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Sample records for large mongolian family

  1. Whole-genome sequencing identifies a novel ABCB7 gene mutation for X-linked congenital cerebellar ataxia in a large family of Mongolian ancestry.

    PubMed

    Protasova, Maria S; Grigorenko, Anastasia P; Tyazhelova, Tatiana V; Andreeva, Tatiana V; Reshetov, Denis A; Gusev, Fedor E; Laptenko, Alexander E; Kuznetsova, Irina L; Goltsov, Andrey Y; Klyushnikov, Sergey A; Illarioshkin, Sergey N; Rogaev, Evgeny I

    2016-04-01

    X-linked congenital cerebellar ataxia is a heterogeneous nonprogressive neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in early childhood. We searched for a genetic cause of this condition, previously reported in a Buryat pedigree of Mongolian ancestry from southeastern Russia. Using whole-genome sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, we found a missense mutation in the ABCB7 (ABC-binding cassette transporter B7) gene, encoding a mitochondrial transporter, involved in heme synthesis and previously associated with sideroblastic anemia and ataxia. The mutation resulting in a substitution of a highly conserved glycine to serine in position 682 is apparently a major causative factor of the cerebellar hypoplasia/atrophy found in affected individuals of a Buryat family who had no evidence of sideroblastic anemia. Moreover, in these affected men we also found the genetic defects in two other genes closely linked to ABCB7 on chromosome X: a deletion of a genomic region harboring the second exon of copper-transporter gene (ATP7A) and a complete deletion of PGAM4 (phosphoglycerate mutase family member 4) retrogene located in the intronic region of the ATP7A gene. Despite the deletion, eliminating the first of six metal-binding domains in ATP7A, no signs for Menkes disease or occipital horn syndrome associated with ATP7A mutations were found in male carriers. The role of the PGAM4 gene has been previously implicated in human reproduction, but our data indicate that its complete loss does not disrupt male fertility. Our finding links cerebellar pathology to the genetic defect in ABCB7 and ATP7A structural variant inherited as X-linked trait, and further reveals the genetic heterogeneity of X-linked cerebellar disorders. PMID:26242992

  2. Effects of large herbivore exclusion on southern Mongolian desert steppes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, Karsten; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Retzer, Vroni; Miehe, Georg

    2010-03-01

    Large areas of Mongolia have been subject to semi-nomadic pastoralism for centuries, but recently increasing livestock numbers have raised concerns about possible degradation effects. We assessed the impact of grazing in southern Mongolian desert steppes (mean precipitation <150 mm) over eight years in order to capture the high interannual variation, as well as possible medium-term trends in the management regime. We assessed whether the impact of varying precipitation levels (coefficient of variation >30%) exceeds the effects of grazing on vegetation composition, species richness, plant flowering activity, biomass production, and soil nutrient content. The data presented here originate from a set of nine fenced exclosures established in 1999. Plant community composition and species richness showed interannual changes over years of varying precipitation levels: mean species numbers on ungrazed plots ranged between 8 and 19 per 100 m 2. Grazing effects were apparent but light, as grazed plots had, on average, 1-2 species fewer than ungrazed plots. There was also no evidence of directed succession under grazing exclusion. Mean numbers of flowering species on ungrazed plots ranged between 2 and 14 over the years while numbers on grazed plots were slightly lower (range 1-12). In one moist year, mean biomass production in previously ungrazed plots was higher than in previously grazed plots (ca. 800 kg/ha vs. 250 kg/ha), but differences in a subsequent drier year were negligible. This was paralleled by soil phosphorus content, which tended to be higher inside the exclosures. The overriding effects of precipitation variability are in line with the non-equilibrium theory of rangeland science and imply that the risk of direct degradation is low in southern Mongolian drylands. However, small but statistically significant differences between grazed and ungrazed sites suggest that herbivore impact is apparent and can alter plant reproduction and, ultimately, soil conditions

  3. A rare novel mutation in TECTA causes autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss in a Mongolian family

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetic basis of autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss is complex. Genetic factors are responsible for approximately 50% of cases with congenital hearing loss. However, no previous studies have documented the clinical phenotype and genetic basis of autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss in Mongolians. Methods In this study, we performed exon capture sequencing of a Mongolian family with hereditary hearing loss and identified a novel mutation in TECTA gene, which encodes α -tectorin, a major component of the inner ear extracellular matrix that contacts the specialized sensory hair cells. Results The novel G → T missense mutation at nucleotide 6016 results in a substitution of amino acid aspartate at 2006 with tyrosine (Asp2006Tyr) in a highly conserved zona pellucida (ZP) domain of α-tectorin. The mutation is not found in control subjects from the same family with normal hearing and a genotype-phenotype correlation is observed. Conclusion A novel missense mutation c.6016 G > T (p.Asp2006Tyr) of TECTA gene is a characteristic TECTA-related mutation which causes autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss. Our result indicated that mutation in TECTA gene is responsible for the hearing loss in this Mongolian family. PMID:25008054

  4. Drought variability in eastern Mongolian Plateau and its linkages to the large-scale climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Guang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Na; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2015-02-01

    A robust regional tree-ring chronology with a span of 1819-2009 was developed for the Hulun Buir steppe, China, a region in the eastern edge of the Mongolian Plateau. This chronology exhibited significantly positive correlation with precipitation in June, and negative correlations with temperature from April to September except for May. Highest correlation was found between tree rings and the average April-August standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), suggesting that pines growth strongly respond to the seasonal drought conditions. Accordingly, the average April-August SPEI reconstruction was performed for the period 1854-2009, explaining 45.5 % variance of the calibration period 1953-2009. New reconstruction shows some synchrony with regional-scale events found in other reconstructions to the west Mongolian Plateau. The recent droughts in late 1990 to present are not unusual in the context of the past several centuries. Spectrum analyses suggested that the average April-August SPEI variations, especially severe droughts in the late 1870s-early 1880s, 1920s and since the late 1990s could be associated with large-scale climate forcing, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the summer North Atlantic Oscillation. Significant teleconnections indicated drought variability during the past several centuries in eastern Mongolian Plateau existed close connections with large-scale synoptic features.

  5. Satellite Observed Widespread Decline in Mongolian Grasslands Largely Due to Overgrazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilker, Thomas; Natsagdorj, Enkhjargal; Waring, Richard H.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    The Mongolian Steppe is one of the largest remaining grassland ecosystems. Recent studies have reported widespread decline of vegetation across the steppe and about 70 percent of this ecosystem is now considered degraded. Among the scientific community there has been an active debate about whether the observed degradation is related to climate, or overgrazing, or both. Here, we employ a new atmospheric correction and cloud screening algorithm (MAIAC) to investigate trends in satellite observed vegetation phenology. We relate these trends to changes in climate and domestic animal populations. A series of harmonic functions is fitted to MODIS observed phenological curves to quantify seasonal and inter-annual changes in vegetation. Our results show a widespread decline (of about 12 percent on average) in MODIS observed NDVI across the country but particularly in the transition zone between grassland and the Gobi desert, where recent decline was as much as 40 percent below the 2002 mean NDVI. While we found considerable regional differences in the causes of landscape degradation, about 80 percent of the decline in NDVI could be attributed to increase in livestock. Changes in precipitation were able to explain about 30 percent of degradation across the country as a whole but up to 50 percent in areas with denser vegetation cover (p0.05). Temperature changes, while significant, played only a minor role (r20.10, p0.05). Our results suggest that the cumulative effect of overgrazing is a primary contributor to the degradation of the Mongolian steppe and is at least partially responsible for desertification reported in previous studies.

  6. Satellite observed widespread decline in Mongolian grasslands largely due to overgrazing.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Thomas; Natsagdorj, Enkhjargal; Waring, Richard H; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2014-02-01

    The Mongolian Steppe is one of the largest remaining grassland ecosystems. Recent studies have reported widespread decline of vegetation across the steppe and about 70% of this ecosystem is now considered degraded. Among the scientific community there has been an active debate about whether the observed degradation is related to climate, or over-grazing, or both. Here, we employ a new atmospheric correction and cloud screening algorithm (MAIAC) to investigate trends in satellite observed vegetation phenology. We relate these trends to changes in climate and domestic animal populations. A series of harmonic functions is fitted to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed phenological curves to quantify seasonal and inter-annual changes in vegetation. Our results show a widespread decline (of about 12% on average) in MODIS observed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) across the country but particularly in the transition zone between grassland and the Gobi desert, where recent decline was as much as 40% below the 2002 mean NDVI. While we found considerable regional differences in the causes of landscape degradation, about 80% of the decline in NDVI could be attributed to increase in livestock. Changes in precipitation were able to explain about 30% of degradation across the country as a whole but up to 50% in areas with denser vegetation cover (P < 0.05). Temperature changes, while significant, played only a minor role (r(2)  = 0.10, P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the cumulative effect of overgrazing is a primary contributor to the degradation of the Mongolian steppe and is at least partially responsible for desertification reported in previous studies. PMID:23966315

  7. Ozone in the Mongolian Gobi desert: Large-scale concentrations and dry deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, Franz X.; Behrendt, Thomas; Ermel, Michael; Hempelmann, Nils; Jöckel, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    For the first time, measurements of surface ozone mixing ratio have been performed from semi-arid steppe to arid/hyper-arid Mongolian Gobi desert. During 12-29 August 2009, ozone mixing ratio was continuously measured from a mobile platform (4x4 Furgon SUV). The survey (3060 km / 229171km2) started at the Mongolian capital Ulaan-Baatar (47.9582°N, 107.0190°E ), heading to south-west (Echin Gol, 43.2586°N, 99.0255°E), eastward to Dalanzadgad (43.6061°N, 104.4445°E), and finally back to Ulaan-Baatar. Ambient air was sampled (approx. 1 L/min) through a 4 m long PTFE-intake line along a forward facing boom mounted on the roof of a 4x4 Furgon SUV. Ozone mixing ratio has been measured by UV-spectroscopy using a mobile dual-cell ozone analyzer (model 205, 2BTechnologies, Boulder, U.S.A.). While ozone signals were measured every 5 seconds, 1 minute averages and standard deviations have been calculated on-line and stored into the data logger. The latter are used to identify and to discriminate against unrealistic low or high ozone mixing ratios which have been due to occasionally passing plumes of vehicle exhaust and/or biomass burning gases, as well as gasoline (at gas filling stations). Even under desert conditions, the temporal behaviour of ozone mixing ratio was characterized by considerable and regular diel variations. Minimum mixing ratios (15-25 ppb) occurred early in the morning (approx. 06:00 local), when surface depletion of ozone (by dry deposition) can not be compensated by supply from the free troposphere due to thermodynamic stability of the nocturnal boundary layer. Late in the afternoon (approx. 17:00 local), under conditions of a turbulently well mixed convective boundary layer, maximum ozone mixing ratios (45-55 ppb) were reached. Daily amplitudes of the diel cycle of ozone mixing ratio were in the order of 30 ppb (steppe), 20 ppb (arid desert), to approx. 5 ppb (hyper-arid Gobi desert (Shargyn Gobi)). Ozone surface measurements were compared to

  8. Mongolian spots.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Mongolian spots (MS) are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis. PMID:23760316

  9. The peril of order? IPV, injury, and order in Mongolian families.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Tsolmon, Odgerel

    2015-01-01

    Despite its consistent and latent appearance in feminist accounts of intimate partner violence (IPV), the characterization of IPV as an elaborately ordered relationship whose norms are backed up by force is notably absent from the empirical IPV literature. Drawing on Emery's typology of IPV, we hypothesized a curvilinear relationship between order and IPV injury. We developed a measure of relationship order and implemented it in a representative, randomly selected cluster sample of 250 families from Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Controlling for the severity of the IPV, higher levels of order, but not lower levels, are associated with higher numbers of reported IPV injuries. Theoretical and practical implications of order as a risk factor are discussed. PMID:24811282

  10. Helicobacter pylori Induced Gastric Immunopathology Is Associated with Distinct Microbiota Changes in the Large Intestines of Long-Term Infected Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, Markus M.; Fischer, André; Plickert, Rita; Wiedemann, Tobias; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Göbel, Ulf B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation in mice and men are frequently accompanied by distinct changes of the GI microbiota composition at sites of inflammation. Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection results in gastric immunopathology accompanied by colonization of stomachs with bacterial species, which are usually restricted to the lower intestine. Potential microbiota shifts distal to the inflammatory process following long-term H. pylori infection, however, have not been studied so far. Methodology/Principal Findings For the first time, we investigated microbiota changes along the entire GI tract of Mongolian gerbils after 14 months of infection with H. pylori B8 wildtype (WT) or its isogenic ΔcagY mutant (MUT) strain which is defective in the type IV secretion system and thus unable to modulate specific host pathways. Comprehensive cultural analyses revealed that severe gastric diseases such as atrophic pangastritis and precancerous transformations were accompanied by elevated luminal loads of E. coli and enterococci in the caecum and together with Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. in the colon of H. pylori WT, but not MUT infected gerbils as compared to naïve animals. Strikingly, molecular analyses revealed that Akkermansia, an uncultivable species involved in mucus degradation, was exclusively abundant in large intestines of H. pylori WT, but not MUT infected nor naïve gerbils. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, long-term infection of Mongolian gerbils with a H. pylori WT strain displaying an intact type IV secretion system leads to distinct shifts of the microbiota composition in the distal uninflamed, but not proximal inflamed GI tract. Hence, H. pylori induced immunopathogenesis of the stomach, including hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia, might trigger large intestinal microbiota changes whereas the exact underlying mechanisms need to be further unraveled. PMID:24941045

  11. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises. This can raise a question about possible child abuse. It is important to recognize that Mongolian blue ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 11. Read More Benign Child abuse - physical Rashes Update Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  12. [Interactions of partners in family pairs, care of the offspring, and the role of tactile stimulation in formation of parental behavior of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) under laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Gromov, V S

    2009-01-01

    The interactions of sexual partners and care of the offspring in male and female Mongolian gerbils reared in biparental and uniparental family groups (without an adult male) were compared. In individuals reared in biparental family groups, sexual differences related to the manifestation of parental care were small and statistically insignificant. In individuals reared in uniparental groups, the interactions of sexual partners related to grooming changed; the duration in males decreased threefold, as compared to the norm; indices of parental behavior of females and, especially of males, related to tactile stimulation of pups (huddling with pups in the nest and duration of licking pups) also decreased. The importance of the parental contribution of males, especially of tactile stimulation, in the evolution of the family-group mode of life is discussed. PMID:19899220

  13. Multi-font printed Mongolian document recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liangrui; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hua; Jin, Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Mongolian is one of the major ethnic languages in China. Large amount of Mongolian printed documents need to be digitized in digital library and various applications. Traditional Mongolian script has unique writing style and multi-font-type variations, which bring challenges to Mongolian OCR research. As traditional Mongolian script has some characteristics, for example, one character may be part of another character, we define the character set for recognition according to the segmented components, and the components are combined into characters by rule-based post-processing module. For character recognition, a method based on visual directional feature and multi-level classifiers is presented. For character segmentation, a scheme is used to find the segmentation point by analyzing the properties of projection and connected components. As Mongolian has different font-types which are categorized into two major groups, the parameter of segmentation is adjusted for each group. A font-type classification method for the two font-type group is introduced. For recognition of Mongolian text mixed with Chinese and English, language identification and relevant character recognition kernels are integrated. Experiments show that the presented methods are effective. The text recognition rate is 96.9% on the test samples from practical documents with multi-font-types and mixed scripts.

  14. [Outbreaks of pseudotuberculosis and intestinal yersiniosis among Soviet specialists and members of their families in the Mongolian People's Republic].

    PubMed

    Markov, I S; Tkachenko, V I; Silin, D D

    1989-08-01

    In summer and winter of 1986 two outbreaks of alimentary enteric diseases occurred among Soviet specialists and members of their families in Ulan Bator. These diseases were identified as Yersinia infections registered in Mongolia for the first time. In July 114 children in a kindergarten fell ill after being fed with salad prepared from vegetables and spring onions supplied from a nearby state farm. 20 Y. pseudotuberculosis cultures, serovar 1, were isolated, and in 25 persons antibodies to the isolated microorganisms were detected; altogether 32% of cases were confirmed by laboratory methods. During the December outbreak 187 persons were affected, among them 90% of children, through the consumption of imported oranges and tangerines, simultaneous infection with Y. enterocolitica, serovars 05.27 and 09, and hepatitis A virus being observed. The fact of associated infection was registered after the simultaneous detection of the markers of viral hepatitis A and Yersinia infection in 61 patients. In the kindergarten the disease produced a typical clinical picture of Far Eastern scarlatiniform fever, and in winter the abdominal forms of the disease prevailed. In cases of combined Yersinia and viral infection a specific variant of acute hepatitis developed; as regards this variant, the authors present heretofore unknown information on its epidemiology, clinical features and outcome. PMID:2686302

  15. Asteroid family classification from very large catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, Anne

    2005-02-01

    The paper presents a review of the recent contributions and open questions concerning the families of asteroids. Due to the availability of very large catalogues (synthetic and analytical proper elements of the asteroids and large observational surveys of their spectra) and to the introduction of non gravitational forces in their determination, the concept of static family has disappeared, to be replaced by this of dynamical families. The proper elements are not constant anymore but are ageing on very long timescales. The size distributions of the populations of asteroids, in and out the families, their ages, the ejection velocities of the fragments after an impact, have been reconsidered by several teams of research, with this new approach. Parallel numerical simulations of collisions and fragmentations of bodies have showed that most of the asteroids are likely rubble piles or agglomerates than monolithic blocks. The methods of classification have been refined and combine, in their newest versions, the dynamics and the observations, working now on 5 dimensional space instead of 3. A series of sub families of the large well-known families have been recently identified, using catalogues with more than 100 000 asteroids (the cluster Karin for example).

  16. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  17. The assessment of droughts in Northern China and Mongolian areas Using the Palmer Drought Severity Index(PDSI) and relevant large-scale environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, I. G.; Park, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed drought conditions in northern China and Mongolian areas using the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI). Droughts in this area were being intensified throughout all seasons. In particular, this intensifying trend was pronounced in the summer and autumn. In the summer, the PDSI showed an overall increase from the early 1990s to the late 1900s, and then, it rapidly decreased after the late 1990s. Therefore, this study focused on summer droughts and analyzed mean differences before the late 1990s (9098) and after the late 1990s (9905). Regarding differences in 850 hPa stream flows between the two periods, anomalous anticyclonic circulations were strengthened in northern China and Mongolia that showed strong negative anomalies in the PDSI. These anomalous anticyclones were formed as a positive North Atlantic Oscillation pattern formed in the European region spread eastward in the form of wave trains. The anomalous antcyclones formed in northern China and Mongolia were led to reduced total cloud cover. As a result, this region exhibied high sensible heat net fluxes. Consequently, warm and dry anticyclones may have recently been strengthened in this region, thereby intensifying droughts. As this shows, recently strengthened warm and dry anticyclones in northern China and Mongolia were associated with recently reduced snow depths in this region during the preceding spring. In recent years, the frequency of Asian dust has also increased due to warm and dry air conditions. Acknowledgements: This research was carried out as a part of "Development and application of technology for weather forecast" supported by the 2015 National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in the Korea Meteorological Administration.

  18. English-Mongolian Phrase Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amraa, J.; Nadya, S.

    The phrase book is intended for use by Peace Corps workers in Mongolia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. Phrases and vocabulary are presented first in English, then in Mongolian translation (in Cyrillic alphabet), on the following topics: greetings and introductions; discussing work; expressing thanks and congratulations;…

  19. Influence of religious belief on Mongolian medicine.

    PubMed

    Caijilahu, C

    1999-04-01

    Religious belief exerts certain influence on early development of Mongolian medicine. Up to early 20th century, some aspects of Mongolian medicine, including diagnostic methods and therapeutic remedies were all dyed with religion. Hence, the study of Mongolian medical history involves culture, philosophy and religious belief, especially culture in its broad sense, and micro - religion, such as the witchery culture of remote ancient time, totem in primitive religion and all kinds of worshipping and beliefs. PMID:11623862

  20. [Research progress of Mongolian medicine digeda].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Hong; Chensuyile; Zhang, Na; Long, Ping; Li, Zhen-Hua; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Zhen-Wang; Li, Min-Hui

    2013-12-01

    Traditional Mongolian medicine Digeda processes a significant importance in clinical therapy with notably actions of heat-clear and detoxication effects. This paper intends to provide comprehensive insight into the species textual research, chemical constituents, qualitative identification, pharmacology and clinical application of Mongolian medicine Digeda to provide valuable data for further studies and the development of clinical applications of these medicinal plants. PMID:24791546

  1. Little Brother Joins the Large Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    On the night of 15 December 2006, the fourth and last-to-be-installed VLTI Auxiliary Telescope (AT4) obtained its 'First Light'. The first images demonstrate that AT4 will be able to deliver the excellent image quality already delivered by the first three ATs. It will soon join its siblings to perform routinely interferometric measurements. ESO PR Photo 51a/06 ESO PR Photo 51a/06 VLT Auxiliary Telescope The VLT is composed of four 8.2-m Unit Telescope (Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun). They have been progressively put into service together with a vast suite of the most advanced astronomical instruments and are operated every night in the year. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two or three 8.2- VLT Unit Telescopes, dramatically increasing the spatial resolution and showing fine details of a large variety of celestial objects. ESO PR Photo 51b/06 ESO PR Photo 51b/06 One AT Under the Sky However, most of the time the large telescopes are used for other research purposes. They are therefore only available for interferometric observations during a limited number of nights every year. Thus, in order to exploit the VLTI each night and to achieve the full potential of this unique setup, some other (smaller), dedicated telescopes were included into the overall VLT concept. These telescopes, known as the VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs), are mounted on tracks and can be placed at precisely defined "parking" observing positions on the observatory platform. From these positions, their light beams are fed into the same common focal point via a complex system of reflecting mirrors mounted in an underground system of tunnels. The Auxiliary Telescopes are real technological jewels. They are placed in ultra-compact enclosures, complete with all necessary electronics, an air conditioning system and cooling liquid for

  2. Genetic studies of bipolar affective disorder in large families.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, D H; Visscher, P M; Muir, W J

    2001-06-01

    Background Genetic factors are known to be important in the aetiology of bipolar disorder. Aims To review linkage studies in extended families multiply affected with bipolar disorder. Method Selective review of linkage studies of bipolar disorder emphasising the gains and drawbacks of studying large multiply-affected families and comparing the statistical methods used for data analysis. Results Linkage of bipolar disorder to several chromosome regions including 4p, 4q, 10p, 12q, 16p, 18q, 21q and Xq has first been reported in extended families. In other families chromosomal rearrangements associated with affective illnesses provide signposts to the location of disease-related genes. Statistical analyses using variance component methods can be applied to extended families, require no prior knowledge of the disease inheritance, and can test multilocus models. Conclusion Studying single large pedigrees combined with variance component analysis is an efficient and effective strategy likely to lead to further insights into the genetic basis of bipolar disorders. PMID:11388952

  3. A large family characterised by nocturnal sudden death

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, M.P.; Viersma, J.W.; Beaufort-Krol, G.C.M.; Bink-Boelkens, M.Th.E.; Bezzina, C.R.; Veldkamp, M.W.; Brouwer, J.; Haaksma, J.; van Tintelen, J.P.; van Langen, I.M.; Wouda, A.A.; Wilde, A.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Background We recently identified a novel mutation in large family characterised by premature nocturnal sudden death. In the present paper we provide an overview of the findings in this family. Methods From 1958 onwards, when the first patient presented, we collected clinical data on as many family members as possible. After identification in 1998 of the underlying genetic disorder (SCN5A, 1795insD), genotyping was performed diagnostically. Results Since 1905 unexplained sudden death occurred in 26 family members, 17 of whom died during the night. Besides sudden death, symptomatology was rather limited; only six patients reported syncopal attacks. In one of them, a 13-year-old boy, asystolic episodes up to nine seconds were documented. Until now, the mutation has been found in 114 family members (57 males, 57 females). Carriers of the mutant gene exhibited bradycardia-dependent QT-prolongation, intrinsic sinus node dysfunction, generalised conduction abnormalities, a paucity of ventricular ectopy, and the Brugada sign. Cardiomyopathy or other structural abnormalities were not found in any of the carriers. Electrophysiological studies showed that mutant channels were characterised by markedly reduced INa amplitude, a positive shift of voltage-dependence of activation and a substantial negative shift of voltage-dependence of inactivation of INa. From 1978 onwards, a pacemaker for anti-brady pacing was implanted for prevention of sudden death. In patients in whom a prophylactic pacemaker was implanted no unexplained sudden death occurred, whereas 5 sudden deaths occurred in the group of patients who did not receive a pacemaker. Conclusion We have described a large family with a SCN5A-linked disorder (1795insD) with features of LQT3, Brugada syndrome and familial conduction system disease. Anti-brady pacing was successful in preventing sudden death. The mode of death is possibly bradycardic. ImagesFigure 5 PMID:25696119

  4. Drought Experiment of a Mongolian Grassland Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, M.; Tsunekawa, A.; Nemoto, M.; Nachinshonhor, G. U.; Nakano, T.; Tamura, K.; Asano, M.; Erdenetsetseg, D.

    2006-12-01

    Recent large-scale climate change including global warming has likely been manifested as frequent and/or intensive drought occurrences in inland, arid Asia such as Mongolia. In order to investigate the response of a Mongolian grassland ecosystem to such a drought, an artificial drought experiment was conducted at Bayan Unjuul (105.95E, 47.04N) in the Mongolian typical steppe region during the growing season of 2005. The climatological (1995-2004) annul precipitation is 172.9mm, concentrated on the summer months of May- August, while the annual mean temperature is 0.1degC, with soil freezing during the winter. This study site is codominated by perennial grasses such as Stipa krylovii, Agropyron cristatum, and Cleistogenes squarrosa and annual forbs such as Artemisia adamsii and Chenopodium album. An area of 300m w300m in size was surrounded by a fence for protecting this area from grazing. The plots inside and outside of the area are referred to as no-grazing (NG) and grazing (G) plots, respectively. In the NG plot, two plots of 30m w30m with drought (D plot) and mowing (M plot) manipulations are allocated in the southwest part of the NG plot. The drought manipulation was conducted using a rainout shelter with a transparent polyethylene roof, open on all sides during the major growing season from late May to early August 2005. The total precipitation of 60.3mm in the annual total of 96.9mm (that is, a severe drought year) was excluded from the D plot. Thus, natural severe drought and artificial very severe drought conditions were produced in this year. To study the vegetation impact on thermal and moisture conditions at the ground surface, the mowing has been carried out on a monthly basis during the growing season. The initial conditions for each plot were examined during the late growing seasons of 2003 and 2004, showing no significant difference in terms of vegetation (above-/below-ground biomass and species diversity) and physical and chemical soil properties

  5. Analysis of Mongolian Students' Common Translation Errors and Its Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Changhua

    2013-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, those Mongolian students face lots of difficulties in learning English. Especially the English translation ability of Mongolian students is a weak point. It is worth to think a problem that how to let our students use the English freely on a certain foundation. This article investigates the problems of Mongolian English learners…

  6. The Genome of a Mongolian Individual Reveals the Genetic Imprints of Mongolians on Modern Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qizhu; Yin, Ye; Zhou, Huanmin

    2014-01-01

    Mongolians have played a significant role in modern human evolution, especially after the rise of Genghis Khan (1162[?]–1227). Although the social cultural impacts of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian population have been well documented, explorations of their genome structure and genetic imprints on other human populations have been lacking. We here present the genome of a Mongolian male individual. The genome was de novo assembled using a total of 130.8-fold genomic data produced from massively parallel whole-genome sequencing. We identified high-confidence variation sets, including 3.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 756,234 short insertions and deletions. Functional SNP analysis predicted that the individual has a pathogenic risk for carnitine deficiency. We located the patrilineal inheritance of the Mongolian genome to the lineage D3a through Y haplogroup analysis and inferred that the individual has a common patrilineal ancestor with Tibeto-Burman populations and is likely to be the progeny of the earliest settlers in East Asia. We finally investigated the genetic imprints of Mongolians on other human populations using different approaches. We found varying degrees of gene flows between Mongolians and populations living in Europe, South/Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. The analyses demonstrate that the genetic impacts of Mongolians likely resulted from the expansion of the Mongolian Empire in the 13th century. The genome will be of great help in further explorations of modern human evolution and genetic causes of diseases/traits specific to Mongolians. PMID:25377941

  7. The genome of a Mongolian individual reveals the genetic imprints of Mongolians on modern human populations.

    PubMed

    Bai, Haihua; Guo, Xiaosen; Zhang, Dong; Narisu, Narisu; Bu, Junjie; Jirimutu, Jirimutu; Liang, Fan; Zhao, Xiang; Xing, Yanping; Wang, Dingzhu; Li, Tongda; Zhang, Yanru; Guan, Baozhu; Yang, Xukui; Yang, Zili; Shuangshan, Shuangshan; Su, Zhe; Wu, Huiguang; Li, Wenjing; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Shilin; Bayinnamula, Bayinnamula; Chang, Yuqi; Gao, Ying; Lan, Tianming; Suyalatu, Suyalatu; Huang, Hui; Su, Yan; Chen, Yujie; Li, Wenqi; Yang, Xu; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jun; Wu, Qizhu; Yin, Ye; Zhou, Huanmin

    2014-12-01

    Mongolians have played a significant role in modern human evolution, especially after the rise of Genghis Khan (1162[?]-1227). Although the social cultural impacts of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian population have been well documented, explorations of their genome structure and genetic imprints on other human populations have been lacking. We here present the genome of a Mongolian male individual. The genome was de novo assembled using a total of 130.8-fold genomic data produced from massively parallel whole-genome sequencing. We identified high-confidence variation sets, including 3.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 756,234 short insertions and deletions. Functional SNP analysis predicted that the individual has a pathogenic risk for carnitine deficiency. We located the patrilineal inheritance of the Mongolian genome to the lineage D3a through Y haplogroup analysis and inferred that the individual has a common patrilineal ancestor with Tibeto-Burman populations and is likely to be the progeny of the earliest settlers in East Asia. We finally investigated the genetic imprints of Mongolians on other human populations using different approaches. We found varying degrees of gene flows between Mongolians and populations living in Europe, South/Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. The analyses demonstrate that the genetic impacts of Mongolians likely resulted from the expansion of the Mongolian Empire in the 13th century. The genome will be of great help in further explorations of modern human evolution and genetic causes of diseases/traits specific to Mongolians. PMID:25377941

  8. New Sequences with Low Correlation and Large Family Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fanxin

    In direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication systems and direct-sequence ultra wideband (DS-UWB) radios, sequences with low correlation and large family size are important for reducing multiple access interference (MAI) and accepting more active users, respectively. In this paper, a new collection of families of sequences of length pn-1, which includes three constructions, is proposed. The maximum number of cyclically distinct families without GMW sequences in each construction is φ(pn-1)/n·φ(pm-1)/m, where p is a prime number, n is an even number, and n=2m, and these sequences can be binary or polyphase depending upon choice of the parameter p. In Construction I, there are pn distinct sequences within each family and the new sequences have at most d+2 nontrivial periodic correlation {-pm-1, -1, pm-1, 2pm-1,…,dpm-1}. In Construction II, the new sequences have large family size p2n and possibly take the nontrivial correlation values in {-pm-1, -1, pm-1, 2pm-1,…,(3d-4)pm-1}. In Construction III, the new sequences possess the largest family size p(d-1)n and have at most 2d correlation levels {-pm-1, -1,pm-1, 2pm-1,…,(2d-2)pm-1}. Three constructions are near-optimal with respect to the Welch bound because the values of their Welch-Ratios are moderate, WR_??_d, WR_??_3d-4 and WR_??_2d-2, respectively. Each family in Constructions I, II and III contains a GMW sequence. In addition, Helleseth sequences and Niho sequences are special cases in Constructions I and III, and their restriction conditions to the integers m and n, pm≠2 (mod 3) and n≅0 (mod 4), respectively, are removed in our sequences. Our sequences in Construction III include the sequences with Niho type decimation 3·2m-2, too. Finally, some open questions are pointed out and an example that illustrates the performance of these sequences is given.

  9. Airfoil family design for large offshore wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, B.; Munduate, X.; San Miguel, U.

    2014-06-01

    Wind turbine blades size has scaled-up during last years due to wind turbine platform increase especially for offshore applications. The EOLIA project 2007-2010 (Spanish Goverment funded project) was focused on the design of large offshore wind turbines for deep waters. The project was managed by ACCIONA Energia and the wind turbine technology was designed by ACCIONA Windpower. The project included the design of a wind turbine airfoil family especially conceived for large offshore wind turbine blades, in the order of 5MW machine. Large offshore wind turbines suffer high extreme loads due to their size, in addition the lack of noise restrictions allow higher tip speeds. Consequently, the airfoils presented in this work are designed for high Reynolds numbers with the main goal of reducing blade loads and mantainig power production. The new airfoil family was designed in collaboration with CENER (Spanish National Renewable Energy Centre). The airfoil family was designed using a evolutionary algorithm based optimization tool with different objectives, both aerodynamic and structural, coupled with an airfoil geometry generation tool. Force coefficients of the designed airfoil were obtained using the panel code XFOIL in which the boundary layer/inviscid flow coupling is ineracted via surface transpiration model. The desing methodology includes a novel technique to define the objective functions based on normalizing the functions using weight parameters created from data of airfoils used as reference. Four airfoils have been designed, here three of them will be presented, with relative thickness of 18%, 21%, 25%, which have been verified with the in-house CFD code, Wind Multi Block WMB, and later validated with wind tunnel experiments. Some of the objectives for the designed airfoils concern the aerodynamic behavior (high efficiency and lift, high tangential coefficient, insensitivity to rough conditions, etc.), others concern the geometry (good for structural design

  10. Lissencephaly and mongolian spots in Hurler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panteliadis, Christos P; Karatza, Eliza D; Tzitiridou, Maria K; Koliouskas, Dimitrios E; Spiroglou, Kleomenis S

    2003-07-01

    Hurler disease or syndrome is a disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. We describe a case of a 15-month-old female exhibiting with clinical and laboratory characteristics of the syndrome, central nervous system lesions (lissencephaly, excessive ventricular enlargement and Dandy Walker malformation with vermis atrophy, cerebellar cyst) and mongolian spots in the trunk and extremities. The combination of mongolian spots and severe central nervous system lesions in Hurler syndrome is considered a rare clinical occurrence, while the association with lissencephaly has never been reported. PMID:13679124

  11. KIC 8462852: Transit of a Large Comet Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodman, Eva H. L.; Quillen, Alice

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the plausibility of a cometary source of the unusual transits observed in the KIC 8462852 light curve. A single comet of similar size to those in our solar system produces a transit depth of the order of 10-3 lasting less than a day which is much smaller and shorter than the largest dip observed (˜ 20% for ˜3 days), but a large, closely traveling cluster of comets can fit the observed depths and durations. We find that a series of large comet swarms, with all except one on the same orbit, provides a good fit for the KIC 8462852 data during Quarters 16 and 17, but does not explain the large dip observed during Quarter 8. However, the transit dips only loosely constrain the orbits and can be fit by swarms with periastrons differing by a factor of 10. To reach a transit depth of ˜0.2, the comets need to be in a close group of ˜30, if they are ˜100 km in radius or in a group of ˜300 if they are ˜10 km in radius. The total number of comets required to fit all of the dips is ˜70 ˜ 100 km or ˜700 ˜ 10 km comets. A single comet family from a tidally disrupted Ceres-sized progenitor or the start of a Late Heavy Bombardment period explains the last ˜60 days of the unusual KIC 8462852 light curve.

  12. Cystic fibrosis in a large kindred family in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, A; Dawod, S T; al Thani, G

    2000-09-01

    We describe 45 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), diagnosed between June 1987 and May 1999, seen at the Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Twenty-six of 32 families in the study were related and belonged to the same Bedouin tribe. The parents of 98% of these cases were consanguineous. Metabolic alkalosis and/or hypo-electrolytaemia were found in a large proportion of infants with CF. Cystic fibrosis in Qatari children is phenotypically variable with mild to moderate respiratory symptoms, and none of them died during this study. Among the non-Arabic-Asian patients, pulmonary symptoms were more severe, Pseudomonas colonization was earlier, pancreatic insufficiency occurred in infancy and four died in early life. PMID:11064773

  13. Familial pattern of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome in a Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    Hazmi, Mohd; Ab Aziz, A.; Asma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (LVAS) is the most common radiographic malformation in children with early onset of hearing loss. Usually its occurrence is non-familial, however intriguingly a portion of patients with LVAS is found to have evidence of genetic predisposition. We described cases of LVAS in two siblings of a Chinese family. The elder sister first presented with reduced hearing since childhood and her brother has a similar complaint upon further questioning. Their hearing test showed bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and computed tomography (CT) of temporal bone showed enlarged vestibular aqueduct in both patients. We described an approach to diagnosis of LVAS and highlight the importance of hearing assessment in genetic link hearing loss. PMID:27034633

  14. Familial pattern of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Hazmi, Mohd; Ab Aziz, A; Asma, A

    2013-01-01

    Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (LVAS) is the most common radiographic malformation in children with early onset of hearing loss. Usually its occurrence is non-familial, however intriguingly a portion of patients with LVAS is found to have evidence of genetic predisposition. We described cases of LVAS in two siblings of a Chinese family. The elder sister first presented with reduced hearing since childhood and her brother has a similar complaint upon further questioning. Their hearing test showed bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and computed tomography (CT) of temporal bone showed enlarged vestibular aqueduct in both patients. We described an approach to diagnosis of LVAS and highlight the importance of hearing assessment in genetic link hearing loss. PMID:27034633

  15. The Perceptions and Views on Family Interaction and Relationships of Middle Children from Large Families: An Informal Mini Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elena C. Thomas

    In Adler's Theory of Individual Psychology the significance of birth order position in the family constellation depends on the interpretation given to it by the child, which in turn influences his character. This study surveyed the perceptions of middle children in large families. Subjects (N=13) were middle children in families of more than five…

  16. [Application of molecular pharmacognosy in research of Mongolian medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Qianquan; Zhou, Lishe; Guo, Lanping; Li, Minhui; Zhang, Na; Yuan, Qingjun; Yuan, Yuan

    2011-10-01

    Molecular pharmacognosy has developed as a new borderline discipline. Using the method and technology of molecular pharmacognosy, a wide range of challenging problems were resolved, such as the identification of Mongolian medicinal raw materials, etiology of endangerment and protection of endangered Mongolian medicinal plants and animals, biosynthesis and bioregulation of active components in Mongolian medicinal plants, and characteristics and the molecular bases of Dao-di Herbs. So molecular pharmacognosy will provide the new methods and insights for modernization of Mongolian medicine. PMID:22242416

  17. Behaviour in a Colony of Meriones unguiculatus, the Mongolian Gerbil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. J.; Ladd, G. F.

    1973-01-01

    Describes animal behavior experiments that can be easily performed by secondary school students. The experiments illustrate territorial behavior, social order, and exploratory behavior in Mongolian gerbils. (JR)

  18. Are families poor because they are large or are they large because they are poor?

    PubMed

    Pernia, E M

    1982-01-01

    In the Philippines time allocation studies suggest that children cost considerable amounts of time and energy on the part of the mother and other siblings in addition to direct financial outlays which figure prominently. Yet, these costs seem to be compensated for by economic and noneconomic benefits. The time costs of children are moderated to the extent that mother's time has a low opportunity cost, given lack of marketable skills or sheer absence of employment opportunities. It is at the expense of investment in human capital (in terms of education and health) that economic benefits from child labor are forthcoming. As neither unemployment of the mother nor child labor is desirable, it would seem that economic benefits from children are expensive. The child's mental and physical development tends to be impaired due to deficient health, nutrition, and education inputs because family resources and parental care have to be spread so thinly among the many competing demands of the large family. Mother's health is negatively affected by frequent and closely spaced pregnancies, and she is effectively prevented from actual or potential participation in development. It is to these less immediate and not directly observable disadvantages of a large family that parents must be sensitized so that they will realize the need to limit family size. From the social perspective, the population program may be viewed as a strategy for human resource development. The challenge to policymakers has become formidable. Due to rapidly increasing population, the need to telescope the reduction of income inequality and poverty has become urgent. Continuing population growth tends to nullify whatever advances are made toward the distributional objective. Population and development policy needs to be directed to the poor in rural areas in general and more specifically to the rural poor in the backward regions of the Visayas, Bicol, Bocos, and Northern Mindanao. Given the extreme poverty of

  19. A family of dynamic models for large-eddy simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carati, D.; Jansen, K.; Lund, T.

    1995-01-01

    Since its first application, the dynamic procedure has been recognized as an effective means to compute rather than prescribe the unknown coefficients that appear in a subgrid-scale model for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The dynamic procedure is usually used to determine the nondimensional coefficient in the Smagorinsky (1963) model. In reality the procedure is quite general and it is not limited to the Smagorinsky model by any theoretical or practical constraints. The purpose of this note is to consider a generalized family of dynamic eddy viscosity models that do not necessarily rely on the local equilibrium assumption built into the Smagorinsky model. By invoking an inertial range assumption, it will be shown that the coefficients in the new models need not be nondimensional. This additional degree of freedom allows the use of models that are scaled on traditionally unknown quantities such as the dissipation rate. In certain cases, the dynamic models with dimensional coefficients are simpler to implement, and allow for a 30% reduction in the number of required filtering operations.

  20. Extensive Mongolian spots: a clinical sign merits special attention.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Mahmood Reza; Shabanian, Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Kavusi, Susan

    2006-02-01

    Although typical and limited Mongolian spots are benign skin markings at birth which fade and disappear as the child grows, extensive Mongolian spots deserve special attention as possible indications of associated inborn error of metabolism. A few cases of extensive Mongolian spots in association with inheritable storage diseases have been reported. Some hypotheses have been put forward, but further investigation is necessary to elucidate the causative factors. This report describes three infants with generalized Mongolian spots, two infants with GM1 gangliosidosis type 1, and one in association with Hurler syndrome. Findings of generalized Mongolian spots in newborns may lead to an early detection and early treatment before irreversible organ damage occurs. PMID:16458829

  1. Geomorphological development of Eastern Mongolian plain, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2016-04-01

    Several summaries and investigations of the geomorphological description and feature for Eastern Mongolian plain (EMP), the one of the largest geomorphological district, fully covering east side of Mongolia (Murzayev, 1949; Vlodavets, 1950, 1955; Marinov, Khasin, 1954; Marinov, 1966; Nikolayeva, 1971; Selivanov, 1972; Chichagov, 1974, 1976; Grigorov, 1975; Korjuyev, 1982; Syirnev, 1982, 1984) had been publishing continuously. But literature for geomorphology of EMP have been not appeared during over the past 20 years. However, we re-combine the geomorphological development of EMP, according to the results of many publications for surrounding regions of Russia and China and unpublished maps. Main morphology of EMP has the plain, containing with aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine landforms. Plain morphology defined that denudation plains to North Kherlen, South Kherlen, Baruun Urt, Uulbayan, Delgerekh and other which developed on the Paleozoic rocks, layered plain to Choibalsan, Tamsag, Ongon, Gert, Sumiin nuur and Torey- on the Late Cretaceous and Neogene sediments and accumulation plain with alluvial and lacustrine origin such as Menen, Buir nuur, Tamsagbulag, Khalzan and other. These plains of EMP related with tectonics and structure of region and inherited the development of the Mesozoic, particularly Late Mesozoic structure. Large basins of EMP are Tamsag, Choibalsan and Torey and other small basins - from 7-10 km to 25-30 km width and rather a several 10 km extend, cutting a basement. The origin of plain morphology for EMP is interpreted as two main stages of the geomorphological development model, based on geology. In first stage or Late Jurassic (?) - Lower Cretaceous period, there was developed rift basin, then, in second stage or since Late Cretaceous period, plain morphology originated from the intermountain basin that dominated by exogenic process and kept in current EMP area. Data relevant to the development history of EMP are following. 1. Rift volcanism

  2. Association Analysis of Genetic Variants with Type 2 Diabetes in a Mongolian Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Haihua; Liu, Haiping; Suyalatu, Suyalatu; Guo, Xiaosen; Chu, Shandan; Chen, Ying; Lan, Tianming; Borjigin, Burenbatu; Orlov, Yuriy L.; Posukh, Olga L.; Yang, Xiuqin; Guilan, Guilan; Osipova, Ludmila P.; Wu, Qizhu; Narisu, Narisu

    2015-01-01

    The large scale genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) conferring susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, most of these loci have not been replicated in diverse populations and much genetic heterogeneity has been observed across ethnic groups. We tested 28 SNPs previously found to be associated with T2D by GWAS in a Mongolian sample of Northern China (497 diagnosed with T2D and 469 controls) for association with T2D and diabetes related quantitative traits. We replicated T2D association of 11 SNPs, namely, rs7578326 (IRS1), rs1531343 (HMGA2), rs8042680 (PRC1), rs7578597 (THADA), rs1333051 (CDKN2), rs6723108 (TMEM163), rs163182 and rs2237897 (KCNQ1), rs1387153 (MTNR1B), rs243021 (BCL11A), and rs10229583 (PAX4) in our sample. Further, we showed that risk allele of the strongest T2D associated SNP in our sample, rs757832 (IRS1), is associated with increased level of TG. We observed substantial difference of T2D risk allele frequency between the Mongolian sample and the 1000G Caucasian sample for a few SNPs, including rs6723108 (TMEM163) whose risk allele reaches near fixation in the Mongolian sample. Further study of genetic architecture of these variants in susceptibility of T2D is needed to understand the role of these variants in heterogeneous populations. PMID:26290879

  3. Prevalence and predictors of suicidal behavior among Mongolian high school students.

    PubMed

    Altangerel, Uyanga; Liou, Jenn-Chang; Yeh, Pi-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of suicidal behavior among Mongolian high school students. Females were more likely to have suicidal behavior than males. No close friends, feelings of loneliness, insomnia, self perception of underweight or overweight, carrying a weapon were significant predictors of students' suicidal behavior. Missing school without permission, being bullied and going hungry were also important risk factors of suicidal ideation. Families and Schools are important environments to prevent high students' suicide. Improving students' psychological well being, quality of relationship with people, and support resources are critical to prevent suicidal behavior. PMID:24282032

  4. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  5. Broad scan linkage analysis in a large Tourette family pedigree

    SciTech Connect

    Peiffer, A.; Leppert, M.; Wetering, B.J.M. van der

    1994-09-01

    Attempts to find a gene causing Tourette syndrome (TS) using linkage analysis have been unsuccessful even though as much as 65% of the autosomal genetic map has been excluded by the pooled results from several laboratories collaborating worldwide. One reason for this failure may be the misclassification of affection status of marry-in spouses. Specifically, we have found that six unrelated spouses in our Utah TS pedigree suffer from TS, obsessive-compulsive disorder or chronic motor tics. In light of these findings we decided to conduct a complete genomic scan from this Utah kindred with polymorphic markers in three related sibships in which there was no assortative mating. A linkage study assuming autosomal dominant inheritance was done using tetranucleotide repeat markers developed at the University of Utah. We selected markers that were less than 300 bp in size and that gave a heterozygosity of over 70% upon analysis in 4 CEPH families. Results to date with 95 markers run at an interval of 30 cM (covering 61% of the genome) show no evidence of linkage. We intend to extend the coverage to 100% of the genome. Pending completion of this scan, failure to provide evidence of linkage in our TS pedigree might then be attributed to phenotypic misclassification or erroneous assumptions regarding the genetic model of transmission.

  6. FamAgg: an R package to evaluate familial aggregation of traits in large pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Rainer, Johannes; Taliun, Daniel; D’Elia, Yuri; Pattaro, Cristian; Domingues, Francisco S.; Weichenberger, Christian X.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Familial aggregation analysis is the first fundamental step to perform when assessing the extent of genetic background of a disease. However, there is a lack of software to analyze the familial clustering of complex phenotypes in very large pedigrees. Such pedigrees can be utilized to calculate measures that express trait aggregation on both the family and individual level, providing valuable directions in choosing families for detailed follow-up studies. We developed FamAgg, an open source R package that contains both established and novel methods to investigate familial aggregation of traits in large pedigrees. We demonstrate its use and interpretation by analyzing a publicly available cancer dataset with more than 20 000 participants distributed across approximately 400 families. Availability and implementation: The FamAgg package is freely available at the Bioconductor repository, http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/FamAgg. Contact: Christian.Weichenberger@eurac.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26803158

  7. Malaysia: where big is still better. For Malays, large families are part of the plan.

    PubMed

    1993-11-01

    The benefits of various-sized families in Malaysia were discussed by several women and supplemented with official statements on family planning (FP). The Director of the National Population and Family Development, Dr. Raj Karim, advised that maternal health is jeopardized when women have more than five children. About 30% of reproductive age women in Malaysia have five or more children. A Federation of FP Associations spokesperson agreed that women should be advised of the dangers of bearing over five children, of the importance of spacing births two to four years apart, and of the ideal age of childbearing (21-39 years). The government lacks an official policy on family size. The government position is, however, compatible with Islamic teachings on spacing in order to protect the health of the mother and child. Islamic law does not permit sterilization or abortion. The "fatwas" of Islamic teaching may have been misconstrued by those not using any form of contraception. Dr. Karim, who has five children, reported that having a large family can be difficult for a woman with a job, a career, and a husband or when both parents work. Most Malays desire large families. The average Malay family size was 4.1 children in 1990; Malaysian Chinese have fertility of 2.3 children and Malaysian Indians have 2.6 children. People say that the benefits outweigh the hardships of a large family. PMID:12287219

  8. A large family of anti-activators accompanying XylS/AraC family regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Araceli E; Yan, Michael B; Tran, Minh; Wright, Nathan; Luzader, Deborah H; Kendall, Melissa M; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P

    2016-07-01

    AraC Negative Regulators (ANR) suppress virulence genes by directly down-regulating AraC/XylS members in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we sought to investigate the distribution and molecular mechanisms of regulatory function for ANRs among different bacterial pathogens. We identified more than 200 ANRs distributed in diverse clinically important gram negative pathogens, including Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Citrobacter spp., enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and members of the Pasteurellaceae. By employing a bacterial two hybrid system, pull down assays and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, we demonstrate that Aar (AggR-activated regulator), a prototype member of the ANR family in EAEC, binds with high affinity to the central linker domain of AraC-like member AggR. ANR-AggR binding disrupted AggR dimerization and prevented AggR-DNA binding. ANR homologs of Vibrio cholerae, Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella enterica and ETEC were capable of complementing Aar activity by repressing aggR expression in EAEC strain 042. ANR homologs of ETEC and Vibrio cholerae bound to AggR as well as to other members of the AraC family, including Rns and ToxT. The predicted proteins of all ANR members exhibit three highly conserved predicted α-helices. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that at least predicted α-helices 2 and 3 are required for Aar activity. In sum, our data strongly suggest that members of the novel ANR family act by directly binding to their cognate AraC partners. PMID:27038276

  9. Models of population-based analyses for data collected from large extended families

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Devereux, Richard B.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Laston, Sandra; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Shara, Nawar M.; Welty, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Large studies of extended families usually collect valuable phenotypic data that may have scientific value for purposes other than testing genetic hypotheses if the families were not selected in a biased manner. These purposes include assessing population-based associations of diseases with risk factors/covariates and estimating population characteristics such as disease prevalence and incidence. Relatedness among participants however, violates the traditional assumption of independent observations in these classic analyses. The commonly used adjustment method for relatedness in population-based analyses is to use marginal models, in which clusters (families) are assumed to be independent (unrelated) with a simple and identical covariance (family) structure such as those called independent, exchangeable and unstructured covariance structures. However, using these simple covariance structures may not be optimally appropriate for outcomes collected from large extended families, and may under- or over-estimate the variances of estimators and thus lead to uncertainty in inferences. Moreover, the assumption that families are unrelated with an identical family structure in a marginal model may not be satisfied for family studies with large extended families. The aim of this paper is to propose models incorporating marginal models approaches with a covariance structure for assessing population-based associations of diseases with their risk factors/covariates and estimating population characteristics for epidemiological studies while adjusting for the complicated relatedness among outcomes (continuous/categorical, normally/non-normally distributed) collected from large extended families. We also discuss theoretical issues of the proposed models and show that the proposed models and covariance structure are appropriate for and capable of achieving the aim. PMID:20882324

  10. Genetic evidence for the Mongolian ancestry of Kalmyks.

    PubMed

    Nasidze, Ivan; Quinque, Dominique; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Cordaux, Richard; Kokshunova, Lyudmila; Stoneking, Mark

    2005-12-01

    The Kalmyks are an ethnic group along the lower Volga River in Russia who are thought to have migrated there from Mongolia about 300 years ago. To investigate their origins, we studied mtDNA and Y-chromosome variation in 99 Kalmyks. Both mtDNA HV1 sequences and Y-chromosome SNP haplogroups indicate a close relationship of Kalmyks with Mongolians. In addition, genetic diversity for both mtDNA and the Y chromosome are comparable in Kalmyks, Mongolians, and other Central Asian groups, indicating that the Kalmyk migration was not associated with a substantial bottleneck. The so-called "Genghis Khan" Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype was found in high frequency (31.3%) among Kalmyks, further supporting a strong genetic connection between Kalmyks and Mongolians. Genetic analyses of even recent, relatively well-documented migrations such as of the Kalmyks can therefore lead to new insights concerning such migrations. PMID:16028228

  11. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Howe, Kerstin; Schiffer, Philipp H; Zielinski, Julia; Wiehe, Thomas; Laird, Gavin K; Marioni, John C; Soylemez, Onuralp; Kondrashov, Fyodor; Leptin, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system. PMID:27248802

  12. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Julia; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system. PMID:27248802

  13. Evidence for ASD recurrence rates and reproductive stoppage from large UK ASD research family databases.

    PubMed

    Wood, Claire L; Warnell, Frances; Johnson, Mary; Hames, Annette; Pearce, Mark S; McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R

    2015-02-01

    Following a diagnosis of a developmental disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in early childhood, parents may decide to have fewer children than previously planned. The tendency for families to halt reproduction after receiving a diagnosis for one child is known as reproductive stoppage. Stoppage may lead to an underestimate of recurrence risk estimates of parents having more than one child with ASD. Using two large UK ASD family databases, we investigated recurrence rates for ASD and evidence for reproductive stoppage for both ASD and undiagnosed ASD/broader autism phenotype in a subgroup of families. Reproductive stoppage was tested for using the Mann-Whitney U-test to disprove the null hypothesis that affected and nonaffected children were distributed randomly by birth order. Dahlberg's later-sib method was used to estimate recurrence risk and take stoppage into account. Data were available from 299 families (660 children) including 327 with ASD. Ten percent of the complete families had more than one child with an ASD. Using Dahlberg's later-sib method, the recurrence risk for ASD was 24.7% overall and 50.0% in families with two or more older siblings with ASD. Children with ASD were born significantly later in families than those without ASD in all sibship combinations. This study shows strong evidence that ASD is associated with reproductive stoppage. These data have important implications for family planning and genetic counseling. PMID:25273900

  14. Ultra Large Gene Families: A Matter of Adaptation or Genomic Parasites?

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Philipp H; Gravemeyer, Jan; Rauscher, Martina; Wiehe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism of molecular evolution. It offers a fast track to modification, diversification, redundancy or rescue of gene function. However, duplication may also be neutral or (slightly) deleterious, and often ends in pseudo-geneisation. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic distribution of ultra large gene families on long and short evolutionary time scales. In particular, we focus on a family of NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR)-genes, which we previously found in large numbers to occupy one chromosome arm of the zebrafish genome. We were interested to see whether such a tight clustering is characteristic for ultra large gene families. Our data reconfirm that most gene family inflations are lineage-specific, but we can only identify very few gene clusters. Based on our observations we hypothesise that, beyond a certain size threshold, ultra large gene families continue to proliferate in a mechanism we term "run-away evolution". This process might ultimately lead to the failure of genomic integrity and drive species to extinction. PMID:27509525

  15. Tspy is nonfunctional in the Mongolian gerbil but functional in the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Karwacki, Violetta; Kovac, Judit; Mauceri, Grazia; Backhaus, Arne; Föhse, Lisa; Schmidtke, Jörg; Schubert, Stephanie

    2006-07-01

    The TSPY gene is conserved in placental mammals and encodes the testis-specific protein, Y encoded. Within the testis, TSPY expression is restricted to germ cells, and it is assumed that TSPY plays a role in the proliferation of germ cells. Since it was first discovered in humans, TSPY orthologous gene families have been subsequently characterized in many mammalian lineages. In contrast to the situation in cattle and primates, in which TSPY is organized in a moderately repetitive cluster, including functional members and pseudogenes, a peculiar situation is observed in rodents, in which Tspy has been become low or single copy and degenerated to a pseudogene in some species of the subgenus Mus. We have extended this approach and investigated Tspy gene evolution in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) and the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Whereas the Syrian hamster Tspy is functionally conserved, organized in multiple copies, and expressed only in testis, the closely related Mongolian gerbil possesses a single-copy pseudogene that is unable to generate a functional transcript. Thus, the Tspy locus has degenerated at least twice at different points of rodent evolution, strongly supporting the hypothesis that the decay of Y-chromosomal genes is an intrinsic evolutionary process. TSPY is the first example of a Y-chromosomal tandem repetitive gene whose decay could be studied in two independent mammalian lineages. PMID:16626932

  16. A new spectral index to detect Poaceae grass abundance in Mongolian grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, S.; Matsumoto, J.; Sekiyama, A.; Aosier, B.; Yokohana, M.

