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Sample records for large momentum transfers

  1. Axial form factor of the nucleon at large momentum transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikin, I. V.; Braun, V. M.; Offen, N.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the emerging possibilities to study threshold pion electroproduction at large momentum transfers at Jefferson Laboratory following the 12 GeV upgrade, we provide a short theory summary and an estimate of the nucleon axial form factor for large virtualities in the Q2=1 - 10 GeV2 range using next-to-leading-order light-cone sum rules.

  2. Large momentum transfer atom interferometry with Coriolis force compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Pei-Chen; Lan, Shau-Yu; Estey, Brian; Haslinger, Philipp; Mueller, Holger

    2012-06-01

    Light-pulse atom interferometers use atom-photon interactions to coherently split, guide, and recombine freely falling matter-waves. Because of Earth's rotation, however, the matter-waves do not recombine precisely, which causes severe loss of contrast in large space-time atom interferometers. I will present our recent progress in using a tip-tilt mirror to remove the influence of the Coriolis force from Earth's rotation. Therefore, we improve the contrast and suppress systematic effects, also reach what is to our knowledge the largest spacetime area.

  3. The two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-nucleon scattering at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei V. Afanasev; Stanley J. Brodsky; Carl E. Carlson; Yu-Chun Chen; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-proton scattering at large momentum transfer by using a quark-parton representation of virtual Compton scattering. We thus can relate the two-photon exchange amplitude to the generalized parton distributions which also enter in other wide angle scattering processes. We find that the interference of one- and two-photon exchange contribution is able to substantially resolve the difference between electric form factor measurements from Rosenbluth and polarization transfer experiments.

  4. Photoproduction of the rho(0) meson on the proton at large momentum transfer.

    PubMed

    Battaglieri, M; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; De Vita, R; Golovach, E; Laget, J M; Mokeev, V; Ripani, M; Adams, G; Amaryan, M J; Armstrong, D S; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Barrow, S; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Berman, B L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Calarco, J R; Capitani, G P; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cazes, A; Cetina, C; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; DeSanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Demirchyan, R; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Eckhause, M; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Farhi, L; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Freyberger, A P; Frolov, V; Funsten, H; Gaff, S J; Gai, M; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Gyurjyan, V; Hancock, D; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hicks, R S; Holtrop, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ito, M M; Joo, K; Kelley, J H; Khandaker, M; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Lawrence, D; Lucas, M; Lukashin, K; Major, R W; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McCarthy, J; McNabb, J W; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nelson, S O; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; O'Brien, J T; Opper, A K; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Reolon, A R; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabourov, K; Salgado, C; Sanzone-Arenhovel, M; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, T; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Todor, L; Thompson, R; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Weinstein, L B; Weisberg, A; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhang, B; Zhao, J; Zhou, Z

    2001-10-22

    The differential cross section, d sigma/dt, for rho(0) meson photoproduction on the proton above the resonance region was measured up to a momentum transfer -t = 5 GeV2 using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The rho(0) channel was extracted from the measured two charged-pion cross sections by fitting the pi(+)pi(-) and p pi(+) invariant masses. The low momentum transfer region shows the typical diffractive pattern expected from Reggeon exchange. The flatter behavior at large -t cannot be explained solely in terms of QCD-inspired two-gluon exchange models. The data indicate that other processes, like quark interchange, are important to fully describe rho photoproduction. PMID:11690264

  5. Photoproduction of the omega meson on the proton at large momentum transfer.

    PubMed

    Battaglieri, M; Brunoldi, M; De Vita, R; Laget, J M; Osipenko, M; Ripani, M; Taiuti, M; Adams, G; Amaryan, M J; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Armstrong, D S; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Barrow, S; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Berman, B L; Bersani, A; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Calarco, J R; Capitani, G P; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cazes, A; Cetina, C; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; DeSanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Demirchyan, R; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Eckhause, M; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Farhi, L; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Freyberger, A P; Frolov, V; Funsten, H; Gaff, S J; Gai, M; Garcon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Golovach, E; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hancock, D; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hicks, R S; Holtrop, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ito, M M; Joo, K; Kelley, J H; Khandaker, M; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Lachniet, J; Lawrence, D; Lucas, M; Lukashin, K; Major, R W; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McCarthy, J; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morrow, S; Mozer, M U; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nelson, S O; Niccolai, S; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Brien, J T; Opper, A K; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Reolon, A R; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabourov, K; Salgado, C; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, T; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Todor, L; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhang, B; Zhao, J; Zhou, Z

    2003-01-17

    The differential cross section, dsigma/dt, for omega meson exclusive photoproduction on the proton above the resonance region (2.6momentum transfer -t=5 GeV2 using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The omega channel was identified by detecting a proton and pi(+) in the final state and using the missing mass technique. While the low momentum transfer region shows the typical diffractive pattern expected from Pomeron and Reggeon exchange, at large -t the differential cross section has a flat behavior. This feature can be explained by introducing quark interchange processes in addition to the QCD-inspired two-gluon exchange. PMID:12570539

  6. Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei in the quasielastic region at large momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Nadia

    2008-12-01

    Experiment E02-019, performed in Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), was a measurement of inclusive electron cross sections for several nuclei (^{2}H,^{3}He, ^{4}He, ^{9}Be,^{12}C, ^{63}Cu, and ^{197}Au) in the quasielastic region at high momentum transfer. In the region of low energy transfer, the cross sections were analyzed in terms of the reduced response, F(y), by examining its y-scaling behavior. The data were also examined in terms of the nuclear structure function ν W_2^A and its behavior in x and the Nachtmann variable ξ. The data show approximate scaling of ν W_2^A in ξ for all targets at all kinematics, unlike scaling in x, which is confined to the DIS regime. However, y-scaling observations are limited to the kinematic region dominated by the quasielastic response ({y<0}), where some scaling violations arising from FSIs are observed.

  7. Diffractive photoproduction of /J/ψ mesons with large momentum transfer at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H1 Collaboration; Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bähr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J. C.; Böhme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bröker, H.-B.; Brown, D. P.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J. G.; Coppens, Y. R.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J. D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flucke, G.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formánek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hladký, J.; Höting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D. P.; Jones, M. A. S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Krüger, K.; Kueckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leißner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Lüders, S.; Lüke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J. P.; Pitzl, D.; Pöschl, R.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J. E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wünsch, E.; Wyatt, A. C.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zur Nedden, M.

    2003-08-01

    The diffractive photoproduction of /J/ψ mesons is measured with the H1 detector at the /ep collider HERA using an integrated luminosity of 78 pb-1. The differential cross section /dσ(γp-->J/ψY)/dt is studied in the range 2momentum transferred at the proton vertex. The cross section is also presented as a function of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy Wγp in three /t intervals, spanning the range 50

  8. Diffractive photoproduction of J/ ψ mesons with large momentum transfer at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bähr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J. C.; Böhme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bröker, H.-B.; Brown, D. P.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J. G.; Coppens, Y. R.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J. D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flucke, G.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formánek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hladký, J.; Höting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D. P.; Jones, M. A. S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Krüger, K.; Kueckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leißner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Lüders, S.; Lüke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J. P.; Pitzl, D.; Pöschl, R.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J. E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wünsch, E.; Wyatt, A. C.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.; H1 Collaboration

    2003-08-01

    The diffractive photoproduction of J/ψ mesons is measured with the H1 detector at the ep collider HERA using an integrated luminosity of 78 pb-1. The differential cross section dσ(γp→J/ψY)/dt is studied in the range 2<|t|<30 GeV2, where t is the square of the four-momentum transferred at the proton vertex. The cross section is also presented as a function of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy Wγp in three t intervals, spanning the range 50

  9. Measurement of the Electric and Magnetic Elastic Structure Functions of the Deuteron at Large Momentum Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Riad Suleiman

    1999-10-01

    The deuteron elastic structure functions, A(Q{sup 2}) and B(Q{sup 2}), have been extracted from cross section measurements of elastic electron-deuteron scattering in coincidence using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator and Hall A Facilities of Jefferson Laboratory. Incident electrons were scattered off a high-power cryogenic deuterium target. Scattered electrons and recoil deuterons were detected in the two High Resolution Spectrometers of Hall A. A(Q{sup 2}) was extracted from forward angle cross section measurements in the squared four-momentum transfer range 0.684 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 5.90 (GeV/c){sup 2}. B(Q{sup 2}) was determined by means of a Rosenbluth separation in the range 0.684 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 1.325 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The data are compared to theoretical models based on the impulse approximation with the inclusion of meson-exchange currents and to predictions of quark dimensional scaling and perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The results are expected to provide insights into the transition from meson-nucleon to quark-gluon descriptions of the nuclear two-body system.

  10. Sensitivity function analysis of gravitational wave detection with single-laser and large-momentum-transfer atomic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Bao-Cheng; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a configuration using atomic interferometers (AIs) had been suggested for the detection of gravitational waves. A new AI with some additional laser pulses for implementing large momentum transfer was also put forward, in order to reduce the effect of shot noise and laser frequency noise. We use a sensitivity function to analyze all possible configurations of the new AI and to distinguish how many momenta are transferred in a specific configuration. By analyzing the new configuration, we further explore a detection scheme for gravitational waves, in particular, that ameliorates laser frequency noise. We find that the amelioration occurs in such a scheme, but novelly, in some cases, the frequency noise can be canceled completely by using a proper data processing method. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  11. Two-center interference effects in (e, 2e) ionization of H2 and CO2 at large momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masakazu; Nakajima, Isao; Satoh, Hironori; Watanabe, Noboru; Jones, Darryl; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in understanding quantum mechanical interference effects in molecular ionization. Since this interference appears as a consequence of coherent electron emission from the different molecular centers, it should depend strongly on the nature of the ionized molecular orbital. Such molecular orbital patterns can be investigated by means of binary (e, 2e) spectroscopy, which is a kinematically-complete electron-impact ionization experiment performed under the high-energy Bethe ridge conditions. In this study, two-center interference effects in the (e, 2e) cross sections of H2 and CO2 at large momentum transfer are demonstrated with a high-statistics experiment, in order to elucidate the relationship between molecular orbital patterns and the interference structure. It is shown that the two-center interference is highly sensitive to the phase, spatial pattern, symmetry of constituent atomic orbital, and chemical bonding nature of the molecular orbital. This work was partially supported by Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (S) (No. 20225001) and for Young Scientists (B) (No. 21750005) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  12. Nuclear and Q{sup 2} dependence of quaselastic (e,e{prime}p) scattering at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.; Geesaman, D.F.; Jones, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    An experiment was completed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in which measurements of the (e,e{prime}p) coincidence quasielastic cross section in nuclei were extended to the largest possible Q{sup 2} attainable with the Nuclear Physics Injector and the End Station A spectrometers. Coincidence measurements of the quasielastic (e,e{prime}p) cross section were made on nuclei from carbon to gold in the Q{sup 2} range of 1-7 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Several papers describing the results were published or submitted. Analysis of the data is in its final stages. In summary, the cross section for quasielastic {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}p) scattering was measured at momentum transfer Q{sup 2}=1, 3, 5, and 6.8 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The results are consistent with scattering from a single nucleon as the dominant process. The nuclear transparency is obtained and compared with theoretical calculations that incorporate color transparency effects. No significant rise of the transparency with Q{sup 2} is observed. Cross sections were reported for the reaction {sup 2}H(e,e{prime}p)n for momentum transfers in the range 1.2 {<=}Q{sup 2}{<=}6.8 (GeV/c){sup 2} and for missing momenta from 0 to 250 MeV/c. The longitudinal-transverse interference structure function was separated at Q{sup 2}=1.5 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The observables were compared to calculations performed in nonrelativistic and relativistic frameworks. The data are best described by a fully relativistic calculation. The A-dependence of the quasielastic A(e,e{prime}p) reaction was studied with {sup 2}H, C, Fe, and Au nuclei at momentum transfers Q{sup 2}=1, 3, 5, and 6.8 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The nuclear transparency T A,Q{sup 2}, a measure of the average probability that the struck proton escapes from the nucleu A without interaction, was extracted. Several calculations predict a significant increase in T with momentum transfer, a phenomenon known as color transparency. No significant rise within errors is seen for any of the nuclei studied.

  13. Two-photon exchange corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering at large momentum transfer within the SCET approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivel, N.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2013-04-01

    We calculate the two-photon exchange (TPE) corrections in the region where the kinematical variables describing the elastic ep scattering are moderately large momentum scales relative to the soft hadronic scale. For such kinematics we use the QCD factorization approach formulated in the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). Such technique allows us to develop a description for the soft-spectator scattering contribution which is found to be important in the region of moderately large scales. Together with the hard-spectator contribution we present the complete factorization formulas for the TPE amplitudes at the leading power and leading logarithmic accuracy. The momentum region where both photons are hard is described by only one new nonperturbative SCET form factor. It turns out that the same form factor also arises for wide-angle Compton scattering which is also described in the framework of the SCET approach. This allows us to estimate the soft-spectator contribution associated with the hard photons in a model independent way. The main unknown in our description of the TPE contribution is related with the configuration where one photon is soft. The nonperturbative dynamics in this case is described by two unknown SCET amplitudes. We use a simple model in order to estimate their contribution. The formalism is then applied to a phenomenological analysis of existing data for the reduced cross section as well as for the transverse and longitudinal polarization observables.

  14. Bloch oscillations for large momentum transfer and high precision in an ytterbium Bose-Einstein condensate interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; McAlpine, Katherine; Gochnauer, Daniel; Saxberg, Brendan; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-05-01

    The narrow momentum and position spread of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) can help improve atom interferometric measurements. In earlier work, we demonstrated a contrast interferometer with ytterbium (Yb) BECs. Here, we report progress towards implementing a second generation Yb BEC interferometer with the goal of measuring h/m, where h is Planck's constant and m is the mass of a Yb atom, in order to determine the fine structure constant α. The use of the non-magnetic Yb atom and the symmetric geometry of the interferometer make the measurement immune to several error sources. We have produced Yb BECs in a new apparatus, and are currently installing and testing the laser pulse atom-optics needed for the interferometry sequence. The precision of our measurement scales with N2, where 2N is the number of photon recoils separating the interfering momentum states in the interferometer. We will discuss our progress towards realizing Bloch oscillations (BO) pulses for large N. Using an extension of our previous analysis2, we will also discuss the role of diffraction phases in our interferometer due to the BO pulses. This work is supported by the NSF.

  15. Angular momentum conservation in dipolar energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong; Knight, Troy E; McCusker, James K

    2011-12-23

    Conservation of angular momentum is a familiar tenet in science but has seldom been invoked to understand (or predict) chemical processes. We have developed a general formalism based on Wigner's original ideas concerning angular momentum conservation to interpret the photo-induced reactivity of two molecular donor-acceptor assemblies with physical properties synthetically tailored to facilitate intramolecular energy transfer. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic data establishing excited-state energy transfer from a rhenium(I)-based charge-transfer state to a chromium(III) acceptor can be fully accounted for by Förster theory, whereas the corresponding cobalt(III) adduct does not undergo an analogous reaction despite having a larger cross-section for dipolar coupling. Because this pronounced difference in reactivity is easily explained within the context of the angular momentum conservation model, this relatively simple construct may provide a means for systematizing a broad range of chemical reactions. PMID:22194572

  16. Electroproduction at large momentum transfers

    SciTech Connect

    van Bibber, K.

    1991-03-01

    The possibilities of electroproduction experiments at a facility such as the proposed European electron accelerator are discussed. Examples given are from studies of hadronization, color transparency, backward production, virtual Compton scattering and target spectator decay. Some conclusions about machine parameters are drawn. 25 refs., 15 figs.

  17. Ultrafast angular momentum transfer in multisublattice ferrimagnets.

    PubMed

    Bergeard, N; López-Flores, V; Halté, V; Hehn, M; Stamm, C; Pontius, N; Beaurepaire, E; Boeglin, C

    2014-01-01

    Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to induce ultrafast changes of the magnetization in magnetic materials. However, one of the unsolved questions is that of conservation of the total angular momentum during the ultrafast demagnetization. Here we report the ultrafast transfer of angular momentum during the first hundred femtoseconds in ferrimagnetic Co0.8Gd0.2 and Co0.74Tb0.26 films. Using time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism allowed for time-resolved determination of spin and orbital momenta for each element. We report an ultrafast quenching of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and show that at early times the demagnetization in ferrimagnetic alloys is driven by the local transfer of angular momenta between the two exchange-coupled sublattices while the total angular momentum stays constant. In Co0.74Tb0.26 we have observed a transfer of the total angular momentum to an external bath, which is delayed by ~150 fs. PMID:24614016

  18. Exclusive Reactions at High Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoler, Paul

    2008-03-01

    Hard exclusive scattering at JLab / P. Kroll -- AdS/CFT and exclusive processes in QCD / S. J. Brodsky and G. F. de Téramond -- Hadron structure matters in collisions at high energy and momentum / A. W. Thomas -- Inclusive perspectives / P. Hoyer -- Fitting DVCS at NLO and beyond / K. Kumericki, D. Müller and K. Passek-Kumericki -- Spin-orbit correlations and single-spin asymmetries / M. Burkardt -- Electroproduction of soft pions at large momentum transfers / V. M. Braun, D. Yu. Ivanov and A. Peters -- Color transparency: 33 years and still running / M. Strikman -- Meson clouds and nucleon electromagnetic form factors / G. A. Miller -- Covariance, dynamics and symmetries, and hadron form factors / M. S. Bhagwat, I. C. Cloët and C. D. Roberts -- N to [symbol] electromagnetic and axial form factors in full QCD / C. Alexandrou -- Real and virtual compton scattering in perturbative QCD / C.-R. Ji and R. Thomson -- Deeply virtual compton scattering at Jefferson Lab / F. Sabatie -- DVCS at HERMES: recent results / F. Ellinghaus -- Deeply virtual compton scattering with CLAS / F. X. Girod -- Deeply virtual compton scattering off the neutron at JLab Hall A / M. Mazouz -- The future DVCS experiments in Hall A at JLab / J. Roche -- Deeply virtual compton scattering with CLAS12 / L. Elouadrhiri -- Quark helicity flip and the transverse spin dependence of inclusive DIS / A. Afanasev, M. Strikman and C. Weiss -- Deeply virtual pseudoscalar meson production / V. Kubarovsky and P. Stoler -- Exclusive p[symbol] electroproduction on the proton: GPDs or not GPDs? / M. Guidal and S. Morrow -- p[symbol] transverse target spin asymmetry at HERMES / A. Airapetian -- Electroproduction of ø(1020) mesons / J. P. Santoro and E. S. Smith -- Generalized parton distributions from hadronic observables / S. Ahmad ... [et al.] -- Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering / G. E. Hyde ... [et al.] -- Regge contributions to exclusive electro-production / A

  19. Exclusive Reactions at High Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoler, Paul

    2008-03-01

    Hard exclusive scattering at JLab / P. Kroll -- AdS/CFT and exclusive processes in QCD / S. J. Brodsky and G. F. de Téramond -- Hadron structure matters in collisions at high energy and momentum / A. W. Thomas -- Inclusive perspectives / P. Hoyer -- Fitting DVCS at NLO and beyond / K. Kumericki, D. Müller and K. Passek-Kumericki -- Spin-orbit correlations and single-spin asymmetries / M. Burkardt -- Electroproduction of soft pions at large momentum transfers / V. M. Braun, D. Yu. Ivanov and A. Peters -- Color transparency: 33 years and still running / M. Strikman -- Meson clouds and nucleon electromagnetic form factors / G. A. Miller -- Covariance, dynamics and symmetries, and hadron form factors / M. S. Bhagwat, I. C. Cloët and C. D. Roberts -- N to [symbol] electromagnetic and axial form factors in full QCD / C. Alexandrou -- Real and virtual compton scattering in perturbative QCD / C.-R. Ji and R. Thomson -- Deeply virtual compton scattering at Jefferson Lab / F. Sabatie -- DVCS at HERMES: recent results / F. Ellinghaus -- Deeply virtual compton scattering with CLAS / F. X. Girod -- Deeply virtual compton scattering off the neutron at JLab Hall A / M. Mazouz -- The future DVCS experiments in Hall A at JLab / J. Roche -- Deeply virtual compton scattering with CLAS12 / L. Elouadrhiri -- Quark helicity flip and the transverse spin dependence of inclusive DIS / A. Afanasev, M. Strikman and C. Weiss -- Deeply virtual pseudoscalar meson production / V. Kubarovsky and P. Stoler -- Exclusive p[symbol] electroproduction on the proton: GPDs or not GPDs? / M. Guidal and S. Morrow -- p[symbol] transverse target spin asymmetry at HERMES / A. Airapetian -- Electroproduction of ø(1020) mesons / J. P. Santoro and E. S. Smith -- Generalized parton distributions from hadronic observables / S. Ahmad ... [et al.] -- Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering / G. E. Hyde ... [et al.] -- Regge contributions to exclusive electro-production / A

  20. Adaptive momentum management for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, E.

    1987-01-01

    Momentum management is discussed for a Large Space Structure (LSS) with the structure selected configuration being the Initial Orbital Configuration (IOC) of the dual keel space station. The external forces considered were gravity gradient and aerodynamic torques. The goal of the momentum management scheme developed is to remove the bias components of the external torques and center the cyclic components of the stored angular momentum. The scheme investigated is adaptive to uncertainties of the inertia tensor and requires only approximate knowledge of principle moments of inertia. Computational requirements are minimal and should present no implementation problem in a flight type computer and the method proposed is shown to be effective in the presence of attitude control bandwidths as low as .01 radian/sec.

  1. Polarisation Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, David

    2004-12-31

    The Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E99-114 comprised a series of measurements to explore proton Compton scattering at high momentum transfer. For the first time, the polarisation transfer observables in the p (~ 0 ~ p) reaction were measured in the GeV energy range, where it is believed that quark-gluon degrees of freedom begin to dominate. The experiment utilised a circularly polarised photon beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target, with the scattered photon and recoil proton detected in a lead-glass calorimeter and a magnetic spectrometer, respectively.

  2. Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Interactions at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Miltenberger, Ethan Ryan

    2015-05-01

    This is a study to identify predicted effects of the carbon nucleus environment on neutrino - nucleus interactions with low momentum transfer. A large sample of neutrino interaction data collected by the MINERvA experiment is analyzed to show the distribution of charged hadron energy in a region with low momentum transfer. These distributions reveal a major discrepancy between the data and a popular interaction model with only the simplest Fermi gas nuclear effects. Detailed analysis of systematic uncertainties due to energy scale and resolution can account for only a little of the discrepancy. Two additional nuclear model effects, a suppression/screening effect (RPA), and the addition of a meson exchange current process (MEC), are shown to improve the description of the data.

  3. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Aidan

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q2 and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized 3 He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. Gn E was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q2 = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV2 , respectively.

  4. Ion momentum and energy transfer rates for charge exchange collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J.; Banks, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The rates of momentum and energy transfer have been obtained for charge exchange collisions between ion and neutral gases having arbitrary Maxwellian temperatures and bulk transport velocities. The results are directly applicable to the F-region of the ionosphere where 0+ - 0 charge is the dominant mechanism affecting ion momentum and energy transfer.

  5. Inclusive Higgs production at large transverse momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    We present a factorization formula for the inclusive production of the Higgs boson at large transverse momentum PT that includes all terms with the leading power of 1 /PT2. The cross section is factorized into convolutions of parton distributions, infrared-safe hard-scattering cross sections for producing a parton, and fragmentation functions that give the distribution of the longitudinal momentum fraction of the Higgs relative to the fragmenting parton. The infrared-safe cross sections and the fragmentation functions are perturbatively calculable. The most important fragmentation functions are those for which the fragmenting parton is the top quark, gluon, W , Z , and the Higgs itself. We calculate the fragmentation functions at leading order in the Standard Model coupling constants. The factorization formula enables the resummation of large logarithms of PT/MH due to final-state radiation by integrating evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. By comparing the cross section for the process q q ¯→H t t ¯ from the leading-power factorization formula at leading order in the coupling constants with the complete leading-order cross section, we infer that the error in the factorization formula decreases to less than 5% for PT>600 GeV at a future 100 TeV collider.

  6. Design of Large Momentum Acceptance Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Douglas

    2005-05-01

    The use of energy recovery to enable high power linac operation often gives rise to an attendant challenge--the transport of high power beams subtending large phase space volumes. In particular applications--such as FEL driver accelerators--this manifests itself as a requirement for beam transport systems with large momentum acceptance. We will discuss the design, implementation, and operation of such systems. Though at times counterintuitive in behavior (perturbative descriptions may, for example, be misleading), large acceptance systems have been successfully utilized for generations as spectrometers and accelerator recirculators [1]. Such systems are in fact often readily designed using appropriate geometric descriptions of beam behavior; insight provided using such a perspective may in addition reveal inherent symmetries that simplify construction and improve operability. Our discussion will focus on two examples: the Bates-clone recirculator used in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR U pgrade FEL (which has an observed acceptance of 10% or more) and a compaction-managed mirror-bend achromat concept with an acceptance ranging from 50 to 150 MeV.

  7. Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.

  8. O (αs3) heavy flavor contributions to the charged current structure function x F3(x ,Q2) at large momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behring, A.; Blümlein, J.; De Freitas, A.; Hasselhuhn, A.; von Manteuffel, A.; Schneider, C.

    2015-12-01

    We calculate the massive Wilson coefficients for the heavy-flavor contributions to the nonsinglet charged-current deep-inelastic scattering structure function x F3W+(x ,Q2)+x F3W-(x ,Q2) in the asymptotic region Q2≫m2 to three-loop order in QCD at general values of the Mellin variable N and the momentum fraction x . Besides the heavy-quark pair production also the single heavy-flavor excitation s →c contributes. Numerical results are presented for the charm-quark contributions and consequences on the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule are discussed.

  9. A new measurement of the energy dependence of nuclear transparency for large momentum transfer 12C(p,2p) scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leksanov, A.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtojarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Schetkovsky, A.; Heppelmann, S.; Kawabata, T.; Malki, A.; Makdisi, Y.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Piasetzky, E.; Shimanskiy, S.; Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Yoshida, H.; Zhalov, D.

    2000-12-01

    We present a new measurement of the energy dependence of nuclear transparency from AGS experiment E850, performed using the EVA solenoidal spectrometer, upgraded since 1995. Using a secondary beam from the AGS accelerator, we simultaneously measured pp elastic scattering from hydrogen and (p,2p) quasi-elastic scattering in carbon at incoming momenta of 5.9, 8.0, 9.0, 11.7 and 14.4 GeV/c. This incident momentum range corresponds to a Q2 region between 4.8 and 12.7 (GeV/c)2. The detector allowed us to do a complete kinematic analysis for the center-of-mass polar angles in the range 85°-90°. We report on the measured variation of the nuclear transparency with energy and compare the new results with previous measurements.

  10. Momentum Transfer in Oblique Impacts: Implications for Asteroid Rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Hasegawa, Sunao

    2000-07-01

    We calculate the momentum transfer efficiency for small cratering impacts from 59 high-velocity (0.76-4.4 km/s) oblique impact experiments using nylon projectiles and targets made of basalt, aluminum, mild steel, mortar, and nylon. High-speed video frames show an initial luminous stream downrange of impact point for all the target materials. For basaltic and mortar targets there follows axi-symmetric ejection of target material around surface normal at the impact point. Our results suggest that: (1) momentum carried away by the axi-symmetric ejecta would significantly contribute to the normal component of momentum transfer efficiency; and (2) thepenetration depth of the projectile into target could determine the tangential momentum transfer efficiency. We calculated the efficiency of angular momentum transfer from the translational motion of projectiles to the rotation of ellipsoidal asteroids using the efficiencies for the linear momentum. The efficiency is more than four times that for spherical asteroid at their principal axis ratio of 2 : 1.4 : 1. If the experimental results hold for the impact that formed the largest crater on 253 Mathilde, the largest projectile estimated may have despun the asteroid to the present slow rotation by chance.

  11. Proton Spin Structure from Large Momentum Effective Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Hui; Ji, Xiangdong; Zhao, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Recently a large momentum effective theory approach has been proposed to compute parton observables. We discuss its application to the spin structure of the proton. In particular, we explain how the partonic contribution to the proton spin in the Jaffe-Manohar sum rule can be computed within the large momentum effective theory framework.

  12. Large momentum transfer neutron pickup with the (. pi. /sup +/,p) and (p,d) reactions. [90 and 180 MeV, 800 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The (p,d) reaction was studied for the first time at 800 MeV on seven targets ranging from /sup 7/Li to /sup 40/Ca. The experimental resolution (approx. 400 keV) attained was sufficient to observe many discrete levels in each of the residual nuclei. A modified version of the one-nucleon model successfully describes the magnitude and angular dependence of almost all of the transitions observed. A specific counter example to the two-nucleon model of the reaction mechanism is suggested. The calculations are also sensitive to the neutron single-particle wave function, in accordance with the expectation that the high-momentum components of this wave function are probed at higher bombarding energies. States that have never been seen before were strongly populated in the high excitation region (up to 25 MeV) of some of the residual nuclei. The relative intensities of the other levels observed suggest that coupled-channels mechanisms play an important role for some of these states. Explicit calculations were performed to confirm this for several examples. The first high-resolution measurements of the (..pi../sup +/,p) reaction were also performed on /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, /sup 12/C, and /sup 13/C at pion bombarding energies on and off the pion-nucleon resonance. Calculations employing a one-nucleon model of the reaction mechanism similar to the model successfully used for the (p,d) reaction are unable to account for transitions in the (..pi../sup +/,p) reaction. It is, however, unclear whether this failure is due to a fundamental inadequacy of the model or improper treatment of details in the calculations. A striking similarity was observed in the spectra of the (..pi../sup +/,p) and 800-MeV (p,d) reactions on the same target; this result implies a similar mechanism for the two reactions. 120 references, 97 figures, 15 tables.

