large eddy simulation (LES) for a smooth-wall, zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer. We employ the stretched vortex sub-grid-scale model in the simulations augmented by a wall model. Our wall model is based on the virtual-wall model introduced by Chung & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech 2009). An essential component of their wall model is an ODE governing the local wall-normal velocity gradient obtained using inner-scaling ansatz. We test two variants of the wall model based on different similarity laws: one is based on a log-law and the other on a power-law. The specific form of the power law scaling utilized is that proposed by George & Castillo (Appl. Mech. Rev. 1997), dubbed the ``GC Law''. Turbulent inflow conditions are generated by a recycling method, and applying scaling laws corresponding to the two variants of the wall model, and a uniform way to determine the inlet friction velocity. For Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Reθ , ranging from 104 to 1012 it is found that the velocity profiles generally follow the log law form rather than the power law. For large Reynolds number asymptotic behavior, LES based on different scaling laws the boundary layer thickness and turbulent intensities do not show much difference. Supported by a KAUST funded project on large eddy simulation of turbulent flows. The IBM Blue Gene P Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Awasthi, Ankit; Anderson, William
2015-11-01
Large-scale motions in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers amplitude modulate the viscous sublayer (Marusic et al., 2010: Science; Mathis et al., 2009: J. Fluid Mech.). This finding has promising implications for large-eddy simulation of wall-bounded turbulence at high Reynolds number (wherein the turbulence integral length exhibits linear proportionality with wall-normal elevation). Existing amplitude modulation studies have addressed smooth wall flows, though high Reynolds number rough wall flows are ubiquitous. Under such conditions, roughness-scale vortices ablate the viscous sublayer and result in the roughness sublayer. The roughness sublayer depth scales with aggregate element height, k, and is typically 2k ~ 3k. Above this, Townsend's Hypothesis dictates that the logarithmic layer is unaffected by the roughness sublayer. Here, we present large-eddy simulation results of turbulent channel flow over rough walls. We follow the decoupling procedure of Mathis et al., 2009: J. Fluid Mech., and present evidence that outer-layer dynamics amplitude modulate the roughness sublayer. Below the roughness element height, we report enormous sensitivity to element proximity. Above the elements, but within the roughness sublayer, topography dependence rapidly declines. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Turbulence and Transition Program (PM: Dr. R. Ponnoppan) under Grant # FA9550-14-1-0101. Computational resources were provided by the Texas Adv. Comp. Center at the Univ. of Texas.
Shifted periodic boundary conditions for large-eddy simulation of wind farms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munters, Wim; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan
2015-11-01
In wall-bounded turbulent flow simulations, periodic boundary conditions combined with insufficiently long domains lead to persistent spanwise locking of large-scale turbulent structures. In the context of wind-farm large-eddy simulations, this effect induces artificial spanwise inhomogeneities in the time-averaged local wind conditions as seen by the wind turbines, leading to spurious differences in power prediction between otherwise equivalent columns of wind turbines in a wind farm (a column is defined here as a set of turbines parallel to the mean flow direction). We propose a shifted periodic boundary condition that eliminates this effect without the need for excessive streamwise domain lengths. Instead of straightforwardly reintroducing the velocity from the outlet plane back at the inlet, as in classic periodic boundary conditions, this plane is first shifted in the spanwise direction by a predefined and constant distance. The method is tested based on a set of direct numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow, and large-eddy simulations of a high Reynolds number rough-wall half-channel flow. Finally, we apply the method in a precursor simulation, generating inlet conditions for a spatially developing wind-farm boundary layer. WM and JM are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). CM acknowledges support by the NSF (grant IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).
Two-Fluid Large-Eddy Simulation Approach for Two-Phase Turbulent Flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mashayek, F.; Pandya, R. V. R.
2002-11-01
In recent years, large-eddy simulation (LES) is emerging as a predictive tool for particle/droplet-laden turbulent flows. In common practice, LES of two-phase flows involves tracking a large number of particles in a Lagrangian framework while using the Eulerian flow field generated by LES of the carrier fluid phase and proper forms for various forces acting on the particle. The two-way coupling effects (i.e. the effects of the particles on the LES flow field and subgrid scales motion and vice versa) have yet to be accounted for fully and in rigorous manner in these Eulerian-Lagrangian approaches. Recently, a new Eulerian-Eulerian approach has been proposed(R.V.R. Pandya and F. Mashayek, ``Two-fluid large-eddy simulation approach for particle-laden turbulent flows,'' to appear in Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer.) in which Eulerian `fluid' equations are derived for the dispersed phase using the kinetic or probability density function (pdf) modeling approach after solving the closure problems arising in the filtered pdf equation. The solution to the closure accounts properly for the effects of the subgrid scales on the particles. The two-way coupling effects are modeled in a rigorous manner and included in the dynamic localization model for the subgrid stresses of the carrier phase. The `fluid' equations are supposed to capture the preferential distribution of the particles.
ENDLESS: An extended nonperiodic domain large-eddy simulation approach for scalar plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bicheng; Yang, Di; Meneveau, Charles; Chamecki, Marcelo
2016-05-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) has proven to be a valuable tool for high-fidelity modeling of environmental and geophysical turbulent flows. An important application of LES is to study the transport of effluents (e.g. oils from a subsea blowout) in the ocean mixed layer (OML). Oil plumes being transported in the OML experience the action of shear-generated turbulence, Langmuir circulations, Ekman transport and submesoscale quasi-geostrophic eddies. To resolve such turbulent processes, grid sizes of a few meters are desirable while horizontal domain sizes of LES are typically restricted from hundreds of meters to a few kilometers, for LES to remain practically affordable. Yet transported oil plumes evolve to large scales extending to tens or even hundreds of kilometers. In this study, the Extended Nonperiodic Domain LES for Scalar transport (ENDLESS) is proposed as a multi-scale approach to tackle this challenge while being computationally affordable. The basic idea is to simulate the shear turbulence and Langmuir circulations on a small horizontal domain with periodic boundary conditions while the resulting transport velocity field is replicated periodically following adaptively the large-scale plume as it evolves spatially towards much larger scales. This approach also permits the superposition of larger-scale quasi two-dimensional flow motions on the oil advection, allowing for coupling with regional circulation models. A validation case and two sample applications to oil plume evolution in the OML are presented in order to demonstrate key features and computational speedup associated with the ENDLESS method.
Analysis of subgrid models using direct and large-eddy simulations of isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menon, S.; Yeung, P. K.
1994-12-01
Direct and large eddy simulations of forced and decaying isotropic turbulence have been performed using a pseudospectral and a finite-difference code. Subgrid models that include a one-equation subgrid kinetic energy model with and without a stochastic backscatter forcing term and a new scale similarity model have been analyzed in both Fourier space and physical space. The Fourier space analysis showed that the energy transfer across the cutoff wavenumber k(sub c) is dominated by local interaction. The correlation between the exact and the modeled (by a spectral eddy viscosity) nonlinear terms and the subgrid energy transfer in physical space was found to be quite low. In physical space, a similar correlation analysis was carried out using top hat filtering. Results show that the subgrid stress and the energy flux predicted by the subgrid models correlates very well with the exact data. The scale similarity model showed very high correlation for reasonable grid resolution. However, with decrease in grid resolution, the scale similarity model became more uncorrelated, when compared to the kinetic energy subgrid model. The subgrid models were then used for large-eddy simulations for a range of Reynolds number. It was determined that the dissipation was modeled poorly and that the correlation with the exact results was quite low for all the models. In general, for coarse grid resolution, the scale similarity model consistently showed very low correlation while the kinetic energy model showed a relatively higher correlation. These results suggest that to use the scale similarity model relatively fine grid resolution may be required, whereas, the kinetic energy model could be used even in coarse grid.
Extraction of the large eddy structure of a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemmerman, L. A.; Payne, F. R.
1977-01-01
Much attention is currently being focused on turbulence modeling by separation of large-scale and small-scale turbulence. One major difficulty with this method is the problem of separating and defining the large-scale structure. In this paper, a method is presented which does this separation by analyzing time-averaged, two-point double velocity correlation measurements. The basis of the method is a maximization of the inner product of a candidate velocity field with the measured turbulent velocity field. An eigenvalue problem results, whose solution provides a set of orthogonal eigenfunctions associated with specific modes of turbulent motion. The large-scale eddy, containing most of the turbulent energy, is associated with the first (largest) mode. The turbulent velocity field is then represented as a sum of the eigenfunctions. A short description of the equations is given, the methods of solution are discussed, and some results for a two-dimensional fully developed turbulent boundary layer are presented.
Kogan, Y.L.; Kogan, Z.N.; Lilly, D.K.; Khairoutdinov, M.F.
1995-04-01
Stratocumulus clouds in the marine boundary layer exert a tremendous impact on the planetary radiation balance because of their persistence and large cover. Even small biases in the representation of their radiative parameters can produce large errors in the simulated planetary radiation balance. General circulation models (GCMs) and climate models most commonly use two parameterizations of cloud optical depth. The first employs as input parameters the climatological or in some other way averaged cloud droplet effective radius and liquid water path. The second concerns droplet concentration, mean droplet radius and cloud geometrical thickness. Both parameterizations are obtained from a general theoretical expression for cloud optical depth. This paper contrasts these two parameterizations with the general theoretical definition, using a set of cloud drop distribution functions generated by the CIMMS three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES) stratocumulus cloud microphysical model.
Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; Ivanov, V. Y.
2015-04-30
Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction.more » We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichkoohi, Ali Lohrasbi; Tousi, Abolghasem Mesgarpour
2014-10-01
Today, with nonstop improvement in computational power, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is a high demanding research tool for predicting engineering flows. Such flows on high pressure condition like diesel engines is extensively employed in ground and marine transportation, oblige the designer to control and predict toxic pollutants, while maintaining or improving their high thermal efficiency. This becomes one of the main challenging issues in decades. In the present work, numerical investigation of diffusion flame dynamics is performed in the near-field of high-Reynolds jet flow on high pressure condition encountered in diesel engine applications. This work discusses the implementation of Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) combustion model by the approaches of large eddy simulation (LES). The simulation results show that LES, in comparison with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation predicts and captures transient phenomena very well. These phenomena such as unsteadiness and curvature are inherent in the near-field of high Reynolds diffusion flame. The outcomes of this research are compared and validated by other researchers' results. Detailed comparisons of the statistics show good agreement with the corresponding experiments.