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop a new index based on remotely-sensed data for detecting the abundance of grasses in the family Poaceae, which has a high palatability for livestock in Mongolia, and to map the distribution of these grasses in the semi-arid Mongolian steppes. We measured ground-based spectral reflectance of pure plant leaves - including Poaceae grasses - and soils, as well as in-situ in the Mongolian grasslands. The hyper-spectral data, taken by a spectroradiometer, were converted into four multi-spectral bands (i.e., blue, green, red, and NIR) to simulate satellite-based imagery data. In order to magnify the characteristics of the spectral signal of Poaceae, NGBDI (Normalized Green-Blue Difference Index), NGRDI (Normalized Green-Red Difference Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), NNBDI (Normalized NIR-Blue Difference Index) were calculated from the four multi-spectral reflectance values. Poaceae Abundance Index (PAI) was derived by combining these four normalized difference indices. PAI was found out to be a good indicator to discriminate Poaceae grass from the other plant spectral data.

  17. [Histological study of the visceral organs of Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus as a subject in spaceflight experiments].

    PubMed

    Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Durnova, G N; Orlov, O I; Il'in, E I

    2008-01-01

    Survey histological study of the heart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, adrenals, thymus, spleen, testicles of the Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus with a body mass of about 27 g showed their macro- and microscopic similarity with the organs of laboratory rats and mice notwithstanding some slight differences. For instance, the ascending knee of Hengle's loop in the gerbil kidney is much better developed and forms in whole a kind of a singular cortical fiber bordering the medulla. It is the well-developed parts of Hengle's ascending loop in gerbil that ensures a more complete water reabsorption decrease the quantity of urine and sharply reduce the amount of exogenous fluid vitally important for animals in arid areas. The Mongolian gerbil is distinguished by large adrenals and small corticosteroid-sensitive thymus and spleen suggesting high sensitivity of this animal to stresses. Spleen abundance of both mature and immature megacariosities--thrombogoniums--explains the rapid coagulability as compared with rats and mice. PMID:18564566

  18. Mesozoic lamprophyres of Gorny and Mongolian Altay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    The Chuya complex consists of more then 400 early Mesozoic lamprophyre dikes that occur in the vast territory in the structures of the Gorny and Mongolian Altay. Based on the irregular distribution of the dikes, various researchers have distinguished from 3 to 6 separate dike swarms or areas. Each of them is spatially connected with a specific simultaneous ore deposit. For example, in the Aktash area, there are the Aktash, Chagan-Uzun and other Sb-Hg deposits, in the territory of the South-Chuya area there are the Kalguta Mo-W and Chagan-Burgasy Ag-Pb deposits and within the Yustyd area there are the Askhatin-Gol Ni-Co-As deposit, Asgat, Ozernoe and Tolbonour Ag-Sb deposits. But the genetic link between the magmatic rocks and close in time and space ore deposits has not yet been proven. In this work samples of lamprophyre dikes from the largest areas (Yustyd and South Chuya) were studied. The dikes are extraordinarily similar in mineralogical and chemical aspects. The greatest differences are in the isotopic characteristics of the rocks. Lamprophyres and syenites of the South-Chuya area have negative eNd (~-4) and an elevated 87Sr/86Sr (>0.711) ratio whereas lamprophyres of the Yustyd area are close to BSE (eNd~0, 87Sr/86Sr=0.705-0.707)/ Using data on the composition of rock-forming minerals, study of chemical characteristics and composition of lamprophyre fluid inclusions, we propose different sources with similar geochemical characteristics and varying degrees of metasomatic mantle material provoked different isotopic composition. The resulting liquid rich in carbonates and composite fluids in conjunction with low degrees of melting generates approximately petrochemical and mineralogical similar compositions newly formed rocks.

  19. Environmental metabolomics reveal geographic variation in aerobic metabolism and metabolic substrates in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Shi, Yao-Long; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Liu, Wei; Fu, He-Ping; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) have a large-scale distribution in northern China. Geographic physiological variations which related to energy and water metabolism are critical to animals' local adaptation and distribution. However, the underlying biochemical mechanism of such variation and its role in adaptation remains largely unknown. We used GC-MS metabolomics approach to investigate the biochemical adaptation of Mongolian gerbils from xeric (desert), transition (desert steppe) and mesic (typical steppe) environments. Gerbils in desert population had lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) than mesic population. Serum metabolomics revealed that concentrations of five tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (citrate, cis-aconitate, α-ketoglutarate, fumarate and malate) were lower in desert population than mesic population. Gastrocnemius metabolomics and citrate synthase activity analysis showed a lower concentration of citrate and lower citrate synthase activity in desert population. These findings suggest that desert dwelling gerbils decrease RMR and TEWL via down-regulation of aerobic respiration. Gastrocnemius metabolomics also revealed that there were higher concentrations of glucose and glycolytic intermediates, but lower concentrations of lipids, amino acids and urea in desert population than mesic population. This geographic variation in metabolic substrates may enhance metabolic water production per oxygen molecule for desert population while constraining aerobic respiration to reduce RMR and TEWL. PMID:25817427

  20. [Wild plants used for the folk dietotherapy in Arhorchin Mongolians].

    PubMed

    Khasbagan; Pei, S

    2001-02-01

    There are 13 species of native wild plants used for folk dietotherapy by Arhorchin Mongolians in Inner Mongolia. The local people have used those plants as vegetables, fruits and beverages to nourish body, cure scurvy, high blood pressure and 'xira-wusu' disease, repress 'hei' and maintain stomach. PMID:11402735

  1. Pinky Extension as a Phonestheme in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) is a visual-gestural language that developed from multiple languages interacting as a result of both geographic proximity and political relations and of the natural development of a communication system by deaf community members. Similar to the phonological systems of other signed languages, MSL combines handshapes,…

  2. Genetic heterogeneity in psoriasis vulgaris based on linkage analyses of a large family material

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlstroem, J.; Swanbeck, G.; Inerot, A.

    1994-09-01

    Information on psoriasis among parents and siblings in 14,008 families has been collected. On the basis of this material, evidence for monogenetic autosomal recessive inheritance of psoriasis has recently been presented. Indications from more than one type of non-pustular psoriasis has been obtained from the population genetic data. Molecular genetic linkage analysis of psoriasis to a number of polymorphic genetic markers for a large number of families has been made. It is apparent that there is genetic heterogeneity in a psoriasis population with regard to psoriasis genes. Using the computer program Linkage 5.0 and a formula for heterogeneity, a lodscore over 3.0 for one locus has been obtained. This locus has further been confirmed by several other markers in the vicinity. The locus found is linked to slightly over half of the families, indicating that there are more genetically independent types of psoriasis. The age at onset of those families that are apparently linked to this locus have a slightly higher age at onset than those not linked to that locus but with a considerable overlap. In spite of close coverage of the whole chromosomes number 6 and 17, no linkage has been found in this regions. This indicates that neither the HLA region nor the region earlier found to be involved in one family with psoriasis are primarily involved in our families.

  3. Development of the nasolacrimal apparatus in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), with notes on network topology and function.

    PubMed

    Rehorek, Susan J; Cunningham, Jayna; Bruening, Amanda E; Johnson, Jessica L; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P; Smith, Timothy D; Hillenius, Willem J

    2015-09-01

    The nasolacrimal apparatus (NLA) is a multicomponent functional system comprised of multiple orbital glands (up to four larger multicellular exocrine structures), a nasal chemosensory structure (vomeronasal organ: VNO), and a connecting duct (nasolacrimal duct: NLD). Although this system has been described in all tetrapod vertebrate lineages, albeit not always with all three main components present, considerably less is known about its ontogeny. The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is a common lab rodent in which the individual components of the adult NLA have been well studied, but as yet nothing is known about the ontogeny of the NLA. In this study, serial sections of 15 fetal and three adult Mongolian gerbil heads show that the development of the NLA falls into three fetal stages: inception (origin of all features), elongation (lengthening of all features), and expansion (widening of all features). No postnatal or juvenile specimens were observed in this study, but considerable growth evidently occurs before the final adult condition is reached. The development of the orbital glands and the VNO in the Mongolian gerbil is largely consistent with those in other mammals, despite a slight nomenclatural conundrum for the anterior orbital glands. However, the Mongolian gerbil NLD follows a more circuitous route than in other tetrapods, due mainly to the convoluted arrangement of the narial cartilages, the development of a pair of enlarged incisors as well as an enlarged infraorbital foramen. The impact of these associated features on the ontogeny and phylogeny of the NLA could be examined through the approach of network science. This approach allows for the incorporation of adaptations to specific lifestyles as potential explanations for the variation observed in the NLA across different tetrapod clades. PMID:25845915

  4. A cohort study of chronic diseases for Mongolian people: Outline with baseline data of the Moncohort study.

    PubMed

    Enkh-Oyun, Tsogzolbaatar; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Aoyama, Yasuko; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Ae, Ryusuke; Davaa, Gombojav; Angarmurun, Dayan; Khuderchuluun, Nanjid; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2016-09-01

    Many Mongolian people suffer from non-communicable chronic diseases. In order to plan preventive strategies against such diseases, we designed a community-based prospective cohort study of chronic diseases, called the Moncohort study, in Mongolia. This is the first nationwide large-scale cohort study of chronic diseases. This paper describes the study's rationale, design and methods with baseline data. Mongolian residents aged ⩾40years were selected nationwide from many geographic regions in 2009. Data were collected on demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements. In total, 2280 Mongolian residents were registered in the survey. Socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical characteristics were differentiated by gender and geographical area in descriptive data. Aging, low social class, physical inactivity and infrequent fruits intake were positively associated with histories of chronic disease in men, while aging was positively associated with histories of chronic disease in women. Factors associated with chronic diseases reveal gender-oriented strategies might be needed for their prevention. Detailed prospective analyses will illustrate the impact of risk factors on chronic diseases and lead to evidence for designing programs aimed at preventing chronic diseases and related disorders in Mongolia. PMID:26829279

  5. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. Results The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. Conclusions ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels. PMID:20977734

  6. Large mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumor in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moschos, John; Tzilves, Dimitrios; Paikos, Dimitrios; Tagarakis, Georgios; Pilpilidis, Ioannis; Antonopoulos, Zissis; Kadis, Savvas; Katsos, Ioannis; Tarpagos, Anestis

    2006-06-01

    We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented with severe debilitation, anemia and diarrhea over two months. Colonoscopy revealed many (>100) polyps (familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome). Abdominal CT scan showed a large mass at the left upper abdomen in conjunction with the splenic flexure. Total colectomy with mesenteric mass and adjacent small bowel removal and ileoanal pouch was performed. Examination of the resected mesenteric mass showed a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with scarce mitosis and infiltration of the adjacent small bowel. We describe for the first time in medical literature the coexistence of familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome and GIST in a 30-year-old man. PMID:16855925

  7. Localization of melanopsin-immunoreactive cells in the Mongolian gerbil retina.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Jin; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are involved in circadian rhythm and pupil responses. The purpose of this study was to reveal the organization of melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the Mongolian gerbil retina using immunocytochemistry. Melanopsin-IR cells were primarily located in the ganglion cell layer (GCL; M1c; 75.15%). Many melanopsin-IR cells were also observed in the inner nuclear layer (INL; M1d; 22.28%). The M1c and M1d cell types extended their dendritic processes into the OFF sublayer of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). We rarely observed bistratified cells (M3; 2.56%) with dendrites in both the ON and OFF sublayers of the IPL. Surprisingly, we did not observe M2 cells which are well observed in other rodents. Melanopsin-IR cell somas were small to medium in size and had large dendritic fields. They had 2-5 primary dendrites that branched sparingly and had varicosities. Melanopsin-IR cell density was very low: they comprised 0.50% of the total ganglion cell population. Moreover, none of the melanopsin-IR cells expressed calbindin-D28K, calretinin, or parvalbumin. These results suggest that in the Mongolian gerbil, melanopsin-IR cells are expressed in a very small RGC subpopulation, and are independent of calcium-binding proteins-containing RGCs. PMID:26083722

  8. Identification of a rhodopsin gene mutation in a large family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinping; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Ding; Hu, Xuting; Xu, Jinling; Xu, Limin; Wu, Yaming; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically highly heterogeneous retinal disease and one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Next-generation sequencing technology has enormous potential for determining the genetic etiology of RP. We sought to identify the underlying genetic defect in a 35-year-old male from an autosomal-dominant RP family with 14 affected individuals. By capturing next-generation sequencing (CNGS) of 144 genes associated with retinal diseases, we identified eight novel DNA variants; however, none of them cosegregated for all the members of the family. Further analysis of the CNGS data led to identification of a recurrent missense mutation (c.403C > T, p.R135W) in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene, which cosegregated with all affected individuals in the family and was not observed in any of the unaffected family members. The p.R135W mutation has a reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ID (rs104893775), and it appears to be responsible for the disease in this large family. This study highlights the importance of examining NGS data with reference SNP IDs. Thus, our study is important for data analysis of NGS-based clinical genetic diagnoses. PMID:26794436

  9. Clinical and linkage study of a large family with simple ectopia lentis linked to FBN1

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.J.; Roberts, J.; Partington, M.W.; Colley, P.W.; Hollway, G.E.; Kozman, H.M.; Mulley, J.C.

    1994-10-15

    Simple ectopia lentis (EL) was studied in a large family, by clinical examination and analysis of linkage to markers in the region of FBN1, the gene for fibrillin which causes Marfan syndrome on chromosome 15. No patient had clinical or echocardiographic evidence of Marfan syndrome, although there was a trend towards relatively longer measurements of height; lower segment; arm span; middle finger, hand, and foot length in the affected members of the family, compared with unaffected sibs of the same sex. Analysis of linkage to intragenic FBN1 markers was inconclusive because they were relatively uninformative. Construction of a multipoint background map from the CEPH reference families identified microsatellite markers linked closely to FBN1 which could demonstrate linkage of EL in this family to the FBN1 region. LINKMAP analysis detected a multipoint lod score of 5.68 at D15S119, a marker approximately 6 cM distal to FBN1, and a multipoint lod score of 5.04 at FBN1. The EL gene in this family is likely to be allelic to Marfan syndrome, and molecular characterization of the FBN1 mutation should now be possible. 25 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. A large multigene family codes for the polypeptides of the crystalline trichocyst matrix in Paramecium.

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, L; Gautier, M C; Vayssié, L; Houari, A; Sperling, L

    1995-01-01

    The secretory granules (trichocysts) of Paramecium are characterized by a highly constrained shape that reflects the crystalline organization of their protein contents. Yet the crystalline trichocyst content is composed not of a single protein but of a family of related polypeptides that derive from a family of precursors by protein processing. In this paper we show that a multigene family, of unusually large size for a unicellular organism, codes for these proteins. The family is organized in subfamilies; each subfamily codes for proteins with different primary structures, but within the subfamilies several genes code for nearly identical proteins. For one subfamily, we have obtained direct evidence that the different members are coexpressed. The three subfamilies we have characterized are located on different macronuclear chromosomes. Typical 23-29 nucleotide Paramecium introns are found in one of the regions studied and the intron sequences are more variable than the surrounding coding sequences, providing gene-specific markers. We suggest that this multigene family may have evolved to assure a microheterogeneity of structural proteins necessary for morphogenesis of a complex secretory granule core with a constrained shape and dynamic properties: genetic analysis has shown that correct assembly of the crystalline core is necessary for trichocyst function. Images PMID:7579685

  11. Identification of a rhodopsin gene mutation in a large family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinping; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Ding; Hu, Xuting; Xu, Jinling; Xu, Limin; Wu, Yaming; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically highly heterogeneous retinal disease and one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Next-generation sequencing technology has enormous potential for determining the genetic etiology of RP. We sought to identify the underlying genetic defect in a 35-year-old male from an autosomal-dominant RP family with 14 affected individuals. By capturing next-generation sequencing (CNGS) of 144 genes associated with retinal diseases, we identified eight novel DNA variants; however, none of them cosegregated for all the members of the family. Further analysis of the CNGS data led to identification of a recurrent missense mutation (c.403C > T, p.R135W) in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene, which cosegregated with all affected individuals in the family and was not observed in any of the unaffected family members. The p.R135W mutation has a reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ID (rs104893775), and it appears to be responsible for the disease in this large family. This study highlights the importance of examining NGS data with reference SNP IDs. Thus, our study is important for data analysis of NGS-based clinical genetic diagnoses. PMID:26794436

  12. Genome-scale phylogenetic function annotation of large and diverse protein families

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Jordan, Michael I.; Srouji, John R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships (SIFTER) framework uses a statistical graphical model that applies phylogenetic principles to automate precise protein function prediction. Here we present a revised approach (SIFTER version 2.0) that enables annotations on a genomic scale. SIFTER 2.0 produces equivalently precise predictions compared to the earlier version on a carefully studied family and on a collection of 100 protein families. We have added an approximation method to SIFTER 2.0 and show a 500-fold improvement in speed with minimal impact on prediction results in the functionally diverse sulfotransferase protein family. On the Nudix protein family, previously inaccessible to the SIFTER framework because of the 66 possible molecular functions, SIFTER achieved 47.4% accuracy on experimental data (where BLAST achieved 34.0%). Finally, we used SIFTER to annotate all of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins with experimental functional characterizations, based on annotations from proteins in 46 fungal genomes. SIFTER precisely predicted molecular function for 45.5% of the characterized proteins in this genome, as compared with four current function prediction methods that precisely predicted function for 62.6%, 30.6%, 6.0%, and 5.7% of these proteins. We use both precision-recall curves and ROC analyses to compare these genome-scale predictions across the different methods and to assess performance on different types of applications. SIFTER 2.0 is capable of predicting protein molecular function for large and functionally diverse protein families using an approximate statistical model, enabling phylogenetics-based protein function prediction for genome-wide analyses. The code for SIFTER and protein family data are available at http://sifter.berkeley.edu. PMID:21784873

  13. Contextual processing of brightness and color in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Garbers, Christian; Henke, Josephine; Leibold, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas; Thurley, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Brightness and color cues are essential for visually guided behavior. However, for rodents, little is known about how well they do use these cues. We used a virtual reality setup that offers a controlled environment for sensory testing to quantitatively investigate visually guided behavior for achromatic and chromatic stimuli in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). In two-alternative forced choice tasks, animals had to select target stimuli based on relative intensity or color with respect to a contextual reference. Behavioral performance was characterized using psychometric analysis and probabilistic choice modeling. The analyses revealed that the gerbils learned to make decisions that required judging stimuli in relation to their visual context. Stimuli were successfully recognized down to Weber contrasts as low as 0.1. These results suggest that Mongolian gerbils have the perceptual capacity for brightness and color constancy. PMID:25589297

  14. Hereditary coproporphyria: comparison of molecular and biochemical investigations in a large family.

    PubMed

    Allen, K R; Whatley, S D; Degg, T J; Barth, J H

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is the least common of the three autosomal dominant acute porphyrias. To compare the sensitivity of metabolite measurements for the identification of asymptomatic HCP, we carried out a molecular and biochemical investigation of a large family in which HCP is caused by a previously unreported frameshift mutation (c.119delA). Thirteen of 19 asymptomatic family members, aged 10-72 years, were shown by mutational analysis to have HCP. The faecal coproporphyrin isomer III:I ratio was increased in all of these 13 family members; faecal total porphyrin concentration and urinary porphyrin excretion were increased in 11 and 8 of them, respectively. Plasma porphyrin concentrations were marginally increased in three individuals and plasma fluorescence emission scanning showed a porphyrin peak at 618 nm in two of these. Our results add to the evidence that an increased faecal porphyrin coproporphyrin III:I ratio is a highly sensitive test for the detection of clinically latent HCP in individuals over the age of 10 years; its sensitivity below this age remains uncertain. They also show that plasma fluorescence emission scanning is not useful for the investigation of families with HCP. PMID:16151909

  15. Evaluation of plant extracts for sweetness using the Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Jakinovich, W; Moon, C; Choi, Y H; Kinghorn, A D

    1990-01-01

    Extracts of Thladiantha grosvenorii fruits, Stevia rebaudiana leaves, and Abrus precatorius leaves were investigated using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and conditioned taste aversion procedures, which were designed to respond to sucrose. A close correlation was observed between extracts of these sweet plants known to contain sweet principles and those extracts indicated as being sweet by a combination of these gerbil bioassays. The methods employed seem to be suitable for use in aiding the purification of highly sweet compounds of plant origin. PMID:2348201

  16. The diversity of intestinal microbiota of Mongolians living in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zheng, Y; Guo, Z; Qiao, J; Gesudu, Q; Sun, Z; Huo, D; Huang, W; Huo, Q; Kwok, L; Zhang, H

    2013-12-01

    The Mongolian nationality has developed their unique lifestyle and dietary habit for thousands of years. However, by now, little research has been focused on Mongolian gut microbiota and how it is related to different dietary habits. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were applied to reveal the diversity of predominant gut bacteria of 48 healthy Mongolians recruited from Hohhot city and the Xilin Gol pasturing area in Inner Mongolia. Compared to similar studies of other nationalities, results from the present study have confirmed that the composition of Mongolian gut microbiota is highly similar at the phylum level (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria) but variable at the genus level. Especially, the numbers of Phascolarctobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are rather high. DGGE profiles of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium revealed that Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis were predominant in the gut of the Mongolian subjects studied. On the contrary, Lactobacillus helveticus was detected in every pasturing area Mongolian, but not in any of the Hohhot city Mongolians. qPCR results revealed that the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium of Xilin Gol Mongolians were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of Hohhot Mongolians, whereas the numbers of Enterobacterium were significantly lower (P<0.05). In addition, by partial least squares discriminate analysis and cluster analysis of data generated from DGGE and qPCR experiments, a striking difference in the composition of intestinal microbiota of Mongolians living in Hohhot city and the Xilin Gol pasturing area has been found. This study clearly shows that diet affects the microbiota composition of Mongolians living in different circumstances, i.e. urban versus rural. PMID:24311315

  17. Towards identification of an epilepsy gene in a large family with idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Roussear, M.; Lopes-Cendes, I.; Berkovic, S.F.

    1994-09-01

    To identify the disease gene in a large, multiplex family segregating an autosomal dominant form of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). The IGEs have been recognized for several decades as being genetically determined. However, large pedigrees with a clear Mendelian inheritance are not commonly available. This, and the presence of locus heterogeneity have been obstacles to the identification of linkage in several IGE syndromes. We have identified a large IGE kindred with fifty-eight living individuals, including 26 affecteds, showing a clear autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Forty-fur informative individuals, including 23 affecteds, were selected for the linkage studies. We have chosen 200 polymorphic microsatellite markers, about 20 cM apart, throughout the human autosomes as a genome-search linkage strategy. To date, 47 markers, representing 30% of the human genome, have been excluded for linkage in the Australian kindred. As our study progresses, we will report up-to-date results.

  18. UGT2B17 copy number gain in a large ankylosing spondylitis multiplex family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study is to identify novel copy number variations (CNVs) associated with familial ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A customized genome-wide microarray was designed to detect CNVs and applied to a multiplex AS family with six (6) affected family members. CNVs were detected using the built-in DNA analytics aberration detection method-2 (ADM-2) algorithm. Gene enrichment analysis was performed to observe the segregation. Subsequent validation was performed using real time quantitative fluorescence polymerase reaction (QF-PCR). The frequency of copy number variation for the UGT2B17 gene was then performed on two well-defined AS cohorts. Fisher exact test was performed to quantify the association. Results Our family-based analysis revealed ten gene-enriched CNVs that segregate with all six family members affected with AS. Based on the proposed function and the polymorphic nature of the UGT2B17 gene, the UGT2B17 gene CNV was selected for validation using real time QF-PCR with full concordance. The frequency of two copies of the UGT2B17 gene CNV was 0.41 in the Newfoundland AS cases and 0.35 in the Newfoundland controls (OR = 1.26(0.99-1.59); p < 0.05)), whereas the frequency of two (2) copies of the UGT2B17 gene CNV was 0.40 in the Alberta AS cases and 0.39 in the Alberta controls (OR = 1.05(95% CI: 0.83-1.33); p < 0.71)). Conclusions A genome-wide microarray interrogation of a large multiplex AS family revealed segregation of the UGT2B17 gene CNV among all affected family members. The association of the UGT2B17 CNV with AS is particularly interesting given the recent association of this CNV with osteoporosis and the proposed function as it encodes a key enzyme that inhibits androgens. However, two copies of the UGT2B17 gene CNV were only marginally significant in a uniplex AS cohort from Newfoundland but not in a uniplex AS cohort from Alberta. PMID:23927372

  19. Electron counting and a large family of two-dimensional semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Maosheng; Botana, Jorge; Zurek, Eva; Liu, Jingyao; Yang, Wen

    Two-dimensional semiconductors (2DSC) are currently the focus of many studies, thanks to their novel and superior transport properties that may greatly influence future electronic devices. The potential applications of 2DSCs range from low-dimensional electronics, topological insulators and vallytronics all the way to novel photolysis. However, compared with the conventional semiconductors that are comprised of main group elements and cover a large range of band gaps and lattice constants, the choice of 2D materials is very limited. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a large family of 2DSCs, all adopting the same structure and consisting of only main group elements. Using advanced density functional calculations, we demonstrate the attainability of these materials, and show that they cover a large range of lattice constants, band gaps and band edge states, making them good candidate materials for heterojunctions. This family of two dimensional materials may be instrumental in the fabrication of 2DSC devices that may rival the currently employed 3D semiconductors.

  20. Penetrance and clinical consequences of a gross SDHB deletion in a large family.

    PubMed

    Solis, D C; Burnichon, N; Timmers, H J L M; Raygada, M J; Kozupa, A; Merino, M J; Makey, D; Adams, K T; Venisse, A; Gimenez-Roqueplo, A-P; Pacak, K

    2009-04-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding subunit B of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and are associated with hereditary paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma. The phenotype of patients with SDHB point mutations has been previously described. However, the phenotype and penetrance of gross SDHB deletions have not been well characterized as they are rarely described. The objective was to describe the phenotype and estimate the penetrance of an exon 1 large SDHB deletion in one kindred. A retrospective and prospective study of 41 relatives across five generations was carried out. The main outcome measures were genetic testing, clinical presentations, plasma catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites. Of the 41 mutation carriers identified, 11 were diagnosed with PGL, 12 were found to be healthy carriers after evaluation, and 18 were reportedly healthy based on family history accounts. The penetrance of PGL related to the exon 1 large SDHB deletion in this family was estimated to be 35% by age 40. Variable expressivity of the phenotype associated with a large exon 1 SDHB deletion was observed, including low penetrance, diverse primary PGL tumor locations, and malignant potential. PMID:19389109

  1. Penetrance and clinical consequences of a gross SDHB deletion in a large family

    PubMed Central

    Solis, DC; Burnichon, N; Timmers, HJLM; Raygada, MJ; Kozupa, A; Merino, MJ; Makey, D; Adams, KT; Venisse, A; Gimenez-Roqueplo, A-P; Pacak, K

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding subunit B of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and are associated with hereditary paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma. The phenotype of patients with SDHB point mutations has been previously described. However, the phenotype and penetrance of gross SDHB deletions have not been well characterized as they are rarely described. The objective was to describe the phenotype and estimate the penetrance of an exon 1 large SDHB deletion in one kindred. A retrospective and prospective study of 41 relatives across five generations was carried out. The main outcome measures were genetic testing, clinical presentations, plasma catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites. Of the 41 mutation carriers identified, 11 were diagnosed with PGL, 12 were found to be healthy carriers after evaluation, and 18 were reportedly healthy based on family history accounts. The penetrance of PGL related to the exon 1 large SDHB deletion in this family was estimated to be 35% by age 40. Variable expressivity of the phenotype associated with a large exon 1 SDHB deletion was observed, including low penetrance, diverse primary PGL tumor locations, and malignant potential. PMID:19389109

  2. DETERMINATION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA CYST INFECTIVE DOSE FOR THE MONGOLIAN GERBIL (MERIONES UNQUICULATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to determine the I.D.50 for Giardia lamblia (CDC:0284:1) cysts in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unquiculatus) and compare it to human infectivity data. ysts were purified from Mongolian gerbil feces and diluted to produce inocula for each dosage group....

  3. DAGUR MONGOLIAN GRAMMAR, TEXTS, AND LEXICON. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, SAMUEL E.

    THIS DESCRIPTION OF DAGUR, A MONGOLIAN LANGUAGE, IS BASED ON THE DIALECT OF A SPEAKER BORN IN INNER MONGOLIA IN NORTHWEST MANCHURIA. SECTION I OF THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES OTHER WORKS PUBLISHED IN MONGOLIAN LINGUISTICS WHICH HAVE USED THE SAME INFORMANT, AND PRESENTS THE AUTHOR'S APPROACH, IN TERMS OF A PHRASE-STRUCTURE GRAMMAR. SECTION II PRESENTS…

  4. An Investigation to Language Uses in Mongolian Learners' Third Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Baiyinna

    2009-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, many Mongolian students are learning English as a third language. In the process of L3 teaching and learning, their mother tongue Mongolian, second language Chinese and target language English are involved. The present paper aims to find out teachers' and students' opinions of the use of the three languages in…

  5. A Novel SIX3 Mutation Segregates With Holoprosencephaly in a Large Family

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Benjamin D.; Lacbawan, Felicitas; Jain, Mahim; Domené, Sabina; Roessler, Erich; Moore, Cynthia; Dobyns, William B.; Muenke, Maximilian

    2009-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly is the most common structural malformation of the forebrain in humans and has a complex etiology including chromosomal aberrations, single gene mutations and environmental components. Here we present the pertinent clinical findings among members of an unusually large kindred ascertained over 15 years ago following the evaluation and subsequent genetic work-up of a female infant with congenital anomalies. A genome-wide scan and linkage analysis showed only suggestive evidence of linkage to markers on chromosome 2 among the most likely of several pedigree interpretations. We now report that a novel missense mutation in the SIX3 holoprosencephaly gene is the likely cause in this family. Molecular genetic analysis and/or clinical characterization now show that at least 15 members of this family are presumed SIX3 mutation gene carriers, with clinical manifestations ranging from phenotypically normal adults (non-penetrance) to alobar holoprosencephaly incompatible with postnatal life. This particular family represents a seminal example of the variable manifestations of gene mutations in holoprosencephaly and difficulties encountered in their elucidation. PMID:19353631

  6. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia in a large Swedish family: phenotypic spectrum and natural course.

    PubMed

    Grigelioniene, Giedre; Geiberger, Stefan; Horemuzova, Eva; Moström, Eva; Jäntti, Nina; Neumeyer, Lo; Åström, Eva; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Nordgren, Ann; Mäkitie, Outi

    2014-07-01

    Autosomal dominant brachyolmia (Type 3, OMIM #113500) belongs to a group of skeletal dysplasias caused by mutations in the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 (TRPV4) gene, encoding a Ca++-permeable, non-selective cation channel. The disorder is characterized by disproportionate short stature with short trunk, scoliosis and platyspondyly. The phenotypic variability and long-term natural course remain inadequately characterized. The purpose of this study was to describe a large Swedish family with brachyolmia type 3 due to a heterozygous TRPV4 mutation c.1847G>A (p.R616Q) in 11 individuals. The mutation has previously been detected in another family with autosomal dominant brachyolmia [Rock et al., 2008]. Review of hospital records and patient assessments indicated that clinical symptoms of brachyolmia became evident by school age with chronic pain in the spine and hips; radiographic changes were evident earlier. Growth was not affected during early childhood but deteriorated with age in some patients due to increasing spinal involvement. Affected individuals had a wide range of subjective symptoms with chronic pain in the extremities and the spine, and paresthesias. Our findings indicate that autosomal dominant brachyolmia may be associated with significant long-term morbidity, as seen in this family. PMID:24677493

  7. Connectivity of the Asiatic wild ass population in the Mongolian Gobi.

    PubMed

    Kaczensky, Petra; Kuehn, Ralph; Lhagvasuren, Badamjav; Pietsch, Stephanie; Yang, Weikang; Walzer, Chris

    2011-02-01

    Long-distance migrations of wildlife have been identified as important biological phenomena, but their conservation remains a major challenge. The Mongolian Gobi is one of the last refuges for the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) and other threatened migratory mammals. Using historic and current distribution ranges, population genetics, and telemetry data we assessed the connectivity of the wild ass population in the context of natural and anthropogenic landscape features and the existing network of protected areas. In the Mongolian Gobi mean biomass production is highly correlated with human and livestock density and seems to predict wild ass occurrence at the upper level. The current wild ass distribution range largely falls into areas below the 250 gC/m(2)/year productivity isoline, suggesting that under the present land use more productive areas have become unavailable for wild asses. Population genetics results identified two subpopulations and delineated a genetic boundary between the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi for which the most likely explanation are the mountain ranges separating the two areas. Home ranges and locations of 19 radiomarked wild asses support the assumed restricting effects of more productive habitats and mountain ranges and additionally point towards a barrier effect of fences. Furthermore, telemetry data shows that in the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi individual wild ass rarely ventured outside of the protected areas, whereas in the southeast Gobi asses only spend a small fraction of their time within the protected area network. Conserving the continuity of the wild ass population will need a landscape level approach, also including multi-use landscapes outside of protected areas, particularly in the southeast Gobi. In the southwest Gobi, allowing for openings in the border fence to China and managing the border area as an ecological corridor would connect three large protected areas together covering over 70,000 km(2) of wild ass

  8. MTHFR homozygous mutation and additional risk factors for cerebral infarction in a large Italian family.

    PubMed

    Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto; Perla, Massimo; Properzi, Enrico; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Several cases with cerebral infarctions associated with the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been reported. Given the large number of asymptomatic individuals with the MTHFR mutation, additional risk factors for cerebral infarction should be considered. This study describes a large family with the MTHFR mutation and a combination of heterozygous factor V Leiden mutations and different additional exogenous and endogenous thrombogenic risk factors. Psychomotor retardation and a left fronto-insular infarct associated with the MTHFR mutation together with diminished factor VII and low level of protein C was documented in the first patient. In the second patient, generalized epilepsy and a malacic area in the right nucleus lenticularis was associated with the MTHFR mutation and a low level of protein C. In the third patient, right hemiparesis and a left fronto-temporal porencephalic cyst were documented, together with the MTHFR mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia. An extensive search of additional circumstantial and genetic thrombogenic risk factors should be useful for prophylaxis and prognosis of infants with cerebral infarctions associated with the MTHFR mutation and of their related family members. PMID:19068258

  9. Signals of supersymmetry with inaccessible first two families at the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Nishita; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the signals of supersymmetry in a scenario where only the third family squarks and sleptons can be produced at the Large Hadron Collider, in addition to the gluino, charginos, and neutralinos. The final states in such cases are marked by a multiplicity of top or bottom quarks. We study, in particular, the case when the top squark, bottom squark, and gluino masses are near the TeV scale due to which, the final state t's and b's are very energetic. We point out the difficulty in b tagging and identifying energetic tops and suggest several event selection criteria which allow the signals to remain significantly above the standard model background. We show that such scenarios with gluino mass up to 2 TeV can be successfully probed at the Large Hadron Collider. Information on tan{beta} can also be obtained by looking at associated Higgs production in the cascades of accompanying neutralinos. We also show that a combined analysis of event rates in the different channels and the effective mass distribution allows one to differentiate this scenario from the one where all three sfermion families are accessible.

  10. Ocular and craniofacial phenotypes in a large Brazilian family with congenital aniridia.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Lima, Z S; Paixão-Côrtes, V R; Andrade, A K M de; Fernandes, A S; Coronado, B N L; Monte Filho, H P; Santos, M J; Omena Filho, R L de; Biondi, F C; Ruiz-Linares, A; Ramallo, V; Hünemeier, T; Schuler-Faccini, L; Monlleó, I L

    2015-01-01

    Congenital aniridia is a rare genetic disorder characterized by varying degrees of iris hypoplasia that are associated with additional ocular abnormalities. More than 90% of the causal mutations identified are found in the PAX6 gene, a transcription factor of critical importance in the process of neurogenesis and ocular development. Here, we investigate clinical, molecular, and craniofacial features of a large Brazilian family with congenital aniridia. Among the 56 eyes evaluated, phenotype variation encompassed bilateral total aniridia to mild iris defects with extensive variation between eyes of the same individual. PAX6 molecular screening indicated a heterozygous splice mutation (c.141 + 1G>A). Thus, we hypothesize that this splicing event may cause variation in the expression of the wild-type transcript, which may lead to the observed variation in phenotype. Affected individuals were more brachycephalic, even though their face height and cephalic circumference were not significantly different when compared to those of non-affected relatives. From this, we infer that the head shape of affected subjects may also be a result of the PAX6 splice-site mutation. Our data summarize the clinical variability associated with the ocular phenotype in a large family with aniridia, and help shed light on the role of PAX6 in neurocranial development. PMID:24266705

  11. A large and functionally diverse family of Fad2 genes in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The application and nutritional value of vegetable oil is highly dependent on its fatty acid composition, especially the relative proportion of its two major fatty acids, i.e oleic acid and linoleic acid. Microsomal oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase encoded by FAD2 gene is known to introduce a double bond at the Δ12 position of an oleic acid on phosphatidylcholine and convert it to linoleic acid. The known plant FAD2 enzymes are encoded by small gene families consisting of 1-4 members. In addition to the classic oleate Δ12-desaturation activity, functional variants of FAD2 that are capable of undertaking additional or alternative acyl modifications have also been reported in a limited number of plant species. In this study, our objective was to identify FAD2 genes from safflower and analyse their differential expression profile and potentially diversified functionality. Results We report here the characterization and functional expression of an exceptionally large FAD2 gene family from safflower, and the temporal and spatial expression profiles of these genes as revealed through Real-Time quantitative PCR. The diversified functionalities of some of the safflower FAD2 gene family members were demonstrated by ectopic expression in yeast and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. CtFAD2-1 and CtFAD2-10 were demonstrated to be oleate desaturases specifically expressed in developing seeds and flower head, respectively, while CtFAD2-2 appears to have relatively low oleate desaturation activity throughout the plant. CtFAD2-5 and CtFAD2-8 are specifically expressed in root tissues, while CtFAD2-3, 4, 6, 7 are mostly expressed in the cotyledons and hypocotyls in young safflower seedlings. CtFAD2-9 was found to encode a novel desaturase operating on C16:1 substrate. CtFAD2-11 is a tri-functional enzyme able to introduce a carbon double bond in either cis or trans configuration, or a carbon triple (acetylenic) bond at the Δ12 position

  12. [Preliminary comparative study of swertiamarin and swertisin on three kinds of Digeda-species Mongolian medicinal materials].

    PubMed

    Lv, Ying; Zhang, Hai-tao; Wang, Yan-fang; Zhu, Hong; Long, Ping; Wang, Zhen-wang; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Chun-hong

    2015-03-01

    Lomatogonium rotatum (L.) Fries, Gentianopsis barbata (Froel) Ma, and Gentianella acuta (Michx.) Hulten, the three kinds of Digeda-species Mongolian medicinal materials belonging to the family Gentianaceae, bad been widely used for the treatment of liver diseases. To analyze comparatively the content of swertiamarin and swertisin among these three kinds of Digeda-species Mongolian medicinal materials. HPLC method was applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of swertiamarin and swertisin. The Phenomenex C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) was used, chromatographic methanol and water as mobile phase, the flow rate was 1.5 mL x min(-1) with UV detected at 237 nm, column oven temperature was 25 degrees C. Results showed that the contents of swertiamarin and swertisin were closely related the different species and producing areas. The content range of swertiamarin in L. rotatum from different habitats was 1.73% - 2.72%, 0.43% - 0.96% for the swertisin content; the content of swertiamarin in G. barbata from Alxa Left Banner was 0.38%, and the content of swertiamarin and swertisin in G. barbata from the others habitats and G. Acuta from different habitats were all detected qualitatively. The contents of swertiamarin and swertisin among these medicinal plants showed a significant difference due to the different species and producing areas. As a consequence, these medicinal plants should not be put together for clinical applications. PMID:26087537

  13. H pylori infection causes chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Gabriele; Karnholz, Arno; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Merchant, Juanita L; Haas, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether chronic H pylori infection has the potential to induce pancreatitis in the Mongolian gerbil model, and whether it is dependent on an intact type IV secretion system. METHODS: Mongolian gerbils were infected with wild type (WT) H pylori typeIstrain B128 or its isogenic mutant B128 ΔcagY (defective type IV secretion). After seven months of infection, H pylori was reisolated from antrum and corpus and H pylori DNA was analyzed by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inflammation and histological changes were documented in the gastric antrum, corpus, and pancreas by immunohistochemistry. Cytokine mRNA, gastric pH, plasma gastrin, amylase, lipase, and glucose levels were determined. RESULTS: The H pylori infection rate was 95%. Eight infected animals, but none of the uninfected group, developed transmural inflammation and chronic pancreatitis. Extensive interstitial fibrosis and inflammation of the pancreatic lobe adjacent to the antrum was confirmed by trichrome stain, and immuno-histochemically. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was significantly increased in the antral mucosa of all infected gerbils. In the corpus, only cytokine levels of WT-infected animals and those developing transmural inflammation and pancreatitis were significantly increased. Levels of lipase, but not glucose or amylase levels, were significantly reduced in the pancreatitis group. H pylori DNA was detected in infected antral and corpus tissue, but not in the pancreas. CONCLUSION: H pylori infection is able to induce chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils independently of the type IV secretion system, probably by an indirect mechanism associated with a penetrating ulcer. PMID:17663507

  14. [A lethal variant of Netherton syndrome in a large inbred family].

    PubMed

    Capri, Y; Vanlieferinghen, P; Boeuf, B; Dechelotte, P; Hovnanian, A; Lecomte, B

    2011-03-01

    Netherton syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the triad of ichthyosiform erythrodermia, typical hair dysplasia, and severe atopic features. The broad range of variable expression of this disease is well described and 20% of complications occur during the neonatal period such as hypernatremic dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, recurrent or severe infections, and failure to thrive. Mutation of the SPINK5 gene has been identified as disease-causing in Netherton syndrome, but the pathophysiology still remains unclear. Almost all SPINK5 mutations result in the absence of the serine-protease inhibitor LEKTI protein in both keratinocytes and lymphocytes. In this study, we report on a severe form of Netherton syndrome observed in three patients within a large inbred Rom family. All of them died in the first months of life despite early treatment. They were found to be homozygous for the c.1431-12G>A SPINK5 gene mutation, which has not been associated with a lethal form of the disease thus far. This family illustrates the extreme phenotype of Netherton disease of neonatal onset. Molecular diagnosis allowed further genetic counseling and prenatal testing during other pregnancies. PMID:21255986

  15. Functional Divergence of the Glutathione S-Transferase Supergene Family in Physcomitrella patens Reveals Complex Patterns of Large Gene Family Evolution in Land Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Jing; Han, Xue-Min; Ren, Lin-Ling; Yang, Hai-Ling; Zeng, Qing-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family that play major roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and oxidative stress metabolism. To date, studies on the GST gene family have focused mainly on vascular plants (particularly agricultural plants). In contrast, little information is available on the molecular characteristics of this large gene family in nonvascular plants. In addition, the evolutionary patterns of this family in land plants remain unclear. In this study, we identified 37 GST genes from the whole genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a nonvascular representative of early land plants. The 37 P. patens GSTs were divided into 10 classes, including two new classes (hemerythrin and iota). However, no tau GSTs were identified, which represent the largest class among vascular plants. P. patens GST gene family members showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, gene expression responses to abiotic stressors, enzymatic characteristics, and the subcellular locations of the encoded proteins. A joint phylogenetic analysis of GSTs from P. patens and other higher vascular plants showed that different class GSTs had distinct duplication patterns during the evolution of land plants. By examining multiple characteristics, this study revealed complex patterns of evolutionary divergence among the GST gene family in land plants. PMID:23188805

  16. Effects of Siblings on Reproductive Maturation and Infanticidal Behavior in Cooperatively Breeding Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Thinda, Sumeer; Higgins, Alexis L.; Matsumoto, Wesley R.; Ahmed, Shahen; McGeehan, Laura; Kolb, Erik M.

    2008-01-01

    Mongolian gerbils living with their natal families undergo delayed reproductive maturation while helping to rear their younger siblings, whereas those housed away from their natal families may mature earlier but often respond aggressively to unfamiliar pups. We tested whether cohabitation with pups contributes to reproductive suppression and inhibition of infanticidal behavior, using young males and females housed with (1) their parents and younger siblings (pups), (2) parents without pups, (3) mixed-sex littermate groups, or (4) mixed-sex groups of unrelated peers. Maturation in males was inhibited by cohabitation with the parents, while maturation in females was further suppressed in the presence of pups. Males in all housing conditions showed little aggression towards unfamiliar pups, whereas females were usually infanticidal unless housed with pups. Aggression toward pups was especially pronounced in females that were pregnant or undergoing ovulatory cycles. Thus, cohabitation with younger siblings may intensify reproductive suppression and inhibit infanticidal behavior in female gerbils, whereas male gerbils exhibit parentally-induced reproductive suppression and low rates of infanticide even in the absence of younger siblings. PMID:18942052

  17. Gene mapping study for constitutive skin color in an isolated Mongolian population

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seungbok; Im, Sun-Wha; Ju, Young Seok; Yeon, Je Ho; Jo, Seong Jin; Eun, Hee Chul; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the genes responsible for constitutive human skin color, we measured the extent of skin pigmentation in the buttock, representative of lifelong non-sun-exposed skin, and conducted a gene mapping study on skin color in an isolated Mongolian population composed of 344 individuals from 59 families who lived in Dashbalbar, Mongolia. The heritability of constitutive skin color was 0.82, indicating significant genetic association on this trait. Through the linkage analysis using 1,039 short tandem repeat (STR) microsatellite markers, we identified a novel genomic region regulating constitutive skin color on 11q24.2 with an logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 3.39. In addition, we also found other candidate regions on 17q23.2, 6q25.1, and 13q33.2 (LOD ≥ 2). Family-based association tests on these regions with suggestive linkage peaks revealed ten and two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the linkage regions of chromosome 11 and 17, respectively. We were able to discover four possible candidate genes that would be implicated to regulate human skin color: ETS1, UBASH3B, ASAM, and CLTC. PMID:22198297

  18. The Role of Family Environment in Depressive Symptoms among University Students: A Large Sample Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Lu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Zhou, Jiawei; Pan, Hui; Ban, Bo; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Ding, Yongqing; Bai, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between family environment and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the influence of hard and soft family environmental factors on depression levels in a large sample of university students in China. Methods A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select 6,000 participants. The response rate was 88.8%, with 5,329 students completing the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Family Environment Scale Chinese Version (FES-CV), which was adapted for the Chinese population. Differences between the groups were tested for significance by the Student’s t-test; ANOVA was used to test continuous variables. The relationship between soft family environmental factors and BDI were tested by Pearson correlation analysis. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to model the effects of hard environmental factors and soft environmental factors on depression in university students. Results A total of 11.8% of students scored above the threshold of moderate depression(BDI≧14). Hard family environmental factors such as parent relationship, family economic status, level of parental literacy and non-intact family structure were associated with depressive symptoms. The soft family environmental factors—conflict and control—were positively associated with depression, while cohesion was negatively related to depressive symptom after controlling for other important associates of depression. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the soft family environment correlates more strongly with depression than the hard family environment. Conclusions Soft family environmental factors—especially cohesion, conflict and control—appeared to play an important role in the occurrence of depressive symptoms. These findings underline the significance of the family environment as a source of risk factors for depression among university students in China and suggest that family-based interventions and improvement are very

  19. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P < 0.0001). When stratified by age, the prevalence was highest among young patients, and tended to decrease in patients aged 50 years or older. The anti-East-Asian CagA-specific antibody was negative in 99.4% of H. pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001), with the exception of the intestinal

  20. Several Families of Sequences with Low Correlation and Large Linear Span

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fanxin; Zhang, Zhenyu

    In DS-CDMA systems and DS-UWB radios, low correlation of spreading sequences can greatly help to minimize multiple access interference (MAI) and large linear span of spreading sequences can reduce their predictability. In this letter, new sequence sets with low correlation and large linear span are proposed. Based on the construction Trm1[Trnm(αbt+γiαdt)]r for generating p-ary sequences of period pn-1, where n=2m, d=upm±v, b=u±v, γi∈GF(pn), and p is an arbitrary prime number, several methods to choose the parameter d are provided. The obtained sequences with family size pn are of four-valued, five-valued, six-valued or seven-valued correlation and the maximum nontrivial correlation value is (u+v-1)pm-1. The simulation by a computer shows that the linear span of the new sequences is larger than that of the sequences with Niho-type and Welch-type decimations, and similar to that of [10].

  1. A network pharmacology study of Sendeng-4, a Mongolian medicine.

    PubMed

    Zi, Tian; Yu, Dong

    2015-02-01

    We collected the data on the Sendeng-4 chemical composition corresponding targets through the literature and from DrugBank, SuperTarget, TTD (Therapeutic Targets Database) and other databases and the relevant signaling pathways from the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database and established models of the chemical composition-target network and chemical composition-target-disease network using Cytoscape software, the analysis indicated that the chemical composition had at least nine different types of targets that acted together to exert effects on the diseases, suggesting a "multi-component, multi-target" feature of the traditional Mongolian medicine. We also employed the rat model of rheumatoid arthritis induced by Collgen Type II to validate the key targets of the chemical components of Sendeng-4, and three of the key targets were validated through laboratory experiments, further confirming the anti-inflammatory effects of Sendeng-4. In all, this study predicted the active ingredients and targets of Sendeng-4, and explored its mechanism of action, which provided new strategies and methods for further research and development of Sendeng-4 and other traditional Mongolian medicines as well. PMID:25769893

  2. Streptococcus merionis sp. nov., isolated from Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Pukall, Rüdiger; Schumann, Peter; Gronow, Sabine; Spiliotis, Markus; Claus, Heike; Brehm, Klaus; Vogel, Ulrich

    2009-04-01

    Gram-positive, catalase-negative, chain-forming, coccus-shaped organisms were isolated both from intraperitoneally grown vesicles of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis and the oropharynges of laboratory-kept Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The strains displayed no haemolytic activity on Columbia sheep blood agar, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase activity was negative and the organisms reacted weakly with Lancefield group D antiserum. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, the strains were tentatively identified as members of the genus Streptococcus. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed their assignment to the genus Streptococcus and revealed that Streptococcus hyointestinalis DSM 20770(T) was their closest phylogenetic neighbour (96.5 % sequence similarity). The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the isolates and representatives of species of the genus Streptococcus were only 95.7-96.2 %. On the basis of the phenotypic and molecular data presented, the isolates from Mongolian jirds represent a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus merionis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WUE3771(T) (=DSM 19192(T)=CCUG 54871(T)). PMID:19329603

  3. The Mongolian gerbil as a model for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Eva-Maria; Martin, Myriam; Bleich, André; Klos, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Mongolian gerbils are used as biomedical research models for a variety of diseases and are in some cases suited better than other rodents for basic research and therapeutic studies. The aim of this study was to establish and characterize a dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced model in gerbils for the human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to utilize them for a therapeutic study in vivo. Four concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4%) of DSS were administered via drinking water for 7 days; based on these results, a concentration of 3% DSS was given for 9 days in a second approach. Fluid uptake and general clinical condition were assessed daily using a clinical score. Caecum and colon were scored histologically. Fluid uptake was affected by addition of DSS to the drinking water. First clinical symptoms were observed at day 4 of DSS treatment with a considerable increase in clinical score parameters only in gerbils receiving 2% or 4% DSS. Histologically, ulceration and inflammation were observed predominantly in the caecum of gerbils treated with at least 1% DSS; reproducible inflammation in the colon required at least 2% DSS. Using 3% DSS for 9 days, considerably more inflammation was induced in the colon, comparable with lesions usually observed in the mouse model. Using an optimized protocol, DSS treatment induces reproducibly typhlocolitis in Mongolian gerbils, rendering them as a useful model for IBD. PMID:20113376

  4. Rapid Loss of Lakes on the Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, S.; Fang, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, S.; Shen, H.; Hu, H.; Tang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Mongolian Plateau and as critical water sources have sustained Mongolian pastures for hundreds of years. However, the plateau has experienced significant lake shrinkage and grassland degradation during the past several decades. To quantify the changes in all the lakes on the plateau and the associated driving factors, we performed a satellite-based survey using multi-temporal Landsat images from the 1970s to 2000s, combining with ground-based censuses. Our results document a rapid loss of lakes on the plateau in the past decades: the number of lakes with a water surface area >1 km2 decreased from 785 in the late 1980s to 577 in 2010, with a greater rate of decrease (34.0%) in Inner Mongolia of China than in Mongolia (17.6%). This decrease has been particularly pronounced since the late 1990s in Inner Mongolia and the number of lakes >10 km2 has declined by 30.0%. The statistical analyses suggested that in Mongolia precipitation was the dominant driver for the lake changes, while in Inner Mongolia coal mining was most important in its grassland area and irrigation was the leading factor in its cultivated area. The deterioration of lakes is expected to continue in the following decades not only because of changing climate but also increasing exploitation of underground mineral and groundwater resources on the plateau. To protect grasslands and the indigenous nomads, effective action is urgently required to save these valuable lakes from further deterioration.