  13. Spacecraft momentum management procedures. [large space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L. C.; Davenport, P. B.; Sturch, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques appropriate for implementation onboard the space telescope and other spacecraft to manage the accumulation of momentum in reaction wheel control systems using magnetic torquing coils are described. Generalized analytical equations are derived for momentum control laws that command the magnetic torquers. These control laws naturally fall into two main categories according to the methods used for updating the magnetic dipole command: closed loop, in which the update is based on current measurements to achieve a desired torque instantaneously, and open-loop, in which the update is based on predicted information to achieve a desired momentum at the end of a period of time. Physical interpretations of control laws in general and of the Space Telescope cross product and minimum energy control laws in particular are presented, and their merits and drawbacks are discussed. A technique for retaining the advantages of both the open-loop and the closed-loop control laws is introduced. Simulation results are presented to compare the performance of these control laws in the Space Telescope environment.

  14. Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection

    SciTech Connect

    Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.

    2006-11-15

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1 87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented.

  15. Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.

    2006-11-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1-87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented.

  16. Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassam, A. B.; Shamim, Imran; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.

    2006-10-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. The plasma gun would be located in the axial mid-plane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of order the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that upto 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented.

  17. Inclusive Higgs Production at Large Transverse Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Braaten, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The transverse momentum (pT) distribution of Higgs is important to check our understanding of the Standard Model, and study new physics. The effective field theory for Higgs, obtained by integrating out the top quark, breaks down when pT is larger than 200 GeV. We calculate the pT distribution at much larger pT using the framework of factorization, in which the cross section is expressed as convolutions of hard-scattering cross sections and fragmentation functions, with the leading logarithms of pT2 /mH2 resummed to all orders. By separating the scales mH and pT, the higher order radiative correction can be greatly simplified. Work supported in part by the Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0011726.

  18. Modelling of globular transfer considering momentum flux in GMAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Nabeel; Lee, Jae Hak; Yoo, Choong Don

    2008-10-01

    The static force balance model (SFBM) has been widely used to analyse metal transfer in gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Although the SFBM is capable of predicting the detaching drop size in the globular mode with reasonable accuracy, discrepancy between the calculated and experimental results increases with current. In order to reduce discrepancy, the SFBM is modified in this work by introducing the momentum flux. The momentum flux is generated by the axial fluid flow within the drop, which is induced by the pinch pressure. While the momentum flux has negligible effects on metal transfer in the low current range, it increases with current and becomes compatible with the electromagnetic force in the high current range. The modified force balance model predicts the experimental results more accurately than the SFBM and extends its application to the projected mode of the spray mode.

  19. Accurate momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, S. A.

    2014-04-15

    Accurate expression for the momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential is proposed. This simple analytic expression agrees with the numerical results better than to within ±2% in the regime relevant for ion-particle collisions in complex (dusty) plasmas.

  20. Competing mechanisms of momentum transport in large wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles

    2011-11-01

    In very large wind farms in the atmospheric boundary layer, energy, and momentum are on average transported from layers above the farm downward towards the turbines (Calaf, Meneveau, Meyers, Phys. Fluids 2010). In the current work, we investigate in more detail the three-dimensional flows of mass, momentum and energy towards individual turbines, based on a suite of large-eddy simulations. We find that there are two competing mechanisms which bring momentum to the turbines, i.e. a sideways flux, and a top-down flux of momentum (sideways fluxes themselves are fed by a top-down flux in regions outside the turbine wake area). For large spanwise turbine spacings, sideways momentum fluxes are dominating; for small spanwise spacings, the top-down mechanism is dominant. Inspired by these observations, we propose a new integral model for wind-farm performance, in which competing fluxes of momentum are represented by closed analytical expressions obtained by integrating momentum equations over different regions in the ABL. The research of CM is supported by NSF AGS 1045189.

  1. Momentum Transfer in a Spinning Fuel Tank Filled with Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John W.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Transient spin-up and spin-down flows inside of spacecraft fuel tanks need to be analyzed in order to properly design spacecraft control systems. Knowledge of the characteristics of angular momentum transfer to and from the fuel is used to size the de-spin mechanism that places the spacecraft in a controllable in-orbit state. In previous studies, several analytical models of the spin-up process were developed. However, none have accurately predicted all of the flow dynamics. Several studies have also been conducted using Navier-Stokes based methods. These approaches have been much more successful at simulating the dynamic processes in a cylindrical container, but have not addressed the issue of momentum transfer. In the current study, the spin-up and spin-down of a fuel tank filled with gaseous xenon has been investigated using a three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes code. Primary interests have been concentrated on the spin-up/spin-down time constants and the initial torque imparted on the system. Additional focus was given to the relationship between the dominant flow dynamics and the trends in momentum transfer. Through the simulation of both a cylindrical and a spherical tank, it was revealed that the transfer of angular momentum is nonlinear at early times and tends toward a linear pattern at later times. Further investigation suggests that the nonlinear spin up is controlled by the turbulent transport of momentum, while the linear phase is controlled by a Coriolis driven (Ekman) flow along the outer wall. These results indicate that the spinup and spin-down processes occur more quickly in tanks with curved surfaces than those with defined top, bottom, and side walls. The results also provide insights for the design of spacecraft de-spin mechanisms.

  2. Electroexcitation of the Δ+(1232) at low momentum transfer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Blomberg, A.; Anez, D.; Sparveris, N.; Sarty, A. J.; Paolone, M.; Gilad, S.; Higinbotham, D.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; et al

    2016-07-05

    We report on new pmore » $$(e,e^\\prime p)\\pi^\\circ$$ measurements at the $$\\Delta^{+}(1232)$$ resonance at the low momentum transfer region. The mesonic cloud dynamics is predicted to be dominant and rapidly changing in this kinematic region offering a test bed for chiral effective field theory calculations. The new data explore the low $Q^2$ dependence of the resonant quadrupole amplitudes while extending the measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached. The results disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The reported measurements suggest that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements.« less

  3. Deuteron form factor measurements at low momentum transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlimme, B. S.; Achenbach, P.; Beričič, J.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Griffioen, K. A.; Huan, Y.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, J.; Müller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Štajner, S.; Thiel, M.; Weber, A.

    2016-03-01

    A precise measurement of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section at four-momentum transfers of 0.24 fm-1 ≤ Q ≤ 2.7 fm-1 has been performed at the Mainz Microtron. In this paper we describe the utilized experimental setup and the necessary analysis procedure to precisely determine the deuteron charge form factor from these data. Finally, the deuteron charge radius rd can be extracted from an extrapolation of that form factor to Q2 = 0.

  4. Modeling elastic momentum transfer cross-sections from mobility data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitović, Ž. D.; Stojanović, V. D.; Raspopović, Z. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this letter we present a new method to simply obtain the elastic momentum transfer cross-section which predicts a maximum of reduced mobility and its sensitivity to the temperature variation at low energies. We first determined the transport cross-section which resembles mobility data for similar closed-shell systems by using the Monte Carlo method. Second, we selected the most probable reactive processes and compiled cross-sections from experimental and theoretical data. At the end, an elastic momentum transfer cross-section is obtained by subtracting the compiled cross-sections from the momentum transfer cross-section, taking into account the effects of the angular scattering distributions. Finally, the cross-section set determined in such a way is used as an input in a final Monte Carlo code run, to calculate the flux and bulk reduced mobility for Ne+ + CF4 which were discussed as functions of the reduced electric field E/N (N is the gas density) for the temperature T = 300 K.

  5. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.J.; Annand, J.R.M.; Mamyan, V.H.; Aniol, K.A.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Camsonne, A.; Laveissiere, G.; Bosted, P.; Paschke, K.; Calarco, J.R.; Chang, G.C.; Horn, T.; Savvinov, N.; Chang, T.-H.; Danagoulian, A.; Nathan, A.M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Chen, J.-P.

    2005-06-24

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 GeV{sup 2} and t=-4.0 GeV{sup 2} via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism, but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.

  6. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    D.J. Hamilton; Vahe Mamyan

    2004-10-01

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s = 6.9 GeV{sup 2} and t = -4.0 TeV{sup 2} via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in excellent agreement with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton and in disagreement with a prediction of pQCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism.

  7. Photo-induced Spin Angular Momentum Transfer into Antiferromagnetic Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fan; Fan, Yichun; Ma, Xin; Zhu, J.; Li, Q.; Ma, T. P.; Wu, Y. Z.; Chen, Z. H.; Zhao, H. B.; Luepke, Gunter; College of William and Mary Team; Department of Physics, Fudan University Team; Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University Team

    2014-03-01

    Spin angular momentum transfer into antiferromagnetic(AFM) insulator is observed in single crystalline Fe/CoO/MgO(001) heterostructure by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE). The transfer process is mediated by the Heisenberg exchange coupling between Fe and CoO spins. Below the Neel temperature(TN) of CoO, the fact that effective Gilbert damping parameter α is independent of external magnetic field and it is enhanced with respect to the intrinsic damping in Fe/MgO, indicates that the damping process involves both the intrinsic spin relaxation and the transfer of Fe spin angular momentum to CoO spins via FM-AFM exchange coupling and then into the lattice by spin-orbit coupling. The work at the College of William and Mary was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. The work at Department of Physics, Fudan, was supported by NSFC. The work at Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan was supported by NSFC and NCET.

  8. Hadron Structures from Large Momentum Effective Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaonu

    2016-08-01

    The large momentum effective field theory (LaMET) is aiming to calculate parton distributions directly on lattice. In this approach a class of so-called quasi distributions are defined as pure spatial correlations in a finite momentum frame and they are directly calculated on lattice. The light-cone distributions are extracted from the quasi distributions by perturbative matching conditions. We present the application of LaMET on parton distribution functions and generalized parton distributions. Besides, heavy meson's quasi and light-cone distribution amplitudes are studied under nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization framework.

  9. Momentum transfer cross sections for the heavy noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    2014-06-01

    We present momentum transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering from argon, krypton and xenon atoms over the energy range from zero to 1 keV. These have been calculated using the Dirac equations with a relativistic complex optical potential which includes polarization of the target atom by the incident electron and allows for the absorption of some of the incident electron flux into channels representing excitation and ionization of the atom. In order to aid in plasma modelling calculations, we provide simple analytic fits to these cross sections as well as to the elastic scattering cross sections. Comparisons are made with previous experimental and theoretical results.

  10. Atom Interferometry with up to 24-Photon-Momentum-Transfer Beam Splitters

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Holger; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Long, Quan; Herrmann, Sven; Chu, Steven

    2008-05-09

    We present up to 24-photon Bragg diffraction as a beam splitter in light-pulse atom interferometers to achieve the largest splitting in momentum space so far. Relative to the 2-photon processes used in the most sensitive present interferometers, these large momentum transfer beam splitters increase the phase shift 12-fold for Mach-Zehnder (MZ) and 144-fold for Ramsey-Borde (RB) geometries. We achieve a high visibility of the interference fringes (up to 52% for MZ or 36% for RB) and long pulse separation times that are possible only in atomic fountain setups. As the atom's internal state is not changed, important systematic effects can cancel.

  11. Mechanical momentum transfer in wall-bounded superfluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, D.; L'vov, V. S.; Pomyalov, A.; Procaccia, I.

    2016-04-01

    In classical turbulence the kinematic viscosity ν is involved in two phenomena. The first is the energy dissipation and the second is the mechanical momentum flux toward the wall. In superfluid turbulence the mechanism of energy dissipation is different, and it is determined by an effective viscosity which was introduced by Vinen and is denoted as ν'. In this paper we show that in superfluid turbulence the transfer of mechanical momentum to the wall is caused by the presence of a quantum vortex tangle, giving rise to another effective "momentum" viscosity that we denote as νm(T ) . The temperature dependence of the second effective viscosity is markedly different from Vinen's effective viscosity ν'(T ) . We show that the notion of vortex-tension force, playing an important role in the theory of quantum turbulence, can be understood as the gradient of the Reynolds-stress tensor, which is, in fact, determined by the second newly defined kinematic viscosity νm(T ) .

  12. Electroexcitation of the Δ+(1232) at low momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, A.; Anez, D.; Sparveris, N.; Sarty, A. J.; Paolone, M.; Gilad, S.; Higinbotham, D.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Arrington, J.; Averett, T.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Bai, X.; Beck, A.; Beck, S.; Bellini, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Camacho, C. M.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. P.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Cisbani, E.; Dalton, M.; Deconinck, W.; Defurne, M.; De Leo, R.; Flay, D.; Fomin, N.; Friend, M.; Frullani, S.; Fuchey, E.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilman, R.; Gu, C.; Hamilton, D.; Hanretty, C.; Hansen, O.; Hashemi Shabestari, M.; Hen, O.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Iqbal, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Kang, H.; Kelleher, A.; Khandaker, M.; Korover, I.; Leckey, J.; LeRose, J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Martí Jimenez-Arguello, A.; Meekins, D.; Meziani, Z. E.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Norum, B.; Nuruzzaman; Pan, K.; Phillips, S.; Piasetzky, E.; Polychronopoulou, A.; Pomerantz, I.; Posik, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qian, X.; Rakhman, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Riordan, S.; Ron, G.; Saha, A.; Schulte, E.; Selvy, L.; Shneor, R.; Sirca, S.; Sjoegren, J.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tireman, W.; Wang, D.; Watson, J.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, W.; Yaron, I.; Ye, Z.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.

    2016-09-01

    We report on new p (e,e‧ p)π∘ measurements at the Δ+ (1232) resonance at the low momentum transfer region, where the mesonic cloud dynamics is predicted to be dominant and rapidly changing, offering a test bed for chiral effective field theory calculations. The new data explore the Q2 dependence of the resonant quadrupole amplitudes and for the first time indicate that the Electric and the Coulomb quadrupole amplitudes converge as Q2 → 0. The measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude have been extended to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached, and suggest that more than half of its magnitude is attributed to the mesonic cloud in this region. The new data disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The measurements indicate that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements.

  13. Electroexcitation of the Δ+(1232) at low momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, A.; Anez, D.; Sparveris, N.; Sarty, A. J.; Paolone, M.; Gilad, S.; Higinbotham, D.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Arrington, J.; Averett, T.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Bai, X.; Beck, A.; Beck, S.; Bellini, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Camacho, C. M.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. P.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Cisbani, E.; Dalton, M.; Deconinck, W.; Defurne, M.; De Leo, R.; Flay, D.; Fomin, N.; Friend, M.; Frullani, S.; Fuchey, E.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilman, R.; Gu, C.; Hamilton, D.; Hanretty, C.; Hansen, O.; Hashemi Shabestari, M.; Hen, O.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Iqbal, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Kang, H.; Kelleher, A.; Khandaker, M.; Korover, I.; Leckey, J.; LeRose, J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Martí Jimenez-Arguello, A.; Meekins, D.; Meziani, Z. E.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Norum, B.; Nuruzzaman; Pan, K.; Phillips, S.; Piasetzky, E.; Polychronopoulou, A.; Pomerantz, I.; Posik, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qian, X.; Rakhman, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Riordan, S.; Ron, G.; Saha, A.; Schulte, E.; Selvy, L.; Shneor, R.; Sirca, S.; Sjoegren, J.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tireman, W.; Wang, D.; Watson, J.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, W.; Yaron, I.; Ye, Z.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.

    2016-09-01

    We report on new p (e ,e‧ p)π∘ measurements at the Δ+ (1232) resonance at the low momentum transfer region, where the mesonic cloud dynamics is predicted to be dominant and rapidly changing, offering a test bed for chiral effective field theory calculations. The new data explore the Q2 dependence of the resonant quadrupole amplitudes and for the first time indicate that the Electric and the Coulomb quadrupole amplitudes converge as Q2 → 0. The measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude have been extended to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached, and suggest that more than half of its magnitude is attributed to the mesonic cloud in this region. The new data disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The measurements indicate that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements.

  14. Quark Helicity Distributions at Large Longitudinal Momentum Fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Harutyun Avakian; Stanley Brodsky; Alexandre Deur; Feng Yuan

    2007-08-01

    We study the quark helicity distributions at large $x$ in perturbative QCD, taking into account contributions from the valence Fock states of the nucleon which have nonzero orbital angular momentum. These states are necessary to have a nonzero anomalous magnetic moment. We find that the quark orbital angular momentum contributes a large logarithm to the negative helicity quark distribution in addition to its power behavior, scaling as $(1-x)^5\\log^2(1-x)$ in the limit of $x\\to 1$. Our analysis show that the ratio of the polarized over unpolarized down quark distributions, $\\Delta d/d$, will still approach 1 in this limit. By comparing with the current experimental data, we find that this ratio will cross zero at $x\\approx 0.75$.

  15. An optical model description of momentum transfer in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, J. W.; Norbury, John W.

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. The imaginary component of the complex momentum transfer, which comes from the absorptive part of the optical potential, is identified as the longitudinal momentum downshift of the projectile. Predictions of fragment momentum distribution observables are made and compared with experimental data. Use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is discussed.

  16. The laser elevator - Momentum transfer using an optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Thomas R.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Mckenna, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    In a conventional laser lightsail system the payload is propelled by the momentum imparted to it by the reflection of a laser beam without the use of any propellant. Because of the unfavorable relationship between energy and momentum in a light beam, these systems are very inefficient. The efficiency can be greatly improved, in principle, if the photons that impact the payload mirror are returned to the source and then redirected back toward the payload again. This system, which recirculates the laser beam, is defined as the 'laser elevator'. The gain of the laser elevator over conventional lightsails depends on the number of times the beam is recycled which is limited by the reflectance of the mirrors used, any losses in the transmission of the beam, and diffraction. Due to the increase pathlength of the folded beam, diffraction losses occur at smaller separations of the payload and the source mirror than for conventional lightsail system. The laser elevator has potential applications in launching to low earth orbit, orbital transfer, and rapid interplanetary delivery of small payloads.

  17. Modeling Momentum Transfer from Kinetic Impacts: Implications for Redirecting Asteroids

    SciTech Connect

    Stickle, A. M.; Atchison, J. A.; Barnouin, O. S.; Cheng, A. F.; Crawford, D. A.; Ernst, C. M.; Fletcher, Z.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-05-19

    Kinetic impactors are one way to deflect a potentially hazardous object headed for Earth. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is designed to test the effectiveness of this approach and is a joint effort between NASA and ESA. The NASA-led portion is the Double Asteroid Redirect Test (DART) and is composed of a ~300-kg spacecraft designed to impact the moon of the binary system 65803 Didymos. The deflection of the moon will be measured by the ESA-led Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) (which will characterize the moon) and from ground-based observations. Because the material properties and internal structure of the target are poorly constrained, however, analytical models and numerical simulations must be used to understand the range of potential outcomes. Here, we describe a modeling effort combining analytical models and CTH simulations to determine possible outcomes of the DART impact. We examine a wide parameter space and provide predictions for crater size, ejecta mass, and momentum transfer following the impact into the moon of the Didymos system. For impacts into “realistic” asteroid types, these models produce craters with diameters on the order of 10 m, an imparted Δv of 0.5–2 mm/s and a momentum enhancement of 1.07 to 5 for a highly porous aggregate to a fully dense rock.

  18. Modeling Momentum Transfer from Kinetic Impacts: Implications for Redirecting Asteroids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stickle, A. M.; Atchison, J. A.; Barnouin, O. S.; Cheng, A. F.; Crawford, D. A.; Ernst, C. M.; Fletcher, Z.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-05-19

    Kinetic impactors are one way to deflect a potentially hazardous object headed for Earth. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is designed to test the effectiveness of this approach and is a joint effort between NASA and ESA. The NASA-led portion is the Double Asteroid Redirect Test (DART) and is composed of a ~300-kg spacecraft designed to impact the moon of the binary system 65803 Didymos. The deflection of the moon will be measured by the ESA-led Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) (which will characterize the moon) and from ground-based observations. Because the material properties and internal structure ofmore » the target are poorly constrained, however, analytical models and numerical simulations must be used to understand the range of potential outcomes. Here, we describe a modeling effort combining analytical models and CTH simulations to determine possible outcomes of the DART impact. We examine a wide parameter space and provide predictions for crater size, ejecta mass, and momentum transfer following the impact into the moon of the Didymos system. For impacts into “realistic” asteroid types, these models produce craters with diameters on the order of 10 m, an imparted Δv of 0.5–2 mm/s and a momentum enhancement of 1.07 to 5 for a highly porous aggregate to a fully dense rock.« less

  19. Adaptive control system for large annular momentum control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Johnson, C. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A dual momentum vector control concept, consisting of two counterrotating rings (each designated as an annular momentum control device), was studied for pointing and slewing control of large spacecraft. In a disturbance free space environment, the concept provides for three axis pointing and slewing capabilities while requiring no expendables. The approach utilizes two large diameter counterrotating rings or wheels suspended magnetically in many race supports distributed around the antenna structure. When the magnets are energized, attracting the two wheels, the resulting gyroscopic torque produces a rate along the appropriate axis. Roll control is provided by alternating the radiative rotational velocity of the two wheels. Wheels with diameters of 500 to 800 m and with sufficient momentum storage capability require rims only a few centimeters thick. The wheels are extremely flexible; therefore, it is necessary to account for the distributed nature of the rings in the design of the bearing controllers. Also, ring behavior is unpredictably sensitive to ring temperature, spin rate, manufacturing imperfections, and other variables. An adaptive control system designed to handle these problems is described.

  20. Large Fixed Objects, Such as Fixed Mirrors, Impacted by Photons Do Not Provide Which-Way Information Due to Momentum Transfer: Implications for A Delayed Choice Experiment to Send Information Immediately Between 2 Paired Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    If a photon impacts a much larger fixed object, the momentum transfer from the photon to the fixed object is essentially undetectable. This principle is the basis for a Mach Zehnder interferometer where fixed full-silvered and half-silvered mirrors do not provide which way information when impacted by an incoming photon. Kim relied on fixed mirrors impacted by photons to demonstrate quantum erasure. If the principle did not work, Kim would not have obtained symmetric and anti-symmetric interference. The present experiment relies on delayed choices for idler photons which initially possess ww information that immediately affect the distribution of signal photons initially entangled with the idler photons and for which the idler photons provide ww information. It relies on the principle noted. In the case of the present experiment, one of those fixed objects is an optical microcavity that is situated at the crossroads of two possible paths for the idler photon. The delayed choice concerns whether to maintain or eliminate the entanglement before any measurements are made. If the idler photon enters the microcavity filled with photons in the same mode as the idler photon, the entanglement is eliminated. The resulting distribution of the paired signal photons with this choice shows interference. If the choice is not to send the idler photon toward the microcavity and preserve the which-way information of the idler photons, the resulting distribution of the paired signal photons shows ww information.

  1. Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier

    2013-03-22

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers. PMID:25166809

  2. Optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from plasmonic vortex lens to light.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Han, Shuo; Yang, Haifang; Xu, Xiangang; Wang, Zhengping; Petrov, V; Wang, Jiyang

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from subwavelength plasmonic vortex lens (PVLs) to light and the generating process of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Illuminating plasmonic vortex lenses with beams carrying optical orbital angular momentum, the SP vortices with orbital angular momentum were generated and inherit the optical angular momentum of light beams and PVLs. The angular momentum of twisting SP electromagnetic field is tunable by the twisted metal/dielectric interfaces of PVLs and angular momentum of illuminating singular light. This work may open the door for several possible applications of SP vortices in subwavelength region. PMID:24217130

  3. Optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from plasmonic vortex lens to light

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Han, Shuo; Yang, Haifang; Xu, Xiangang; Wang, Zhengping; Petrov, V.; Wang, Jiyang

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from subwavelength plasmonic vortex lens (PVLs) to light and the generating process of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Illuminating plasmonic vortex lenses with beams carrying optical orbital angular momentum, the SP vortices with orbital angular momentum were generated and inherit the optical angular momentum of light beams and PVLs. The angular momentum of twisting SP electromagnetic field is tunable by the twisted metal/dielectric interfaces of PVLs and angular momentum of illuminating singular light. This work may open the door for several possible applications of SP vortices in subwavelength region. PMID:24217130

  4. Atom interferometry with up to 24-photon-momentum-transfer beam splitters.

    PubMed

    Müller, Holger; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Long, Quan; Herrmann, Sven; Chu, Steven

    2008-05-01

    We present up to 24-photon Bragg diffraction as a beam splitter in light-pulse atom interferometers to achieve the largest splitting in momentum space so far. Relative to the 2-photon processes used in the most sensitive present interferometers, these large momentum transfer beam splitters increase the phase shift 12-fold for Mach-Zehnder (MZ) and 144-fold for Ramsey-Bordé (RB) geometries. We achieve a high visibility of the interference fringes (up to 52% for MZ or 36% for RB) and long pulse separation times that are possible only in atomic fountain setups. As the atom's internal state is not changed, important systematic effects can cancel. PMID:18518355

  5. Electromagnetic processes at low momentum transfer : a review for users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizet, M. J.; Borie, E.; Grossetête, B.; Isabelle, D. B.; Proriol, J.

    Electromagnetic processes at low momentum transfer are often sources of background in many experiments. To be removed these effects must be calculated by the experimentalist, who must have a good knowledge of the validity of the theoretical formulas that he must use. Then we thought that it will be useful to prepare this review whose presentation is such that it should allow everyone to appreciate the accuracy of formulas that he must use in very complex situations. In this paper, we examine the problem related to bremsstrahlung, pair production and radiative corrections. The first part is devoted to kinematic and to the methods used to establish the corresponding cross sections. Les phénomènes électromagnétiques à faible transfert d'impulsion interviennent dans de nombreuses expériences comme des phénomènes parasites. Pour les éliminer, l'expérimentateur doit les calculer, mais il connait généralement mal la validité des formules théoriques qu'il doit alors utiliser. Il nous a donc paru utile de faire une revue dont la présentation doit permettre à chacun d'apprécier la précision des formules qu'il doit appliquer dans des situations très souvent complexes. Dans cet article, nous faisons le point, tant pour la théorie que pour l'expérience, en ce qui concerne : le rayonnement de freinage, la production de paires et les corrections radiatives. La première partie est consacrée à la cinématique des processus appréciés et aux méthodes permettant d'établir les sections efficaces correspondantes.

  6. Momentum transfer dependence of medium effects in the (e,e{prime}) longitudinal response

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.R. |

    1993-12-31

    Recent {sup 56}Fe(e,e{prime}) data at momentum transfer {vert_bar}{bar q}{vert_bar} = 1.14 GeV display behavior which is qualitatively different from that of lower momentum transfers. An explanation of this difference is offered based on an analysis of the longitudinal response in nuclear matter. An ansatz is made for the momentum dependence of the nucleon self-energy functions in the nuclear medium which suppresses medium effects for momenta above the nucleon mass scale. This suppression is shown to improve the agreement with the high momentum transfer data, and offers a motivation for further experimental investigation in the momentum transfer region between 0.5 and 1.0 GeV.

  7. Suppression of Angular Momentum Transfer in Cold Collisions of Transition Metal Atoms in Ground States with Nonzero Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancox, Cindy I.; Doret, S. Charles; Hummon, Matthew T.; Krems, Roman V.; Doyle, John M.

    2005-01-01

    The Zeeman relaxation rate in cold collisions of Ti(3d24s2 3F2) with He is measured. We find that collisional transfer of angular momentum is dramatically suppressed due to the presence of the filled 4s2 shell. The degree of electronic interaction anisotropy, which is responsible for Zeeman relaxation, is estimated to be about 200times smaller in the Ti-He complex than in He complexes with typical non-S-state atoms.

  8. On angular momentum transfer in binary systems. [stellar orbital period change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Stothers, R.

    1975-01-01

    The maximum limit for the conversion of orbital angular momentum into rotational angular momentum of the mass-gaining component in a close binary system is derived. It is shown that this conversion process does not seriously affect the rate of orbital period change and can be neglected in computing the mass transfer rate. Integration of this limit over the entire accretion process results in a value for the maximum accumulated rotational angular momentum that is 3 to 4 times larger than that implied by the observed underluminosity of stars in such systems as Mu(1) Sco, V Pup, SX Aur, and V356 Sgr. It is suggested that shell stars and emission-line stars in binary systems may be produced when the core angular momentum is transferred into an envelope having a rotational angular momentum close to the maximum limit.-

  9. Nuclear fragmentation energy and momentum transfer distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.

  10. Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Miller

    2009-06-01

    The E02-013 collaboration's precision measurement of the electric form factor of the neutron at high momentum took place in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory [1]. Four kinematic points spread in Q2 from 1.2 to 3.5 (GeV/c)2 reach the region of momentum transfer where there is little ambiguity that the form factors are dominated by the valence quarks. The electric form factor provides important constraints on the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon and therefore to understand the currently unknown quark angular orbital moments. The talk presented newly obtained results for GnE including at Q2 of 2.5 (GeV/c)2. These measurements provide access to twice the range of momentum transfer for complete iso-spin decomposition of the nucleon form factors. The form factors of the u and d quarks were also presented. The measurement used a double polarization asymmetry method [2][3] with He polarized up to 55% (provided by a novel hybrid alkali optical pumping scheme utilizing a Rb & K mixture) and the highly polarized (85%) electron beam at CEBAF. A specially constructed detector package consisting of an electron spectrometer, named Big-Bite, with a solid angle of 95 msr and a large neutron detector were used to detect the particles in the reaction {sup 3}H{rvec e}({rvec e},e',h). The experimental apparatus provided more than 100 times better Figure-of-Merit than other GnE experiments utilizing polarized targets; for more information see [4].