Large-eddy simulation of a solid-particles suspension in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Mustafa; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-11-01
We decribe a framework for the large-eddy simulation of solid particles suspended and transported within an incompressible turbulent boundary layer. The underlying approach to simulate the solid-particle laden flow is Eulerian-Eulerian in which the particles are characterized by statistical descriptors. For the fluid phase, the large-eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layer employs stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work of Inoue & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech. 2011). Furthermore, a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow is implemented. For the particle phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The numerical method in this framework is based on a fractional-step method with an energy-conservative fourth-order finite difference scheme on a staggered mesh. It is proposed to utilize this framework to examine transport of sand in desert sandstorms. Supported by KAUST OCRF funded CRG project on simulation of sandstorms.
Trailing-edge noise reduction using derivative-free optimization and large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsden, Alison L.; Wang, Meng; Dennis, J. E.; Moin, Parviz
Derivative-free optimization techniques are applied in conjunction with large-eddy simulation (LES) to reduce the noise generated by turbulent flow over a hydrofoil trailing edge. A cost function proportional to the radiated acoustic power is derived based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hall solution to Lighthill's equation. Optimization is performed using the surrogate-management framework with filter-based constraints for lift and drag. To make the optimization more efficient, a novel method has been developed to incorporate Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) calculations for constraint evaluation. Separation of the constraint and cost-function computations using this method results in fewer expensive LES computations. This work demonstrates the ability to fully couple optimization to large-eddy simulation for time-accurate turbulent flow. The results demonstrate an 89% reduction in noise power, which comes about primarily by the elimination of low-frequency vortex shedding. The higher-frequency broadband noise is reduced as well, by a subtle change in the lower surface near the trailing edge.
Large Eddy Simulations Of A Turbulent Auto-Igniting C2H4 Flame DNS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, Edward; Shashank; Pitsch, Heinz; Richardson, Ed; Chen, Jackie
2010-11-01
Large eddy simulations of a turbulent auto-igniting flame are performed to analyze the interaction of different combustion regimes in a flamelet modeling framework. The case that is considered is a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a non-premixed jet flame at Re=10,000 with heated co-flow. This DNS was performed by Yoo et al. (Proc. Comb. Inst., 2010) using 1.29 billion cells and a 22 species mechanism. A series of flamelet-type approaches are applied in successive large eddy simulations of the flame to understand the importance and interaction of dissipation and auto-ignition. Simulations are first performed by relying either on purely 0-D auto-ignition chemistry or on purely steady non-premixed flamelet chemistry. These simulations significantly under- and over-predict the lift-off height, respectively. Two approaches are then considered that simultaneously account for these processes: a well known tabulated unsteady flamelet formulation and a multi-regime formulation that combines the limiting steady and auto-ignition solutions according to a regime indicator. Comparisons with the DNS demonstrate that these approaches lead to improved liff-off height predictions.
Large-eddy numerical simulation of an array of three-dimensional impinging jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizk, M. H.; Menon, S.
1987-04-01
Numerical simulations of a row of impinging jets are performed. Both the impinging jets and the fountains caused by the collision of the wall jets are modeled in the simulations. The problem considered contains the essential features of twin jets impinging on the ground, simulating the hovering configuration of a VTOL aircraft. The flow is assumed to be governed by the time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The large-eddy simulation approach is followed in which all scales resolvable by the grid resolution are computed explicitly, while the small-scale turbulence structures, which are nearly universal in character, are modeled by an eddy viscosity formulation that simulates the energy cascade into the small scales. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a staggered computational mesh. Central finite differencing is used to discretize all terms except the convective terms, which are discretized using the QUICK scheme. The Adams-Bashforth scheme is used to advance the solution in time. The pressure Poisson equation is used in place of the continuity equation. Efficient direct solutions are obtained for the pressure field, which allows the continuity equation to be satisfied at each time step. This study focuses on the motion and dynamics of large-scale structures that have been experimentally observed in jet flows. The behavior of the jets and the fountain due to introducing axisymmetric, azimuthal and random disturbances at the jet exits is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Trung; Khosronejad, Ali; Bartelt, Nicole; Woldeamlak, Solomon; Peterson, Bonnie; Dewall, Petronella; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota Team; Minnesota Department of Transportation Team
2015-11-01
We study the dynamics of a river confluence on Mississippi River branch in the city of Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States. Field measurements by Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler using on-board GPS tracking were carried out for five campaigns in the summer of 2014 and 2015 to collect both river bed elevation data and flow fields. Large Eddy Simulation is carried out to simulate the flow field with the total of 100 million grid points for the domain length of 3.2 km. The simulation results agree well with field measurements at measured cross-sections. The results show the existence of wake mode on the mixing interface of two branches near the upstream junction corner. The mutual interaction between the shear layers emanating from the river banks leading to the formation of large scale energetic structures that leads to ``switching'' side of the flow coherent structures. Our result here is a feasibility study for the use of eddy-resolving simulations in predicting complex flow dynamics in medium-size natural rivers. This work is funded by Minnesota Dept. Transportation and Minnesota Institute of Supercomputing.
Large-eddy simulation of the generation and propagation of internal solitary waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Hai; Wang, LingLing; Tang, HongWu
2014-06-01
A modified large-eddy simulation model, the dynamic coherent eddy model (DCEM) is employed to simulate the generation and propagation of internal solitary waves (ISWs) of both depression and elevation type, with wave amplitudes ranging from small, medium to large scales. The simulation results agree well with the existing experimental data. The generation process of ISWs is successfully captured by the DCEM method. Shear instabilities and diapycnal mixing in the initial wave generation phase are observed. The dissipation rate is not equal at different locations of an ISW. ISW-induced velocity field is analyzed in the present study. The structure of the bottom boundary layer (BBL) of internal wave packets is found to be different from that of a single ISW. A reverse boundary jet instead of a separation bubble exists behind the leading internal wave while separation bubbles appear in other parts of the wave-induced velocity field. The boundary jet flow resulting from the adverse pressure gradients has distinctive dynamics compared with free shear jets.
An Examination of Parameters Affecting Large Eddy Simulations of Flow Past a Square Cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, M. R.; Georgiadis, N. J.
2014-01-01
Separated flow over a bluff body is analyzed via large eddy simulations. The turbulent flow around a square cylinder features a variety of complex flow phenomena such as highly unsteady vortical structures, reverse flow in the near wall region, and wake turbulence. The formation of spanwise vortices is often times artificially suppressed in computations by either insufficient depth or a coarse spanwise resolution. As the resolution is refined and the domain extended, the artificial turbulent energy exchange between spanwise and streamwise turbulence is eliminated within the wake region. A parametric study is performed highlighting the effects of spanwise vortices where the spanwise computational domain's resolution and depth are varied. For Re=22,000, the mean and turbulent statistics computed from the numerical large eddy simulations (NLES) are in good agreement with experimental data. Von-Karman shedding is observed in the wake of the cylinder. Mesh independence is illustrated by comparing a mesh resolution of 2 million to 16 million. Sensitivities to time stepping were minimized and sampling frequency sensitivities were nonpresent. While increasing the spanwise depth and resolution can be costly, this practice was found to be necessary to eliminating the artificial turbulent energy exchange.
A spectral-element dynamic model for the Large-Eddy simulation of turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapelier, J.-B.; Lodato, G.
2016-09-01
A spectral dynamic modeling procedure for Large-Eddy simulation is introduced in the context of discontinuous finite element methods. The proposed sub-grid scale model depends on a turbulence sensor built from the computation of a polynomial energy spectrum in each of the discretization elements. The evaluation of the energy decay gives an estimation of the quality of the resolution in each element and allows for adapting the intensity of the sub-grid dissipation locally. This approach is simple, robust, efficient and it is shown that the sub-grid model adapts to the amount of numerical dissipation in order to provide an accurate representation of the true sub-grid stresses. The present approach is tested for the large-eddy simulation of transitional, fully-developed and wall-bounded turbulence. In particular, results are reported for the Taylor-Green vortex and periodic turbulent channel flows at moderate Reynolds number. For these configurations, the new model shows an accurate description of turbulent phenomena at relatively coarse resolutions.
Evaluation of Subgrid-Scale Models for Large Eddy Simulation of Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blaisdell, Gregory A.
1996-01-01
The objective of this project was to evaluate and develop subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models for large eddy simulations (LES) of compressible flows. During the first phase of the project results from LES using the dynamic SGS model were compared to those of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of compressible homogeneous turbulence. The second phase of the project involved implementing the dynamic SGS model in a NASA code for simulating supersonic flow over a flat-plate. The model has been successfully coded and a series of simulations has been completed. One of the major findings of the work is that numerical errors associated with the finite differencing scheme used in the code can overwhelm the SGS model and adversely affect the LES results. Attached to this overview are three submitted papers: 'Evaluation of the Dynamic Model for Simulations of Compressible Decaying Isotropic Turbulence'; 'The effect of the formulation of nonlinear terms on aliasing errors in spectral methods'; and 'Large-Eddy Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Compressible Boundary Layer Flow'.