  5. Stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis by proteins of glycoside hydrolase family 61: structure and function of a large, enigmatic family.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul V; Welner, Ditte; McFarland, K C; Re, Edward; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian; Brown, Kimberly; Salbo, Rune; Ding, Hanshu; Vlasenko, Elena; Merino, Sandy; Xu, Feng; Cherry, Joel; Larsen, Sine; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2010-04-20

    Currently, the relatively high cost of enzymes such as glycoside hydrolases that catalyze cellulose hydrolysis represents a barrier to commercialization of a biorefinery capable of producing renewable transportable fuels such as ethanol from abundant lignocellulosic biomass. Among the many families of glycoside hydrolases that catalyze cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis, few are more enigmatic than family 61 (GH61), originally classified based on measurement of very weak endo-1,4-beta-d-glucanase activity in one family member. Here we show that certain GH61 proteins lack measurable hydrolytic activity by themselves but in the presence of various divalent metal ions can significantly reduce the total protein loading required to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass. We also solved the structure of one highly active GH61 protein and find that it is devoid of conserved, closely juxtaposed acidic side chains that could serve as general proton donor and nucleophile/base in a canonical hydrolytic reaction, and we conclude that the GH61 proteins are unlikely to be glycoside hydrolases. Structure-based mutagenesis shows the importance of several conserved residues for GH61 function. By incorporating the gene for one GH61 protein into a commercial Trichoderma reesei strain producing high levels of cellulolytic enzymes, we are able to reduce by 2-fold the total protein loading (and hence the cost) required to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:20230050

  6. Retrospective analysis of cohort database: Phenotypic variability in a large dataset of patients confirmed to have homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Frederick J; Sjouke, Barbara; Hovingh, G Kees; Isaac, Barton F

    2016-06-01

    These data describe the phenotypic variability in a large cohort of patients confirmed to have homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Herein, we describe the observed relationship of treated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with age. We also overlay the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) functional status with these phenotypic data. A full description of these data is available in our recent study published in Atherosclerosis, "Phenotype Diversity Among Patients With Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Cohort Study" (Raal et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27182539

  7. Screening for large rearrangements of the BRCA2 gene in Spanish families with breast/ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; de la Hoya, Miguel; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Sanchez de Abajo, Ana; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Llort, Gemma; Blanco, Ignacio; Beristain, Elena; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Alonso, Carmen; Tejada, María-Isabel; Caldés, Trinidad; Diez, Orland

    2007-05-01

    Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for about 30-60% of the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). A large number of point mutations have been described in both genes. However, large deletions and duplications that disrupt one or more exons are overlooked by point mutation detection approaches. Over the past years several rearrangements have been identified in BRCA1, while few studies have been designed to screen this type of mutations in BRCA2. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of large genomic rearrangements in the BRCA2 gene in Spanish breast/ovarian cancer families. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was employed to search gross deletions or duplications of BRCA2 in 335 Spanish moderate to high-risk breast/ovarian cancer families previously screened negative for point mutations by conventional methods. Four different and novel large genomic alterations were consistently identified by MLPA in five families, respectively: deletions of exon 2, exons 10-12 and exons 15-16 and duplication of exon 20 (in two families). RT-PCR experiments confirmed the deletion of exons 15-16. All patients harbouring a genomic rearrangement were members of high-risk families, with three or more breast/ovarian cancer cases or the presence of breast cancer in males. We provide evidence that the BRCA2 rearrangements seem to account for a relatively small proportion of familial breast cancer cases in Spanish population. The screening for these alterations as part of the comprehensive genetic testing can be recommended, especially in multiple case breast/ovarian families and families with male breast cancer cases. PMID:17063271

  8. From new genetics to everyday knowledge: Ideas about how genetic diseases are transmitted in two large Brazilian families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Silvana; Bizzo, Nelio

    2005-07-01

    This study focuses on everyday or lay understandings of inheritance. In the northeastern Brazil, 100 individuals were interviewed in order to describe how they explain the origin of genetic disorders affecting their relatives for several generations. There were involved 60 individuals from a large consanguineous family with many members affected with a neurodegenerative disorder, SPOAN syndrome (spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy), and 40 individuals of another family living with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The results indicate that families here studied have built narratives to explain the origin of genetic diseases, saying that an ancestor infected with syphilis gave rise to disorders and birthmarks transmitted to descendents.

  9. Intense paramagnon excitations in a large family of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tacon, Mathieu

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by the search for the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity, an intense research effort has been focused on the evolution of the spin excitation spectrum upon doping from the antiferromagnetic insulating to the superconducting states of the cuprates. Because of technical limitations, however, the experimental investigation of doped cuprates has been largely focused on excitations with energies <=100 meV in a small range of momentum space [1]. Here we take advantage of the recent developments of high-resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering [2,3] to show that a large family of superconductors, encompassing the model compounds YBa2Cu4O8 and YBa2Cu3O7, exhibits damped spin excitations - or paramagnons - with dispersions and spectral weights closely similar to those of magnons in undoped, antiferromagnetically ordered cuprates over much of the Brillouin zone. The results are in excellent agreement with the spin excitations obtained by exact diagonalization of the t-J Hamiltonian on finite-sized clusters. A numerical solution of the Eliashberg equations based on the experimental spin excitation spectrum of YBa2Cu3O7 reproduces its superconducting transition temperature Tc within a factor of two. The discovery of a well-defined, surprisingly simple spin excitation branch over a wide range of doping levels thus strongly supports magnetic Cooper pairing models for the cuprates [4]. [4pt] [1] M. Fujita et al. arXiv/condmat:1108.4431[0pt] [2] G. Ghiringhelli et al., Review of Scientific Instruments, 77, (2006).[0pt] [3] L. Braicovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 104, 077002 (2010).[0pt] [4] M. Le Tacon et al., Nature Physics 7, 725 (2011).

  10. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes. PMID:27597808

  11. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes. PMID:27597808

  12. [Image identification for microscopic structures of Mongolian herbal flowers with invariant moments].

    PubMed

    Hasi, Surong; Amu, Guleng; Gao, Luyan; Qi, Shisan

    2008-02-01

    Microscopic characteristics of several Mongolian Herbal flowers were extracted by improved Pseudo-Jacobi (p = 4, q = 2)-Fourier Moments (PJFM's), and 368 different versions of 28 microscopic characteristics of these herbs were identified by using the minimum-mean-distance rule. The experimental results showed that the average identification rate reaches as high as 98.1%. Therefore, this study can provide new techniques for digitalization and visualization of microscopic characteristics of Mongolian Herbs. PMID:18435278

  13. Familial pheochromocytoma, hypercalcemia, and von Hippel-Lindau disease. A ten year study of a large family.

    PubMed

    Atuk, N O; McDonald, T; Wood, T; Carpenter, J T; Walzak, M P; Donaldson, M; Gillenwater, J Y

    1979-05-01

    Long-term epidemiological and laboratory studies were carried out in a kindred with familial pheochromocytoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Thirteen members were affected by the syndrome and the trait appears to be transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. Of 13 patients, 7 had pheochromocytoma alone. Of the remaining six patients, one had pheochromocytoma combined with von Hippel-Lindau disease, four had pheochromocytoma with retinal disease only, and a single patient had a retinal lesion without pheochromocytoma. In four patients, pheochromocytoma antedated the development of retinal lesions. Ten members also had mild hypercalcemia without accompanying elevations of PTH in the 4 patients in whom this was determined. In all, hypercalcemia was corrected with removal of tumors, and no patient had a return of hypercalcemia in the absence of recurrent increases in urinary catecholamines. The clinical presentations in 12 patients varied markedly, as did their urinary excretion rates of norepinephrine, epinephrine and their metabolites. However, an analysis of the data revealed significant correlations not previously described between the urinary excretion of free catecholamines (norepinephrine plus epinephrine), blood pressure, the free catecholamine content of the tumor and the age of the patient. Urinary excretion of free norepinephrine plus epinephrine appear to be decreased with advancing age (p less than 0.001). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the age of the patient were inversely correlated (p less than 0.01). A significant inverse relationship between the tumor content of free catecholamines and the age of the patients was, although to a lesser degree, also present (p less than 0.05). As a whole, the size of the tumors and their norepinephrine content were not correlated. We present a concept that, in familial pheochromocytoma, the metabolism of catecholamines is altered by the process of aging, and that this change modifies the

  14. Mongolians core gut microbiota and its correlation with seasonal dietary changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Lim, Angela An Qi; Zheng, Yi; Koh, Eileen Y; Ho, Danliang; Qiao, Jianmin; Huo, Dongxue; Hou, Qiangchuan; Huang, Weiqiang; Wang, Lifeng; Javzandulam, Chimedsuren; Narangerel, Choijilsuren; Jirimutu; Menghebilige; Lee, Yuan-Kun; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the Mongol Empire ranks among the world's largest contiguous empires, and the Mongolians developed their unique lifestyle and diet over thousands of years. In this study, the intestinal microbiota of Mongolians residing in Ulan Bator, TUW province and the Khentii pasturing area were studied using 454 pyrosequencing and q-PCR technology. We explored the impacts of lifestyle and seasonal dietary changes on the Mongolians' gut microbes. At the phylum level, the Mongolians's gut populations were marked by a dominance of Bacteroidetes (55.56%) and a low Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (0.71). Analysis based on the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level revealed that the Mongolian core intestinal microbiota comprised the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Subdoligranulum and Coprococcus. Urbanisation and life-style may have modified the compositions of the gut microbiota of Mongolians from Ulan Bator, TUW and Khentii. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, we found that the dietary structure was diverse and stable throughout the year in Ulan Bator and TUW, but was simple and varied during the year in Khentii. Accordingly, seasonal effects on intestinal microbiota were more distinct in Khentii residents than in TUW or Ulan Bator residents. PMID:24833488

  15. Treatment of persistent Mongolian spots with Q-switched alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Shinji; Asahina, Akihiko; Uwajima, Yuta; Miyamoto, Akie; Yamada, Daisuke; Shibata, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Mizuho; Masui, Yuri; Sato, Shinichi

    2012-11-01

    Mongolian spots are congenital and confluent hyperpigmented areas that are usually grayish blue in color. They are found most frequently in the sacral region in infants and typically disappear during childhood. Occasionally, they persist to adulthood. We retrospectively examined outcomes of laser treatment of persistent Mongolian spots. We used Q-switched alexandrite laser to treat persistent Mongolian spots of 16 Japanese patients at 14 years old or older. A good therapeutic outcome was achieved overall; however, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation were observed in two patients, respectively. While laser treatment was effective for all seven patients with extrasacral Mongolian spots, four out of ten patients with sacral Mongolian spots were refractory to treatment. Of these patients, two received laser irradiation only twice and abandoned treatment, simply because of unsatisfactory results without any adverse events. The other two patients received treatments at intervals of 3 months, which resulted in postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Contrary to children, who generally show good response after two or three sessions of irradiation, we should consider more frequent irradiation, longer intervals between treatment sessions, and use of bleaching creams in the treatment of persistent sacral Mongolian spots in adults. PMID:22565344

  16. Atrial fibrillation anticoagulation care in a large urban family medicine practice

    PubMed Central

    Valentinis, Alissia; Ivers, Noah; Bhatia, Sacha; Meshkat, Nazanin; Leblanc, Kori; Ha, Andrew; Morra, Dante

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the proportion of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in primary care achieving guideline-concordant stroke prevention treatment based on both the previous (2010) and the updated (2012) Canadian guideline recommendations. Design Retrospective chart review. Participants Primary care patients (N = 204) with AF. The mean age was 71.3 years and 53.4% were women. Setting Large urban community family practice in Toronto, Ont. Main outcome measures Patient demographic characteristics such as sex and age; a list of current cardiac medications including anticoagulants and antiplatelets; the total number of medications; relevant current and past medical history including presence of diabetes, stroke or transient ischemic attack, hypertension, and vascular disease; number of visits to the family physician and cardiologist in the past year and past 5 years, and how many of these were for AF; the number of visits to the emergency department or hospitalizations for AF, congestive heart failure, or stroke; if patients were taking warfarin, how often their international normalized ratios were recorded, and how many times they were in the reference range; CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75, diabetes mellitus, and stroke or transient ischemic attack) score, if recorded; and reason for not taking oral anticoagulants when they should have been, if recorded. Results Among those who had CHADS2 scores of 0, 64 patients (97.0%) were receiving appropriate stroke prevention in AF (SPAF) treatment according to the 2010 guidelines. When the 2012 guidelines were applied, 39 patients (59.1%) were receiving appropriate SPAF treatment (P < .001). For those with CHADS2 scores of 1, 88.4% of patients had appropriate SPAF treatment according to the 2010 guidelines, but only 55.1% were adequately treated according to the 2012 guidelines (P < .001). Of the patients at the highest risk (CHADS2 score > 1), 68.1% were adequately treated with

  17. Familiality of Co-existing ADHD and Tic Disorders: Evidence from a Large Sibling Study

    PubMed Central

    Roessner, Veit; Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Andreas; Buse, Judith; Wanderer, Sina; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Steven V.; Asherson, Philip; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is frequent and clinically important. Very few and inconclusive attempts have been made to clarify if and how the combination of ADHD+TD runs in families. Aim: To determine the first time in a large-scale ADHD sample whether ADHD+TD increases the risk of ADHD+TD in siblings and, also the first time, if this is independent of their psychopathological vulnerability in general. Methods: The study is based on the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. The present sub-sample of 2815 individuals included ADHD-index patients with co-existing TD (ADHD+TD, n = 262) and without TD (ADHD–TD, n = 947) as well as their 1606 full siblings (n = 358 of the ADHD+TD index patients and n = 1248 of the ADHD-TD index patients). We assessed psychopathological symptoms in index patients and siblings by using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the parent and teacher Conners' long version Rating Scales (CRS). For disorder classification the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS-Interview) was applied in n = 271 children. Odds ratio with the GENMOD procedure (PROCGENMOD) was used to test if the risk for ADHD, TD, and ADHD+TD in siblings was associated with the related index patients' diagnoses. In order to get an estimate for specificity we compared the four groups for general psychopathological symptoms. Results: Co-existing ADHD+TD in index patients increased the risk of both comorbid ADHD+TD and TD in the siblings of these index patients. These effects did not extend to general psychopathology. Interpretation: Co-existence of ADHD+TD may segregate in families. The same holds true for TD (without ADHD). Hence, the segregation of TD (included in both groups) seems to be the determining factor, independent of further behavioral problems. This close relationship between ADHD and TD supports the clinical approach to carefully assess ADHD in any case

  18. Spontaneous lesions and parasites of the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A L; Porter, D D; Ash, L R

    1975-12-01

    Four-hundred-eighty Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus [Uclp:(MON)], most of which were experimentally infected with filarial worms, were examined for spontaneous lesions. Previously unrecognized lesions included cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, duodenal adenocarcinoma, malignant blue nevus, hepatic choleangiocarcinoma, malignant hemangiopericytoma of the uterus, ovarian teratoma, chronic interstitial nephritis, renal cortical retention cysts, splenic hemangiomas, and various histologic abnormalities of the lung. Previously reported lesions also seen in the present study were a malignant melanoma, adrenal cortical adenoma or carcinoma, uterine leiomyoma, sebaceous gland adenoma, hepatic lymphangioma, and renal hemangioma. Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) and Tyrophagus castellani (Acarina) were accidentally recovered from experimental animals. Tritichomonas caviae and a species of Entamoeba were the most common intestinal protozoa. Tyzzer's disease, however, was clearly the most significant infectious disease of gerbils in the UCLA School of Public Health colony. PMID:1207042

  19. Comparison of Pyrolysis Characteristics of degreased and synthesized Mongolian Pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaige; Wang, Shurong; Guo, Xiujuan; Luo, Zhongyang; Fransson, Torsten

    2010-11-01

    In order to study the influence of components' cross-interaction on biomass pyrolysis, research of degreased and synthesized Mongolian Pine (MP) was performed on a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and the fast pyrolysis device. Compared with synthesized MP, the thermal behavior of degreased MP is much closer to the original and the degreased MP produces less aldehydes, alcohols or phenols and acids due to the cross-interactions of components. Synthesized MP has lower bio-oil yield and higher gas production than the degreased one. And the contents of furfural, acetic acid and levoglucosan change with the kind of samples obviously due to the intense cross-interactions of components.

  20. Changing climate and overgrazing are decimating Mongolian steppes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Y; Evans, Jason P; McCabe, Matthew F; de Jeu, Richard A M; van Dijk, Albert I J M; Dolman, Albertus J; Saizen, Izuru

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations identify the Mongolian steppes as a hotspot of global biomass reduction, the extent of which is comparable with tropical rainforest deforestation. To conserve or restore these grasslands, the relative contributions of climate and human activities to degradation need to be understood. Here we use a recently developed 21-year (1988-2008) record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass), to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature. After removing these climate induced influences, a significant decreasing trend still persists in the VOD residuals across regions of Mongolia. Correlations in spatial patterns and temporal trends suggest that a marked increase in goat density with associated grazing pressures and wild fires are the most likely non-climatic factors behind grassland degradation. PMID:23451249

  1. La Crosse viremias in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatis).

    PubMed

    Osorio, J E; Yuill, T M

    1996-11-01

    We examined the usefulness of mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) as a new animal model for La Crosse virus (LACV) studies. Gerbils were exposed to LACV by either intramuscular (im) inoculation or exposure to transovarially infected Aedes triseriatus. Our studies indicate that gerbils may be a suitable animal model for LACV infection. Gerbils were susceptible to LACV, survived viral infection, and developed viremias and neutralizing antibody titers following exposure by im injection and by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Moreover, they are attractive to mosquito vectors. Gerbils have other advantages as laboratory vertebrate hosts for LACV; they are inexpensive, breed in captivity, and are usually mild-mannered and easy to handle. Thus, gerbils are a suitable model in the study of LACV pathogenesis as well as of transplacental and vector transmission. PMID:8940992

  2. Family Size, Birth Order, and Intelligence in a Large South American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velandia, Wilson; And Others

    1978-01-01

    According to confluence theory, a child is helped or hindered in intellectual development according to the average absolute intelligence (mental age) in the family when the child is born. An analysis of test scores, family information, and socioeconomic data of 36,000 college applicants in Colombia failed to support this theory. (Author/CP)

  3. Rapid loss of lakes on the Mongolian Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shengli; Fang, Jingyun; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Shuqing; Shen, Haihua; Hu, Huifeng; Tang, Zhiyao; Wang, Zhiheng; Guo, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Mongolian Plateau and, as critical water sources, have sustained Mongolian pastures for hundreds of years. However, the plateau has experienced significant lake shrinkage and grassland degradation during the past several decades. To quantify the changes in all of the lakes on the plateau and the associated driving factors, we performed a satellite-based survey using multitemporal Landsat images from the 1970s to 2000s, combined with ground-based censuses. Our results document a rapid loss of lakes on the plateau in the past decades: the number of lakes with a water surface area >1 km2 decreased from 785 in the late 1980s to 577 in 2010, with a greater rate of decrease (34.0%) in Inner Mongolia of China than in Mongolia (17.6%). This decrease has been particularly pronounced since the late 1990s in Inner Mongolia and the number of lakes >10 km2 has declined by 30.0%. The statistical analyses suggested that in Mongolia precipitation was the dominant driver for the lake changes, and in Inner Mongolia coal mining was most important in its grassland area and irrigation was the leading factor in its cultivated area. The deterioration of lakes is expected to continue in the following decades not only because of changing climate but also increasing exploitation of underground mineral and groundwater resources on the plateau. To protect grasslands and the indigenous nomads, effective action is urgently required to save these valuable lakes from further deterioration. PMID:25646423

  4. Plant Functional Diversity and Species Diversity in the Mongolian Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guofang; Xie, Xiufang; Ye, Duo; Ye, Xuehua; Tuvshintogtokh, Indree; Mandakh, Bayart; Huang, Zhenying; Dong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mongolian steppe is one of the most important grasslands in the world but suffers from aridization and damage from anthropogenic activities. Understanding structure and function of this community is important for the ecological conservation, but has seldom been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a total of 324 quadrats located on the three main types of Mongolian steppes were surveyed. Early-season perennial forbs (37% of total importance value), late-season annual forbs (33%) and late-season perennial forbs (44%) were dominant in meadow, typical and desert steppes, respectively. Species richness, diversity and plant functional type (PFT) richness decreased from the meadow, via typical to desert steppes, but evenness increased; PFT diversity in the desert and meadow steppes was higher than that in typical steppe. However, above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) was far lower in desert steppe than in the other two steppes. In addition, the slope of the relationship between species richness and PFT richness increased from the meadow, via typical to desert steppes. Similarly, with an increase in species diversity, PFT diversity increased more quickly in both the desert and typical steppes than that in meadow steppe. Random resampling suggested that this coordination was partly due to a sampling effect of diversity. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that desert steppe should be strictly protected because of its limited functional redundancy, which its ecological functioning is sensitive to species loss. In contrast, despite high potential forage production shared by the meadow and typical steppes, management of these two types of steppes should be different: meadow steppe should be preserved due to its higher conservation value characterized by more species redundancy and higher spatial heterogeneity, while typical steppe could be utilized moderately because its dominant grass genus Stipa is resistant to

  5. Rapid loss of lakes on the Mongolian Plateau.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shengli; Fang, Jingyun; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Shuqing; Shen, Haihua; Hu, Huifeng; Tang, Zhiyao; Wang, Zhiheng; Guo, Qinghua

    2015-02-17

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Mongolian Plateau and, as critical water sources, have sustained Mongolian pastures for hundreds of years. However, the plateau has experienced significant lake shrinkage and grassland degradation during the past several decades. To quantify the changes in all of the lakes on the plateau and the associated driving factors, we performed a satellite-based survey using multitemporal Landsat images from the 1970s to 2000s, combined with ground-based censuses. Our results document a rapid loss of lakes on the plateau in the past decades: the number of lakes with a water surface area >1 km(2) decreased from 785 in the late 1980s to 577 in 2010, with a greater rate of decrease (34.0%) in Inner Mongolia of China than in Mongolia (17.6%). This decrease has been particularly pronounced since the late 1990s in Inner Mongolia and the number of lakes >10 km(2) has declined by 30.0%. The statistical analyses suggested that in Mongolia precipitation was the dominant driver for the lake changes, and in Inner Mongolia coal mining was most important in its grassland area and irrigation was the leading factor in its cultivated area. The deterioration of lakes is expected to continue in the following decades not only because of changing climate but also increasing exploitation of underground mineral and groundwater resources on the plateau. To protect grasslands and the indigenous nomads, effective action is urgently required to save these valuable lakes from further deterioration. PMID:25646423

  6. Characterization of the p16 gene in the mouse: Evidence for a large gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, J.W.; Giendening, J.M.; Flores, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    The p16 gene product is an inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)/cyclin D complex. When uninhibited, the CDK4/cyclin D complex participates in the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein and renders it inactive. Upon inactivation of the RB protein, transition from the G{sub 1} to the S phase of mitosis occurs and results in cellular proliferation. Thus, p16 is presumed to act as a negative regulator of cell growth by preventing the phosphorylation, and thereby subsequent inactivation, of RB by CDK4/cyclin D. Recently, the p16 gene (also known as the multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS1) gene) has been mapped to chromosome 9p21 and found to be deleted or mutated in a number of tumor cell lines. These findings support the role of p16 as a growth inhibitor or tumor suppressor gene and suggest that the mutation of this gene may have global implications in carcinogenesis. We have chosen to test the functional significance of p16 mutations in vivo through the generation of a mouse mutant for p16. In preparation for this undertaking, eight apparently independent (as judged by restriction enzyme digestion and differential hybridization) mouse genomic embryonic stem cell clones have been identified using exon 2 from the human p16 gene as a probe. The identification of these multiple nonoverlapping clones was not entirely surprising since the reduced stringency hybridization of a zoo blot with the same probe also revealed 10-15 positive EcoRI fragments in all species tested, including human, monkey, cow, dog, cat, rabbit, hamster, mouse, chicken and D. melanogaster. Taken together, these findings suggest that the p16 gene is a member of a large gene family. The location of these genomic clones, as well as their potential expression in the mouse, is currently under investigation.

  7. From "New Genetics" to Everyday Knowledge: Ideas about How Genetic Diseases Are Transmitted in Two Large Brazilian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Silvana; Bizzo, Nelio

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on everyday or lay understandings of inheritance. In the northeastern Brazil, 100 individuals were interviewed in order to describe how they explain the origin of genetic disorders affecting their relatives for several generations. There were involved 60 individuals from a large consanguineous family with many members affected…

  8. Family size, birth order, and intelligence in a large South American sample.

    PubMed

    Velandia, W; Grandon, G M; Page, E B

    1978-01-01

    The confluence theory, which hypothesizes a relationship between intellectual development birth order, and family size, was examined in a colombian study of more than 36,000 college applicants. The results of the study did not support the confluence theory. The confluence theory states that the intellectual development of a child is related to average mental age of the members of his family at the time of his birth. The mental age of the parents is always assigned a value of 30 and siblings are given scores equivalent to their chronological age at the birth of the subject. Therefore, the average mental age of family members for a 1st born child is 30, or 60 divided by 2. If a subject is born into a family consisting of 2 parents and a 6-year old sibling, the average mental age of family members tends, therefore, to decrease with each birth order. The hypothesis derived from the confluence theory states that there is a positive relationship between average mental age of a subject's family and the subject's performance on intelligence tests. In the Colombian study, data on family size, birth order and socioeconomic status was derived from college application forms. Intelligence test scores for each subject was obtained from college entrance exams. The mental age of each applicant's family at the time of the applicant's birth was calculated. Multiple correlation analysis and path analysis were used to assess the relationship. Results were 1) the test scores of subjects from families with 2,3,4, and 5 children were higher than test scores of the 1st born subjects; 2) the rank order of intelligence by family size was 3,4,5,2,6,1 instead of the hypothesized 1,2,3,4,5,6; and 3) only 1% of the variability in test scores was explained by the variables of birth order and family size. Further analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was a far more powerful explanatory variable than family size. PMID:12266293

  9. Identification of MYOC gene mutation and polymorphism in a large Malay family with juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mimiwati, Z; Nurliza, K; Marini, M; Liza-Sharmini, AT

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To screen for mutations in the coding region of the myocilin (MYOC) gene in a large Malay family with juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma (JOAG). Methods A total of 122 family members were thoroughly examined and screened for JOAG. Venipuncture was conducted. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. The presence of a mutation and a polymorphism was ascertained with PCR amplification followed by the direct sequencing technique. Results Thirty-two of the 122 screened family members were identified to have JOAG (11 new cases and 21 known cases). An autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with incomplete penetrance was observed. A C→A substitution at position 1440 in exon 3 that changes asparagine (AAC) to lysine (AAA) was identified in affected family members except two probands (III:5 and IV:6). Six probands were identified as having the Asn480Lys mutation but have not developed the disease yet. An intronic polymorphism IVS2 730 +35 G>A was also identified. There was a significant association between Asn480Lys (p<0.001) and IVS2 730+35G>A (p<0.001) in the affected and unaffected probands in this family. Conclusions The Asn480Lys mutation and the IVS2 730+35 G>A polymorphism increased susceptibility to JOAG in this large Malay pedigree. Identifying the MYOC mutations and polymorphisms is important for providing presymptomatic molecular diagnosis. PMID:24883016

  10. The highly specialized vocal tract of the male Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa Pallas, 1777 – Mammalia, Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, R; Gebler, A

    2003-01-01

    The entire head and neck of a wild adult male Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa) was dissected with special reference to its enlarged larynx. Two additional adult male specimens taken from the wild were analysed by computer tomography. The sternomandibularis, omohyoideus, thyrohyoideus and hyoepiglotticus muscles are particularly enlarged and improve laryngeal suspension and stabilization. The epiglottis is exceptionally large. A permanent laryngeal descent is associated with the evolution of an unpaired palatinal pharyngeal pouch. A certain momentary descent seems to occur during vocalization. The high lateral walls of the thyroid cartilage are ventrally connected by a broad keel. The large thyroarytenoid muscle is divided into two portions: a rostral ventricularis and a caudal vocalis muscle. A paired lateral laryngeal ventricle projects between these two muscles. The massive vocal fold is large and lacks any rostrally directed flexible structures. It is supported by a large cymbal-like fibroelastic pad. Vocal tract length was measured in the course of dissection and in computer tomographic images. Two representative spectrograms, one of an adult male and one of a juvenile, recorded in the natural habitat of the Mongolian gazelle are presented. In the spectrograms, the centre frequency of the lowest band is about 500 Hz in the adult male and about 790 Hz in the juvenile. The low pitch of the adult male's call is ascribed to the evolutionary mass increase and elongation of the vocal folds. In the habitat of P. gutturosa a call with a low pitch and, thus, with an almost homogeneous directivity around the head of the vocalizing animal may be optimally suited for multidirectional advertisement calls during the rut. The signal range of an adult male's call in its natural habitat can therefore be expected to be larger than the high-pitched call of a juvenile. PMID:14635800

  11. Achieving patient and family engagement through the implementation and evolution of advisory councils across a large health care system.

    PubMed

    Haycock, Camille; Wahl, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, hospitals and health care systems have responded to the call for increased patient engagement and person-centered care. Organizations across the country have developed models and tools to assist in the effort toward patient and family engagement in health care delivery. In addition, current literature and trends suggest that patient satisfaction and quality outcomes are improved when patients and families become partners in their own health care and the delivery of that care. However, to formalize a patient-centric structure and process across a large health care system that is aimed at patient and family engagement can be a daunting activity. Utilizing well-established tools, Catholic Health Initiatives was successful in implementing the structures to deploy the ideas of patients and families in multiple facilities and care settings across 19 states. Nursing leaderships, in partnership with patients and their families within this health care delivery system, were the key contributors to the implementation of formalized patient and family advisory councils in hospitals across the enterprise. PMID:23744470

  12. Structural, Functional, and Evolutionary Analysis of the Unusually Large Stilbene Synthase Gene Family in Grapevine1[W

    PubMed Central

    Parage, Claire; Tavares, Raquel; Réty, Stéphane; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Poutaraud, Anne; Renault, Lauriane; Heintz, Dimitri; Lugan, Raphaël; Marais, Gabriel A.B.; Aubourg, Sébastien; Hugueney, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Stilbenes are a small family of phenylpropanoids produced in a number of unrelated plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera). In addition to their participation in defense mechanisms in plants, stilbenes, such as resveratrol, display important pharmacological properties and are postulated to be involved in the health benefits associated with a moderate consumption of red wine. Stilbene synthases (STSs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the stilbene backbone, seem to have evolved from chalcone synthases (CHSs) several times independently in stilbene-producing plants. STS genes usually form small families of two to five closely related paralogs. By contrast, the sequence of grapevine reference genome (cv PN40024) has revealed an unusually large STS gene family. Here, we combine molecular evolution and structural and functional analyses to investigate further the high number of STS genes in grapevine. Our reannotation of the STS and CHS gene families yielded 48 STS genes, including at least 32 potentially functional ones. Functional characterization of nine genes representing most of the STS gene family diversity clearly indicated that these genes do encode for proteins with STS activity. Evolutionary analysis of the STS gene family revealed that both STS and CHS evolution are dominated by purifying selection, with no evidence for strong selection for new functions among STS genes. However, we found a few sites under different selection pressures in CHS and STS sequences, whose potential functional consequences are discussed using a structural model of a typical STS from grapevine that we developed. PMID:22961129

  13. Reconstruction of Oomycete Genome Evolution Identifies Differences in Evolutionary Trajectories Leading to Present-Day Large Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Michael F.; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Govers, Francine; Snel, Berend

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomic class of oomycetes contains numerous pathogens of plants and animals but is related to nonpathogenic diatoms and brown algae. Oomycetes have flexible genomes comprising large gene families that play roles in pathogenicity. The evolutionary processes that shaped the gene content have not yet been studied by applying systematic tree reconciliation of the phylome of these species. We analyzed evolutionary dynamics of ten Stramenopiles. Gene gains, duplications, and losses were inferred by tree reconciliation of 18,459 gene trees constituting the phylome with a highly supported species phylogeny. We reconstructed a strikingly large last common ancestor of the Stramenopiles that contained ∼10,000 genes. Throughout evolution, the genomes of pathogenic oomycetes have constantly gained and lost genes, though gene gains through duplications outnumber the losses. The branch leading to the plant pathogenic Phytophthora genus was identified as a major transition point characterized by increased frequency of duplication events that has likely driven the speciation within this genus. Large gene families encoding different classes of enzymes associated with pathogenicity such as glycoside hydrolases are formed by complex and distinct patterns of duplications and losses leading to their expansion in extant oomycetes. This study unveils the large-scale evolutionary dynamics that shaped the genomes of pathogenic oomycetes. By the application of phylogenetic based analyses methods, it provides additional insights that shed light on the complex history of oomycete genome evolution and the emergence of large gene families characteristic for this important class of pathogens. PMID:22230142

  14. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome in a large inbred Lebanese family: confirmation of autosomal recessive inheritance?

    PubMed

    Mégarbané, A; Desguerres, I; Rizkallah, E; Delague, V; Nabbout, R; Barois, A; Urtizberea, A

    2000-05-15

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome or pontobulbar palsy with deafness is a rare disorder characterized by bilateral nerve deafness, a variety of cranial nerve disorders usually involving the motor components of the 7th and 9th to 12th cranial nerves, and less commonly an involvement of spinal motor nerves and upper motor neurons. Familial and sporadic cases have been reported. Based on particular evidence, autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked inheritance, as well as autoimmune origin have been considered. We report on a large inbred Lebanese family with four patients of both sexes, strongly suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:10797435

  15. Retrospective analysis of cohort database: Phenotypic variability in a large dataset of patients confirmed to have homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Raal, Frederick J.; Sjouke, Barbara; Hovingh, G. Kees; Isaac, Barton F.

    2016-01-01

    These data describe the phenotypic variability in a large cohort of patients confirmed to have homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Herein, we describe the observed relationship of treated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with age. We also overlay the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) functional status with these phenotypic data. A full description of these data is available in our recent study published in Atherosclerosis, “Phenotype Diversity Among Patients With Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Cohort Study” (Raal et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27182539

  16. On family-based genome-wide association studies with large pedigrees: observations and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Fardo, David W; Zhang, Xue; Ding, Lili; He, Hua; Kurowski, Brad; Alexander, Eileen S; Mersha, Tesfaye B; Pilipenko, Valentina; Kottyan, Leah; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Martin, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Family based association studies are employed less often than case-control designs in the search for disease-predisposing genes. The optimal statistical genetic approach for complex pedigrees is unclear when evaluating both common and rare variants. We examined the empirical power and type I error rates of 2 common approaches, the measured genotype approach and family-based association testing, through simulations from a set of multigenerational pedigrees. Overall, these results suggest that much larger sample sizes will be required for family-based studies and that power was better using MGA compared to FBAT. Taking into account computational time and potential bias, a 2-step strategy is recommended with FBAT followed by MGA. PMID:25519377

  17. On the genetics of mandibular prognathism: analysis of large European noble families.

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, G; Wienker, T F; Sander, H

    1993-01-01

    Mandibular prognathism is assumed to be a polygenic trait in the vast majority of cases. In a few families, this phenotype and perhaps a syndrome with a broader spectrum of facial anomalies seems to be determined by a single dominant gene of very low frequency (McKusick No *176700). The phenotype is known to have occurred independently in several European noble families. We constructed a pedigree comprising 13 of these families with 409 members in 23 generations in which mandibular prognathism has been segregating. Obviously, the presumed dominant gene is not fully penetrant in the heterozygous state. Pedigree analysis using the Elston-Stewart algorithm yields a maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of p = 0.955 (SE 0.038) of the penetrance parameter. Images PMID:8445614

  18. Limiting factors for nomadic pastoralism in Mongolian steppe: A hydrologic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Michiaki; Yoshizawa, Shintaroh; Byambakhuu, Ishgaldan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, limiting factors for continuing nomadic pastoralism in steppe areas were studied based on a hydrologic perspective. Two small watersheds in central Mongolia were selected for an assessment of water balance and hydrologic processes. We determined that the majority of annual precipitation, ∼88-96 mm, was lost by evaporation (82%) while only a small proportion went to groundwater discharge, surface runoff, and groundwater consumption by nomadic activities. The soil column was found to absorb large fluctuations in precipitation although its connection to groundwater was very weak. Groundwater recharge was, therefore, very small and occurred only rarely during heavy rainfall events in valley bottoms. However, current water storage in shallow groundwater was determined to be quite sufficient for continuing nomadic pastoralism when compared to the drinking water requirements of livestock. The main limiting factors identified were a temporal lack of feed to animals due to a loss of aboveground biomass resulting from soil moisture shortages during drought conditions, and a decline in the number and maintenance level of the traditional well network that, due to access to shallow groundwater, has allowed herders to migrate to areas with better conditions in remote Mongolian steppe.

  19. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  20. Divergences of Two Coupled Human and Natural Systems on the Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Central to the concept of coupled natural and human (CNH) systems is that humans and nature are organized in interacting sub-systems that make a cohesive whole at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Following an overview of the challenges in implementing the CNH concept at the regional level, we used widely available measures of states in the social, economic, and ecological systems, including gross domestic product, population size, net primary productivity, and livestock and their ratios, to examine the CNH dynamics on the Mongolian Plateau during 1981-2010. Our cross-border analysis of the coupled dynamics over the past three decades demonstrated striking contrasts between Inner Mongolia (IM) and Mongolia (MG), with policies playing shifting roles on the above measures. For prioritizing future research on the CNH concept, we propose the hypothesis that while the divergence of IM and MG for 1981-2010 was largely driven by market economic reforms, the importance of socioeconomic forces relative to climate changes will gradually decrease in IM while they remain important in MG.

  1. Climate impact and adaptation of husbandry on the Mongolian plateau: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, L.; Cui, X.

    2015-12-01

    There has been an evolution in the treatment of regional aspects of climate and land use change: from a patchwork of case examples towards a more systematic coverage of regional issues at continental and sub-continental scales in the latest Intergovernmental panel on climate change, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. The region of Inner Asia has long been characterised by important cultural, economic, and ecological ties that transcend international borders, including a common steppe environment, a long history of mobile pastoralism, as well as comparable experiences of socialist and postsocialist transformation. In this research, we focused on the study of the Mongolian Plateau located in eastern Inner Asia, since climate change has already had large impacts on grassland and local households. We explored how the vegetation and animal husbandry responses to climate change in comparison between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia. Our central question then was: how are people in different parts of Inner Mongolia and the Republic of Mongolia are experiencing and responding to climate change across a common grassland environment as a result of the differing social, economic, political, and ecological conditions within each particular state? We believe that comparative and interdisciplinary investigation offers the best prospect for the evaluation of the differing trajectories currently being followed by each Inner Asian state, and the anticipation of the likely effects on the societies and environment of the region in the future.

  2. Establishment of Ulmus pumila seedlings on steppe slopes of the northern Mongolian mountain taiga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Nyambayar, Suran; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-09-01

    The potential of Siberian elm ( Ulmus pumila) to regenerate from seeds was experimentally studied on south-facing slopes in the northern Mongolian mountain taiga. These slopes are covered with a vegetation mosaic of different steppe communities and small, savanna-like, U. pumila open woodlands. The hypothesis is tested that the xeric microclimate and high herbivore densities limit the success of seedling establishment in U. pumila and thereby prevent elm from complete encroachment of the grassland-dominated slopes. Seeds were sown and 2-yr-old seedlings were planted prior to the growing season. The water supply was manipulated by irrigation, as was the feeding pressure by caterpillars with an insecticide. Large herbivores were excluded by fencing. Seeds germinated throughout the summer, but the emerged seedlings did not survive for more than 2 or 3 weeks. Germination rates increased with increasing soil water content and decreasing soil temperatures. Many seeds were consumed by granivores. Most planted 2-yr-old seedlings survived the two growing seasons covered by the study. However, the seedlings suffered from feeding damage by insects (gypsy moth, grasshoppers) and small mammals, from nitrogen deficiency and, to a lesser degree, from drought. The results suggest that high susceptibility of newly emerged seedlings to environmental stresses is a serious bottle neck for U. pumila that prevents them from the formation of closed forests on northern Mongolia's steppe slopes, whereas the probability for seedling survival after this early stage is high.

  3. Food webs in Mongolian grasslands: the analysis of 13C and 15N natural abundances.

    PubMed

    Kohzu, Ayato; Iwata, T; Kato, M; Nishikawa, J; Wada, Eitaro; Amartuvshin, N; Namkhaidorj, B; Fujita, N

    2009-09-01

    Overgrazing often lowers species richness and productivity of grassland communities. For Mongolian grassland ecosystems, a lack of detailed information about food-web structures makes it difficult to predict the effects of overgrazing on species diversity and community composition. We analysed the delta13C and delta15N signatures of herbaceous plants, arthropods (grouped by feeding habit), wild and domestic mammals, and humans in central Mongolia to understand the predominant food-web pathways in this grassland ecosystem. The delta13C and delta15N values of mammals showed little variation within species, but varied considerably with slope position for arthropods. The apparent isotopic discrimination between body tissue and hair of mammals was estimated as 2.0 per thousand for delta13C and 2.1 per thousand for delta15N, which was large enough to cause overestimation of the trophic level of mammals if not taken into account when using hair samples to measure isotopic enrichment. PMID:19507080

  4. Screening of male breast cancer and of breast-ovarian cancer families for BRCA2 mutations using large bifluorescent amplicons

    PubMed Central

    Pages, S; Caux, V; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Tosi, M

    2001-01-01

    41 breast cancer or breast-ovarian cancer families, including 12 families with at least one affected first-degree male relative, were screened for mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Mutations had not been found in the BRCA1 gene of these families. Chemical cleavage of Mismatch was used to identify nucleotide changes within large PCR products (average size 1.2 kb) that carried strand-specific fluorescent end-labels. 15 amplicons were sufficient to scan 18 exons, including the large exon 11. The remaining 9 small exons were examined by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. The high sensitivity of this approach was documented by the detection, in these 41 patients, of all 9 exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms reported with heterozygosity >0.1. Truncating BRCA2 mutations were found in 7 of the 41 families. 3 of them were in the group of 12 families comprising cases of male breast cancer. Since the methods used here have no bias for particular types of mutations, these data confirm the high proportion of frameshifts among mutations in BRCA2. However, relevant single nucleotide substitutions were also found: one resulting in a stop codon and another one, present in a male patient, was the previously reported change Asp2723His, that affects a highly conserved region of the BRCA2 protein. This study indicates a BRCA2 contribution of 10% (95% CI 2.5–17.5) to our original cohort of 59 breast-ovarian cancer families, whereas the contribution of BRCA1 had been estimated at 46% (95% CI 33–59). © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11207042

  5. Research on the Ancient Mongolian Place-Name Along the Silk Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashunwuritu; Baiyinbateer; Duoxi

    2016-06-01

    "Silk Road" is an ancient commercial trade channel connecting China with Asia, Africa and Europe and a major link of the economy, politics and culture of the East and West as well. In the 13th Century, with the westward expedition of Mongolian, the communication and integration of culture among different countries was accelerated, which led to many Mongolian place-names scattered in the countries along the silk-road, such as Khwarezmia, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Kipchak, Persian, involving today's Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Austria, Italy, Serbia, Syria, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India and many other countries and regions. The place-name is a kind of important factor that can represent the changes of culture, economic in history. We analyzed the current place-names in different countries or regions with different language to find out ancient Mongolian place-names, and marked the names on the digital map. Through the changes and transition of the place-name, we explored the development of Mongolian language changes itself, Mongolian blends with other languages, and furtherly reveal information of culture exchange.

  6. [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: genetic study of a large family].

    PubMed

    Orellana, C; Palasí, R; Martínez, F; Ponce, J L; Gil Sanz, J; Sancho Fornos, S; Prieto, F

    1999-03-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1) is an inherited disorder characterised by the predisposition of the cells from parathyroid glands, endocrine pancreas and adenohypophysis to develop neoplasms. We report the genetic study of an extended family with at least 8 affected patients and 10 putative carriers of a mutation in MEN-1 gene. One intragenic (Asp418 GAC-->GAT), and five flanking markers were characterised in the family by PCR amplification and polyachrylamide gel electrophoresis. Association of the disease to MEN-1 gene was confirmed for this family: all the affected members show a haplotype in common. Three patients at risk were diagnosed as non-carriers, since they have not inherited that haplotype. The remaining seven members, presymptomatic carriers, are included in a follow-up protocol. The genetic study of families segregating MEN-1 syndrome are useful in avoiding indiscriminate follow-up determinations to those members who have not received the genetic predisposition to develop any of the manifestations of the syndrome. Segregation analysis with linked markers is useful, under certain circumstances, to perform such type of studies. PMID:10207847

  7. Lifestyle, Family History, and Risk of Idiopathic Parkinson Disease: A Large Danish Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kenborg, Line; Lassen, Christina F.; Ritz, Beate; Andersen, Klaus K.; Christensen, Jane; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Hansen, Johnni; Wermuth, Lene; Rod, Naja H.; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between Parkinson disease (PD) and smoking has been examined in several studies, but little is known about smoking in conjunction with other behaviors and a family history of PD. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis, we studied individual and joint associations of these factors with idiopathic PD among 1,808 Danish patients who were diagnosed in 1996–2009 and matched to 1,876 randomly selected population controls. Although there was a downward trend in duration of smoking, this was not observed for daily tobacco consumption. A moderate intake of caffeine (3.1–5 cups/day) was associated with a lower odds ratio for PD (0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.34, 0.62), as was a moderate intake of alcohol (3.1–7 units/week) (odds ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 0.84); a higher daily intake did not reduce the odds further. When these behaviors were studied in combination with smoking, the odds ratios were lower than those for each one alone. Compared with never smokers with no family history of PD, never smokers who did have a family history had an odds ratio of 2.81 (95% confidence interval: 1.91, 4.13); for smokers with a family history, the odds ratio was 1.60 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.23). In conclusion, duration of smoking seems to be more important than intensity in the relationship between smoking and idiopathic PD. The finding of lower risk estimates for smoking in combination with caffeine or alcohol requires further confirmation. PMID:25925389

  8. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Mongolian and Russian yak populations.

    PubMed

    Xuebin, Q; Jianlin, H; Lkhagva, B; Chekarova, I; Badamdorj, D; Rege, J E O; Hanotte, O

    2005-04-01

    In this study we examined the genetic diversity of yak populations in the northernmost part of their current global distribution. Five Mongolian and one Russian yak populations as well as one Chinese yak population from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the putative centre of yak domestication, were analysed with 15 microsatellite loci to determine the level of genetic variation within populations as well as the genetic differentiation and relationship between populations. A total of 116 microsatellite alleles were identified. The mean number of alleles per locus (MNA) across populations was 7.73 +/- 1.98 and the mean expected heterozygosity (HE) was 0.696 +/- 0.026. The relative magnitude of gene differentiation (F(ST)) among populations was 4.1%, and all genetic differentiations (F(ST)) between populations were significant (p < 0.001). A significant inbreeding effect (F(IS)) was detected in the Hovsgol yak (p < 0.01). There was no indication of a recent bottleneck in any of the populations studied. The results showed that yak populations in Mongolia and Russia have maintained high genetic diversity within populations and a low, although significant, genetic differentiation between populations. Both phylogenetic and principal component analyses support a close genetic relationship between the Gobi Altai, south Gobi and north Hangai populations, and between the Hovsgol and Buryatia populations respectively. Our results indicate that these yak populations should be considered as distinct genetic entities in respect of conservation and breeding programmes. PMID:16130478

  9. The electroretinogram of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): comparison to mouse.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengyan; Luo, Xiaopeng; Xiong, Guoyin; So, Kwok-Fai; Yang, Hui; Xu, Ying

    2015-03-01

    The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is a diurnal rodent whose retinal photoreceptors comprise 13% cones in contrast to 1-3% in nocturnal mice and rats. Moreover, it displays a retinal structure more analogous to that of human than of mouse. However, the electroretinogram (ERG) recordings of gerbils have not yet been well studied. Thus, here we compared the ERGs of gerbils and C57 mice. We recorded responses to full-field flashes of increasing intensities under both dark and light adaptation. We also investigated responses to flickers of increasing frequencies and to long-duration flashes under photopic conditions. In scotopic, the amplitudes of the gerbil a- and b-waves are slightly smaller than those of the mouse waves. However, in photopic, the gerbil wave amplitudes are 2-fold larger than those of mice. Gerbils also exhibit larger flicker responses and higher flicker fusion frequencies than mice. Furthermore, unlike mice, gerbils show a positive OFF response (d-wave) and a post b-wave positive potential (i-wave), features commonly observed in human photopic ERGs. Our results suggest that gerbils may complement rod-dominant mice as models for studying retinal cone function and pathologies. PMID:25578951

  10. The pathology of the Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): a review.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A L; Rodrick, G E; Sodeman, W A

    1979-10-01

    Both naturally occurring disease processes and experimental models of human disease in the Mongolian gerbil were reviewed. The gerbil was highly susceptible to cerebral infarction following unilateral ligation of one common carotid artery and was useful in studies of the pathogenesis of stroke. Spontaneous epileptiform seizures mimicked those of human idiopathic epilepsy, and both seizure-sensitive and resistant strains have been bred. Perhaps because of its more efficient nephron, the gerbil accumulated four to six times as much renal lead as the rat, and the gerbil has been proposed as an experimental model of lead nephropathy. On standard diets, about 10% of the animals became obese, and some showed decreased glucose tolerance, elevated serum immunoreactive insulin and diabetic changes in the pancreas and other organs. Some breeders exhibited hyperactivity of the adrenal cortex associated with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and degenerative vascular disease. Although dietary supplements of cholesterol were toxic and did not induce atherosclerosis, the gerbil was useful in other studies of cholesterol absorption and metabolism. Spontaneous, insidious periodontal disease became evident after about 6 months on standard diets, and dental caries were induced by cariogenic diets or by pathodontic streptococci. Spontaneous neoplasia occurred in 8.4--24% of gerbils, usually after 2 years of life. Adrenal cortical, ovarian and cutaneous tumors were the most consistently reported neoplasms. PMID:92595

  11. Relationships between climate, productivity and vegetation in southern Mongolian drylands

    PubMed Central

    von Wehrden, H.; Wesche, K.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between open-source data on net primary production and precipitation for the southern Mongolian Gobi, and related this information to data obtained from a set of 1418 vegetation relevés sampled in the region. Gradients determining plant community diversity and composition were examined, and the relation between α-diversity and key environmental parameters was tested. The correlation between net primary production and precipitation within our working area was fairly high (r2 = 0.66). The variance of the net primary production was related to the average annual precipitation; at sites with more than ~220 mm/a precipitation the median coefficient of variation in productivity data decreased, indicating a rather gradual shift from a non-equilibrium ecosystem towards an equilibrium ecosystem with increasing moisture. A DCA-ordination showed that the main gradient in plant community composition was closely correlated to environmental variables for altitude, precipitation and net primary production. All three parameters were also significant predictors of the species diversity. The final model, which included an additional quadratic term for longitude, predicted local plant biodiversity at r2 = 0.57. The results can be directly applied to both resource management and nature conservation within the area. For future studies a closer focus on the characterisation of non-equilibrium rangelands based on modelled productivity layers is suggested. PMID:22318349

  12. An assessment of behavioral aging in the Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Spangler, E L; Hengemihle, J; Blank, G; Speer, D L; Brzozowski, S; Patel, N; Ingram, D K

    1997-01-01

    Male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) 14-54 months old (n = 77) were evaluated in a battery of psychomotor (open field, locomotor, and runwheel activity, rotorod performance) and learning (one-way active avoidance in a straight runway and in 14-unit T-maze performance) tests. Body weight and seizure activity were also monitored. According to linear regression analysis, runwheel activity decreased with age; and the number of errors in the 14-unit T-maze increased as a function of age (ps < 0.05). None of the other behavioral measures or body weight were significantly correlated with age. This gerbil strain (Tumblebrook Farms; West Brookfield, MA) tended to be very prone to seizures with 64% of the gerbils experiencing at least one seizure while being tested. Seizures tended to occur when the gerbil was exposed to a novel situation (e.g., initial weighing, placement on the rotorod). An age-related decline in some aspects of psychomotor and learning performance was observed, suggesting the gerbil as an additional mammalian model of aging. The high incidence of seizure activity presented a complicating and confounding variable to the interpretation of the results of the behavioral tests used in the present study. Interventions to control seizure activity (e.g., systematic, controlled breeding; adaptation to apparati) in this model will likely increase its viability as a mammalian model of aging. PMID:9785096

  13. bZIPs and WRKYs: two large transcription factor families executing two different functional strategies

    PubMed Central

    Llorca, Carles M.; Potschin, Maren; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    bZIPs and WRKYs are two important plant transcription factor (TF) families regulating diverse developmental and stress-related processes. Since a partial overlap in these biological processes is obvious, it can be speculated that they fulfill non-redundant functions in a complex regulatory network. Here, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms that are so far described for bZIPs and WRKYs. bZIP factors need to heterodimerize for DNA-binding and regulation of transcription, and based on a bioinformatics approach, bZIPs can build up more than the double of protein interactions than WRKYs. In contrast, an enrichment of the WRKY DNA-binding motifs can be found in WRKY promoters, a phenomenon which is not observed for the bZIP family. Thus, the two TF families follow two different functional strategies in which WRKYs regulate each other’s transcription in a transcriptional network whereas bZIP action relies on intensive heterodimerization. PMID:24817872

  14. The Mongolian Gerbil: A Robust Model of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Inflammation and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Noto, Jennifer M; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil is an efficient, robust, and cost-effective rodent model that recapitulates many features of H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis in humans, allowing for targeted investigation of the bacterial determinants and environmental factors and, to a lesser degree, host constituents that govern H. pylori-mediated disease. This chapter discusses means through which the Mongolian gerbil model has been used to define mechanisms of H. pylori-inflammation and cancer as well as the current materials and methods for utilizing this model of microbially induced disease. PMID:27246040

  15. Multilevel Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Crown Ratio Models for Individual Trees of Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Liyong; Zhang, Huiru; Lu, Jun; Zang, Hao; Lou, Minghua; Wang, Guangxing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an individual tree crown ratio (CR) model was developed with a data set from a total of 3134 Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) trees within 112 sample plots allocated in Wangqing Forest Bureau of northeast China. Because of high correlation among the observations taken from the same sampling plots, the random effects at levels of both blocks defined as stands that have different site conditions and plots were taken into account to develop a nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effect model. Various stand and tree characteristics were assessed to explore their contributions to improvement of model prediction. Diameter at breast height, plot dominant tree height and plot dominant tree diameter were found to be significant predictors. Exponential model with plot dominant tree height as a predictor had a stronger ability to account for the heteroskedasticity. When random effects were modeled at block level alone, the correlations among the residuals remained significant. These correlations were successfully reduced when random effects were modeled at both block and plot levels. The random effects from the interaction of blocks and sample plots on tree CR were substantially large. The model that took into account both the block effect and the interaction of blocks and sample plots had higher prediction accuracy than the one with the block effect and population average considered alone. Introducing stand density into the model through dummy variables could further improve its prediction. This implied that the developed method for developing tree CR models of Mongolian oak is promising and can be applied to similar studies for other tree species. PMID:26241912

  16. Multiple glacial refugia for cool-temperate deciduous trees in northern East Asia: the Mongolian oak as a case study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Fei; Wang, Wen-Ting; Liao, Wan-Jin; Wang, Hong-Fang; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2015-11-01

    In East Asia, temperate forests are predicted to have retracted southward to c. 30° N during the last glacial maximum (LGM) based on fossil pollen data, whereas phylogeographic studies have often suggested glacial in situ survival of cool-temperate deciduous trees in their modern northern ranges. Here we report a study of the genetic diversity and structure of 29 natural Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) populations using 19 nuclear simple sequence repeat (nSSR) loci and four chloroplast DNA fragments. Bayesian clustering analysis with nSSRs revealed five groups, which were inferred by approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to have diverged in multiple refugia through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Analysis of chloroplast DNA variation revealed four lineages that were largely but incompletely geographically disjunct. Ecological niche modelling (ENMs) indicated a southward range shift of the oak's distribution at the LGM, although high suitability scores were also evident in the Changbai Mts. (Northeast China), the Korean Peninsula, areas surrounding the Bohai Sea, and along the coast of the Russian Far East. In addition, endemic chloroplast DNA haplotypes and nuclear lineages occurred in high-latitude northern areas where the ENM predicted no suitable habitat. The combined evidence from nuclear and chloroplast DNA, and the results of the ENM clearly demonstrate that multiple northern refugia, including cryptic ones, were maintained across the current distributional range of the Mongolian oak during the LGM or earlier glacial periods. Though spatially limited, postglacial expansions from these refugia have led to a pattern of decreased genetic diversity with increasing latitude. PMID:26439083

  17. Indigenous knowledge for plant species diversity: a case study of wild plants' folk names used by the Mongolians in Ejina desert area, Inner Mongolia, P. R. China.