  11. On Energy-Momentum Transfer of Quantum Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    We prove the following theorem on bounded operators in quantum field theory: if , then , where D( x) is a function weakly decaying in spacelike directions, are creation/annihilation parts of an appropriate time derivative of B, G is any positive, bounded, non-increasing function in , and is any finite complex Borel measure; creation/annihilation operators may be also replaced by with . We also use the notion of energy-momentum scaling degree of B with respect to a submanifold (Steinmann-type, but in momentum space, and applied to the norm of an operator). These two tools are applied to the analysis of singularities of . We prove, among others, the following statement (modulo some more specific assumptions): outside p = 0 the only allowed contributions to this functional which are concentrated on a submanifold (including the trivial one—a single point) are Dirac measures on hypersurfaces (if the decay of D is not to slow).

  12. Angular momentum transfer in low velocity oblique impacts - Implications for asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1991-12-01

    An experimental study has been conducted for the low-velocity oblique impact efficiency of angular momentum transfer, which is defined as that fraction of incident angular momentum that is transferred to the rotation of a target. The results obtained suggest that more energetic impacts are able to transfer angular momentum more efficiently. In the cases of ricochetted projectiles, the fraction of angular momentum carried off by the ejecta was noted to be less than 30 percent. It is suggested that, if asteroid spin rates are due to mutual noncatastrophic collisions and the taxonomic classes are indicative of bulk properties, the differences between corresponding spin rates will be smaller than expected from a consideration of relative strength and density alone.

  13. Angular momentum transfer in low velocity oblique impacts - Implications for asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted for the low-velocity oblique impact efficiency of angular momentum transfer, which is defined as that fraction of incident angular momentum that is transferred to the rotation of a target. The results obtained suggest that more energetic impacts are able to transfer angular momentum more efficiently. In the cases of ricochetted projectiles, the fraction of angular momentum carried off by the ejecta was noted to be less than 30 percent. It is suggested that, if asteroid spin rates are due to mutual noncatastrophic collisions and the taxonomic classes are indicative of bulk properties, the differences between corresponding spin rates will be smaller than expected from a consideration of relative strength and density alone.

  14. Momentum: The 2005 Report on University Research and Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 report on university research and knowledge transfer report by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) on the collective efforts of universities with respect to research and knowledge transfer is the first periodic public report by the AUCC on the collective efforts of universities with respect to research and…

  15. Effect of Increased Academic Momentum on Transfer Rates: An Application of the Generalized Propensity Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported a positive impact of increased academic momentum on transfer from community colleges to four-year institutions. This result may be due to selection bias. Using data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students dataset, I test whether taking more credits in the first year has an impact on transfer rates among bachelor's…

  16. Suppression of angular momentum transfer in cold collisions of transition metal atoms in ground States with nonzero orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Hancox, Cindy I; Doret, S Charles; Hummon, Matthew T; Krems, Roman V; Doyle, John M

    2005-01-14

    The Zeeman relaxation rate in cold collisions of Ti(3d(2)4s(2) 3F2) with He is measured. We find that collisional transfer of angular momentum is dramatically suppressed due to the presence of the filled 4s(2) shell. The degree of electronic interaction anisotropy, which is responsible for Zeeman relaxation, is estimated to be about 200 times smaller in the Ti-He complex than in He complexes with typical non-S-state atoms. PMID:15698077

  17. The effect of momentum transfer by fast particles on the hydrodynamic instabilities in the ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Lykov, V.A.

    1994-10-05

    The results of the investigation into the hydrodynamic instabilities of media movement with the account of particle momentum transfer in ICF targets will be presented. It is shown that both oscillating and exponentially growing solutions for perturbation amplitude may exist depending on the ratio of particle free-path length and perturbation wavelength. The conditions of suppression of the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmgoltz instabilities by particle momentum fluxes are obtained. The stabilization occurs due to the interaction of aperiodic modes of these instabilities with oscillation mode caused by the tensor anisothropy of particle momentum flux density. The possibility for essential effect of momentum transfer by {alpha}-particles from {ital D}{minus}{ital T} reaction on the development of the hydrodynamic instabilities during the phase of intensive ICF target burn is shown. {copyright} 1994 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  18. Energy and angular momentum transfer in binary galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namboodiri, P. M. S.; Kochhar, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors numerically studied tidal effects of a massive perturber on a satellite galaxy. The model consists of a spherical satellite galaxy and a point mass perturber and the encounter is non-penetrating. A wide range of density ratios and eccentricities of the relative orbits have been considered. The disruption of the satellite galaxy has been observed when the numerical value of the fractional change in the energy is greater than two. The changes in the energy and angular momentum show smooth variation in the case of unbound orbits and irregular variation in the bound orbit cases. It is shown that for a constant pericentral distance, increasing the density ratio decreases the tidal effects; and for a given density ratio an increase in the eccentricity decreases the tidal effects.

  19. New Precision Measurements of Deuteron Structure Function A(Q) at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byungwuek

    2009-08-01

    Differences between previous measurements of low momentum transfer electron-deuteron elastic scattering prevent a clean determination of even the sign of the leading low momentum transfer relativistic corrections, or of the convergence of chiral perturbation theory. We have attempted to resolve this issue with a new high-precision measurement in Jefferson Lab Hall A. Elastic electron scattering was measured on targets of tantalum, carbon, hydrogen, and deuterium at beam energy of 685 MeV. The four-momentum transfer covered the range of 0.15 - 0.7 GeV. The experiment included a new beam calorimeter, to better calibrate the low beam currents used in the experiment, and new collimators to better define the spectrometer solid angles. We obtained cross sections of deuteron as ratios to hydrogen cross sections. A fit function of B(Q) world data is newly made and subtracted from cross sections to find values of A(Q).

  20. Real Compton Scattering on Proton at High Momentum Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    A. Danagoulian; D.J. Hamilton; C.E. Hyde-Wright; V.H. Mamyan; A.M. Nathan; M. Roedelbronn; B. Wojtsekhowski

    2005-06-01

    The E99-114 experiment was carried out to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering (RCS) on the proton in the kinematic range s = 5-11 GeV{sup 2}, -t = 2-7 GeV{sup 2}. In addition, a measurement of longitudinal and transverse polarization transfers was made at s = 6.9 GeV{sup 2} and -t = 4.0 GeV{sup 2}. These measurements were done to test the existing theoretical mechanisms for this process and will possibly lead to the determination of RCS form factors which are related to the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD). The experiment was conducted in Hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). Final results of polarization transfer measurements are presented.

  1. The relation between momentum transfer and capture and total scattering cross sections for ion-dipole collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. V., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Numerical values of momentum transfer cross sections sigma sub m for ion-dipole collisions are compared with the corresponding capture cross sections sigma sub c as a function of ion velocity and rotational temperature. For values of dipole moment mu from 1 to 4 Debyes the sigma sub m/sigma sub c ratio is in the range 1.2 to 2.0 (roughly). This is in contrast to the simple relation for Langevin collisions where sigma sub m/sigma sub c is equal to or approximately 1.10 independent of polarizability of the target atom. At low temperatures, the momentum transfer cross sections can be as large as 2000 A squared but they are only about 15 to 30 percent of the total scattering cross sections sigma sub S.

  2. Acoustic radiation force expressed using complex phase shifts and momentum-transfer cross sections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Likun; Marston, Philip L

    2016-08-01

    Acoustic radiation force is expressed using complex phase shifts of partial wave scattering functions and the momentum-transfer cross section, herein incorporated into acoustics from quantum mechanisms. Imaginary parts of the phase shifts represent dissipation in the object and/or in the boundary layer adjacent to the object. The formula simplifies the force as summation of functions of complex phase shifts of adjacent partial waves involving differences of real parts and sums of imaginary parts, providing an efficient way of exploring the force parameter-space. The formula for the force is proportional to a generalized momentum-transfer cross section for plane waves and no dissipation. PMID:27586777

  3. Two-photon exchange correction in elastic unpolarized electron-proton scattering at small momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomalak, O.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the two-photon exchange (TPE) correction to the unpolarized elastic electron-proton scattering at small momentum transfer Q2 . We account for the inelastic intermediate states approximating the double virtual Compton scattering by the unpolarized forward virtual Compton scattering. The unpolarized proton structure functions are used as input for the numerical evaluation of the inelastic contribution. Our calculation reproduces the leading terms in the Q2 expansion of the TPE correction and goes beyond this approximation by keeping the full Q2 dependence of the proton structure functions. In the range of small momentum transfer, our result is in good agreement with the empirical TPE fit to existing data.

  4. Angular momentum transfer by gravitational torques and the evolution of binary protostars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, A. P.

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of angular momentum transport by gravitational torques is investigated semianalytically for two idealized models. The first model, a rotating ellipsoid embedded within another ellipsoid, is compared with numerical results for the fission instability of a radpidly-rotating polytrope. The fission instability is aborted by the rapid transfer of angular momentum outward by gravitational torques. The global rates of angular momentum transfer by gravitational torques in rotating gas clouds such as the presolar nebula are shown to be comparable to the rates assumed to be appropriate for transfer by turbulent stresses. The second model is a binary system embedded within a rotating ellipsoid. The binary orbital angular momentum decreases significantly when the phase angle with the ellipsoid is constant; the binary separation may then decrease by a factor of 100 within about an orbital period. For a variable phase angle, little secular loss of orbital angular momentum occurs. Binaries which form in the isothermal regime of the theory of hierarchical fragmentation will not undergo orbital decay, whereas very close binaries composed of nonisothermal fragments may decay and merge into single objects.

  5. Modeling momentum transfer by the DART spacecraft into the moon of Didymos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickle, Angela M.; Atchison, Justin A.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Cheng, Andy F.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Richardson, Derek C.; Rivkin, Andy S.

    2015-11-01

    The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint concept between NASA and ESA designed to test the effectiveness of a kinetic impactor in deflecting an asteroid. The mission is composed of two independent, but mutually supportive, components: the NASA-led Double Asteroid Redirect Test (DART), and the ESA-led Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission. The spacecraft will be sent to the near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos, which makes unusually close approaches to Earth in 2022 and 2024. These close approaches make it an ideal target for a kinetic impactor asteroid deflection demonstration, as it will be easily observable from Earth-based observatories. The ~2 m3, 300 kg DART spacecraft will impact the moon of the binary system at 6.25 km/s. The deflection of the moon will then be determined by the orbiting AIM spacecraft and from ground-based observations by measuring the change in the moon’s orbital period. A modeling study supporting this mission concept was performed to determine the expected momentum transfer to the moon following impact. The combination of CTH hydrocode models, analytical scaling predictions, and N-body pkdgrav simulations helps to constrain the expected results of the kinetic impactor experiment.To better understand the large parameter space (including material strength, porosity, impact location and angle), simulations of the DART impact were performed using the CTH hydrocode. The resultant crater size, velocity imparted to the moon, and momentum transfer were calculated for all cases. For “realistic” asteroid types, simulated DART impacts produce craters with diameters on the order of 10 m, an imparted Δv of 0.5-2 mm/s and a dimensionless momentum enhancement (“beta factor”) of 1.07-5 for targets ranging from a highly porous aggregate to a fully dense rock. These results generally agree with predictions from theoretical and analytical studies. Following impact, pkdgrav simulations of the system evolution

  6. Unsteady stress partitioning and momentum transfer in the wave bottom boundary layer over movable rippled beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Abudo, S.; Foster, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of the nearbed velocity field over a rippled sediment bed under asymmetric wave forcing conditions were collected using a submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To examine the role of bed form-induced dynamics in the total momentum transfer, a double-averaging technique was implemented on the two-dimensional time-dependent velocity field by means of the full momentum equation. This approach allows for direct determination of the bed form-induced stresses, i.e., stresses that arise due to the presence of bed forms, which are zero in flat bed conditions. This analysis suggests that bed form-induced stresses are closely related to the presence of coherent motions and may be partitioned from the turbulent stresses. Inferences of stress provided by a bed load transport model suggest that total momentum transfer obtained from the double-averaging technique is capable of reproducing bed form mobilization. Comparisons between the total momentum transfer and stress estimates obtained from local velocity profiles show significant variability across the ripple and suggest that an array of sensors is necessary to reproduce bed form evolution. The imbalance of momentum obtained by resolving the different terms constituting the near-bed momentum balance (i.e., acceleration deficit, stress gradient, and bed form-induced skin friction) provides an estimate of the bed form-induced pressure that is consistent with flow separation. This analysis reveals three regions in the flow: the free-stream, where all terms are relatively balanced; the near-bed, where momentum imbalance is significant during flow weakening; and below ripple crests, where bed form-induced pressure is the leading order mechanism.

  7. Density matrix reconstruction of a large angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Gerd

    2001-10-01

    A complete description of the quantum state of a physical system is the fundamental knowledge necessary to statistically predict the outcome of measurements. In turning this statement around, Wolfgang Pauli raised already in 1933 the question, whether an unknown quantum state could be uniquely determined by appropriate measurements-a problem that has gained new relevance in recent years. In order to harness the prospects of quantum computing, secure communication, teleportation, and the like, the development of techniques to accurately control and measure quantum states has now become a matter of practical as well as fundamental interest. However, there is no general answer to Pauli's very basic question, and quantum state reconstruction algorithms have been developed and experimentally demonstrated only for a few systems so far. This thesis presents a novel experimental method to measure the unknown and generally mixed quantum state for an angular momentum of arbitrary magnitude. The (2F + 1) x (2F + 1) density matrix describing the quantum state is hereby completely determined from a set of Stern-Gerlach measurements with (4F + 1) different orientations of the quantization axis. This protocol is implemented for laser cooled Cesium atoms in the 6S1/2(F = 4) hyperfine ground state manifold, and is applied to a number of test states prepared by optical pumping and Larmor precession. A comparison of the input and the measured states shows successful reconstructions with fidelities of about 0.95.

  8. Ultrafast demagnetization after femtosecond laser pulses: Transfer of angular momentum from the electronic system to magnetoelastic spin-phonon modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsatsoulis, T.; Illg, C.; Haag, M.; Mueller, B. Y.; Zhang, L.; Fähnle, M.

    2016-04-01

    During ultrafast demagnetization after the excitation of ferromagnetic films with femtosecond laser pulses, the angular momentum of the electronic system is transferred to the lattice via electron-phonon scatterings. The actual amount of transfer is calculated for Ni and Fe by considering spin-phonon eigenmodes, which have a sharp angular momentum. Because the considered Hamiltonian is not isotropic, the total angular momentum is not conserved.

  9. QCD tests and large momentum-transfer reactions at CBA

    SciTech Connect

    Longacre, R.; Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1983-03-01

    It is desirable to try to find fundamental tests of QCD which are sensitive to the specific properties of gluons and the non-Alelian structure of the theory, which would show that the theory is computable above leading order, and which are insensitive to the extraneous parameters such as structure functions, fragmentation functions and the like. Such tests can occur when higher-order corrections produce interference effects which must be zero in lowest order. One such effect is the linear polarization of direct single photons produced in p-p collisions. It is claimed that this polarization provides a rigorous test of perturbative QCD as well as an important check on the color hypothesis. This latter aspect is particularly attractive because the polarization involves the three-gluon interaction and the equality of the quark-gluon and three-gluon coupling in an essential way. Plans for studies at the CBA are discussed. (WHK)

  10. Optical Vortices with Large Orbital Momentum: Generation and Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Grudinin, Ivan; Savchenkova, Ekaterina A.; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for generation of beams of light with large angular momenta. The method utilizes whispering gallery mode resonators that transform a plane electromagnetic wave into high order Bessel beams. Interference pattern among the beams as well as shadow pictures induced by the beams are observed and studied.

  11. Momentum transfer interaction of a laser-produced plasma with a low-pressure background.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopman, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The expansion of a laser-produced metallic plasma into a photoionized hydrogen background has been experimentally studied. Langmuir probe and microwave diagnostics have detected an interaction front which decelerates with a dependence on background density and time consistent with a momentum coupling between the laser plasma and the ionized fraction of the background. An ion percursor has also been observed. Calculations of scattering cross sections indicate that multiple-encounter Coulomb scattering will dominate collisional momentum transfer. The leading edge of the laser plasma contains multiply charged ions of charge state z greater than or equal to 5, and collisional effects appear adequate to explain the principal features of the momentum coupling. The ion precursor may have a collisionless origin.

  12. Optodynamic description of a linear momentum transfer from a laser induced ultrasonic wave to a rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Požar, T.; Možina, J.

    2008-05-01

    We present a new optodynamic experimental technique to measure the linear momentum obtained by a rod during a nanosecond laser pulse ablation of the rod’s front face on the basis of the displacement due to an ultrasonic wave reflection at its rear end. With the help of a simple theory, we explained the step-like motion of the rod’s free end. This theory conforms well with the general shape of the measured displacement history curve. The acquired momentum can be directly estimated by measuring the height of a step from the step-like motion of the rod’s end. Measurements based on an arm-compensated Michelson interferometer also enabled us to follow the attenuation of an ultrasonic wave and so to determine the characteristic attenuation time. This quantity plays a major role in the transfer of linear momentum from within the initial ultrasonic wave to the final net uniform motion of the specimen.

  13. Charge form factor of the neutron at low momentum transfer from the 2H-->(e-->,e'n)1H reaction.

    PubMed

    Geis, E; Kohl, M; Ziskin, V; Akdogan, T; Arenhövel, H; Alarcon, R; Bertozzi, W; Booth, E; Botto, T; Calarco, J; Clasie, B; Crawford, C B; DeGrush, A; Donnelly, T W; Dow, K; Farkhondeh, M; Fatemi, R; Filoti, O; Franklin, W; Gao, H; Gilad, S; Hasell, D; Karpius, P; Kolster, H; Lee, T; Maschinot, A; Matthews, J; McIlhany, K; Meitanis, N; Milner, R G; Rapaport, J; Redwine, R P; Seely, J; Shinozaki, A; Sirca, S; Sindile, A; Six, E; Smith, T; Steadman, M; Tonguc, B; Tschalaer, C; Tsentalovich, E; Turchinetz, W; Xiao, Y; Xu, W; Zhang, C; Zhou, Z; Zwart, T

    2008-07-25

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio GEn/GMn was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry AedV at four-momentum transfers Q2=0.14, 0.20, 0.29, and 0.42 (GeV/c)2. PMID:18764321

  14. The ^2H(e,e'p)n Reaction at High Four-Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan Ibrahim

    2006-12-31

    This dissertation presents the highest four-momentum transfer, Q^2,quasielastic (x_Bj = 1) results from Experiment E01-020 which systematically explored the 2He(e,e'p)n reaction ("Electro-disintegration" of the deuteron) at three different four-momentum transfers, Q^2 = 0.8, 2.1, and 3.5 GeV^2 and missing momenta, P_miss = 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 GeV including separations of the longitudinal-transverse interference response function, R_LT, and extractoin of the longitudinal-transverse asymmetry, A_LT. This systematic approach will help to understand the reaction mechanism and the deuteron structure down to the short range part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction which is one of the fundamental missions of nuclear physics. By studying the very short distance structure of the deuteron, one may also determine whether or to what extent the description of nuclei in terms of nucleon/meson degrees of freedom must be supplemented by inclusion of explicit quark effects. The unique combination of energy, current, duty factor, and control of systematics for Hall A at Jefferson Lab made Jefferson Lab the only facility in the world where these systematic studies of the deuteron can be undertaken. This is especially true when we want to understand the short range structure of the deuteron where high energies and high luminosity/duty factor are needed. All these features of Jefferson Lab allow us to examine large missing momenta (short range scales) at kinematics where the effects of final state interactions (FSI), meson exchange currents (MEC), and isobar currents (IC) are minimal, making the extraction of the deuteron structure less model-dependent. Jefferson Lab also provides the kinematical flexibility to perform the separation of R_LT over a broad range of missing momenta and momentum transfers. Experiment E01-020 use the standard Hall A equipment in coincidence configuration in addition to the cryogenic target system. The low and middle Q^2 kinematics were completed

  15. Structural changes at large angular momentum in neutron-rich Cd,123121

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Caamaño, M.; Clément, E.; Delaune, O.; Farget, F.; de France, G.; Jacquot, B.; Lemasson, A.

    2016-02-01

    Prompt γ rays of isotopically identified neutron-rich isotopes of Cd, produced in transfer- and fusion-fission induced by the 238U beam at 6.2 MeV/u on a 9Be target, were measured using the EXOGAM γ -ray detector array and the magnetic spectrometer VAMOS++. New results for the level scheme of Cd,123121, extending to relatively large angular momentum are reported. The energy levels above 2-MeV excitation energy, are found to differ from those observed in lighter isotopes of Cd indicating a change in structure in these more neutron-rich nuclei. These states are not explained by large-scale shell model calculations, that explain well the structure of the underlying Sn isotopes and the neighboring even-A Cd isotopes. The present data, especially for the odd-A nuclei, point to a deficiency in the matrix elements related to the p-n residual interaction and provide a new domain for testing widely used shell model interactions employed for understanding the evolution of structure in neutron-rich nuclei.

  16. Neutron transfer reactions at large distances

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Glagola, B.G.; Kutschera, W.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Wuosmaa, A.H. )

    1993-06-01

    [sup 58]Ni-induced one- and two-neutron transfer reactions have been measured on [sup 232]Th at [ital E][sub lab]=500 MeV. The transfer probabilities at large internuclear distances measured for the deformed [sup 232]Th target are compared with similar data on spherical [sup 208]Pb. For one-neutron transfer reactions good agreement between experiment and the prediction from the tunneling model is observed in both cases. The transfer probabilities for two-neutron transfer reactions deviate from the semiclassical predictions. The disagreement increases at higher bombarding energies. These deviations can be explained by the influence of diffractive effects which become more important at higher bombarding energies.

  17. Angular momentum transfer and polarization degree of ions with one-valence electron by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Kenichi; Kai, Takeshi; Nakazaki, Shinobu; Igarashi, Akinori

    2009-04-01

    We carry out the R-matrix calculations for electron-impact excitations of ions with one valence electron. The integral cross sections and polarization degree are obtained for the excitation process from the ground state to the first 2P° state of Li2+, B2+ and Al2+ as functions of electron incident energy. The differential cross sections and angular momentum transfer are also shown at non-resonant low-energy points. As for the angular momentum transfer (L⊥) at small scattering angles, they are negative for B2+ and Al2+, while it is positive for Li2+. Thus L⊥ of doubly charged ions with one-valence electron is not simple.

  18. The momentum transfer of incompressible turbulent separated flow due to cavities with steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. E.; Norton, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted using a plate test bed having a turbulent boundary layer to determine the momentum transfer to the faces of step/cavity combinations on the plate. Experimental data were obtained from configurations including an isolated configuration and an array of blocks in tile patterns. A momentum transfer correlation model of pressure forces on an isolated step/cavity was developed with experimental results to relate flow and geometry parameters. Results of the experiments reveal that isolated step/cavity excrecences do not have a unique and unifying parameter group due in part to cavity depth effects and in part to width parameter scale effects. Drag predictions for tile patterns by a kinetic pressure empirical method predict experimental results well. Trends were not, however, predicted by a method of variable roughness density phenomenology.

  19. Polarized Electrons for Experiments at Low Momentum Transfer SPIN S-DALINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Eckardt, C.; Barday, R.; Enders, J.; Goeoek, A.; Hessler, C.; Poltoratska, Y.; Wagner, M.; Mueller, W. F. O.; Steiner, B.; Weiland, T.

    2009-08-04

    The superconducting Darmstadt linear electron accelerator S-DALINAC will be expanded by a newly developed polarized injector concept called SPIN. The polarized beam program includes experiments to search for parity violation in photo induced fission, the investigation of the 5th structure function at low momentum transfer and break up reactions of few body systems. These experiments and an overview of the current experimental program will be covered in this paper.

  20. Identification of large-transverse-momentum hadrons using a ring-imaging Cherenkov counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, R.; Adams, M.; Brown, C.; Coutrakon, G.; Charpak, G.; Finley, D.; Glass, H.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaffe, D.; Jonckheere, A.; Jöstlein, H.; Kirz, J.; Mangeot, Ph.; Peisert, A.; Santiard, J. C.; Sauli, F.

    1986-07-01

    We have constructed and operated a large-aperture ring-imaging Cherenkov counter in a large-transverse-momentum experiment at Fermilab. Approximately 3 photons per relativistic particle are emitted in helium gas, focused by spherical mirrors and detected by multistep proportional chambers using a He/TEA gas mixture. Hadron identification is obtained from threshold to approximately 200 {GeV}/{c}.

  1. An investigation of the normal momentum transfer for gases on tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskal, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    The near monoenergetic beam of neutral helium and argon atoms impinged on a single crystal tungsten target, with the (100) face exposed to the beam. The target was mounted on a torsion balance. The rotation of this torsion balance was monitored by an optical lever, and this reading was converted to a measurement of the momentum exchange between the beam and the target. The tungsten target was flashed to a temperature in excess of 2000 C before every clean run, and the vacuum levels in the final chamber were typically between 0.5 and 1 ntorr. The momentum exchange for the helium-tungsten surface and the argon-tungsten surface combination was obtained over approximately a decade of incoming energy (for the argon gas) at angles of incidence of 0, 30, and 41 deg on both clean and dirty (gas covered) surfaces. The results exhibited a significant variation in momentum transfer between the data obtained for the clean and dirty surfaces. The values of normal momentum accommodation coefficient for the clean surface were found to be lower than the values previously reported.

  2. Photon momentum transfer plane for asteroid, meteoroid, and comet orbit shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A spacecraft docks with a spinning and/or rotating asteroid, meteoroid, comet, or other space object, utilizing a tether shaped in a loop and utilizing subvehicles appropriately to control loop instabilities. The loop is positioned about a portion of the asteroid and retracted thereby docking the spacecraft to the asteroid, meteoroid, comet, or other space object. A deployable rigidized, photon momentum transfer plane of sufficient thickness may then be inflated and filled with foam. This plane has a reflective surface that assists in generating a larger momentum from impinging photons. This plane may also be moved relative to the spacecraft to alter the forces acting on it, and thus on the asteroid, meteoroid, comet, or other space object to which it is attached. In general, these forces may be utilized, over time, to alter the orbits of asteroids, meteoroids, comets, or other space objects. Sensors and communication equipment may be utilized to allow remote operation of the rigidized, photon momentum transfer plane and tether.

  3. Coherent transfer of orbital angular momentum to excitons by optical four-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Y; Toda, Y; Adachi, S; Morita, R; Tawara, T

    2009-10-26

    We demonstrate the coherent transfer of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the center of mass momentum of excitons in semiconductor GaN using a four-wave mixing (FWM) process. When we apply the optical vortex (OV) as an excitation pulse, the diffracted FWM signal exhibits phase singularities that satisfy the OAM conservation law, which remain clear within the exciton dephasing time (approximately 1ps). We also demonstrate the arbitrary control of the topological charge in the output signal by changing the OAM of the input pulse. The results provide a way of controlling the optical OAM through carriers in solids. Moreover, the time evolution of the FWM with OAM leads to the study of the closed-loop carrier coherence in materials. PMID:19997285

  4. Rotating fiber array molecular driver and molecular momentum transfer device constructed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, Norman

    1983-01-01

    A rotating fiber array molecular driver is disclosed which includes a magnetically suspended and rotated central hub to which is attached a plurality of elongated fibers extending radially therefrom. The hub is rotated so as to straighten and axially extend the fibers and to provide the fibers with a tip speed which exceeds the average molecular velocity of fluid molecules entering between the fibers. Molecules colliding with the sides of the rotating fibers are accelerated to the tip speed of the fiber and given a momentum having a directional orientation within a relatively narrow distribution angle at a point radially outward of the hub, which is centered and peaks at the normal to the fiber sides in the direction of fiber rotation. The rotating fiber array may be used with other like fiber arrays or with other stationary structures to form molecular momentum transfer devices such as vacuum pumps, molecular separators, molecular coaters, or molecular reactors.