A dynamic wall model for Large-Eddy simulations of wind turbine dedicated airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
J, Calafell; O, Lehmkuhl; A, Carmona; D, Pérez-Segarra C.; A, Oliva
2014-06-01
This work aims at modelling the flow behavior past a wind turbine dedicated airfoil at high Reynolds number and large angle of attack (AoA). The DU-93-W-210 airfoil has been selected. To do this, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) have been performed. Momentum equations have been solved with a parallel unstructured symmetry preserving formulation while the wall-adapting local-eddy viscosity model within a variational multi-scale framework (VMS- WALE) is used as the subgrid-scales model. Since LES calculations are still very expensive at high Reynolds Number, specially at the near-wall region, a dynamic wall model has been implemented in order to overcome this limitation. The model has been validated with a very unresolved Channel Flow case at Reτ = 2000. Afterwards, the model is also tested with the Ahmed Car case, that from the flow physics point of view is more similar to an stalled airfoil than the Channel Flow is, including flow features as boundary layer detachment and recirculations. This case has been selected because experimental results of mean velocity profiles are available. Finally, a flow around a DU-93-W-210 airfoil is computed at Re = 3 x 106 and with an AoA of 15°. Numerical results are presented in comparison with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or experimental data for all cases.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow in a street canyon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Zhiqiang; Cai, Xiaoming; Baker, J. Chris
2004-04-01
The turbulent flow inside an idealized urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of one is studied by means of large-eddy simulation. The Regional Atmospheric Modelling System is configured to simulate the turbulent flow in a neutrally stratified atmosphere with the initial wind perpendicular to the street canyon axis. The mean velocity components, resolved-scale turbulent kinetic energy (RS-TKE), the skewness and kurtosis of the resolved-scale velocity components (u along the canyon and w vertically) are compared with wind-tunnel measurements. The comparison indicates that a reasonable agreement is achieved. The simulation slightly underestimates the intensity of the primary eddy. It is found that distribution of the RS-TKE is very asymmetric: high in the vicinity of the downstream wall, and uniformly low in the vicinity of the upstream wall. The analyses of skewness and kurtosis indicate that there is a layer just below the rooftop in the canyon where ejection events dominate. Quadrant analysis of resolved-scale velocity fluctuations, u and w, under the rooftop at the centre of the canyon reveals that the exchange of momentum across the canyon top is contributed unevenly by different events. Weak ejection events dominate the frequency of occurrences, but fewer strong sweep events contribute the majority of the total momentum transfer. The features of momentum transfer are further investigated by analysing the spatial-temporal variations of u, w, and uw at the roof level. It is found that the variation of these variables is highly intermittent and is associated with multi-scale turbulent events. The period of eddies containing high RS-TKE is attributed to the Kelvin-Helmhotz instabilities. These results improve our understanding of the turbulent structure in street canyon flow.
Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.
2014-11-27
Surface roughness parameters are at the core of every model representation of the coupling and interactions between land-surface and atmosphere, and are used in every model of surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and do not vary them in response to spatial or temporal changes to canopy structure. In part, this is due to the difficulty of reducing the complexity of canopy structure and its spatiotemporal dynamic and heterogeneity to less than a handful of parameters describing its effects of atmosphere–surface interactions. In this study we use large-eddy simulationsmore » to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but were able to find positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, and between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. Using a decade of wind and canopy structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-resolved parameters in predicting the frictional velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared it with three other semi-empirical models and with a decade of meteorological observations. We found that parameterizations with fixed representations of roughness performed relatively well. Nonetheless, some empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and inter-annual changes to the canopy structure performed even better than
Large Eddy Simulation study of fully developed thermal wind-turbine array boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneveau, Charles; Calaf, Marc; Parlange, Marc B.
2010-05-01
It is well known that when wind turbines are deployed in large arrays, their efficiency decreases due to complex interactions among themselves and with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). For wind farms whose length exceeds the height of the ABL by over an order of magnitude, a "fully developed" flow regime can be established. In this asymptotic regime, changes in the stream-wise direction can be neglected and the relevant exchanges occur in the vertical direction. Such a fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layer (WTABL) has recently been studied using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) under neutral stability conditions (Calaf et al. Physics of Fluids 22, 2010). Related wind-tunnel experiments on the WTABL are reported in Cal et al., J. Renewable and Sustainable Energy 2, 2010). The simulations showed the existence of two log-laws, one above and one below the wind turbine region. These results confirm basic assumptions made in prior work by Frandsen (J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 39, 1992) and Frandsen et al. (Wind Energy 9, 2006), and have enabled the development of more accurate parameterizations of the effective roughness scale for a wind farm. Now, a suite of Large Eddy Simulations, in which wind turbines are also modeled using the classical "drag disk" concept are performed but for non-neutral conditions. The aim is to study the effects of different thermal ABL stratifications, and thus to better understand the efficiency and characteristics of large wind farms and the associated land-atmosphere interactions for realistic atmospheric flow regimes. Such studies help to unravel the physics involved in extensive aggregations of wind turbines, allowing us to design better wind farm arrangements. By considering various turbine loading factors, surface roughness values and different atmospheric stratifications, it is possible to analyze the influence of these on the induced surface roughness, and the sensible heat roughness length. These last two can be used to
Estimating the effective Reynolds number in implicit large-eddy simulation.
Zhou, Ye; Grinstein, Fernando F; Wachtor, Adam J; Haines, Brian M
2014-01-01
In implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES), energy-containing large scales are resolved, and physics capturing numerics are used to spatially filter out unresolved scales and to implicitly model subgrid scale effects. From an applied perspective, it is highly desirable to estimate a characteristic Reynolds number (Re)-and therefore a relevant effective viscosity-so that the impact of resolution on predicted flow quantities and their macroscopic convergence can usefully be characterized. We argue in favor of obtaining robust Re estimates away from the smallest scales of the simulated flow-where numerically controlled dissipation takes place and propose a theoretical basis and framework to determine such measures. ILES examples include forced turbulence as a steady flow case, the Taylor-Green vortex to address transition and decaying turbulence, and simulations of a laser-driven reshock experiment illustrating a fairly complex turbulence problem of current practical interest. PMID:24580356
Artificial fluid properties for large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Andrew W.
2007-05-01
An alternative methodology is described for large-eddy simulation (LES) of flows involving shocks, turbulence, and mixing. In lieu of filtering the governing equations, it is postulated that the large-scale behavior of a LES fluid, i.e., a fluid with artificial properties, will be similar to that of a real fluid, provided the artificial properties obey certain constraints. The artificial properties consist of modifications to the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity, and species diffusivity of a fluid. The modified transport coefficients are designed to damp out high wavenumber modes, close to the resolution limit, without corrupting lower modes. Requisite behavior of the artificial properties is discussed and results are shown for a variety of test problems, each designed to exercise different aspects of the models. When combined with a tenth-order compact scheme, the overall method exhibits excellent resolution characteristics for turbulent mixing, while capturing shocks and material interfaces in a crisp fashion.
Large-eddy simulations of axisymmetric excitation effects on a row of impinging jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizk, Magdi H.; Menon, Suresh
1988-07-01
Numerical simulations of a row of impinging jets are performed. Both the impinging jets and the fountains caused by the collision of the wall jets are modeled in the simulation. The problem considered contains the essential features of twin jets impinging on the ground, simulating the hovering configuration of a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. The flow is assumed to be governed by the time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The large-eddy simulation approach is followed. The present study focuses on the motion and dynamics of large-scale structures that have been experimentally observed in jet flows. The behavior of the jets and the fountain caused by the introduction of axisymmetric disturbances at the jet exits are investigated.
Martian dust devil statistics from high-resolution large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishizawa, Seiya; Odaka, Masatsugu; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yashiro, Hisashi; Sato, Yousuke; Tomita, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki
2016-05-01
Dust devils are one of the key elements in the Martian atmospheric circulation. In order to examine their statistics, we conducted high-resolution (up to 5 m) and wide-domain (about 20 × 20 km2) large-eddy simulations of the Martian daytime convective layer. Large numbers of dust devils developed spontaneously in the simulations, which enabled us to represent a quantitative consideration of Martian dust devil frequency distributions. We clarify the distributions of size and intensity, a topic of debate, and conclude that the maximum vertical vorticity of an individual dust devil has an exponential distribution, while the radius and circulation have power law distributions. A grid refinement experiment shows that the rate parameter of the vorticity distribution and the exponent of the circulation distribution are robust. The mode of the size distribution depends on the resolution, and it is suggested that the mode is less than 5 m.
Large eddy simulation of flows after a bluff body: Coherent structures and mixing properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Pei; Han, Chao; Chen, Yiliang
2013-10-01
This paper performs large eddy simulations (LES) to investigate coherent structures in the flows after the Sydney bluff-body burner, a circular bluff body with an orifice at its center. The simulations are validated by comparison to existing experimental data. The Q function method is used to visualize the instantaneous vortex structures. Three kinds of structures are found, a cylindrical shell structure in the outer shear layer, a ring structure and some hairpin-like structures in the inner shear layer. An eduction scheme is employed to investigate the coherent structures in this flow. Some large streaks constituted by counter-rotating vortices are found in the outer shear layer and some well-organized strong structures are found in the inner shear layer. Finally, the influences of coherent structures on scalar mixing are studied and it is shown that scalar in the recirculation region is transported outward by coherent structures.
Large eddy simulation of fine water sprays: comparative analysis of two models and computer codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsoy, A. S.; Snegirev, A. Yu.
2015-09-01
The model and the computer code FDS, albeit widely used in engineering practice to predict fire development, is not sufficiently validated for fire suppression by fine water sprays. In this work, the effect of numerical resolution of the large scale turbulent pulsations on the accuracy of predicted time-averaged spray parameters is evaluated. Comparison of the simulation results obtained with the two versions of the model and code, as well as that of the predicted and measured radial distributions of the liquid flow rate revealed the need to apply monotonic and yet sufficiently accurate discrete approximations of the convective terms. Failure to do so delays jet break-up, otherwise induced by large turbulent eddies, thereby excessively focuses the predicted flow around its axis. The effect of the pressure drop in the spray nozzle is also examined, and its increase has shown to cause only weak increase of the evaporated fraction and vapor concentration despite the significant increase of flow velocity.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulence in the free atmosphere and behind aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schumann, U.; Dörnbrack, A.; Dürbeck, T.; Gerz, T.
1997-02-01
The method of large-eddy simulation has been used for a wide variety of atmospheric flow problems. This paper gives an overview on recent applications of this method to turbulence in the free atmosphere under stably stratified conditions. In particular, flows in the wake of aircraft are studied in light of the potential impact of aircraft exhausts on the chemical and climatological state of the atmosphere. It is shown that different profiles of heat and moisture in the initial conditions of a jet representing engine exhaust gases may cause larger water saturation and hence earlier contrail formation than assumed up to now. The instability of trailing vortices in the wake of an aircraft is simulated up to the fully turbulent regime. The vertical diffusivity of aircraft exhaust is large in the vortex regime and much smaller than horizontal diffusivities in the later diffusion regime. The three-dimensional formation of a critical layer and breaking of gravity waves is simulated.
Artificial Fluid Properties for Large-Eddy Simulation of Compressible Turbulent Mixing
Cook, A W
2007-01-08
An alternative methodology is described for Large-Eddy Simulation of flows involving shocks, turbulence and mixing. In lieu of filtering the governing equations, it is postulated that the large-scale behavior of an ''LES'' fluid, i.e., a fluid with artificial properties, will be similar to that of a real fluid, provided the artificial properties obey certain constraints. The artificial properties consist of modifications to the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity and species diffusivity of a fluid. The modified transport coefficients are designed to damp out high wavenumber modes, close to the resolution limit, without corrupting lower modes. Requisite behavior of the artificial properties is discussed and results are shown for a variety of test problems, each designed to exercise different aspects of the models. When combined with a 10th-order compact scheme, the overall method exhibits excellent resolution characteristics for turbulent mixing, while capturing shocks and material interfaces in crisp fashion.