    PubMed

    Khasbagan; Soyolt

    2008-01-01

    Folk names of plants are the roots of traditional plant biodiversity knowledge. This paper mainly records and analyses the wild plant folk names of the Mongolians in the Ejina desert area based on a field survey for collection and identification of voucher specimens. The results show that a total of 121 folk names of local plants have correspondence with 93 scientific species which belong to 26 families and 70 genera. The correspondence between plants' Mongol folk names and scientific species may be classified as one to one correspondence, multitude to one correspondence and one to multitude correspondence. The Ejina Mongolian plant folk names were formed on the basis of observations and an understanding of the wild plants growing in their desert environment. The high correspondence between folk names and scientific names shows the scientific meaning of folk botanical nomenclature and classification. It is very useful to take an inventory of biodiversity, especially among the rapid rural appraisal (RRA) in studying biodiversity at the community level. PMID:18199323

  18. Indigenous knowledge for plant species diversity: a case study of wild plants' folk names used by the Mongolians in Ejina desert area, Inner Mongolia, P. R. China

    PubMed Central

    Khasbagan; Soyolt

    2008-01-01

    Folk names of plants are the roots of traditional plant biodiversity knowledge. This paper mainly records and analyses the wild plant folk names of the Mongolians in the Ejina desert area based on a field survey for collection and identification of voucher specimens. The results show that a total of 121 folk names of local plants have correspondence with 93 scientific species which belong to 26 families and 70 genera. The correspondence between plants' Mongol folk names and scientific species may be classified as one to one correspondence, multitude to one correspondence and one to multitude correspondence. The Ejina Mongolian plant folk names were formed on the basis of observations and an understanding of the wild plants growing in their desert environment. The high correspondence between folk names and scientific names shows the scientific meaning of folk botanical nomenclature and classification. It is very useful to take an inventory of biodiversity, especially among the rapid rural appraisal (RRA) in studying biodiversity at the community level. PMID:18199323

  19. Description of a large family with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia associated with the APOE p.Leu167del mutation

    PubMed Central

    Marduel, Marie; Ouguerram, Khadija; Serre, Valérie; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Marques-Pinheiro, Alice; Berge, Knut Erik; Devillers, Martine; Luc, Gérald; Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Tosolini, Laurent; Erlich, Danièle; Peloso, Gina M.; Stitziel, Nathan; Nitchké, Patrick; Jaïs, Jean-Philippe; Abifadel, Marianne; Kathiresan, Sekar; Leren, Trond Paul; Rabès, Jean-Pierre; Boileau, Catherine; Varret, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Apo E mutants are associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia characterized by high cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Autosomal Dominant Hypercholesterolemia (ADH), due to mutations in the LDLR, APOB or PCSK9 genes, is characterized by an isolated elevation of cholesterol due to high levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). We now report an exceptionally large family including 14 members with ADH. Through genome wide mapping, analysis of regional/functional candidate genes and whole exome sequencing, we identified a mutation in the APOE gene, p.Leu167del previously reported associated with sea-blue histiocytosis and familial combined hyperlipidemia. We confirmed the involvement of the APOE p.Leu167del in ADH, with (1) a predicted destabilization of an alpha-helix in the binding domain; (2) a decreased apo E level in LDL; and (3) a decreased catabolism of LDL. Our results show that mutations in the APOE gene can be associated with bona fide ADH. PMID:22949395

  20. Maternal intrusiveness, family financial means, and anxiety across childhood in a large multiphase sample of community youth

    PubMed Central

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive parenting has been positively associated with child anxiety, although examinations of this relationship to date have been largely confined to middle to upper middle class families and have rarely used longitudinal designs. With several leading interventions for child anxiety emphasizing the reduction of parental intrusiveness, it is critical to determine whether the links between parental intrusiveness and child anxiety broadly apply to families of all financial means, and whether parental intrusiveness prospectively predicts the development of child anxiety. This study employed latent growth curve analysis to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal intrusiveness and financial means on the developmental trajectory of child anxiety from 1st grade to age 15 in 1,121 children (50.7% male) and their parents from the NICHD SECCYD. The overall model was found to provide good fit, revealing that early maternal intrusiveness and financial means did not impact individual trajectories of change in child anxiety, which were stable from 1st to 5th grade, and then decrease from 5th grade to age 15. Cross-sectional analyses also examined whether family financial means moderated contemporaneous relationships between maternal intrusiveness and child anxiety in 3rd and 5th grades. The relationship between maternal intrusiveness and child anxiety was moderated by family financial means for 1st graders, with stronger links found among children of lower family financial means, but not for 3rd and 5th graders. Neither maternal intrusiveness nor financial means in 1st grade predicted subsequent changes in anxiety across childhood. Findings help elucidate for whom and when maternal intrusiveness has the greatest link with child anxiety and can inform targeted treatment efforts. PMID:23929005

  1. Large distribution and high sequence identity of a Copia-type retrotransposon in angiosperm families.

    PubMed

    Dias, Elaine Silva; Hatt, Clémence; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; Rigoreau, Michel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Carareto, Claudia Marcia Aparecida; de Kochko, Alexandre; Guyot, Romain

    2015-09-01

    Retrotransposons are the main component of plant genomes. Recent studies have revealed the complexity of their evolutionary dynamics. Here, we have identified Copia25 in Coffea canephora, a new plant retrotransposon belonging to the Ty1-Copia superfamily. In the Coffea genomes analyzed, Copia25 is present in relatively low copy numbers and transcribed. Similarity sequence searches and PCR analyses show that this retrotransposon with LTRs (Long Terminal Repeats) is widely distributed among the Rubiaceae family and that it is also present in other distantly related species belonging to Asterids, Rosids and monocots. A particular situation is the high sequence identity found between the Copia25 sequences of Musa, a monocot, and Ixora, a dicot species (Rubiaceae). Our results reveal the complexity of the evolutionary dynamics of the ancient element Copia25 in angiosperm, involving several processes including sequence conservation, rapid turnover, stochastic losses and horizontal transfer. PMID:26245353

  2. Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy II, a rare disease in a large Pakistani family.

    PubMed

    Arain, Fazal Manzoor; Chand, Prem

    2015-10-01

    Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy II (HSAN II) is a rare genetic disorder, characterized by severe loss of pain, temperature and touch sensation. Injuries in these patients can progress to necrosis and shedding of digits and limbs. Here we report two cases of HSAN II belonging to a Pakistani family. Individual 1, a forty five year old man, had complete loss of pain sensation since birth. Self-mutilation and complication of injuries resulted in the shedding of all the digits and right foot and surgical amputation of left leg. Individual 2, a five year old girl,had delay in healing of wounds and self-mutilation. Examination showed a complete lack of pain sensation throughout her body and hyporeflexia. As the genetic cause of HSAN II is unknown, identification of more patients will allow further research on this disease and possibly develop a cure. PMID:26440849

  3. Exome Sequencing of 75 Individuals from Multiply Affected Coeliac Families and Large Scale Resequencing Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Vanisha; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Levine, Adam P.; Mirza, Muddassar M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Ciclitira, Paul J.; Hummerich, Holger; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Simpson, Michael A.; Plagnol, Vincent; van Heel, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CeD) is a highly heritable common autoimmune disease involving chronic small intestinal inflammation in response to dietary wheat. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and 40 newer regions identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and dense fine mapping, account for ∼40% of the disease heritability. We hypothesized that in pedigrees with multiple individuals with CeD rare [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.5%] mutations of larger effect size (odds ratios of ∼ 2–5) might exist. We sequenced the exomes of 75 coeliac individuals of European ancestry from 55 multiply affected families. We selected interesting variants and genes for further follow up using a combination of: an assessment of shared variants between related subjects, a model-free linkage test, and gene burden tests for multiple, potentially causal, variants. We next performed highly multiplexed amplicon resequencing of all RefSeq exons from 24 candidate genes selected on the basis of the exome sequencing data in 2,248 unrelated coeliac cases and 2,230 controls. 1,335 variants with a 99.9% genotyping call rate were observed in 4,478 samples, of which 939 were present in coding regions of 24 genes (Ti/Tv 2.99). 91.7% of coding variants were rare (MAF <0.5%) and 60% were novel. Gene burden tests performed on rare functional variants identified no significant associations (p<1×10−3) in the resequenced candidate genes. Our strategy of sequencing multiply affected families with deep follow up of candidate genes has not identified any new CeD risk mutations. PMID:25635822

  4. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome. PMID:12032571

  5. Crystal structure of a disulfide-linked "trefoil" motif found in a large family of putative growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    De, A; Brown, D G; Gorman, M A; Carr, M; Sanderson, M R; Freemont, P S

    1994-01-01

    Porcine pancreatic spasmolytic polypeptide (PSP) belongs to a large family of homologous growth factor-like polypeptides characterized by a disulfide-linked "trefoil motif," duplicated and conserved in various family members. PSP contains two trefoil motifs, has several pharmacological actions on the gut, and has growth factor properties on epithelial cells in vitro. The human PSP analogue, human spasmolytic polypeptide, appears to be involved in many regenerative situations and, especially, in healing gastrointestinal ulcers. One member of the trefoil family, pS2, is secreted in approximately 50% of estrogen-dependent human breast carcinomas, which has led to its use as a tumor prognostic marker. Both pS2 and human spasmolytic polypeptide are also widely expressed in chronic gastrointestinal ulcerative conditions such as Crohn disease. Here we report the three-dimensional structure at 2.6-A resolution of a trefoil-containing protein, namely PSP, purified from porcine pancreas. The structure shows two homologous domains that share a supersecondary structure and disulfide bond pattern. The two domains pack asymmetrically giving rise to a number of protruding loops, exposed clefts, and an unusual electrostatic surface potential. Knowledge of the structure of PSP should allow the design of mutants to investigate further the function of PSP and other trefoil-containing peptides. Images PMID:8302836

  6. Homozygous HOXB1 loss-of-function mutation in a large family with hereditary congenital facial paresis.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Markus; Velleuer, Eunike; Schmidt-Jiménez, Leon F; Mayatepek, Ertan; Borkhardt, Arndt; Alawi, Malik; Kutsche, Kerstin; Kortüm, Fanny

    2016-07-01

    Hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP) belongs to the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders. HCFP is characterized by the isolated dysfunction of the seventh cranial nerve and can be associated with hearing loss, strabismus, and orofacial anomalies. Möbius syndrome shares facial palsy with HCFP, but is additionally characterized by limited abduction of the eye(s). Genetic heterogeneity has been documented for HCFP as one locus mapped to chromosome 3q21-q22 (HCFP1) and a second to 10q21.3-q22.1 (HCFP2). The only known causative gene for HCFP is HOXB1 (17q21; HCFP3), encoding a homeodomain-containing transcription factor of the HOX gene family, which are master regulators of early developmental processes. The previously reported HOXB1 mutations change arginine 207 to another residue in the homeodomain and alter binding capacity of HOXB1 for transcriptional co-regulators and DNA. We performed whole exome sequencing in HCFP-affected individuals of a large consanguineous Moroccan family. The homozygous nonsense variant c.66C>G/p.(Tyr22*) in HOXB1 was identified in the four patients with HCFP and ear malformations, while healthy family members carried the mutation in the heterozygous state. This is the first disease-associated HOXB1 mutation with a likely loss-of-function effect suggesting that all HOXB1 variants reported so far also have severe impact on activity of this transcriptional regulator. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27144914

  7. Molecular analysis of recombination in a family with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and a large pericentric X chromosome inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Shashi, V.; Golden, W.L.; Allinson, P.S.

    1996-06-01

    It has been demonstrated in animal studies that, in animals heterozygous for pericentric chromosomal inversions, loop formation is greatly reduced during meiosis. This results in absence of recombination within the inverted segment, with recombination seen only outside the inversion. A recent study in yeast has shown that telomeres, rather than centromeres, lead in chromosome movement just prior to meiosis and may be involved in promoting recombination. We studied by cytogenetic analysis and DNA polymorphisms the nature of meiotic recombination in a three-generation family with a large pericentric X chromosome inversion, inv(X)(p21.1q26), in which Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was cosegregating with the inversion. On DNA analysis there was no evidence of meiotic recombination between the inverted and normal X chromosomes in the inverted segment. Recombination was seen at the telomeric regions, Xp22 and Xq27-28. No deletion or point mutation was found on analysis of the DMD gene. On the basis of the FISH results, we believe that the X inversion is the mutation responsible for DMD in this family. Our results indicate that (1) pericentric X chromosome inversions result in reduction of recombination between the normal and inverted X chromosomes; (2) meiotic X chromosome pairing in these individuals is likely initiated at the telomeres; and (3) in this family DMD is caused by the pericentric inversion. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A large family of Dscam genes with tandemly arrayed 5' cassettes in Chelicerata.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yuan; Meng, Yijun; Ma, Hongru; Hou, Shouqing; Cao, Guozheng; Hong, Weiling; Shi, Yang; Guo, Pengjuan; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Feng; Yang, Yun; Jin, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila Dscam1 (Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecules) and vertebrate clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are two classic examples of the extraordinary isoform diversity from a single genomic locus. Dscam1 encodes 38,016 distinct isoforms via mutually exclusive splicing in D. melanogaster, while the vertebrate clustered Pcdhs utilize alternative promoters to generate isoform diversity. Here we reveal a shortened Dscam gene family with tandemly arrayed 5' cassettes in Chelicerata. These cassette repeats generally comprise two or four exons, corresponding to variable Immunoglobulin 7 (Ig7) or Ig7-8 domains of Drosophila Dscam1. Furthermore, extraordinary isoform diversity has been generated through a combination of alternating promoter and alternative splicing. These sDscams have a high sequence similarity with Drosophila Dscam1, and share striking organizational resemblance to the 5' variable regions of vertebrate clustered Pcdhs. Hence, our findings have important implications for understanding the functional similarities between Drosophila Dscam1 and vertebrate Pcdhs, and may provide further mechanistic insights into the regulation of isoform diversity. PMID:27080167

  9. A large family of Dscam genes with tandemly arrayed 5′ cassettes in Chelicerata

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yuan; Meng, Yijun; Ma, Hongru; Hou, Shouqing; Cao, Guozheng; Hong, Weiling; Shi, Yang; Guo, Pengjuan; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Feng; Yang, Yun; Jin, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila Dscam1 (Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecules) and vertebrate clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are two classic examples of the extraordinary isoform diversity from a single genomic locus. Dscam1 encodes 38,016 distinct isoforms via mutually exclusive splicing in D. melanogaster, while the vertebrate clustered Pcdhs utilize alternative promoters to generate isoform diversity. Here we reveal a shortened Dscam gene family with tandemly arrayed 5′ cassettes in Chelicerata. These cassette repeats generally comprise two or four exons, corresponding to variable Immunoglobulin 7 (Ig7) or Ig7–8 domains of Drosophila Dscam1. Furthermore, extraordinary isoform diversity has been generated through a combination of alternating promoter and alternative splicing. These sDscams have a high sequence similarity with Drosophila Dscam1, and share striking organizational resemblance to the 5′ variable regions of vertebrate clustered Pcdhs. Hence, our findings have important implications for understanding the functional similarities between Drosophila Dscam1 and vertebrate Pcdhs, and may provide further mechanistic insights into the regulation of isoform diversity. PMID:27080167

  10. Computational Analysis of Looping of a Large Family of Highly Bent DNA by LacI

    PubMed Central

    Lillian, Todd D.; Goyal, Sachin; Kahn, Jason D.; Meyhöfer, Edgar; Perkins, N. C.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence-dependent intrinsic curvature of DNA influences looping by regulatory proteins such as LacI and NtrC. Curvature can enhance stability and control shape, as observed in LacI loops formed with three designed sequences with operators bracketing an A-tract bend. We explore geometric, topological, and energetic effects of curvature with an analysis of a family of highly bent sequences, using the elastic rod model from previous work. A unifying straight-helical-straight representation uses two phasing parameters to describe sequences composed of two straight segments that flank a common helically supercoiled segment. We exercise the rod model over this two-dimensional space of phasing parameters to evaluate looping behaviors. This design space is found to comprise two subspaces that prefer parallel versus anti-parallel binding topologies. The energetic cost of looping varies from 4 to 12 kT. Molecules can be designed to yield distinct binding topologies as well as hyperstable or hypostable loops and potentially loops that can switch conformations. Loop switching could be a mechanism for control of gene expression. Model predictions for linking numbers and sizes of LacI-DNA loops can be tested using multiple experimental approaches, which coupled with theory could address whether proteins or DNA provide the observed flexibility of protein-DNA loops. PMID:18931251

  11. Analogy between Laryngeal Gesture in Mongolian "Long Song" and Supracricoid Partial Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crevier-Buchman, Lise; Pillot-Loiseau, Claire; Rialland, Annie; Narantuya; Vincent, Coralie; Desjacques, Alain

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of a multiparametrical analysis of "Mongolian Long Song," characterised by multiple ornamentation and shows the similarities between the laryngeal behaviour observed during these ornamentations and the compensatory gesture produced by patients after supracricoid partial laryngectomy. This study includes (1) a…

  12. Effects of levonorgestrel-quinestrol (EP-1) treatment on Mongolian gerbil wild populations: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Heping; Zhang, Jinwei; Shi, Dazhao; Wu, Xiaodong

    2013-09-01

    Rodent pest population outbreaks occur frequently in grassland ecosystems in northern China. The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is a dominant pest rodent which is distributed across the semi-desert grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China. In 2009, we studied the contraceptive effect of levonorgestrel-quinestrol (EP-1), concentration 50 ppm, on a wild Mongolian gerbil population. The one-off contraceptive treatment was compared with a control group using a semi-monthly live trapping method in the Ordos Semi-desert Grassland Region of Inner Mongolia. The results show that juveniles were not recruited in spring in the treatment group. Ratios of juveniles in the control and treatment groups showed significant semi-monthly differences from spring to summer (one-way ANOVA, F2, 14 = 7.53, P < 0.05). Between both groups, annual fluctuations of juvenile and total population densities were significantly different respectively (F2, 14 = 4.64, P < 0.05; F2, 18 = 7.72, P < 0.05). The contraceptive EP-1 delayed the normal reproductive pattern of Mongolian gerbil populations. This suppressed birth rates of gerbil populations, reduced their densities, and changed their age structures. The period of EP-1 baiting should be extended but it could be an ideal method for controlling Mongolian gerbil populations during each breeding season. PMID:24020466

  13. Glossary of Mongolian Technical Terms. Program in Oriental Languages. Publications Series B--Aids--Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Frederick H.

    This glossary of Mongolian technical terms includes approximately 4,500 entries, covering such areas as political administration, economics, science, railways, stockfarming, agriculture, medicine, foreign affairs, military matters and miscellaneous items. A number of colloquial expressions are included, since they occur quite frequently and appear…

  14. China's Other Medical Systems: Recognizing Uyghur, Tibetan, and Mongolian Traditional Medicines

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Chinese medicine, as it is understood and adopted by those with a growing interest in complementary and alternative practices to biomedicine, is often used as an umbrella term for traditional medical practices from regions within and bordering the People's Republic of China. However, there are multiple distinct medical traditions in China, including that of the Uyghurs, Tibetans, and Mongolians. Objective: It is important to recognize the commonalities and differences of these unique systems of medicine practiced by the 3 different cultures among China's borders. Methods: Through an in-depth analysis of the individual beliefs and theories that form the foundation of each system, we trace the origins of the concepts that were synthesized into the Uyghur, Tibetan, and Mongolian medical systems. Furthermore, we compare diagnostic techniques and contrast treatment modalities among the 3 systems. Discussion: We discuss humoral theory, constitution theory, elemental theory, organ theory, and yin and yang theory. We find that imbalance is the common cause of disease or illness, but the conditions and external factors that explain such imbalances differ among the Uyghur, Tibetan, and Mongolian systems. Through these comparisons, we seek to highlight the unique beliefs, practices, and treatments utilized by these cultures. Conclusion: The features and attributes, while not exclusive to each population, are nonetheless uniquely synthesized by each system and thus demonstrate the distinct nature of Uyghur, Tibetan, and Mongolian medical systems. PMID:26937317

  15. Technical note for post-auricular route surgery in Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Risoud, Michaël; Bonne, Nicolas-Xavier; Fourdrinier, Martin; Hubert, Thomas; Vincent, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is commonly used in hearing research because the hearing frequency spectrum of the gerbil is rather similar to that of the human being. However, a precise description of the surgical post-auricular route has not been reported. The aim of this technical note is to provide details on the procedure and the surgical anatomy of the post-auricular route in the Mongolian gerbil. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia on eight (2 males and 6 females) adult Mongolian gerbils. All steps of the post-auricular route were detailed. This surgery provided an access to the following structures: the semi-circular posterior and lateral canals, the external auditory meatus, the tympanic membrane, the round window, the stapes, the stapedial artery and the reliefs of the cochlea. No anatomic variation was noticed among the 8 animals. This post-auricular route in the Mongolian gerbil defines a brief and simple surgery, overall standardized as a consequence of the absence of common anatomic variation, with painless and uncomplicated post-operative stage. PMID:27244698

  16. Biofortified Carrot Intake Enhances Liver Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin A Status in Mongolian Gerbils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofortification efforts have increased concentrations of bioactive compounds in carrots. Vitamin A bioefficacy and antioxidant potential of four biofortified carrot varieties [purple/orange (PO), purple/orange/red (POR), orange/red (OR) and orange (O)] were measured in Mongolian gerbils (n = 73). ...

  17. Effects of Negotiated Interaction on Mongolian-Nationality EFL Learners' Spoken Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xueping

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of negotiated interaction on Mongolian-nationality EFL learners' spoken production, focusing on the teacher-learner interaction in a story-telling task. The study supports the hypothesis that interaction plays a facilitating role in language development for learners. Quantitative analysis shows that Mongolian…

  18. Rhodopsin F45L Allele Does Not Cause Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa in a Large Caucasian Family

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Andrea L.; Carroll, Joseph; Fishman, Gerald A.; Sauer, Alexandra; Sharp, Dianne; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Williams, Vesper; Dubis, Adam M.; Kohl, Susanne; Wong, Fulton

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To ascertain the potential pathogenicity of a retinitis pigmentosa (RP)-causing RHO F45L allele in a family affected by congenital achromatopsia (ACHM). Methods Case series/observational study that included two patients with ACHM and 24 extended family members. Molecular genetic analysis was performed to identify RHO F45L carrier status in the family and a control population. An adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) was used to image the photoreceptor mosaic and assess rod and cone structure. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to examine retinal lamination. Comprehensive clinical testing included acuity, color vision, and dilated fundus examination. Electroretinography was used to assess rod and cone function. Results Five carriers of the RHO F45L allele alone (24–80 years) and three carriers in combination with a heterozygous CNGA3 mutant allele (10–64 years) were all free of the classic symptoms and signs of RP. In heterozygous carriers of both mutations, SD-OCT showed normal retinal thickness and intact outer retinal layers; rod and cone densities were within normal limits on AOSLO. The phenotype in two individuals affected with ACHM and harboring the RHO F45L allele was indistinguishable from that previously reported for ACHM. Conclusions The RHO F45L allele is not pathogenic in this large family; hence, the two ACHM patients would unlikely develop RP in the future. Translational Relevance The combined approach of comprehensive molecular analysis of individual genomes and noninvasive cellular resolution retinal imaging enhances the current repertoire of clinical diagnostic tools, giving a substantial impetus to personalized medicine. PMID:24049715

  19. A novel homozygous splicing mutation of CASC5 causes primary microcephaly in a large Pakistani family.

    PubMed

    Szczepanski, Sandra; Hussain, Muhammad Sajid; Sur, Ilknur; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Abdullah, Uzma; Waseem, Syeda Seema; Moawia, Abubakar; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Noegel, Angelika Anna; Baig, Shahid Mahmood; Nürnberg, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Primary microcephaly is a disorder characterized by a small head and brain associated with impaired cognitive capabilities. Mutations in 13 different genes encoding centrosomal proteins and cell cycle regulators have been reported to cause the disease. CASC5, a gene encoding a protein important for kinetochore formation and proper chromosome segregation during mitosis, has been suggested to be associated with primary microcephaly-4 (MCPH4). This was based on one mutation only and circumstantial functional evidence. By combining homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in an MCPH family from Pakistan, we identified a second mutation (NM_170589.4;c.6673-19T>A) in CASC5. This mutation induced skipping of exon 25 of CASC5 resulting in a frameshift and the introduction of a premature stop codon (p.Met2225Ilefs*7). The C-terminally truncated protein lacks 118 amino acids that encompass the region responsible for the interaction with the hMIS12 complex, which is essential for proper chromosome alignment and segregation. Furthermore, we showed a down-regulation of CASC5 mRNA and reduction of the amount of CASC5 protein by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. As a further sign of functional deficits, we observed dispersed dots of CASC5 immunoreactive material outside the metaphase plate of dividing patient fibroblasts. Normally, CASC5 is a component of the kinetochore of metaphase chromosomes. A higher mitotic index in patient cells indicated a mitotic arrest in the cells carrying the mutation. We also observed lobulated and fragmented nuclei as well as micronuclei in the patient cells. Moreover, we detected an altered DNA damage response with higher levels of γH2AX and 53BP1 in mutant as compared to control fibroblasts. Our findings substantiate the proposed role of CASC5 for primary microcephaly and suggest that it also might be relevant for genome stability. PMID:26621532

  20. Izumo is part of a multiprotein family whose members form large complexes on mammalian sperm

    PubMed Central

    Ellerman, Diego A; Pei, Jimin; Gupta, Surabhi; Snell, William J; Myles, Diana; Primakoff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Izumo, a sperm membrane protein, is essential for gamete fusion in the mouse. It has an Ig (Immunoglobulin) domain and an N-terminal domain for which neither the functions nor homologous sequences are known. In the present work we identified three novel proteins showing an N-terminal domain with significant homology to the N-terminal domain of Izumo. We named this region "Izumo domain", and the novel proteins “Izumo 2”,”Izumo 3” and “Izumo 4”, retaining “Izumo 1” for the first described member of the family. Izumo 1, 2 and 3 are transmembrane proteins expressed specifically in the testis, and Izumo 4 is a soluble protein expressed in the testis and in other tissues. Electrophoresis under mildly denaturing conditions, followed by Western blot analysis, showed that Izumo 1, 3 and 4 formed protein complexes on sperm, Izumo 1 forming several larger complexes and Izumo 3 and 4 forming a single larger complex. Studies using different recombinant Izumo constructs suggested the Izumo domain possesses the ability to form dimers, whereas the transmembrane domain or the cytoplasmic domain or both of Izumo 1 are required for the formation of multimers of higher order. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed the presence of other sperm proteins associated with Izumo-1, suggesting Izumo 1 forms a multi-protein membrane complex. Our results raise the possibility that Izumo 1 might be involved in organizing or stabilizing a multi-protein complex essential for the function of the membrane fusion machinery. PMID:19658160

  1. Precambrian microcontinents of the Ural-Mongolian Belt: New paleomagnetic and geochronological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levashova, N. M.; Gibsher, A. S.; Meert, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge on the early stages of evolution of the Ural-Mongolian Belt (UMB) (Late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian) is a key for understanding of its evolution in the Paleozoic. Unfortunately, this stage remains poorly studied. The tectonic reconstructions of the UMB for this time primarily depend on the views on the kinematics and tectonic evolution of numerous sialic massifs with Precambrian basement in the structure of the Tien Shan, Kazakhstan, Altai, and Mongolia. At present, the concept of the origin of these massifs is largely based on the lithostratigraphic similarity of the Neoproterozoic and Lower Paleozoic sections of the Tarim, South China, and Siberian platforms with coeval sections of Precambrian massifs within the UMB. New paleomagnetic and geochronological data can serve as additional sources of information on the origin and paleotectonic position of the microcontinents. In this paper, we present new isotopic datings and a new paleomagnetic determination for the Neoproterozoic volcanic rocks of the Zabhan Formation from the Baydrag microcontinent in central Mongolia. It is established that 805-770 Ma ago (U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS age of zircon) the Baydrag microcontinent was situated at a latitude of 47 ± 14° in the Northern or Southern hemisphere. These data provide new insights into the possible origin of the Precambrian micro-continents in the UMB. Analysis of paleomagnetic data and comparison of the age of the basement beneath various plates allow us to state rather confidently that ˜800 Ma ago the micro-continents of the UMB belonged to one of the North Rodinian plates: Indian, Tarim, or South China; their Australian origin is less probable.

  2. Evolutionary expansion and divergence in a large family of primate-specific zinc finger transcription factor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, A T; Huntley, S; Tran-Gyamfi, M; Baggott, D; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L

    2005-09-28

    Although most genes are conserved as one-to-one orthologs in different mammalian orders, certain gene families have evolved to comprise different numbers and types of protein-coding genes through independent series of gene duplications, divergence and gene loss in each evolutionary lineage. One such family encodes KRAB-zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF) genes, which are likely to function as transcriptional repressors. One KRAB-ZNF subfamily, the ZNF91 clade, has expanded specifically in primates to comprise more than 110 loci in the human genome, yielding large gene clusters in human chromosomes 19 and 7 and smaller clusters or isolated copies at other chromosomal locations. Although phylogenetic analysis indicates that many of these genes arose before the split between old world monkeys and new world monkeys, the ZNF91 subfamily has continued to expand and diversify throughout the evolution of apes and humans. The paralogous loci are distinguished by sequence divergence within their zinc finger arrays indicating a selection for proteins with different DNA binding specificities. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization data show that some of these ZNF genes can have tissue-specific expression patterns, however many KRAB-ZNFs that are near-ubiquitous could also be playing very specific roles in halting target pathways in all tissues except for a few, where the target is released by the absence of its repressor. The number of variant KRAB-ZNF proteins is increased not only because of the large number of loci, but also because many loci can produce multiple splice variants, which because of the modular structure of these genes may have separate and perhaps even conflicting regulatory roles. The lineage-specific duplication and rapid divergence of this family of transcription factor genes suggests a role in determining species-specific biological differences and the evolution of novel primate traits.

  3. R47H Variant of TREM2 Associated With Alzheimer Disease in a Large Late-Onset Family

    PubMed Central

    Korvatska, Olena; Leverenz, James B.; Jayadev, Suman; McMillan, Pamela; Kurtz, Irina; Guo, Xindi; Rumbaugh, Malia; Matsushita, Mark; Girirajan, Santhosh; Dorschner, Michael O.; Kiianitsa, Kostantin; Yu, Chang-En; Brkanac, Zoran; Garden, Gwenn A.; Raskind, Wendy H.; Bird, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance The R47H variant in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 gene (TREM2), a modulator of the immune response of microglia, is a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD) and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. Objective To investigate a large family with late-onset AD (LOAD), in which R47H cosegregated with 75% of cases. Design, Setting, and Participants This study includes genetic and pathologic studies of families with LOAD from 1985 to 2014. A total of 131 families with LOAD (751 individuals) were included from the University of Washington Alzheimer Disease Research Center. To identify LOAD genes/risk factors in the LOAD123 family with 21 affected members and 12 autopsies, we sequenced 4 exomes. Candidate variants were tested for cosegregation with the disease. TREM2 R47H was genotyped in an additional 130 families with LOAD. We performed clinical and neuropathological assessments of patients with and without R47H and evaluated the variant's effect on brain pathology, cellular morphology, and expression of microglial markers. Main Outcomes and Measures We assessed the effect of TREM2 genotype on age at onset and disease duration. We compared Braak and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease scores, presence of α-synuclein and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 aggregates, and additional vascular or Parkinson pathology in TREM2 R47H carriers vs noncarriers. Microglial activation was assessed by quantitative immunohistochemistry and morphometry. Results Twelve of 16 patients with AD in the LOAD123 family carried R47H. Eleven patients with dementia had apolipoprotein E 4 (ApoE4) and R47H genotypes. We also found a rare missense variant, D353N, in a nominated AD risk gene, unc-5 homolog C (UNC5C), in 5 affected individuals in the LOAD123 family. R47H carriers demonstrated a shortened disease duration (mean [SD], 6.7 [2.8] vs 11.1 [6.6] years; 2-tailed t test; P = .04) and more frequent α-synucleinopathy. The

  4. Characterization of the cellulolytic bacteria communities along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese Mongolian sheep by using PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Ni, Xueqin; Tang, Yurui; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Hesong; Yin, Zhongqiong; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2015-07-01

    A balanced gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem is crucial for the health and growth of animals. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants, cellulolytic bacteria aid in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Rumen contents and feces in ruminants are often used to assess gastrointestinal microbial communities; however, these sites do not guarantee to represent the diversity of microbes found in the entire GIT. In this study, we investigated the microbiota along the GIT of five Chinese Mongolian sheep using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR analysis. Results indicated that microbiota were more abundant in the stomach and large intestine than in the small intestine. DGGE and real-time PCR revealed the predominance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the GIT. Meanwhile, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Clostridium cluster IV showed significant difference in their abundance along the GIT (P < 0.05). Fibrobacter succinogenes was the most dominant species, followed by Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens. The ileum harbored a larger number of cellulolytic bacteria, particularly-Clostridium cluster IV, than reported previously. In addition, comparisons between microbiota in the rumen and rectum indicated similar number of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, F. succinogenes, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Clostridium cluster IV, and Clostridium cluster XIVa, whereas the number of R. albus and R. flavefaciens was higher in the rumen. This study investigated the composition and quantification of GIT microbial community in Chinese Mongolian sheep, and revealed for the first time the cellulolytic bacterial community in these sheep. PMID:25931374

  5. Protein-bound molecules: a large family with a bad character.

    PubMed

    Sirich, Tammy L; Meyer, Timothy W; Gondouin, Bertrand; Brunet, Philippe; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    Many small solutes excreted by the kidney are bound to plasma proteins, chiefly albumin, in the circulation. The combination of protein binding and tubular secretion allows the kidney to reduce the free, unbound concentrations of such solutes to lower levels than could be obtained by tubular secretion alone. Protein-bound solutes accumulate in the plasma when the kidneys fail, and the free, unbound levels of these solutes increase more than their total plasma levels owing to competition for binding sites on plasma proteins. Given the efficiency by which the kidney can clear protein-bound solutes, it is tempting to speculate that some compounds in this class are important uremic toxins. Studies to date have focused largely on two specific protein-bound solutes: indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. The largest body of evidence suggests that both of these compounds contribute to cardiovascular disease, and that indoxyl sulfate contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Other protein-bound solutes have been investigated to a much lesser extent, and could in the future prove to be even more important uremic toxins. PMID:24780467

  6. p300 family members associate with the carboxyl terminus of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Lill, N L; Tevethia, M J; Eckner, R; Livingston, D M; Modjtahedi, N

    1997-01-01

    Several cellular polypeptides critical for growth regulation interact with DNA tumor virus oncoproteins. p400 is a cellular protein which binds to the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein(s). The biological function of p400 is not yet known, but it is structurally and immunologically closely related to p300 and CREB-binding protein, two known E1A-binding transcription adapters. Like p300, p400 is a phosphoprotein that binds to the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (T). In anti-T coimmunoprecipitation experiments, staggered deletions spanning the amino-terminal 250 amino acids of T did not abrogate T binding to either p400 or p300. A T species composed of residues 251 to 708 bound both p400 and p300, while a T species defective in p53 binding was unable to bind either detectably. Anti-p53 immunoprecipitates prepared from cells containing wild-type T also contained p400 and p300. Hence, both p400 and p300 can bind (directly or indirectly) to a carboxyl-terminal fragment of T which contains its p53 binding domain. Since the p53 binding domain of T contributes to its immortalizing and transforming activities, T-p400 and/or T-p300 interactions may participate in these functions. PMID:8985331

  7. Lipid transfer particle from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a novel member of the apoB/large lipid transfer protein family[S

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Takeru; Yuasa, Masashi; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Sakudoh, Takashi; Honda, Naoko; Fugo, Hajime; Tsuchida, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    Lipid transfer particle (LTP) is a high-molecular-weight, very high-density lipoprotein known to catalyze the transfer of lipids between a variety of lipoproteins, including both insects and vertebrates. Studying the biosynthesis and regulation pathways of LTP in detail has not been possible due to a lack of information regarding the apoproteins. Here, we sequenced the cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences for three apoproteins of LTP from the silkworm (Bombyx mori). The three subunit proteins of the LTP are coded by two genes, apoLTP-II/I and apoLTP-III. ApoLTP-I and apoLTP-II are predicted to be generated by posttranslational cleavage of the precursor protein, apoLTP-II/I. Clusters of amphipathic secondary structure within apoLTP-II/I are similar to Homo sapiens apolipoprotein B (apoB) and insect lipophorins. The apoLTP-II/I gene is a novel member of the apoB/large lipid transfer protein gene family. ApoLTP-III has a putative conserved juvenile hormone-binding protein superfamily domain. Expression of apoLTP-II/I and apoLTP-III genes was synchronized and both genes were primarily expressed in the fat body at the stage corresponding to increased lipid transport needs. We are now in a position to study in detail the physiological role of LTP and its biosynthesis and assembly. PMID:23812557

  8. A global assessment of a large monocot family highlights the need for group-specific analyses of invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Desika; Procheş, Şerban; Wilson, John R U

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding biological invasions recently, and one of the key findings is that the determinants of naturalization and invasion success vary from group to group. Here, we explore this variation for one of the largest plant families in the world, the Araceae. This group provides an excellent opportunity for identifying determinants of invasiveness in herbaceous plants, since it is one of the families most popular with horticulturalists, with species occupying various habitats and comprising many different life forms. We first developed a checklist of 3494 species of Araceae using online databases and literature sources. We aimed to determine whether invasiveness across the introduction-naturalization-invasion continuum is associated to particular traits within the family, and whether analyses focussed on specific life forms can reveal any mechanistic correlates. Boosted regression tree models were based on species invasion statuses as the response variables, and traits associated with human use, biological characteristics and distribution as the explanatory variables. The models indicate that biological traits such as plant life form and pollinator type are consistently strong correlates of invasiveness. Additionally, large-scale correlates such as the number of native floristic regions and number of introduced regions are also influential at particular stages in the invasion continuum. We used these traits to build a phenogram showing groups defined by the similarity of characters. We identified nine groups that have a greater tendency to invasiveness (includingAlocasia, the Lemnoideae andEpipremnum). From this, we propose a list of species that are not currently invasive for which we would recommend a precautionary approach to be taken. The successful management of plant invasions will depend on understanding such context-dependent effects across taxonomic groups, and across the different stages of the invasion process. PMID

  9. A global assessment of a large monocot family highlights the need for group-specific analyses of invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Desika; Procheş, Şerban; Wilson, John R. U.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding biological invasions recently, and one of the key findings is that the determinants of naturalization and invasion success vary from group to group. Here, we explore this variation for one of the largest plant families in the world, the Araceae. This group provides an excellent opportunity for identifying determinants of invasiveness in herbaceous plants, since it is one of the families most popular with horticulturalists, with species occupying various habitats and comprising many different life forms. We first developed a checklist of 3494 species of Araceae using online databases and literature sources. We aimed to determine whether invasiveness across the introduction–naturalization–invasion continuum is associated to particular traits within the family, and whether analyses focussed on specific life forms can reveal any mechanistic correlates. Boosted regression tree models were based on species invasion statuses as the response variables, and traits associated with human use, biological characteristics and distribution as the explanatory variables. The models indicate that biological traits such as plant life form and pollinator type are consistently strong correlates of invasiveness. Additionally, large-scale correlates such as the number of native floristic regions and number of introduced regions are also influential at particular stages in the invasion continuum. We used these traits to build a phenogram showing groups defined by the similarity of characters. We identified nine groups that have a greater tendency to invasiveness (including Alocasia, the Lemnoideae and Epipremnum). From this, we propose a list of species that are not currently invasive for which we would recommend a precautionary approach to be taken. The successful management of plant invasions will depend on understanding such context-dependent effects across taxonomic groups, and across the different stages of the invasion process

  10. SCA15 due to large ITPR1 deletions in a cohort of 333 Caucasian families with dominant ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Cecilia; van de Leemput, Joyce; Johnson, Janel O; Tison, Francois; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Picard, Fabienne; Tranchant, Christine; Hernandez, Dena G; Huttin, Bernard; Boulliat, Jacques; Sangla, Iban; Marescaux, Christian; Brique, Serge; Dollfus, Hélène; Arepalli, Sampath; Benatru, Isabelle; Ollagnon, Elisabeth; Forlani, Sylvie; Hardy, John; Stevanin, Giovanni; Dürr, Alexandra; Singleton, Andrew; Brice, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Objectives to determine the frequency and the phenotypical spectrum of SCA15 patients. Methods in the index cases of 333 families with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) negative for CAG repeat expansions in coding exons (SCA1,2,3,6,7,17 and dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy), we searched for heterozygous rearrangements in ITPR1. Taqman PCR (258 index cases) or SNP genome-wide genotyping (75 index cases) were used. Results a deletion of ITPR1 was found in 6/333 (1.8%) families, corresponding to 13 SCA15 patients. Age at onset ranged from 18 to 66 years with a mean of 35±16 years. The symptom at onset was mainly cerebellar gait ataxia, except for one patient presenting with isolated upper limb tremor. Although we tested a large cohort of families irrespective of their phenotype, the main clinical features of SCA15 patients were homogeneous and characterized by a very slowly progressive gait and limb cerebellar ataxia with dysarthria. However, pyramidal signs (two patients), and mild cognitive problems (two patients) were occasionally present. Ocular alterations consisted of nystagmus, mainly horizontal and gaze-evoked (ten patients), and saccadic pursuit (seven patients). Radiological findings showed global or predominant vermian cerebellar atrophy in all patients. Conclusions In this series ITPR1 deletions are rare and account for ~1% of all ADCA. The SCA15 phenotype mostly consists of a slowly progressive isolated cerebellar ataxia with variable age at onset; an additional pyramidal syndrome and problems in executive functions may be present in a minority of patients. PMID:21555639

  11. A large family of antivirulence regulators modulates the effects of transcriptional activators in Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Araceli E; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Jo, Noah Y; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei Q; Nataro, James P

    2014-05-01

    We have reported that transcription of a hypothetical small open reading frame (orf60) in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strain 042 is impaired after mutation of aggR, which encodes a global virulence activator. We have also reported that the cryptic orf60 locus was linked to protection against EAEC diarrhea in two epidemiologic studies. Here, we report that the orf60 product acts as a negative regulator of aggR itself. The orf60 protein product lacks homology to known repressors, but displays 44-100% similarity to at least fifty previously undescribed small (<10 kDa) hypothetical proteins found in many gram negative pathogen genomes. Expression of orf60 homologs from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) repressed the expression of the AraC-transcriptional ETEC regulator CfaD/Rns and its regulon in ETEC strain H10407. Complementation in trans of EAEC 042orf60 by orf60 homologs from ETEC and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium resulted in dramatic suppression of aggR. A C. rodentium orf60 homolog mutant showed increased levels of activator RegA and increased colonization of the adult mouse. We propose the name Aar (AggR-activated regulator) for the clinically and epidemiologically important orf60 product in EAEC, and postulate the existence of a large family of homologs among pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae. We propose the name ANR (AraC Negative Regulators) for this family. PMID:24875828

  12. A Large Family of Antivirulence Regulators Modulates the Effects of Transcriptional Activators in Gram-negative Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Araceli E.; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Jo, Noah Y.; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei Q.; Nataro, James P.

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that transcription of a hypothetical small open reading frame (orf60) in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strain 042 is impaired after mutation of aggR, which encodes a global virulence activator. We have also reported that the cryptic orf60 locus was linked to protection against EAEC diarrhea in two epidemiologic studies. Here, we report that the orf60 product acts as a negative regulator of aggR itself. The orf60 protein product lacks homology to known repressors, but displays 44–100% similarity to at least fifty previously undescribed small (<10 kDa) hypothetical proteins found in many gram negative pathogen genomes. Expression of orf60 homologs from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) repressed the expression of the AraC-transcriptional ETEC regulator CfaD/Rns and its regulon in ETEC strain H10407. Complementation in trans of EAEC 042orf60 by orf60 homologs from ETEC and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium resulted in dramatic suppression of aggR. A C. rodentium orf60 homolog mutant showed increased levels of activator RegA and increased colonization of the adult mouse. We propose the name Aar (AggR-activated regulator) for the clinically and epidemiologically important orf60 product in EAEC, and postulate the existence of a large family of homologs among pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae. We propose the name ANR (AraC Negative Regulators) for this family. PMID:24875828

  13. A de novo mutation of the MYH7 gene in a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Tetsuya; Xiong, Hui; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Wang, Shuo; Satake, Wataru; Jiao, Hui; Yang, Yanling; Cha, Pei-Chieng; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Nishino, Ichizo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Wu, Xiru; Toda, Tatsushi

    2015-01-01

    Laing distal myopathy (LDM) is an autosomal dominant myopathy that is caused by mutations in the slow/beta cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MYH7) gene. It has been recently reported that LDM presents with a wide range of clinical manifestations. We herein report a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant myopathy. The affected individuals in the family presented with foot drop in early childhood, along with progressive distal and proximal limb weakness. Their characteristic symptoms include scapular winging and scoliosis in the early disease phase and impairment of ambulation in the advanced phase. Although limb-girdle muscle dystrophy (LGMD) was suspected initially, a definite diagnosis could not be reached. As such, we performed linkage analysis and detected four linkage regions, namely 1q23.2-24.1, 14q11.2-12, 15q26.2-26.3 and 17q24.3. Through subsequent whole exome sequencing, we found a de novo p.K1617del causative mutation in the MYH7 gene and diagnosed the disease as LDM. This is the first LDM case in China. Our patients have severe clinical manifestations that mimic LGMD in comparison with the patients with the same mutation reported elsewhere. PMID:27081534

  14. A de novo mutation of the MYH7 gene in a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant myopathy.

    PubMed

    Oda, Tetsuya; Xiong, Hui; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Wang, Shuo; Satake, Wataru; Jiao, Hui; Yang, Yanling; Cha, Pei-Chieng; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Nishino, Ichizo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Wu, Xiru; Toda, Tatsushi

    2015-01-01

    Laing distal myopathy (LDM) is an autosomal dominant myopathy that is caused by mutations in the slow/beta cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MYH7) gene. It has been recently reported that LDM presents with a wide range of clinical manifestations. We herein report a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant myopathy. The affected individuals in the family presented with foot drop in early childhood, along with progressive distal and proximal limb weakness. Their characteristic symptoms include scapular winging and scoliosis in the early disease phase and impairment of ambulation in the advanced phase. Although limb-girdle muscle dystrophy (LGMD) was suspected initially, a definite diagnosis could not be reached. As such, we performed linkage analysis and detected four linkage regions, namely 1q23.2-24.1, 14q11.2-12, 15q26.2-26.3 and 17q24.3. Through subsequent whole exome sequencing, we found a de novo p.K1617del causative mutation in the MYH7 gene and diagnosed the disease as LDM. This is the first LDM case in China. Our patients have severe clinical manifestations that mimic LGMD in comparison with the patients with the same mutation reported elsewhere. PMID:27081534

  15. The Crystal Structure of Bacteriophage HK97 gp6: Defining a Large Family of Head-Tail Connector Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Cardarelli, Lia; Lam, Robert; Tuite, Ashleigh; Baker, Lindsay A; Sadowski, Paul D; Radford, Devon R; Rubinstein, John L; Battaile, Kevin P; Chirgadze, Nickolay; Maxwell, Karen L; Davidson, Alan R

    2010-08-17

    The final step in the morphogenesis of long-tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages is the joining of the DNA-filled head to the tail. The connector is a specialized structure of the head that serves as the interface for tail attachment and the point of egress for DNA from the head during infection. Here, we report the determination of a 2.1 {angstrom} crystal structure of gp6 of bacteriophage HK97. Through structural comparisons, functional studies, and bioinformatic analysis, gp6 has been determined to be a component of the connector of phage HK97 that is evolutionarily related to gp15, a well-characterized connector component of bacteriophage SPP1. Whereas the structure of gp15 was solved in a monomeric form, gp6 crystallized as an oligomeric ring with the dimensions expected for a connector protein. Although this ring is composed of 13 subunits, which does not match the symmetry of the connector within the phage, sequence conservation and modeling of this structure into the cryo-electron microscopy density of the SPP1 connector indicate that this oligomeric structure represents the arrangement of gp6 subunits within the mature phage particle. Through sequence searches and genomic position analysis, we determined that gp6 is a member of a large family of connector proteins that are present in long-tailed phages. We have also identified gp7 of HK97 as a homologue of gp16 of phage SPP1, which is the second component of the connector of this phage. These proteins are members of another large protein family involved in connector assembly.

  16. The Crystal Structure of Bacteriophage HK97 gp6: Defining a Large Family of Head-Tail Connector Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Cardarelli, Lia; Lam, Robert; Tuite, Ashleigh; Baker, Lindsay A; Sadowski, Paul D; Radford, Devon R; Rubinstein, John L; Battaile, Kevin P; Chirgadze, Nickolay; Maxwell, Karen L; Davidson, Alan R

    2011-11-23

    The final step in the morphogenesis of long-tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages is the joining of the DNA-filled head to the tail. The connector is a specialized structure of the head that serves as the interface for tail attachment and the point of egress for DNA from the head during infection. Here, we report the determination of a 2.1 Å crystal structure of gp6 of bacteriophage HK97. Through structural comparisons, functional studies, and bioinformatic analysis, gp6 has been determined to be a component of the connector of phage HK97 that is evolutionarily related to gp15, a well-characterized connector component of bacteriophage SPP1. Whereas the structure of gp15 was solved in a monomeric form, gp6 crystallized as an oligomeric ring with the dimensions expected for a connector protein. Although this ring is composed of 13 subunits, which does not match the symmetry of the connector within the phage, sequence conservation and modeling of this structure into the cryo-electron microscopy density of the SPP1 connector indicate that this oligomeric structure represents the arrangement of gp6 subunits within the mature phage particle. Through sequence searches and genomic position analysis, we determined that gp6 is a member of a large family of connector proteins that are present in long-tailed phages. We have also identified gp7 of HK97 as a homologue of gp16 of phage SPP1, which is the second component of the connector of this phage. These proteins are members of another large protein family involved in connector assembly.