  5. Unsteady Analysis of Blade and Tip Heat Transfer as Influenced by the Upstream Momentum and Thermal Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.; Rigby, David L.; Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Heidmann, James D.; Fabian, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the upstream wake on the blade heat transfer has been numerically examined. The geometry and the flow conditions of the first stage turbine blade of GE s E3 engine with a tip clearance equal to 2 percent of the span was utilized. Based on numerical calculations of the vane, a set of wake boundary conditions were approximated, which were subsequently imposed upon the downstream blade. This set consisted of the momentum and thermal wakes as well as the variation in modeled turbulence quantities of turbulence intensity and the length scale. Using a one-blade periodic domain, the distributions of unsteady heat transfer rate on the turbine blade and its tip, as affected by the wake, were determined. Such heat transfer coefficient distribution was computed using the wall heat flux and the adiabatic wall temperature to desensitize the heat transfer coefficient to the wall temperature. For the determination of the wall heat flux and the adiabatic wall temperatures, two sets of computations were required. The results were used in a phase-locked manner to compute the unsteady or steady heat transfer coefficients. It has been found that the unsteady wake has some effect on the distribution of the time averaged heat transfer coefficient on the blade and that this distribution is different from the distribution that is obtainable from a steady computation. This difference was found to be as large as 20 percent of the average heat transfer on the blade surface. On the tip surface, this difference is comparatively smaller and can be as large as four percent of the average.

  6. Molecular kinetic theory of strongly nonequilibrium processes of mass, momentum, and energy transfer: Local equilibrium criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2015-09-01

    Consequences of the complete system of transfer equations of the properties (momentum, energy, and mass) of particles and their pairs are considered under local equilibrium conditions with regard to the Bogoliubov hierarchy of relaxation times between the first and second distribution functions (DFs) and distinctions in the characteristic relaxation times of particle momentum, energy, and mass. It is found that even under the local equilibrium condition in the Bogoliubov hierarchy of relaxation times between the first and second DFs, pair correlations are maintained between all dynamic variables (velocity, temperature, and density) whose values are proportional to the gradients of transferable properties. A criterion is introduced requiring there be no local equilibrium condition upon reaching the critical value at which the description of the transfer process becomes incorrect in classical nonequilibrium thermodynamics. External forces are considered in the equations for strongly nonequilibrium processes. Along with allowing for intermolecular potentials, it becomes possible to discuss the concept of passive forces (introduced in thermodynamics by Gibbs) from the standpoint of the kinetic theory. It is shown that use of this concept does not reflect modern representations of real processes.

  7. Momentum Transfer Between an Atmospheric and an Oceanic Layer at the Synoptic and the Mesoscale: An Idealized Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, A.; Wirth, A.

    2016-04-01

    We consider air-sea interaction at the (atmospheric) synoptic and the mesoscale due to momentum transfer only. Two superposed one-layer fine-resolution shallow-water models are numerically integrated, where the upper layer represents the atmosphere and the lower layer the ocean. The frictional force between the two layers is implemented using a quadratic drag law and experiments with different values of the surface drag coefficient are performed. The actual energy loss of the atmosphere and the energy gain by the ocean, due to the interfacial shear, is determined and compared to estimates based on average speeds. The correlation between the vorticity in the atmosphere and the ocean is determined. Results differ from previous investigations where the exchange of momentum was considered at basin scale. It is shown that the ocean has a passive role, absorbing kinetic energy at nearly all times and locations, results showing that the energy input to the ocean increases almost quadratically with the value of the drag coefficient. Due to the feeble velocities in the ocean, the energy transfer depends only weakly on the oceanic velocity. The ocean dynamics leave nevertheless their imprint on atmospheric dynamics, leading to a quenched disordered state of the atmosphere-ocean system for the highest value of the drag coefficient considered. This finding questions the ergodic hypothesis for the idealized configuration studied here. The ergodic hypothesis is at the basis of a large number of experimental, observational and numerical results in ocean, atmosphere and climate dynamics.

  8. Many-Body Theory of Ultrafast Demagnetization and Angular Momentum Transfer in Ferromagnetic Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töws, W.; Pastor, G. M.

    2015-11-01

    Exact calculated time evolutions in the framework of a many-electron model of itinerant magnetism provide new insights into the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization observed in ferromagnetic (FM) transition metal thin films. The interplay between local spin-orbit interactions and interatomic hopping is shown to be at the origin of the observed postexcitation breakdown of FM correlations between highly stable local magnetic moments. The mechanism behind spin- and angular-momentum transfer is revealed from a microscopic perspective by rigorously complying with all fundamental conservation laws. An energy-resolved analysis of the time evolution shows that the efficiency of the demagnetization process reaches almost 100% in the excited states.

  9. Recoil polarization measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio at high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Puckett

    2009-12-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are fundamental properties of the nucleon that describe the effect of its internal quark structure on the cross section and spin observables in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Double-polarization experiments have become the preferred technique to measure the proton and neutron electric form factors at high momentum transfers. The recently completed GEp-III experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility used the recoil polarization method to extend the knowledge of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio GpE/GpM to Q2 = 8.5 GeV2. In this paper we present the preliminary results of the experiment.

  10. Momentum transfer within a porous medium. I. Theoretical derivation of the momentum balance on the solid skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minale, Mario

    2014-12-01

    The momentum balance on the solid skeleton of a porous medium like porous rocks, foam metals, or porous brushes is, here, theoretically derived with the volume averaging method. It is derived for both homogeneous and non-homogeneous porous media and for the latters no length scales constraints are invoked. The momentum balance on the solid skeleton holds in the whole porous medium and contains volume averaged stresses and velocity. For heterogeneous porous media, it is coupled with the fluid momentum balance through a general averaged quantity, while in the homogeneous case, it is coupled with Darcy's equation, corrected with the first and the second Brinkman's term, through a geometrically rescaled Darcy's term. This latter equation coincides with Biot's equation for poro-elasticity, but it is here derived with a different formalism. This approach gives the opportunity to derive a new stress boundary condition at the interface between a porous medium and a homogeneous fluid.

  11. Momentum transfer Monte Carlo model for the simulation of laser speckle contrast imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Caitlin; Hayakawa, Carole K.; Choi, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) enables measurement of relative blood flow in microvasculature and perfusion in tissues. To determine the impact of tissue optical properties and perfusion dynamics on speckle contrast, we developed a computational simulation of laser speckle contrast imaging. We used a discrete absorption-weighted Monte Carlo simulation to model the transport of light in tissue. We simulated optical excitation of a uniform flat light source and tracked the momentum transfer of photons as they propagated through a simulated tissue geometry. With knowledge of the probability distribution of momentum transfer occurring in various layers of the tissue, we calculated the expected laser speckle contrast arising with coherent excitation using both reflectance and transmission geometries. We simulated light transport in a single homogeneous tissue while independently varying either absorption (.001-100mm^-1), reduced scattering (.1-10mm^-1), or anisotropy (0.05-0.99) over a range of values relevant to blood and commonly imaged tissues. We observed that contrast decreased by 49% with an increase in optical scattering, and observed a 130% increase with absorption (exposure time = 1ms). We also explored how speckle contrast was affected by the depth (0-1mm) and flow speed (0-10mm/s) of a dynamic vascular inclusion. This model of speckle contrast is important to increase our understanding of how parameters such as perfusion dynamics, vessel depth, and tissue optical properties affect laser speckle imaging.

  12. Irregular spin angular momentum transfer from light to small birefringent particles

    SciTech Connect

    Rothmayer, M.; Tierney, D.; Schmitzer, H.; Frins, E.; Dultz, W.

    2009-10-15

    The transfer of spin angular momentum from photons to small particles is a key experiment of quantum physics. The particles rotate clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the polarization of the light beam which holds them in an optical trap. We show that even perfectly disk shaped particles will in general not rotate with a constant angular speed. The particles will periodically accelerate and decelerate their rotational motion due to a varying spin angular momentum transfer from the light. Using the Poincare sphere we derive the equation of motion of a birefringent plate and verify the results by measuring the time dependent rotation of small crystals of Hg(I) iodide and 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) in the trap of polarized optical tweezers. For small ellipticities of the polarized light in the tweezers the plate stops in a fixed orientation relative to the axes of the light ellipse. We discuss the origin of this halt and propose an application of small birefringent plates as self-adjusting optical retarders in micro-optics.

  13. Two-photon exchange corrections in elastic lepton-proton scattering at small momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, elastic electron-proton scattering experiments, with and without polarized protons, gave strikingly different results for the electric over magnetic proton form factor ratio. A mysterious discrepancy (``the proton radius puzzle'') has been observed in the measurement of the proton charge radius in muon spectroscopy experiments versus electron spectroscopy and electron scattering. Two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions are the largest source of the hadronic uncertainty in these experiments. We compare the existing models of the elastic contribution to TPE correction in lepton-proton scattering. A subtracted dispersion relation formalism for the TPE in electron-proton scattering has been developed and tested. Its relative effect on cross section is in the 1 - 2 % range for a low value of the momentum transfer. An alternative dispersive evaluation of the TPE correction to the hydrogen hyperfine splitting was found and applied. For the inelastic TPE contribution, the low momentum transfer expansion was studied. In addition with the elastic TPE it describes the experimental TPE fit to electron data quite well. For a forthcoming muon-proton scattering experiment (MUSE) the resulting TPE was found to be in the 0 . 5 - 1 % range, which is the planned accuracy goal.

  14. Momentum transfer at the interface between a porous medium and a pure fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Howard; Zhang, Songpeng

    2015-11-01

    We examine the flow parallel to the interface between a porous medium and a liquid, focusing on the boundary conditions at the interface. When Darcy's law is used to describe the momentum transport in the porous layer, the classic Beavers-Joseph condition relates the shear rate and the slip velocity at the interface with a slip parameter that depends on the structure of the porous surface. When the Brinkman equation is used, the averaged velocity is continuous at the interface, however the fluid shear stress across the interface commonly experiences a jump. This shear stress jump can be expressed in terms of the slip velocity at the interface divided by a length characterized by the square root of the permeability, and a dimensionless stress jump coefficient. In this work, we study the momentum transfer from the clear fluid onto the solid structure at the interface, and proposed a stress partition parameter that characterizes the stress transfer from the clear fluid to the fluid (and solid) phase of the porous medium. Simple models are developed to formulate this stress partition parameter for porous media that are brush-like, long fibers, and random, respectively. Our model predictions are compared with numerical and experimental results in the literature.

  15. Increased heat transfer to elliptical leading edges due to spanwise variations in the freestream momentum - Numerical and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, D. L.; Van Fossen, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the effect of spanwise variation on leading edge heat transfer is presented. Experimental and numerical results are given for a circular leading edge and for a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. It is demonstrated that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.

  16. The neoclassical angular momentum flux in the large aspect ratio limit

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.K.; Chan, V.S.

    2005-09-15

    The small rotation version of the neoclassical angular momentum flux is calculated in the large aspect ratio limit and in the banana regime. The method relies on solving an adjoint equation to the customary linearized drift kinetic equation, circumventing the difficulty of obtaining the ion distribution function that is second order in the ratio of poloidal gyroradius over plasma scale length. The result differs significantly from a long-standing result for circular cross-section flux surfaces.

  17. The Study of the D(e,e'p)n Reaction at High Four-Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Hari

    2014-09-01

    A study of the D (e ,e' p) reaction has been carried out at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) for a set of fixed values of four-momentum transfers Q2 = 2.1 and 0.8 (GeV/c)2 and for missing momenta pm ranging from pm = 0.03 to pm = 0.65 GeV/c. The analysis resulted in the determination of absolute D (e ,e' p) n cross sections as a function of the recoiling neutron momentum and it's scattering angle with respect to the momentum transfer q-> . The experimental momentum distribution of the bound proton inside the deuteron has been determined for the first time at a set of fixed neutron recoil angle. A study of the D (e ,e' p) reaction has been carried out at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) for a set of fixed values of four-momentum transfers Q2 = 2.1 and 0.8 (GeV/c)2 and for missing momenta pm ranging from pm = 0.03 to pm = 0.65 GeV/c. The analysis resulted in the determination of absolute D (e ,e' p) n cross sections as a function of the recoiling neutron momentum and it's scattering angle with respect to the momentum transfer q-> . The experimental momentum distribution of the bound proton inside the deuteron has been determined for the first time at a set of fixed neutron recoil angle. Department of Energy (DOE).

  18. High momentum transfer R{sub T,L} response functions for {sup 3,4}He.

    SciTech Connect

    Filippone, Bradley; Jones Woodward, Cathleen; Potterveld, David; Day, Donal; Beck, Douglas; Boyd, G.; Dodge, Gail; Sick, Ingo; McCarthy, James; Mougey, Jean; Chen, Jian-Ping; Morgenstern, Joseph; Jourdan, Juerg; Giovanetti, Kevin; Kemper, Kirby; Dennis, Lawrence; Smith, Lee; Chinitz, Leigh; Minehart, Ralph; Milner, Richard; Sealock, Richard; Walker, Richard; McKeown, Robert; Thornton, Stephen; Koh, T.; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Meziani, Zein-Eddine

    1992-07-01

    The tantalizing problem of the 'quenching' of the Coulomb sum rule observed in medium weight nuclei is investigated in light nuclei at high momentum transfer. Inclusive electron scattering cross sections for {sup 3,4}He have been measured in the quasielastic region at electron energies between 0.9 GeV and 4.3 GeV, and scattering angles of 15deg and 85deg. Longitudinal (R{sub L}) and transverse (R{sub T}) response functions have been extracted using a Rosenbluth separation at constant vertical strokeq vectorvertical stroke of 1.050 (GeV/c). The ratio of the longitudinal to the transverse reduced response functions in the negative y region reaches unity. The experimental Coulomb sum rule although with large uncertainty and conversly to the case of medium weight nuclei, saturates at high momentum to the He nucleus total charge namely Z=2. (orig.). INDEX TERMS: coulomb excitation; differential cross sections; electron spectra; electrons; experimental data; gev range 01-10;

  19. Fermi-level pinning, charge transfer, and relaxation of spin-momentum locking at metal contacts to topological insulators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Spataru, Catalin D.; Léonard, François

    2014-08-13

    Topological insulators are of interest for many applications in electronics and optoelectronics, but harnessing their unique properties requires detailed understanding and control of charge injection at electrical contacts. Here we present large-scale ab initio calculations of the electronic properties of Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, and graphene contacts to Bi2Se3. We show that regardless of the metal, the Fermi level is located in the conduction band, leading to n-type Ohmic contact to the first quintuplet. Furthermore, we find strong charge transfer and band-bending in the first few quintuplets, with no Schottky barrier for charge injection even when the topoplogical insulator ismore » undoped. Our calculations indicate that Au and graphene leave the spin-momentum locking mostly unaltered, but on the other hand, Ni, Pd, and Pt strongly hybridize with Bi2Se3 and relax spin-momentum locking. In conclusion, our results indicate that judicious choice of the contact metal is essential to reveal the unique surface features of topological insulators.« less

  20. Fermi-level pinning, charge transfer, and relaxation of spin-momentum locking at metal contacts to topological insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Spataru, Catalin D.; Léonard, François

    2014-08-13

    Topological insulators are of interest for many applications in electronics and optoelectronics, but harnessing their unique properties requires detailed understanding and control of charge injection at electrical contacts. Here we present large-scale ab initio calculations of the electronic properties of Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, and graphene contacts to Bi2Se3. We show that regardless of the metal, the Fermi level is located in the conduction band, leading to n-type Ohmic contact to the first quintuplet. Furthermore, we find strong charge transfer and band-bending in the first few quintuplets, with no Schottky barrier for charge injection even when the topoplogical insulator is undoped. Our calculations indicate that Au and graphene leave the spin-momentum locking mostly unaltered, but on the other hand, Ni, Pd, and Pt strongly hybridize with Bi2Se3 and relax spin-momentum locking. In conclusion, our results indicate that judicious choice of the contact metal is essential to reveal the unique surface features of topological insulators.

  1. Changing summer sea ice roughness modifies momentum transfer into the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Torge; Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The current shrinking of Arctic sea ice affects the transfer of momentum from the atmosphere into the ocean. While in winter a thinner and thus weaker sea ice cover enables a greater ocean surface stress than in previous decades, the enormous retreat of sea ice in recent summers reduced the surface roughness of the Arctic Ocean and hence causes a negative ocean surface stress trend in this season. The latter is related to a generally enhanced surface drag in the presence of sea ice. Martin et al. (2014, JGR) suggested that such amplification of momentum transfer by ice floes peaks at an optimal ice concentration of 80-90% -- since higher concentrations damp momentum transfer due to ice internal stresses. However, this model study only considered a constant sea ice roughness in the calculation of the surface stress. Tsamados et al. (2014, JPO) recently implemented complex variable sea-ice drag coefficients into the sea ice model CICE also distinguishing between skin and form drag. They showed in stand-alone sea ice simulations that varying sea ice roughness due to, amongst others, pressure ridges and floe edges significantly impacts sea ice motion likely with implications for the ocean circulation underneath. Here, we present the effect of variable sea ice drag on the ocean surface stress. A comparison of the CICE results with Martin et al. (2014, JGR) shows that on basin-wide average the ice concentration-ocean stress relationship still peaks at about 80-90% but stress increases more rapidly with increasing ice concentration forming a "plateau" at 40-70%. We find that pressure ridges contribute more to the 80-90% peak whereas floe edges and skin drag shape the plateau. Further, Tsamados et al. (2014, JPO) found for the summer season that floe edges dominate the ice-water drag magnitude and that an increase in the floe edge form drag dominates the overall ice-water drag trend over the past two decades. This hints at the possibility that a favorable floe size

  2. R×B drift momentum spectrometer with high resolution and large phase space acceptance.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Konrad, G; Abele, H

    2013-02-11

    We propose a new type of momentum spectrometer, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse the charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, and measures the particles with large phase space acceptance and high resolution. This kind of R×B spectrometer is designed for the momentum analyses of the decay electrons and protons in the PERC (Proton and Electron Radiation Channel) beam station, which provides a strong magnetic field to guide the charged particles in the instrument. Instead of eliminating the guiding field, the R×B spectrometer evolves the field gradually to the analysing field, and the charged particles can be adiabatically transported during the dispersion and detection. The drifts of the particles have similar properties as their dispersion in the normal magnetic spectrometer. Besides, the R×B spectrometer is especially ideal for the measurements of particles with low momenta and large incident angles. We present a design of the R×B spectrometer, which can be used in PERC. For the particles with solid angle smaller than 88 msr, the maximum aberration is below 10(-4). The resolution of the momentum spectra can reach 14.4 keV/c, if the particle position measurements have a resolution of 1 mm. PMID:23576831

  3. Electron scattering at high momentum transfer from methane: Analysis of line shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Maarten

    2010-02-01

    The measurement of the energy distribution of keV electrons backscattered elastically from molecules reveals one or more peaks. These peaks are at nonzero energy loss and have an intrinsic width. The usual interpretation of these measurements is attractively simple and assumes billiard-ball-type collisions between the electron and a specific atom in the molecule, and the scattering atom is assumed to behave as a free particle. The peak position is then related to the mass of the scattering atom, and its width is a Compton profile of the momentum distribution of this atom in the molecule. Here we explore the limits of the validity of this picture for the case of electrons scattering from methane. The biggest discrepancy is found for electrons scattering from carbon. For electrons scattering from hydrogen the effects are substantial at relatively low incoming energies and appear to decrease with increasing momentum transfer. The discrepancy is analyzed in terms of the force the atom experiences near the equilibrium position.

  4. Thruster momentum transfer studies and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster use in materials/surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, E.; Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; George, M. A.; Conner, J. D.

    1995-08-01

    This research project involves the systematic study of the MPD thruster for dual uses. Though it was designed as a thruster for space vehicles, the characteristics of the plasma make it an excellent candidate for industrial applications. This project will seek to characterize the system for use in materials processing and characterization. Crystals grown at Fisk University for use with solid state detectors will be studied. Surface modification on ZnCdTe, CdTe, and ZnTe will be studied using AFM, XPS and SAES. In addition to the surface modification studies, design work on a momentum transfer measurement device has been completed. The design and limitations of the device will be presented.

  5. A covariant formalism for the N* electroproduction at high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilberto Ramalho,Franz Gross,Maria Haderer De La Pena S,Kazuo Tsushima

    2011-05-01

    A constituent quark model based on the spectator formalism is applied to the gamma N -> N* transition for the three cases, where N* is the nucleon, the Delta and the Roper resonance. The model is covariant, and therefore can be used for the predictions at higher four-momentum transfer squared, Q2. The baryons are described as an off-mass-shell quark and a spectator on-mass-shell diquark systems. The quark electromagnetic current is described by quark form factors, which have a form inspired by the vector meson dominance. The valence quark contributions of the model are calibrated by lattice QCD simulations and experimental data. Contributions of the meson cloud to the inelastic processes are explicitly included.

  6. Many-Body Theory of Ultrafast Demagnetization and Angular Momentum Transfer in Ferromagnetic Transition Metals.

    PubMed

    Töws, W; Pastor, G M

    2015-11-20

    Exact calculated time evolutions in the framework of a many-electron model of itinerant magnetism provide new insights into the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization observed in ferromagnetic (FM) transition metal thin films. The interplay between local spin-orbit interactions and interatomic hopping is shown to be at the origin of the observed postexcitation breakdown of FM correlations between highly stable local magnetic moments. The mechanism behind spin- and angular-momentum transfer is revealed from a microscopic perspective by rigorously complying with all fundamental conservation laws. An energy-resolved analysis of the time evolution shows that the efficiency of the demagnetization process reaches almost 100% in the excited states. PMID:26636871

  7. Thruster momentum transfer studies and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster use in materials/surface modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, E.; Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; George, M. A.; Conner, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    This research project involves the systematic study of the MPD thruster for dual uses. Though it was designed as a thruster for space vehicles, the characteristics of the plasma make it an excellent candidate for industrial applications. This project will seek to characterize the system for use in materials processing and characterization. Crystals grown at Fisk University for use with solid state detectors will be studied. Surface modification on ZnCdTe, CdTe, and ZnTe will be studied using AFM, XPS and SAES. In addition to the surface modification studies, design work on a momentum transfer measurement device has been completed. The design and limitations of the device will be presented.

  8. Electroproduction of Eta Mesons in the S11(1535) Resonance Region at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Mark; Adams, Gary; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Angelescu, Tatiana; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Baker, Keith; Benmouna, Nawal; Bertoncini, Crystal; Boeglin, Werner; Bosted, Peter; Breuer, Herbert; Christy, Michael; Connell, S.; Cui, Y.; Danagoulian, Samuel; Day, Donal; Dodario, T.; Dunne, James; Dutta, Dipangkar; Khayari, N.El; Ent, R.; Fenker, Howard; Frolov, Valera; Gan, Liping; Gaskell, David; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hinton, Wendy; Holt, Roy; Horn, Tanja; Huber, Garth; Hungerford, Ed; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, Mark; Joo, Kyungseon; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kelly, J.J.; Keppel, Cynthia; Koubarovski, Valeri; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kubarovsky, Valery; Li, Y.; Liang, Y.; Malace, S.; Markowitz, Pete; McKee, Paul; Meekins, David; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Moziak, B.; Navasardyan, Tigran; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Opper, Allena; Ostapenko, Tanya; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; ROCK, S.E.; Schulte, Elaine; Segbefia, Edwin; Smith, C.; Smith, Gregory; Stoler, Paul; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tang, Liguang; Tvaskis, Vladas; Ungaro, Maurizio; Uzzle, Alicia; Vidakovic, S.; Villano, A.; Vulcan, William; WANG, M.; Warren, Glen; Wesselmann, Frank; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Xu, C.; Yuan, Lulin; Zheng, Xiaochao; Guo Zhu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    The differential cross-section for the process p(e,e'p)eta has been measured at Q2 ~ 5.7 and 7.0 (GeV/c)2 for centre-of-mass energies from threshold to 1.8 GeV, encompassing the S11(1535) resonance, which dominates the channel. This is the highest momentum transfer measurement of this exclusive process to date. The helicity-conserving transition amplitude A_1/2, for the production of the S11(1535) resonance, is extracted from the data. This quantity appears to begin scaling as 1/Q3, a predicted signal of the dominance of perturbative QCD, at Q2 ~ 5 (GeV/c)2.

  9. Two-photon exchange correction to muon-proton elastic scattering at low momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We evaluate the two-photon exchange (TPE) correction to the muon-proton elastic scattering at small momentum transfer. Besides the elastic (nucleon) intermediate state contribution, which is calculated exactly, we account for the inelastic intermediate states by expressing the TPE process approximately through the forward doubly virtual Compton scattering. The input in our evaluation is given by the unpolarized proton structure functions and by one subtraction function. For the latter, we provide an explicit evaluation based on a Regge fit of high-energy proton structure function data. It is found that, for the kinematics of the forthcoming muon-proton elastic scattering data of the MUSE experiment, the elastic TPE contribution dominates, and the size of the inelastic TPE contributions is within the anticipated error of the forthcoming data.

  10. Hypervelocity cratering and disruption of porous pumice targets: Implications for crater production, catastrophic disruption, and momentum transfer on porous asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, George J.; Durda, Daniel D.; Patmore, Emma B.; Clayton, Angela N.; Jack, Sarah J.; Lipman, Miriam D.; Strait, Melissa M.

    2015-03-01

    Most asteroids for which porosities have been inferred have porosities from 20% to>50%. To investigate the effects of target porosity on cratering, impact disruption, and momentum transfer we performed a series of 17 hypervelocity impact experiments on high-porosity (60% to 85% porous), terrestrial, pumice targets impacted at speeds ranging from 3.5 to 5.2 km/s at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range. Eleven disruptions demonstrated that pumice targets are significantly stronger, i.e., they require more impactor kinetic energy per unit target mass to produce an equivalent disruption, than non-porous targets. The threshold collisional specific energy, Q D * , for this pumice is ~2380 J/kg, more than 60% greater than the value previously determined for ordinary chondrite meteorites having ~10% porosity, and more than three times the literature value for non-porous terrestrial basalt. As a result, in the same impactor environment non-porous asteroids, with properties similar to terrestrial basalt, and highly porous asteroids with the properties of this pumice are equally likely to be disrupted, possibly explaining the survival of asteroids with moderate or high porosity. The six cratering events produced steep-walled, roughly cylindrical craters, with depth/diameter ratios of ~1 to ~2.7, rather than the bowl-shaped craters with depth/diameter ~0.5 produced in non-porous targets. Computed microtomography shows little or no damage to the pumice outside the excavated crater volume even for impactor energies of approximately one-half Q D * , an energy shown to produce global damage in non-porous targets. Two large, overlapping craters were produced by successive hypervelocity impacts into one pumice target, a result consistent with the interpretation of the large, overlapping craters on the asteroid 253 Mathilde being a result of its high (>50%) porosity. We measured the post-impact momentum of a pumice target, showing that the recoil from the

  11. Alongshore momentum transfer to the nearshore zone from energetic ocean waves generated by passing hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Ryan P.; Hanson, Jeffrey L.

    2016-06-01

    Wave and current measurements from a cross-shore array of nearshore sensors in Duck, NC, are used to elucidate the balance of alongshore momentum under energetic wave conditions with wide surf zones, generated by passing hurricanes that are close to and far from to the coast. The observations indicate that a distant storm (Hurricane Bill, 2009) with large waves has low variability in directional wave characteristics resulting in alongshore currents that are driven mainly by the changes in wave energy. A storm close to the coast (Hurricane Earl, 2010), with strong local wind stress and combined sea and swell components in wave energy spectra, has high variability in wave direction and wave period that influence wave breaking and nearshore circulation as the storm passes. During both large wave events, the horizontal current shear is strong and radiation stress gradients, bottom stress, wind stress, horizontal mixing, and cross-shore advection contribute to alongshore momentum at different spatial locations across the nearshore region. Horizontal mixing during Hurricane Earl, estimated from rotational velocities, was particularly strong suggesting that intense eddies were generated by the high horizontal shear from opposing wind-driven and wave-driven currents. The results provide insight into the cross-shore distribution of the alongshore current and the connection between flows inside and outside the surf zone during major storms, indicating that the current shear and mixing at the interface between the surf zone and shallow inner shelf is strongly dependent on the distance from the storm center to the coast.

  12. Identification of Nuclear Effects in Neutrino-Carbon Interactions at Low Three-Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, P. A.; Demgen, J.; Miltenberger, E.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Chvojka, J.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Elkins, M.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Leistico, J. R.; Lovlein, A.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Muhlbeier, T.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    Two different nuclear-medium effects are isolated using a low three-momentum transfer subsample of neutrino-carbon scattering data from the MINERvA neutrino experiment. The observed hadronic energy in charged-current νμ interactions is combined with muon kinematics to permit separation of the quasielastic and Δ (1232 ) resonance processes. First, we observe a small cross section at very low energy transfer that matches the expected screening effect of long-range nucleon correlations. Second, additions to the event rate in the kinematic region between the quasielastic and Δ resonance processes are needed to describe the data. The data in this kinematic region also have an enhanced population of multiproton final states. Contributions predicted for scattering from a nucleon pair have both properties; the model tested in this analysis is a significant improvement but does not fully describe the data. We present the results as a double-differential cross section to enable further investigation of nuclear models. Improved description of the effects of the nuclear environment are required by current and future neutrino oscillation experiments.