Large Eddy Simulation of AN Elliptic Jet Injected Into a Supersonic Crossflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guo-Lei; Lu, Xi-Yun
A transverse jet issuing from an elliptic injector into a supersonic crossflow has been investigated using large eddy simulation. The complex flow structures and the relevant flow features are analyzed to exhibit the evolution of shock structures, vertical structures and jet shear layer. A horseshoe vortex is formed in the upstream of the jet and the shock structures exhibit small fluctuations due to the flow interaction. The kidney-shaped counter-rotating vortex pair dominates the flow field in the downstream of the jet. The elliptic jet spreads rapidly in the spanwise direction and then the axis-switching phenomenon occurs. Intense turbulent fluctuations are identified behind the Mach disk because of the large velocity gradients.
Large-eddy simulation of plume dispersion under various thermally stratified boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, H.; Takemi, T.; Nagai, H.
2014-07-01
Contaminant gas dispersion in atmospheric boundary layer is of great concern to public health. For the accurate prediction of the dispersion problem, the present study numerically investigates the behavior of plume dispersion by taking into account the atmospheric stability which is classified into three types; neutral, stable, and convective boundary layers. We first proposed an efficient method to generate spatially-developing, thermally-stratified boundary layers and examined the usefulness of our approach by comparing to wind tunnel experimental data for various thermal boundary layers. The spreads of plume in the spanwise direction are quantitatively underestimated especially at large downwind distances from the point source, owing to the underestimation of turbulence intensities for the spanwise component; however, the dependence of the spanwise spreads to atmospheric stability is well represented in a qualitative sense. It was shown that the large-eddy simulation (LES) model provides physically reasonable results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiesset, Fabien; Maurice, Guillaume; Halter, Fabien; Mazellier, Nicolas; Chauveau, Christian; Gökalp, Iskender
2016-05-01
We propose a model for assessing the unresolved wrinkling factor in the large eddy simulation of turbulent premixed combustion. It relies essentially on a power-law dependence of the wrinkling factor on the filter size and an original expression for the 'active' corrugating strain rate. The latter is written as the turbulent strain multiplied by an efficiency function that accounts for viscous effects and the kinematic constraint of Peters. This yields functional expressions for the fractal dimension and the inner cut-off length scale, the latter being (i) filter-size independent and (ii) consistent with the Damköhler asymptotic behaviours at both large and small Karlovitz numbers. A new expression for the wrinkling factor that incorporates finite Reynolds number effects is further proposed. Finally, the model is successfully assessed on an experimental filtered database.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Jaberi, Farhad A.
2001-01-01
The basic objective of this work is to assess the influence of gravity on "the compositional and the spatial structures" of transitional and turbulent diffusion flames via large eddy simulation (LES), and direct numerical simulation (DNS). The DNS is conducted for appraisal of the various closures employed in LES, and to study the effect of buoyancy on the small scale flow features. The LES is based on our "filtered mass density function"' (FMDF) model. The novelty of the methodology is that it allows for reliable simulations with inclusion of "realistic physics." It also allows for detailed analysis of the unsteady large scale flow evolution and compositional flame structure which is not usually possible via Reynolds averaged simulations.
Implicit Large Eddy Simulation of a wingtip vortex at Rec =1.2x106
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Moxey, Dave; Sherwin, Spencer; SherwinLab Team
2015-11-01
We present recent developments in numerical methods for performing a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the formation and evolution of a wingtip vortex. The development of these vortices in the near wake, in combination with the large Reynolds numbers present in these cases, make these types of test cases particularly challenging to investigate numerically. To demonstrate the method's viability, we present results from numerical simulations of flow over a NACA 0012 profile wingtip at Rec = 1.2 x106 and compare them against experimental data, which is to date the highest Reynolds number achieved for a LES that has been correlated with experiments for this test case. Our model correlates favorably with experiment, both for the characteristic jetting in the primary vortex and pressure distribution on the wing surface. The proposed method is of general interest for the modeling of transitioning vortex dominated flows over complex geometries. McLaren Racing/Royal Academy of Engineering Research Chair.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Joon Sang
The compressible filtered Navier-Stokes equations were solved using a second order accurate finite volume method with low Mach number preconditioning. A dynamic subgrid-scale stress model accounted for the subgrid-scale turbulence. The study focused on the effects of buoyancy and rotation on the structure of turbulence and transport processes including heat transfer. Several different physical arrangements were studied as outlined below. The effects of buoyancy were first studied in a vertical channel using large eddy simulation (LES). The walls were maintained at constant temperatures, one heated and the other cooled. Results showed that aiding and opposing buoyancy forces emerge near the heated and cooled walls, respectively. In the aiding flow, the turbulent intensities and heat transfer were suppressed at large values of Grashof number. In the opposing flow, however, turbulence was enhanced with increased velocity fluctuations. Another buoyancy study considered turbulent flow in a vertically oriented annulus. Isoflux wall boundary conditions with low and high heating were imposed on the inner wall while the outer wall was adiabatic. The results showed that the strong heating and buoyancy force caused distortions of the flow structure resulting in reduction of turbulent intensities, shear stress, and turbulent heat flux, particularly near the heated wall. Flow in an annular pipe with and without an outer wall rotation about its axis was first investigated at moderate Reynolds numbers. When the outer pipe wall was rotated, a significant reduction of turbulent kinetic energy was realized near the rotating wall. Secondly, a large eddy simulation has been performed to investigate the effect of swirl on the heat and momentum transfer in an annular pipe flow with a rotating inner wall. The simulations indicated that the Nusselt number and the wall friction coefficient increased with increasing rotation speed of the wall. It was also observed that the axial velocity
Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow Through an Array of Cubes with Local Grid Refinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodfriend, Elijah; Katopodes Chow, Fotini; Vanella, Marcos; Balaras, Elias
2016-05-01
High resolution simulations of the transport of urban contaminants are important for disaster response and city planning. Large-eddy simulation (LES) and mesh refinement can each be used to decrease the computational cost of modelling, but combining these techniques can result in additional errors at grid-refinement interfaces. Here, we study the effect of the turbulence closure on the accuracy of LES results, for grids with mesh refinement, in a test case of flow through a periodic array of cubes. It is found that a mixed-model turbulence closure, using both an eddy viscosity and a scale similarity component, reduces energy accumulation at grid-refinement interfaces when used with explicit filtering of the advection term. The mixed model must be used with explicit filtering to control high wavenumber errors generated by the non-linear scale-similarity model. The results demonstrate that the turbulence closure mitigates errors associated with using LES on block-structured grids for urban-flow simulations.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Trailing-Edge Turbulence and Aeroacoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Meng; Moin, Parviz
1997-11-01
Turbulent boundary layers near the trailing-edge of a lifting surface are known to generate intense, broadband scattering noise as well as surface pressure fluctuations. To numerically predict the trailing-edge noise requires that the noise-generating eddies over a wide range of length scales be adequately represented. Large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques provide a promising tool for obtaining the unsteady wall-pressure fields and the near-field turbulence quantities. The latter serve as acoustic source functions in a Lighthill-analogy based aeroacoustic formulation. In the present work, LES is carried out for a flow past a flat strut with an asymmetrically beveled trailing edge, at a chord Reynolds number of 2.15 × 10^6, in a computational domain containing the aft section of the strut and the near-wake. The asymmetric edge shape produces a separated boundary layer on the upper side and an attached boundary layer on the lower side. The simulation is based on the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and employs the dynamic subgrid-scale model. The general methodology for the near-field LES and acoustic calculation will be discussed and preliminary results presented.
Large-eddy simulations of impinging jets at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Wen; Piomelli, Ugo
2013-11-01
We have performed large-eddy simulations of an impinging jet with embedded azimuthal vortices. We used a hybrid approach in which the near-wall layer is modelled using the RANS equations with the Spalart-Allmaras model, while away from the wall Lagrangian-averaged dynamic eddy-viscosity modelled LES is used. This method allowed us to reach Reynolds numbers that would be prohibitively expensive for wall-resolving LES. First, we compared the results of the hybrid calculation with a wall-resolved one at moderate Reynolds number, Re = 66 , 000 (based on jet diameter and velocity). The mean velocity and Reynolds stresses were in good agreement between the simulations, and, in particular, the generation of secondary vorticity at the wall and its liftup were captured well. The simulation cost was reduced by 86%. We then carried out simulations at Re = 266 , 000 and 1.3 million. The effect of Reynolds number on vortex development will be discussed. Canada Research Chair in Computational Turbulence, HPCVL-Sun Microsystems Chair in Computational Science and Engineering.
Investigations of Subsonic Compressible Boundary Layer Flows using Hybrid Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Sara Jo
The objective of this thesis is to investigate the spatially developing turbulent compressible boundary layer on a flat plate using the Spalart-Allmaras Detached Eddy Simulation (SA-DES) model [22] and the Nichols-Nelson hybrid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes/Large Eddy Simulation (RANS/LES) model [13] which have been implemented into the Wind-US 3.0 computational fluid dynamics code [30]; both of the hybrid approaches involve RANS modeling in the near-wall region and LES treatment in the outer region. Generation of unsteady turbulent inflow data is achieved via the prescribed energy spectrum method. The studies illustrated dependence on Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Reθ, ranging from 3018 to 19430, and dependence on Mach number,
Large Eddy Simulation of Dilute Sediment Suspension in an Open Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agegnehu, Getnet; Smith, Heather D.
2012-11-01
Flow and suspended sediment transport in fully developed turbulent open channel flow has been investigated using Large Eddy Simulation. We used a three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic model, OpenFOAM for this study. Pre-evaluation of three existing turbulence closure schemes is performed by comparing the mean flow and turbulent quantities with the direct numerical simulation results of Moser et al. (1999). It is found that the Dynamic Mixed Smagorinsky model underestimates the wall shear stress compared to the Dynamic Smagorinsky and one equation Eddy Viscosity schemes. Moreover, the Dynamic Smagorinsky scheme gives relatively better results in both the mean and turbulent quantities. The advection-diffusion equation is solved for suspended sediment transport and the effect of sediment roughness is included in the momentum equation based on the rough wall formulation proposed by Cebeci and Bradshaw (1977). A pick up function based on van Rijn (1984) is used to determine the sediment erosion. The settling process is taken into account with a settling velocity appearing in the concentration equation. Sediment and flow quantities are validated by comparing with the experimental data of Lyn (1988). The coupled hydrodynamics results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Philip E.