  17. A Novel Locus Harbouring a Functional CD164 Nonsense Mutation Identified in a Large Danish Family with Nonsyndromic Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Nyegaard, Mette; Rendtorff, Nanna D; Nielsen, Morten S; Corydon, Thomas J; Demontis, Ditte; Starnawska, Anna; Hedemand, Anne; Buniello, Annalisa; Niola, Francesco; Overgaard, Michael T; Leal, Suzanne M; Ahmad, Wasim; Wikman, Friedrik P; Petersen, Kirsten B; Crüger, Dorthe G; Oostrik, Jaap; Kremer, Hannie; Tommerup, Niels; Frödin, Morten; Steel, Karen P; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Børglum, Anders D

    2015-07-01

    Nonsyndromic hearing impairment (NSHI) is a highly heterogeneous condition with more than eighty known causative genes. However, in the clinical setting, a large number of NSHI families have unexplained etiology, suggesting that there are many more genes to be identified. In this study we used SNP-based linkage analysis and follow up microsatellite markers to identify a novel locus (DFNA66) on chromosome 6q15-21 (LOD 5.1) in a large Danish family with dominantly inherited NSHI. By locus specific capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a c.574C>T heterozygous nonsense mutation (p.R192*) in CD164. This gene encodes a 197 amino acid transmembrane sialomucin (known as endolyn, MUC-24 or CD164), which is widely expressed and involved in cell adhesion and migration. The mutation segregated with the phenotype and was absent in 1200 Danish control individuals and in databases with whole-genome and exome sequence data. The predicted effect of the mutation was a truncation of the last six C-terminal residues of the cytoplasmic tail of CD164, including a highly conserved canonical sorting motif (YXXФ). In whole blood from an affected individual, we found by RT-PCR both the wild-type and the mutated transcript suggesting that the mutant transcript escapes nonsense mediated decay. Functional studies in HEK cells demonstrated that the truncated protein was almost completely retained on the plasma cell membrane in contrast to the wild-type protein, which targeted primarily to the endo-lysosomal compartments, implicating failed endocytosis as a possible disease mechanism. In the mouse ear, we found CD164 expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the organ of Corti, as well as in other locations in the cochlear duct. In conclusion, we have identified a new DFNA locus located on chromosome 6q15-21 and implicated CD164 as a novel gene for hearing impairment. PMID:26197441

  18. A Novel Locus Harbouring a Functional CD164 Nonsense Mutation Identified in a Large Danish Family with Nonsyndromic Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten S.; Corydon, Thomas J.; Demontis, Ditte; Starnawska, Anna; Hedemand, Anne; Buniello, Annalisa; Niola, Francesco; Overgaard, Michael T.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Ahmad, Wasim; Wikman, Friedrik P.; Petersen, Kirsten B.; Crüger, Dorthe G.; Oostrik, Jaap; Kremer, Hannie; Tommerup, Niels; Frödin, Morten; Steel, Karen P.; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Børglum, Anders D.

    2015-01-01

    Nonsyndromic hearing impairment (NSHI) is a highly heterogeneous condition with more than eighty known causative genes. However, in the clinical setting, a large number of NSHI families have unexplained etiology, suggesting that there are many more genes to be identified. In this study we used SNP-based linkage analysis and follow up microsatellite markers to identify a novel locus (DFNA66) on chromosome 6q15-21 (LOD 5.1) in a large Danish family with dominantly inherited NSHI. By locus specific capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a c.574C>T heterozygous nonsense mutation (p.R192*) in CD164. This gene encodes a 197 amino acid transmembrane sialomucin (known as endolyn, MUC-24 or CD164), which is widely expressed and involved in cell adhesion and migration. The mutation segregated with the phenotype and was absent in 1200 Danish control individuals and in databases with whole-genome and exome sequence data. The predicted effect of the mutation was a truncation of the last six C-terminal residues of the cytoplasmic tail of CD164, including a highly conserved canonical sorting motif (YXXФ). In whole blood from an affected individual, we found by RT-PCR both the wild-type and the mutated transcript suggesting that the mutant transcript escapes nonsense mediated decay. Functional studies in HEK cells demonstrated that the truncated protein was almost completely retained on the plasma cell membrane in contrast to the wild-type protein, which targeted primarily to the endo-lysosomal compartments, implicating failed endocytosis as a possible disease mechanism. In the mouse ear, we found CD164 expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the organ of Corti, as well as in other locations in the cochlear duct. In conclusion, we have identified a new DFNA locus located on chromosome 6q15-21 and implicated CD164 as a novel gene for hearing impairment. PMID:26197441

  19. Large Deviations for Stationary Probabilities of a Family of Continuous Time Markov Chains via Aubry-Mather Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Artur O.; Neumann, Adriana

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper, we consider a family of continuous time symmetric random walks indexed by , . For each the matching random walk take values in the finite set of states ; notice that is a subset of , where is the unitary circle. The infinitesimal generator of such chain is denoted by . The stationary probability for such process converges to the uniform distribution on the circle, when . Here we want to study other natural measures, obtained via a limit on , that are concentrated on some points of . We will disturb this process by a potential and study for each the perturbed stationary measures of this new process when . We disturb the system considering a fixed potential and we will denote by the restriction of to . Then, we define a non-stochastic semigroup generated by the matrix , where is the infinifesimal generator of . From the continuous time Perron's Theorem one can normalized such semigroup, and, then we get another stochastic semigroup which generates a continuous time Markov Chain taking values on . This new chain is called the continuous time Gibbs state associated to the potential , see (Lopes et al. in J Stat Phys 152:894-933, 2013). The stationary probability vector for such Markov Chain is denoted by . We assume that the maximum of is attained in a unique point of , and from this will follow that . Thus, here, our main goal is to analyze the large deviation principle for the family , when . The deviation function , which is defined on , will be obtained from a procedure based on fixed points of the Lax-Oleinik operator and Aubry-Mather theory. In order to obtain the associated Lax-Oleinik operator we use the Varadhan's Lemma for the process . For a careful analysis of the problem we present full details of the proof of the Large Deviation Principle, in the Skorohod space, for such family of Markov Chains, when . Finally, we compute the entropy of the invariant probabilities on the Skorohod space associated to the Markov Chains we analyze.

  20. Issues and Methodologies in Large-Scale Assessments. Special Issue 2: Measuring Students' Family Background in Large-Scale International Education Studies. IERI Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brese, Falk; Mirazchiyski, Plamen

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between students' family background and achievement is often seen as an important topic in regard to equality and equity of educational provision. The results of various education studies show that the family background of students correlates with students' academic achievement at school. This paper focuses on the measurement of…

  1. Basaltic Martian analogues from the Baikal Rift Zone and Mongolian terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgurewicz, J.; Kostylew, J.

    2007-08-01

    In order to compare the results of studies of the western part of the Valles Marineris canyon on Mars there have been done field works on terrestrial surface areas similar with regard to geological setting and environmental conditions. One of the possible terrestrial analogues of the Valles Marineris canyon is the Baikal Rift Zone [1]. Field investigations have been done on the south end of the Baikal Lake, in the Khamar-Daban massif, where the outcrops of volcanic rocks occur. The second part of the field works has been done in the Mongolian terranes: Mandalovoo, Gobi Altay and Bayanhongor, because of environmental conditions being similar to those on Mars. The Mandalovoo terrane comprises a nearly continuous Paleozoic islandarc sequence [2]. In the Gobi Altay terrane an older sequence is capped by younger Devonian-Triassic volcanic-sedimentary deposits [2]. The Bayanhongor terrane forms a northwest-trending, discontinuous, narrow belt that consists of a large ophiolite allochton [3]. The collected samples of basalts derive from various geologic environments. The CORONA satellite-images have been used for the imaging of the Khamar-Daban massif and the Mandalovoo terrane. These images have the same spatial resolution and range as the Mars Orbiter Camera images of the Mars Global Surveyor mission. In the Mandalovoo terrane these images allowed to find an area with large amounts of tectonic structures, mainly faults (part of the Ongi massif), similar to the studied area on Mars. Microscopic observations in thin sections show diversification of composition and structures of basalts. These rocks have mostly a porphyric structure, rarely aphyric. The main components are plagioclases, pyroxenes and olivines phenocrysts, in different proportions. The groundmass usually consist of plagioclases, pyroxenes and opaques. The most diversified are basalts from the Mandalovoo terrane. Infrared spectroscopy has been used to analyse the composition of the rock material and compare

  2. Molecular detection and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Mongolian cattle and yaks.

    PubMed

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Odzaya, Battogtokh; Gansukh, Shura; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, and affects cattle worldwide, resulting in significant economic loss. The prevalence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 infections and its genotypes in Mongolian animals has not been studied. In this study, we surveyed BVDV infection in dairy cattle and yaks from Bornuur and Bulgan counties by RT-PCR, and the average infection rate in the sampling sites was 15.8 % and 20.0 %, respectively. In addition, molecular features of the 5'-UTR region of the BVDV genome in Mongolian cattle and yaks were identified as belonging to the subtypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a, respectively. Determining the prevalence, geographical distribution, and molecular diversity of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in various host species in Mongolia is important for further studies and process control programs. PMID:27206573

  3. The Fiber Contractility and Cytoskeleton Losses in Space are Less Pronounced in Mongolian Gerbils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipets, E. N.; Ponomareva, E. V.; Ogneva, I. V.; Vikhliantsev, I. M.; Karaduleva, E. V.; Kartashkina, N. L.; Kuznetsov, S. L.; Podlubnaia, Z. A.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2008-06-01

    This work was purposed on the comparison of space flight effects on m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior of Mongolian gerbils. The animals have been flown onboard biosatellite Foton-M3 for 12 days. Contractile properties of single skinned muscle fibers were studied. It was revealed that diameter of m. soleus skinned fibers and maximal isometric tension were decreased by 19.7% and 21.8% respectively. The Ca-sensitivity reduction wasn't significant, that was in accordance with absence of changes of titin and nebulin relative content in soleus and minor manifestations in slow-to-fast fiber ratio (9%, p<0.05). There weren't observed significant changes of the same parameters in m. tibialis anterior. Ultimately the fiber contractility and cytoskeleton losses in space are less pronounced in Mongolian gerbils than in rats.

  4. Water deprivation up-regulates urine osmolality and renal aquaporin 2 in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng-Meng; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-04-01

    To better understand how desert rodents adapt to water scarcity, we examined urine osmolality, renal distribution and expression of aquaporins (AQPs) in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during 7 days of water deprivation (WD). Urine osmolality of the gerbils during WD averaged 7503 mOsm kg(-1). Renal distributions of AQP1, AQP2, and AQP3 were similar to that described in other rodents. After the 7 day WD, renal AQP2 was up-regulated, while resting metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss decreased by 43% and 36%, respectively. Our data demonstrated that Mongolian gerbils showed high urine concentration, renal AQPs expression and body water conservation to cope with limited water availability, which may be critical for their survival during dry seasons in cold deserts. PMID:26806059

  5. High proportion of large genomic deletions and a genotype–phenotype update in 80 unrelated families with juvenile polyposis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aretz, S; Stienen, D; Uhlhaas, S; Stolte, M; Entius, M M; Loff, S; Back, W; Kaufmann, A; Keller, K‐M; Blaas, S H; Siebert, R; Vogt, S; Spranger, S; Holinski‐Feder, E; Sunde, L; Propping, P; Friedl, W

    2007-01-01

    Background In patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) the frequency of large genomic deletions in the SMAD4 and BMPR1A genes was unknown. Methods Mutation and phenotype analysis was used in 80 unrelated patients of whom 65 met the clinical criteria for JPS (typical JPS) and 15 were suspected to have JPS. Results By direct sequencing of the two genes, point mutations were identified in 30 patients (46% of typical JPS). Using MLPA, large genomic deletions were found in 14% of all patients with typical JPS (six deletions in SMAD4 and three deletions in BMPR1A). Mutation analysis of the PTEN gene in the remaining 41 mutation negative cases uncovered a point mutation in two patients (5%). SMAD4 mutation carriers had a significantly higher frequency of gastric polyposis (73%) than did patients with BMPR1A mutations (8%) (p<0.001); all seven cases of gastric cancer occurred in families with SMAD4 mutations. SMAD4 mutation carriers with gastric polyps were significantly older at gastroscopy than those without (p<0.001). In 22% of the 23 unrelated SMAD4 mutation carriers, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) was also diagnosed clinically. The documented histologic findings encompassed a wide distribution of different polyp types, comparable with that described in hereditary mixed polyposis syndromes (HMPS). Conclusions Screening for large deletions raised the mutation detection rate to 60% in the 65 patients with typical JPS. A strong genotype‐phenotype correlation for gastric polyposis, gastric cancer, and HHT was identified, which should have implications for counselling and surveillance. Histopathological results in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes must be critically interpreted. PMID:17873119

  6. Antigen detection and apoptosis in Mongolian gerbil's kidney experimentally intraperitoneally infected by swine hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Majid Hussain; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Yang, Yifei; Hu, Fengjiao; Li, Heng

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effect of hepatitis E virus (HEV) on the renal tissue pathogenesis, morphological damages and related molecular mechanisms following swine HEV suspension intraperitoneally inoculation in Mongolian gerbils. The microscopic and ultramicroscopic analyses of kidney tissue structure were carried out at different points after inoculation of HEV. The immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms associated with HEV presence in the renal tissues. Real-time PCR revealed that the copies of HEV RNA in the kidney were detected at 7 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi at a concentration was 7.18 logs g(-1), with detection of HEV ORF2 antigen by immunohistochemistry. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed pathological lesions including glomerular atrophy, degeneration, edema and necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells and Mallory and Sirius red staining indicated the presence of collagen fibers and fibrosis in kidney tissues of inoculated gerbils. Ultrastructural studies of basal membrane of renal tubules demonstrated the rough and uneven with mitochondria swelling and vacuolation in the tissues of HEV inoculated animals. Similarly, significantly higher number of (TUNEL)-positive cells were seen in renal tubule tissues compared to control group. Moreover, immuno histochemical results indicated that significant increase expression of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), FAS and Caspase-3 in HEV inoculated Mongolian gerbils at each time points. Relative mRNA expression by real-time PCR revealed a significantly higher (P<0.05) mRNA level of BAX, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 transcription in HEV inoculated Mongolian gerbils. Our results demonstrates that activation of mitochondria and Caspase-3 protease might be induced the apoptosis which subsequently cause the necrosis and cell death of renal epithelial cells during acute phase of HEV infection in HEV inoculated Mongolian gerbils. PMID

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Mongolian Populations and Implications for the Origin of New World Founders

    PubMed Central

    Kolman, C. J.; Sambuughin, N.; Bermingham, E.

    1996-01-01

    High levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity were determined for Mongolian populations, represented by the Mongol-speaking Khalkha and Dariganga. Although 103 samples were collected across Mongolia, low levels of genetic substructuring were detected, reflecting the nomadic lifestyle and relatively recent ethnic differentiation of Mongolian populations. mtDNA control region I sequence and seven additional mtDNA polymorphisms were assayed to allow extensive comparison with previous human population studies. Based on a comparative analysis, we propose that indigenous populations in east Central Asia represent the closest genetic link between Old and New World populations. Utilizing restriction/deletion polymorphisms, Mongolian populations were found to carry all four New World founding haplogroups as defined by WALLACE and coworkers. The ubiquitous presence of the four New World haplogroups in the Americas but narrow distribution across Asia weakens support for GREENBERG and coworkers' theory of New World colonization via three independent migrations. The statistical and geographic scarcity of New World haplogroups in Asia makes it improbable that the same four haplotypes would be drawn from one geographic region three independent times. Instead, it is likely that founder effects manifest throughout Asia and the Americas are responsible for differences in mtDNA haplotype frequencies observed in these regions. PMID:8846908

  8. Mesozoic denudation and cooling events of the Yinshan Mountains, southern Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Li-Xia; Han, Bao-Fu; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Liu, Bo; Brown, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    ABASTRACT The Yinshan Mountains are south boundary of the Mongolian Plateau, occupying the north part of North China Craton. 18 granitoid samples were conducted by apatite fission track method in order to unravel its Mesozoic denudation and cooling history and relationship with the Mongolian Plateau. They obtain Jurassic to Cretaceous AFT ages. 3 main phases of rapid cooling events during Mesozoic are recognized and could probably be caused by denudation. Combined with local geological conditions, denudations are more likely controlled by the local thrust faulting. The Early Jurassic denudation event occurred in the transition area to the Mongolian Plateau. The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous denudation events occurred in the interior mountains and are more likely provoked by the distant effect of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogeny based on their propagation directions. The Late Cretaceous denudation event occurred in the southeastern flank of the mountain. Finally, the activity time of thrust faults are constrained by 130-90 Ma according to the uplift and denudation relationship in the thrust system and their modeling T-t paths. Key words Apatite Fission track; Uplift and denudation; Mesozoic reactivation; Mountain Langshan

  9. [Development of chow for Mongolian gerbils suitable for the conditions of space flight].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, P E; Mednikova, E I; Solov'eva, Z O; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Il'in, V K; Lysenko, L A

    2008-01-01

    One of formidable issues of experiments with animals in space flight is water supply. For Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), classed as cricetid rodents, water in chow is enough. These animals are a new object for space biology. Our purpose was to compose a full-value formula and design a chow making and long-term storage technology to provide Mongolian gerbils for in microgravity. The chow is required to have a 28-d shelf life. To assess the chow suitability on autonomous space fight, the gerbils we house in a cage with the geometry reproducing the current design of the future space animal module. The assessment was performed with adult male gerbils weighing 50.5 +/- 3.4 g on the average. The animals ate up 40.1 +/- 3.9%, i.e. less than 50% of the feed all through the period of experiment. However, by the end of the experiment the body mass and exterior remained essentially unchanged In was concluded that the chow formula can be prescribed to Mongolian gerbils housed in self-contained modules. PMID:19055016

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of 26 Y-STR loci in the Mongolian minority from Horqin district, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoliang; Fu, Yong; Liu, Ying; Guo, Juanjuan; Liu, Yanfang; Guo, Yadong; Yan, Jie; Cai, Jifeng; Liu, Jinshan; Zha, Lagabaiyila

    2016-07-01

    To study the population data of Y chromosome STR (Y-STRs) of the Mongolian minority population residing in the Horqin district, we analyzed haplotypes of 26 Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS635, DYS643, DYS388, DYS449, DYS460, and YGATAH4) in 298 unrelated Chinese Mongolian individuals using the commercially available Goldeneye® DNA ID 26Y system. We also investigated blood stains, saliva spots, semen spots, hair follicles, fingernails, and sweat latent fingerprints from ten healthy males for testing the efficiency of direct amplification of this new Y-STRs system. The calculated average gene diversity values of the Mongolian population ranged from 0.3024 to 0.9510 for the DYS389I and DYS385a/b loci, respectively. The discriminatory capacity was 92.95 % with 277 observed haplotypes using 23 Y-STR loci (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS635, DYS643, and YGATAH4). By adding three more Y-STRs (DYS388, DYS449, and DYS460) to the 26Y system, the discriminatory capacity was increased to 94.63 % with a total of 282 observed haplotypes. Population relationships were calculated and compared with seven populations available from the Y chromosome haplotype reference database and data from ten Asian populations published previously. The Mongolian minority population residing in Horqin district is significantly different from other populations. Our results indicated that these 26 Y-STRs were highly genetically polymorphic in the Mongolian group and this contributes greatly to existing Chinese ethnic genetic information. As a result of direct amplification, we have obtained full profile from all blood stains, saliva spots, hair follicles, and fingernails; six semen spots; and one sweat latent fingerprint. It revealed

  11. Large repayments of premium subsidies may be owed to the IRS if family income changes are not promptly reported.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Gould, Elise; Roby, Dylan

    2013-09-01

    Subsidies for health insurance premiums under the Affordable Care Act are refundable tax credits. They can be taken when taxes are filed or in advance, as reductions in monthly premiums that must be reconciled at tax filing. Recipients who take subsidies in advance will receive tax refunds if their subsidies were too small but will have to make repayments if their subsidies were too high. We analyzed predicted repayments and refunds for people receiving subsidies, using California as a case study. We found that many families could owe large repayments to the Internal Revenue Service at their next tax filing. If income changes were reported and credits adjusted in a timely manner throughout the tax year, the number of filers owing repayments would be reduced by 7-41 percent and the median size of repayments reduced by as much as 61 percent (depending on the level of changes reported and the method used to adjust the subsidy amounts). We recommend that the health insurance exchanges mandated by the Affordable Care Act educate consumers about how the subsidies work and the need to promptly report income changes. We also recommend that they provide tools and assistance to determine the amount of subsidies that enrollees should take in advance. PMID:24019357

  12. Coconut oil enhances tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation compared to safflower oil in the Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ).

    PubMed

    Conlon, Lauren E; King, Ryan D; Moran, Nancy E; Erdman, John W

    2012-08-29

    Evidence suggests that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats facilitate greater absorption of carotenoids than saturated fats. However, the comparison of consuming a polyunsaturated fat source versus a saturated fat source on tomato carotenoid bioaccumulation has not been examined. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of coconut oil and safflower oil on tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) fed a 20% fat diet. Coconut oil feeding increased carotenoid concentrations among many compartments including total carotenoids in the serum (p = 0.0003), adrenal glandular phytoene (p = 0.04), hepatic phytofluene (p = 0.0001), testicular all-trans-lycopene (p = 0.01), and cis-lycopene (p = 0.006) in the prostate-seminal vesicle complex compared to safflower oil. Safflower oil-fed gerbils had greater splenic lycopene concentrations (p = 0.006) compared to coconut oil-fed gerbils. Coconut oil feeding increased serum cholesterol (p = 0.0001) and decreased hepatic cholesterol (p = 0.0003) compared to safflower oil. In summary, coconut oil enhanced tissue uptake of tomato carotenoids to a greater degree than safflower oil. These results may have been due to the large proportion of medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil, which might have caused a shift in cholesterol flux to favor extrahepatic carotenoid tissue deposition. PMID:22866697

  13. [A herbalogical study on traditional Mongolian medicine "lideri"].

    PubMed

    Bao, Y; Zhao, B; Bu, R

    2001-11-01

    By herbalogical study and investigation, "lideri" used by Mongolia doctors in different areas mainly contains 10 species from 4 genera of 4 families, but the quality materials only contains 3 species, Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr., T. cordifolia Miers and T. capillipes Gagnep. PMID:15575169

  14. Quality and Equity in the Mongolian Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Gerelmaa, Amgaabazar

    2008-01-01

    This case study identifies four targets groups that are specific to the achievement of the EFA Millennium Development Goals in Mongolia: boys, out-of-school children, vulnerable children and minorities, and children of herders. Boys from herder families in remote rural areas are at the greatest risk of drop-out or non-enrollment. The case study…

  15. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the

  16. Development and Two-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of a Training Workshop for the Large Preventive Positive Psychology Happy Family Kitchen Project in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lai, Agnes Y; Mui, Moses W; Wan, Alice; Stewart, Sunita M; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based practice and capacity-building approaches are essential for large-scale health promotion interventions. However, there are few models in the literature to guide and evaluate training of social service workers in community settings. This paper presents the development and evaluation of the "train-the-trainer" workshop (TTT) for the first large scale, community-based, family intervention projects, entitled "Happy Family Kitchen Project" (HFK) under the FAMILY project, a Hong Kong Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society. The workshop aimed to enhance social workers' competence and performance in applying positive psychology constructs in their family interventions under HFK to improve family well-being of the community they served. The two-day TTT was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team in partnership with community agencies to 50 social workers (64% women). It focused on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude, and practice of five specific positive psychology themes, which were the basis for the subsequent development of the 23 family interventions for 1419 participants. Acceptability and applicability were enhanced by completing a needs assessment prior to the training. The TTT was evaluated by trainees' reactions to the training content and design, changes in learners (trainees) and benefits to the service organizations. Focus group interviews to evaluate the workshop at three months after the training, and questionnaire survey at pre-training, immediately after, six months, one year and two years after training were conducted. There were statistically significant increases with large to moderate effect size in perceived knowledge, self-efficacy and practice after training, which sustained to 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, there were statistically significant improvements in family communication and well-being of the participants in the HFK interventions they implemented after training. This paper offers a practical example

  17. Development and Two-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of a Training Workshop for the Large Preventive Positive Psychology Happy Family Kitchen Project in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Agnes Y.; Mui, Moses W.; Wan, Alice; Stewart, Sunita M.; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai-hing; Chan, Sophia S.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based practice and capacity-building approaches are essential for large-scale health promotion interventions. However, there are few models in the literature to guide and evaluate training of social service workers in community settings. This paper presents the development and evaluation of the “train-the-trainer” workshop (TTT) for the first large scale, community-based, family intervention projects, entitled “Happy Family Kitchen Project” (HFK) under the FAMILY project, a Hong Kong Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society. The workshop aimed to enhance social workers’ competence and performance in applying positive psychology constructs in their family interventions under HFK to improve family well-being of the community they served. The two-day TTT was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team in partnership with community agencies to 50 social workers (64% women). It focused on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude, and practice of five specific positive psychology themes, which were the basis for the subsequent development of the 23 family interventions for 1419 participants. Acceptability and applicability were enhanced by completing a needs assessment prior to the training. The TTT was evaluated by trainees’ reactions to the training content and design, changes in learners (trainees) and benefits to the service organizations. Focus group interviews to evaluate the workshop at three months after the training, and questionnaire survey at pre-training, immediately after, six months, one year and two years after training were conducted. There were statistically significant increases with large to moderate effect size in perceived knowledge, self-efficacy and practice after training, which sustained to 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, there were statistically significant improvements in family communication and well-being of the participants in the HFK interventions they implemented after training. This paper offers a

  18. Living in a Large Family does Something for You: Influence of Family on the Achievement of African and Caribbean Women in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beoku-Betts, Josephine A.

    This article examines the influence of the family on women's achievement in scientific careers in the sub-Saharan African and Caribbean regions. It is based on semistructured interviews with 20 doctoral-level African and Caribbean women scientists working in research and academic institutions in these societies. Given the diversity of structural conditions, and economic, geopolitical, and sociocultural experiences, it is argued that the road to success in the pursuance of a scientific career are not the same, although there are areas of common ground. The study shows that when compared with their North American and European counterparts, there are significant differences in the family experiences of African and Caribbean women scientists that must be made visible and pursued more rigorously in further studies.

  19. Mutational analysis of the neuronal cadherin gene CELSR1 and exclusion as a candidate for catatonic schizophrenia in a large family.

    PubMed

    Gross, J; Grimm, O; Ortega, G; Teuber, I; Lesch, K P; Meyer, J

    2001-12-01

    The cadherin gene CELSR1 is specifically expressed in the brain and located on chromosome 22q13.33, a region that has recently been shown to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of familial catatonic schizophrenia. The gene is a strong positional candidate and was considered for mutational analysis. A total of 17 allelic variants of CELSR1 was found by sequencing all 35 exons, intron-exon junctions, and the putative promoter region by screening two patients from a large family mainly supporting this locus, and three control subjects in a first step. No variant exclusively co-segregates with the disease in the large pedigree, providing evidence that CELSR1 is not causative for the pathogenesis of catatonic schizophrenia in this family. PMID:11807409

  20. Mapping of a possible X-linked form of familial developmental dysphasia (FDD) in a single large pedigree

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, P.W.; Doody, R.S.; Epstein, H.F.

    1994-09-01

    Children diagnosed with developmental dysphasia develop speech very late without exhibiting sensory or motor dysfunction, and when they do begin to speak their grammar is abnormal. A large three-generation British pedigree was recently identified in which 16 out of 30 members were diagnosed as dysphasic. Assuming a dominant mode of inheritance with homogeneous phenotypic expression and complete penetrance among affected members, we showed by simulation analysis that this pedigree has the power to detect linkage to marker loci with an average maximum LOD score of 3.67 at {theta}=0.1. Given the absence of male-to-male transmission and a ratio of female to male affecteds (10/6) in this pedigree within the expected range for an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance, we decided to begin a genome-wide linkage analysis with microsatellite markers on the human X chromosome. Fifteen individuals (10 affected) from three generations were genotyped with 35 polymorphic STS`s (Research Genetics) which were approximately uniformly distributed along the X chromosome. Two-point linkage was assessed using the MLINK and ILINK programs from the LINKAGE package. Markers DXS1223, DXS987, DXS996 and DXS1060 on Xp22 showed consistent linkage to the disease locus with a maximum LOD score of 0.86 at a distance of 22 cM for DXS1060. If further analysis with additional markers and additional family members confirms X-linkage, such a localization would provide support for Lehrke`s hypothesis for X-linkage of major intellectual traits including verbal functioning.

  1. Evaluation of the Genetic Basis of Familial Aggregation of Pacemaker Implantation by a Large Next Generation Sequencing Panel

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Hillel A.; Uradu, Andrea; Lynnes, Ty C.; Groh, William J.; Miller, John M.; Lin, Hai; Gao, Hongyu; Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Yunlong; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Vatta, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Background The etiology of conduction disturbances necessitating permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation is often unknown, although familial aggregation of PPM (faPPM) suggests a possible genetic basis. We developed a pan-cardiovascular next generation sequencing (NGS) panel to genetically characterize a selected cohort of faPPM. Materials and Methods We designed and validated a custom NGS panel targeting the coding and splicing regions of 246 genes with involvement in cardiac pathogenicity. We enrolled 112 PPM patients and selected nine (8%) with faPPM to be analyzed by NGS. Results Our NGS panel covers 95% of the intended target with an average of 229x read depth at a minimum of 15-fold depth, reaching a SNP true positive rate of 98%. The faPPM patients presented with isolated cardiac conduction disease (ICCD) or sick sinus syndrome (SSS) without overt structural heart disease or identifiable secondary etiology. Three patients (33.3%) had heterozygous deleterious variants previously reported in autosomal dominant cardiac diseases including CCD: LDB3 (p.D117N) and TRPM4 (p.G844D) variants in patient 4; TRPM4 (p.G844D) and ABCC9 (p.V734I) variants in patient 6; and SCN5A (p.T220I) and APOB (p.R3527Q) variants in patient 7. Conclusion FaPPM occurred in 8% of our PPM clinic population. The employment of massive parallel sequencing for a large selected panel of cardiovascular genes identified a high percentage (33.3%) of the faPPM patients with deleterious variants previously reported in autosomal dominant cardiac diseases, suggesting that genetic variants may play a role in faPPM. PMID:26636822

  2. Communicability of H1N1 and seasonal influenza among household contacts of cases in large families

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Ashry G.; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz A.; Al‐Habib, Hannan; Al‐Saif, Hytham

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Mohamed et al. (2011) Communicability of H1N1 and seasonal influenza among household contacts of cases in large families. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e25–e29. Background  Quantitative knowledge of the transmissibility of influenza is crucial to its prevention and control. Objectives  To quantify the transmission of influenza A (H1N1) and seasonal influenza in household contacts of patients with influenza diagnosed in a large university hospital. Patients/Methods  A prospective study was conducted between September and October 2009 in which all confirmed cases of influenza diagnosed at King Khalid University Hospital were included. All household contacts were followed by telephone calls every other day for 12 days. They were asked about the development of influenza symptoms in addition to their age and nationality. Results  Overall, 432 household contacts of 69 influenza A (H1N1) cases and 417 contacts of 91 seasonal influenza cases were included. Suspected influenza was diagnosed in 16·9% and 14·4% of household contacts of H1N1 and seasonal influenza patients, respectively. Household reproduction numbers were 1·06 (0·84–1·28) for H1N1 and 0·66 (0·51–0·81) for seasonal influenza. Children in households were more susceptible than were adults (22·2% versus 13·7%, respectively). Evidence of coughing in the index case tripled the risk of infection in households afflicted with the H1N1 influenza [relative risk (RR) = 3·28, CI = 1·24–8·69], while evidence of a runny nose doubled it (RR = 1·89, CI = 1·19–2·92). Conclusions  Communicability of influenza in households in Riyadh is comparable to that in other countries. Children are more susceptible to influenza infection. The presence of a cough or runny nose in the index cases increases the risk of infection. PMID:22118477

  3. The Politics of School Choice in Two Countries with Large Private-Dependent Sectors (Spain and Chile): Family Strategies, Collective Action and Lobbying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier; Valiente, Oscar; Frias, Carla

    2011-01-01

    In many countries choice of school is an increasing concern for families and governments. In Spain and Chile, it is also associated with a long-standing political cleavage on the regulation of large sectors of private-dependent schools. This article analyses both the micro- and the macro-politics of choice in these two countries, where low-status…

  4. Long term observation of soil moisture by the in situ stations and AMSR/AMSR2 a 1.1º by 1.1º study area on the Mongolian Plateau since 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaihotsu, I.; Asanuma, J.; Aida, K.; Fujii, H.; Oyunbaatar, D.; Koike, T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture behavior has a strong influence on water cycle (especially, interaction between soil and atmosphere) and surface natural environments in semi-arid and arid areas with highly variable rainfall. Recently, as the Mongolian Plateau has been affected by global warning, it has been facing several times severe droughts. So, it is very important to measure continuously and precisely the surface soil moisture. We have been successfully carrying out the in situ soil moisture and meteorological observations using some automatic stations (from 13 to 16 stations) in a 1.1º by 1.1º flat surface land (study area) covered with pasture/shrubs, and a daily large-scale soil moisture observation on the Mongolian Plateau by AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS) of AQUA and AMSR2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2) of GCOM-W1 (Global Change Observation Mission-Water 1) since 2001 with making a validation of the AMSR-E/AMSR2 soil moisture products in every year. As a result, we have obtained a few new findings about soil moisture dynamics in the study area. Concretely, there was a decreasing trend of the surface soil moisture in the study area during the period from 2001 to 2008 with the drought development and inversely it started to increase slightly in 2009 with the increase of rainfall in summer. The ratio of evapotranspiration to rainfall from April to September was estimated to be more than about 95 %, and the rainfall condition in summer controlled the amount of annual precipitation and the wet condition on the soil surface. We also knew that AMSR-E/AMSR2 can continuously and successfully conduct a long term monitoring observation of the surface soil moisture on the Mongolian Plateau with the high measurement accuracy between 4 and 5 % on a large scale. This fact suggests that AMSR-E/AMSR2 soil moisture observation is useful for studies of water cycle over large areas of grass. Keywords: soil moisture, rainfall, in situ observation, AMSR

  5. Linkage to D3S47 (C17) in one large autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa family and exclusion in another: confirmation of genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed Central

    Lester, D H; Inglehearn, C F; Bashir, R; Ackford, H; Esakowitz, L; Jay, M; Bird, A C; Wright, A F; Papiha, S S; Bhattacharya, S S

    1990-01-01

    Recently Dryja and his co-workers observed a mutation in the 23d codon of the rhodopsin gene in a proportion of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) patients. Linkage analysis with a rhodopsin-linked probe C17 (D3S47) was carried out in two large British ADRP families, one with diffuse-type (D-type) RP and the other with regional-type (R-type) RP. Significantly positive lod scores (lod score maximum [Zmax] = +5.58 at recombination fraction [theta] = .0) were obtained between C17 and our D-type ADRP family showing complete penetrance. Sequence and oligonucleotide analysis has, however, shown that no point mutation at the 23d codon exists in affected individuals in our complete-penetrance pedigree, indicating that another rhodopsin mutation is probably responsible for ADRP in this family. Significantly negative lod scores (Z less than -2 at theta = .045) were, however, obtained between C17 and our R-type family which showed incomplete penetrance. Previous results presented by this laboratory also showed no linkage between C17 and another large British R-type ADRP family with incomplete penetrance. This confirms genetic heterogeneity. Some types of ADRP are being caused by different mutations in the rhodopsin locus (3q21-24) or another tightly linked gene in this region, while other types of ADRP are the result of mutations elsewhere in the genome. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2393026

  6. Large pericardial effusion in a family with recurrent pericarditis: A report of probable x-linked transmission

    PubMed Central

    Maggiolini, Stefano; Tiberti, Gianluca; Cantarini, Luca; Carbone, Claudio; Mariani, Silvana; Achilli, Felice; Maestroni, Silvia; Brucato, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Three cases of recurrent pleuropericarditis were observed within the same family – in two sisters and their niece, who were 18, 35 and 18 years of age, respectively. One patient was treated with pericardiectomy, and the other two were treated with colchicine. Mutations associated with autoinflammatory diseases (tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome and familial Mediterranean fever) were absent; the condition was found to be sex linked. PMID:21747666

  7. The analysis of a large Danish family supports the presence of a susceptibility locus for adenoma and colorectal cancer on chromosome 11q24.

    PubMed

    Rudkjøbing, Laura Aviaja; Eiberg, Hans; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte; Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, Marie Luise

    2015-09-01

    Hereditary colorectal cancer accounts for approximately 30% of all colorectal cancers, but currently only 5% of these families can be explained by highly penetrant, inherited mutations. In the remaining 25% it is not possible to perform a gene test to identify the family members who would benefit from prophylactic screening. Consequently, all family members are asked to follow a screening program. The purpose of this study was to localize a new gene which causes colorectal cancer. We performed a linkage analysis using data from a SNP6.0 chip in one large family with 12 affected family members. We extended the linkage analysis with microsatellites (STS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) and looked for the loss of heterozygosity in tumour tissue. Furthermore, we performed the exome sequencing of one family member and we sequenced candidate genes by use of direct sequencing. Major rearrangements were excluded after karyotyping. The linkage analysis with SNP6 data revealed three candidate areas, on chromosome 2, 6 and 11 respectively, with a LOD score close to two and no negative LOD scores. After extended linkage analysis, the area on chromosome 6 was excluded, leaving areas on chromosome 2 and chromosome 11 with the highest possible LOD scores of 2.6. Two other studies have identified 11q24 as a candidate area for colorectal cancer susceptibility and this area is supported by our results. PMID:25724759

  8. Investigation of oxidative stress and dietary habits in Mongolian people, compared to Japanese people

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Sakuma, Mitsuru; Kawabata, Terue; Kaneko, Yoshinori; Otgontuya, Dugee; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen; Narantuya, Luvsanbazar; Purvee, Baatar

    2006-01-01

    Background The average life span of Mongolians is 62 years for males and 69 years for females. This life span is about 16 years shorter than that of Japanese. Mongolian people generally eat meat, fat and diary products but less vegetables or fruit. Thus, we investigated the state of oxidative stress and dietary habits of Mongolians. Methods The investigation was performed in Murun city in the northwest area of Mongolia. A total of 164 healthy subjects (24–66 y) were enrolled. As a marker of reactive oxygen species, the levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were measured using the d-ROM test. Interviews about dietary habits were performed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire established by the Kagawa Nutrition University. Results ROM levels were 429.7 ± 95.2 Carr U for Murun subjects, whereas Japanese people (n = 220, 21–98 y) showed 335.3 ± 59.8 (p < 0.001). The levels of serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were also high. ROM levels correlated with body fat ratio and inversely correlated with handgrip strength. Handgrip strength in the subjects over 45 years decreased more rapidly than that of age-matched Japanese. Murun subjects ate larger amounts of meat, fat, milk and flour and dairy products than Japanese, but less vegetables or fruit. Serum vitamin A and E levels were the same as Japanese references, but vitamin C levels were lower. Conclusion Murun subjects may be in high oxidative stress, which may have a relationship with early ageing and several diseases, ultimately resulting in their short life span. In order to increase antioxidant capacity and suppress overproduction of ROM, antioxidant food intake is recommended. PMID:16759377

  9. Implication of metabolomic profiles to wide thermoneutral zone in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaolong; Wang, Dehua

    2016-07-01

    Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) have evolved a wide thermoneutral zone (26.5-38.9 °C) and high upper critical temperature, and appear to have a high tolerance for heat exposure. Here, we use a metabolomic approach to measure global metabolite profiles for gerbils between lower (27 °C) and upper critical temperatures (38 °C) to investigate the role of metabolomic characterization in maintaining basal metabolic rates within a wide thermoneutral zone. We found that in serum and liver, 14 and 19 metabolites were significantly altered, respectively. In the aerobic respiration-related tricarboxylic cycle (TCA), 5 intermediates (isocitric acid, cis-aconitic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, fumaric acid and malic acid) were increased in serum in 38 °C animals; however, no such increase was found in the liver. A stable level of hepatic TCA cycle intermediates may be related to the steady state of aerobic respiration at 38 °C. Metabolomic results also revealed that acute heat exposure caused increased oxidative stress and low molecular weight antioxidants in Mongolian gerbils. Increased methionine and 2-hydroxybutyrate suggest an accelerated synthesis of glutathione. Increased urate and its precursors, inosine and hypoxanthine, were detected at 38 °C. Glucuronate, threonate and oxalate involved in ascorbate synthesis and degradation were increased in serum at 38 °C. In conclusion, although dramatic metabolomic variation was found, a stable hepatic TCA cycle may contribute to maintaining a constant basal metabolic rate within a wide thermoneutral zone in Mongolian gerbils. PMID:26749160

  10. Variability and distribution of spatial evapotranspiration in semi arid Inner Mongolian grasslands from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Schaffrath, David; Bernhofer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Grasslands in Inner Mongolia are important for livestock farming while ecosystem functioning and water consumption are dominated by evapotranspiration (ET). In this paper we studied the spatiotemporal distribution and variability of ET and its components in Inner Mongolian grasslands over a period of 10 years, from 2002 to 2011. ET was modelled pixel-wise for more than 3000 1 km(2) pixels with the physically-based hydrological model BROOK90. The model was parameterised from eddy-covariance measurements and daily input was generated from MODIS leaf area index and surface temperatures. Modelled ET was also compared with the ET provided by the MODIS MOD16 ET data. The study showed ET to be highly variable in both time and space in Inner Mongolian grasslands. The mean coefficient of variation of 8-day ET in the study area varied between 25% and 40% and was up to 75% for individual pixels indicating a high innerannual variability of ET. Generally, ET equals or exceeds P during the vegetation period, but high precipitation in 2003 clearly exceeded ET in this year indicating a recharge of soil moisture and groundwater. Despite the high interannual and innerannual variations of spatial ET, the study also showed the existence of an intrinsic long-term spatial pattern of ET distribution, which can be explained partly by altitude and longitude (R(2) = 0.49). In conclusion, the results of this research suggest the development of dynamic and productive rangeland management systems according to the inherent variability of rainfall, productivity and ET in order to restore and protect Inner Mongolian grasslands. PMID:25674401

  11. Characterization of a novel large deletion and single point mutations in the BRCA1 gene in a Greek cohort of families with suspected hereditary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belogianni, Ioulia; Apessos, Angela; Mihalatos, Markos; Razi, Evangelia; Labropoulos, Stefanos; Petounis, Andreas; Gaki, Vasiliki; Keramopoulos, Antonios; Pandis, Nikos; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Hadjisavvas, Andreas; Kosmidis, Paris; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nasioulas, Georgios

    2004-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. A multitude of mutations have been described and are found to be scattered throughout these two large genes. We describe analysis of BRCA1 in 25 individuals from 18 families from a Greek cohort. Methods The approach used is based on dHPLC mutation screening of the BRCA1 gene, followed by sequencing of fragments suspected to carry a mutation including intron – exon boundaries. In patients with a strong family history but for whom no mutations were detected, analysis was extended to exons 10 and 11 of the BRCA2 gene, followed by MLPA analysis for screening for large genomic rearrangements. Results A pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 was identified in 5/18 (27.7 %) families, where four distinct mutations have been observed. Single base putative pathogenic mutations were identified by dHPLC and confirmed by sequence analysis in 4 families: 5382insC (in two families), G1738R, and 5586G > A (in one family each). In addition, 18 unclassified variants and silent polymorphisms were detected including a novel silent polymorphism in exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene. Finally, MLPA revealed deletion of exon 20 of the BRCA1 gene in one family, a deletion that encompasses 3.2 kb of the gene starting 21 bases into exon 20 and extending 3.2 kb into intron 20 and leads to skipping of the entire exon 20. The 3' breakpoint lies within an AluSp repeat but there are no recognizable repeat motifs at the 5' breakpoint implicating a mechanism different to Alu-mediated recombination, responsible for the majority of rearrangements in the BRCA1 gene. Conclusions We conclude that a combination of techniques capable of detecting both single base mutations and small insertions / deletions and large genomic rearrangements is necessary in order to accurately analyze the BRCA1 gene in patients at high risk of carrying a germline mutation as determined by their family history. Furthermore, our results suggest that in

  12. Water intake after stomach loads of NaCl in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kozub, F J; Hodges, J; Yutzy, S

    1980-10-01

    Sixty mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), 30 male and 30 female, were stomach loaded (2% b.w.) with either water or .9, 2, 6, 10, or 12% NaCl (wt x vol.). Unlike male rats, male gerbils did not lose weight. Female gerbils, like female rats, did not lose weight. However, female gerbils did not increase their water intake at any concentration, whereas males increased their water intake only at the 10 and 12% levels. These data are very much unlike those for the rat (male and female) which show an increase in water intake in response to NaCl solutions above isotonicity. PMID:7441220

  13. Hydrogeologic processes of large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes in Mongolia southern Siberia and on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Goro; Dohm, James M.; Hare, Trent M.

    2004-04-01

    Large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes are common on Earth and Mars. Many of these complexes are created or at least influenced by mantle processes, including a wide array of plume types ranging from superplumes to mantle plumes. Among the most prominent complexes, the Mongolian plateau on Earth and the Tharsis bulge on Mars share remarkable similarities in terms of large domal uplifted areas, great rift canyon systems, and widespread volcanism on their surfaces. Water has also played an important role in the development of the two complexes. In general, atmospheric and surface water play a bigger role in the development of the present-day Mongolian plateau than for the Tharsis bulge, as evidenced by highly developed drainages and thick accumulation of sediments in the basins of the Baikal rift system. On the Tharsis bulge, however, water appears to have remained as ground ice except during periods of elevated magmatic activity. Glacial and periglacial processes are well documented for the Mongolian plateau and are also reported for parts of the Tharsis bulge. Ice-magma interactions, which are represented by the formation of subice volcanoes in parts of the Mongolian plateau region, have been reported for the Valles Marineris region of Mars. The complexes are also characterized by cataclysmic floods, but their triggering mechanism may differ: mainly ice-dam failures for the Mongolian plateau and outburst of groundwater for the Tharsis bulge, probably by magma-ice interactions, although ice-dam failures within the Valles Marineris region cannot be ruled out as a possible contributor. Comparative studies of the Mongolian plateau and Tharsis bulge provide excellent opportunities for understanding surface manifestations of plume-driven processes on terrestrial planets and how they interact with hydro-cryospheres.

  14. Hydrogeologic processes of large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes in Mongolia-southern Siberia and on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komatsu, G.; Dohm, J.M.; Hare, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale tectonomagmatic complexes are common on Earth and Mars. Many of these complexes are created or at least influenced by mantle processes, including a wide array of plume types ranging from superplumes to mantle plumes. Among the most prominent complexes, the Mongolian plateau on Earth and the Tharsis bulge on Mars share remarkable similarities in terms of large domal uplifted areas, great rift canyon systems, and widespread volcanism on their surfaces. Water has also played an important role in the development of the two complexes. In general, atmospheric and surface water play a bigger role in the development of the present-day Mongolian plateau than for the Tharsis bulge, as evidenced by highly developed drainages and thick accumulation of sediments in the basins of the Baikal rift system. On the Tharsis bulge, however, water appears to have remained as ground ice except during periods of elevated magmatic activity. Glacial and periglacial processes are well documented for the Mongolian plateau and are also reported for parts of the Tharsis bulge. Ice-magma interactions, which are represented by the formation of subice volcanoes in parts of the Mongolian plateau region, have been reported for the Valles Marineris region of Mars. The complexes are also characterized by cataclysmic floods, but their triggering mechanism may differ: mainly ice-dam failures for the Mongolian plateau and outburst of groundwater for the Tharsis bulge, probably by magma-ice interactions, although ice-dam failures within the Valles Marineris region cannot be ruled out as a possible contributor. Comparative studies of the Mongolian plateau and Tharsis bulge provide excellent opportunities for understanding surface manifestations of plume-driven processes on terrestrial planets and how they interact with hydro-cryospheres. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  15. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota of Mongolian and Thoroughbred Horses by High-throughput Sequencing of the V4 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yiping; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Huang, Jinlong; Shiraigo, Wunierfu; Yang, Lihua; Zhao, Qinan; Ren, Xiujuan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2016-09-01

    The hindgut of horses is an anaerobic fermentative chamber for a complex and dynamic microbial population, which plays a critical role in health and energy requirements. Research on the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses has not been reported until now as far as we know. Mongolian horse is a major local breed in China. We performed high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes V4 hypervariable regions from gut fecal material to characterize the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses and compare them to the microbiota in Thoroughbred horses. Fourteen Mongolian and 19 Thoroughbred horses were used in the study. A total of 593,678 sequence reads were obtained from 33 samples analyzed, which were found to belong to 16 phyla and 75 genera. The bacterial community compositions were similar for the two breeds. Firmicutes (56% in Mongolian horses and 53% in Thoroughbred horses) and Bacteroidetes (33% and 32% respectively) were the most abundant and predominant phyla followed by Spirochaete, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and Fibrobacteres. Of these 16 phyla, five (Synergistetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, TM7, and Chloroflexi) were significantly different (p<0.05) between the two breeds. At the genus level, Treponema was the most abundant genus (43% in Mongolian horses vs 29% in Thoroughbred horses), followed by Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Anaeroplasma, which were detected in higher distribution proportion in Mongolian horses than in Thoroughbred horses. In contrast, Oscillibacter, Fibrobacter, Methanocorpusculum, and Succinivibrio levels were lower in Mongolian horses. Among 75 genera, 30 genera were significantly different (p<0.05) between the two breeds. We found that the environment was one of very important factors that influenced horse gut microbiota. These findings provide novel information about the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses and a foundation for future investigations of gut bacterial factors that may influence the development and

  16. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota of Mongolian and Thoroughbred Horses by High-throughput Sequencing of the V4 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yiping; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Huang, Jinlong; Shiraigo, Wunierfu; Yang, Lihua; Zhao, Qinan; Ren, Xiujuan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2016-01-01

    The hindgut of horses is an anaerobic fermentative chamber for a complex and dynamic microbial population, which plays a critical role in health and energy requirements. Research on the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses has not been reported until now as far as we know. Mongolian horse is a major local breed in China. We performed high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes V4 hypervariable regions from gut fecal material to characterize the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses and compare them to the microbiota in Thoroughbred horses. Fourteen Mongolian and 19 Thoroughbred horses were used in the study. A total of 593,678 sequence reads were obtained from 33 samples analyzed, which were found to belong to 16 phyla and 75 genera. The bacterial community compositions were similar for the two breeds. Firmicutes (56% in Mongolian horses and 53% in Thoroughbred horses) and Bacteroidetes (33% and 32% respectively) were the most abundant and predominant phyla followed by Spirochaete, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and Fibrobacteres. Of these 16 phyla, five (Synergistetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, TM7, and Chloroflexi) were significantly different (p<0.05) between the two breeds. At the genus level, Treponema was the most abundant genus (43% in Mongolian horses vs 29% in Thoroughbred horses), followed by Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Anaeroplasma, which were detected in higher distribution proportion in Mongolian horses than in Thoroughbred horses. In contrast, Oscillibacter, Fibrobacter, Methanocorpusculum, and Succinivibrio levels were lower in Mongolian horses. Among 75 genera, 30 genera were significantly different (p<0.05) between the two breeds. We found that the environment was one of very important factors that influenced horse gut microbiota. These findings provide novel information about the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses and a foundation for future investigations of gut bacterial factors that may influence the development and

  17. Heterogeneity of the cystic fibrosis phenotype in a large kindred family in Qatar with cystic fibrosis mutation (I1234V).

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, A; Al Thani, G; Dawod, S T; Kambouris, M; Al Hamed, M

    2001-04-01

    Twenty-nine subjects (17 families) with cystic fibrosis belonging to the same Bedouin tribe were screened for cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene mutations (CFTR). Homozygous I1234V mutation in exon 19 was identified in all families with a relatively high rate of consanguinity (96.6 per cent). The homozygous I1234V mutation tended to present with a variable degree of pulmonary disease, pancreatic insufficiency and electrolyte imbalance. Homozygous I1234V was found to be a common mutation in the studied Bedouin tribe in Qatar. PMID:11336127

  18. Function search in a large transcription factor gene family in Arabidopsis: assessing the potential of reverse genetics to identify insertional mutations in R2R3 MYB genes.

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, R C; Jin, H; Cominelli, E; Denekamp, M; Fuertes, A; Greco, R; Kranz, H D; Penfield, S; Petroni, K; Urzainqui, A; Martin, C; Paz-Ares, J; Smeekens, S; Tonelli, C; Weisshaar, B; Baumann, E; Klimyuk, V; Marillonnet, S; Patel, K; Speulman, E; Tissier, A F; Bouchez, D; Jones, J J; Pereira, A; Wisman, E

    1999-01-01

    More than 92 genes encoding MYB transcription factors of the R2R3 class have been described in Arabidopsis. The functions of a few members of this large gene family have been described, indicating important roles for R2R3 MYB transcription factors in the regulation of secondary metabolism, cell shape, and disease resistance, and in responses to growth regulators and stresses. For the majority of the genes in this family, however, little functional information is available. As the first step to characterizing these genes functionally, the sequences of >90 family members, and the map positions and expression profiles of >60 members, have been determined previously. An important second step in the functional analysis of the MYB family, through a process of reverse genetics that entails the isolation of insertion mutants, is described here. For this purpose, a variety of gene disruption resources has been used, including T-DNA-insertion populations and three distinct populations that harbor transposon insertions. We report the isolation of 47 insertions into 36 distinct MYB genes by screening a total of 73 genes. These defined insertion lines will provide the foundation for subsequent detailed functional analyses for the assignment of specific functions to individual members of the R2R3 MYB gene family. PMID:10521515

  19. Novel 6-bp deletion in MEF2A linked to premature coronary artery disease in a large Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    XU, DONG-LING; TIAN, HONG-LIANG; CAI, WEI-LI; ZHENG, JIE; GAO, MIN; ZHANG, MING-XIANG; ZHENG, ZHAO-TONG; LU, QING-HUA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the genetic defect responsible for familial coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction (CAD/MI), which exhibited an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, in an extended Chinese Han pedigree containing 34 members. Using exome and Sanger sequencing, a novel 6-base pair (bp) 'CAGCCG' deletion in exon 11 of the myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) gene was identified, which cosegregated with CAD/MI cases in this family. This 6-bp deletion was not detected in 311 sporadic cases of premature CAD/MI or in 323 unrelated healthy controls. Determination of a genetic risk profile has a key role in understanding the pathogenesis of CAD and MI. Among the reported risk conferring genes and their variants, mutations in MEF2A have been reported to segregate with CAD/MI in Caucasian families. Causative missense mutations have also been detected in sporadic CAD/MI cases. However, this suggested genetic linkage is controversial, since it could not be confirmed by ensuing studies. The discovery of a novel MEF2A mutation in a Chinese family with premature CAD/MI suggests that MEF2A may have a significant role in the pathogenesis of premature CAD/MI. To better understand this association, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required. PMID:27221044

  20. Clay-sized Hf-Nd-Sr isotopic composition of Mongolian dust as a fingerprint for regional to hemispherical transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wancang; Sun, Youbin; Balsam, William; Zeng, Lin; Lu, Huayu; Otgonbayar, Khureldavaa; Ji, Junfeng

    2015-07-01

    Hf-Nd-Sr isotopic fingerprinting has been employed as a powerful method for distinguishing dust sources. However, the Hf and Sr isotopic compositions of dust are highly dependent on particle size to accurately identify dust provenance. Here we compare the Hf-Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of clay-sized fractions from dust sources (the Mongolian Plateau) to sinks (Beijing and Greenland). Our results document that clay-sized Hf-Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of Mongolian dust are controlled by two isotopic/geochemical provinces: Southern Mongolian Gobi (SMG) and Northern Mongolian Plateau (NMP). Our data indicate that the SMG is potentially an important dust source to the loess in Beijing and Hulun Buir and could be a contributing source of dust to Greenland, whereas the NMP contributes little dust to the Chinese loess and the Greenland. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the deserts of northwest China are one of the main dust contributors to Beijing and Greenland, but not to Hulun Buir.