  13. Identification of Nuclear Effects in Neutrino-Carbon Interactions at Low Three-Momentum Transfer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P A; Demgen, J; Miltenberger, E; Aliaga, L; Altinok, O; Bellantoni, L; Bercellie, A; Betancourt, M; Bodek, A; Bravar, A; Budd, H; Cai, T; Carneiro, M F; Chvojka, J; Devan, J; Dytman, S A; Díaz, G A; Eberly, B; Elkins, M; Felix, J; Fields, L; Fine, R; Gago, A M; Galindo, R; Gallagher, H; Ghosh, A; Golan, T; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Hurtado, K; Kiveni, M; Kleykamp, J; Kordosky, M; Le, T; Leistico, J R; Lovlein, A; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; Martinez Caicedo, D A; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Messerly, B; Miller, J; Mislivec, A; Morfín, J G; Mousseau, J; Muhlbeier, T; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J; Paolone, V; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Ramirez, M A; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rimal, D; Ruterbories, D; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Solano Salinas, C J; Tagg, N; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Walton, T; Wolcott, J; Wospakrik, M; Zavala, G; Zhang, D

    2016-02-19

    Two different nuclear-medium effects are isolated using a low three-momentum transfer subsample of neutrino-carbon scattering data from the MINERvA neutrino experiment. The observed hadronic energy in charged-current ν_{μ} interactions is combined with muon kinematics to permit separation of the quasielastic and Δ(1232) resonance processes. First, we observe a small cross section at very low energy transfer that matches the expected screening effect of long-range nucleon correlations. Second, additions to the event rate in the kinematic region between the quasielastic and Δ resonance processes are needed to describe the data. The data in this kinematic region also have an enhanced population of multiproton final states. Contributions predicted for scattering from a nucleon pair have both properties; the model tested in this analysis is a significant improvement but does not fully describe the data. We present the results as a double-differential cross section to enable further investigation of nuclear models. Improved description of the effects of the nuclear environment are required by current and future neutrino oscillation experiments. PMID:26943528

  14. Identification of nuclear effects in neutrino-carbon interactions at low three-momentum transfer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rodrigues, P. A.

    2016-02-17

    Two different nuclear-medium effects are isolated using a low three-momentum transfer subsample of neutrino-carbon scattering data from the MINERvA neutrino experiment. The observed hadronic energy in charged-current νμ interactions is combined with muon kinematics to permit separation of the quasielastic and Δ(1232) resonance processes. First, we observe a small cross section at very low energy transfer that matches the expected screening effect of long-range nucleon correlations. Second, additions to the event rate in the kinematic region between the quasielastic and Δ resonance processes are needed to describe the data. The data in this kinematic region also have an enhanced populationmore » of multiproton final states. Contributions predicted for scattering from a nucleon pair have both properties; the model tested in this analysis is a significant improvement but does not fully describe the data. We present the results as a double-differential cross section to enable further investigation of nuclear models. Furthermore, improved description of the effects of the nuclear environment are required by current and future neutrino oscillation experiments.« less

  15. Hadronic production of W and Z bosons at large transverse momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Edmond L.; Gao, Jun; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hao

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a modified factorization formalism in quantum chromodynamics for hadronic production of W and Z bosons at large transverse momentum pT. When pT is much larger than the invariant mass Q of the vector boson, this new factorization formalism systematically resums the large fragmentation logarithms, αsmlnm(pT2/Q2) , to all orders in the strong coupling αs. Using our modified factorization formalism, we present the next-to-leading-order (NLO) predictions for W and Z boson production at high pT at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and at a future 100 TeV proton-proton collider. Our NLO results are about 5% larger in normalization, and they show improved convergence and moderate reduction of the scale variation compared to the NLO predictions derived in a conventional fixed-order perturbative expansion.

  16. Expression of a momentum-transfer scattering at an inelastic collision on electron transport in a collisional plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makabe, Toshiaki

    2015-09-01

    An expression for the inelastic momentum-transfer scattering on the collision integral of the Boltzmann equation is derived in order to reflect the effect of the inelastic collision of an electron with a molecule on the electron kinetics in gases and collisional plasmas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to formulate the effect of the momentum-transfer scattering of an inelastic collision. The present procedure is a traditional one in which the Boltzmann equation of electrons is expanded by the Spherical-harmonics in velocity space. It is shown that the effect of the inelastic momentum-transfer on the electron transport is expressed only when we consider the first anisotropic part of the velocity distribution in the expanded Boltzmann equation. In addition, case studies are performed by considering the dependence of the scattering angle and the magnitude distribution. The influence of the inelastic momentum-transfer scattering on the electron transport should be further investigated, particularly in the case of a Ramsauer gas having the relation Qvib (v) >Qm (v) in the vicinity of the Ramsauer-minimum in SiH4, CH4, and CF4 etc.

  17. Role of two-nucleon mechanisms in pion photoproduction on nuclei in the region of high momentum transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, M. V.; Fix, A. I.

    2013-05-15

    The role of two-nucleon mechanisms in pion photoproduction on nuclei was studied in the region of high momentum transfers to the residual nucleus. The process in which the photoproduction of negative pions on a {sup 12}C nucleus is accompanied by proton emission was considered by way of example. The results of the calculations were compared with available experimental data.

  18. Production of H-3 at large momentum in alpha-(C-12) collisions at 2A GeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations of the longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions for H-3 production at large momentum in alpha-(C-12) collisions near 2A GeV are compared to experiment. Triton exchange and final-state interactions are shown to represent large corrections to the impulse approximation for proton knockout. A method for calculating interference effects for inelastic fragmentation is discussed. Good agreement with experiment using a phenomenological overlap function for (H-3)-p is found successful in describing H-3 production in pion-induced reactions. Comparisons to momentum distributions obtained through (p, 2p) and (e, ep) reactions on He-4 are made.

  19. Exact computation and large angular momentum asymptotics of 3nj symbols: Semiclassical disentangling of spin networks

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Roger W.; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Silva Ferreira, Cristiane da

    2008-10-28

    Spin networks, namely, the 3nj symbols of quantum angular momentum theory and their generalizations to groups other than SU(2) and to quantum groups, permeate many areas of pure and applied science. The issues of their computation and characterization for large values of their entries are a challenge for diverse fields, such as spectroscopy and quantum chemistry, molecular and condensed matter physics, quantum computing, and the geometry of space time. Here we record progress both in their efficient calculation and in the study of the large j asymptotics. For the 9j symbol, a prototypical entangled network, we present and extensively check numerically formulas that illustrate the passage to the semiclassical limit, manifesting both the occurrence of disentangling and the discrete-continuum transition.

  20. Ionosphere-exosphere coupling through charge exchange and momentum transfer in hydrogen-proton collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Breig, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The implications of a traditional assumption of exospheric physics, that collisions of hydrogen atoms and protons preferentially result in charge exchange with negligible momentum transfer are examined. Initially adopted as a necessary convenience to accommodate limited computer resources in exosphere model calculations, this approximation results in a direct transformation of the proton velocity distribution into a hot component of neutral hydrogen. With expanding computational facilities, the need for the approximation has passed. As the first step toward its replacement with a realistic, quantum mechanical model of the H - H(+) collision process, differential and cumulative cross sections were calculated for quantum elastic scattering of indistinguishable nuclei for a fine grid of encounter energies and scattering angles. These data are used to study the nature of ionosphere-exosphere coupling through H - H(+) collisions, and to demonstrate that the distribution of velocities of scattered H produced in the traditional exospheric charge exchange approximation, as well as that arising from an alternative, fluid dynamic approach, leads to unacceptable abundances of coronal atoms in long-term, highly elliptic trajectories.

  1. Studying the Transfer of Optical Orbital Angular Momentum to a Helical Bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Dana; Horton, Timothy; Reichman, Steven; Link, Justin; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Robbins, Jennifer; Engle, Dorothy

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to study how the angular momentum of an optical vortex created by a 1064 nm laser is transferred to a helical shaped bacterium. When under the influence of a laser in optical tweezers, the helical shape of the bacteria causes it to spin in the trap. A spatial light modulator reshapes the beam and is twisted either into a left handed or right handed helix. This results in an optical vortex with a diameter which can be adjusted from roughly half a micron to three microns. The rotational speed of a helical bacterium in this type of optical trap should depend on the handedness of the vortex and the handedness of the bacterium being tweezed. When both the tweezing beam and the bacterium have the same handedness, a slight reduction in rotational speed should be observed; when the tweezing beam has the opposite handedness of the bacterium, a slight increase in rotational speed should be expected. We present our first experiments with magnetospirillum magnetotacticum and rhodospirillum rubrum.

  2. Momentum transfer across fluid-fluid interfaces in porous media: A network model

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, P.A.; Ramakrishnan, T.S. )

    1993-07-01

    Two-phase flow in porous media is described based on the extended form of Darcy's law, which ignores momentum transfer at fluid-fluid interfaces. Two forms of corrections to this simple description have been proposed in the literature: on the relative permeability dependence on viscosity ratio; the other on the velocities assumed to be proportional to both phase pressure gradients and so introducing an additional saturation-dependent cross coefficient. In this article, to identify the correct form of transport equations, a simple cubic network model of 30 x 30 x 30 bonds is used. The cross section of the bonds is that of a four-cusp duct. The fluid interface in each duct is located by capillary equilibrium. The duct hydraulic conductances are then obtained as a function of viscosity ratio and phase volume fraction using a finite element calculation. These individual duct results are used in the network calculations for which a percolation algorithm is applied to simulate nonwetting phase displacing wetting phase, a process also known as initial drainage. Flow calculations show that both the nonwetting-phase relative permeability and the cross coefficient are strong functions of saturation and viscosity ratio. Also, the off-diagonal terms may contribute to a nonnegligible fraction of the flow. The proposed generalization of the Darcy equations is applicable to all problems involving multiphase flow in porous media. The current practices for relative permeability measurements and reservoir simulation may have to be reexamined in the context of the proposed transport equations.

  3. Effect of slip velocity and heat transfer on the condensed phase momentum flux of supersonic nozzle flows

    SciTech Connect

    Sherif, S.A.; Lear, W.E.; Winowich, N.S.

    1994-12-31

    One of the methods used for industrial cleansing applications employs a mixture of gaseous nitrogen and liquid water injected upstream of a converging-diverging nozzle located at the end of a straight wand assembly. The idea is to get the mixture to impact the surface at the maximum momentum flux possible in order to maximize the cleansing effectiveness. This paper presents an analysis geared towards this application in which the effects of slip and heat transfer between the gas and liquid phase are present. The model describes the liquid momentum flux (considered a figure of merit for cleansing) under a host of design conditions.

  4. Estimation of the ion toroidal rotation source due to momentum transfer from Lower Hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. P.; Wright, J. C.; Bonoli, P. T.; Parker, R. R.; Catto, P. J.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.

    2011-12-23

    Significant ion toroidal rotation (50km/s) has been measured by X-Ray spectroscopy for impurities in Alcator C-Mod during lower hybrid (LH) RF power injection. We investigate the relation between the computed toroidal momentum input from LH waves and the measured INITIAL change of ion toroidal rotation when the LH power is turned on. The relation may depend on the plasma current and magnetic configuration. Because of the fast build up time of the electron quasilinear plateau (<1 millisecond), the electron distribution function rapidly reaches steady state in which the electrons transfer momentum to the ions. The LH wave momentum input is computed from the self consistent steady state electron distribution function and a bounce-averaged quasilinear diffusion coefficient that are obtained by iterating a full wave code (TORLH) with a Fokker Plank code (CQL3D)

  5. Increased heat transfer to elliptical leading edges due to spanwise variations in the freestream momentum: Numerical and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, D. L.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the effect of spanwise variation in momentum on leading edge heat transfer is discussed. Numerical and experimental results are presented for both a circular leading edge and a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. Reynolds numbers in the range of 10,000 to 240,000 based on leading edge diameter are investigated. The surface of the body is held at a constant uniform temperature. Numerical and experimental results with and without spanwise variations are presented. Direct comparison of the two-dimensional results, that is, with no spanwise variations, to the analytical results of Frossling is very good. The numerical calculation, which uses the PARC3D code, solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, assuming steady laminar flow on the leading edge region. Experimentally, increases in the spanwise-averaged heat transfer coefficient as high as 50 percent above the two-dimensional value were observed. Numerically, the heat transfer coefficient was seen to increase by as much as 25 percent. In general, under the same flow conditions, the circular leading edge produced a higher heat transfer rate than the elliptical leading edge. As a percentage of the respective two-dimensional values, the circular and elliptical leading edges showed similar sensitivity to span wise variations in momentum. By equating the root mean square of the amplitude of the spanwise variation in momentum to the turbulence intensity, a qualitative comparison between the present work and turbulent results was possible. It is shown that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.

  6. Imbalance of energy and momentum source terms of the sea wave transfer equation for fully developed seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudal, G. V.

    2012-12-01

    In the concept of full development, the sea wave spectrum is regarded as a nearly stationary solution of the wave transfer equation, where source and sink terms should be in balance with respect to both energy and momentum. Using a two-dimensional empirical sea wave spectral model at full development, this paper performs an assessment of the compatibility of the energy and momentum budgets of sea waves over the whole spectral range. Among the various combinations of model functions for wave breaking and wind source terms tested, not one is found to fulfill simultaneously the energy and momentum balance of the transfer equation. Based on experimental and theoretical grounds, wave breaking is known to contribute to frequency downshift of a narrow-banded wave spectrum when the modulational instability is combined with wave breaking. On those grounds, it is assumed that, in addition to dissipation, wave breaking produces a spectral energy flux directed toward low wavenumbers. I show that it is then possible to remove the energy and momentum budget inconsistency, and correspondingly the required strength of this spectral flux is estimated. Introducing such a downward spectral flux permits fulfilling both energy and momentum balance conditions. Meanwhile, the consistency between the transfer equation and empirical spectra, estimated by means of a cost function K, is either improved or slightly reduced, depending upon the wave breaking and wind source terms chosen. Other tests are performed in which it is further assumed that wave breaking would also be associated with azimuthal diffusion of the spectral energy. This would correspondingly reduce the required downward spectral flux by a factor of up to 5, although it would not be able to remove it entirely.

  7. Damping of confined modes in a ferromagnetic thin insulating film: angular momentum transfer across a nanoscale field-defined interface.

    PubMed

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Wang, Hailong; Manuilov, Sergei A; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Zhang, Chi; Pelekhov, Denis V; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P Chris

    2014-10-24

    We observe a dependence of the damping of a confined mode of precessing ferromagnetic magnetization on the size of the mode. The micron-scale mode is created within an extended, unpatterned yttrium iron garnet film by means of the intense local dipolar field of a micromagnetic tip. We find that the damping of the confined mode scales like the surface-to-volume ratio of the mode, indicating an interfacial damping effect (similar to spin pumping) due to the transfer of angular momentum from the confined mode to the spin sink of ferromagnetic material in the surrounding film. Though unexpected for insulating systems, the measured intralayer spin-mixing conductance g_↑↓=5.3×10(19)  m(-2) demonstrates efficient intralayer angular momentum transfer. PMID:25379927

  8. Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by neon - 5 to 100 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Relative elastic-scattering differential cross sections were measured in the 5-100-eV impact energy and 10-145 deg angular ranges. Normalization of these cross sections was achieved by utilizing accurate total electron-scattering cross sections. A phase-shift analysis of the angular distributions in terms of real phase shifts has been carried out. From the differential cross sections, momentum-transfer cross sections were obtained and the values of the critical energy and angle were established (associated with the lowest value of the differential cross section) as 62.5 + or - 2.5 eV and 101.7 deg + or - 1.5 deg, respectively. The present phase shifts, the critical parameters, and differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared to previous experimental and theoretical results. The error associated with the present data is about 10 percent.

  9. Rapidity and momentum transfer distributions of coherent J/ψ photoproduction in ultraperipheral pPb collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzey, V.; Zhalov, M.

    2014-02-01

    Based on accurate calculations of the flux of equivalent photons of the proton and heavy nuclei and the pQCD framework for the gluon distribution in the proton and nuclei, we analyze the rapidity and momentum transfer distributions of coherent J/ψ photoproduction in ultraperipheral proton-Pb collisions at the LHC. We demonstrate that unlike the case of proton-proton UPCs marred by certain theoretical uncertainties and experimental limitations, after a cut excluding the region of small momentum transfers, ultraperipheral proton-Pb collisions offer a clean way to study the gluon distribution in the proton down to x ≈ 10-5. Our analysis of the momentum transfer distributions shows that an interplay of J/ψ production by low-energy photons on the nucleus and by high-energy photons on the proton in proton-Pb UPCs can result in some excess of events at small p t in a definite region of the rapidity y.

  10. Observation of orbital angular momentum transfer from bessel-shaped acoustic vortices to diphasic liquid-microparticle mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hong, ZhenYu; Zhang, Jie; Drinkwater, Bruce W

    2015-05-29

    We observe distinct regimes of orbital angular momentum (OAM) transfer from two-dimensional Bessel-shaped acoustic vortices to matter. In a homogeneous diphasic mixture of microparticles and water, slow swirling about the vortex axis is seen. This effect is driven by the absorption of OAM across the mixture, the motion following the OAM density distribution. Larger particles are formed into clusters by the acoustic radiation force, making the mixture nonhomogeneous. Here, the OAM transfer to the microparticle clusters dominates and they spin at high speeds entraining the surrounding fluid. PMID:26066437

  11. The mass and angular momentum distribution of simulated massive early-type galaxies to large radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xufen; Gerhard, Ortwin; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Hilz, Michael; Churazov, Eugene; Lyskova, Natalya

    2014-03-01

    We study the dark and luminous mass distributions, circular velocity curves (CVCs), line-of-sight kinematics and angular momenta for a sample of 42 cosmological zoom simulations of galaxies with stellar masses from 2.0 × 1010 to 3.4 × 1011 M⊙ h-1. Using a temporal smoothing technique, we are able to reach large radii. We find the following. The dark matter halo density profiles outside a few kpc follow simple power-law models, with flat dark matter CVCs for lower mass systems, and rising CVCs for high-mass haloes. The projected stellar density distributions at large radii can be fitted by Sérsic functions with n ≳ 10, larger than for typical early-type galaxies (ETGs). The massive systems have nearly flat total (luminous plus dark matter) CVCs at large radii, while the less massive systems have mildly decreasing CVCs. The slope of the circular velocity at large radii correlates with circular velocity itself. The dark matter fractions within the projected stellar half-mass radius Re are in the range 15-30 per cent and increase to 40-65 per cent at 5Re. Larger and more massive galaxies have higher dark matter fractions. The fractions and trends with mass and size are in agreement with observational estimates, even though the stellar-to-total mass ratio is ˜2-3 times higher than estimated for ETGs. The short axes of simulated galaxies and their host dark matter haloes are well aligned and their short-to-long axis ratios are correlated. The stellar root mean square velocity vrms(R) profiles are slowly declining, in agreement with planetary nebulae observations in the outer haloes of most ETGs. The line-of-sight velocity fields {bar{v}} show that rotation properties at small and large radii are correlated. Most radial profiles for the cumulative specific angular momentum parameter λ(R) are nearly

  12. A robust calibration technique for acoustic emission systems based on momentum transfer from a ball drop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Lockner, David A.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a technique to estimate the seismic moment of acoustic emissions and other extremely small seismic events. Unlike previous calibration techniques, it does not require modeling of the wave propagation, sensor response, or signal conditioning. Rather, this technique calibrates the recording system as a whole and uses a ball impact as a reference source or empirical Green’s function. To correctly apply this technique, we develop mathematical expressions that link the seismic moment $M_{0}$ of internal seismic sources (i.e., earthquakes and acoustic emissions) to the impulse, or change in momentum $\\Delta p $, of externally applied seismic sources (i.e., meteor impacts or, in this case, ball impact). We find that, at low frequencies, moment and impulse are linked by a constant, which we call the force‐moment‐rate scale factor $C_{F\\dot{M}} = M_{0}/\\Delta p$. This constant is equal to twice the speed of sound in the material from which the seismic sources were generated. Next, we demonstrate the calibration technique on two different experimental rock mechanics facilities. The first example is a saw‐cut cylindrical granite sample that is loaded in a triaxial apparatus at 40 MPa confining pressure. The second example is a 2 m long fault cut in a granite sample and deformed in a large biaxial apparatus at lower stress levels. Using the empirical calibration technique, we are able to determine absolute source parameters including the seismic moment, corner frequency, stress drop, and radiated energy of these magnitude −2.5 to −7 seismic events.

  13. Photon-momentum transfer in multiphoton ionization and in time-resolved holography with photoelectrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.; Corkum, Paul B.

    2015-11-01

    In most models and theoretical calculations describing multiphoton ionization by infrared light, the dipole approximation is used. This is equivalent to setting the very small photon momentum to zero. Using numerical solutions of the two-dimensional (2-D) time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one electron (H-like) systems, we show that, for linear polarization, the radiation pressure on photoelectrons is very sensitive to the details of the ionization mechanism. The directly ionized photoelectrons, those that never recollide with the parent ion, are driven in the direction of the laser photon momentum, whereas a fraction of slower photoelectrons are pushed in the opposite direction, leading to the counterintuitive shifts observed in recent experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 243001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.243001]. This complex response is due to the interplay between the Lorentz force and the Coulomb attraction from the ion. On average, however, the photoelectron momentum is in the direction of the photon momentum as in the case of circular polarization. The influence of the photon momentum is shown to be discernible in the holographic patterns of time-resolved atomic and molecular holography with photoelectrons, thus suggesting a new research subject in multiphoton ionization.

  14. Heat and Momentum Transfer Studies in High Reynolds Number Wavy Films at Normal and Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakotaiah, V.

    1996-01-01

    We examined the effect of the gas flow on the liquid film when the gas flows in the countercurrent direction in a vertical pipe at normal gravity conditions. The most dramatic effect of the simultaneous flow of gas and liquid in pipes is the greatly increased transport rates of heat, mass, and momentum. In practical situations this enhancement can be a benefit or it can result in serious operational problems. For example, gas-liquid flow always results in substantially higher pressure drop and this is usually undesirable. However, much higher heat transfer coefficients can be expected and this can obviously be of benefit for purposes of design. Unfortunately, designers know so little of the behavior of such two phase systems and as a result these advantages are not utilized. Due to the complexity of the second order boundary model as well as the fact that the pressure variation across the film is small compared to the imposed gas phase pressure, the countercurrent gas flow affect was studied for the standard boundary layer model. A different stream function that can compensate the shear stress affect was developed and this stream function also can predict periodic solutions. The discretized model equations were transformed to a traveling wave coordinate system. A stability analysis of these sets of equations showed the presence of a Hopf bifurcation for certain values of the traveling wave velocity and the shear stress. The Hopf celerity was increased due to the countercurrent shear. For low flow rate the increases of celerity are more than for the high flow rate, which was also observed in experiments. Numerical integration of a traveling wave simplification of the model also predicts the existence of chaotic large amplitude, nonperiodic waves as observed in the experiments. The film thickness was increased by the shear.

  15. Theory for solvent, momentum, and energy transfer between a surfactant solution and a vapor atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Fried, Eliot; Shen, Amy Q; Gurtin, Morton E

    2006-06-01

    We develop a complete set of equations governing the evolution of a sharp interface separating a volatile-solvent/nonvolatile-surfactant solution from a vapor atmosphere. In addition to a sorption isotherm equation and the conventional balances for mass, linear momentum, and energy, these equations include an alternative to the Hertz-Knudsen-Langmuir equation familiar from conventional theories of evaporation and condensation. This additional equation arises from a consideration of configurational forces within a thermodynamical framework. While the notion of configurational forces is well developed and understood for the description of materials that, like crystalline solids, possess natural reference configurations, very little has been done regarding their role in materials, such as viscous fluids, that do not possess preferred reference states. We therefore provide comprehensive developments of configurational forces, the balance of configurational momentum, and configurational thermodynamics. Our treatment does not require a choice of reference configuration. The general evolution equations arising from our theory account for the thermodynamic structure of the solution and the interface and for sources of dissipation related to the transport of surfactant, momentum, and heat in the solution and within the interface along with the transport of solute, momentum, kinetic energy, and heat across the interface. Moreover, the equations account for the Soret and Dufour effects in the solution and on the interface and for observed discontinuities of the temperature and chemical potential across the interface. Due to the complexity of these equations, we provide approximate equations which we compare to equations preexistent in the literature. PMID:16906840

  16. The Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio mu(p) G**p(E)/G**p(M) at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B.L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B.E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A.J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. ˇ Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

    2007-11-01

    High precision measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio have been made at four-momentum transfers, Q^2, between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV^2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q^2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than the dipole parameterization.

  17. The NNLO QCD corrections to Z boson production at large transverse momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, A. Gehrmann-De; Gehrmann, T.; Glover, E. W. N.; Huss, A.; Morgan, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    The transverse momentum distribution of massive neutral vector bosons can be measured to high accuracy at hadron colliders. The transverse momentum is caused by a partonic recoil, and is determined by QCD dynamics. We compute the single and double-differential transverse momentum distributions for fully inclusive Z/γ ∗ production including leptonic decay to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbative QCD. We also compute the same distributions normalised to the cross sections for inclusive Z/γ ∗ production, i.e. integrated over the transverse momentum of the lepton pair. We compare our predictions for the fiducial cross sections to the 8 TeV data set from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, which both observed a tension between data and NLO theory predictions, using the experimental cuts and binning. We find that the inclusion of the NNLO QCD effects does not fully resolve the tension with the data for the unnormalised p T Z distribution. However, we observe that normalising the NNLO Z-boson transverse momentum distribution by the NNLO Drell-Yan cross section substantially improves the agreement between experimental data and theory, and opens the way for precision QCD studies of this observable.

  18. Photon-electron-ion momentum transfer in high intensityIR laser pulse ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrauk, Andre D.; Chelkowski, Szczefan; Corkum, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Photon momentum sharing between electrons and parent ions in high intensityIR multiphoton ionization requires going beyond the traditional perturbative dipole approximation. Using numerical solutions of the 2-D TDSE(Time dependent Schroedinger equation) for one electron atom models, we show that the radiation pressure on photoelectrons is sensitive to the ionization mechanism, either direct or by recollision. A complex electron-ion response is obtained due to the interplay between the Lorentz force and Coulomb attraction of the ion.The influence of the photon momentum sharing is shown to be discernible in IR high intensity atomic and/or molecular holographic patterns thus suggesting a new research subject in IR strong field physics.

  19. Investigations on heat and momentum transfer in CuO-water nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzido, Grzegorz; Drzazga, Michał; Lemanowicz, Marcin; Gierczycki, Andrzej T.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents results of investigations on the application of CuO-water nanofluids for intensification of convective heat transfer. Performance of nanofluids with 2.2 and 4.0 vol.% CuO NPs (nanoparticles) content were examined with regard to heat transfer coefficient and pressure losses in case of turbulent flow in a tube. Negligible impact of examined nanofluid on heat transfer improvement was found. Moreover, measured pressure losses significantly exceeded those determined for primary base liquid. The observations showed that application of nanofluid for heat transfer intensification with a relatively high solid load in the examined flow range is rather controversial.

  20. Operational Momentum in Large-Number Addition and Subtraction by 9-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrink, Koleen; Wynn, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies on nonsymbolic arithmetic have illustrated that under conditions that prevent exact calculation, adults display a systematic tendency to overestimate the answers to addition problems and underestimate the answers to subtraction problems. It has been suggested that this "operational momentum" results from exposure to a…

  1. RADIAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND MAGNETIC BARRIER FOR SHORT-TYPE GAMMA-RAY-BURST CENTRAL ENGINE ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tong; Gu Weimin; Hou Shujin; Liang Enwei; Lei Weihua; Lin Lin; Zhang Shuangnan; Dai Zigao

    2012-11-20

    Soft extended emission (EE) following initial hard spikes up to 100 s was observed with Swift/BAT for about half of known short-type gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). This challenges the conversional central engine models of SGRBs, i.e., compact star merger models. In the framework of black-hole-neutron-star merger models, we study the roles of radial angular momentum transfer in the disk and the magnetic barrier around the black hole in the activity of SGRB central engines. We show that radial angular momentum transfer may significantly prolong the lifetime of the accretion process, which may be divided into multiple episodes by the magnetic barrier. Our numerical calculations based on models of neutrino-dominated accretion flows suggest that disk mass is critical for producing the observed EE. In the case of the mass being {approx}0.8 M {sub Sun }, our model can reproduce the observed timescale and luminosity of both the main and the EE episodes in a reasonable parameter set. The predicted luminosity of the EE component is lower than the observed EE within about one order of magnitude and the timescale is shorter than 20 s if the disk mass is {approx}0.2 M {sub Sun }. Swift/BAT-like instruments may be not sensitive enough to detect the EE component in this case. We argue that the EE component could be a probe for the merger process and disk formation for compact star mergers.