2004-01-01
This final report contains reports of research related to the tasks "Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Lark-Eddy Turbulent FLow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers" and "Devleop High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics Capability for RCS Prediction, Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media, and Dual-Use Applications. The discussion of Scalable High Performance Computing reports on three objectives: validate, access scalability, and apply two parallel flow solvers for three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flows; develop and validate a high-order parallel solver for Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) problems; and Investigate and develop a high-order Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model. The discussion of High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics reports on five objectives: enhancement of an electromagnetics code (CHARGE) to be able to effectively model antenna problems; utilize lessons learned in high-order/spectral solution of swirling 3D jets to apply to solving electromagnetics project; transition a high-order fluids code, FDL3DI, to be able to solve Maxwell's Equations using compact-differencing; develop and demonstrate improved radiation absorbing boundary conditions for high-order CEM; and extend high-order CEM solver to address variable material properties. The report also contains a review of work done by the systems engineer.
Large-eddy simulation of 3-D corner separation in a linear compressor cascade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Feng; Ma, Wei; Zambonini, Gherardo; Boudet, Jérôme; Ottavy, Xavier; Lu, Lipeng; Shao, Liang
2015-08-01
The increase of the thrust/weight ratio of aircraft engines is extremely restricted by different 3-D flow loss mechanisms. One of them is the corner separation that can form at the junction between a blade suction side and a hub or shroud. In this paper, in order to further investigate the turbulent characteristics of corner separation, large-eddy simulation (LES) is conducted on a compressor cascade configuration using NACA65 blade profiles (chord based Reynolds number: 3.82 × 105), in comparison with the previous obtained experimental data. Using the shear-improved Smagorinsky model as subgrid-scale model, the LES gives a good description of the mean aerodynamics of the corner separation, especially for the blade surface static pressure coefficient and the total pressure losses. The turbulent dynamics is then analyzed in detail, in consideration of the turbulent structures, the one-point velocity spectra, and the turbulence anisotropy. Within the recirculation region, the energy appears to concentrate around the largest turbulent eddies, with fairly isotropic characteristics. Concerning the dynamics, an aperiodic shedding of hairpin vortices seems to induce an unsteadiness of the separation envelope.
Requirements for Large Eddy Simulation Computations of Variable-Speed Power Turbine Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ameri, Ali A.
2016-01-01
Variable-speed power turbines (VSPTs) operate at low Reynolds numbers and with a wide range of incidence angles. Transition, separation, and the relevant physics leading to them are important to VSPT flow. Higher fidelity tools such as large eddy simulation (LES) may be needed to resolve the flow features necessary for accurate predictive capability and design of such turbines. A survey conducted for this report explores the requirements for such computations. The survey is limited to the simulation of two-dimensional flow cases and endwalls are not included. It suggests that a grid resolution necessary for this type of simulation to accurately represent the physics may be of the order of Delta(x)+=45, Delta(x)+ =2 and Delta(z)+=17. Various subgrid-scale (SGS) models have been used and except for the Smagorinsky model, all seem to perform well and in some instances the simulations worked well without SGS modeling. A method of specifying the inlet conditions such as synthetic eddy modeling (SEM) is necessary to correctly represent the inlet conditions.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Transition to Turbulence in Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huai, Xiao-Li; Joslin, Ronald D.; Piomelli, Ugo
1997-01-01
Large-eddy simulation results for laminar-to-turbulent transition in a spatially developing boundary layer are presented. The disturbances are ingested into a laminar flow through an unsteady suction-and-blowing strip. The filtered, three-dimensional time- dependent Navier-Stokes equations are integrated numerically using spectral, high-order finite-difference, and three-stage low-storage Runge-Kutta methods. The buffer-domain technique is used for the outflow boundary condition. The localized dynamic model used to parameterize the subgrid-scale stresses begins to have a significant impact at the beginning of the nonlinear transition (or intermittency) region. The flow structures commonly found in experiments are also observed in the present simulation; the computed linear instability modes and secondary instability lambda-vortex structures are in agreement with the experiments, and the streak-like-structures and turbulent statistics compare with both the experiments and the theory. The physics captured in the present LES are consistent with the experiments and the full Navier-Stokes simulation (DNS), at a significant fraction of the DNS cost. A comparison of the results obtained with several SGS models shows that the localized model gives accurate results both in a statistical sense and in terms of predicting the dynamics of the energy-carrying eddies, without ad hoc adjustments.
Mean-state acceleration of cloud-resolving models and large eddy simulations
Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Pritchard, M. S.
2015-10-29
In this study, large eddy simulations and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are routinely used to simulate boundary layer and deep convective cloud processes, aid in the development of moist physical parameterization for global models, study cloud-climate feedbacks and cloud-aerosol interaction, and as the heart of superparameterized climate models. These models are computationally demanding, placing practical constraints on their use in these applications, especially for long, climate-relevant simulations. In many situations, the horizontal-mean atmospheric structure evolves slowly compared to the turnover time of the most energetic turbulent eddies. We develop a simple scheme to reduce this time scale separation to accelerate themore » evolution of the mean state. Using this approach we are able to accelerate the model evolution by a factor of 2–16 or more in idealized stratocumulus, shallow and deep cumulus convection without substantial loss of accuracy in simulating mean cloud statistics and their sensitivity to climate change perturbations. As a culminating test, we apply this technique to accelerate the embedded CRMs in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model by a factor of 2, thereby showing that the method is robust and stable to realistic perturbations across spatial and temporal scales typical in a GCM.« less
Mean-state acceleration of cloud-resolving models and large eddy simulations
Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Pritchard, M. S.
2015-10-29
In this study, large eddy simulations and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are routinely used to simulate boundary layer and deep convective cloud processes, aid in the development of moist physical parameterization for global models, study cloud-climate feedbacks and cloud-aerosol interaction, and as the heart of superparameterized climate models. These models are computationally demanding, placing practical constraints on their use in these applications, especially for long, climate-relevant simulations. In many situations, the horizontal-mean atmospheric structure evolves slowly compared to the turnover time of the most energetic turbulent eddies. We develop a simple scheme to reduce this time scale separation to accelerate the evolution of the mean state. Using this approach we are able to accelerate the model evolution by a factor of 2–16 or more in idealized stratocumulus, shallow and deep cumulus convection without substantial loss of accuracy in simulating mean cloud statistics and their sensitivity to climate change perturbations. As a culminating test, we apply this technique to accelerate the embedded CRMs in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model by a factor of 2, thereby showing that the method is robust and stable to realistic perturbations across spatial and temporal scales typical in a GCM.
Sondak, David; Oberai, Assad A.
2012-10-15
Novel large eddy simulation (LES) models are developed for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These models include the application of the variational multiscale formulation of LES to the equations of incompressible MHD. Additionally, a new residual-based eddy viscosity model is introduced for MHD. A mixed LES model that combines the strengths of both of these models is also derived. The new models result in a consistent numerical method that is relatively simple to implement. The need for a dynamic procedure in determining model coefficients is no longer required. The new LES models are tested on a decaying Taylor-Green vortex generalized to MHD and benchmarked against classical LES turbulence models. The LES simulations are run in a periodic box of size [-{pi}, {pi}]{sup 3} with 32 modes in each direction and are compared to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) with 512 modes in each direction. The new models are able to account for the essential MHD physics which is demonstrated via comparisons of energy spectra. We also compare the performance of our models to a DNS simulation by Pouquet et al.['The dynamics of unforced turbulence at high Reynolds number for Taylor-Green vortices generalized to MHD,' Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 104, 115-134 (2010)], for which the ratio of DNS modes to LES modes is 262:144.
A dynamic model for the turbulent burning velocity for large eddy simulation of premixed combustion
Knudsen, E.; Pitsch, H.
2008-09-15
Turbulent premixed combustion is particularly difficult to describe using large eddy simulation (LES). In LES, premixed flame structures typically exist on subfilter length scales. Consequently, premixed LES models must be capable of describing how completely unresolved flame structures propagate under the influence of completely unresolved eddies. This description is usually accomplished through the implementation of a model for the turbulent burning velocity. Here, a dynamic model for describing the turbulent burning velocity in the context of LES is presented. This model uses a new surface filtering procedure that is consistent with standard LES filtering. Additionally, it only uses information that comes directly from the flame front. This latter attribute is important for two reasons. First, it guarantees that the model can be consistently applied when level set methods, where arbitrary constraints can be imposed on field variables away from fronts, are used to track the flame. Second, it forces the model to recognize that the physics governing flame front propagation are only valid locally at the front. Results showing model validation in the context of direct numerical simulation (DNS), and model application in the context of LES, are presented. (author)
Aero-Thermal Prediction in High Pressure Turbine Cascade using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhaskaran, Rathakrishnan; Lele, Sanjiva
2008-11-01
The aero-thermal performance of an uncooled, smooth high pressure (HP) turbine cascade in the presence of free-stream turbulence is studied using a high-order overset mesh Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure. A HP vane cascade designed at the von Karman Institute (VKI) for fluid dynamics, Belgium, is used as the model geometry. Simulations matching experimental conditions, except for the Reynolds number which is about half of the experimental value, have been carried out. Significant enhancement in the blade heat-transfer is seen in the presence of inflow turbulence. Eddies from the free-stream turbulence get stretched around the blade, creating long streaky structures in the blade boundary layer. These structures quickly break down on the suction side, while they persist on the pressure side. The blade heat transfer signature from the simulations does not show transition of the boundary layer at the Reynolds number of the simulation. This is consistent with the trend seen in the experiments where transition is delayed by lowering the Reynolds number. New simulations matching the experimental Reynolds number are currently under way.
A grid-independent length scale for large-eddy simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piomelli, U.; Geurts, B. J.