  1. How Has Land Cover Change Affected Precipitation for the Mongolian Plateau Since 2001?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. J.; John, R.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent trends towards increased grazing pressures on the Mongolian Plateau have placed a premium on grasslands to meet increasing domestic and international demand for animal products. Recent land cover shifts include degradation in ecosystem function and structure of the grasslands, reduction of vegetation cover, particularly in northeastern Inner Mongolia, and urban expansion around Ulanbaatar. Here we examine the impacts of land cover change using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS v. 6.0) to test whether or not the land cover changes from 2001-2010 could significantly impact surface energy fluxes enough to alter convection over the regions where grasslands are dominant. We performed this experiment for two distinct sets of boundary conditions: the growing season of 2001 (a drought/dzud year) and 2003 (a wet year). Preliminary results from the model indicate increased cloud cover and lowered daily temperature ranges for the northeastern Mongolian Plateau accompanying patterns of meadow and forest steppe growth. More broadly, the overall trend towards reduced vegetation cover leads to higher screen height temperatures and reduced soil moisture throughout much of the domain, together with a shift of moisture southward of Inner Mongolia. In the desert steppe regions around the Gobi desert, more complex patterns associated with land degradation will be discussed.

  2. The Effect of Different Working Definitions on Behavioral Research Involving Stereotypies in Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Moons, Christel PH; Breugelmans, Sofie; Cassiman, Nele; Kalmar, Isabelle D; Peremans, Kathelijne; Hermans, Katleen; Ödberg, Frank O

    2012-01-01

    Many sources of variation in animal experiments are related to characteristics of the animal or its husbandry conditions. In ethologic studies, observational methods can also affect interexperimental variation. Different descriptions for a behavior can lead to divergent findings that may be incorrectly attributed to other factors if not recognized as stemming from a classification dissonance. Here we discuss 2 observational studies in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). The first study describes how data vary when 2 different working definitions are used for stereotypic digging: WDmor, a definition based on a morphologic description of the behavior, and WD12, a definition that relies mainly on a duration criterion of digging bouts (greater than 12 s). The total duration and number of stereotypic bouts were 22.0% and 63.1% lower, respectively, when WD12 was applied compared with WDmor. However, strong correlations existed between data generated by WDmor and WD12, indicating that the 2 definitions yielded qualitatively similar results. The second study provides the first report that laboratory gerbils develop stereotypic behavior that is characterized by alternating bouts of digging and bar-gnawing. Of the 1685 stereotypy bouts investigated, 9.1% comprised both stereotypies, 87.6% consisted of digging only, and 3.3% consisted of bar gnawing only. Working definitions that neglect combined stereotypies can result in considerable underestimation of stereotypic behavior in Mongolian gerbils. PMID:22776116

  3. Mongolian plateau: Evidence for a late Cenozoic mantle plume under central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windley, Brian F.; Allen, Mark B.

    1993-04-01

    The 2500 x 700 km Mongolian plateau (average elevation 2000 m) is situated between the Altai orogen and the Siberian craton and occupies much of Mongolia and Transbaikalia in Russia. The plateau is characterized by (1) basin and range topography and two major domes(Hentai, 600 x 300 km, and Hangai, 800 x 550 km), where altitudes reach 3905 m; (2) lithosphere that is thinner than adjacent areas (minimum ˜50 km); (3) elevated heat flow (up to 120 mW/m2); (4) dominantly alkaline basaltic volcanism in the form of cones, lava fields, and volcanic plateaus mostly of Miocene-Quaternary age, and (5) rifts, including Baikal (main evolution in the Pliocene-Quaternary), Tunka (Oligocene-early Miocene), and Hobsogol (Pliocene-Quaternary). Existing models explain these features in terms of diapiric upwelling of a mantle asthenolith below the main rifts and/or as a long-distance effect of the India-Asia collision. We propose that the late Cenozoic uplift of the whole Mongolian plateau and associated rifting, magmatism, high heat flow, and lithospherec thinning are not externally driven by the India-Asia collision, but are the expression of the interaction of a mantle plume with overlying lithosphere. Some rifts link and interact with major strike-slip faults, such as the Bolnai. Such faults may be the major expression of the India-Asia collision in this region.

  4. Neurological deficits and brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, T; Okauchi, M; Hua, Y; Schallert, T; Keep, R F; Xi, G

    2008-01-01

    We examined the time course of neurological deficits in gerbils after an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induced by autologous blood infusion and examined its correlation with the severity of perihematomal edema. Mongolian gerbils (n = 15) were subjected to stereotaxic autologous blood infusion (30 or 60 microL) into the left caudate nucleus. Corner-turn and forelimb-placing tests were performed before, and 1 and 3 days after ICH. Perihematomal water content was measured by tissue gravimetry. Gerbils developed neurological deficits and perihematomal edema at day 1 after ICH. Both neurological deficits and perihematomal edema were significantly greater in animals with 60 microL blood infusion compared to the 30 microL infusion group, and both neurological deficits and edema were also greater at 3 days compared to 1 day after ICH. The severity of neurological deficits paralleled the degree of perihematomal edema. We conclude that the Mongolian gerbil is a suitable model for studies on the behavioral effects of ICH. PMID:19066097

  5. Characterization of edible starch-chitosan film and its application in the storage of Mongolian cheese.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Yuan, Yilin; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2013-06-01

    The physicochemical, mechanical, optical and structural properties based on different amylose content starch-chitosan films with the addition of hydrophilic glycerol and hydrophobic perilla oil were investigated, and the effects of the starch-chitosan coating on the physicochemical and microbial properties of Mongolian cheese were evaluated. The films were formed by casting method. Results showed that the incorporation of perilla oil resulted in a decrease in moisture content, solubility and mechanical properties and an increase in total color difference (ΔE*). High water vapor permeability (WVP), good transparency and low solubility were observed with the addition of glycerol. Meanwhile, the film based on mung bean starch-chitosan (MSC) exhibited higher moisture content, WVP values, ΔE* and less transparency than that based on water chestnut starch-chitosan (WSC). The morphology of films was also different based on MSC/WSC. The shelf life extension of Mongolian cheese was evaluated at 8 °C. The results showed that the cheese coated by WSC film containing perilla oil presented better treatment performance in terms of microbial growth delay, weight loss and shelf life length. PMID:23500443

  6. Glucose supplement reverses the fasting-induced suppression of cellular immunity in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Xu, De-Li; Wang, De-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Glucose plays an important role in immunity. Three day fasting will decrease cellular immunity and blood glucose levels in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that glucose supplement can reverse the fasting-induced suppression in cellular immunity in gerbils. Twenty-eight male gerbils were selected and randomly divided into fed and fasting groups. Half of the gerbils in each group were then provided with either 10% glucose water or pure water. After 66 h, each gerbil was injected with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) solution to challenge cellular immunity. Results showed that glucose supplement restored blood glucose levels in fasted gerbils to those of the fed controls. It also recovered cellular immunity, body fat mass and serum leptin levels in fasted gerbils to the values of the fed controls. Blood glucose levels were positively correlated with body fat mass, leptin levels and cellular immune responses. Thymus and spleen masses, and white blood cells in fasted gerbils were not affected by glucose supplement. In general, our data demonstrate that glucose supplement could reverse fasting-induced suppression of cellular immunity in Mongolian gerbils. PMID:21885265

  7. Dendritic Morphology of Caudal Periaqueductal Gray Projecting Retinal Ganglion Cells in Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chaoran; Pu, Mingliang; Cui, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the morphological features of the caudal periaqueductal gray (cPAG)-projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in Mongolian gerbils using retrograde labeling, in vitro intracellular injection, confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction approaches. cPAG-projecting RGCs exhibit small somata (10–17 µm) and irregular dendritic fields (201–298 µm). Sizes of somata and dendritic fields do not show obvious variation at different distance from the optic disk (eccentricity). Dendrites are moderately branched. Morphological analysis (n = 23) reveals that cPAG-projecting RGCs ramified in sublamina a and b in the inner plexiform layer. These cells exhibit different stratification patterns based on the thickness of dendritic bands in sublaminas a and b: majority of analyzed cells (16 out of 23) have two bands of arborizations share similar thickness. The rest of analyzed cells (7 out of 23) exhibit thinner band in sublamina a than in sublamina b. Together, the present study suggests that cPAG of Mongolian gerbil could receive direct retinal inputs from two types of bistratified RGCs. Furthermore, a small subset of melanopsin-expressing RGCs (total 41 in 6 animals) is shown to innervate the rostral PAG (rPAG). Functional characteristics of these non-visual center projecting RGCs remain to be determined. PMID:25054882

  8. Clinical variability of the cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy phenotype in two siblings of a large family showing the same mutation

    PubMed Central

    Vyshka, Gentian; Kruja, Jera

    2013-01-01

    A 44-year-old Albanian male was consulted and diagnosed with dementia. His magnetic resonance imaging suggested diffuse white matter changes. The suspicion of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) was raised, and a genetic analysis confirmed such a suspicion through uncovering a pathogenic mutation at the level of exon 4 (c.475C>T) of chromosome 19. The patient came from a large family of 13 children, all of whom underwent clinical, genetic, and imaging examination. The pathogenic mutation was found present only in his eldest sister (50 years old), and she presented also very suggestive signs of CADASIL in her respective imaging study, but without any clinically significant counterpart. All other siblings were free from clinical and radiological signs of the disorder. Our opinion was that we were dealing with a mutation showing a very low level of penetrance, with only two siblings affected in a large Albanian family with 13 children. PMID:24124395

  9. The large soybean (Glycine max) WRKY TF family expanded by segmental duplication events and subsequent divergent selection among subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background WRKY genes encode one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors in higher plants, and its members regulate important biological process such as growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the soybean genome sequence has been published, functional studies on soybean genes still lag behind those of other species. Results We identified a total of 133 WRKY members in the soybean genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins and to the phylogenetic tree, the soybean WRKY family could be classified into three groups (groups I, II, and III). A majority of WRKY genes (76.7%; 102 of 133) were segmentally duplicated and 13.5% (18 of 133) of the genes were tandemly duplicated. This pattern was not apparent in Arabidopsis or rice. The transcriptome atlas revealed notable differential expression in either transcript abundance or in expression patterns under normal growth conditions, which indicated wide functional divergence in this family. Furthermore, some critical amino acids were detected using DIVERGE v2.0 in specific comparisons, suggesting that these sites have contributed to functional divergence among groups or subgroups. In addition, site model and branch-site model analyses of positive Darwinian selection (PDS) showed that different selection regimes could have affected the evolution of these groups. Sites with high probabilities of having been under PDS were found in groups I, II c, II e, and III. Together, these results contribute to a detailed understanding of the molecular evolution of the WRKY gene family in soybean. Conclusions In this work, all the WRKY genes, which were generated mainly through segmental duplication, were identified in the soybean genome. Moreover, differential expression and functional divergence of the duplicated WRKY genes were two major features of this family throughout their evolutionary history. Positive selection analysis revealed that the different groups have

  10. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  11. A functional and structural Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) model integrating architecture, biomass and effects of precipitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  12. Targeted massively parallel sequencing of a panel of putative breast cancer susceptibility genes in a large cohort of multiple-case breast and ovarian cancer families

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Meeks, Huong; Feng, Bing-Jian; Healey, Sue; Thorne, Heather; Makunin, Igor; Ellis, Jonathan; Campbell, Ian; Southey, Melissa; Mitchell, Gillian; Clouston, David; Kirk, Judy; Goldgar, David; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gene panel testing for breast cancer susceptibility has become relatively cheap and accessible. However, the breast cancer risks associated with mutations in many genes included in these panels are unknown. Methods We performed custom-designed targeted sequencing covering the coding exons of 17 known and putative breast cancer susceptibility genes in 660 non-BRCA1/2 women with familial breast cancer. Putative deleterious mutations were genotyped in relevant family members to assess co-segregation of each variant with disease. We used maximum likelihood models to estimate the breast cancer risks associated with mutations in each of the genes. Results We found 31 putative deleterious mutations in 7 known breast cancer susceptibility genes (TP53, PALB2, ATM, CHEK2, CDH1, PTEN and STK11) in 45 cases, and 22 potential deleterious mutations in 31 cases in 8 other genes (BARD1, BRIP1, MRE11, NBN, RAD50, RAD51C, RAD51D and CDK4). The relevant variants were then genotyped in 558 family members. Assuming a constant relative risk of breast cancer across age groups, only variants in CDH1, CHEK2, PALB2 and TP53 showed evidence of a significantly increased risk of breast cancer, with some supportive evidence that mutations in ATM confer moderate risk. Conclusions Panel testing for these breast cancer families provided additional relevant clinical information for <2% of families. We demonstrated that segregation analysis has some potential to help estimate the breast cancer risks associated with mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, but very large case–control sequencing studies and/or larger family-based studies will be needed to define the risks more accurately. PMID:26534844

  13. Identification of rare DNA sequence variants in high-risk autism families and their prevalence in a large case/control population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetics clearly plays a major role in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but studies to date are only beginning to characterize the causal genetic variants responsible. Until recently, studies using multiple extended multi-generation families to identify ASD risk genes had not been undertaken. Methods We identified haplotypes shared among individuals with ASDs in large multiplex families, followed by targeted DNA capture and sequencing to identify potential causal variants. We also assayed the prevalence of the identified variants in a large ASD case/control population. Results We identified 584 non-conservative missense, nonsense, frameshift and splice site variants that might predispose to autism in our high-risk families. Eleven of these variants were observed to have odds ratios greater than 1.5 in a set of 1,541 unrelated children with autism and 5,785 controls. Three variants, in the RAB11FIP5, ABP1, and JMJD7-PLA2G4B genes, each were observed in a single case and not in any controls. These variants also were not seen in public sequence databases, suggesting that they may be rare causal ASD variants. Twenty-eight additional rare variants were observed only in high-risk ASD families. Collectively, these 39 variants identify 36 genes as ASD risk genes. Segregation of sequence variants and of copy number variants previously detected in these families reveals a complex pattern, with only a RAB11FIP5 variant segregating to all affected individuals in one two-generation pedigree. Some affected individuals were found to have multiple potential risk alleles, including sequence variants and copy number variants (CNVs), suggesting that the high incidence of autism in these families could be best explained by variants at multiple loci. Conclusions Our study is the first to use haplotype sharing to identify familial ASD risk loci. In total, we identified 39 variants in 36 genes that may confer a genetic risk of developing autism. The

  14. A novel mutation in the MITF may be digenic with GJB2 mutations in a large Chinese family of Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xukun; Zhang, Tianyu; Wang, Zhengmin; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Yan; Wang, Hongyan; Ma, Duan; Wang, Lei; Li, Huawei

    2011-12-20

    Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) is associated with syndromic deafness. A subset of WS2, WS2A, accounting for approximately 15% of patients, is attributed to mutations in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene. We examined the genetic basis of WS2 in a large Chinese family. All 9 exons of the MITF gene, the single coding exon (exon 2) of the most common hereditary deafness gene GJB2 and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 12S rRNA were sequenced. A novel heterozygous mutation c.[742_743delAAinsT;746_747delCA] in exon 8 of the MITF gene co-segregates with WS2 in the family. The MITF mutation results in a premature termination codon and a truncated MITF protein with only 247 of the 419 wild type amino acids. The deaf proband had this MITF gene heterozygous mutation as well as a c.[109G>A]+[235delC] compound heterozygous pathogenic mutation in the GJB2 gene. No pathogenic mutation was found in mtDNA 12S rRNA in this family. Thus, a novel compound heterozygous mutation, c.[742_743delAAinsT;746_747delCA] in MITF exon 8 was the key genetic reason for WS2 in this family, and a digenic effect of MITF and GJB2 genes may contribute to deafness of the proband. PMID:22196401

  15. Large group community-based parenting programs for families of preschoolers at risk for disruptive behaviour disorders: utilization, cost effectiveness, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C E; Bremner, R; Boyle, M

    1995-10-01

    A significant percentage of children with disruptive behavior disorders do not receive mental health assistance. Utilization is lowest among groups whose children are at greatest risk. To increase the availability, accessibility, and cost efficacy of parent training programs, this prospective randomized trial compared a large group community-based parent training program to a clinic-based individual parent training (PT) programs. All families of junior kindergartners in the Hamilton public and separate school boards were sent a checklist regarding problems at home. Those returning questionnaires above the 90th percentile were block randomly assigned to: (1) a 12-week clinic-based individual parent training (Clinic/Individual), (2) a 12-week community-based large group parent training (Community/Group), or (3) a waiting list control condition. Immigrant families, those using English as a second language, and parents of children with severe behaviour problems were significantly more likely to enroll in Community/Groups than Clinic/Individual PT. Parents in Community/Groups reported greater improvements in behaviour problems at home and better maintenance of these gains at 6-month follow-up. A cost analysis showed that, with groups of 18 families, Community/Groups are more than six times as cost effective as Clinic/Individual programs. PMID:8847377

  16. Whole exome sequencing reveals a C-terminal germline variant in CEBPA-associated acute myeloid leukemia: 45-year follow up of a large family

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Anand; Seipel, Katja; Pemov, Alexander; Dewan, Ramita; Brown, Christina; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Luke, Brian T.; Malasky, Michael; Suman, Shalabh; Yeager, Meredith; Gatti, Richard A.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Mulvihill, John J.; Goldin, Lynn R.; Pabst, Thomas; McMaster, Mary L.; Stewart, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Familial acute myeloid leukemia is rare and linked to germline mutations in RUNX1, GATA2 or CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). We re-evaluated a large family with acute myeloid leukemia originally seen at NIH in 1969. We used whole exome sequencing to study this family, and conducted in silico bioinformatics analysis, protein structural modeling and laboratory experiments to assess the impact of the identified CEBPA Q311P mutation. Unlike most previously identified germline mutations in CEBPA, which were N-terminal frameshift mutations, we identified a novel Q311P variant that was located in the C-terminal bZip domain of C/EBPα. Protein structural modeling suggested that the Q311P mutation alters the ability of the CEBPA dimer to bind DNA. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the Q311P mu-tant had attenuated binding to DNA, as predicted by the protein modeling. Consistent with these findings, we found that the Q311P mutation has reduced transactivation, consistent with a loss-of-function mutation. From 45 years of follow up, we observed incomplete penetrance (46%) of CEBPA Q311P. This study of a large multi-generational pedigree reveals that a germline mutation in the C-terminal bZip domain can alter the ability of C/EBP-α to bind DNA and reduces transactivation, leading to acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:26721895

  17. Whole exome sequencing reveals a C-terminal germline variant in CEBPA-associated acute myeloid leukemia: 45-year follow up of a large family.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Anand; Seipel, Katja; Pemov, Alexander; Dewan, Ramita; Brown, Christina; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Luke, Brian T; Malasky, Michael; Suman, Shalabh; Yeager, Meredith; Gatti, Richard A; Caporaso, Neil E; Mulvihill, John J; Goldin, Lynn R; Pabst, Thomas; McMaster, Mary L; Stewart, Douglas R

    2016-07-01

    Familial acute myeloid leukemia is rare and linked to germline mutations in RUNX1, GATA2 or CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). We re-evaluated a large family with acute myeloid leukemia originally seen at NIH in 1969. We used whole exome sequencing to study this family, and conducted in silico bioinformatics analysis, protein structural modeling and laboratory experiments to assess the impact of the identified CEBPA Q311P mutation. Unlike most previously identified germline mutations in CEBPA, which were N-terminal frameshift mutations, we identified a novel Q311P variant that was located in the C-terminal bZip domain of C/EBPα. Protein structural modeling suggested that the Q311P mutation alters the ability of the CEBPA dimer to bind DNA. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the Q311P mu-tant had attenuated binding to DNA, as predicted by the protein modeling. Consistent with these findings, we found that the Q311P mutation has reduced transactivation, consistent with a loss-of-function mutation. From 45 years of follow up, we observed incomplete penetrance (46%) of CEBPA Q311P. This study of a large multi-generational pedigree reveals that a germline mutation in the C-terminal bZip domain can alter the ability of C/EBP-α to bind DNA and reduces transactivation, leading to acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:26721895

  18. Asynchroneity of the Holocene Moisture Variations across the Mongolian Plateau and the adjacent Siberia and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FENG, Zhaodong; WANG, Wei; RAN, Min

    2014-05-01

    Based on the review of high-standard Holocene climatic reconstructions from the Mongolian Plateau and the adjacent Siberia and China, temporal and spatial patterns of the Holocene moisture evolution are synthesized. The regionally-averaged moisture index (i.e., RAMI) for the winter monsoon-dominated southern Siberia exhibits a general declining trends since 10.6-9.6 cal. kyr BP, being consistent with the trends of the annual precipitation and the warm-season temperature in the Russian Plain. The consistency might be attributable to the Holocene declining trend of the warm-season temperature in North Atlantic region. The RAMI for the westerlies-affected northern Xinjiang had a persistent increasing trend since ~8 cal. kyr BP. The wetting trend of northern Xinjiang might be attributable to the increasing trend of winter insolation and to the associated increasing trend of cold-season temperature in northwestern Europe. The chronological correspondences between dry phases and warm intervals in the arid areas of the entire Mongolian Plateau lend a support to our earlier proposal that the mid-Holocene dry phase in the arid Mongolian Plateau was most likely the result of mid-Holocene high warm-season temperature. The RAMI for China is the delayed reflections of the East Asian summer monsoon strength to the solar radiation. That is, the peak insolation (14-6 cal. kyr BP) was responded by the Oceanic Thermal Optimum (12-5 cal. kyr BP) with some time lags and the Oceanic Thermal Optimum was then responded by the Holocene Moisture Optimum in southern China (10-5 cal. kyr BP) and then in northern China (9-6 cal. kyr BP). The RAMI for the Tibetan Plateau shows that the moisture has been persistently declining since ~11 cal. kyr BP and that the period between ~11.5 and 7.5 cal. kyr BP was the Holocene Moisture Optimum. The parallel trends between the moisture level in the Tibetan Plateau and the Indian summer monsoon strength retrieved from the Arabian Sea suggest that the

  19. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an “out of Tibet” hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an “into Tibet” scenario–earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau

  20. Isolation of a gene (DLG3) encoding a second member of the discs-large family on chromosome 17q12-q21

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Holik, P.; Stevens, J.

    1996-01-15

    The discs-large family is a collection of proteins that have a common structural organization and are thought to be involved in signal transduction and mediating protein-protein interactions at the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane. The defining member of this group of proteins is the gene product of the Drosophila lethal (1) discs large (dlg) 1 locus, which was originally identified by the analysis of recessive lethal mutants. Germline mutations in dlg result in loss of apical-basolateral polarity, disruption of normal cell-cell adhesion, and neoplastic overgrowth of the imaginal disc epithelium. We have isolated and characterized a novel human gene, DLG3, that encodes a new member of the discs-large family of proteins. The putative DLG3 gene product has a molecular weight of 66 kDa and contains a discs-large homologous region, an src oncogene homology motif 3, and a domain with homology to guanylate kinase. The DLG3 gene is located on chromosome 17, in the same segment, 17q12-q21, as the related gene, DLG2. The products of the DLG2 and DLG3 genes show 36% identity and 58% similarity to each other, and both show nearly 60% sequence similarity to p55, an erythroid phosphoprotein that is a component of the red cell membrane. We suggest that p55, DLG2, and DLG3 are closely related members of a gene family, whose protein products have a common structural organization and probably a similar function. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  1. First evidence of a large CHEK2 duplication involved in cancer predisposition in an Italian family with hereditary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CHEK2 is a multi-cancer susceptibility gene whose common germline mutations are known to contribute to the risk of developing breast and prostate cancer. Case presentation Here, we describe an Italian family with a high number of cases of breast cancer and other types of tumour subjected to the MLPA test to verify the presence of BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 deletions and duplications. We identified a new 23-kb duplication in the CHEK2 gene extending from intron 5 to 13 that was associated with breast cancer in the family. The presence and localisation of the alteration was confirmed by a second analysis by Next-Generation Sequencing. Conclusions This finding suggests that CHEK2 mutations are heterogeneous and that techniques other than sequencing, such as MLPA, are needed to identify CHEK2 mutations. It also indicates that CHEK2 rare variants, such as duplications, can confer a high susceptibility to cancer development and should thus be studied in depth as most of our knowledge of CHEK2 concerns common mutations. PMID:24986639

  2. Patterns of divergence of a large family of nodule cysteine-rich peptides in accessions of Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Nallu, Sumitha; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Zhou, Peng; Young, Nevin D; VandenBosch, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    The nodule cysteine-rich (NCR) groups of defensin-like (DEFL) genes are one of the largest gene families expressed in the nodules of some legume plants. They have only been observed in the inverted repeat loss clade (IRLC) of legumes, which includes the model legume Medicago truncatula. NCRs are reported to play an important role in plant–microbe interactions. To understand their diversity we analyzed their expression and sequence polymorphisms among four accessions of M. truncatula. A significant expression and nucleotide variation was observed among the genes. We then used 26 accessions to estimate the selection pressures shaping evolution among the accessions by calculating the nucleotide diversity at non-synonymous and synonymous sites in the coding region. The mature peptides of the orthologous NCRs had signatures of both purifying and diversifying selection pressures, unlike the seed DEFLs, which predominantly exhibited purifying selection. The expression, sequence variation and apparent diversifying selection in NCRs within the Medicago species indicates rapid and recent evolution, and suggests that this family of genes is actively evolving to adapt to different environments and is acquiring new functions. PMID:24635121

  3. Topological properties of large-scale structural brain networks in children with familial risk for reading difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, S.M. Hadi; Black, Jessica M.; Soriano, Teresa; Bugescu, Nicolle; Martinez, Rociel; Raman, Mira M.; Kesler, Shelli R.; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a neurobiological deficit characterized by persistent difficulty in learning to read in children and adults who otherwise possess normal intelligence. Functional and structural connectivity data suggest that developmental dyslexia could be a disconnection syndrome. However, whether abnormalities in connectivity exist in beginning readers at-risk for reading difficulties is unknown. Using graphtheoretical analysis, we investigated differences in global and regional topological properties of structural brain networks in 42 beginning readers with (FH+) and without (FH−) familial risk for reading difficulties. We constructed separate structural correlation networks based on measures of surface area and cortical thickness. Results revealed changes in topological properties in brain regions known to be abnormal in dyslexia (left supramarginal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus) in the FH+ group mainly in the network constructed from measures of cortical surface area. We also found alterations in topological properties in regions that are not often advertised as dyslexia but nonetheless play important role in reading (left posterior cingulate, hippocampus, and left precentral gyrus). To our knowledge, this is the first report of altered topological properties of structural correlation networks in children at risk for reading difficulty, and motivates future studies that examine the mechanisms underlying how these brain networks may mediate the influences of family history on reading outcome. PMID:23333415

  4. Regulatory Patterns of a Large Family of Defensin-Like Genes Expressed in Nodules of Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Nallu, Sumitha; Silverstein, Kevin A. T.; Samac, Deborah A.; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Vance, Carroll P.; VandenBosch, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Root nodules are the symbiotic organ of legumes that house nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Many genes are specifically induced in nodules during the interactions between the host plant and symbiotic rhizobia. Information regarding the regulation of expression for most of these genes is lacking. One of the largest gene families expressed in the nodules of the model legume Medicago truncatula is the nodule cysteine-rich (NCR) group of defensin-like (DEFL) genes. We used a custom Affymetrix microarray to catalog the expression changes of 566 NCRs at different stages of nodule development. Additionally, bacterial mutants were used to understand the importance of the rhizobial partners in induction of NCRs. Expression of early NCRs was detected during the initial infection of rhizobia in nodules and expression continued as nodules became mature. Late NCRs were induced concomitantly with bacteroid development in the nodules. The induction of early and late NCRs was correlated with the number and morphology of rhizobia in the nodule. Conserved 41 to 50 bp motifs identified in the upstream 1,000 bp promoter regions of NCRs were required for promoter activity. These cis-element motifs were found to be unique to the NCR family among all annotated genes in the M. truncatula genome, although they contain sub-regions with clear similarity to known regulatory motifs involved in nodule-specific expression and temporal gene regulation. PMID:23573247

  5. Arterial pH and Blood Lactate Levels of Anesthetized Mongolian Khulan ( Equus hemionus hemionus) in the Mongolian Gobi Correlate with Induction Time.

    PubMed

    Gerritsmann, Hanno; Stalder, Gabrielle L; Kaczensky, Petra; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Payne, John; Boldbaatar, Sukhbaatar; Walzer, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Research and conservation of wide-ranging wild equids in most cases necessitate capture and handling of individuals. For free-roaming Mongolian khulan ( Equus hemionus hemionus), also known as the khulan, capture involves a strenuous, high-speed chase, and physiologic responses have yet to be elucidated. We analyzed sequential arterial blood gas (ABG) samples as a proxy for respiratory and metabolic status of khulan during capture-related anesthesia. We recorded precise chase and induction times and monitored vital parameters and ABG from free-ranging khulan during anesthesia performed for GPS collaring. At the initiation of anesthesia, animals had ABG values similar to those recorded for thoroughbred horses ( Equus caballus ) after maximal exercise. Longer induction times resulted in higher arterial pH (P<0.001) and lower blood lactate (P<0.002). This trend of improvement continued over the course of anesthesia. The most important factor explaining pH and lactate was the time that elapsed between cessation of the chase and obtaining the first ABG sample, which, under field conditions, is tightly linked to induction time. All animals recovered uneventfully. Our data show that khulan recover and shift their metabolic status back toward expected normal values during opioid-based field anesthesia. PMID:27243152

  6. Functional Analysis of a Novel Connexin30 Mutation in a Large Family with Hearing Loss, Pesplanus, Ichthyosis, Cutaneous Nodules, and Keratoderma.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nishtha; Xavier, Dennis F; Chatterjee, Arunima; Mani, Ram-Shankar; Hiremagalore, Ravi; Tharakan, Ajith; Rajashekhar, B; Anand, Anuranjan

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gap-junction gene Cx30 (Connexin30, GJB6) are a known cause of hearing loss. Here, we report our findings on a large multigeneration family in which severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment is associated with a variety of skin-related anomalies. Genome-wide analysis of the family showed that the locus maps to chromosome region 13ptel-q12.1 and that a novel mutation, p.N54K, in Cx30, cosegregates with the phenotype. Unlike wild-type Cx30, p.N54K Cx30 is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm and does not permit transfer of neurobiotin, suggesting improper cellular localization and abolishment of gap-junction activity. PMID:26620415

  7. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  8. The crystal structure of M. leprae ML2640c defines a large family of putative S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Graña, Martin; Haouz, Ahmed; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Miras, Isabelle; Wehenkel, Annemarie; Bondet, Vincent; Shepard, William; Schaeffer, Francis; Cole, Stewart T; Alzari, Pedro M

    2007-09-01

    Mycobacterium leprae protein ML2640c belongs to a large family of conserved hypothetical proteins predominantly found in mycobacteria, some of them predicted as putative S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases (MTase). As part of a Structural Genomics initiative on conserved hypothetical proteins in pathogenic mycobacteria, we have determined the structure of ML2640c in two distinct crystal forms. As expected, ML2640c has a typical MTase core domain and binds the methyl donor substrate AdoMet in a manner consistent with other known members of this structural family. The putative acceptor substrate-binding site of ML2640c is a large internal cavity, mostly lined by aromatic and aliphatic side-chain residues, suggesting that a lipid-like molecule might be targeted for catalysis. A flap segment (residues 222-256), which isolates the binding site from the bulk solvent and is highly mobile in the crystal structures, could serve as a gateway to allow substrate entry and product release. The multiple sequence alignment of ML2640c-like proteins revealed that the central alpha/beta core and the AdoMet-binding site are very well conserved within the family. However, the amino acid positions defining the binding site for the acceptor substrate display a higher variability, suggestive of distinct acceptor substrate specificities. The ML2640c crystal structures offer the first structural glimpses at this important family of mycobacterial proteins and lend strong support to their functional assignment as AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases. PMID:17660248

  9. The crystal structure of M. leprae ML2640c defines a large family of putative S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Graña, Martin; Haouz, Ahmed; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Miras, Isabelle; Wehenkel, Annemarie; Bondet, Vincent; Shepard, William; Schaeffer, Francis; Cole, Stewart T.; Alzari, Pedro M.

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae protein ML2640c belongs to a large family of conserved hypothetical proteins predominantly found in mycobacteria, some of them predicted as putative S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases (MTase). As part of a Structural Genomics initiative on conserved hypothetical proteins in pathogenic mycobacteria, we have determined the structure of ML2640c in two distinct crystal forms. As expected, ML2640c has a typical MTase core domain and binds the methyl donor substrate AdoMet in a manner consistent with other known members of this structural family. The putative acceptor substrate-binding site of ML2640c is a large internal cavity, mostly lined by aromatic and aliphatic side-chain residues, suggesting that a lipid-like molecule might be targeted for catalysis. A flap segment (residues 222–256), which isolates the binding site from the bulk solvent and is highly mobile in the crystal structures, could serve as a gateway to allow substrate entry and product release. The multiple sequence alignment of ML2640c-like proteins revealed that the central α/β core and the AdoMet-binding site are very well conserved within the family. However, the amino acid positions defining the binding site for the acceptor substrate display a higher variability, suggestive of distinct acceptor substrate specificities. The ML2640c crystal structures offer the first structural glimpses at this important family of mycobacterial proteins and lend strong support to their functional assignment as AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases. PMID:17660248

  10. Growing season methane budget of an Inner Mongolian steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunyan; Holst, Jirko; Yao, Zhisheng; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Han, Shenghui; Han, Xingguo; Tas, Bart; Susenbeth, Andreas; Zheng, Xunhua

    We present a methane (CH 4) budget for the area of the Baiyinxile Livestock Farm, which comprises approximately 1/3 of the Xilin river catchment in central Inner Mongolia, P.R. China. The budget calculations comprise the contributions of natural sources and sinks as well as sources related to the main land-use in this region (non-nomadic pastoralism) during the growing season (May-September). We identified as important CH 4 sources floodplains (mean 1.55 ± 0.97 mg CH 4-C m -2 h -1) and domestic ruminants, which are mainly sheep in this area. Within the floodplain significant differences between investigated positions were detected, whereby only positions close-by the river or bayous emitted large amounts of CH 4 (mean up to 6.21 ± 1.83 mg CH 4-C m -2 h -1). Further CH 4 sources were sheepfolds (0.08-0.91 mg CH 4-C m -2 h -1) and pasture faeces (1.34 ± 0.22 mg CH 4-C g -1 faeces dry weight), but they did not play a significant role for the CH 4 budget. In contrast, dung heaps were not a net source of CH 4 (0.0 ± 0.2 for an old and 0.0 ± 0.3 μg CH 4-C kg -1 h -1 for a new dung heap). Trace gas measurements along two landscape transects (volcano, hill slope) revealed expectedly a mean CH 4 uptake (volcano: 76.5 ± 4.3; hill: 28.3 ± 5.3 μg CH 4-C m -2 h -1), which is typical for the aerobic soils in this and other steppe ecosystems. The observed fluxes were rarely influenced by topography. The CH 4 emissions from the floodplain and the sheep were not compensated by the CH 4 oxidation of aerobic steppe soils and thus, this managed semi-arid grassland did not serve as a terrestrial sink, but as a source for this globally important greenhouse gas. The source strength amounted to 1.5-3.6 kg CH 4-C ha -1 during the growing season, corresponding to 3.5-8.7 kg C ha -1 yr -1.

  11. 'Solo' large terminal repeats (LTR) of an endogenous retrovirus-like gene family (VL30) in the mouse genome.

    PubMed Central

    Rotman, G; Itin, A; Keshet, E

    1984-01-01

    VL30 genetic elements constitute a murine multicopy gene family that is retrovirus-like, despite the lack of sequence homology with any known retrovirus. Over one hundred copies of VL30 units are dispersed throughout the mouse genome. We report here that the mouse genome also contains 'solo' VL30 long terminal repeats (LTRs). These are structures which contain the LTR detached from the rest of the VL30 sequences. The isolation of solo LTRs from a mouse embryonic gene library with the aid of sub-genomic VL30 probes is described. Direct DNA sequencing established that the solo LTR unit is grossly similar to a standard VL30 LTR and that the LTR is flanked by a 4-base pair duplication. The analogy to the occurrence of solitary LTR units of transposable elements is discussed. Images PMID:6324110

  12. Effects of long-term exposure to trichloroethylene on the behavior of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Kjellstrand, P; Bjerkemo, M; Mortensen, I; Månsson, L; Lanke, J; Holmquist, B

    1981-01-01

    Two groups of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were continuously exposed to 150 ppm trichloroethylene (TCE) for 71 and 106 d, respectively. The behavior of the animals was tested in a symmetrical maze baited with sunflower seeds during a period of 23 d, beginning at the end of exposure. One additional group was exposed for 150 d and then allowed 40 d free from exposure before the start of the maze test. Comparisons between the TCE- and air-exposed animals showed differences in the number of correct choices and the number of seeds consumed in the maze, both after 71 and 106 d of exposure and at the end of the 40-d rehabilitation period that followed the 150-d exposure. The results were interpreted in terms of the "emotionality" of the animals. PMID:7338941

  13. Potential effect of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection on glucose metabolism of Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Li, Wei; He, Cong; Xie, Chuan; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on metabolic parameters in Mongolian gerbils. METHODS: A total of 40 male, 5- to 8-wk-old, specific-pathogen-free Mongolian gerbils (30-50 g) were randomly allocated into two groups: a control group (n = 20) and an H. pylori group (n = 20). After a two-week acclimation period, the control group was administered Brucella broth and the H. pylori group was challenged intra-gastrically five times every other day with approximately 109/CFU H. pylori ATCC43504 (CagA+, VacA+). Each group was then divided into two subgroups, which were sacrificed at either 6 or 12 mo. The control and H. pylori subgroups each contained 10 Mongolian gerbils. Body weight, abdominal circumference, and body length were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and Lee’s index were calculated. Biochemical assays were used to detect serum indexes, including glucose, glycated hemoglobin (GHb), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol, using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon (IFN)-γ, were assayed using ELISA. The expression of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and islet apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. RESULTS: At each time point, body weight, abdominal circumference, BMI, and Lee’s index were increased after H. pylori infection. However, these differences were not significant. H. pylori infection significantly increased the GHb (5.45 ± 0.53 vs 4.98 ± 0.22, P < 0.05) and HbA1c (4.91 ± 0.61 vs 4.61 ± 0.15, P < 0.05) levels at 12 mo. We observed no significant differences in serum biochemical indexes, including fasting blood glucose, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol, at 6 or 12 mo after infection. H. pylori infection

  14. Ischemic heart disease among the general Mongolian population: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Enkh-Oyun, Tsogzolbaatar; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Swanson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is considered to be a pivotal health problem in Mongolia. To summarize the existing epidemiology of IHD in the general Mongolian population is crucial for primary prevention. The present review summarized population-based epidemiological data of IHD in Mongolia. When epidemiological studies were extracted from databases, very limited studies were available. The frequencies of IHD and IHD-attributable death rates appeared to be high and have an increased tendency in Mongolia. This could to be due to a gradually worsening state of potential IHD-related risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and diabetes mellitus. This might indicate an urgent need of strategies for IHD and related risk factors. Anti-IHD strategies, such as more epidemiological studies and campaigns to increase awareness of IHD, at nationwide public health levels would be required in Mongolia for more effective prevention. PMID:26647395

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus (Rodentia: Muridae: Gerbillinae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Bae; Lee, Sang-Goo

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, was sequenced. The 16,360 bp long genome has 37 genes typical for rodent mitogenomes, including 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes. The total GC content of the mitochondrial genome is 36.96% with the base composition of 32.61% A, 23.71% C, 13.24% G, and 30.44% T. Translational terminators of three genes (cytb, cox3, and nad4) were generated by the addition of 3' A residues to the mRNA. This novel rodent mitochondrial genome will provide comparable information for understanding the rodent mitochondrial evolution. PMID:25185794

  16. Partial sequence of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain constant region.

    PubMed

    Ukaji, Takao; Sumiyama, Daisuke; Kai, Osamu

    2011-10-01

    We determined the sequence of the immunoglobulin gamma heavy-chain constant (IGHC) region of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). To isolate a part of the IGHC complementary DNA, we designed primers on the basis of highly conserved sequences in mouse, rat and hamster. The deduced IGHC is structurally similar to counterparts in other mammalian species and shows 84.6% identity to the IGHC of hamster IgG, 76.6% to rat IgG1, 83.3% to rat IgG2a, 78.1% to mouse IgG1, 81.8% to mouse IgG2a, 79.1% to mouse IgG2b and 79.2% to mouse IgG3 at the nucleotide level. The results suggest that gerbil IgG is closely related to hamster IgG and rat IgG2a. PMID:21951909

  17. Eradication of enteric helicobacters in Mongolian gerbils is complicated by the occurrence of Clostridium difficile enterotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Ingrid L; Taylor, Nancy S; Nambiar, Prashant R; Fox, James G

    2005-06-01

    Outbred Mongolian gerbils from a United States commercial source were examined for colonization with naturally occurring enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. Helicobacter spp. were identified in the cecum and colon by culture and by using genus-specific primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Nutritionally balanced triple-antibiotic wafers (containing amoxicillin, metronidazole, and bismuth) used previously to eliminate helicobacter infections in mice were administered in an attempt to eradicate the naturally occurring novel helicobacters in the gerbils. After 7 days of antibiotic treatment, two of the experimental animals died due to Clostridium difficile-associated enterotoxemia. However, at 3 weeks after antibiotic cessation, the surviving three animals had no Helicobacter spp. in the cecum or colon according to PCR analysis. Eradication of Helicobacter spp. using dietary administration of antibiotics was complicated by the presence of toxin-producing C. difficile. An alternate method to develop helicobacter-free gerbils (such as Caesarian rederivation) may be necessary. PMID:16089175

  18. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  19. Policy Shifted the Functional Relations of Coupled Human and Natural Systems on the Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Applying the CHN concept, we examine the spatiotemporal changes of livestock (LSKD), socioeconomic conditions, and ecosystem productivity using data at the prefecture level for Inner Mongolia (IM) and Mongolia (MG) over a 30-year study period (1981-2010). There exist clear spatiotemporal changes in all eight socioeconomic and natural variables on the Mongolian Plateau. Substantial differences in LSKD, population (POPD), and economic development were found among the biomes and between IM and MG. We developed a simple structural equation model (SEM) for a comprehensive assessment, which includes three latent variables: LSKD, NPP, and land use and land cover change (LULCC). Treating the Mongolian Plateau as a whole, we found that LSKD, POPD, and NPP are all positively correlated, with a weak correlation found between LSKD and NPP (r=0.12) and a strong correlation found between LSKD and LULCC (r=0.75) and NPP and LULCC (r=0.75). POPD showed significant positive effects on LSKD, while NPP had an insignificant or weak negative effect. EVI and precipitation (P) had significant, positive relationships with NPP, but albedo had a significantly negative effect. In addition, precipitation affected EVI positively and albedo negatively. The directions and strengths of the above relationships were not always consistent for IM and MG as independent systems. The addition of policy shifts to our SEM significantly changed the strengths of the above relationships in both IM and MG. The WTO for China and the collapse of the former Soviet Union for MG were two shifts included in our policy-inclusion SEMs. For both IM and MG, policy weakened the relationship between LSKD and LULCC, but strengthened the connections of LSKD~NPP and LULCC~NPP.

  20. Hormones orchestrated pre- and post-copulatory sexual traits in male Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Liu, Ding-Zhen; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Parker's sperm competition model predicts a negative relationship between pre-copulatory (social status) and post-copulatory (sperm quality and quantity) sexually selected traits, however, empirical studies have revealed considerable inconsistency in this relationship. We hypothesized that there was a trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits, and hormones (corticosterone, CORT; testosterone, T) orchestrate this relationship. In this study, we measured energetic parameters in the dominant-subordinate Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), whose relationship was established under chronic social encounters in a neutral arena, and then tested the relationship between their social status and sperm quality and quantity. Our results showed that dominant males initiated attack sooner and displayed more aggression, self-grooming and locomotion behaviors in daily social encounters across seven consecutive days. Dominant gerbils also had more and better quality of sperm than that of subordinate males, yet showed no significant differences in energy intake and RMR in comparison with subordinate individuals. In addition, dominant males had higher concentrations of serum T than subordinate males, whereas the concentrations of CORT showed a reverse pattern. The frequency and duration of aggression (indicative of social status) increased with elevated T concentrations. Sperm quality in terms of number and activity were associated with higher concentrations of serum T in dominant gerbils, whereas small sperm counts and poor-quality sperm were associated with relatively higher concentrations of serum CORT in subordinate gerbils. Together, our data indicated that there was no trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits but hormones orchestrated the relationship between these traits in male Mongolian gerbils. PMID:25725121

  1. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications of Late Triassic granites in the Mongolian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Batulzii; Boldbaatar, Enkhjargal; Zorigtkhuu, Oyun-Erdene; Yin, An

    2016-03-01

    Although the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in western China and western Mongolia occurred in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, widespread intra-continental magmatism continued to occur across this region from the Late Permian to the end of the Triassic. In this study we document field relationships and geochemical characterization of a Late Triassic felsic intrusive complex in the western Mongolian Altai. The plutonic complex occurs as sills, dikes, and small stocks and its composition varies from biotite granite, two-mica granite, to leucogranite. Structurally, the plutonic complex occurs in the hanging wall of a segment of the regionally extensively (>1500 km long) Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust zone. As the plutonic bodies both cut and are deformed by the shear fabrics in this regional thrust shear zone, the duration of felsic magmatism and regional thrusting was temporally overlapping. This suggests that magmatism was coeval with crustal thickening. Major- and trace-element data and isotopic analysis of granitoid samples from our study area indicate that the felsic intrusions were derived from partial melting of meta-sediments, with the biotite and two-mica granite generated through vapor-absent melting and the leucogranite from flux melting. Although the Mongolian Altai intrusions were clearly originated from anatexis, coeval granite in the Chinese Altai directly west of our study area in the hanging wall of the Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust was derived in part from mantle melting. To reconcile these observations, we propose a Himalayan-style intracontinental-subduction model that predicts two geologic settings for the occurrence of felsic magmatism: (1) along the intracontinental thrust zone where granite was entirely generated by anatexis and (2) in the hanging wall of the intracontinental thrust where convective removal and/or continental subduction induced mantle melting.

  2. Correlated Si isotope anomalies and large C-13 enrichments in a family of exotic SiC grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Epstein, S.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    A hypothesis is presented to the effect that the distinctive morphological characteristics and comparatively simple Si isotope systematics identify the platy SiC crystals as a genetically related family, formed around a single isotopically heterogeneous presolar star on an association of related stars. The enrichments in C-13 and the Si isotope systematics of the platy SiC are broadly consistent with theoretical models of nucleosynthesis in low-mass, carbon stars on the ASG. The Si isotope array most plausibly reflects mixing between (Si-28)-rich material, inherited from a previous generation of stars, and material enriched in Si-29 and Si-30, produced in intershell regions by neutron capture during He-burning. The absence of a correlation between the Si and C isotopic compositions of the SiC suggests either episodic condensation of SiC, extending over several thermal pulses, in the atmosphere of a single star, or the derivation of the SiC from several stars characterized by different rates of C-13 production.

  3. Extending the spectrum of Ellis van Creveld syndrome: a large family with a mild mutation in the EVC gene

    PubMed Central

    Ulucan, Hakan; Gül, Davut; Sapp, Julie C; Cockerham, John; Johnston, Jennifer J; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2008-01-01

    Background Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is characterized by short limbs, short ribs, postaxial polydactyly, dysplastic nails and teeth and is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. We report a family with complex septal cardiac defects, rhizomelic limb shortening, and polydactyly, without the typical lip, dental, and nail abnormalities of EvC. The phenotype was inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, with one instance of pseudodominant inheritance. Methods Because of the phenotypic overlap with EvC, microsatellite markers were used to test for linkage to the EVC/EVC2 locus. The results did not exclude linkage, so samples were sequenced for mutations. Results We identified a c.1868T>C mutation in EVC, which predicts p.L623P, and was homozygous in affected individuals. Conclusion We conclude that this EVC mutation is hypomorphic and that such mutations can cause a phenotype of cardiac and limb defects that is less severe than typical EvC. EVC mutation analysis should be considered in patients with cardiac and limb malformations, even if they do not manifest typical EvC syndrome. PMID:18947413

  4. MEFV alterations and population genetics analysis in a large cohort of Greek patients with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Giaglis, S; Papadopoulos, V; Kambas, K; Doumas, M; Tsironidou, V; Rafail, S; Kartalis, G; Speletas, M; Ritis, K

    2007-05-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a disease characterized by recurrent, self-limiting bouts of fever and serositis and caused by altered pyrin due to mutated MEFV gene. FMF is common in the Mediterranean Basin populations, although with varying genetic patterns. The spectrum and clinical significance of MEFV alterations in Greece has yet not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze the spectrum of MEFV alterations in FMF patients and healthy individuals in Greece. A cohort of 152 Greek FMF patients along with 140 Greek healthy controls was enrolled. Non-isotopic RNase cleavage assay (NIRCA) and sequencing allowed mutational and haplotypic analysis of the entire coding sequence of MEFV. The ARLEQUIN 2.0, DNASP 4.0 and PHYLIP software were used for population genetics analysis. Among patients, 127 (83.6%) carried at least one known mutation. The most common mutations identified were M694V (38.1%), M680I (19.7%), V726A (12.2%), E148Q (10.9%) and E230K (6.1%). The total carrier rate among healthy individuals was 0.7%. The presence of R202Q homozygosity in 12 of the remaining 25 MEFV negative FMF patients might be considered as disease related in Greeks. Population genetics analysis revealed that Greeks rely closer to the eastern rather than western populations of the Mediterranean Basin. PMID:17489852

  5. A large family of putative transmembrane receptors homologous to the product of the Drosophila tissue polarity gene frizzled.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Macke, J P; Abella, B S; Andreasson, K; Worley, P; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Nathans, J

    1996-02-23

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the frizzled gene plays an essential role in the development of tissue polarity as assessed by the orientation of cuticular structures. Through a combination of random cDNA sequencing, degenerate polymerase chain reaction amplification, and low stringency hybridization we have identified six novel frizzled homologues from mammals, at least 11 from zebrafish, several from chicken and sea urchin, and one from Caenorhabditis elegans. The complete deduced amino acid sequences of the mammalian and nematode homologues share with the Drosophila frizzled protein a conserved amino-terminal cysteine-rich domain and seven putative transmembrane segments. Each of the mammalian homologues is expressed in a distinctive set of tissues in the adult, and at least three are expressed during embryogenesis. As hypothesized for the Drosophila frizzled protein, the frizzled homologues are likely to act as transmembrane receptors for as yet unidentified ligands. These observations predict the existence of a family of signal transduction pathways that are homologous to the pathway that determines tissue polarity in Drosophila. PMID:8626800

  6. Inheritance of skewed X chromosome inactivation in a large family with an X-linked recessive deafness syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Orstavik, K.H.; Orstavik, R.E.; Eiklid, K.; Tranebjaerg, L.