  2. Becoming angular momentum density flow through nonlinear mass transfer into a gravitating spheroidal body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    A statistical theory for a cosmological body forming based on the spheroidal body model has been proposed in the works [1]-[4]. This work studies a slowly evolving process of gravitational condensation of a spheroidal body from an infinitely distributed gas-dust substance in space. The equation for an initial evolution of mass density function of a gas-dust cloud is considered here. It is found this equation coincides completely with the analogous equation for a slowly gravitational compressed spheroidal body [5]. A conductive flow in dissipative systems was investigated by I. Prigogine in his works (see, for example, [6], [7]). As it has been found in [2], [5], there exists a conductive antidiffusion flow in a slowly compressible gravitating spheroidal body. Applying the equation of continuity to this conductive flow density we obtain a linear antidiffusion equation [5]. However, if an intensity of conductive flow density increases sharply then the linear antidiffusion equation becomes a nonlinear one. Really, it was pointed to [6] analogous linear equations of diffusion or thermal conductivity transform in nonlinear equations respectively. In this case, the equation of continuity describes a nonlinear mass flow being a source of instabilities into a gravitating spheroidal body because the gravitational compression factor G is a function of not only time but a mass density. Using integral substitution we can reduce a nonlinear antidiffusion equation to the linear antidiffusion equation relative to a new function. If the factor G can be considered as a specific angular momentum then the new function is an angular momentum density. Thus, a nonlinear momentum density flow induces a flow of angular momentum density because streamlines of moving continuous substance come close into a gravitating spheroidal body. Really, the streamline approach leads to more tight interactions of "liquid particles" that implies a superposition of their specific angular momentums. This

  3. Orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing in free-space optical data transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiao; Yuan, Xiao-Cong; Tao, Shaohua

    2006-08-01

    In the optical wireless communication systems proposed by Gibson, et al, the information is encoded as states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light and the transmitter unit can produce laser beam with single OAM-state in a time-slot. Recently we have proved that it is possible to generate multiple OAM-states simultaneously by single spatial light modulator. This method is adopted in our free-space optical wireless communication system and these OAM-states can be detected in the receiving unit by a computer-generated hologram. Hence, the transmission capacity is enhanced significantly without increasing the complexity of system.

  4. Heat and momentum transfer model studies applicable to once-through, forced convection potassium boiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabin, C. M.; Poppendiek, H. F.

    1971-01-01

    A number of heat transfer and fluid flow mechanisms that control once-through, forced convection potassium boiling are studied analytically. The topics discussed are: (1) flow through tubes containing helical wire inserts, (2) motion of droplets entrained in vapor flow, (3) liquid phase distribution in boilers, (4) temperature distributions in boiler tube walls, (5) mechanisms of heat transfer regime change, and (6) heat transfer in boiler tubes. Whenever possible, comparisons of predicted and actual performances are made. The model work presented aids in the prediction of operating characteristics of actual boilers.

  5. Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize Lecture: Transfer of spin momentum between magnets: its genesis and prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonczewski, John

    2013-03-01

    Consider two nanoscopic monodomain magnets connected by a spacer that is composed of a non-magnetic metal or a tunnel barrier. Any externally applied electric current flowing through these three layers contributes tiny pseudo-torques to both magnetic moments (J . S . 1989). Such a weak spin-transfer torque (STT) may counteract and overcome a comparably small torque caused by viscous dissipation (L. Berger1996; J . S . 1996). Any initial motion (e. g. excited by ambient temperature) of one moment (or both), may grow in amplitude and culminate in steady precession or a transient switch to a new direction of static equilibrium. In a memory element, the STT effect writes 0 or 1 in a magnetic-tunnel junction. Indeed, world-wide developments of memory arrays and radio-frequency oscillators utilizing current-driven STT today enjoy a nine-digit dollar commitment. But the fact that transfer of each half-unit of spin momentum h/4 π through a barrier requires the transfer of at least one unit of electric charge limits its efficiency. Arguably, STT should also arise from the flow of external heat, in either direction, between an insulating magnet, of ferrite or garnet (e. g. YIG) composition, and a metallic spacer (J . S . 2010). Whenever s-d exchange annihilates a hot magnon at the insulator/metal-spacer interface, it transfers one unit h/2 π of spin momentum to the spacer. Conduction electrons within the spacer will transport this spin momentum to the second magnet without requiring an electric current. Such a thermagnonicmethod, modestly powered by a Joule-effect heater, can substantially increase the efficiency of STT. Support for this prediction comes from (1) an estimate of the sd-exchange coefficient from data on spin relaxation in magnetically dilute (Cu,Ag,Au):Mn alloys; (2) a DFT computation (J. Xiao et al 2010); and (3) most persuasively, data from spin pumping driven across a YIG/Au interface by ferromagnetic resonance (B. Heinrich et al 2011; C. Burrowes et al

  6. Optimal orbit transfer suitable for large flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Alok K.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of continuous low-thrust planar orbit transfer of large flexible structures is formulated as an optimal control problem with terminal state constraints. The dynamics of the spacecraft motion are treated as a point-mass central force field problem; the thrust-acceleration magnitude is treated as an additional state variable; and the rate of change of thrust-acceleration is treated as a control variable. To ensure smooth transfer, essential for flexible structures, an additional quadratic term is appended to the time cost functional. This term penalizes any abrupt change in acceleration. Numerical results are presented for the special case of a planar transfer.

  7. Orbital transfer of large space structures with nuclear electric rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, T. H.; Byers, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential application of electric propulsion for orbit transfer of a large spacecraft structure from low earth orbit to geosynchronous altitude in a deployed configuration. The electric power was provided by the spacecraft nuclear reactor space power system on a shared basis during transfer operations. Factors considered with respect to system effectiveness included nuclear power source sizing, electric propulsion thruster concept, spacecraft deployment constraints, and orbital operations and safety. It is shown that the favorable total impulse capability inherent in electric propulsion provides a potential economic advantage over chemical propulsion orbit transfer vehicles by reducing the number of Space Shuttle flights in ground-to-orbit transportation requirements.

  8. Understanding the Role of Interannual Variability and Momentum Transfer on Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerner, S.; Brunsell, N. A.; Miller, L.; Mechem, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting realistic wind power potential is essential for wind energy to assist with meeting future energy demands. Current wind power estimates rely on the use of mean climatological wind speeds. This approach to estimating wind power neglects the influence of momentum extraction by the turbines (i.e. turbine-turbine interactions) and interannual variability in windspeed. The present study will use a wind turbine parameterization within the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model to assess the role of interannual and climatic variability on power extraction. The WRF model will be forced by NARR, and run from 1980-2010 to incorporate different climatic conditions over the central United States. Analysis focusses on the role of climate variability on wind power extraction; specifically on the role of drought and wet periods, as well as variability in the Great Plains Low Level Jet. In addition, WRF will be used to assess the impact of wind turbines on each term of the momentum budget. Understanding the impact of interannual variability will improve our understanding of the role that wind power can play in meeting future energy demands.

  9. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

    2009-10-12

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  10. Momentum transfer driven textural changes of CeO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Van Steenberge, S. Leroy, W. P.; Depla, D.

    2014-09-15

    The influence of the target erosion depth on the film texture was investigated during DC reactive magnetron sputter deposition of CeO{sub 2} thin films. Three fluxes towards the substrate surface (the relative negative oxygen ion flux, the material flux, and the energy flux) were measured and related to the ongoing erosion of a cerium target. As the deposition rate increased for more eroded targets, both the energy flux and the negative ion flux decreased. Cerium oxide thin films that were deposited at different target erosion states, exhibited a change in preferential crystalline orientation from [200] to [111]. This textural change cannot be explained in terms of the energy per arriving atom concept. Instead, it is shown that the momentum of the high energetic negative ions is an essential condition to clarify the witnessed trends.

  11. Vertical momentum transfer by internal waves when eddy viscosity and diffusion are taken into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepyshev, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Free internal waves are considered in a Boussinesq approximation in the situation when horizontal eddy viscosity and diffusion in a vertically inhomogeneous flow are taken into account. The dispersion relation and wave damping factor are found in a linear approximation. The Stokes drift velocity is determined in the second order of smallness based on the wave amplitude. It has been indicated that the Stokes drift velocity, transverse with respect to the wave propagation direction, differs from zero if the flow-rate transverse component depends on the vertical coordinate. Vertical momentum fluxes differ from zero and can be comparable with or exceed the corresponding turbulent fluxes if eddy viscosity and diffusion are taken into account.

  12. Charge transfer and momentum exchange in exospheric D-H(+) and H-D(+) collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Breig, E. L.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanisms that control the escape of deuterium from planetary exospheres include the acceleration of D(+) in the polar wind, and the production of suprathermal D atoms through nonthermal collisions. In this paper we examine the effects of neutral-ion interactions involving deuterium and hydrogen on the velocity distribution of neutral D. A two-center scattering approximation is used as the basis for calculations of the differential cross sections for charge transfer and elastic scatter in collision of H with D(+) and of D with H(+) for ionosphere-exosphere collision energies below 10 e V. These data are used to derive temperature dependent rate coefficients for the charge transfer branches of these interactions, and to determine the effects of ion-neutral temperature differences on the rate of generation of suprathermal D through charge transfer and elastic scatter.

  13. A stability-dependent parametrization of transfer coefficients for momentum and heat over polar sea ice to be used in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüpkes, Christof; Gryanik, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between sea ice and atmosphere depends strongly on the near-surface transfer coefficients for momentum and heat. A parametrization of these coefficients is developed on the basis of an existing parametrization of drag coefficients for neutral stratification that accounts for form drag caused by the edges of ice floes and melt ponds. This scheme is extended to better account for the dependence of surface wind on limiting cases of high and low ice concentration and to include near-surface stability effects over open water and ice on form drag. The stability correction is formulated on the basis of stability functions from Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and also using the Louis concept with stability functions depending on the bulk Richardson numbers. Furthermore, a parametrization is proposed that includes the effect of edge-related turbulence also on heat transfer coefficients. The parametrizations are available in different levels of complexity. The lowest level only needs sea ice concentration and surface temperature as input, while the more complex level needs additional sea ice characteristics. An important property of our parametrization is that form drag caused by ice edges depends on the stability over both ice and water which is in contrast to the skin drag over ice. Results of the parametrization show that stability has a large impact on form drag and, thereby, determines the value of sea ice concentration for which the transfer coefficients reach their maxima. Depending on the stratification, these maxima can occur anywhere between ice concentrations of 20 and 80%.

  14. A Large-alphabet Quantum Key Distribution Protocol Using Orbital Angular Momentum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Li, Yong-Qiang; Yang, Hua; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Cheng, Wei-Wen

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a quantum key distribution protocol using entangled photon pairs in orbital angular momentum (OAM). Here Alice uses a fixed phase hologram to modulate her OAM state on one photon with a spatial light modulator (SLM), while Bob uses the designed N different phase holograms for his N-based keys on the other photon with his SLM. With coincidences, Alice can fully retrieve the keys sent by Bob without reconciliation. We report the experiment results with N = 3 and OAM eigenmodes |l = ±1>, and discuss the security from the light path and typical attacks.

  15. Electroproduction of {eta} mesons in the S{sub 11}(1535) resonance region at high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, M. M.; Adams, G. S.; Moziak, B.; Stoler, P.; Villano, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Danagoulian, S.; Angelescu, T.; Malace, S.; Arrington, J.; Hafidi, K.; Holt, R. J.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E.; Zheng, X.; Asaturyan, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Navasardyan, T.; Tadevosyan, V.; Baker, O. K.

    2009-07-15

    The differential cross section for the process p(e,e{sup '}p){eta} has been measured at Q{sup 2}{approx}5.7 and 7.0(GeV/c){sup 2} for center-of-mass energies from threshold to 1.8 GeV, encompassing the S{sub 11}(1535) resonance, which dominates the channel. This is the highest momentum-transfer measurement of this exclusive process to date. The helicity-conserving transition amplitude A{sub 1/2}, for the production of the S{sub 11}(1535) resonance, is extracted from the data. Within the limited Q{sup 2} now measured, this quantity appears to begin scaling as Q{sup -3}--a predicted, but not definitive, signal of the dominance of perturbative QCD at Q{sup 2}{approx}5 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

  16. Electroproduction of {eta} mesons in the S{sub 11} (1535) resonance region at high momentum transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, M. M.; Adams, G. S.; Ahmidouch, A.; Angelescu, T.; Arrington, J.; Holt, R. J.; Hafidi, K.; Reimer, P.; Schulte, E.; Zheng, X.; Physics; Univ. of Witwatersrand; Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst.; North Carolina A & T State Univ.; Bucharest Univ.; Yerevan Physics Inst.

    2009-07-01

    The differential cross section for the process p(e,e{prime}p) {eta} has been measured at Q{sup 2} {approx} 5.7 and 7.0(GeV/c){sup 2} for center-of-mass energies from threshold to 1.8 GeV, encompassing the S{sub 11}(1535) resonance, which dominates the channel. This is the highest momentum-transfer measurement of this exclusive process to date. The helicity-conserving transition amplitude A{sub 1/2}, for the production of the S{sub 11}(1535) resonance, is extracted from the data. Within the limited Q{sup 2} now measured, this quantity appears to begin scaling as Q{sup -3} - a predicted, but not definitive, signal of the dominance of perturbative QCD at Q{sup 2} {approx} 5 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

  17. Towards a Precision Measurement of Parity-Violating e-p Elastic Scattering at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Q-weak experiment is to make a measurement of the proton's weak charge QWp = 1 - 4 sin2W2(θW2(θWWp by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer Q2 = 0.026 (GeV/c)2 and forward angles (8 degrees). The anticipated size of the asymmetry, based on the SM, is about 230 parts per billion (ppb). With the proposed accuracy, the experiment may probe new physics beyond Standard Model at the TeV scale. This thesis focuses on my contributions to the experiment, including track reconstruction for momentum transfer determination of the scattering process, and the focal plane scanner, a detector I designed and built to measure the flux profile of scattered electrons on the focal plane of the Q-weak spectrometer to assist in the extrapolation of low beam current tracking results to high beam current. Preliminary results from the commissioning and the first run period of the Q-weak experiment are reported and discussed.

  18. Momentum and Heat Transfer Models for Detonation in Nitromethane with Metal Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, R. C.; Zhang, F.; Lien, F.-S.

    2009-12-01

    Models for momentum and heat exchange have been derived from the results of previous 3D mesoscale simulations of detonation in packed aluminum particles saturated with nitromethane, where the shock interaction timescale was resolved. In these models, particle acceleration and heating within the shock and detonation zone are expressed in terms of velocity and temperature transmission factors, which are a function of the metal to explosive density ratio, solid volume fraction and ratio of particle size to detonation zone thickness. These models are incorporated as source terms in the governing equations for continuum dense two-phase flow, and then applied to macroscopic simulation of detonation of nitromethane/aluminum in lightly-cased cylinders. Heterogeneous detonation features such as velocity deficit, enhanced pressure, and critical diameter effects are demonstrated. Various spherical particle diameters from 3-350 μm are utilized where most of the particles react in the expanding detonation products. Results for detonation velocity, pressure history, failure and U-shaped critical diameter behavior are compared to existing experiments.

  19. Momentum and Heat Transfer Models for Detonation in Nitromethane with Metal Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Lien, Fue-Sang

    2009-06-01

    Models for momentum and heat exchange have been derived from the results of previous 3D mesoscale simulations of detonation in packed aluminum particles saturated with nitromethane, where the shock interaction timescale was resolved. In these models, particle acceleration and heating within the shock and detonation zone have been expressed in terms of velocity and temperature transmission factors, which are a function of metal to explosive density ratio, metal volume fraction and ratio of particle size to detonation zone thickness. These models are incorporated as source terms in the governing equations for continuum dense two-phase flow and macroscopic simulation is then applied to detonation of nitromethane/aluminum in lightly-cased cylinders. Heterogeneous detonation features such as velocity deficit, enhanced pressure, and critical diameter effects are reproduced. Various spherical particle diameters from 3 -- 30 μm are utilized where most of the particles react in the expanding detonation products. Results for detonation velocity, pressure history, failure and U-shaped critical diameter behavior are compared to the existing experiments.

  20. Two-Body Electrodisintegration of $^3$He at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schiavilla; O. Benhar; A. Kievsky; L.E. Marcucci; M. Viviani

    2005-08-01

    The {sup 3}He (e,e{prime}p)d reaction is studied using an accurate three-nucleon bound state wave function, a model for the electromagnetic current operator including one- and two-body terms, and the Glauber approximation for the treatment of final state interactions. In contrast to earlier studies, the profile operator in the Glauber expansion is derived from a nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude, which retains its full spin and isospin dependence and is consistent with phase-shift analyses of two-nucleon scattering data. The amplitude is boosted from the center-of-mass frame, where parameterizations for it are available, to the frame where rescattering occurs. Exact Monte Carlo methods are used to evaluate the relevant matrix elements of the electromagnetic current operator. The predicted cross section is found to be in quantitative agreement with the experimental data for values of the missing momentum p{sub m} in the range (0--700) MeV/c, but underestimates the data at p{sub m} {approx} 1 GeV/c by about a factor of two. However, the longitudinal-transverse asymmetry, measured up to p{sub m} {approx} 600 MeV/c, is well reproduced by theory. A critical comparison is carried out between the results obtained in the present work and those of earlier studies.

  1. Coherent dynamics of exciton orbital angular momentum transferred by optical vortex pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigematsu, K.; Yamane, K.; Morita, R.; Toda, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The coherent dynamics of the exciton center-of-mass motion in bulk GaN are studied using degenerate four-wave-mixing (FWM) spectroscopy with Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode pulses. We evaluate the exciton orbital angular momentum (OAM) dynamics from the degree of OAM, which is derived from the distributions of OAM (topological charge) of the FWM signals. When excitons are excited with two single-mode LG pulses, the exciton OAM decay time significantly exceeds the exciton dephasing time, which can be attributed to high uniformity of the exciton dephasing in our bulk sample because the decoherence of the exciton OAM is governed by the angular variation in the exciton dephasing. We also analyze the topological charge (ℓ ) dependence of the OAM decay using a multiple-mode LG pump pulse, which allows us to simultaneously observe the dynamics of the exciton OAM for different ℓ values under the same excitation conditions. The OAM decay times of the ℓ =1 component are usually longer than those of the ℓ =0 component. The ℓ -dependent OAM decay is supported by a phenomenological model which takes into account the local nonuniformity of the exciton dephasing.

  2. Evolution of single B-type stars with a large angular momentum content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, Anahí; Haemmerlé, Lionel

    2014-10-01

    Context. The Geneva Stellar Evolution Group has recently presented an extended database of rotating stellar models at three different metallicities for nine different initial rotation parameters and ten different masses corresponding to spectral types from early-F to late-O. With these grids we have contributed to the understanding of the evolution of single rotating stars, and we intend to use them to produce synthetic stellar populations that fully account for the effects of stellar rotation. However, up to now we still lacked stellar evolutionary tracks that rotate close to the critical limit during the whole main-sequence (MS) phase. This occurs because the flat internal profile of rotation imposed at the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) is modified by the action of meridional currents immediately after the ZAMS, causing the surface rotational velocity to decrease abruptly until it reaches a quasi-stationary state. Aims: We compute stellar models with non-solid rotation at the ZAMS, which allows us to obtain stellar evolutionary tracks with a larger content of angular momentum that rotate close to the breakup limit throughout the whole MS. Methods: We produced stellar models by removing the assumption that stars rotate as solid bodies at the ZAMS. We obtained the stellar structure at the ZAMS with a differentially rotating profile for three different metallicities by performing pre-MS calculations and by proposing ad hoc initial rotational profiles. We then computed the MS evolution and later phases of stellar evolution of these models, which attain rotational equatorial velocities close to the critical limit throughout their whole MS phase. Results: Stellar models with solid rotation at the ZAMS adequately represent the overall characteristics and evolution of differentially rotating models of identical angular momentum content, but with a lower initial surface rotational velocity rate, at Z = 0.014, Z = 0.006, and Z = 0.002. For models with solid rotation at the

  3. Realizing high-quality ultra-large momentum states using semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Campione, Salvatore; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2015-08-05

    We employ both the effective medium approximation (EMA) and Bloch theory to compare the dispersion properties of semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (SHMs) at mid-infrared frequencies and metallic hyperbolic metamaterials (MHMs) at visible frequencies. This analysis reveals the conditions under which the EMA can be safely applied for both MHMs and SHMs. We find that the combination of precise nanoscale layering and the longer infrared operating wavelengths puts the SHMs well within the effective medium limit and, in contrast to MHMs, allows for the attainment of very high photon momentum states. Additionally, SHMs allow for new phenomena such as ultrafast creation ofmore » the hyperbolic manifold through optical pumping. Furthermore, we examine the possibility of achieving ultrafast topological transitions through optical pumping which can photo-dope appropriately designed quantum wells on the femtosecond time scale.« less

  4. Realizing high-quality ultra-large momentum states using semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Campione, Salvatore; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2015-08-05

    We employ both the effective medium approximation (EMA) and Bloch theory to compare the dispersion properties of semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (SHMs) at mid-infrared frequencies and metallic hyperbolic metamaterials (MHMs) at visible frequencies. This analysis reveals the conditions under which the EMA can be safely applied for both MHMs and SHMs. We find that the combination of precise nanoscale layering and the longer infrared operating wavelengths puts the SHMs well within the effective medium limit and, in contrast to MHMs, allows for the attainment of very high photon momentum states. Additionally, SHMs allow for new phenomena such as ultrafast creation of the hyperbolic manifold through optical pumping. Furthermore, we examine the possibility of achieving ultrafast topological transitions through optical pumping which can photo-dope appropriately designed quantum wells on the femtosecond time scale.

  5. Atomic Number Dependence of Hadron Production at Large Transverse Momentum in 300 GeV Proton--Nucleus Collisions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cronin, J. W.; Frisch, H. J.; Shochet, M. J.; Boymond, J. P.; Mermod, R.; Piroue, P. A.; Sumner, R. L.

    1974-07-15

    In an experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory we have compared the production of large transverse momentum hadrons from targets of W, Ti, and Be bombarded by 300 GeV protons. The hadron yields were measured at 90 degrees in the proton-nucleon c.m. system with a magnetic spectrometer equipped with 2 Cerenkov counters and a hadron calorimeter. The production cross-sections have a dependence on the atomic number A that grows with P{sub 1}, eventually leveling off proportional to A{sup 1.1}.

  6. Using Natural Boundary Conditions to Probe the Internal Dynamics of Pyroclastic Flows: Mass, Enthalpy and Momentum Transfer at the Flow-Bed Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufek, J.; Bergantz, G. W.; Manga, M.

    2006-12-01

    The interaction of pyroclastic density currents with their substrate plays a significant role in the transport and deposition of these flows. The basal particle concentration of these flows will ultimately determine the mechanism of mass, enthalpy and momentum transfer and the sensitivity of these flows to bed roughness, topography and even their ability to cross bodies of water. In order to probe the internal structure of these flows we used an Eulerian-Eulerian-Lagrangian (EEL) computational approach coupled with an examination of ignimbrite deposits of the Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT) and the near-shore deposits of the 2003 Montserrat dome collapse (Allen and Cas, 2001; Edmonds and Herd, 2005). In particular, the KPT eruption provides a unique opportunity to compare flows that have traversed a body of water (and thereby filtering out their bed-load) versus flows that have traveled over-land. The examined Montserrat pyroclastic flows also encounter the ocean, and comparison with observations of the recently produced near-shore deposits allow us to access the near-surface energy transfer required to produce the observed steam explosions and the mass transfer necessary to produce tsunami. This coupled deposit-driven and numerical investigation reveals that energy-dissipation at the basal boundary is one of the primary factors determining the run-out distance of pyroclastic flows. A significant portion of the momentum of over-land flows is transported in a bed-load region dominated by numerous particle-particle and particle-boundary interactions. Mass and energy transfer in the near shore environment produce tsunami and steam explosions, which result in preferential fining in the proximal deposits and a source of water vapor to the propagating currents. However, the simulations indicate the internal structure and head of the pyroclastic density current are not significantly impacted by the steam explosions after they have traveled several kilometers away from the shore as

  7. Analysis of the Momentum and Pollutant Transport at the Roof Level of 2D Idealized Street Canyons: a Large-Eddy Simulation Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wai Chi; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the detailed momentum and pollutant transports between urban street canyons and the shear layer, a large-eddy simulation (LES) model was developed to calculate the flow and pollutant dispersion in isothermal conditions. The computational domain consisted of three identical two-dimensional (2D) idealized street canyons of unity aspect ratio. The flow field was assumed to be periodic in the horizontal domain boundaries. The subgrid-scale (SGS) stress was calculated by solving the SGS turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) conservation. An area pollutant source with constant pollutant concentration was prescribed on the ground of all streets. Zero pollutant concentration and an open boundary were applied at the domain inflow and outflow, respectively. The quadrant and budget analyses were employed to examine the momentum and pollutant transports at the roof level of the street canyons. Quadrant analyses of the resolved-scale vertical fluxes of momentum and pollutant along the roof level were performed to compare the contributions of different events/scales to the transport processes. The roof of the street canyon is divided into five segments, namely leeward side, upwind shift, center core, downwind shift and windward side in the streamwise direction. Among the four quadrants considered, the sweeps/ejections, which correspond to the downward/upward motions, dominate the momentum/pollutant transfer. The inward/outward interactions play relatively minor roles. While studying the events in detail, the contribution from the sweeps is mainly large-scale fluctuation compared with that of ejections. Moreover, most of the momentum and pollutant transports take place on the windward side. The strong shear at the roof level initiates instability that in turn promotes the increasing turbulent transport from the leeward side to the windward side. At the same time, the roof-level fluctuations grow linearly in the streamwise direction leading to the

  8. Laboratory investigations of the heat and momentum transfer in the stably stratified air turbulent boundary layer above the wavy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Daniil; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vdovin, Maxim

    2015-04-01

    the spray of droplets generation, especially heat transfer. The work was supported by RFBR grants (14-05-91767, 14-08-31740, 15-35-20953) and RSF grant 14-17-00667 and by President grant for young scientists MK-3550.2014.5 References: 1. Emanuel, K. A. Sensitivity of tropical cyclones to surface exchange coefficients and a revised steady-state model incorporating eye dynamics // J. Atmos. Sci., 52(22), 3969-3976,1995. 2. Brian K. Haus, Dahai Jeong, Mark A. Donelan, Jun A. Zhang, and Ivan Savelyev Relative rates of sea-air heat transfer and frictional drag in very high winds // GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 37, L07802, doi:10.1029/2009GL042206, 2010 3. Yu. I. Troitskaya, D.A. Sergeev, A.A. Kandaurov, G.A Baidakov, M.A. Vdovin, V.I. Kazakov Laboratory and theoretical modeling of air-sea momentum transfer under severe wind conditions // JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 117, C00J21, 13 PP., 2012 doi:10.1029/2011JC007778 4. Yu.I.Troitskaya, D.A.Sergeev, A.A.Kandaurov, M.I. Vdovin, A.A. Kandaurov, E.V.Ezhova, S.S.Zilitinkevich Momentum and buoyancy exchange in a turbulent air boundary layer over a wavy water surface. Part 2. Wind wave spectra // Nonlinear. Geoph. Processes, Vol. 20, P. 841-856, 2013.

  9. High Momentum Transfer Shallow Core-to-valence Spectroscopy in the Actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Subhra Sen; Bradley, J. A.; Haverkort, M. W.; Seidler, G. T.; Sawatzky, G. A.

    2010-03-01

    We calculate the dynamic structure factor S(q,φ) within a renormalized atomic multiplet approach, to describe the 5d->5f non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NIXS) in actinide compounds ThO2 (5f^0) and UO2 (5f^2). For small q, the spectra select the dipole-allowed transitions which are degenerate with continuum states, hindering their use in ground electronic structure determination. However dipole-forbidden multiplets reached with large q are strongly bound to the core-hole, enabling the use of a renormalized atom approach to extract the ground state electronic structure. This crossover from unbound to bound states, reachable by low-q and high-q experiments respectively, is a result of the large multiplet spread of the 5d^95f^N+1 multiplets exceeding the attractive core-hole potential. We discuss the details of the calculations and emphasize the importance of high-q experiments in studies of the ground state electronic structure of actinides.

  10. Large-Eddy Simulation of Heat Transfer from a Single Cube Mounted on a Very Rough Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boppana, V. B. L.; Xie, Zheng-Tong; Castro, Ian P.

    2013-06-01

    The local thermal effects in the wake of a single cube with a strong heated rear face, representing a large building in an urban area, are studied using large-eddy simulations (LES) for various degrees of heating, which are characterized by the local Richardson number, Ri. New wall models are implemented for momentum and temperature and comparison of the flow and thermal fields with the wind-tunnel data of Richards et al. (J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 94, 621-636, 2006) shows fair agreement. Buoyancy effects are quite evident at low Ri and a significant increase in the turbulence levels is observed for such flows. Apart from the comparisons with experiments, further analysis included the estimation of the thermal boundary-layer thickness and heat transfer coefficient for all Ri. For sufficiently strong heating, the heat transfer coefficient at the leeward face is found to be higher than the roof surface. This suggests that, beyond a certain Ri value, buoyancy forces from the former surface dominate the strong streamwise convection of the latter. Quadrant analysis along the shear layer behind the cube showed that the strength of sweeps that contribute to momentum flux is considerably enhanced by heating. The contribution of different quadrants to the heat flux is found to be very different to that of the momentum flux for lower Ri.

  11. Effect of orbital transfer loads on large platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walz, J. E.; Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.; Rehder, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary automated structural sizing procedure suitable for conceptual design and early tradeoff studies of large truss platforms configured for shuttle transportation to LEO is discussed as well as some orbital transfer design considerations. Platforms that are sized to withstand orbital transfer loads for the LEO to GEO maneuver are compared to platforms sized only for LEO application. It is concluded that for platforms supporting low mass distributed payloads, platform and strut frequency requirements are strong design drivers for LEO applications. The struts are found to be extremely slender, thinswalled, and of small diameter. If full advantage is to be taken of these minimum mass designs, a manufacturing capability must be developed for long straight struts. For platforms that are to be transferred from LEO to GEO in a deployed state, the orbital transfer loads become design drivers. However, even for an initial thrust-to-weight ratio equal to 0.1, a platform on the order of 100 m diameter appears packageable with its OTV in one shuttle flight, and larger platforms appear possible at lower thrust-to-weight ratios.