2009-11-01
In most large-eddy simulations a length-scale related to the grid size is used in the subgrid-scale models. Rapid variations of the mesh may cause errors and unphysical results. We propose a new length scale for small-scale turbulence models that is decoupled from the grid, and is determined dynamically from the velocity field itself. It is based on an approximation to a local integral scale used in turbulence models. The resulting eddy-viscosity model has many features of dynamic models (it vanishes near a wall or in laminar flows, and senses the local small scales of the flow) but does not require the use of spatial filtering operations, which are costly and may be difficult to perform on unstructured grids. The model coefficient is determined by a Successive Inverse Polynomial Interpolation procedure (Geurts & Meyers, 2006), in which the coefficient is optimized computationally to minimize a specified cost function. Since this procedure can be performed on coarse grids, it adds little to the computational cost of the method. A set of 4-6 coarse simulations with the new model is required to approximate the optimum with fair accuracy, and the total cost of a simulation is comparable to that of a single simulation with a dynamic model. The new length scale also has the desirable feature that refining the mesh does not result in a DNS, but in a grid-converged LES. Applications to plane channel and mixing layers will be presented.
Large-eddy simulation of flow past urban-like surfaces: A model validation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Wai Chi; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2013-04-01
Accurate prediction of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and its interaction with urban surfaces is critical for understanding the transport of momentum and scalars within and above cities. This, in turn, is essential for predicting the local climate and pollutant dispersion patterns in urban areas. Large-eddy simulation (LES) explicitly resolves the large-scale turbulent eddy motions and, therefore, can potentially provide improved understanding and prediction of flows inside and above urban canopies. This study focuses on developing and validating an LES framework to simulate flow past urban-like surfaces. In particular, large-eddy simulations were performed of flow past an infinite long two-dimensional (2D) building and an array of 3D cubic buildings. An immersed boundary (IB) method was employed to simulate both 2D and 3D buildings. Four subgrid-scale (SGS) models, including (i) the traditional Smagorinsky model, (ii) the Lagrangian dynamic model, (iii) the Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic model, and (iv) the modulated gradient model, were evaluated using the 2D building case. The simulated velocity streamlines and the vertical profiles of the mean velocities and variances were compared with experimental results. The modulated gradient model shows the best overall agreement with the experimental results among the four SGS models. In particular, the flow recirculation, the reattachment position and the vertical profiles are accurately reproduced with a grid resolution of (Nx)x(Ny)x(Nz) =160x40x160 ((nx)x(nz) =13x16 covering the block). After validating the LES framework with the 2D building case, it was further applied to simulate a boundary-layer flow past a 3D building array. A regular aligned building array with seven rows of cubic buildings was simulated. The building spacings in the streamwise and spanwise directions were both equal to the building height. A developed turbulent boundary-layer flow was used as the incoming flow. The results were
Formation mechanism of dust devil-like vortices in a large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, J.; Niino, H.; Nakanishi, M.
2012-12-01
Dust devils are small-scale vertical vortices that often occur over deserts in fine weather conditions in which a convective mixed layer develops. Why such strong vortices are generated remains an issue in the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer, and several hypotheses for the origin of strong vertical vorticity in dust devils have been proposed. However, no quantitative study on the source of vertical vorticity of dust devils has been made. In this study, a large eddy simulation model with grid spacing of 5m is used to simulate dust devil-like vortices (DDVs) embedded in a convective mixed layer and a quantitative analysis on their source of its vertical vorticity is made. In order to investigate the origin of vertical vorticity in the simulated DDV, the circulation, which is a conserved quantity in the absence of turbulent transport and baroclinic production of horizontal vorticity, is examined, where the circulation is calculated as a surface integral of vorticity vector on a material surface. The deformation of the material surface as it flows into the DDV shows gives quantitative information about how stretching and tilting of vorticity contribute to the formation of the DDV. Material surface is initially placed horizontally in the core of the simulated DDV. It is divided into about 20000 triangular patches and vertices of the patches are tracked backward for 128 seconds. Our analysis shows that the material surface converges, while approximately conserving circulation, toward the DDV from a wide horizontal plane. A standard deviation of circulations over horizontal circles of several hundred meters in radius near the surface shows that presence of circulations is an inherent property of the convective mixed layer and its magnitude is reasonably scaled by the product of the depth of convective mixed layer and the convective velocity. As a result of horizontal convergence of the circulation, strength of formed DDVs can be scaled with the convective
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow for grid-to-rod fretting in nuclear reactors
Bakosi, J.; Christon, M. A.; Lowrie, R. B.; Pritchett-Sheats, L. A.; Nourgaliev, R. R.
2013-07-12
The grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) problem in pressurized water reactors is a flow-induced vibration problem that results in wear and failure of the fuel rods in nuclear assemblies. In order to understand the fluid dynamics of GTRF and to build an archival database of turbulence statistics for various configurations, implicit large-eddy simulations of time-dependent single-phase turbulent flow have been performed in 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod bundles with a single grid spacer. To assess the computational mesh and resolution requirements, a method for quantitative assessment of unstructured meshes with no-slip walls is described. The calculations have been carried out using Hydra-TH, a thermal-hydraulics code developed at Los Alamos for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light water reactors, a United States Department of Energy Innovation Hub. Hydra-TH uses a second-order implicit incremental projection method to solve the singlephase incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The simulations explicitly resolve the large scale motions of the turbulent flow field using first principles and rely on a monotonicity-preserving numerical technique to represent the unresolved scales. Each series of simulations for the 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod-bundle geometries is an analysis of the flow field statistics combined with a mesh-refinement study and validation with available experimental data. Our primary focus is the time history and statistics of the forces loading the fuel rods. These hydrodynamic forces are believed to be the key player resulting in rod vibration and GTRF wear, one of the leading causes for leaking nuclear fuel which costs power utilities millions of dollars in preventive measures. As a result, we demonstrate that implicit large-eddy simulation of rod-bundle flows is a viable way to calculate the excitation forces for the GTRF problem.
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow for grid-to-rod fretting in nuclear reactors
Bakosi, J.; Christon, M. A.; Lowrie, R. B.; Pritchett-Sheats, L. A.; Nourgaliev, R. R.
2013-07-12
The grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) problem in pressurized water reactors is a flow-induced vibration problem that results in wear and failure of the fuel rods in nuclear assemblies. In order to understand the fluid dynamics of GTRF and to build an archival database of turbulence statistics for various configurations, implicit large-eddy simulations of time-dependent single-phase turbulent flow have been performed in 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod bundles with a single grid spacer. To assess the computational mesh and resolution requirements, a method for quantitative assessment of unstructured meshes with no-slip walls is described. The calculations have been carriedmore » out using Hydra-TH, a thermal-hydraulics code developed at Los Alamos for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light water reactors, a United States Department of Energy Innovation Hub. Hydra-TH uses a second-order implicit incremental projection method to solve the singlephase incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The simulations explicitly resolve the large scale motions of the turbulent flow field using first principles and rely on a monotonicity-preserving numerical technique to represent the unresolved scales. Each series of simulations for the 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod-bundle geometries is an analysis of the flow field statistics combined with a mesh-refinement study and validation with available experimental data. Our primary focus is the time history and statistics of the forces loading the fuel rods. These hydrodynamic forces are believed to be the key player resulting in rod vibration and GTRF wear, one of the leading causes for leaking nuclear fuel which costs power utilities millions of dollars in preventive measures. As a result, we demonstrate that implicit large-eddy simulation of rod-bundle flows is a viable way to calculate the excitation forces for the GTRF problem.« less
Wall modeling for implicit large-eddy simulation and immersed-interface methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhen Li; Hickel, Stefan; Devesa, Antoine; Berland, Julien; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2014-02-01
We propose and analyze a wall model based on the turbulent boundary layer equations (TBLE) for implicit large-eddy simulation (LES) of high Reynolds number wall-bounded flows in conjunction with a conservative immersed-interface method for mapping complex boundaries onto Cartesian meshes. Both implicit subgrid-scale model and immersed-interface treatment of boundaries offer high computational efficiency for complex flow configurations. The wall model operates directly on the Cartesian computational mesh without the need for a dual boundary-conforming mesh. The combination of wall model and implicit LES is investigated in detail for turbulent channel flow at friction Reynolds numbers from Re τ = 395 up to Re τ =100,000 on very coarse meshes. The TBLE wall model with implicit LES gives results of better quality than current explicit LES based on eddy viscosity subgrid-scale models with similar wall models. A straightforward formulation of the wall model performs well at moderately large Reynolds numbers. A logarithmic-layer mismatch, observed only at very large Reynolds numbers, is removed by introducing a new structure-based damping function. The performance of the overall approach is assessed for two generic configurations with flow separation: the backward-facing step at Re h = 5,000 and the periodic hill at Re H = 10,595 and Re H = 37,000 on very coarse meshes. The results confirm the observations made for the channel flow with respect to the good prediction quality and indicate that the combination of implicit LES, immersed-interface method, and TBLE-based wall modeling is a viable approach for simulating complex aerodynamic flows at high Reynolds numbers. They also reflect the limitations of TBLE-based wall models.
The role of large eddy fluctuations in the magnetic dynamics of the Madison Dynamo Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplan, Elliot
The Madison Dynamo Experiment (MDE), a liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamics experiment in a 1 m diameter sphere at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, had measured [in Spence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Bonin, Timothy A.; Chilson, Phillip B.; Gibbs, Jeremy A.; Fedorovich, Evgeni; Palmer, Robert D.
2015-05-01
Small-scale turbulent fluctuations of temperature are known to affect the propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic waves. Within the inertial-subrange scale, where the turbulence is locally homogeneous and isotropic, these temperature perturbations can be described, in a statistical sense, using the structure-function parameter for temperature, . Here we investigate different methods of evaluating , using data from a numerical large-eddy simulation together with atmospheric observations collected by an unmanned aerial system and a sodar. An example case using data from a late afternoon unmanned aerial system flight on April 24 2013 and corresponding large-eddy simulation data is presented and discussed.
Large Eddy/Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations of CUBRC Base Heating Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salazar, Giovanni; Edwards, Jack R.; Amar, Adam J.