    1996-07-12

    A new X-linked recessive deafness syndrome was recently reported and mapped to Xq22 (Mohr-Tranebjaeerg syndrome). In addition to deafness, the patients had visual impairment, dystonia, fractures, and mental deterioration. The female carriers did not have any significant manifestations of the syndrome. We examined X chromosome inactivation in 8 obligate and 12 possible carriers by using a polymerase chain reaction analysis of the methylation-dependent amplification of the polymorphic triplet repeat at the androgen receptor locus. Seven of 8 obligate carriers and 1 of 5 carriers by linkage analysis had an extremely skewed pattern in blood DNA not found in 30 normal females. The X inactivation pattern in fibroblast DNA from 2 of the carriers with the extremely skewed pattern was also skewed but to a lesser degree than in blood DNA. One obligate carrier had a random X inactivation pattern in both blood and fibroblast DNA. A selection mechanism for the skewed pattern is therefore not likely. The extremely skewed X inactivation in 8 females of 3 generations in this family may be caused by a single gene that influences skewing of X chromosome inactivation. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel holds the key to the conundrum of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Kang, Sun-Yang; Yi, Jin Woong; Kim, Seung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP) is an autosomal dominant channelopathy characterized by episodic attacks of muscle weakness and hypokalemia. Mutations in the calcium channel gene, CACNA1S, or the sodium channel gene, SCN4A, have been found to be responsible for HOKPP; however, the mechanism that causes hypokalemia remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of this mechanism by investigating the expression of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel genes in HOKPP patients. Methods We measured the intracellular calcium concentration with fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester in skeletal muscle cells of HOKPP patients and healthy individuals. We examined the mRNA and protein expression of KCa channel genes (KCNMA1, KCNN1, KCNN2, KCNN3, and KCNN4) in both cell types. Results Patient cells exhibited higher cytosolic calcium levels than normal cells. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the mRNA levels of the KCa channel genes did not significantly differ between patient and normal cells. However, western blot analysis showed that protein levels of the KCNMA1 gene, which encodes KCa1.1 channels (also called big potassium channels), were significantly lower in the membrane fraction and higher in the cytosolic fraction of patient cells than normal cells. When patient cells were exposed to 50 mM potassium buffer, which was used to induce depolarization, the altered subcellular distribution of BK channels remained unchanged. Conclusion These findings suggest a novel mechanism for the development of hypokalemia and paralysis in HOKPP and demonstrate a connection between disease-associated mutations in calcium/sodium channels and pathogenic changes in nonmutant potassium channels. PMID:25379045

  8. Neuropsychological profile of a large kindred with familial Alzheimer's disease caused by the E280A single presenilin-1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Lopera, F; Rosselli, M; Moreno, S; Madrigal, L; Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Arcos, M; Murcia, C; Arango-Viana, J C; Ossa, J; Goate, A; Kosik, K S

    2000-08-01

    It was hypothesized that subjective memory complaints represent the earliest sign of dementia in carriers of the presenilin-1 (PS1) mutation. A total of 122 subjects (44 males, 78 females) were included in this study. Forty of them were positive for the mutation in the PS1 gene (mutation positive, MP) whereas 82 showed negative results (mutation negative, MN). Subjects were active, functionally normal, even though some of them complained of memory difficulties. Two groups of neuropsychological instruments were administered: (a) The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological test battery (Morris et al., 1989), and (b) some additional neuropsychological tests (Raven Test, Wechsler Memory Scale, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Boston Naming Test, Naming of Categories, Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Memory of Three Phrases, Knopman Test, Digit Symbol, and Visual "A" Cancellation Test). Performance in both groups was quite similar. In a secondary analysis, the MP group was subdivided into two subgroups: without and with memory complaints. When comparing both subgroups, a better performance in the first subgroup was found throughout the different subtests. Statistically significant differences were observed in the following test scores: Mini-Mental State Examination, Naming Test (Low Frequency), Memory of Words Test, Recall of Drawings, Wechsler Memory Scale (Logical Memory, Associative Learning, and Total Score), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (Immediate Recall Condition), Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (Complex Ideational Material Subtest), Memory of Three Phrases Test, Serial Verbal Learning (maximum score and Delayed Recall), Knopman Test (First Trial, Second Trial, and Recall after 5 Minutes), Digit Symbol, and Visual "A" Cancellation Test (Additions). Results supported the hypothesis that memory complaints represent the earliest symptom of familial Alzheimer's disease. In addition to the memory difficulties

  9. Dust Episodes in Hong Kong (South China) and their Relationship with the Sharav and Mongolian Cyclones and Jet Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Wenig, Mark; Zhang, Zhenxi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Larko, Dave; Diehl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this paper analyses two dust episodes in Hong Kong, one occurring in March 2006 and the other on 22 March 2010. The latter is the worst dust episode on Hong Kong record. The focus is on the relationship between the dust episodes and the Sharav/Mongolian cyclones and jet streams. The 16 March 2006 episode is traceable to a continental-scale Saharan dust outbreak of 5-9 March 2006 caused by the cold front of an East Mediterranean Sharav cyclone arriving at north-west Africa on 5 March 2006. The eastward movement of the cyclone along the North African coast is clearly illustrated in the geopotential height contours. Simulations by the chemistry transport model GOCART provide a visible evidence of the transport as well as an estimate of contributions from the Sahara to the aerosol concentration levels in Hong Kong. The transport simulations suggest that the dust is injected to the polar jet north of the Caspian Sea, while it is transported eastward simultaneously by the more southerly subtropical jet. The major source of dust for Hong Kong is usually the Gobi desert. Despite the effect of remote sources, the 16 March 2006 dust episode was still mainly under the influence of the Mongolian cyclone cold fronts. In the recent episode of 22 March 2010, the influence of the Mongolian cyclone predominated as well. It appears that the concurrent influence of the Sharav and Mongolian cyclones on Hong Kong and East Asia is not a common occurrence. Besides transporting dusts from non-East Asian sources to Hong Kong and East Asia, the strong subtropical jet on 21 March 2010 (i.e. 1 day prior to the major dust episode) is believed to have strengthened an easterly monsoon surge to South China causing the transport of voluminous dusts to Taiwan and Hong Kong the following day.

  10. Effect of swine hepatitis E virus on the livers of experimentally infected Mongolian gerbils by swine hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifei; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Soomro, Majid Hussain; Mao, Jingjing; Du, Fang; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Can

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted between rats, pigs, cattle, rabbits, chicken, cats, and deer. Because wild and domestic rodents have anti-HEV antibodies, they are considered potential reservoirs of HEV. In the current study, Mongolian gerbils were experimentally infected with swine hepatitis E virus and the effects of this infection were investigated. After inoculation with HEV, the liver-to-body weight ratio increased at 7 dpi. Mongolian gerbils demonstrated significant increase (p<0.05) in Aspartate Transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) concentrations in the sera, and HEV IgG was detected at 21 days post-inoculation (dpi). Real-time PCR revealed that the copies of HEV RNA in the liver were detected at 7 dpi, and peaked at 28 dpi at a concentration of 7.73 logs g(-1). Using both light and electron microscopy, hepatic lesions were observed in the HEV inoculated animals. In the experimental group, characteristic viral hepatitis lesions were prominent in the liver. HEV antigen was detected in the liver by immunohistochemistry, and HEV ORF3 antigen was detectable in liver by Western blot. These results clearly demonstrate that viral load of HEV in livers was dynamic, and ultrastructural hepatic injury in HEV infected Mongolian gerbils and anti-HEV IgG positive seroconversion were observed during infection. PMID:26093307

  11. The Adaptive Change of HLA-DRB1 Allele Frequencies Caused by Natural Selection in a Mongolian Population That Migrated to the South of China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Yang, Zhaoqing; Lin, Keqin; Liu, Shuyuan; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiuyun; Chu, Jiayou; Huang, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen-driven balancing selection determines the richness of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Changes in the pathogen spectrum may cause corresponding changes in HLA loci. Approximately 700 years ago, a Mongolian population moved from the north of China to the Yunnan region in the south of China. The pathogen spectrum in the south of China differs from that in the north. In this study, changes in the HLA genes in the Yunnan Mongolian population, as well as the underlying mechanism, were investigated. A sequence-based typing method (SBT) was used to genotype HLA-DRB1 in 470 individuals from two Mongolian populations and another five ethnic groups. Meanwhile, 10 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) were genotyped to assess the influence of genetic background on HLA-DRB1 frequencies. The frequencies of certain alleles changed significantly in the Mongolian population that migrated to Yunnan. For example, DRB1*12:02:01 increased from 6.1% to 35.4%. STR analysis excluded the possibility of a recent bottleneck and indicated that 50% of the genetic consistency between northern and southern Mongolians; Tajima's D value for HLA-DRB1 exon2 and dN/dS analysis showed that the HLA-DRB1 genes in both Mongolian populations were under balancing selection. However, the sites under natural selection changed. We proposed that the dramatically change of HLA frequencies in southern Mongolian was caused by a combination of inter-population gene flow and natural selection. Certain diseases specific to the south of China, such as malaria, may be the driving force behind the enhanced DRB1*12:02:01 frequency. PMID:26230582

  12. The yurt: a mobile home of nomadic populations dwelling in the Mongolian steppe is still used both as a sun clock and a calendar.

    PubMed

    Mauvieux, Benoit; Reinberg, Alain; Touitou, Yvan

    2014-03-01

    The yurt is the traditional home of the nomadic Turkmen, the Kyrgyz, the Kazakhs, the Uzbeks, the Kalmyks, the Buryats and the Mongolians. As the impact of the western modern world, in terms of technological and behavioural changes, is slower than anywhere else, the use of the yurt is widespread in the Mongolian steppes, where nomadic life has been maintaining its traditional behaviour for at least 800 years. The Mongolian yurt entrance faces south and combines spatial and functional properties. An open circular hole named the "toon" can be found at the centre of the roof. On sunny days, a ray of sunshine revolves around its inner wall. Depending on the season, the light first appears between 5:40 am and 7:40 am and moves around the different inner walls (khana). The sundial enables the nomads to schedule their daily activities such as the herd milking and its processing, the drying of dung for fuel, the prayers and performing fighting games. The angle of the sun's light coming through the toon and lighting a space on the floor by the yurt entrance can vary according to the time of the year. Such clues are used to guess what time it is and which month it is, and thus help the Mongolians decide whether or not to start travelling from summer to winter pastures. The Mongolians pay special attention to the transhumances, seasonal movements based on a specific time, in order to prevent harming the livestock during the harsh Mongolian winter, and to choose the right time to move the yurt. They also pay attention not to offend the spirits of the wind, the earth and the sky. Regarded as the warrant of their ancestors' cultural traditions, nomadic people remain faithful to their heritage and respect their surrounding environment. Thus, the yurt has remained their reference to time in the heart of the Mongolian steppes. PMID:24400857

  13. A Large Family with Carney Complex Caused by the S147G PRKAR1A Mutation Shows a Unique Spectrum of Disease Including Adrenocortical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anselmo, João; Medeiros, Sandra; Carneiro, Victor; Greene, Elizabeth; Levy, Isaac; Nesterova, Maria; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Horvath, Anelia; Carney, J. Aidan

    2012-01-01

    Context: Most tumors in Carney complex (CNC) are benign, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), the main endocrine tumor in CNC. Adrenocortical cancer (AC) has never been observed in the syndrome. Herein, we describe a large Azorean family with CNC caused by a point mutation in the PRKAR1A gene coding for type 1-α (RIα) regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, in which the index patient presented with AC. Objective: We studied the genotype-phenotype correlation in CNC. Design and Setting: We reported on case series and in vitro testing of the PRKAR1A mutation in a tertiary care referral center. Patients: Twenty-two members of a family were investigated for Cushing syndrome and other CNC components; their DNA was sequenced for PRKAR1A mutations. Results: Cushing syndrome due to PPNAD occurred in four patients, including the proposita who presented with AC and three who had Cushing syndrome and/or PPNAD. Lentigines were found in six additional patients who did not have PPNAD. A base substitution (c.439A>G/p.S147G) in PRKAR1A was identified in the proposita, in the three others with PPNAD, in the proposita's twin daughters who had lentigines but no evidence of hypercortisolism, and in five other family members, including one without lentigines or evidence of hypercortisolism. Unlike in other RIα defects, loss of heterozygosity was not observed in AC. The S147G mutation was compared to other expressed PRKAR1A mutations; it led to decreased cAMP and catalytic subunit binding by RIα and increased protein kinase A activity in vitro. Conclusions: In a large family with CNC, one amino acid substitution caused a spectrum of adrenal disease that ranged from lack of manifestations to cancer. PPNAD and AC were the only manifestations of CNC in these patients, in addition to lentigines. These data have implications for counseling patients with CNC and are significant in documenting the first case of AC in the context of PPNAD

  14. Carbon pool densities and a first estimate of the total carbon pool in the Mongolian forest-steppe.

    PubMed

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Klinge, Michael; Degener, Jan; Khishigjargal, Mookhor; Chenlemuge, Tselmeg; Bat-Enerel, Banzragch; Yeruult, Yolk; Saindovdon, Davaadorj; Ganbaatar, Kherlenchimeg; Tsogtbaatar, Jamsran; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2016-02-01

    The boreal forest biome represents one of the most important terrestrial carbon stores, which gave reason to intensive research on carbon stock densities. However, such an analysis does not yet exist for the southernmost Eurosiberian boreal forests in Inner Asia. Most of these forests are located in the Mongolian forest-steppe, which is largely dominated by Larix sibirica. We quantified the carbon stock density and total carbon pool of Mongolia's boreal forests and adjacent grasslands and draw conclusions on possible future change. Mean aboveground carbon stock density in the interior of L. sibirica forests was 66 Mg C ha(-1) , which is in the upper range of values reported from boreal forests and probably due to the comparably long growing season. The density of soil organic carbon (SOC, 108 Mg C ha(-1) ) and total belowground carbon density (149 Mg C ha(-1) ) are at the lower end of the range known from boreal forests, which might be the result of higher soil temperatures and a thinner permafrost layer than in the central and northern boreal forest belt. Land use effects are especially relevant at forest edges, where mean carbon stock density was 188 Mg C ha(-1) , compared with 215 Mg C ha(-1) in the forest interior. Carbon stock density in grasslands was 144 Mg C ha(-1) . Analysis of satellite imagery of the highly fragmented forest area in the forest-steppe zone showed that Mongolia's total boreal forest area is currently 73 818 km(2) , and 22% of this area refers to forest edges (defined as the first 30 m from the edge). The total forest carbon pool of Mongolia was estimated at ~ 1.5-1.7 Pg C, a value which is likely to decrease in future with increasing deforestation and fire frequency, and global warming. PMID:26463754

  15. A continuous ice-core 10Be record from Mongolian mid-latitudes: Influences of solar variability and local climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inceoglu, F.; Knudsen, M. F.; Olsen, J.; Karoff, C.; Herren, P.-A.; Schwikowski, M.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution 10Be records used for studies of detailed changes in atmospheric 10Be production rates predominantly derive from polar ice cores. In this study, we present the first 10Be record from a mid-latitude ice core. The ice core derives from the Tsambagarav mountain range located in the Mongolian Altai region. The new 10Be concentration record spans the period from AD 1550 to 2009, while the flux record extends from AD 1816 to 2009. The 10Be concentration in the Tsambagarav ice core ranges between ˜ 1.5 ×104 and ˜ 10 ×104 atomsg-1, whereas the 10Be flux changes from ˜0.02 to ˜0.15 atoms cm-2 s-1. The average 10Be flux at Tsambagarav is four times higher than the average 10Be flux recorded in the NGRIP and Dome Fuji ice cores, which is in accordance with model predictions. In general, the long-term trends observed in the Tsambagarav 10Be concentration and flux records are reasonably similar to those observed in the NGRIP ice core. A comparison between the Tsambagarav 10Be record, group sunspot numbers (GSNs), and solar modulation potentials based on 14C in tree rings suggests that the Maunder Minimum was associated with a prolonged maximum in 10Be concentrations at Tsambagarav, whereas the Dalton Minimum was associated with a minor increase in the 10Be concentration and flux that was delayed relative to the primary minimum in GSNs. The sulphate record from Tsambagarav shows that large positive anomalies in the sulphate concentration are associated with negative anomalies in the 10Be concentration. A concurrent positive sulphate anomaly may explain why the main phase of the Dalton Minimum is subdued in the 10Be record from Tsambagarav. Spectral analysis indicates that the 11-yr solar-cycle signal may have influenced the new 10Be record, but the evidence supporting a direct link is ambiguous. Local and regional climatic changes, such as cyclonic versus anticyclonic conditions and related storm tracks, most likely played a significant role for the 10Be

  16. Comparison of autoantibody specificities between traditional and bead-based assays in a large, diverse collection of SLE patients and family members

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Benjamin F.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Lu, Rufei; Vidal, Gabriel; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Robertson, Julie M.; Kamen, Diane L.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Neas, Barbara R.; Reichlin, Morris; Scofield, R. Hal; Harley, John B.; James, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The replacement of standard immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) methods with bead-based assays is a new clinical option. A large, multi-racial cohort of SLE patients, blood relatives and unaffected control individuals was evaluated for familial aggregation and subset clustering of autoantibodies by high-throughput serum screening technology and traditional methods. Methods Serum samples (1,540 SLE patients, 1,127 unaffected relatives, and 906 healthy, population-based controls) were analyzed for SLE autoantibodies using a bead-based assay, immunofluorescence, and immunodiffusion. Autoantibody prevalence, disease sensitivity, clustering, and association with standard immunodiffusion results were evaluated. Results ANA frequency in SLE patient sera were 89%, 73%, and 67% by BioPlex 2200 and 94%, 84%, and 86% by immunofluorescence in African-American, Hispanic, and European-American patients respectively. 60kD Ro, La, Sm, nRNP A, and ribosomal P prevalence were compared across assays, with sensitivities ranging from 0.92 to 0.83 and specificities ranging from 0.90 to 0.79. Cluster autoantibody analysis showed association of three subsets: 1) 60kD Ro, 52kD Ro and La, 2) spliceosomal proteins, and 3) dsDNA, chromatin, and ribosomal P. Familial aggregation of Sm/RNP, ribosomal P, and 60kD Ro in SLE patient sibling pairs was observed (p ≤ 0.004). Simplex pedigree patients had a greater prevalence for dsDNA (p=0.0003) and chromatin (p=0.005) autoantibodies than multiplex patients. Conclusion ANA frequencies detected by a bead-based assay are lower in European-American SLE patients compared to immunofluorescence. These assays have strong positive predictive values across racial groups, provide useful information for clinical care, and provide unique insights to familial aggregation and autoantibody clustering. PMID:23112091

  17. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I: phenotypic variability within a large consanguineous Bedouin family associated with a novel FKRP mutation.

    PubMed

    Harel, Tamar; Goldberg, Yael; Shalev, Stavit A; Chervinski, Ilana; Ofir, Rivka; Birk, Ohad S

    2004-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) represent a group of diseases characterized mainly by muscle wasting of the upper and lower limbs, with a wide range of clinical severity. The clinical heterogeneity is paralleled by molecular heterogeneity; each of the 10 forms of autosomal-recessive LGMD recognized to date is caused by mutations in a distinct gene. In a large consanguineous Bedouin tribe living in northern Israel, 15 individuals affected by LGMD demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. A genome-wide screen followed by fine mapping in this family revealed linkage to a region on chromosome 19 harboring the fukutin-related protein gene (FKRP), with a maximal LOD score of 4.8 for D19S902. FKRP, encoding a putative glycosyltransferase, has been implicated in causing congenital muscular dystrophy 1C (MDC1C), and has recently been shown to be mutated in LGMD2I. We identified a novel missense mutation in exon 4 of the FKRP gene in all the patients studied. Although all affected individuals were homozygous for the same mutation, a marked phenotypic variability was apparent within the family. This finding may suggest a role of modifier genes and environmental factors in LGMD2I. Moreover, the demonstration that an identical, novel mutation in the FKRP gene can cause a muscle disease of either a congenital onset or of a later onset within a single family provides clinical support to the molecular evidence, suggesting that MDC1C and LGMD2I are overlapping ends of one and the same entity. PMID:14523375

  18. Combined effects of levonorgestrel and quinestrol on reproductive hormone levels and receptor expression in females of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaohui; Shi, Dazhao

    2012-01-01

    The effects of treatment with a combination of levonorgestrel and quinestrol (EP-1; ratio of 2:1) on reproductive hormone levels and the expression of their receptors in female Mongolian gerbils were examined. We show that serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased, whereas serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) increased after EP-1 treatment. EP1 down-regulated mRNA expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) βin the ovary. EP-1 up-regulated the mRNA expression of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the ovary as well as ERα and PR in the uterus of Mongolian gerbils. The effects were time-dependent and dose-dependent. EP-1 had no obvious effects on ERα mRNA expression in the ovary. The current study demonstrates that the effect of EP-1 on the expression of ER subtypes is tissue-specific in Mongolian gerbils. EP-1 disrupted the reproductive endocrinology of the Mongolian gerbil. These findings suggest that the effects of EP-1 on reproductive hormone levels and their receptor expression in Mongolian gerbils may be the result of synergistic actions of levonorgestrel and quinestrol, with quinestrol playing the major role. PMID:22233494

  19. [Tree-ring growth responses of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) to climate change in southern northeast: a case study in Qianshan Mountains].

    PubMed

    Teng, Li; Xing-Yuan, He; Zhen-Ju, Chen

    2014-07-01

    Mongolian oak is one of the most important broad-leaved tree species in forests, Northeast China. Based on the methodology of dendrochronology, the variations of tree ring radial growth of Mongolian oak in Qianshan Mountains, south of Northeast China, were analyzed. Combined with the temperature and precipitation data from meteorological stations since 1951, the relationships between standardized tree ring width chronology and main climatic factors were analyzed. In this region, the precipitation between April and July of the current year had an significant relationship with the tree ring width of Mongolian oak, and was the main factor limiting the radial growth. The extreme maximum temperature of May was also a key factor influencing the tree ring width, which had a significant on the tree ring width of Mongolian oak. The precipitation in April had a significant and stable relationship with the growth of Mongolian oak since the 1950s. The 'divergence problem' was found in the study area, which the sensitivity of tree growth to summer temperature reduced since the 1980s. The tree growth response to temperature showed a seasonal change from summer to spring. PMID:25345030

  20. Microbial processes and factors controlling their activities in alkaline lakes of the Mongolian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namsaraev, Zorigto B.; Zaitseva, Svetlana V.; Gorlenko, Vladimir M.; Kozyreva, Ludmila P.; Namsaraev, Bair B.

    2015-11-01

    A striking feature of the Mongolian plateau is the wide range of air temperatures during a year, -30 to 30°C. High summer temperatures, atmospheric weathering and the arid climate lead to formation of numerous alkaline soda lakes that are covered by ice during 6-7 months per year. During the study period, the lakes had pH values between 8.1 to 10.4 and salinity between 1.8 and 360 g/L. According to chemical composition, the lakes belong to sodium carbonate, sodium chloride-carbonate and sodium sulfate-carbonate types. This paper presents the data on the water chemical composition, results of the determination of the rates of microbial processes in microbial mats and sediments in the lakes studied, and the results of a Principal Component Analysis of environmental variables and microbial activity data. Temperature was the most important factor that influenced both chemical composition and microbial activity. pH and salinity are also important factors for the microbial processes. Dark CO2 fixation is impacted mostly by salinity and the chemical composition of the lake water. Total photosynthesis and sulfate-reduction are impacted mostly by pH. Photosynthesis is the dominant process of primary production, but the highest rate (386 mg C/(L•d)) determined in the lakes studied were 2-3 times lower than in microbial mats of lakes located in tropical zones. This can be explained by the relatively short warm period that lasts only 3-4 months per year. The highest measured rate of dark CO2 assimilation (59.8 mg C/(L•d)) was much lower than photosynthesis. The highest rate of sulfate reduction was 60 mg S/(L•d), while that of methanogenesis was 75.6 μL CN4/(L•d) in the alkaline lakes of Mongolian plateau. The rate of organic matter consumption during sulfate reduction was 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that associated with methanogenesis.

  1. Carotenoid profiles in provitamin A-containing fruits and vegetables affect the bioefficacy in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Arscott, Sara A; Howe, Julie A; Davis, Christopher R; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2010-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of provitamin A carotenoids. We evaluated the vitamin A (VA) bioefficacy of a whole foods supplement (WFS) and its constituent green vegetables (Study 1) and a variety of fruits with varying ratios of provitamin A carotenoids (Study 2) in VA-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 77/study). After feeding a VA-deficient diet for 4 and 6 weeks in Studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets, equalized for VA, were fed for 4 and 3 weeks, respectively. Both studies utilized negative and VA-positive control groups. In Study 1, liver VA was highest in the VA group (0.82 +/- 0.16 micromol/liver, P < 0.05), followed by brussels sprouts (0.50 +/- 0.15 micromol/liver), Betanat (beta-carotene from Blakeslea trispora) (0.50 +/- 0.12 micromol/liver) and spinach (0.47 +/- 0.09 micromol/liver) groups, which did not differ from baseline. The WFS (0.44 +/- 0.06 micromol/liver) and kale (0.43 +/- 0.14 micromol/liver) groups had lower liver VA than the baseline group (P < 0.05), but did not differ from the brussels sprouts, Betanat and spinach groups. In Study 2, liver VA was highest in the orange (0.67 +/- 0.18 micromol/liver), papaya (0.67 +/- 0.15 micromol/liver) and VA (0.66 +/- 0.14 micromol/liver) groups, followed by the mango (0.58 +/- 0.09 micromol/liver) and tangerine (0.55 +/- 0.15 micromol/liver) groups. These groups did not differ from baseline. The banana group (0.47 +/- 0.15 micromol/liver) was unable to maintain baseline stores of VA and did not differ from the control (0.46 +/- 0.13 mumol/liver). These fruits (except banana), vegetables and the WFS were able to prevent VA deficiency in Mongolian gerbils and could be an effective part of food-based interventions to support VA nutrition in developing countries and worldwide. PMID:20558838

  2. Vitamin D deficiency in reproductive age Mongolian women: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Holick, Michael F; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Frazier, Lindsay A; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Ninjin, Boldbaatar; Janes, Craig; Hoover, Robert N; Troisi, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D production is critical not only for rickets prevention but for its role in several chronic diseases of adulthood. Maternal vitamin D status also has consequences for the developing fetus. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]<20ng/ml) and insufficiency [25(OH)D=20-29ng/ml] in spring, among reproductive age Mongolian women. Blood was drawn in March and April, 2009 from 420 Mongolian women, 18-44 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured, anthropometric measurements were performed and information was collected by interview on lifestyle, dietary and reproductive factors. Logarithm-transformed 25(OH)D levels were compared across risk factor categories by analysis of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the independent associations of factors with vitamin D status. Cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis was assessed between December and July using a standard 7-dehydrocholesterol ampoule model. The vast majority of women 415 (98.8%) had serum 25(OH)D<20ng/ml (50nmol/l) with an additional 4 women (<1%) in the insufficient range (20-29ng/ml); only one women (0.2%) had sufficient levels (>30ng/ml or 75nmol/l). 25(OH)D concentrations were positively and independently associated with educational status and use of vitamin D supplements, but not with other demographic, lifestyle, reproductive, or anthropometric factors. 25(OH)D levels were not associated with dietary factors in this population, as there is little access to foods containing vitamin D in Mongolia. No production of previtamin D3 was observed until March and was maximally effective in April and was sustained through July. These data suggest that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in spring among reproductive age women in Mongolia is high. Given the lack of naturally vitamin D-rich food in the diet and limited use of vitamin D supplements, food fortification and/or supplementation with vitamin D should be considered

  3. Vulnerability of the northern Mongolian steppe to climate change: insights from flower production and phenology.

    PubMed

    Liancourt, Pierre; Spence, Laura A; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Helliker, Brent R; Casper, Brenda B; Petraitis, Peter S

    2012-04-01

    The semiarid, northern Mongolian steppe, which still supports pastoral nomads who have used the steppe for millennia, has experienced an average 1.7 degrees C temperature rise over the past 40 years. Continuing climate change is likely to affect flowering phenology and flower numbers with potentially important consequences for plant community composition, ecosystem services, and herder livelihoods. Over the growing seasons of 2009 and 2010, we examined flowering responses to climate manipulation using open-top passive warming chambers (OTCs) at two locations on a south-facing slope: one on the moister, cooler lower slope and the other on the drier, warmer upper slope, where a watering treatment was added in a factorial design with warming. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed that OTCs reduced flower production and delayed peak flowering in graminoids as a whole but only affected forbs on the upper slope, where peak flowering was also delayed. OTCs affected flowering phenology in seven of eight species, which were examined individually, either by altering the time of peak flowering and/or the onset and/or cessation of flowering, as revealed by survival analysis. In 2010, which was the drier year, OTCs reduced flower production in two grasses but increased production in an annual forb found only on the upper slope. The particular effects of OTCs on phenology, and whether they caused an extension or contraction of the flowering season, differed among species, and often depended on year, or slope, or watering treatment; however, a relatively strong pattern emerged for 2010 when four species showed a contraction of the flowering season in OTCs. Watering increased flower production in two species in 2010, but slope location more often affected flowering phenology than did watering. Our results show the importance of taking landscape-scale variation into account in climate change studies and also contrasted with those of several studies set in cold

  4. A Large Family of AvrLm6-like Genes in the Apple and Pear Scab Pathogens, Venturia inaequalis and Venturia pirina

    PubMed Central

    Shiller, Jason; Van de Wouw, Angela P.; Taranto, Adam P.; Bowen, Joanna K.; Dubois, David; Robinson, Andrew; Deng, Cecilia H.; Plummer, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina are Dothideomycete fungi that cause apple scab and pear scab disease, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of V. inaequalis and V. pirina isolates has revealed predicted proteins with sequence similarity to AvrLm6, a Leptosphaeria maculans effector that triggers a resistance response in Brassica napus and B. juncea carrying the resistance gene, Rlm6. AvrLm6-like genes are present as large families (>15 members) in all sequenced strains of V. inaequalis and V. pirina, while in L. maculans, only AvrLm6 and a single paralog have been identified. The Venturia AvrLm6-like genes are located in gene-poor regions of the genomes, and mostly in close proximity to transposable elements, which may explain the expansion of these gene families. An AvrLm6-like gene from V. inaequalis with the highest sequence identity to AvrLm6 was unable to trigger a resistance response in Rlm6-carrying B. juncea. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR gene expression analyses, of in planta- and in vitro-grown V. inaequalis, has revealed that many of the AvrLm6-like genes are expressed during infection. An AvrLm6 homolog from V. inaequalis that is up-regulated during infection was shown (using an eYFP-fusion protein construct) to be localized to the sub-cuticular stroma during biotrophic infection of apple hypocotyls. PMID:26635823

  5. A Large Family of AvrLm6-like Genes in the Apple and Pear Scab Pathogens, Venturia inaequalis and Venturia pirina.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Jason; Van de Wouw, Angela P; Taranto, Adam P; Bowen, Joanna K; Dubois, David; Robinson, Andrew; Deng, Cecilia H; Plummer, Kim M

    2015-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina are Dothideomycete fungi that cause apple scab and pear scab disease, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of V. inaequalis and V. pirina isolates has revealed predicted proteins with sequence similarity to AvrLm6, a Leptosphaeria maculans effector that triggers a resistance response in Brassica napus and B. juncea carrying the resistance gene, Rlm6. AvrLm6-like genes are present as large families (>15 members) in all sequenced strains of V. inaequalis and V. pirina, while in L. maculans, only AvrLm6 and a single paralog have been identified. The Venturia AvrLm6-like genes are located in gene-poor regions of the genomes, and mostly in close proximity to transposable elements, which may explain the expansion of these gene families. An AvrLm6-like gene from V. inaequalis with the highest sequence identity to AvrLm6 was unable to trigger a resistance response in Rlm6-carrying B. juncea. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR gene expression analyses, of in planta- and in vitro-grown V. inaequalis, has revealed that many of the AvrLm6-like genes are expressed during infection. An AvrLm6 homolog from V. inaequalis that is up-regulated during infection was shown (using an eYFP-fusion protein construct) to be localized to the sub-cuticular stroma during biotrophic infection of apple hypocotyls. PMID:26635823

  6. The Community of Family Circles (CFC) algorithm: a new inversion approach to obtaining self-consitent 4D thermal histories from large, spatially distributed thermochronological data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucher, R.; Brown, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most significant advances in interpreting thermochronological data is arguably our ability to extract information about the rate and trajectory of cooling over a range of temperatures, rather than having to rely on the veracity of the simplification of assuming a single closure temperature specified by a rate of monotonic cooling. Modern thermochronometry data, such as apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He analysis, are particularly good examples of data amenable to this treatment as acceptably well calibrated kinetic models now exist for both systems. With ever larger data sets of this type being generated over ever larger areas the prospect of inverting very large amounts of such data distributed spatially over large areas offers new possibilities for constraining the thermal and erosional histories over length scales approximating whole orogens and sub-continents. The challenge though is in how to properly deal with joint inversion of multiple samples in a self-consistent manner while also utilising all the available information contained in the data. We describe a new approach to this problem, called the Community of Family Circles (CFC) algorithm, which extracts information from spatially distributed apatite fission track ages (AFT) and track length distributions (TLD). The method is based on the rationale that the 3D geothermal field of the crust varies smoothly through space and time because of the efficiency of thermal diffusion. Our approach consists of seeking groups of spatially adjacent samples, or families, within a given circular radius for which a common thermal history is appropriate. The temperature offsets between individual time-temperature paths are determined relative to a low-pass filtered topographic surface, whose shape is assumed to mimic the shape of the isotherms in the partial annealing zone. This enables a single common thermal history to be shared, or interpolated, between the family members while still honouring the

  7. Development of wide-band middle ear transmission in the Mongolian gerbil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overstreet, Edward H.; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2002-01-01

    Stapes vibrations were measured in deeply anesthetized adult and neonatal (ages: 14 to 20 days) Mongolian gerbils. In adult gerbils, the velocity magnitude of stapes responses to tones was approximately constant over the entire frequency range of measurements, 1 to 40 kHz. Response phases referred to pressure near the tympanic membrane varied approximately linearly as a function of increasing stimulus frequency, with a slope corresponding to a group delay of 30 μs. In neonatal gerbils, the sensitivity of stapes responses to tones was lower than in adults, especially at mid-frequencies (e.g., by about 15 dB at 10-20 kHz in gerbils aged 14 days). The input impedance of the adult gerbil cochlea, calculated from stapes vibrations and published measurements of pressure in scala vestibuli near the oval window [E. Olson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 3445-3463 (1998)], is principally dissipative at frequencies lower than 10 kHz. Conclusions: (a) middle-ear vibrations in adult gerbils do not limit the input to the cochlea up to at least 40 kHz, i.e., within 0.5 oct of the high-frequency cutoff of the behavioral audiogram; and (b) the results in both adult and neonatal gerbils are inconsistent with the hypothesis that mass reactance controls high-frequency ossicular vibrations and support the idea that the middle ear functions as a transmission line.

  8. [Correlations between SNP of LALBA gene and economic traits in Inner Mongolian white cashmere goat].

    PubMed

    Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Tian, Zhi-Quan; Liu, Shao-Qing; Zhang, Yong-Bin; Wang, Xin; Fang, Xing-Tang

    2008-02-01

    PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods were conducted to detect single nucleotide polymorphism of alpha-lactalbumin (LALBA) gene in 452 Inner Mongolian white cashmere goats (IMWC). Correlations between SNP of goat LALBA gene and economic traits, e.g., cashmere yield, cashmere thickness, length and weight, were analyzed. The SSCP in P2 primer locus, which was caused by the point mutation M63868:g.1897T>C in the exon 3 of LALBA gene was detected. At this locus, the genotype TT and allele T were predominant in the IMWC population, which agreed with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between polymorphism of goat M63868:g.1897 locus and cashmere yield of IMWC (P=0.017). The individuals with genotype TC had more cashmere yield than those with geontype TT. Hence, genotype TC of LALBA gene can be used as a molecular marker for breeding superior cashmere yield in goat marker-assisted selection. PMID:18244921

  9. Soil Carbon Recovery of Degraded Steppe Ecosystems of the Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Togtohyn, C.; Qi, J.

    2013-12-01

    Mongolian steppe grassland systems are critical source of ecosystem services to societal groups in temperate East Asia. These systems are characterized by their arid and semiarid environments where rainfall tends to be too variable or evaporative losses reduce water availability to reliably support cropping systems or substantial forest cover. These steppe ecosystems have supported land use practices to accommodate the variable rainfall patterns, and seasonal and spatial patterns of forage production displayed by the nomadic pastoral systems practiced across Asia. These pastoral systems are dependent on grassland ecosystem services, including forage production, wool, skins, meat and dairy products, and in many systems provide critical biodiversity and land and water protection services which serve to maintain pastoral livelihoods. Precipitation variability and associated drought conditions experienced frequently in these grassland systems are key drivers of these systems. However, during the past several decades climate change and grazing and land use conversion have resulted in degradation of ecosystem services and loss of soil organic matter. Recent efforts in China and Mongolia are investigating different grazing management practices to restore soil organic matter in these degraded systems. Simulation modeling is being applied to evaluate the long-term benefits of different grazing management regimes under various climate scenarios.

  10. Brain atlas of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) in CT/MRI-aided stereotaxic coordinates.

    PubMed

    Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Schuller, Gerd; Angenstein, Frank; Grosser, Oliver S; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Budinger, Eike

    2016-09-01

    A new stereotaxic brain atlas of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), an important animal model in neurosciences, is presented. It combines high-quality histological material for identification of brain structures with reliable stereotaxic coordinates. The atlas consists of high-resolution images of frontal sections alternately stained for cell bodies (Nissl) and myelinated fibers (Gallyas) of 62 rostro-caudal levels at intervals of 350 μm. Brain structures were named according to the Paxinos nomenclature for rodents. The accuracy of the stereotaxic coordinate system was improved substantially by comparing and matching the series of histological sections to in vivo brain images of the gerbil obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The skull outlines corresponding to the MR images were acquired using X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and were used to establish the relationship between coordinates of brain structures and skull. Landmarks such as lambda, bregma, ear canals and occipital crest can be used to line up skull and brain in standard atlas coordinates. An easily reproducible protocol allows sectioning of experimental brains in the standard frontal plane of the atlas. PMID:27507296

  11. Novelty stress increases fecal pellet output in mongolian gerbils: effects of several drugs.

    PubMed

    Okano, Shiho; Nagaya, Hideaki; Inatomi, Nobuhiro

    2005-08-01

    Stress-induced colonic functional changes have been investigated mainly under conditions involving physical stress, like in the restraint stress model. In this study, we established a new stress-induced defecation model involving the placement of Mongolian gerbils in a novel environment (novelty stress) and determined the effects of several drugs on novelty stress-induced fecal pellet output. When animals kept in groups were placed individually in small cages, the fecal pellet output markedly increased, although the upper intestinal transit measured by charcoal method was not changed. The concentration of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone was moderately but significantly increased by the novelty stress. Drugs reportedly effective for stress-induced defecation, like alosetron hydrochloride, atropine sulfate, and trimebutine maleate, inhibited both the novelty stress-induced increase in fecal pellet output and spontaneous defecation. In contrast, TAK-637, a tachykinin NK1-receptor antagonist, and diazepam inhibited the novelty stress induced defecation but did not inhibit spontaneous defecation. The present study indicated that novelty stress increases fecal pellet output without affecting the upper intestinal transit; this model may be useful for evaluating the effects of drugs on stress-stimulated colonic motility. PMID:16079466

  12. Lack of negative effects on Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils housed in the same secondary enclosure.

    PubMed

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-05-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure. PMID:26045450

  13. Population genetic structure of endangered Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) from the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Park, Han-Chan; Suk, Ho Young; Jeong, Eu-Jin; Park, Dae-Sik; Lee, Hang; Min, Mi-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) is a small lacertid lizard species, and its distribution range encompasses the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, China and Russia. Eremias argus is widespread, but populations on the Korean Peninsula are small and declining, provoking concerns that genetic diversity is being lost. This species is currently listed under the Protection of Wild Fauna and Flora Act in South Korea. In this study, nine novel microsatellites for E. argus were developed with a biotin-enrichment method and used to understand its population genetic structure and delineate conservation units on the Korean Peninsula. Overall, low intrapopulation genetic diversity was observed (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.463; mean H E = 0.398) from 10 populations investigated (n = 110). Two populations (among five with n≥ 10) showed an excess of heterozygosity expected under HWE relative to that expected at mutation-drift equilibrium, indicating severe reduction in population sizes. With only a few exceptions, the overall genetic differentiation among populations was substantial with the high levels of pairwise-F ST (0.006-0.746) and -R ST (0.034-0.940) values. The results of Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed that E. argus populations on the Korean Peninsula were most likely partitioned into three genetic clusters. Taken all together, such low levels of gene flow and strong genetic structuring have critical implications for the conservation of this endangered species and its management. PMID:25086619

  14. An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples' health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method. Results According to an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia, there are 5 species with the highest integrated value, 40 species of high-integrated value, 43 species of general integrated value, and 2 species of low value. The results indicate that the vast majority of wild vegetables have high value in Inner Mongolia. Conclusions Inner Mongolia is rich in wild vegetable resources. A comprehensive assessment indicates that the vast majority of wild vegetables are of high value. However, these wild vegetables are seldom collected or cultivated by local people. Most of the collected species require further research and investigation into their nutrient content, toxicity and ethnobotany to illuminate their potential as new cultivars or products. PMID:21134268

  15. Temperature acclimation in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): biochemical and organ weight changes.

    PubMed

    Steffen, J M; Roberts, J C

    1977-01-01

    1. Adult Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were acclimated to 5 +/- 1, 24 +/- 1 and 34 +/- 1 degrees C for 6-8 weeks. 2. Body weights of temperature acclimated gerbils did not differ significantly from controls. Organ wt/body wt ratios of liver, kidney and heart increased in cold-acclimated and decreased in heat-acclimated gerbils. Adrenal wt/body wt ratio increased in the cold and was unchanged in the heat. Relative weights of brain, spleen, lungs, brown fat and ovaries + uterus did not change with temperature acclimation. 3. Cold acclimation produced significant increases in specific and total activity of brown fat alpha GPO and liver SO and AAO and in total activity of kidney SO; a significant decrease in liver mitochondrial ADP/O ratio with succinate as substrate; and no change in brown fat SO or liver alpha KGO. 4. Heat acclimation produced significant decreases in specific and total activity of liver and kidney SO, and in total activity of brown fat SO and alpha GPO, and liver AAO and alpha KGO. 5. The combined biochemical and organ wt changes seen in temperature-acclimated gerbils suggest that this species is capable of altering its metabolic thermogenic potential in response to a wide range of ambient temperatures. PMID:318267

  16. Distinct impacts of the Mongolian and Tibetan Plateaus on the evolution of the East Asian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Yingying; Shi, Zhengguo; Liu, Xiaodong; An, Zhisheng

    2015-05-01

    The Mongolian Plateau (MP), which is relatively lower in altitude and smaller in extent than the Tibetan Plateau (TP), has received little attention about its climate effect. Building upon previous work in which we highlighted the role of the MP on the high-level westerly jet stream, the response of surface-level features of the Asian climate is examined in this study. The results show that the Indian and East Asian summer monsoonal and inland precipitation are mainly enhanced by the uplift of the TP. The precipitation during the onset of the summer monsoon is also intensified over India and eastern China. In addition, the East Asian monsoon domain is significantly expanded with the uplift of the TP, while the Indian summer monsoon domain does not change obviously. The MP plays a significant role in the strengthening of the East Asian winter monsoon, which is larger than the TP. With the uplift of the MP, the cold northerly wind in winter intensifies significantly in East Asia from higher latitudes to the South China Sea. The Siberian high is also enhanced and moves remarkably northward to its modern location. The strengthening of the Asian winter monsoon is related to the MP-induced diversion of westerly wind. The bypassing flows around the plateau modify the temperature advections over middle latitudes and the atmosphere thermal structure in winter, which leads to the strengthening of the East Asian winter monsoon.

  17. Babesia divergens infections in the Mongolian gerbil: characteristics of a human strain.

    PubMed

    Liddell, K G; Lucas, S B; Williams, H

    1981-04-01

    A strain of the cattle piroplasm Babesia divergens isolated from a fatal human infection was propagated in the Mongolian gerbil through 150 semi-continuous intraperitoneal passages. The infection was normally fatal; death, accompanied by profuse haemoglobinuria and debilitation, occurred as early as 44 h after intraperitoneal inoculation of heavily parasitized blood with precipitous drops in red blood cell and platelet counts. The average maximum parasitaemia achieved increased on continuous passage reaching 80% by the 150th stage. Twenty-four hours after infection erythrophagocytosis and splenic congestion were apparent by light and electron-microscopical examination and by 48 h hepatic necrosis, renal tubular damage with haemoglobin cast accumulation and ischaemic necrosis of ileal mucosa had developed. Gerbils were highly susceptible to small numbers of parasites when the inoculum was either fresh parasitized blood in high dilution or erythrocytes concentrated from animals showing minimal parasitaemia. Animals inoculated with parasites preserved in dimethyl sulphoxide at low temperatures usually developed fatal infections. However, occasionally animals suffered at most a low grade parasitaemia subsequent to recovery with parasite elimination. These animals were immune to further challenge, and no chronic infections developed. A field strain of B. divergens isolated locally from a case of bovine redwater behaved similarly to the human strain on continuous passage in gerbils. PMID:7220085

  18. Larva migrans by Baylisascaris transfuga: fatal neurological diseases in Mongolian jirds, but not in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Kayoko; Osanai, Arihiro; Kamiya, Haruo; Akao, Nobuaki; Owaki, Shigeo; Furuoka, Hidefumi

    2004-08-01

    Raccoon roundworms (Baylisascaris procyonis) and other Baylisascaris species cause patent or latent larva migrans (LM) in a variety of mammals and birds, including humans. It is not clear whether LM by Baylisascaris transfuga, roundworms of bears, is associated with clinical neurological disorders. To clarify this issue, ICR and BALB/c mice as well as Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) were orally inoculated with 2,000-5,000 embryonated eggs of B. transfuga. In mice, the ascarid caused symptomatic LM of limited extent and duration, whereas the infection was fatal in jirds; i.e., they exhibited general signs such as severe depression and emaciation on days 8-11 postinfection (PI) and died, or they developed progressive and fatal neurological disorders after day 14 PI. Histological examination showed B. transfuga larvae in the brain of all mice and jirds examined, and the larvae collected from them developed to a size comparable with that of B. procyonis. There existed, however, critical differences in host reactions against larvae localized in the brain of mice and jirds; B. transfuga larvae found in mice were surrounded by granulomatous reactions and immobilized, whereas larvae found in jirds were free from any host reaction and mobile, causing extensive malacia. PMID:15357068

  19. Sexual maturation of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): a histological, hormonal and spermatic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Negrin, Ana Carolina; Scarano, Wellerson Rodrigo; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the phases of sexual development of the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) based on an integrative analysis of testicular morphology, hormonal data and sperm parameters. Male gerbils were analysed at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 50, 60, 70, 90, 100 and 120 days of age. Body, testicular and epididymal weights increased up to Day 70, 60 and 90, respectively. The impuberal phase, characterised by the presence of gonocytes, extended until Day 14. The prepubertal period lasted until Day 42, when puberty was achieved and a drastic increase in serum testosterone levels, mature adult Leydig cells and elongated spermatids was observed. Gerbils at 60 days of age showed a remarkable number of spermatozoa in the testis, epididymidis caput/corpus and cauda, and at Day 70 the maximum daily sperm production was reached. However, the gerbil may be considered sexually mature only from Day 90 onward, when sperm reserves become stable. The total transit time of spermatozoa along the epididymis of sexually mature gerbils was 11 days, with 1 day in the caput/corpus and 10 days in the cauda. These data cover a lacuna regarding the reproductive parameters of this rodent and provide foundations for its use in testicular toxicology studies. PMID:25455583

  20. Module Equipped with a Life-Support System for Space Experiments with Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones Unguiculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, E. A.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Guryeva, T. S.; Mednikova, E. I.

    2008-06-01

    A successful experiment with 12 Mongolian gerbils was performed during the 12-day flight of Russian automatic spacecraft Foton-M3 (September 14-26, 2007). Foton-M3 was not equipped with an air supply system. Due to this, a self-contained "CONTOUR" module equipped with its own Life-Support System, was developed. The cage for animals was equipped with yellow LEDs. The day/night cycle was 12:12 hours. In addition, the module was equipped with a digital video recorder located on the outside surface in front of a transparent window. In space flight, the animals were provided with food bars made of natural products and contained about 20% of water. This moisture met gerbils requirements in water; therefore, the module was not equipped with a water supply system. In the module, the environmental parameters were as follows: p02 = 143-156 (mean 150) mm Hg, pC02 - not more than 0.76 (mean 0.64) mm Hg, temperature = 23-28 (mean 26.7) °C, and RH = 29% at the beginning and 57% at the end of flight (mean 39%). Throughout the entire flight video recording of the animals was performed continuously during the daytime.

  1. Postnatal development of Mongolian gerbil female prostate: An immunohistochemical and 3D modeling study.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Bruno D A; Zani, Bruno C; Maldarine, Juliana S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-05-01

    The development of the prostate in male rodents, which involves complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE) and the urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM), has been deeply studied. In females, however, this process is not very clear. In this study, the postnatal development of the prostate in female Mongolian gerbils employing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, histochemical, and immunohistochemical techniques was characterized. It was observed that prostatic branching and differentiation in females was induced by a single mesenchyme localized at a ventrolateral position, which was named as ventrolateral mesenchyme (VLM); furthermore, the canalization of solid buds began on the third postnatal day (P3) and the branching morphogenesis on P5. We observed secretions in the acini at the end of the first month, and, on P45, the acini were completely differentiated. The strong cell proliferation phase in the first week coincided with the mesenchymal expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). The expression of androgen receptor (AR) paralleled cell differentiation, and, on P30, immunolabelling with p63 was restricted to basal cells. This study serves as a baseline parameter for future research on disruptions that could affect the development of the female prostate. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:438-446, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26971884

  2. Acoustical cues for sound localization by the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Katuhiro; Furukawa, Shigeto

    2005-08-01

    The present study measured the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) of the Mongolian gerbil for various sound-source directions, and explored acoustical cues for sound localization that could be available to the animals. The HRTF exhibited spectral notches for frequencies above 25 kHz. The notch frequency varied systematically with source direction, and thereby characterized the source directions well. The frequency dependence of the acoustical axis, the direction for which the HRTF amplitude was maximal, was relatively irregular and inconsistent between ears and animals. The frequency-by-frequency plot of the interaural level difference (ILD) exhibited positive and negative peaks, with maximum values of 30 dB at around 30 kHz. The ILD peak frequency had a relatively irregular spatial distribution, implying a poor sound localization cue. The binaural acoustical axis (the direction with the maximum ILD magnitude) showed relatively orderly clustering around certain frequencies, the pattern being fairly consistent among animals. The interaural time differences (ITDs) were also measured and fell in a +/-120 μs range. When two different animal postures were compared (i.e., the animal was standing on its hind legs and prone), small but consistent differences were found for the lower rear directions on the HRTF amplitudes, the ILDs, and the ITDs.

  3. Impacts of gold mining and land use alterations on the water quality of central Mongolian rivers.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Andrew; Chandra, Sudeep; Eagan, Sean; Tuvshinjargal, Dampil; Davaadorzh, Gantimur; Gilroy, David; Sampson, Jennifer; Thorne, Jim; Allen, Brant; Hogan, Zeb

    2005-11-01

    Conservation of water quality is inherently tied to watershed management. Efforts to proect Lake Baikal have increasingly focused on the Selenge River, a major tributary, with more than half its watershed area in Mongolia. Placer gold mining in Mongolia has the potential to load total suspended sediment (TSS), and total phosphorus (TP) into Lake Baikal and destroy spawning areas for the endangered Taimen salmon (Hucho taimen taimen). This work describes water quality assessments performed from 2001 to 2003 on Mongolian tributaries to the Selenge River. Of 7 rivers sampled, rivers with proximal mining had the worst water quality. Elevated loading of TSS and TP was observed below mining regions on the Tuul River. Flooding could breach thin strips of land separating dredge pits from river channels, resulting in massive sediment loading. Extensive disturbance of the river terrace was apparent for many square kilometers. In the mountainous headwaters of the Yeroo River, tributary drainages undergoing mining had TP concentrations 8 to 15 times higher than the main stem. TSS was 7 to 12 times higher, and turbidity was 8 times higher. Alternative mining technologies exist that could minimize impact and improve the possibility for reclamation. PMID:16639903

  4. Leaf-trait plasticity and species vulnerability to climate change in a Mongolian steppe.

    PubMed

    Liancourt, Pierre; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Song, Daniel S; Spence, Laura A; Helliker, Brent R; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is expected to modify plant assemblages in ways that will have major consequences for ecosystem functions. How climate change will affect community composition will depend on how individual species respond, which is likely related to interspecific differences in functional traits. The extraordinary plasticity of some plant traits is typically neglected in assessing how climate change will affect different species. In the Mongolian steppe, we examined whether leaf functional traits under ambient conditions and whether plasticity in these traits under altered climate could explain climate-induced biomass responses in 12 co-occurring plant species. We experimentally created three probable climate change scenarios and used a model selection procedure to determine the set of baseline traits or plasticity values that best explained biomass response. Under all climate change scenarios, plasticity for at least one leaf trait correlated with change in species performance, while functional leaf-trait values in ambient conditions did not. We demonstrate that trait plasticity could play a critical role in vulnerability of species to a rapidly changing environment. Plasticity should be considered when examining how climate change will affect plant performance, species' niche spaces, and ecological processes that depend on plant community composition. PMID:25828794

  5. Experimental peritonitis induced by oral administration of indomethacin in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Uk

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of inducing peritoneal inflammation in three murine species (gerbils, rats and mice) via the oral administration of indomethacin was investigated with the overall aim of developing an experimental animal model for human peritonitis. Gerbils given high doses of indomethacin at a rate of 30 mg and 40 mg/kg body weight showed swelling of the abdomen, depression and dyspnea within 4 days after the treatment. The severity of the clinical symptoms increased with time. The animals were confirmed as having developed peritonitis based on the pathological features including inflammation of the peritoneum, and fibrinous adhesion of the abdominal organs in the abdominal cavity. The severity of peritonitis increased with increasing dose of indomethacin, and was not related to the gender of the animal. On the other hand, peritoneal inflammation did not develop in the rats and mice even at high doses. Therefore, the administration of 30 mg/kg body weight of indomethacin is an effective and simple method of inducing peritonitis in 5-week-old Mongolian gerbils. The animal peritonitis model used in this study can be used as an effective tool for examining potential therapeutic compounds for preventing peritoneal damage during peritonitis, and provide insight into the pathophysiology of peritonitis. PMID:16645338

  6. Lack of Negative Effects on Syrian Hamsters and Mongolian Gerbils Housed in the Same Secondary Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-01-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure. PMID:26045450

  7. Large linkage analysis in 100 families with autosomal recessive spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and 11 EPH families using 15 polymorphic loci in the region 5q11. 2-q13. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, B.; Pick, E.; Leutner, A.; Dadze, A.; Voosen, B.; Piechaczek-Wappenschmidt, B.; Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Schoenling, J.; Zerres, K. ); Knapp, M. )

    1994-03-01

    The autosomal recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) gene was mapped to the region 5q11.2-q.13.3 in 1990. Here, the authors present a large genetic linkage study of 100 SMA families and 11 CEPH families using 14 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and one RFLP in the region 5q11.2-q.13.3. The genetic interval between the closest SMA flanking loci D5S435 and D5S557 comprises 1 cM at z[sub max] = 27.94. Two recombinants were identified between the SMA gene and the closest telomeric marker D5S557. The first places the SMA gene centromeric to this marker; the second suggests a double recombinant at D5S557, which is very unlikely. More likely explanations are discussed in the paper. No recombinant was found between D5S435 and the SMA gene. They localized a recently described polymorphic marker, D5S351, close to the SMA. Due to its high PIC value of 0.70, it represents a very useful marker for prenatal diagnosis. In addition, they developed a new reverse primer for the nearest centromeric locus D5S435, a useful marker for prenatal diagnosis, which has been very difficult to amplify in the past. Three of the markers presented here are newly developed polymorphic SSRs (one tetranucleotide repeat, D5s507/W15CATT, and two dinucleotide repeats, D5S544/C88.2GT and D5S682/C88.3GT). These markers are too far from the SMA gene to be relevant for cloning; nevertheless, as part of the human genome project, they are contributing to the fine genetic mapping of the region 5q11.2-q.13.3. The most likely order of the loci based on two-point and multipoint linkage analyses as well as on specific recombination events and physical mapping studies is D5S76-D5S507-D5S6-D5S125-D5S680-D5S435-SMA-D5S557-D5S35 -15[prime]MAP1B-3[prime]MAP1B-JK53CA1/2-(D5S127-D5S39)-(D5S544-D5S682). In general, the genetic distances obtained from the SMA and CEPH families are comparable. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Identification of a novel large CYP17A1 deletion by MLPA analysis in a family with classic 17α-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Turkkahraman, Doga; Guran, Tulay; Ivison, Hannah; Griffin, Aliesha; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Krone, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Steroid 17α-hydroxylase deficiency (17OHD) is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by mutations in the 17α-hydroxylase ( CYP17A1) gene. CYP17A1 is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of adrenal and gonadal steroid hormones facilitating both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. We characterized a partial CYP17A1 deletion in a Kurdish family with 17OHD by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The index patient presented with amenorrhea and lack of pubertal development. Investigations established the diagnosis of 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD). She is the daughter of consanguineous parents and has 2 sisters with similar clinical presentation. All patients showed biochemical signs of primary adrenal and gonadal insufficiency. The molecular genetic analysis by PCR suggested a deletion spanning exons 1–6 of the CYP17A1 gene. MLPA analysis confirmed the large partial CYP17A1 deletion in patients and parents in homozygous and heterozygous state, respectively. This is the first report employing MLPA for mutation analysis to detect a deletion of CYP17A1 spanning multiple exons in 3 patients with classic 17OHD. Therefore, it is important to consider large partial CYP17A1 deletions in 17OHD in addition to point mutations in cases where no segregation analysis is possible to determine the correct genotype. PMID:25765894

  9. A Single Nucleotide Variant in HNF-1β is Associated with Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young in a Large Chinese Family

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, Peng; WEI, Ran; GUO, Zhenkui; ZHU, Haining; CAMPBELL, Desmond; LI, Qi; XU, Xiaoqun; WANG, Junfu; LUAN, Meng; CHEN, Xing; CHEN, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a heterogeneous entity of monogenic disorders characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance. Eleven genes were related, including HNF4α, GCK, HNF1α, IPF1, and HNF-1β, and various mutations are being reported. Methods: To help the overall understanding of MODY-related pathologic mutations, we studied a large MODY family found in 2012, in Shandong, China, which contained 9 patients over 3 generations. DNA was extracted from the periphery blood samples of (i) 9 affected members, (ii) 17 unaffected members, and (iii) 1000 healthy controls. Three pooled samples were obtained by mixing equal quantity of DNA of each individual within the each group. Totally 400 microsatellite markers across the whole genome were genotyped by capillary electrophoresis. The known MODY-related gene near the identified marker was sequenced to look for putative risk variants. Results: Allelic frequency of marker D17S798 on chromosome 17q11.2 were significantly different (P<0.001) between the affected vs. unaffected members and the affected vs. healthy controls, but not between the unaffected members vs. healthy controls. MODY5-related gene, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) on 17q12 near D17S798 became the candidate gene. A single nucleotide variant (SNV) of C77T in the non-coding area of exon 1 of HNF-1β was found to be related to MODY5. Conclusion: This novel SNV of HNF-1β contributes to the diabetes development in the family through regulating gene expression most likely. The findings help presymptomatic diagnosis, and imply that mutations in the non-coding areas, as well as in the exons, play roles in the etiology of MODY. PMID:27114981

  10. Family Preservation & Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Meezan, William

    This book reports a study of the outcomes of home-based family preservation services for abusive and neglectful families in Los Angeles County. Using the Family Assessment Form, the research project evaluated services provided by two voluntary agencies, and focused on changes in family functioning between the opening and closing of services during…

  11. Water intake after stomach loads of NaCl in 30-, 40-, and 50-day-old Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kozub, F J; Brown, B

    1982-10-01

    Ninety Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), 15 male and 15 female in each of three age groups (30-, 40-, and 50-day-old), were stomach loaded with either water, 6% NaCl, or 12% NaCl (wt./vol.). No differences were observed in fluid intake or in body weight 24 hours after the load. These data were totally unlike the findings in rats. The lack of intergroup differences were probably attributable to the gerbil's unusual adrenal and kidney structure and hormonal controls. PMID:7175508

  12. [The prevalence of epidemic diseases in Inner Mongolia region and the social vicissitude of Mongolian ethnic group].