  12. Anisotropic Fermi Couplings due to Large Unquenched Orbital Angular Momentum: Q-band 1H, 14N and 11B ENDOR of bistrispyrazolylborate Co(II)

    PubMed Central

    Myers, William K.; Scholes, Charles P.; Tierney, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We report Q-band ENDOR of 1H, 14N, and 11B at the g|| extreme of the EPR spectrum of bistrispyrazolylborate Co(II), Co(Tp)2 and two structural analogs. This trigonally symmetric, high-spin (hs) S = 3/2 Co(II) complex shows large unquenched ground–state orbital angular momentum, which leads to highly anisotropic electronic g-values [g|| = 8.48, g⊥ = 1.02]. The large g-anisotropy is shown to result in large dipolar couplings near g|| and uniquely anisotropic 14N Fermi couplings, which arise from spin transferred to the nitrogen 2s orbital (2.2 %) via anti-bonding interactions with singly occupied metal dx2−y2 and dz2 orbitals. Large, well-resolved 1H and 11B dipolar couplings were also observed. Taken in concert with our previous X-band ENDOR measurements at g⊥ (Myers, et al, Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 6701–6710), the present data allow a detailed analysis of the dipolar hyperfine tensors of two of the four symmetry distinct protons in the parent molecule. In the substituted analogs, changes in hyperfine coupling due to altered metal-proton distances give further evidence of an anisotropic Fermi contact interaction. For the pyrazolyl 3H proton, the data indicate a 0.2 MHz anisotropic contact interaction and ~ 4 % transfer of spin away from Co(II). Dipolar coupling also dominates for the axial boron atoms, consistent with their distance from the Co(II) ion, and resolved 11B quadrupolar coupling showed ~ 30 % electronic inequivalence between the B-H and B-C sp3 bonds. This is the first comprehensive ENDOR study of any hs Co(II) species and lays the foundation for future development. PMID:19591466

  13. The Effect of Large-Scale Structure on the Formation of Disk Galaxies : Specific Angular Momentum Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between the environment parameters and central surface brightness of disk galaxies in order to study the effect of the large-scale structure on the formation of disk galaxies. In the standard galaxy formation picture, galaxy discs form out of primordial gas due to density fluctuation while conserving its specific angular momentum. The specific angular momentum of the pre-collapse gas is generally assumed to be equal to that of the dark matter, which is acquired by the tidal interactions with the surrounding matter distribution at its proto-halo stage. The difference of specific angular momentum of host dark matter halos is the favored origin for the difference between low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) and high surface brightness galaxies (HSBGs) which results in the different evolutionary paths. We utilize broadband photometry data from Simard et al. (2011) to extract the environment parameters and properties of individual galaxies. We calculate central surface brightness (μ0) for 1,123,718 galaxies based on absolute magnitude of model disk and exponential disk scale lengths in g'- and r'- bands. We convert g'- and r'-band central surface brightnesses into B-band central surface brightness (μ0,B) using conversion from Smith et al. (2002). We classify disk galaxies with μ0,B ≥ 22.5 mag arcsec-2 as LSBGs while ones with μ0,B < 22.7 mag arcsec-2 as HSBGs.Then we compute a surface galaxy number density estimated from the fifth nearest neighbour galaxies (Σ5). We are presenting a preliminary result based on our sample selection process and discussing the future prospect for the studies of disk galaxy formation with current and future facilities.

  14. Excited baryon form-factors at high momentum transfer at CEBAF at higher energies

    SciTech Connect

    Stoler, P.

    1994-04-01

    The possibilities of measuring the properties of excited nucleons at high Q{sup 2} by means of exclusive single meson production at CEBAF with an electron energy of 8 GeV is considered. The motivation is to access short range phenomena in baryon structure, and to investigate the transition from the low Q{sup 2} non-perturbative QCD regime, where constituent quark models are valid, to higher Q{sup 2} where it is believed perturbative QCD plays an increasingly important role. It is found that high quality baryon decay angular distributions can be obtained for the most prominent states up to Q{sup 2} {approximately} 12 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} using a set of moderate resolution, large solid angle magnetic spectrometers.

  15. Electroproduction of π0 at high momentum transfers in non-resonant region with CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubarovskiy, Alex; CLAS Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) offer a new way to access quark and gluon nucleon structure. The nucleon-to-meson transition distribution amplitudes (TDAs) are extensions of the GPD concept to three quark operators. In this talk we report the first preliminary results of studies of the reaction ep → epπ0 using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab with an electron beam energy of 5.75 GeV. Differential cross sections were extracted for 1.5 < Q2 < 4.5 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.6 and -t up to 6.0 GeV2 in non-resonant region (W > 2.0 GeV). Results will be discussed in the framework of a u-channel TDA model.

  16. Large scale oil lease automation and electronic custody transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.R.; Elmer, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Typically, oil field production operations have only been automated at fields with long term production profiles and enhanced recovery. The automation generally consists of monitoring and control at the wellhead and centralized facilities. However, Union Pacific Resources Co. (UPRC) has successfully implemented a large scale automation program for rapid-decline primary recovery Austin Chalk wells where purchasers buy and transport oil from each individual wellsite. This project has resulted in two significant benefits. First, operators are using the system to re-engineer their work processes. Second, an inter-company team created a new electronic custody transfer method. This paper will describe: the progression of the company`s automation objectives in the area; the field operator`s interaction with the system, and the related benefits; the research and development of the new electronic custody transfer method.

  17. Measurement of Momentum Transfer Coefficients for H2, N2, CO, and CO2 Incident Upon Spacecraft Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Steven R.; Hoffbauer, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients were made for gas-surface interactions between the Space Shuttle reaction control jet plume gases and the solar panel array materials to be used on the International Space Station. Actual conditions were simulated using a supersonic nozzle source to produce beams of the gases with approximately the same average velocities as the gases have in the Shuttle plumes. Samples of the actual solar panel materials were mounted on a torsion balance that was used to measure the force exerted on the surfaces by the molecular beams. Measurements were made with H2, N2, CO, and CO2 incident upon the solar array material, Kapton, SiO2-coated Kapton, and Z93-coated Al. The measurements showed that molecules scatter from the surfaces more specularly as the angle of incidence increases and that the scattering behavior has a strong dependence upon both the incident gas and velocity. These results show that for some technical surfaces the simple assumption of diffuse scattering with complete thermal accommodation is entirely inadequate. It is clear that additional measurements are required to produce models that more accurately describe the gas-surface interactions encountered in rarefied flow regimes.

  18. Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients for H2, N2, CO and CO2 incident upon spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, S. R.; Hoffbauer, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients were made for gas-surface interactions between the Space Shuttle reaction control jet plume gases and the solar panel array materials to be used on the International Space Station. Actual conditions were simulated using a supersonic nozzle source to produce beams of the gases with approximately the same average velocities as the gases have in the Shuttle plumes. Samples of the actual solar panel materials were mounted on a torsion balance that was used to measure the force exerted on the surfaces by the molecular beams. Measurements were made with H2, N2, CO, and CO2 incident upon the solar array material, Kapton, SiO2-coated Kapton, and Z93-coated Al. The measurements showed that molecules scatter from the surfaces more specularly as the angle of incidence increases and that scattering behavior has a strong dependence upon both the incident gas and velocity. These results show that for some technical surfaces the simple assumption of diffuse scattering with complete thermal accommodation is entirely inadequate. It is clear that additional measurements are required to produce models that more accurately describe the gas-surface interactions encountered in rarefied flow regimes.

  19. Electroproduction of η Mesons in the S11(1535) Resonance Region at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Mark Macrae

    2008-08-01

    The differential cross-section for the exclusive process p(e, e0p) has been measured at Q2 5.7 and 7.0 (GeV/c)2, which represents the highest momentum transfer measurement of this to date, significantly higher than the previous highest at Q2 3.6 (GeV/c)2. Data was taken for centre-of-mass energies from threshold to 1.8 GeV, encompassing the S11(1535) resonance, which dominates the pη channel. The total cross section is obtained, from which is extracted the helicity-conserving transition amplitude A1/2, for the production of the S11(1535) resonance. This quantity appears to begin scaling as Q-3, a predicted signal of the dominance of perturbative QCD, within the Q2 range of this measurement. No currently available theoretical predictions can account for the behaviour of this quantity over the full measured range of Q2.

  20. Four Momentum Transfer Discrepancy in the Charged Current pi+ Production in the MiniBooNE: Data versus Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Jaroslaw A.; /Louisiana State U.

    2009-09-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment has collected what is currently the world's largest sample of {nu}{sub {mu}} charged current single charged pion (CCl{pi}{sup +}) interactions, roughly 46,000 events. The purity of the CCl{pi}{sup +} sample is 87% making this the purest event sample observed in the MiniBooNE detector. The average energy of neutrinos producing CC{pi}{sup +} interactions in MiniBooNE is about 1 GeV, therefore the study of these events can provide insight into both resonant and coherent pion production processes. In this talk, we will discuss the long-standing discrepancy in four-momentum transfer observed between CC{pi}{sup +} data and existing predictions. Several attempts to address this problem will be presented. Specifically, the Rein-Sehgal model has been extended to include muon mass terms for both resonant and coherent production. Using calculations from, an updated form for the vector form factor has also been adopted. The results of this improved description of CC{pi}{sup +} production will be compared to the high statistics MiniBooNE CC{pi}{sup +} data and several existing parametrizations of the axial vector form factor.

  1. Momentum Transfer Studies and Studies of Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Metal Colloids and Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; Dyer, K.; George, M.; Henderson, D.; Morgan, S.; Mu, R.; Shi, D.; Conner, D; Thompson, E.; Collins, L.; Curry, L.; Mattox, S.; Williams, G.

    1996-01-01

    Phase 1 of this work involved design work on a momentum transfer device. The progress on design and testing will be presented. Phase 2 involved the systematic study of the MPD thruster for dual uses. Though it was designed as a thruster for space vehicles, the characteristics of the plasma make it an excellent candidate for industrial applications. This project sought to characterize the system for use in materials processing and characterization. The surface modification on ZnCdTe, CdTe, and ZnTe will be presented. Phase 3 involved metal colloids and semiconductor quantum dots. One aspect of this project involves a collaborative effort with the Solid State Division of ORNL. The thrust behind this research is to develop ion implantation for synthesizing novel materials (quantum dots wires and wells, and metal colloids) for applications in all optical switching devices, up conversion, and the synthesis of novel refractory materials. The ions of interest are Au, Ag, Cd, Se, In, P, Sb, Ga, and As. The specific materials of interest are: CdSe, CdTe, InAs, GaAs, InP, GaP, InSb, GaSb, and InGaAs. A second aspect of this research program involves using porous glass (25-200 A) for fabricating materials of finite size. The results of some of this work will also be reported.

  2. JLab Measurement of the He4 Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camsonne, A.; Katramatou, A. T.; Olson, M.; Sparveris, N.; Acha, A.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B. D.; Arrington, J.; Baldwin, A.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Craver, B.; Decowski, P.; Dutta, C.; Folts, E.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilman, R.; Gomez, J.; Hahn, B.; Hansen, J.-O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, J.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Kelleher, A.; Khrosinkova, E.; Kievsky, A.; Kuchina, E.; Kumbartzki, G.; Lee, B.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R. A.; Lott, G.; Lu, H.; Marcucci, L. E.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; Meekins, D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Norum, B.; Petratos, G. G.; Puckett, A.; Qian, X.; Rondon, O.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Segal, J.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Solvignon, P.; Subedi, R. R.; Suleiman, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Viviani, M.; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, B. B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    The charge form factor of He4 has been extracted in the range 29 fm-2≤Q2≤77 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering, detecting He4 recoil nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the high resolution spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The measurements have uncovered a second diffraction minimum for the form factor, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment. The data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations based on realistic interactions and accurate methods to solve the few-body problem.

  3. JLab Measurement of the 4He Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Camsonne, Alexandre; Katramatou, A. T.; Olson, M.; Sparveris, Nikolaos; Acha, Armando; Allada, Kalyan; Anderson, Bryon; Arrington, John; Baldwin, Alan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Decowski, Piotr; Dutta, Chiranjib; Folts, Edward; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilman, Ronald; Gomez, Javier; Hahn, Brian; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jian; Iodice, Mauro; Kelleher, Aidan; Khrosinkova, Elena; Kievsky, A.; Kuchina, Elena; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Lee, Byungwuek; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Lott, Gordon; Lu, H.; Marcucci, Laura; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Meekins, David; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Norum, Blaine; Petratos, Gerassimos; Puckett, Andrew; Qian, Xin; Rondon-Aramayo, Oscar; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segal, John; Hashemi, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Subedi, Ramesh; Suleiman, Riad; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Viviani, Michele; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhang, W. -M.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.

    2014-04-01

    The charge form factor of 4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm-2 <= Q2 <= 77 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering, detecting 4He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting.

  4. Measurement of the deuteron elastic structure functions at large momentum transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Kathy McCormick

    1999-08-01

    The cross section for elastic electron-deuteron scattering has been measured using the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Laboratory. Scattered electrons and recoiling deuterons were detected in coincidence in the two 4 GeV/c High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS) of Hall A. The deuteron elastic structure functions A(Q{sup 2}) and B(Q{sup 2}) have been extracted from these data. Results for the measurement of A(Q{sup 2}) in the range of 0.7 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 6.0 (GeV/c){sup 2} are reported. Results for the magnetic structure function, B(Q{sup 2}), are presented in the range of 0.7 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 1.35 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The results for both structure functions are compared to predictions of meson-nucleon based models, both with and without the inclusion of meson-exchange currents. The A(Q{sup 2}) results are compared to predictions of the dimensional scaling quark model and perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The results can provide insights into the transition from meson-nucleon to quark-gluon descriptions of the nuclear two-body system.

  5. Scaling behavior in exclusive meson photoproduction from Jefferson Lab at large momentum transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Biplab

    2014-07-01

    With the availability of new high-statistics and wide-angle measurements for several exclusive non-πN meson photoproduction channels from Jefferson Lab, we examine the fundamental scaling law of 90° scattering in QCD that was originally derived in the high-energy perturbative limit. The data show scaling to be prominently visible even in the medium-energy domain of 2.5 GeV ≲√s≲2.84 GeV, where √s is the center-of-mass energy. While constituent quark exchange suffices for pseudoscalar mesons, additional gluon exchanges from higher Fock states of the hadronic wave functions appear be needed for vector-meson production. Finally, the case of the Φ(1020), where two-gluon exchanges are known to dominate, is especially illuminating.

  6. Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD). Volume 2: Application to a large space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design and set of dynamic equations of a gimbaled AMCD adapted to a Large Space Telescope are presented. Such a system could provide maneuver capability and precision pointing by means of one external gimbal, wheel speed control, and small motions of the rim within the magnetic gap.

  7. Low-momentum-transfer nonrelativistic limit of the relativistic impulse approximation expression for Compton-scattering doubly differential cross sections and characterization of their relativistic contributions

    SciTech Connect

    LaJohn, L. A.

    2010-04-15

    The nonrelativistic (nr) impulse approximation (NRIA) expression for Compton-scattering doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) for inelastic photon scattering is recovered from the corresponding relativistic expression (RIA) of Ribberfors [Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067 (1975)] in the limit of low momentum transfer (q{yields}0), valid even at relativistic incident photon energies {omega}{sub 1}>m provided that the average initial momentum of the ejected electron is not too high, that is, m using nr expressions when {theta} is small. For example, a 1% accuracy can be obtained when {omega}{sub 1}=1 MeV if {theta}<20 deg. However as {omega}{sub 1} increases into the MeV range, the maximum {theta} at which an accurate Compton peak can be obtained from nr expressions approaches closer to zero, because the {theta} at which the relativistic shift of CP to higher energy is greatest, which starts at 180 deg. when {omega}{sub 1}<300 keV, begins to decrease, approaching zero even though the {theta} at which the relativistic increase in the CP magnitude remains greatest around {theta}=180 deg. The relativistic contribution to the prediction of Compton doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) is characterized in simple terms using Ribberfors further approximation to his full RIA expression. This factorable form is given by DDCS=KJ, where K is the kinematic factor and J the Compton profile. This form makes it possible to account for the relativistic shift of CP to higher energy and the increase in the CP magnitude as being due to the dependence of J(p{sub min},{rho}{sub rel}) (where p{sub min} is the relativistic version of the z

  8. Low-momentum-transfer nonrelativistic limit of the relativistic impulse approximation expression for Compton-scattering doubly differential cross sections and characterization of their relativistic contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajohn, L. A.

    2010-04-01

    The nonrelativistic (nr) impulse approximation (NRIA) expression for Compton-scattering doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) for inelastic photon scattering is recovered from the corresponding relativistic expression (RIA) of Ribberfors [Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067 (1975)] in the limit of low momentum transfer (q→0), valid even at relativistic incident photon energies ω1>m provided that the average initial momentum of the ejected electron is not too high, that is, m using nr expressions when θ is small. For example, a 1% accuracy can be obtained when ω1=1MeV if θ<20°. However as ω1 increases into the MeV range, the maximum θ at which an accurate Compton peak can be obtained from nr expressions approaches closer to zero, because the θ at which the relativistic shift of CP to higher energy is greatest, which starts at 180° when ω1<300 keV, begins to decrease, approaching zero even though the θ at which the relativistic increase in the CP magnitude remains greatest around θ=180°. The relativistic contribution to the prediction of Compton doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) is characterized in simple terms using Ribberfors further approximation to his full RIA expression. This factorable form is given by DDCS=KJ, where K is the kinematic factor and J the Compton profile. This form makes it possible to account for the relativistic shift of CP to higher energy and the increase in the CP magnitude as being due to the dependence of J(pmin,ρrel) (where pmin is the relativistic version of the z component of the momentum of the initial electron and ρrel is the relativistic charge density) and K(pmin) on pmin. This characterization approach was used as a guide

  9. Heat and Momentum Transfer on the Rapid Phase Change of Liquid Induced by Nanosecond-Pulsed Laser Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hee Kuwon

    1994-01-01

    technique, and a high-pressure cell. The onset of phase change introduces a strong acoustic signal that is detected by a piezoelectric transducer and a photoacoustic probe. The information on the temperature and pressure development during the vaporization process determines the heat and momentum transfer in the explosive vaporization process. The pressure production mechanisms in the short-pulsed laser-induced vaporization are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the collective bubble growth is an effective momentum transfer mechanism to radiate acoustic energy. It is observed that the thermally driven phase change generates pressure waves in the liquid that trigger subsequent acoustic cavitation. The implications of the thermal nucleation on the following cavitation is studied. It has been found that the metastabilized microscopic bubbles can exist for much longer time than the apparent life time, subsequently enhancing the following acoustic cavitation. As an example of technological application of the phenomenon, a practical laser cleaning technique has been studied. A laser-cleaning tool capable of removing surface contaminants such as submicron-sized particulates and organic films has been constructed and implemented in practical use.

  10. Attitude control/momentum management of the Space Station Freedom for large angle torque-equilibrium-attitude configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    An attitude-control and momentum-management (ACMM) system for the Space Station in a large-angle torque-equilibrium-attitude (TEA) configuration is developed analytically and demonstrated by means of numerical simulations. The equations of motion for a rigid-body Space Station model are outlined; linearized equations for an arbitrary TEA (resulting from misalignment of control and body axes) are derived; the general requirements for an ACMM are summarized; and a pole-placement linear-quadratic regulator solution based on scheduled gains is proposed. Results are presented in graphs for (1) simulations based on configuration MB3 (showing the importance of accounting for the cross-inertia terms in the TEA estimate) and (2) simulations of a stepwise change from configuration MB3 to the 'assembly complete' stage over 130 orbits (indicating that the present ACCM scheme maintains sufficient control over slowly varying Space Station dynamics).

  11. On maneuvering large flexible spacecraft using an annular momentum control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oz, H.; Meirovitch, L.; Montgomery, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    A scheme for the control and maneuvering of a large flexible spacecraft by means of two flexible AMCD's using noncontacting magnetic suspension is presented. The system consists of a flexible vehicle, two flexible rings and a magnetic suspension and driving assembly. The necessary skewing of the rings for maneuvering of the vehicle is accomplished by moving the pairs of magnets along tracks distributed around the circumference of the vehicle. The equations of motion for each subsystem are derived by the Lagrangian approach. Attitude motions are described in terms of quasi-coordinates. For small vehicle angular rates and rings attitude motions, an ordering scheme can be used to separate the equations of motion according to the magnitude of the terms. The ordered equations of motion lead to a linear time-variant optimal control problem for the maneuvering of the spacecraft.

  12. Momentum transfer in the boundary layer when there is acceleration and combustion of ethanol as it evaporates behind a barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarshinov, B.F.; Titkov, V.I.; Fedorov, S.Yu.

    2010-08-15

    Experimental data have been gathered on the local parameters of a boundary layer gas flow with ethanol combustion behind a 3 mm-high rib. These parameters include averaged velocities, temperatures, concentrations of stable substances and OH radicals and mass fluxes on the wall. The temperature and composition of the gases were studied with probe methods (thermocouple and chromatography). To measure the velocity and concentration of radicals, we applied the laser optical measurement methods of LDA and LIF. We propose a way of processing the obtained data utilizing balances in the continuity and motion equations. The influence of incident flow acceleration on the viscous and turbulent shear stresses at the wall and in the volume of the boundary layer has been analyzed to determine the acceleration parameters to be K = (0, 0.7, 1.3, and 4.1) x 10{sup -6}. It is shown that without a longitudinal pressure gradient (K = 0) on the combustion that is behind the rib, OH radicals accumulate with their highest concentrations existing in areas that do not coincide with the flame front and are shifted toward the oxidizer. The main mechanism of momentum transfer is connected to the boundary layer separation. In the presence of acceleration caused by a negative longitudinal pressure gradient, the detachment area does not show up (in experiments with K > 0.7 x 10{sup -6}); shear stresses increase substantially and reach one percent of the dynamic pressure. The general level of turbulent stresses in the reacting boundary layer becomes higher than in the case without acceleration. The incident airflow is also accelerated by the reacting boundary layer in which the maximum velocity is formed. (author)

  13. Understanding the large-distance behavior of transverse-momentum-dependent parton densities and the Collins-Soper evolution kernel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Collins, John; Rogers, Ted

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable controversy about the size and importance of non-perturbative contributions to the evolution of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions. Standard fits to relatively high-energy Drell-Yan data give evolution that when taken to lower Q is too rapid to be consistent with recent data in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering. Some authors provide very different forms for TMD evolution, even arguing that non-perturbative contributions at large transverse distance bT are not needed or are irrelevant. Here, we systematically analyze the issues, both perturbative and non-perturbative. We make a motivated proposal for the parameterization of the non-perturbative part ofmore » the TMD evolution kernel that could give consistency: with the variety of apparently conflicting data, with theoretical perturbative calculations where they are applicable, and with general theoretical non-perturbative constraints on correlation functions at large distances. We propose and use a scheme- and scale-independent function A(bT) that gives a tool to compare and diagnose different proposals for TMD evolution. We also advocate for phenomenological studies of A(bT) as a probe of TMD evolution. The results are important generally for applications of TMD factorization. In particular, they are important to making predictions for proposed polarized Drell- Yan experiments to measure the Sivers function.« less

  14. Understanding the large-distance behavior of transverse-momentum-dependent parton densities and the Collins-Soper evolution kernel

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, John; Rogers, Ted

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable controversy about the size and importance of non-perturbative contributions to the evolution of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions. Standard fits to relatively high-energy Drell-Yan data give evolution that when taken to lower Q is too rapid to be consistent with recent data in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering. Some authors provide very different forms for TMD evolution, even arguing that non-perturbative contributions at large transverse distance bT are not needed or are irrelevant. Here, we systematically analyze the issues, both perturbative and non-perturbative. We make a motivated proposal for the parameterization of the non-perturbative part of the TMD evolution kernel that could give consistency: with the variety of apparently conflicting data, with theoretical perturbative calculations where they are applicable, and with general theoretical non-perturbative constraints on correlation functions at large distances. We propose and use a scheme- and scale-independent function A(bT) that gives a tool to compare and diagnose different proposals for TMD evolution. We also advocate for phenomenological studies of A(bT) as a probe of TMD evolution. The results are important generally for applications of TMD factorization. In particular, they are important to making predictions for proposed polarized Drell- Yan experiments to measure the Sivers function.

  15. Transition from downward to upward air-sea momentum transfer in swell-dominated light wind condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Högström, Ulf; Rutgersson, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric and surface wave data from two oceanic experiments carried out on FLIP and ASIS platforms are analysed in order to identify swell-related effects on the momentum exchange during low wind speed conditions. The RED experiment was carried out on board an R/P Floating Instrument Platform, FLIP, anchored north east of the Hawaiian island Oahu with sonic anemometers at four levels: 5.1 m, 6.9 m, 9.9 m and 13.8 m respectively. The meteorological conditions were characterized by north- easterly trade wind and with swell present during most of the time. During swell the momentum flux was directed downwards meaning a positive contribution to the stress. The FETCH experiment was carried out in the Gulf of Lion in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. On the ASIS (air-sea interaction spar) buoy a sonic anemometer was mounted at 7 m above the mean surface level. During strong swell conditions the momentum flux was directed upwards meaning a negative contribution to the stress in this case. The downward momentum flux is shown to be a function of the orbital circulation while the upward momentum flux is a function of wave height. The dividing wind speed is found to be 3.5 m/s Conclusion: Wind speed > 3.5 m/s creates waves (ripples) and thus roughness. Combination of orbital motion and asymmetric structure of ripples lead to flow perturbation and downward transport of negative momentum. With low wind speed (no ripples but viscosity) circulations will form above the crest and the trough with opposite direction which will cause a pressure drop in the vertical direction and an upward momentum transport from the water to the air.

  16. Transfer of momentum from different arm segments to a light movable target during a straight punch thrown by expert boxers.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Genki; Iino, Yoichi; Imura, Akiko; Kojima, Takeji

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the reductions in momentum of punching arm segments and the impulse of the impact force when boxers throw a punch at a movable target with a mass almost equal to that of the human head. Nine male expert collegiate boxers threw a rear-hand straight punch at the target with their full effort. The reductions in momentum of the upper arm, forearm and fist plus glove of the punching arm during impact and the impulse were determined using a motion capture system and an accelerometer attached to the target. The reduction in momentum of the punching arm explained approximately 95% of the impulse: 40%, 35% and 20% for the upper arm, forearm and fist plus glove, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the peak and impulse of the impact force was 0.902. These results suggest that for boxers increasing the momentum of the punching arm rather than that of the other body segments immediately before the impact is effective at increasing the impulse of the punch into the face of an opponent. PMID:24404907

  17. Estimation of turbulent sensible heat and momentum fluxes over a heterogeneous urban area using a large aperture scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jun-Ho; Kim, Bo-Young

    2015-08-01

    The accurate determination of surface-layer turbulent fluxes over urban areas is critical to understanding urban boundary layer (UBL) evolution. In this study, a remote-sensing technique using a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was investigated to estimate surface-layer turbulent fluxes over a highly heterogeneous urban area. The LAS system, with an optical path length of 2.1 km, was deployed in an urban area characterized by a complicated land-use mix (residential houses, water body, bare ground, etc.). The turbulent sensible heat ( Q H) and momentum fluxes (τ) were estimated from the scintillation measurements obtained from the LAS system during the cold season. Three-dimensional LAS footprint modeling was introduced to identify the source areas ("footprint") of the estimated turbulent fluxes. The analysis results showed that the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes for the highly heterogeneous urban area revealed reasonable temporal variation during daytime on clear days, in comparison to the land-surface process-resolving numerical modeling. A series of sensitivity tests indicated that the overall uncertainty in the LAS-derived daytime Q H was within 20%-30% in terms of the influence of input parameters and the nondimensional similarity function for the temperature structure function parameter, while the estimation errors in τ were less sensitive to the factors of influence, except aerodynamic roughness length. The 3D LAS footprint modeling characterized the source areas of the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes in the heterogeneous urban area, revealing that the representative spatial scales of the LAS system deployed with the 2.1 km optical path distance ranged from 0.2 to 2 km2 (a "micro- a scale"), depending on local meteorological conditions.