2012-01-01
ven with great advances in computational techniques and computing power during recent decades, the modeling of unsteady separated flows, such as those encountered in the wake of a re-entry vehicle, continues to be one of the most challenging problems in CFD. Of most interest to the aerothermodynamics community is accurately predicting transient heating loads on the base of a blunt body, which would result in reduced uncertainties and safety margins when designing a re-entry vehicle. However, the prediction of heat transfer can vary widely depending on the turbulence model employed. Therefore, selecting a turbulence model which realistically captures as much of the flow physics as possible will result in improved results. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models have become increasingly popular due to their good performance with attached flows, and the relatively quick turnaround time to obtain results. However, RANS methods cannot accurately simulate unsteady separated wake flows, and running direct numerical simulation (DNS) on such complex flows is currently too computationally expensive. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques allow for the computation of the large eddies, which contain most of the Reynolds stress, while modeling the smaller (subgrid) eddies. This results in models which are more computationally expensive than RANS methods, but not as prohibitive as DNS. By complimenting an LES approach with a RANS model, a hybrid LES/RANS method resolves the larger turbulent scales away from surfaces with LES, and switches to a RANS model inside boundary layers. As pointed out by Bertin et al., this type of hybrid approach has shown a lot of promise for predicting turbulent flows, but work is needed to verify that these models work well in hypersonic flows. The very limited amounts of flight and experimental data available presents an additional challenge for researchers. Recently, a joint study by NASA and CUBRC has focused on collecting heat transfer data
Large-Eddy Simulation of plume dispersion within various actual urban areas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, H.; Jurcakova, K.; Nagai, H.
2013-02-01
Plume dispersion of hazardous materials within urban area resulting from accidental or intentional releases is of great concern to public health. Many researchers have developed local-scale atmospheric dispersion models using building-resolving computational fluid dynamics. However, an important issue is encountered when determining a reasonable domain size of the computational model in order to capture concentration distribution patterns influenced by urban surface geometries. In this study, we carried out Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of plume dispersion within various urban areas with a wide range of obstacle density and building height variability. The difference of centerline mean and r.m.s. concentration distributions among various complex urban surface geometries becomes small for downwind distances from the point source greater than 1.0 km. From these results, it can be concluded that a length of a computational model should be at least 1.0 km from a point source.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Mesoscale Circulations Forced by Inhomogeneous Urban Heat Island
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xueyuan; Peng, Zhen
2014-04-01
The large-eddy simulation mode of the Weather Research and Forecasting model is employed to simulate the planetary boundary-layer characteristics and mesoscale circulations forced by an ideal urban heat island (UHI). In our simulations, the horizontal heterogeneity of the UHI intensity distribution in urban areas is considered and idealized as a cosine function. Results indicate that the UHI heating rate and the UHI intensity heterogeneity affect directly the spatial distribution of the wind field; a stronger UHI intensity produces a maximum horizontal wind speed closer to the urban centre. The strong advection of warm air from the urban area to the rural area in the upper part of the planetary boundary-layer causes a more stable atmospheric stratification over both the urban and rural areas. The mesoscale sensible heat flux caused by the UHI circulation increases with UHI intensity but vanishes when the background wind speed is sufficiently high 3.0.
Large Eddy Simulation of an URBAN 2000 Experiment with Various Time-Dependent Forcing
Chan, S T; Leach, M J
2004-06-15
Under the sponsorship of the U.S. DOE and DHS, we have developed a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for simulating airflow and dispersion of chemical/biological agents released in the urban environment. Our model, FEM3MP, is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on massively parallel computer platforms. The numerical algorithm uses the finite element method for accurate representation of complex building shapes and variable terrain, together with a semi-implicit projection method and modern iterative solvers for efficient time integration (Gresho and Chan, 1998). Physical processes treated in our code include turbulence modeling via the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) and LES (Large Eddy Simulation) approaches, atmospheric stability, aerosols, UV radiation decay, surface energy budget, and vegetative canopies, etc.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Chemically Reactive Pollutant Transport from a Point Source in Urban Area
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Tangzheng; Liu, Chun-Ho
2013-04-01
Most air pollutants are chemically reactive so using inert scalar as the tracer in pollutant dispersion modelling would often overlook their impact on urban inhabitants. In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to examine the plume dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants in a hypothetical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in neutral stratification. The irreversible chemistry mechanism of ozone (O3) titration is integrated into the LES model. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from an elevated point source in a rectangular spatial domain doped with O3. The LES results are compared well with the wind tunnel results available in literature. Afterwards, the LES model is applied to idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of unity aspect ratio to study the behaviours of chemically reactive plume over idealized urban roughness. The relation among various time scales of reaction/turbulence and dimensionless number are analysed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golubev, Vladimir V.
2003-01-01
The summer fellowship research project focused on further developing an advanced computational technique based on Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES) for analysis and control of major sources of noise in turbomachinery and propulsion systems, including jet noise and fan noise. Major part of the work during the 10-week tenure dealt with implementing a low-order, implicit A-stable time-stepping scheme in the existing explicit VLES code of Dr. Ray Hixon. The preliminary plan of the work also included application of a new time marching formulation to the problem of viscous gust-airfoil interaction. Other research items selected for implementation (possibly in the future) included investigating a set of new subgrid turbulent models for the code, and code application to a number of test cases, including a supersonic jet and swirling flow downstream of a rotor stage.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spyropoulos, Evangelos T.; Holmes, Bayard S.
1997-01-01
The dynamic subgrid-scale model is employed in large-eddy simulations of flow over a cylinder at a Reynolds number, based on the diameter of the cylinder, of 90,000. The Centric SPECTRUM(trademark) finite element solver is used for the analysis. The far field sound pressure is calculated from Lighthill-Curle's equation using the computed fluctuating pressure at the surface of the cylinder. The sound pressure level at a location 35 diameters away from the cylinder and at an angle of 90 deg with respect to the wake's downstream axis was found to have a peak value of approximately 110 db. Slightly smaller peak values were predicted at the 60 deg and 120 deg locations. A grid refinement study suggests that the dynamic model demands mesh refinement beyond that used here.
Technical note: Large-eddy simulation of cloudy boundary layer with the Advanced Research WRF model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaguchi, Takanobu; Feingold, Graham
2012-03-01
A thorough evaluation of the large-eddy simulation (LES) mode of the Advanced Research WRF model is performed with use of three cloudy boundary layer cases developed as LES intercomparison cases by the GEWEX Cloud System Study. Our evaluation reveals two problems that must be recognized and carefully addressed before proceeding with production runs. These are (i) sensitivity of results to the prescribed number of acoustic time steps per physical time step; and (ii) the assumption of saturation adjustment in the initial cloudy state. A temporary, but effective method of how to cope with these issues is suggested. With the proper treatment, the simulation results are comparable to the ensemble mean of the other LES models, and sometimes closer to the observational estimate than the ensemble mean. In order to ease the burden for configuration and post-processing, two new packages are developed and implemented. A detailed description of each package is presented. These packages are freely available to the public.
Intensity of thunderstorm-generated turbulence revealed by large-eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lane, Todd P.; Sharman, Robert D.
2014-03-01
Thunderstorms are characterized by turbulent processes that constitute an important aviation hazard and cause vertical transport of atmospheric constituents. Turbulence occurs within cloud and in the surrounding clear air, but, despite its importance, the characteristics of thunderstorm-generated turbulence and its spatial distribution are poorly understood, especially outside of cloud. Here we use large-eddy simulation to characterize turbulence generated by a canonical thunderstorm. The simulation identifies regions of notable three-dimensional anisotropic turbulence more than 5 km above the storm, in a shallow layer above the storm's anvil, and a horizontally asymmetric pattern of weaker turbulence that extends more than 50 km horizontally away from the cloud. Our results provide the first continuous estimate of turbulence intensity in and around thunderstorms and represent a major step toward improved turbulence avoidance methods. The results have broader implications for understanding the fundamental aspects of how thunderstorms affect their environment through vertical exchange processes.
A consistent approach to large eddy simulation using adaptive mesh refinement
Cook, A.W.
1999-09-01
The large eddy simulation of turbulent flows is discussed with particular attention paid to the issue of commutation of differentiation and filtering. Multi-level adaptive mesh refinement is proposed as a means of mostly avoiding commutation errors where increased grid resolution is required to capture key flow features. The strategy is to employ multiple uniform grids in a nested hierarchy using a constant-width filter for each grid. It is shown that commutivity of fine and coarse grid filters must be enforced in order to consistently relate variables at different refinement levels. Methods for treating fine grid boundaries and walls are also discussed. It is shown that errors associated with boundary treatments are small and localized.
Wall-modeling for large-eddy simulation of high Reynolds number supersonic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, Soshi; Larsson, Johan; Lele, Sanjiva
2010-11-01
We present an idea of approximate wall-boundary-condition approach with dynamic procedure for large-eddy simulation of Mach 3 supersonic turbulent boundary layer at various Reynolds numbers (Reδ=2 x10^4, 10^5 and 10^6) on a flat plate. This wall-model is the extension of previous work by Wang and Moin [Phys. Fluid, 14, 2043 (2002)] for incompressible flows to compressible flows. We note that the present study is both the first extension of the dynamic concept to compressible flows and also the first test at high Reynolds number flows. The present study also revisits the issue of numerical errors near wall-region on outer-layer coarse LES mesh. The numerical results are compared with wall-resolved LES data (at low Reynolds number case) and available experimental data (at high Reynolds number case).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunno, A. Cody; Mueller, Michael E.
2015-11-01
Radiation effects are examined in turbulent premixed flames using a detailed Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. The approach combines a tabulated premixed flamelet model (Flamelet Generated Manifolds) with an optically thin radiation model. Radiation heat loss is tracked using an enthalpy deficit coordinate. Heat loss in the flamelets is calculated by varying a coefficient on the radiation source term, ranging from zero (adiabatic) to unity (full optically thin heat loss). NOx emissions are modeled with an additional transport equation that is able to capture unsteady effects resulting from slow kinetics. The model is compared against experimental measurements of methane-air piloted turbulent premixed planar jet flames with increasing levels of water dilution that maintain a constant adiabatic flame temperature. The effects of water dilution on global flame structure and NO emissions resulting directly and indirectly from radiation are examined in detail.
Large Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows in an Opposed-Piston Two Stroke Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, Shalabh; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad
2013-11-01
The two-phase filtered mass density function (FMDF) subgrid-scale model has been used for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in a generic single cylinder, opposed-piston, two-stroke engine configuration. The LES/FMDF is implemented via an efficient, hybrid numerical method in which the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order, multi-block, compact differencing scheme, and the spray and FMDF are implemented with stochastic Lagrangian methods. The reliability and consistency of the numerical methods are established for the engine configuration by comparing the Eulerian and Lagrangian components of the LES/FMDF. The effects of various operating conditions like boost pressure, heat transfer model, fuel spray temperature, nozzle diameter, injection pressure, and injector configuration on the flow field, heat loss and the evolution of spray and combustion are studied.
Large-Eddy Simulation: Current Capabilities, Recommended Practices, and Future Research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Rizzetta, Donald P.; Fureby, Christer
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results of an activity by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Working Group of the AIAA Fluid Dynamics Technical Committee to (1) address the current capabilities of LES, (2) outline recommended practices and key considerations for using LES, and (3) identify future research needs to advance the capabilities and reliability of LES for analysis of turbulent flows. To address the current capabilities and future needs, a survey comprised of eleven questions was posed to LES Working Group members to assemble a broad range of perspectives on important topics related to LES. The responses to these survey questions are summarized with the intent not to be a comprehensive dictate on LES, but rather the perspective of one group on some important issues. A list of recommended practices is also provided, which does not treat all aspects of a LES, but provides guidance on some of the key areas that should be considered.
Large-eddy simulation in an anelastic framework with closed water and entropy balances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pressel, Kyle G.; Kaul, Colleen M.; Schneider, Tapio; Tan, Zhihong; Mishra, Siddhartha
2015-09-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES) framework is developed for simulating the dynamics of clouds and boundary layers with closed water and entropy balances. The framework is based on the anelastic equations in a formulation that remains accurate for deep convection. As prognostic variables, it uses total water and entropy, which are conserved in adiabatic and reversible processes, including reversible phase changes of water. This has numerical advantages for modeling clouds, in which reversible phase changes of water occur frequently. The equations of motion are discretized using higher-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) discretization schemes with strong stability preserving time stepping. Numerical tests demonstrate that the WENO schemes yield simulations superior to centered schemes, even when the WENO schemes are used at coarser resolution. The framework is implemented in a new LES code written in Python and Cython, which makes the code transparent and easy to use for a wide user group.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaberi, Farhad A.; Givi, Peyman
2003-01-01
The influence of gravity on the spatial and the compositional structures of transitional and turbulent hydrocarbon diffusion flames are studies via large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of round and planar jets. The subgrid-scale (SGS) closures in LES are based on the filtered mass density function (FMDF) methodology. The FMDF represents the joint probability density function (PDF) of the SGS scalars, and is obtained by solving its transport equation. The fundamental advantage of LES/FMDF is that it accounts for the effects of chemical reaction and buoyancy exactly. The methodology is employed for capturing some of the fundamental influences of gravity in equilibrium flames via realistic chemical kinetic schemes. Some preliminary investigation of the gravity effects in non-equilibrium flames is also conducted, but with idealized chemical kinetics models.
Large Eddy Simulations of Kelvin-Helmholtz Instabilities in Stratified Ocean Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Dana; Goodman, Louis; Raessi, Mehdi
2012-11-01
Numerical simulations of turbulence in the ocean environment are used to supplement and enhance understanding of observational data. Here, using the NGA framework (Dejardins et al., JCP 2008), direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large eddy simulations (LES) of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are employed to study turbulence in presence of density stratification. Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities have been shown to be a common source of turbulence in the ocean. Past DNS studies of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities have compared favorably with observational data, but were limited to moderate Reynolds numbers. Here, LES is used to solve the filtered incompressible NS equations at a higher Reynolds number, Re = 10,000. The effect of increased Reynolds number on the turbulence behavior is examined in terms of velocity spectra and energy budgets.
Large-eddy simulation and multiscale modelling of a Richtmyer Meshkov instability with reshock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, D. J.; Pantano, C.; Pullin, D. I.
2006-06-01
Large-eddy simulations of the Richtmyer Meshkov instability with reshock are pre- sented and the results are compared with experiments. Several configurations of shocks initially travelling from light (air) to heavy (sulfur hexafluoride, SF6) have been simulated to match previous experiments and good agreement is found in the growth rates of the turbulent mixing zone (TMZ). The stretched-vortex subgrid model used in this study allows for subgrid continuation modelling, where statistics of the unresolved scales of the flow are estimated. In particular, this multiscale modelling allows the anisotropy of the flow to be extended to the dissipation scale, eta, and estimates to be formed for the subgrid probability density function of the mixture fraction of air/SF6 based on the subgrid variance, including the effect of Schmidt number.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Madnia, C. K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Tsai, A.
1991-01-01
This research is involved with the implementations of advanced computational schemes based on large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing and its coupling with chemical reactions in compressible turbulent flows. In the efforts related to LES, a research program was initiated to extend the present capabilities of this method for the treatment of chemically reacting flows, whereas in the DNS efforts, focus was on detailed investigations of the effects of compressibility, heat release, and nonequilibrium kinetics modeling in high speed reacting flows. The efforts to date were primarily focussed on simulations of simple flows, namely, homogeneous compressible flows and temporally developing hign speed mixing layers. A summary of the accomplishments is provided.
Large-eddy simulations of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobke, Alexandra; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Örlü, Ramis; Schlatter, Philipp
2016-04-01
Adverse pressure-gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) are studied by performing well-resolved large-eddy simulations. The pressure gradient is imposed by defining the free-stream velocity distribution with the description of a power law. Different inflow conditions, box sizes and upper boundary conditions are tested in order to determine the final set-up. The statistics of turbulent boundary layers with two different power-law coefficients and thus magnitudes of adverse pressure gradients are then compared to zero pressure-gradient (ZPG) data. The effect of the APG on TBLs is manifested in the mean flow through a much more prominent wake region and in the Reynolds stresses through the existence of an outer peak. The pre-multiplied energy budgets show that more energy is transported from the near-wall region to farther away from the wall.
Large-eddy simulation of flow around an airfoil on a structured mesh
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob; Choi, Haecheon
1995-01-01
The diversity of flow characteristics encountered in a flow over an airfoil near maximum lift taxes the presently available statistical turbulence models. This work describes our first attempt to apply the technique of large-eddy simulation to a flow of aeronautical interest. The challenge for this simulation comes from the high Reynolds number of the flow as well as the variety of flow regimes encountered, including a thin laminar boundary layer at the nose, transition, boundary layer growth under adverse pressure gradient, incipient separation near the trailing edge, and merging of two shear layers at the trailing edge. The flow configuration chosen is a NACA 4412 airfoil near maximum lift. The corresponding angle of attack was determined independently by Wadcock (1987) and Hastings & Williams (1984, 1987) to be close to 12 deg. The simulation matches the chord Reynolds number U(sub infinity)c/v = 1.64 x 10(exp 6) of Wadcock's experiment.
Pruitt, J.M.; Hassan, Y.A. ); Steininger, D.A.
1990-01-01
Excessive tube vibration caused by turbulent flow buffeting and fluid-elastic excitation is one of the main problems associated with steam generators. Vibration can lead to rupture of tubes within the steam generator, necessitating plugging, and perhaps even replacement of the component. Turbulence buffeting, and resulting excitation, is believed to be one of the mechanisms leading to tube vibration. The large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is being considered as a possible design analysis tool for defining the temporally fluctuating forces on steam generator tube banks. The present investigation uses LES to calculate the flow field for an array of tubes subject to turbulent flow and to compare the fluctuating lift and drag forces on a central tube with experimental findings. Predictions to date using LES methodology compare quite favorably with experimental data.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulence in a square pitched tube array
Pruitt, J.M.; Hassan, Y.A. ); Steininger, D.A. )
1990-06-01
One of the main problems associated with steam generators is excessive tube vibration caused by turbulent flow buffeting and fluid-elastic excitation. This vibration can lead to the rupture of the tubes within the steam generator, causing reduced availability due to tube plugging, and can eventually force replacement of the steam generator. The fluid/structure interaction that causes fluid-elastic excitation is unknown at this time, but it is believed that turbulence buffeting and resulting excitation is one of the mechanisms leading to tube vibration. The large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is being considered as a possible design analysis tool for defining the temporally fluctuating forces on steam generator tube banks. The investigation describes in this paper utilizes LES in calculating the flow field for a square pitched tube array in cross flow. A good comparison has been obtained between calculated and measured values of the power spectral density (PSD) of the lift and drag forces.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow with a surface-mounted two-dimensional obstacle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Kyung-Soo; Ferziger, Joel H.
1993-01-01
In this paper, we perform a large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow in a channel containing a two-dimensional obstacle on one wall using a dynamic subgrid-scale model (DSGSM) at Re = 3210, based on bulk velocity above the obstacle and obstacle height; the wall layers are fully resolved. The low Re enables us to perform a DNS (Case 1) against which to validate the LES results. The LES with the DSGSM is designated Case 2. In addition, an LES with the conventional fixed model constant (Case 3) is conducted to allow identification of improvements due to the DSGSM. We also include LES at Re = 82,000 (Case 4) using conventional Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model and a wall-layer model. The results will be compared with the experiment of Dimaczek et al.
Large Eddy Simulation of diesel injector opening with a two phase cavitation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koukouvinis, P.; Gavaises, M.; Li, J.; Wang, L.
2015-12-01
In the current paper, indicative results of the flow simulation during the opening phase of a Diesel injector are presented. In order to capture the complex flow field and cavitation structures forming in the injector, Large Eddy Simulation has been employed, whereas compressibility of the liquid was included. For taking into account cavitation effects, a two phase homogenous mixture model was employed. The mass transfer rate of the mixture model was adjusted to limit as much as possible the occurrence of negative pressures. During the simulation, pressure peaks have been found in areas of vapour collapse, with magnitude beyond 4000bar, which is higher that the yield stress of common materials. The locations of such pressure peaks corresponds well with the actual erosion location as found from X ray scans.
Using Large Eddy Simulation for understanding vented gas explosions in the presence of obstacles.
Di Sarli, Valeria; Di Benedetto, Almerinda; Russo, Gennaro
2009-09-30
In this work, a validated Large Eddy Simulation model of unsteady premixed flame propagation is used to study the phenomenology underlying vented gas explosions in the presence of obstacles. Computations are run of deflagrating flames in a small-scale combustion chamber closed at the bottom end and open at the opposite face. A single obstacle is centred inside the chamber. Methane-air mixtures of various compositions (ranging from lean to stoichiometric and rich), and obstacles with different area blockage ratios (30, 50 and 70%) and shapes (circular, rectangular and square cross-section in the flow direction) are investigated. All cases are initialized from stagnation. The competition between combustion rate and venting rate allows explaining both number and intensity of the overpressure peaks observed. PMID:19409700