  18. Magnetic Co@g-C3N4 Core-Shells on rGO Sheets for Momentum Transfer with Catalytic Activity toward Continuous-Flow Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shasha; Han, Guosheng; Su, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yanyan; Wu, Xianli; Li, Baojun

    2016-06-28

    Magnetic core-shell structures provide abundant opportunities for the construction of multifunctional composites. In this article, magnetic core-shells were fabricated with Co nanoparticles (NPs) as cores and g-C3N4 as shells. In the fabrication process, the Co@g-C3N4 core-shells were anchored onto the rGO nanosheets to form a Co@g-C3N4-rGO composite (CNG-I). For hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH4 or NH3BH3, the Co NP cores act as catalytic active sites. The g-C3N4 shells protect Co NPs cores from aggregating or growing. The connection between Co NPs and rGO was strengthened by the g-C3N4 shells to prevent them from leaching or flowing away. The g-C3N4 shells also work as a cocatalyst for hydrogen generation. The magnetism of Co NPs and the shape of rGO nanosheets achieve effective momentum transfer in the external magnetic field. In the batch reactor, a higher catalytic activity was obtained for CNG-I in self-stirring mode than in magneton stirring mode. In the continuous-flow process, stable hydrogen generation was carried out with CNG-I being fixed and propelled by the external magnetic field. The separation film is unnecessary because of magnetic momentum transfer. This idea of the composite design and magnetic momentum transfer will be useful for the development of both hydrogen generation and multifunctional composite materials. PMID:27276187

  19. Tensor polarization in elastic electron-deuteron scattering in the momentum transfer range 3. 8[le][ital Q][le]4. 6 fm[sup [minus]1

    SciTech Connect

    Garcon, M.; Arvieux, J.; Beck, D.H.; Beise, E.J.; Boudard, A.; Cairns, E.B.; Cameron, J.M.; Dodson, G.W.; Dow, K.A.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fielding, H.W.; Flanz, J.B.; Goloskie, R.; Hoibraten, S.; Jourdan, J.; Kowalski, S.; Lapointe, C.; McDonald, W.J.; Nia, B.; Pham, L.D.; Redwine, R.P.; Rodning, N.L.; Roy, G.; Schulze, M.E.; Souder, P.A.; Soukup, J.; The, I.; Turchinetz, W.E.; Williamson, C.F.; Wilson, K.E.; Wood, S.A.; Ziegler, W. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois 61820 Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Service de Physique Nucleaire, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Laboratoire National Saturne, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Syracuse University, Syracuse, New

    1994-05-01

    The tensor polarization of the recoil deuteron in elastic electron-deuteron scattering has been measured at the Bates Linear Accelerator Center at three values of four-momentum transfer [ital Q]=3.78, 4.22, and 4.62 fm[sup [minus]1], corresponding to incident electron energies of 653, 755, and 853 MeV. The scattered electrons and the recoil deuterons were detected in coincidence. The recoil deuterons were transported to a liquid hydrogen target to undergo a second scattering. The angular distribution of the [ital [rvec d

  20. Measurement of tensor polarization in elastic electron-deuteron scattering in the momentum-transfer range 3. 8 le q le 4. 6 fm sup minus 1

    SciTech Connect

    The, I.; Arvieux, J.; Beck, D.H.; Beise, E.J.; Boudard, A.; Cairns, E.B.; Cameron, J.M.; Dodson, G.W.; Dow, K.A.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fielding, H.W.; Flanz, J.B.; Garcon, M.; Goloskie, R.; Hoibraten, S.; Jourdan, J.; Kowalski, S.; Lapointe, C.; McDonald, W.J.; Ni, B.; Pham, L.D.; Redwine, R.P.; Rodning, N.L.; Roy, G.; Schulze, M.E.; Souder, P.A.; Soukup, J.; Turchinetz, W.E.; Williamson, C.F.; Wilson, K.E.; Wood, S.A.; Ziegler, W. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Departement de Physique Nucleaire-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 Laboratoire National Saturne, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13210 University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois 61820 Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609)

    1991-07-08

    The tensor polarization {ital t}{sub 20} of the recoil deuteron in elastic {ital e}-{ital d} scattering has been measured for three values of four-momentum transfer, {ital q}=3.78, 4.22, and 4.62 fm{sup {minus}1}. The data have been used to locate the first node in the charge monopole form factor of the deuteron at {ital q}=4.39{plus minus}0.16 fm{sup {minus}1}. The results for {ital t}{sub 20} are in reasonable agreement with expectations based on the nucleon-meson description of nuclear dynamics.

  1. Measurements of the proton elastic-form-factor ratio mu pG p E/G p M at low momentum transfer.

    PubMed

    Ron, G; Glister, J; Lee, B; Allada, K; Armstrong, W; Arrington, J; Beck, A; Benmokhtar, F; Berman, B L; Boeglin, W; Brash, E; Camsonne, A; Calarco, J; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Coman, L; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; Dumas, J; Dutta, C; Feuerbach, R; Freyberger, A; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Ilieva, Y; de Jager, C W; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Markowitz, P; May-Tal Beck, S; McCullough, E; Meekins, D; Meziane, M; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B E; Oh, Y; Olson, M; Paolone, M; Paschke, K; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Pomatsalyuk, R; Pomerantz, I; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R; Reyhan, M; Roche, J; Rousseau, Y; Saha, A; Sarty, A J; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Shneor, R; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Song, J; Sparks, R; Subedi, R; Strauch, S; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhan, X; Zhu, X

    2007-11-16

    High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, mu pG p E/G p M, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to G p E being smaller than expected. PMID:18233135

  2. Transfer of spin angular momentum from Cs vapor to nearby Cs salts through laser-induced spin currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, K.; Patton, B.; Olsen, B. A.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2011-06-01

    Optical pumping of alkali-metal atoms in vapor cells causes spin currents to flow to the cell walls where excess angular momentum accumulates in the wall nuclei. Experiments reported here indicate that the substantial enhancement of the nuclear-spin polarization of salts at the cell walls is primarily due to the nuclear-spin current, with a lesser contribution from the electron-spin current of the vapor.

  3. Transfer of spin angular momentum from Cs vapor to nearby Cs salts through laser-induced spin currents

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, K.; Patton, B.; Olsen, B. A.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2011-06-15

    Optical pumping of alkali-metal atoms in vapor cells causes spin currents to flow to the cell walls where excess angular momentum accumulates in the wall nuclei. Experiments reported here indicate that the substantial enhancement of the nuclear-spin polarization of salts at the cell walls is primarily due to the nuclear-spin current, with a lesser contribution from the electron-spin current of the vapor.

  4. Partonic orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Shahveh, Abolfazl

    2013-04-01

    Ji's decomposition of nucleon spin is used and the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluon are calculated. We have utilized the so called valon model description of the nucleon in the next to leading order. It is found that the average orbital angular momentum of quarks is positive, but small, whereas that of gluon is negative and large. Individual quark flavor contributions are also calculated. Some regularities on the total angular momentum of the quarks and gluon are observed.

  5. Risk-based analytical method transfer: application to large multi-product transfers.

    PubMed

    Raska, Christina S; Bennett, Tony S; Goodberlet, Scott A

    2010-07-15

    As pharmaceutical companies adapt their business models, a new approach to analytical method transfer is needed to efficiently handle transfers of multiple products, associated with situations such as site consolidations/closures. Using the principles of risk management, a risk-based method transfer approach is described, which defines appropriate transfer activities based on a risk assessment of the methods and experience of the receiving unit. A key step in the process is detailed knowledge transfer from the transferring unit to the receiving unit. The amount of transfer testing required can be streamlined or eliminated on the basis of a number of factors, including method capability, receiving unit familiarity, and method past performance. PMID:20557030

  6. Electromagnetic momentum conservation in media

    SciTech Connect

    Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen A.

    2011-03-15

    That static electric and magnetic fields can store momentum may be perplexing, but is necessary to ensure total conservation of momentum. Simple situations in which such field momentum is transferred to nearby bodies and point charges have often been considered for pedagogical purposes, normally assuming vacuum surroundings. If dielectric media are involved, however, the analysis becomes more delicate, not least since one encounters the electromagnetic energy-momentum problem in matter, the 'Abraham-Minkowski enigma', of what the momentum is of a photon in matter. We analyze the momentum balance in three nontrivial examples obeying azimuthal symmetry, showing how the momentum conservation is satisfied as the magnetic field decays and momentum is transferred to bodies present. In the last of the examples, that of point charge outside a dielectric sphere in an infinite magnetic field, we find that not all of the field momentum is transferred to the nearby bodies; a part of the momentum appears to vanish as momentum flux towards infinity. We discuss this and other surprising observations which can be attributed to the assumption of magnetic fields of infinite extent. We emphasize how formal arguments of conserved quantities cannot determine which energy-momentum tensor is more 'correct', and each of our conservation checks may be performed equally well in the Minkowski or Abraham framework.

  7. Diffuse x-ray scattering from short-period W/C multilayers at in-plane momentum transfers 0.10-0.17 {angstrom}{sup -1}.

    SciTech Connect

    Headrick, R. L.; Liu, C. L.; Macrander, A. T.

    1999-04-20

    X-ray scattering measurements at 10 keV from multilayers having a period of 24.8 {angstrom} and consisting of 100 W/C bilayers are reported. Specular scans revealed first-order reflectivities in the range 73.5% to 78.0% with bandpasses in the range of 1.5% to 1.7%. Total roughness (or interface grading) values deduced from fitting to the specular data only were in the range 2.5 to 3.0 {angstrom} for the last-to-grow surface of the W layers. Diffuse scattering measurements were made in a geometry that permitted investigation of in-plane momentum transfers up to 0.17 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1}. This is roughly an order of magnitude larger than is possible in conventional rocking scans. Reasonable fitting results were obtained for an in-plane correlation function that has a Fourier transform proportional to exp(-vq{sub y}{sup 2}{vert_bar}z{sub i}-z{sub j}{vert_bar}), where z{sub i}-z{sub j} is the average separation between the i{sup th} and j{sup th} interfaces and q{sub y} is the in-plane momentum transfer.

  8. Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J. Da; Via, C. Da; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Simone, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Ecker, K. M.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Engelmann, R.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Glonti, G. L.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guttman, N.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmes, T. R.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Inamaru, Y.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jacques, T. D.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R. W.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khodinov, A.; Khomich, A.; Khoo, T. J.; Khoriauli, G.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, H.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, R. S. B.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M. H.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P. F.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kogan, L. A.; Kohlmann, S.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Koi, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Koletsou, I.; Komar, A. 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B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinksa, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Denis, R. D. St.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-07-01

    Results of a search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum are reported. The search uses 20.3 fb of TeV data collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events are required to have at least one jet with GeV and no leptons. Nine signal regions are considered with increasing missing transverse momentum requirements between GeV and GeV. Good agreement is observed between the number of events in data and Standard Model expectations. The results are translated into exclusion limits on models with either large extra spatial dimensions, pair production of weakly interacting dark matter candidates, or production of very light gravitinos in a gauge-mediated supersymmetric model. In addition, limits on the production of an invisibly decaying Higgs-like boson leading to similar topologies in the final state are presented.

  9. Transferred metal electrode films for large-area electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jin-Guo; Kam, Fong-Yu; Chua, Lay-Lay

    2014-11-10

    The evaporation of metal-film gate electrodes for top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) limits the minimum thickness of the polymer gate dielectric to typically more than 300 nm due to deep hot metal atom penetration and damage of the dielectric. We show here that the self-release layer transfer method recently developed for high-quality graphene transfer is also capable of giving high-quality metal thin-film transfers to produce high-performance capacitors and OFETs with superior dielectric breakdown strength even for ultrathin polymer dielectric films. Dielectric breakdown strengths up to 5–6 MV cm{sup −1} have been obtained for 50-nm thin films of polystyrene and a cyclic olefin copolymer TOPAS{sup ®} (Zeon). High-quality OFETs with sub-10 V operational voltages have been obtained this way using conventional polymer dielectrics and a high-mobility polymer semiconductor poly[2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophene-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2,5-diyl]. The transferred metal films can make reliable contacts without damaging ultrathin polymer films, self-assembled monolayers and graphene, which is not otherwise possible from evaporated or sputtered metal films.

  10. MESSENGER Observations of Large Flux Transfer Events at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Wu, Chin-Chun; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William E.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Travnicek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Six flux transfer events (FTEs) were encountered during MESSENGER's first two flybys of Mercury (M1 and M2). For M1 the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was predominantly northward and four FTEs with durations of 1 to 6 s were observed in the magnetosheath following southward IMF turnings. The IMF was steadily southward during M2, and an FTE 4 s in duration was observed just inside the dawn magnetopause followed approx. 32 s later by a 7 s FTE in the magnetosheath. Flux rope models were fit to the magnetic field data to determine FTE dimensions and flux content. The largest FTE observed by MESSENGER had a diameter of approx. 1 R(sub M) (where R(sub M) is Mercury s radius), and its open magnetic field increased the fraction of the surface exposed to the solar wind by 10 - 20 percent and contributed up to approx. 30 kV to the cross-magnetospheric electric potential.

  11. MESSENGER Observations of Large Flux Transfer Events at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Wu, Chin-Chun; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William E.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Travnicek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Six flux transfer events (FTEs) were encountered during MESSENGER's first two flybys of Mercury (MI and M2). For MI the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was predominantly northward and four FTEs with durations of 1 to 6 s were observed in the magnetosheath following southward 1M F turnings. The IMF was steadily southward during M2, and an FTE 4 s in duration was observed just inside the dawn magnetopause followed approx.32 s later by a 7-s FTE in the magnetosheath. Flux rope models were fit to the magnetic field data to detem11ne PTE dimensions and flux content The largest FTE observed by MESSENGER had a diameter of approx. 1 R(sub M) (where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius), and its open magnetic field increased the fraction of the surface exposed to the solar wind by 10 - 20 percent and contributed up to approx.30 kV to the cross-magnetospheric electric potential.

  12. Controls on gas transfer velocities in a large river

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emission of biogenic gases from large rivers can be an important component of regional greenhouse gas budgets. However, emission rate estimates are often poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the air-water gas exchange rate. We used the floating chamber method to estim...

  13. 27 CFR 478.40a - Transfer and possession of large capacity ammunition feeding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Transfer and possession of... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.40a Transfer and possession of large capacity ammunition feeding devices. (a) Prohibition. No person shall...

  14. 27 CFR 478.40a - Transfer and possession of large capacity ammunition feeding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transfer and possession of... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.40a Transfer and possession of large capacity ammunition feeding devices. (a) Prohibition. No person shall...

  15. Search for new phenomena in final states with large jet multiplicities and missing transverse momentum at TeV proton-proton collisions using the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O. L.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brost, E.; Brown, G.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Caso, C.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, K.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. 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N.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M. S.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-10-01

    A search is presented for new particles decaying to large numbers (7 or more) of jets, with missing transverse momentum and no isolated electrons or muons. This analysis uses 20.3 fb-1 of pp collision data at TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The sensitivity of the search is enhanced by considering the number of b-tagged jets and the scalar sum of masses of large-radius jets in an event. No evidence is found for physics beyond the Standard Model. The results are interpreted in the context of various simplified supersymmetry-inspired models where gluinos are pair produced, as well as an mSUGRA/CMSSM model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Transferred large area single crystal MoS2 field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choong Hee; McCulloch, William; Lee, Edwin W.; Ma, Lu; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Hwang, Jinwoo; Wu, Yiying; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    Transfer of epitaxial, two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 on sapphire grown via synthetic approaches is a prerequisite for practical device applications. We report centimeter-scale, single crystal, synthesized MoS2 field effect transistors (FETs) transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates, with a field-effect mobility of 4.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is among the highest mobility values reported for the transferred large-area MoS2 transistors. We demonstrate simple and clean transfer of large-area MoS2 films using deionized water, which can effectively avoid chemical contamination. The transfer method reported here allows standard i-line stepper lithography process to realize multiple devices over the entire film area.

  17. Phenomenological manifestations of large-curvature tunneling in hydride-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kreevoy, M.M.; Ostovic, D.; Truhlar, D.G.; Garrett, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    An important consequence of recent dynamical theories of tunneling is that, because of large curvature of the reaction path in a typical H(+), or H(-) transfer, light-isotope transfer occurs in more extended nuclear frameworks than heavy-isotope transfer. This is now incorporated into the Marcus phenomenological theory relating reaction rate constants to equilibrium constants. It leads to Bronsted slope parameters that depend on the isotope transferred. The new theoretical formulation is tested on experimental data for hydride and deuteride transfer between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide analogs and on computational data for hydrogen-atom and deuterium atom transfer between pseudo-atoms. The experimental kinetic isotope effects (KIE's) are shown to vary with reaction equilibrium constant (K/sub ij/) in a way that is quantitatively consistent with the theory. The critical configurations generated by the calculations vary from the saddle point and from each other in the way anticipated by the theory. However, the calculated KIE values are a rather scattered function of K/sub ij/, because the tunneling corrections are large and somewhat system specific. Overall, we believe that this combination of experimental and calculated results provides considerable support for the idea that large-curvature results provides considerable support for the idea that large-curvature tunneling needs to be considered in hydrogen transfer reactions.

  18. Large aperture deformable mirror with a transferred single-crystal silicon membrane actuated using large-stroke PZT Unimorph Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hishinumat, Yoshikazu; Yang, Eui - Hyeok (EH)

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated a large aperture (50 mm x 50 mm) continuous membrane deformable mirror (DM) with a large-stroke piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. The DM consists of a continuous, large aperture, silicon membrane 'transferred' in its entirety onto a 20 x 20 piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. A PZT unimorph actuator, 2.5 mm in diameter with optimized PZT/Si thickness and design showed a deflection of 5.7 [m at 20V. An assembled DM showed an operating frequency bandwidth of 30 kHz and influence function of approximately 30%.

  19. Energy transfers in large-scale and small-scale dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Kumar, Rohit; Verma, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    We present the energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers in small-scale dynamo (SSD) and large-scale dynamo (LSD) using numerical simulations of MHD turbulence for Pm = 20 (SSD) and for Pm = 0.2 on 10243 grid. For SSD, we demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers move towards lower wavenumbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason for the growth of the magnetic fields at the large scales. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. For LSD, we show that the magnetic energy growth takes place via energy transfers from large-scale velocity field to large-scale magnetic field. We observe forward U2U and B2B energy flux, similar to SSD.

  20. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  1. E2 strengths and transition radii difference of one-phonon 2+ states of 92Zr from electron scattering at low momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeid, A. Scheikh; Burda, O.; Chernykh, M.; Krugmann, A.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Pietralla, N.; Poltoratska, I.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Walz, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mixed-symmetry 2+ states in vibrational nuclei are characterized by a sign change between dominant proton and neutron valence-shell components with respect to the fully symmetric 2+ state. The sign can be measured by a decomposition of proton and neutron transition radii with a combination of inelastic electron and hadron scattering [C. Walz , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.062501 106, 062501 (2011)]. For the case of 92Zr, a difference could be experimentally established for the neutron components, while about equal proton transition radii were indicated by the data.Purpose: Determination of the ground-state (g.s.) transition strength of the mixed-symmetry 22+ state and verification of the expected vanishing of the proton transition radii difference between the one-phonon 2+ states in 92Zr.Method: Differential cross sections for the excitation of one-phonon 2+ and 3- states in 92Zr have been measured with the (e,e') reaction at the S-DALINAC in a momentum transfer range q≃0.3-0.6 fm-1.Results: Transition strengths B(E2;21+→01+)=6.18(23), B(E2;22+→01+)=3.31(10), and B(E3;31-→01+)=18.4(1.1) Weisskopf units are determined from a comparison of the experimental cross sections to quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM) calculations. It is shown that a model-independent plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) analysis can fix the ratio of B(E2) transition strengths to the 21,2+ states with a precision of about 1%. The method furthermore allows to extract their proton transition radii difference. With the present data ΔR=-0.12(51) fm is obtained.Conclusions: Electron scattering at low momentum transfers can provide information on transition radii differences of one-phonon 2+ states even in heavy nuclei. Proton transition radii for the 21,2+ states in 92Zr are found to be identical within uncertainties. The g.s. transition probability for the mixed-symmetry state can be determined with high precision limited only by the available

  2. Primary-energy dependence of the momentum transfer in reflection inner-shell-electron energy-loss spectra of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Youichi

    1987-11-01

    Sulfur L2.3 and titanium L2.3 and M2.3 inner-shell-electron energy-loss spectra in 1T-TiS2, 1T-TiSe2, 2H-TaS2, and 2H-MoS2 have been measured at various primary energies in the reflection mode. A remarkable primary-energy dependence is found. As the primary energy decreases, the first peak that is assigned to the unoccupied t2g band for the 1T compounds & band for 2H-TaS2 increases in intensity relative to the second peak. The peak positions are almost unchanged. They are in agreement with those of band-structure calculations and x-ray absorption spectra. The primary-energy dependence has been discussed mainly in terms of the breakdown of dipole selection rules due to momentum transfer involved in the inelastic scattering process and anisotropy in electronic structures.

  3. Momentum-transfer, differential and spin-exchange cross sections in the elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by heavy alkali-metal atoms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrim, Cristian; Thumm, Uwe; Fabrikant, Ilya I.

    2000-06-01

    Based on the relativistic Dirac R-matrix method, we analyze various angle-dependent cross sections for electron scattering by Rb, Cs and Fr targets at energies below 3 eV. We show our angle-dependent and total spin-exchange cross sections for scattering of non-polarized (or polarized) electrons by polarized (or non-polarized) Rb, Cs and Fr targets, and we compare them with available experimental data (B. Jaduszliwer, N.D. Bhaskar, and B. Bederson Phys.Rev. A 14), 162 (1976).. The influence of relativistic effects is discussed. From the energy and angular dependence analysis of the differential cross section, we obtain clear evidence of the Cs^-(^3F^o) shape resonance at 1.528 eV, in excellent agreement with accurate experiments (W. Gehenn and E. Reichert, J.Phys. B 10), 3105 (1977).. We compare our electron momentum-transfer cross section with available data obtained in swarm experiments for Rb (Y. Nakamura, Trans. IEE of Japan 102-A), 23 (1982). and Cs (H.T. Saelee and J. Lucas, J.Phys. D 12), 1275 (1979)..

  4. Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients for H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} incident upon spacecraft surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, S.R.; Hoffbauer, M.A.

    1997-07-16

    Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients were made for gas-surface interactions between the Space Shuttle reaction control jet plume gases and the solar panel array materials to be used on the International Space Station. Actual conditions were simulated using a supersonic nozzle source to produce beams of the gases with approximately the same average velocities as the gases have in the Shuttle plumes. Samples of the actual solar panel materials were mounted on a torsion balance that was used to measure the force exerted on the surfaces by the molecular beams. Measurements were made with H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} incident upon the solar array material, Kapton, SiO{sub 2}-coated Kapton, and Z93-coated Al. The measurements showed that molecules scatter from the surfaces more specularly as the angle of incidence increases and that scattering behavior has a strong dependence upon both the incident gas and velocity. These results show that for some technical surfaces the simple assumption of diffuse scattering with complete thermal accommodation is entirely inadequate. It is clear that additional measurements are required to produce models that more accurately describe the gas-surface interactions encountered in rarefied flow regimes.

  5. Anomalous momentum and energy transfer rates for electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence in downward auroral-current regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. III

    SciTech Connect

    Jasperse, John R.; Basu, Bamandas; Lund, Eric J.; Grossbard, Neil

    2010-06-15

    Recently, a new multimoment fluid theory was developed for inhomogeneous, nonuniformly magnetized plasma in the guiding-center and gyrotropic approximation that includes the effect of electrostatic, turbulent, wave-particle interactions (see Jasperse et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 072903 (2006); ibid.13, 112902 (2006)]). In the present paper, which is intended as a sequel, it is concluded from FAST satellite data that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence that appears is due to the operation of an electron, bump-on-tail-driven ion-cyclotron instability for downward currents in the long-range potential region of the Earth's magnetosphere. Approximate closed-form expressions for the anomalous momentum and energy transfer rates for the ion-cyclotron turbulence are obtained. The turbulent, inhomogeneous, nonuniformly magnetized, multimoment fluid theory given above, in the limit of a turbulent, homogeneous, uniformly magnetized, quasisteady plasma, yields the well-known formula for the anomalous resistivity given by Gary and Paul [Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 1097 (1971)] and Tange and Ichimaru [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 36, 1437 (1974)].

  6. Complete and incomplete momentum transfer components in the [sup nat]Si([sup 16]O,[ital X]) reaction at 96. 4, 112. 4, and 127. 8 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Zingarelli, R.A.; Dennis, L.C.; Tiede, M.A.; Kline, R.C.; Kemper, K.W.; Mitchell, S.V. )

    1993-08-01

    Angular distributions and inclusive energy spectra of isotopes with masses 23--41 were measured for the reaction [sup nat]Si([sup 16]O,[ital X]) at bombarding energies of 96.4, 112.4, and 127.8 MeV. Complete and incomplete projectile momentum transfer components of the resulting velocity distributions were separated by kinematic transforms which rely on an angular distribution function fitted to the data using center-of-mass frame symmetry conditions. Characteristics of the extracted complete momentum transfer component spectra, mass distributions, and laboratory frame angular distributions are consistent with fusion-evaporation models. Comparison with the Glas-Mosel parametrization and predictions for the angular momentum barrier to fusion indicate that at 112.4 and 127.8 MeV, competing entrance channel processes, rather than compound nucleus formation limits, restrict the fusion cross section. Spectra and cross sections of the incomplete momentum transfer component are consistent with sequential two-body breakup/fusion calculations.

  7. Complete and incomplete momentum transfer components in the natSi(16O,X) reaction at 96.4, 112.4, and 127.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingarelli, R. A.; Dennis, L. C.; Tiede, M. A.; Kline, R. C.; Kemper, K. W.; Mitchell, S. V.

    1993-08-01

    Angular distributions and inclusive energy spectra of isotopes with masses 23-41 were measured for the reaction natSi(16O,X) at bombarding energies of 96.4, 112.4, and 127.8 MeV. Complete and incomplete projectile momentum transfer components of the resulting velocity distributions were separated by kinematic transforms which rely on an angular distribution function fitted to the data using center-of-mass frame symmetry conditions. Characteristics of the extracted complete momentum transfer component spectra, mass distributions, and laboratory frame angular distributions are consistent with fusion-evaporation models. Comparison with the Glas-Mosel parametrization and predictions for the angular momentum barrier to fusion indicate that at 112.4 and 127.8 MeV, competing entrance channel processes, rather than compound nucleus formation limits, restrict the fusion cross section. Spectra and cross sections of the incomplete momentum transfer component are consistent with sequential two-body breakup/fusion calculations.

  8. Integrated test rig for tether hardware, real-time simulator and control algorithms: Robust momentum transfer validated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijff, Michiel; van der Heide, Erik Jan

    2001-02-01

    In preparation of the ESA demonstration mission for a tethered sample return capability from ISS, a breadboard test has been performed to validate the robust StarTrack tether dynamics control algorithms in conjunction with the constructed hardware. The proposed mission will use hardware inherited from the YES mission (Kruijff, 1999). A tether spool is holding a 7 kg, 35 km Dyneema tether. A 45 kg re-entry capsule will be ejected by springs and then deployed by gravity gradient. The dynamics are solely controlled by a barberpole type friction brake, similar to the SEDS hardware. This hardware is integrated in a test rig, based on the TMM&M stand, that has been upgraded to accommodate both a Space Part (abruptly applied initial tether deployment speed, fine tensiometer, real-time space tether simulator using the tensiometer measurements as input, take-up roller deploying the tether at a simulator-controlled speed) and a Satellite Part (infra-red beams inside the tether canister, control computer estimating deployed length and required extra braking from the IRED interrupts, `barberpole' friction brake). So the set-up allows for a tether deployment with closed loop control, all governed by a real-time comprehensive tether dynamics simulation. The tether deployment is based on the two-stage StarTrack deployment. This scheme stabilizes the tether at an intermediate vertical stage (with 3 km deployed). When the orbit and landing site have synchronized, a high-speed deployment follows to a large angle. When the fully deployed 35-km tether swings to the vertical at approximately 40 m/s, it is cut at a prefixed time optimized for landing site accuracy. The paper discusses the tests performed to characterize the designed hardware, maturing of the developed algorithms with respect to the hardware noise levels and the difficulties and limitations of the test rig. It is found that the set-up can be applied to a variety of tether pre-mission tests. It is shown that the performed

  9. Search for diphoton events with large missing transverse momentum in 7 TeV proton-proton collision data with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, A. K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. 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I.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    A search for diphoton events with large missing transverse momentum has been performed using proton-proton collision data at √{ s} = 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.8fb-1. No excess of events was observed above the Standard Model prediction and model-dependent 95% confidence level exclusion limits are set. In the context of a generalised model of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a bino-like lightest neutralino of mass above 50 GeV, gluinos (squarks) below 1.07 TeV (0.87 TeV) are excluded, while a breaking scale Λ below 196 TeV is excluded for a minimal model of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. For a specific model with one universal extra dimension, compactification scales 1 / R < 1.40 TeV are excluded. These limits provide the most stringent tests of these models to date.

  10. Preferential enrichment of large-sized very low density lipoprotein populations with transferred cholesteryl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, S.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of lipid transfer proteins on the exchange and transfer of cholesteryl esters from rat plasma HDL2 to human very low (VLDL) and low density (LDL) lipoprotein populations was studied. The use of a combination of radiochemical and chemical methods allowed separate assessment of (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl ester exchange and of cholesteryl ester transfer. VLDL-I was the preferred acceptor for transferred cholesteryl esters, followed by VLDL-II and VLDL-III. LDL did not acquire cholesteryl esters. The contribution of exchange of (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl esters to total transfer was highest for LDL and decreased in reverse order along the VLDL density range. Inactivation of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and heating the HDL2 for 60 min at 56 degrees C accelerated transfer and exchange of (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl esters. Addition of lipid transfer proteins increased cholesterol esterification in all systems. The data demonstrate that large-sized, triglyceride-rich VLDL particles are preferred acceptors for transferred cholesteryl esters. It is suggested that enrichment of very low density lipoproteins with cholesteryl esters reflects the triglyceride content of the particles.