    PubMed

    Tan, Gang

    2013-03-01

    Since modern times, due to the natural environment, medical and health conditions, living habits and other reasons, the diseases were prevalent in the region of Inner Mongolia, including fulminating infectious diseases like plague; chronic diseases like syphilis, trachoma; along with many common chronic disorders like stomach disease and rheumatism etc. The high incidence of some of these diseases in Inner Mongolia region, especially plague and venereal diseases, greatly affected the growth of the population of Mongolian ethnic group in modern times, and also seriously hindered the development of social economy in this region. PMID:24135476

  13. FAMILY CECIDOMYIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Maia, Valéria Cid

    2016-01-01

    This large family is poorly known in Colombia, where only 44 species have been recorded in 20 genera. All of them are included in Cecidomyiinae, which is the most diverse subfamily of gall midges in number of species and feeding habits, including phytophagous, predaceous and fungivorous species. Most of them are galler. The other subfamilies have never been recorded in this country. PMID:27395254

  14. Deep Seismic Reflection Profiles Reveal The Crust Structures Beneath Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt and Its Neighboring Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H.; Gao, R.; Keller, R. G.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Li, H.; Xiong, X.; Guo, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Xing'an-Mongolia orogenic belt (XMOB) as the eastern part of the CAOB (Central Asian Orogenic Belt) is one of the remarkably reworked and crustal accretionary belts during the Phanerozoic in the world. It is located between the northern margin of the North China craton and the southern margin of the Siberia craton and is characterized by large-scale Mesozoic magmatism, and forms a key part of the NE-trending Mesozoic magmatic belt in East China. Therefore, it will be of great importance to study the contact relationship between these blocks, which will prodive important information on the study of mineralization and assessment of earthquake disaster. A major problem with all previous publications on Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic belt was the lack of a seismic section which could potentially image the zone or the dominant vergence of crustal structures at depth. In the view of above, deep seismic profiling data acquisition finished in last three years and the newly processing seismic reflection profiles in this belt were possible under the support of SinoProbe project and China Geological Survey. As we not only focuse on the deep structures of crust, but also carry about the relationships between the shallow reflection fabrics with surface geology. Therefore, different with oil industrial data accquistion, we develop some deep seismic reflection techniques such as three levels of explosive shots were adopted for enough energy reflected from all crust, long offset with single side length of 15 km on symmetrical for the modeling of shallow crust by use of tomographic method, meanwhile we share the shots large than 500 kg with seismic refraction survey line providing more rays for modeling deep velocity strucutre. The seismic reflection data were mainly using the seismic processing package ProMAX and the CGG processing system, following the processing steps with special methods such as tomographic inversion static corrections, surface-consistent amplitude compensation

  15. Chromatin organization and remodeling of interstitial telomeric sites during meiosis in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Roberto; Manterola, Marcia; Viera, Alberto; Parra, María Teresa; Alsheimer, Manfred; Rufas, Julio S; Page, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Telomeric DNA repeats are key features of chromosomes that allow the maintenance of integrity and stability in the telomeres. However, interstitial telomere sites (ITSs) can also be found along the chromosomes, especially near the centromere, where they may appear following chromosomal rearrangements like Robertsonian translocations. There is no defined role for ITSs, but they are linked to DNA damage-prone sites. We were interested in studying the structural organization of ITSs during meiosis, a kind of cell division in which programmed DNA damage events and noticeable chromatin reorganizations occur. Here we describe the presence of highly amplified ITSs in the pericentromeric region of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) chromosomes. During meiosis, ITSs show a different chromatin conformation than DNA repeats at telomeres, appearing more extended and accumulating heterochromatin markers. Interestingly, ITSs also recruit the telomeric proteins RAP1 and TRF1, but in a stage-dependent manner, appearing mainly at late prophase I stages. We did not find a specific accumulation of DNA repair factors to the ITSs, such as γH2AX or RAD51 at these stages, but we could detect the presence of MLH1, a marker for reciprocal recombination. However, contrary to previous reports, we did not find a specific accumulation of crossovers at ITSs. Intriguingly, some centromeric regions of metacentric chromosomes may bind the nuclear envelope through the association to SUN1 protein, a feature usually performed by telomeres. Therefore, ITSs present a particular and dynamic chromatin configuration in meiosis, which could be involved in maintaining their genetic stability, but they additionally retain some features of distal telomeres, provided by their capability to associate to telomere-binding proteins. PMID:24907260

  16. Morphological characteristics of eosinophilic neuronal death after transient unilateral forebrain ischemia in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanling; Wang, Zongli; Li, Fuying; Sun, Liyuan

    2016-06-01

    Various types of eosinophilic neurons (ENs) are found in the post-ischemic brain. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the temporal and spatial profile of ENs, the expression of TUNEL staining and ultrastructural characteristics in the core and peripheral regions of the cortex post-ischemia. Unilateral forebrain ischemia was induced in Mongolian gerbils by transient common carotid artery occlusions, and the brains from 3 h to 2 weeks post-ischemia were prepared for morphometric, electron microscopy (EM) and TUNEL staining of the ENs. Light microscopy showed that ENs with minimally abnormal nuclei and swollen cell bodies appeared at 3 h in the ischemic core and at 12 h in the periphery. Thereafter, ENs with pyknosis and irregular atrophic cytoplasm peaked at 12 h, pyknosis with scant cytoplasm peaked at 4 days, and TUNEL-positive staining was observed in the ischemic core. In the ischemic periphery, ENs had slightly atrophic cytoplasm and sequentially developed pyknosis, karyorrhexis and karyolysis over 1 week. These cells were also positive for TUNEL. In EM, severe organelle dilation and vacuolization preceded chromatin fragmentation in the ischemic core, while chromatin fragmentation and homogenization were the vital characteristics in the ischemic periphery. There might be two region-dependent pathways for EN changes in the post-ischemic brain: pyknosis with cytoplasmic shrinkage in the core and nuclear disintegration with slightly atrophic cytoplasm in the periphery. These pathways were comparable to necrosis and proceeded from non-classical apoptosis to necrosis, respectively. PMID:26607557

  17. Characterization of progressive metaplasia in the gastric corpus mucosa of Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Choi, Eunyoung; Petersen, Christine P; Noto, Jennifer M; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Piazuelo, Maria B; Washington, M Kay; Peek, Richard M; Goldenring, James R

    2016-08-01

    Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) and intestinal metaplasia are considered neoplastic precursors of gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Loss of parietal cells causes the development of SPEM in the gastric corpus and then chronic inflammation drives SPEM toward a more proliferative lineage. Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori develop chronic gastritis and metaplasia, mimicking aspects of human gastritis with H. pylori infection. We therefore examined metaplastic lineages in the gastric corpus mucosa of gerbils infected by H. pylori strain 7.13, which produces rapid onset of severe inflammation. Six weeks following H. pylori infection, Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II (GSII)-positive SPEM developed in the base of oxyntic glands in association with parietal cell loss and inflammation. In association with severe inflammation, SPEM glands evolved into aberrant phenotypes, including branched lesions, dilated lesions, and penetrating invasive glands. Mucin 4 (MUC4) was up-regulated in SPEM and progressive SPEM. Clusterin was expressed in the tips of branched and dilated lesions and throughout regions of invasive glands. Intriguingly, clusterin-positive regions in these lesions expressed Ki67 and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7). These same regions were also positive for expression of phospho-IkBα, suggestive of activated NFkB signalling. These findings suggest that clusterin-positive regions in progressive phenotypes of SPEM have invasive characteristics. Thus, H. pylori infection in gerbils induces SPEM, which then can progress to further aberrant and invasive metaplastic phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27125972

  18. Characteristic, polymorphism and expression distribution of LCAT gene in a Mongolian gerbil model for hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue huan; Wu, Jiu sheng; Wang, Zhi yuan; Yu, Chen huan; Ying, Hua zhong; Xu, Ning ying

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the genetic basis and activity of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in a novel Mongolian gerbil model for hyperlipidemia. Gerbils may be susceptible to high fat and cholesterol (HF/HC) diets, which can rapidly lead to the development of hyperlipidemia. Approximately 10-30% of gerbils that are over 8months old and fed controlled diets spontaneously develop hyperlipidemia. Using the HF/HC diet model, we detected triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL (high density lipoprotein)-C, LDL (low density lipoprotein)-C and LCAT in both old (>8months) and young gerbils. The TC and HDL-C levels were two times higher in old gerbils compared with young gerbils (P<0.01). However, in the old group the LCAT activity fell slightly compared with the normal lipidemia group. It is reasonable to hypothesize that this may be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms of the LCAT gene. We cloned this gene to investigate the sensitivity of the gerbil to the HF/HC diet and spontaneous hyperlipidemia. The entire LCAT gene was cloned by splicing sequences of RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and nest-PCR products (AN: KC533867.1). The results showed that the 3683base pair gene consists of six exons and five introns. The LCAT protein consists of 444 amino acid (AA) residues, which are analogous to the human LCAT gene, and includes 24 signal peptide AA and 420 mature protein AA. Expression of LCAT was detected in the kidney, spleen and adrenal tissue, apart from the liver, by immunohistochemistry. The abundance of the protein was greater in the older group compared with the control group. Polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-SSCP (PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism) but none were found in 444 animals of the ZCLA closed population (a Chinese cultured laboratory gerbil population). PMID:25036405

  19. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns. PMID:19786392

  20. Migration behaviour and pathogenesis of five ascarid nematode species in the Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Cho, S; Egami, M; Ohnuki, H; Saito, Y; Chinone, S; Shichinohe, K; Suganuma, M; Akao, N

    2007-03-01

    To understand the characteristic features of the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, as an animal model of ascarid infections, the migration behaviour and pathogenesis of larvae were investigated in experimentally infected gerbils. Embryonated eggs from each of Toxocara canis, Baylisascaris procyonis, B. transfuga, Ascaris suum, and A. lumbricoides were orally inoculated into gerbils and larvae were recovered from various organs at designated periods. In T. canis-infected gerbils, larvae were present in the liver 3 days after infection and in the skeletal muscle and brain via the heart and lungs at a similar rate. In B. procyonis- and B. transfuga-infected gerbils, larvae were present in the lungs within 24 h after infection, with some having reached the brain by that time. After 24 h, larvae of B. procyonis tended to accumulate in the brain, while those of B. transfuga accumulated in skeletal muscles. In A. suum- and A. lumbricoides-infected gerbils, larvae remained in the liver on day 5 post-infection and elicited pulmonary haemorrhagic lesions, which disappeared 7 days after initial infection. Thereafter, no larvae of any type were recovered. Ocular manifestations were frequently observed in T. canis- and B. procyonis infected gerbils, but were rare in B. transfuga-infected gerbils. In the cases of A. suum and A. lumbricoides, migration to the central nervous system and eyes was extremely rare, and larvae had disappeared by 2 weeks post-infection. Fatal neurological disturbances were observed in B. procyonis-infected gerbils, whereas irreversible non-fatal neurological symptoms were observed in the case of B. transfuga. PMID:17381866

  1. Urbanization and environmental change during the economic transition on the Mongolian Plateau: Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peilei; Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet

    2016-01-01

    Driven by drastic socioeconomic changes in China and Mongolia, urbanization has become one of the most significant driving forces in the transformation of the Mongolian Plateau in the past 30 years. Using Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar as case studies, we developed a holistic approach to examine the socioeconomic and natural driving forces for urbanization and to investigate the impact on the urban environment. We used a multidisciplinary approach and relied on a variety of data sources to assess the changes of the landscape and environment of the two cities. We detected a rapid urbanization in Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar, both in terms of urban population growth and urban land expansion, from 1990 to 2010, with a much faster speed in 2000-2010. The local geo-physical conditions have constrained the spatial direction of expansion. Ulaanbaatar lagged behind Hohhot for about a decade when measured by indicators of urban population and urban land. Both cities have a degraded urban environment and a growing air pollution epidemic. While Hohhot had worse air pollution than Ulaanbaatar in the early 2000s, the gap between the two cities became smaller after 2010. The research presented here highlights the following as key determinants for urbanization and environmental change: (1) the co-evolution of urbanization, economic development, and environmental change; (2) the urbanization of transitional economies driven by the change of the economic structure, i.e., the development by both manufacturing and tertiary sectors and the change in the primary sector; and (3) the recent institutional changes and increased integration with the global economy. PMID:26456409

  2. Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Kai, O; Sakemi, K; Suzuki, Y; Sonoda, Y; Imai, K

    1995-10-01

    Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of the gerbil were studied throughout the reproductive life. Six groups of 7-30 female gerbils were paired monogamously with males at different ages. Out of 101 pairs in 6 groups, 79 (78.2%) produced 1 or more litters. The mean litter size at birth and mean weaning rate of 846 litters were 4.4 (totally 3,733 pups) and 67.4% (2,517 pups), respectively. Reproduction was compared in the 6 age groups. The littering rate (No. of females with litters/No. of female paired) was significantly lower in two groups in which mature females were paired with age-matched males (Group 4) or the oldest females with younger, sexually mature males (Group 6). The interval from pairing to the first litter was shortest in two groups in which mature females were paired with one month older, sexually mature males (Groups 3 and 5). Although the oldest pairs (Group 6) produced about 7 litters, the pairs from the other 5 groups produced about 10 or more litters throughout their reproductive life. The weaning rate was significantly higher in Group 6 (the oldest pairs) than in the younger groups. The effects of parity on reproduction were estimated from the data for the 61 pairs which produced more than 8 litters in the 6 groups. The number of pups at birth and the weaning rate were decreased in last 20-30% of the total parity in all 6 groups, although the age at the last litter in all groups was significantly different. The data suggest that any decline in reproduction may be due to not age but parity in the Mongolian gerbil. PMID:8575545

  3. Policy shifts influence the functional changes of the CNH systems on the Mongolian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet; Shao, Changliang; Fan, Yi; Zhang, Yaoqi; Amarjargal, Amartuvshin; Brown, Daniel G.; Qi, Jiaguo; Han, Juanjuan; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Dong, Gang

    2015-08-01

    By applying the concept of the coupled natural and human system (CNH), we compared spatiotemporal changes in livestock (LSK), land cover, and ecosystem production to understand the relative roles that natural and social driving forces have on CNH dynamics on the Mongolia plateau. We used socioeconomic and physical data at prefecture level for Inner Mongolia and Mongolia from 1981 through 2010 to represent changes in net primary productivity (NPP), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), precipitation, annual average temperature, LSK, livestock density (LSKD), land cover change (LCC), gross domestic production (GDP), and population (POP). The ratios such as LSK:NPP, LSKD: EVI, LSKD:albedo, LSK:POP, and LSK:GDP were examined and compared between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to quantify the complex interactions. Substantial differences in LSK, POP, and economic development were found among the biomes and between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia. When various indicators for policy shifts—such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) for China, the Third Campaign to Reclaim Abandoned Agriculture Lands (ATAR-3), and the Grain for Green Program for China (GFG)—were added into our SEM, the results showed significant change in the strength of the above relationships. After China joined the WTO, the relationships in Inner Mongolia between LSKD:LCC and LSKD:NPP were immensely strengthened, whereas relationships in NPP:LCC were weakened. In Mongolia, the ATAR-3 program first appeared to be an insignificant policy, but the Collapse of the Soviet Union enhanced the correlation between LSKD:LCC, weakened the connection of LCC:NPP, and did not affect LSKD:NPP. We conclude that human influences on the Mongolian CNH system exceeded those of the biophysical changes, but that the significance varies in time and per biome, as well as between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia.

  4. The association of very high hair manganese accumulation and high oxidative stress in Mongolian people.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Kiyomi; Kawabata, Terue; Purvee, Baatar; Otgon, Jugder; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen

    2009-03-01

    Oxidative stress induces several diseases and early aging. Previously, we reported that Mongolians are exposed in high oxidative stress, which may cause their early aging. In this study, to know the reason of high oxidative stress, we measured hair metals. This investigation was performed in Murun city, in the northern area of this country, and 469 healthy subjects, ranging from 10 to 82 years of age, were randomly enrolled. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the levels of serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Antioxidant capacity (AOC) was estimated by the levels of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Scalp hair metals were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Murun subjects showed high ROM levels of 394+/-75 Carr U (n=342), compared with Japanese healthy subjects (n=356, 326+/-51 Carr U, p<0.001). MDA-LDL and 8-OHdG levels also showed high levels. While, BAP levels of Murun subjects were 2263+/-203 micromol/L (n=210), Japanese subjects (n=356, 2087+/-215 micromol/L, p<0.001). SOD activities were also high, suggesting that the high oxidative may accelerate the state of AOC. Murun subjects demonstrated high accumulation of several metals in the hairs. In particular, Mn accumulation exhibited from 2 fold to 40 fold increases of Japanese standard. These findings are indicative that the high Mn accumulation may contribute to the high oxidative stress. The mechanism of its high accumulation was not explained by food materials or drinking water. We should further investigate another influence such as sandy wind. In order to suppress the high oxidative stress, elimination of the high Mn accumulation should be urgently studied. PMID:20021397

  5. Elemental and ionic composition of atmospheric aerosols in the dust storm season in Mongolian Gobi Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyol-Erdene, T. O.; Shagjjamba, D.; Hong, S.; Sarangerel, E.; Byambatsogt, K.

    2014-12-01

    TSP (Total Suspended Particulate) PM10 (particle size smaller than 10 μm) and PM2.5 (particle size smaller than 2.5 μm) aerosol samples in the dust storm session in Mongolian Gobi Desert were collected and their water soluble ionic and elemental composition were elaborated in demonstrating the mixing of mineral aerosol with pollution aerosol. During the sampling period (5-15 April, 2014) the dust storm peaked on 14 April, in which the highest concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 250.1 and 33.4 respectively. The water soluble anions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl- and HCO3- and PO43-) and cations (Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Li+) of the samples were determined by ion chromatograph. Elemental composition for 48 elements determined by using X-ray fluorescence analyzer. For the PM2.5 samples, concentrations of V, Ge, As, Se, Br, Ag, Hg, Tl, Bi were less than instrumental detection limit and Cr, Co, Cu, Nb, Mo, Sb, I, Ba, Ce, Hf, W, Au, Pb were determined only in a few samples. Other elements were observed in most samples. For the PM2.5-10 samples, concentrations of Ge, As, Se, Br, Ag, Hf, Tl were less than instrumental detection limit and V, Co, Nb, Mo, I, Ce, W, Pb were determined only small samples. Others are determined in most samples. Aerosol sources, sources fractions (mineral and pollution), and mixing of aerosols from various sources will be investigated by further data analyses.

  6. Genetic analysis of polyomavirus large T nuclear localization: nuclear localization is required for productive association with pRb family members.

    PubMed Central

    Howes, S H; Bockus, B J; Schaffhausen, B S

    1996-01-01

    Polyomavirus large T antigen (LT) is a multifunctional nuclear protein. LT has two nuclear localization signals (NLS2), one spanning residues 189 to 195 (NLS1) and another spanning residues 280 to 286 (NLS2). Site-directed mutagenesis showed that each signal contains at least two critical residues. The possibility of connections between NLSs and adjacent phosphorylations has attracted much attention. Cytoplasmic LT (CyT) mutants were underphosphorylated, particularly at sites adjacent to NLS2. However, since a nuclear LT bearing an inactivated NLS2 was phosphorylated normally at adjacent sites, the signal was not directly required for phosphorylation. Conversely, LT could be translocated to the nucleus via NLS2 even when the adjacent phosphorylation sites were deleted. CyT was examined to probe the importance of LT localization. CyT was unable to perform LT functions related to interactions with retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (pRb) family members. Hence, CyT was unable to immortalize primary cells or to transactivate an E2F-responsive promoter. Consistent with these findings, CyT, though capable of binding pRb in vitro, did not cause relocalization of pRb in cells. Assays of transactivation of the simian virus 40 late promoter and of the human c-fos promoter showed that defects of CyT were not limited to functions dependent on pRb interactions. PMID:8648692

  7. Large, larger, largest--a family of cluster-based tantalum copper aluminides with giant unit cells. II. The cluster structure.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthias; Harbrecht, Bernd; Weber, Thomas; Jung, Daniel Y; Steurer, Walter

    2009-06-01

    This is the second of two papers, where we discuss the cluster structures of a novel family of cluster-based intermetallic phases of unprecedented complexity: cF444-Al(63.6)Ta(36.4) (AT-19), a = 19.1663 (1) A, V = 7040 A3, cF(5928-x)-Al(56.6)Cu(3.9)Ta(39.5), x = 20 (ACT-45), a = 45.376 (1) A, V = 93,428 A3 and cF(23,256-x)-Al(55.4)Cu(5.4)Ta(39.1), x = 122 (ACT-71), a = 71.490 (4) A, V = 365,372 A3. The space group is F43m in all three cases. The structures can be described as packings of clusters such as fullerenes, dodecahedra, pentagonal bifrusta and Friauf polyhedra. A characteristic feature of the two larger structures are nets of hexagonal bipyramidal Ta clusters (h.b.p.). The extremely short distance of 2.536-2.562 A between their apical Ta atoms indicates unusually strong bonding. The large h.b.p. nets are sandwiched between slabs of Friauf polyhedra resembling the structure of the mu phase. PMID:19461141

  8. A Missense Mutation in the Alpha-Actinin 1 Gene (ACTN1) Is the Cause of Autosomal Dominant Macrothrombocytopenia in a Large French Family

    PubMed Central

    Guéguen, Paul; Rouault, Karen; Chen, Jian-Min; Raguénès, Odile; Fichou, Yann; Hardy, Elisabeth; Gobin, Eric; Pan-petesch, Brigitte; Kerbiriou, Mathieu; Trouvé, Pascal; Marcorelles, Pascale; Abgrall, Jean-francois; Le Maréchal, Cédric; Férec, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Inherited thrombocytopenia is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a reduced number of blood platelets. Despite the identification of nearly 20 causative genes in the past decade, approximately half of all subjects with inherited thrombocytopenia still remain unexplained in terms of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Here we report a six-generation French pedigree with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and the identification of its genetic basis. Of the 55 subjects available for analysis, 26 were diagnosed with isolated macrothrombocytopenia. Genome-wide linkage analysis mapped a 10.9 Mb locus to chromosome 14 (14q22) with a LOD score of 7.6. Candidate gene analysis complemented by targeted next-generation sequencing identified a missense mutation (c.137GA; p.Arg46Gln) in the alpha-actinin 1 gene (ACTN1) that segregated with macrothrombocytopenia in this large pedigree. The missense mutation occurred within actin-binding domain of alpha-actinin 1, a functionally critical domain that crosslinks actin filaments into bundles. The evaluation of cultured mutation-harboring megakaryocytes by electron microscopy and the immunofluorescence examination of transfected COS-7 cells suggested that the mutation causes disorganization of the cellular cytoplasm. Our study concurred with a recently published whole-exome sequence analysis of six small Japanese families with congenital macrothrombocytopenia, adding ACTN1 to the growing list of thrombocytopenia genes. PMID:24069336

  9. Human KZNF Gene Catalog - A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors

    DOE Data Explorer

    Huntley, S; Baggott, D. M.; Hamilton, A. T.; Tran-Gyamfi, M.; Yang, S.; Kim, J.; Gordon, L.; Branscomb, E.; Stubbs, L.

    Kruppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotes. KRAB-ZNF proteins, in which a potent repressor domain is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs, are specific to tetrapod vertebrates and represent the largest class of ZNF proteins in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the genome sequence for key motifs and then constructed and manually curated gene models incorporating those sequences. The resulting gene catalog contains 423 KRAB-ZNF protein-coding loci, yielding alternative transcripts that altogether predict at least 742 structurally distinct proteins. Active rounds of segmental duplication, involving single genes or larger regions and including both tandem and distributed duplication events, have driven the expansion of this mammalian gene family. Comparisons between the human genes and ZNF loci mined from the draft mouse, dog, and chimpanzee genomes not only identified 103 KRAB-ZNF genes that are conserved in mammals but also highlighted a substantial level of lineage-specific change; at least 136 KRAB-ZNF coding genes are primate specific, including many recent duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are widely expressed and clustered genes are typically not coregulated, indicating that paralogs have evolved to fill roles in many different biological processes. To facilitate further study, we have developed a Web-based public resource with access to gene models, sequences, and other data, including visualization tools to provide genomic context and interaction with other public data sets. [This abstract was copied from: S Huntley, DM Baggott, AT Hamilton, M Tran-Gyamfi, S Yang, J Kim, L Gordon, E Branscomb, and L Stubbs. 2006. A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors, Genome Research 16(5):669 - 677] The website provides the

  10. ß-Carotene from Red Carrot Maintains Vitamin A Status, but Lycopene Bioavailability Is Lower Relative to Tomato Paste in Mongolian Gerbils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red carrots contain lycopene in addition to ß-Carotene. The utility of red carrot as a functional food depends in part on the bioavailability of its constituent carotenoids. Lycopene bioavailability was compared in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) fed freeze-dried red carrot and tomato pa...

  11. Effects of diet quality on phenotypic flexibility of organ size and digestive function in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Sheng; Wang, De-Hua

    2007-07-01

    In the context of evolution and ecology, there is a trade-off between the benefits of processing food through a digestive system with specific phenotypic attributes and the cost of maintaining and carrying the digestive system. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that digestive modulations at several levels can match each other to meet the energy and nutrient demands of Mongolian gerbils, a small granivorous rodent species, by acclimating them to a high-quality diet diluted with alfalfa powder. Mongolian gerbils on the diluted diet maintained metabolizable energy intake by an integrated processing response (IPR), which included increases in dry matter intake, gut capacity and rate of digesta passage after 2-weeks of acclimation. Down-regulation of hydrolytic enzyme activity in the intestinal brush-border membrane supported the adaptive modulation hypothesis. The absence of up-modulation of summed enzyme hydrolytic capacity on the diluted diet indicated that greater mass of small intestine on a high-fibre diet is not a direct indicator of digestive or absorptive capacity. Changes in mass of vital organs and carcass suggested that the amount of energy allocated to various organs and hence physiological functions was regulated in response to diet shift. PMID:17333208

  12. Geospatial analysis of change in net primary productivity, 1998-2013, Inner Mongolian Desert steppe region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuliangha, B.; Han, W.; Sun, G. F.; Chen, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a quantitative measure of the carbon absorption by plants per unit time and space. The NPP is a key indicator to evaluate the productivity of vegetation communities in the natural environment. Consistent data on terrestrial NPP are urgently needed to constrain model estimates of carbon fluxes and hence to refine our understanding of ecosystem responses to climate change. It could also be an indicator to represent certain land cover characteristics. This study analyzed NPP changes from 1998 to 2013 in the Inner Mongolian Desert Steppe region of China through estimation of annual NPP using multiyear 10-day SPOT VEGETATION NDVI data and meteorological observation data from 1998 to 2013 by using a modified Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model. ArcGIS and ENVI software was used for spatial data processing; NPP inversion was performed and an integrated program was used for the modified CASA model. We also used related spatial information technologies, such as geographic information system, global navigation satellite system and remote sensing technology, to determine some 1 km2 random sampling pixels and regularly selected four 1m2 quadrats in each pixel, and we measured aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) for accuracy assessment of modelled NPP. The final results show that the NPP had many obvious geospatial changes during the period from 1998 to 2013 in the Inner Mongolian Desert Steppe region.

  13. Continental Refugium in the Mongolian Plateau during Quaternary Glacial Oscillations: Phylogeography and Niche Modelling of the Endemic Desert Hamster, Phodopus roborovskii.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xue; Xia, Lin; Ge, Deyan; Wen, Zhixin; Qu, Yanhua; Lu, Liang; Yang, Qisen

    2016-01-01

    The Mongolian Plateau (MP), which is situated in the interior of Asia and possesses a typical continental climate, experienced harsh climatic conditions during the Quaternary glacial fluctuations. Although these events likely had huge impacts on the local animal populations, the current effects have hardly been explored. To investigate whether the MP supported a refugium along an oceanic-continental gradient (ROCG), and whether this refugium was glacial or interglacial, we investigated the demographic and phylogeographic history of an endemic mammal species, the desert hamster Phodopus roborovskii. We reconstructed the demographic variation, the phylogeographic diffusion, and modelled the potential habitat during historical periods. The genetic diversity in the MP was the highest among all the localities, and the MP was a suitable habitat throughout the modelled historical periods. A phylogeographic diffusion analysis emphasized the importance of the MP as the centre of origin, preservation and spread for P. roborovskii. The homogeneous landscape provided the opportunity for a wide gene flow, which resulted in low resolution of the phylogenetic relationships. Moreover, P. roborovskii was favoured by the interglacial condition, with both its demographical and geographical ranges expanded within the interglacial periods. The range variation from the Last Glacial Maximum to the current condition reflects a distinct longitudinal shift, while both ranges largely contracted from that of the Last Interglacial. Our results support that the MP served as a refugium and spread centre for P. roborovskii during the Quaternary climate fluctuations. The interglacial expansion and the longitudinal shifts highlighted the important effects of precipitations on the distribution range of species adapted to arid and semi-arid during glacial oscillations. PMID:26839955

  14. Continental Refugium in the Mongolian Plateau during Quaternary Glacial Oscillations: Phylogeography and Niche Modelling of the Endemic Desert Hamster, Phodopus roborovskii

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xue; Xia, Lin; Ge, Deyan; Wen, Zhixin; Qu, Yanhua; Lu, Liang; Yang, Qisen

    2016-01-01

    The Mongolian Plateau (MP), which is situated in the interior of Asia and possesses a typical continental climate, experienced harsh climatic conditions during the Quaternary glacial fluctuations. Although these events likely had huge impacts on the local animal populations, the current effects have hardly been explored. To investigate whether the MP supported a refugium along an oceanic-continental gradient (ROCG), and whether this refugium was glacial or interglacial, we investigated the demographic and phylogeographic history of an endemic mammal species, the desert hamster Phodopus roborovskii. We reconstructed the demographic variation, the phylogeographic diffusion, and modelled the potential habitat during historical periods. The genetic diversity in the MP was the highest among all the localities, and the MP was a suitable habitat throughout the modelled historical periods. A phylogeographic diffusion analysis emphasized the importance of the MP as the centre of origin, preservation and spread for P. roborovskii. The homogeneous landscape provided the opportunity for a wide gene flow, which resulted in low resolution of the phylogenetic relationships. Moreover, P. roborovskii was favoured by the interglacial condition, with both its demographical and geographical ranges expanded within the interglacial periods. The range variation from the Last Glacial Maximum to the current condition reflects a distinct longitudinal shift, while both ranges largely contracted from that of the Last Interglacial. Our results support that the MP served as a refugium and spread centre for P. roborovskii during the Quaternary climate fluctuations. The interglacial expansion and the longitudinal shifts highlighted the important effects of precipitations on the distribution range of species adapted to arid and semi-arid during glacial oscillations. PMID:26839955

  15. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Kricker, Anne; Paltiel, Ora; Flowers, Christopher R.; Wang, Sophia S.; Monnereau, Alain; Blair, Aaron; Maso, Luigino Dal; Kane, Eleanor V.; Nieters, Alexandra; Foran, James M.; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Bernstein, Leslie; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Skibola, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been suggested, their independent effects, modification by sex, and association with anatomical sites are largely unknown. Methods In a pooled analysis of 4667 cases and 22639 controls from 19 studies, we used stepwise logistic regression to identify the most parsimonious multivariate models for DLBCL overall, by sex, and for selected anatomical sites. Results DLBCL was associated with B-cell activating autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.80 to 3.09), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.47 to 2.76), family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.47), higher young adult body mass index (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.23, for 35+ vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), higher recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.89), any atopic disorder (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.89), and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94). Additional risk factors for women were occupation as field crop/vegetable farm worker (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.60), hairdresser (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.41), and seamstress/embroider (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.97), low adult body mass index (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.74, for <18.5 vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), hormone replacement therapy started age at least 50 years (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.88), and oral contraceptive use before 1970 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.00); and for men were occupation as material handling equipment operator (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.44), lifetime alcohol consumption (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.75, for >400kg vs nondrinker), and previous blood transfusion (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.83). Autoimmune disease, atopy, and family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed similar associations across selected anatomical sites, whereas smoking was associated with central nervous system, testicular and cutaneous DLBCLs

  16. A novel mutation of EYA4 in a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant middle-frequency sensorineural hearing loss by targeted exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Zhang, Zhao; Cheng, Jing; Lu, Yu; Yang, Chang-Liang; Luo, Yan-Yun; Yang, Guang; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Li; Zhou, Jia; Yao, Hang-Qi

    2015-06-01

    The middle-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (MFSNHL) is rare among hereditary non-syndromic hearing loss. To date, only three genes are reported to be associated with MFSNHL, including TECTA, EYA4 and COL11A2. In this report, we analyzed and explored the clinical audiological characteristics and the causative gene of a Chinese family named HG-Z087 with non-syndromic autosomal dominant inherited MFSNHL. Clinical audiological characteristics and inheritance pattern of a family were evaluated, and pedigree was drawn based on medical history investigation. Our results showed that the Chinese family was characterized by late onset, progressive, non-sydromic autosomal dominant MFSNHL. Targeted exome sequencing, conducted using DNA samples of an affected member in this family, revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation c.1643C>G in exon 18 of EYA4, causing amino-acid (aa) substitution Arg for Thr at a conserved position aa-548. The p.T548R mutation related to hearing loss in the selected Chinese family was validated by Sanger sequencing. However, the mutation was absent in control group containing 100 DNA samples from normal Chinese families. In conclusion, we identified the pathogenic gene and found that the novel missense mutation c.1643C>G (p.T548R) in EYA4 might have caused autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing impairment in the selected Chinese family. PMID:25809937

  17. MICA, MICB Polymorphisms and Linkage Disequilibrium with HLA-B in a Chinese Mongolian Population.

    PubMed

    Wang, W Y; Tian, W; Zhu, F M; Liu, X X; Li, L X; Wang, F

    2016-06-01

    In this study, polymorphisms of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related genes A and B (MICA and MICB) and human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B gene were investigated for 158 unrelated Chinese Mongolian subjects recruited from central Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China, by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) and cloning. Collectively, 79 alleles, including 20 MICA, 12 MICB and 47 HLA-B alleles, were identified. MICA*008:01 (21.2%), MICB*005:02 (48.1%) and HLA-B*51:01 (7.91%) were the most common alleles. Significant global linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected between HLA-B and MICA, HLA-B and MICB, and MICA and MICB loci (all P < 0.000001). The most frequent haplotypes were HLA-B*51:01-MICA*009:01 (7.28%), HLA-B*58:01-MICB*008 (6.96%), MICA*010-MICB*005:02 (13.92%) and HLA-B*58:01-MICA*002:01-MICB*008 (6.96%). HLA-B-MICA haplotypes such as HLA-B*50:01-MICA*009:02 were associated with single MICB allele. Some HLA-B-MICA haplotypes were associated with multiple MICB alleles, including HLA-B*51:01-MICA*009:01. One novel MICB allele, MICB*031, was identified, which has possibly arisen from MICB*002:01 through single mutation event. We also confirmed the existence of a recently recognized MICA allele, MICA*073, whose ethnic origin has not been previously described. Genotype distributions at MICA, MICB and HLA-B were consistent with a neutrality model. Our results provide new insight into MIC genetic polymorphisms in Chinese ethnic groups. Findings shown here are important from an anthropologic perspective and will inform future studies of the potential role of MIC genes in allogeneic organ transplantation and HLA-linked disease association in populations of related ancestry. PMID:27028549

  18. Satellite-based Monotoring of mitiple natural disasters in Mongolian socio-ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sinkyu

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, a conceptual mechanisms how multiple natural hazards (i.e. drought, dust storm, land degradation, and Dzud) in Mongolia are linked with each other and how satellite earth observation (EO) data can be utilized to analyze cause-and results relations and to predict the natural hazards. Massive loss of livestock and wildlife animal during winter seasons (dzud) is an endemic climatic disaster in the Central Asia grasslands but the mechanisms are not well understood yet. Recent national-wide sever Dzud occurred during 2009-2010 winter in Mongolia. Whereas, high stocking rate of livestock may give negative effects on sustainable use of pastureland. Dzud is a natural mechanism reducing grazing pressure when stocking rate is high enough to cause the negative effect. Both Dzud and land degradation were directly linked with drought phenomena, which is associated with dust storm occurrence because those conditions can cause sparse vegetation and increase of sensible heat generating strong vertical wind. At a lower level of administration (i.e., soum), stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find significant factors of inter-annual livestock change. For a period from 2003 to 2010, various datasets were prepared from national census and satellite data (summer and winter temperature and precipitation, and summer dryness and vegetation index, NDVI). As results, linear regression models were successfully produced at 70% of soums studied. Summer and winter variables appeared equally important in controlling livestock dynamics. Single-factor models were predominant. The primary factor of each soum showed certain regional patterns incident well with climate severity and foraging resource availability (e.g. temperature in north, dryness in south, and NDVI in middle). Our results indicate that Mongolian pastoral livelihood is highly vulnerable to extreme variability of endemic regional climate factors and hence, there are still rooms for enhancing

  19. Biointeraction of sodium selenite and aflatoxin B/sub 1/ in the Mongolian gerbil

    SciTech Connect

    Lalor, J.H.; Llewellyn, G.C.

    1981-09-01

    The interaction of sodium selenite (Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/) and aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) was studied in 6-wk-old male Mongolian gerbils. Each of four groups of gerbils were fed one of the following diets during a 12-wk experimental period: control (commercial Chow), 5.0 ppm Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/, 12.8 ppm AFB/sub 1/, or 5.0 ppm Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ + 12.8 ppm AFB/sub 1/. Animals receiving Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ in the diet, alone and with AFB/sub 1/, had a significantly lower mean total weight gain during the experiment than did control animals. Animals receiving both compounds together displayed a very high level of physical activity compared to the three other groups. Blood analysis showed no change in total leukocytes, but the relative percentage of lymphocytes increased and the percentage of neutrophils decreased concurrently in the order: control < AFB/sub 1/ < Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ + AFB/sub 1/ < Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/. A significant reduction in organ weight relative to body weight was observed in the liver, kidney, and lung of the animals fed AFB/sub 1/ alone but only in the liver of those fed both Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ and AFB/sub 1/. No similar alterations were observed in the Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ group. Histopathological examination revealed considerably less hepatic damage in animals fed Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ with AFB/sub 1/ than in those receiving either compound alone. Renal and intestinal damage, however, was most severe in this double-treatment group. Hepatic protein analysis revealed two protein peaks in the Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ + AFB/sub 1/ group that were absent in all other groups. It was concluded that these proteins may be selenoproteins directly or indirectly involved in the lower incidence of histopathological damage in this group.

  20. Family welfare.

    PubMed

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  1. Autosomal dominant Kufs` disease: Clinical heterogeneity in nine families, and exclusion of linkage to CLN1 and CLN3 markers in a large American kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Andermann, F.; Andermann, E.; Carpenter, S.

    1994-09-01

    Most forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are autosomal recessive, and three genes have already been mapped: the infantile form (CLN 1); the juvenile form (CLN 3); and the early juvenile variant (CLN 5) on chromosomes 1, 16 and 13, respectively. Kufs` disease or adolescent-adult onset NCL is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, and presents as three distinct clinical syndromes: progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) with onset in the early teens or around age 30; and onset of dementia with motor disability in the 30s. We have studied three families originating from different parts of the USA manifesting dominantly inherited Kufs` disease. Granular osmophilic deposits (GROD) were found in brain, but storage in skin was not an obligatory feature. Six dominantly inherited PME families have been ascertained from three different regions of Spain. No storage was found in skin or muscle in any of these families. The mean age of onset in the American families is earlier, the clinical manifestations more severe, and the progression much more rapid that in the Spanish families. These findings would suggest the possibility of genetic heterogeneity involving two or more loci, or different mutations at the same gene locus. Genetic linkage studies have been carried out in a six-generation New Jersey family in an attempt to characterize the gene(s) responsible for this disorder. The infantile NCL locus on chromosome 1p (CLN1) and the juvenile NCL locus on chromosome 16p (CLN 3) have been excluded in this family. Further clinical, pathological and molecular genetic studies should lead to the clarification of the diagnostic approaches in this disorder.

  2. Germline MLH1 and MSH2 mutational spectrum including frequent large genomic aberrations in Hungarian hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families: Implications for genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Janos; Kovacs, Marietta E; Olah, Edith

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the prevalence of germline MLH1 and MSH2 gene mutations and evaluate the clinical characteristics of Hungarian hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families. METHODS: Thirty-six kindreds were tested for mutations using conformation sensitive gel electrophoreses, direct sequencing and also screening for genomic rearrangements applying multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). RESULTS: Eighteen germline mutations (50%) were identified, 9 in MLH1 and 9 in MSH2. Sixteen of these sequence alterations were considered pathogenic, the remaining two were non-conservative missense alterations occurring at highly conserved functional motifs. The majority of the definite pathogenic mutations (81%, 13/16) were found in families fulfilling the stringent Amsterdam I/II criteria, including three rearrangements revealed by MLPA (two in MSH2 and one in MLH1). However, in three out of sixteen HNPCC-suspected families (19%), a disease-causing alteration could be revealed. Furthermore, nine mutations described here are novel, and none of the sequence changes were found in more than one family. CONCLUSION: Our study describes for the first time the prevalence and spectrum of germline mismatch repair gene mutations in Hungarian HNPCC and suspected-HNPCC families. The results presented here suggest that clinical selection criteria should be relaxed and detection of genomic rearrangements should be included in genetic screening in this population. PMID:17569143

  3. Paradoxical role of Helicobacter pylori infection: protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, A; Ikeno, T; Ishida, K; Maruta, F; Murakami, M; Sato, T; Saito, H; Ishizone, S; Kawasaki, S; Ota, H; Katsuyama, T

    2001-11-01

    We investigated the effect of ethanol (a representative necrotizing agent) on gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils. Seventy-eight gerbils were used. Four and 12 weeks after H. pylori inoculation, 30% ethanol was administered into the stomach. The stomachs were removed after 30 min, the intramucosal prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentration was measured, and histopathology was recorded. H. pylori infection caused chronic active gastritis, gastric erosion, hypersecretion of mucin from gland mucus cells, and a rise in the activity of intramucosal PGE2. After ethanol administration, gastric erosion was significantly less in animals infected with H. pylori than in uninfected animals. In conclusion, in the early stage of H. pylori infection, accentuation of intramucosal PGE2 and hypersecretion of mucin from gland mucus cells have a protective effect against gastric mucosal injury induced by necrotizing agents. PMID:11713948

  4. Sequence determination of the heavy-chain constant region in four immunoglobulin classes of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Ukaji, Takao; Sumiyama, Daisuke; Kai, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    We determined partial cDNA sequences of four immunoglobulin (Ig) classes-IgM, IgG1, IgE, and IgA-of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Each deduced Ig heavy-chain constant (IGHC) region-Cµ, Cγ1, Cε, and Cα-is structurally similar to its counterparts in the mouse and rat, and phylogenetic analysis suggests that the gerbil Igs are evolutionarily close to their counterparts. In spite of the high sequence homology to the other rodent Cγ sequences, the gerbil Cγ1 sequence differs from our previously reported Cγ2. This result indicates that the gerbil has at least two IgG subclasses. These four gerbil IGHC cDNA sequences will be useful for determining gerbil Ig isotypes and examining the expression of gerbil Ig mRNAs in response to parasitic and bacterial infections. PMID:22531724

  5. Sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Mongolia: potential impact on the Mongolian HIV epidemic.

    PubMed

    Amindavaa, Oyunbileg; Kristensen, Sibylle; Pak, Chin Y; Khalzan, Davaajav; Chultemsuren, Byambaa; Randall, Andrea S; Mikolon, Andrea; Lkhamsuren, Erdenechimeg; Tulgaa, Khosbayar; Chimeddorj, Battogtokh; Natsag, Udval

    2005-02-01

    We conducted Mongolia's first nation-wide cross-sectional survey of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among pregnant women attending prenatal care. Among our 2000 participants, 386 (19.3%) were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis, 133 (6.7%) with Trichomonas vaginalis, 121 (6.1%) with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and 128 (6.4%) were seropositive for Treponemal antibodies. None of our participants were seropositive for HIV infection. Additionally, 605 (30.3%) of the women had at least one STI, 133 (6.7%) had a double infection, and 15 (0.8%) had a triple infection. Our results suggest that STIs are a serious problem in Mongolia. Pregnant women represent a lower-risk general population; these high STI rates suggest that at this nascent stage, the identification, treatment, and prevention of STIs as risk factors for HIV transmission are crucial in the prevention of the emerging Mongolian HIV epidemic. PMID:15807944

  6. 40Ar/39Ar age of gold mineralization of the Malomyr deposit (eastern part of the Mongolian-Okhotsk foldbelt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Ponomarchuk, A. V.; Buchko, I. V.; Travin, A. V.; Ponomarchuk, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable age estimation was obtained originally in this study for gold mineralization of the Malomyr deposit (the eastern part of the Mongolian-Okhotsk foldbelt), which is one of the most well-known deposits in the Russian Far East. The data obtained show that the age of hydrothermal process that resulted in the formation of the Malomyr deposit may be estimated as ˜133-132 Ma. Data on magmatism of the same age within the considered region are absent. In the opinion of the authors, mobilization, redistribution of the ore material, and the formation of the Malomyr deposit were mostly controlled by dislocation processes accompanied by hydrothermal activity, which is supported by the results of structural studies.

  7. Regional Approach for Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies Under Climate Change of Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Galvin, K.; Togtohyn, C.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral systems in Mongolia. Recently, market forces and development strategies are affecting land and water resources of the pastoral communities which are being further stressed due to climatic changes. Evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the social-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information about the social-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia. Our research indicate that sustainability of pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate integrated analysis of landscape management and livelihood strategies provides a framework which links ecosystem services to critical resource assets. Analysis of the available livelihood assets provides insights to the adaptive capacity of various agents in a region or in a community. Sustainable development pathways which enable the development of these adaptive capacity elements will lead to more effective adaptive management strategies for pastoral land use and herder's living standards. Pastoralists will have the

  8. Long-Term Grazing Exclusion Improves the Composition and Stability of Soil Organic Matter in Inner Mongolian Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyan; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Jinjing; Lv, Yuliang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of the composition of soil organic matter (SOM) in Inner Mongolian grassland soils associated with the duration of grazing exclusion (GE) has been considered an important index for evaluating the restoring effects of GE practice. By using five plots from a grassland succession series from free grazing to 31-year GE, we measured the content of soil organic carbon (SOC), humic acid carbon (HAC), fulvic acid carbon (FAC), humin carbon (HUC), and humic acid structure to evaluate the changes in SOM composition. The results showed that SOC, HUC, and the ratios of HAC/FAC and HAC/extractable humus carbon (C) increased significantly with prolonged GE duration, and their relationships can be well fitted by positive exponential equations, except for FAC. In contrast, the HAC content increased logarithmically with prolonged GE duration. Long-term GE enhanced the content of SOC and soil humification, which was obvious after more than 10 years of GE. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the ratios of alkyl C/O-alkyl C first decreased, and then remained stable with prolonged GE. Alternately, the ratios of aromaticity and hydrophobicity first increased, and then were maintained at relatively stable levels. Thus, a decade of GE improved the composition and structure of SOM in semiarid grassland soil and made it more stable. These findings provide new evidence to support the positive effects of long-term GE on soil SOC sequestration in the Inner Mongolian grasslands, in view of the improvement of SOM structure and stability. PMID:26057249

  9. Attack pattern of Platypus koryoensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae) in relation to crown dieback of Mongolian oak in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Su; Haack, Robert A; Choi, Won Il

    2011-12-01

    The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis (Murayama), vectors the Korean oak wilt (KOW) pathogen, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae K.H. Kim, Y.J. Choi, & H.D. Shin, in Korea, which is highly lethal to Mongolian oak, Quercus mongolica Fisch., and is considered a major threat to forest ecosystem health. We characterized the attack pattern of P. koryoensis along the lower trunk of 240 Mongolian oaks in relation to tree decline symptoms on Mt. Uam in Gyeonggi-Do Province, Korea during June-July 2009. For each tree, we recorded diameter at breast height (dbh) (DBH) and P. koryoensis entrance hole density at two heights along the lower trunk (near groundline and at 1.5 m above groundline) and on opposite sides (downslope side and upslope side). Trees were assigned to one of three dieback classes: 1) apparently healthy, no or practically no wilted foliage, and no obvious platypodine frass near the base of the tree; 2) no or only partial wilting with obvious frass near the base of the tree; and 3) apparently recently killed by KOW with all foliage wilted and mostly retained with obvious frass near the base of the tree. As dieback class increased from 1 to 3, P. koryoensis entrance hole density increased at all four trunk locations. Attack density was highest on the downslope side of the trunk near groundline, and principal component analysis indicated that this trunk location was the best indicator of tree dieback. In addition, DBH tended to increase with dieback class suggesting that larger trees were infested first. PMID:22217750

  10. Influence of essential trace minerals and micronutrient insufficiencies on harmful metal overload in a Mongolian patient with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue; Kaneko, Yoshinori; Kudoh, Hideki; Purvee, Baatar; Otgon, Jugder; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen

    2012-07-01

    Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders are prevalent in Mongolia. Our previous studies revealed a significant correlation of these diseases with high oxidative stress due to a high body burden of harmful metals, such as manganese, iron, lead, cadmium, and aluminum. This report describes a 37-year-old male Mongolian patient with multiple sclerosis and essential micronutrient deficiency. This patient demonstrated high oxidative stress, as shown by high urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels of 14.7 and 14.3 ng/mg creatinine (crea), although his hair levels of these toxic metals were markedly lower than other Mongolians. In addition, this patient was deficient not only in various essential minerals, including selenium, magnesium, copper, cobalt, vanadium, and nickel, but also in micronutrients such as vitamin B6, C, E, folic acid, niacin, and β-carotene. Furthermore, after taking 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, a chelating agent, urinary excretion of lead, cadmium, manganese, aluminum, iron, copper, and lithium were increased 156-, 8.4-, 7.6-, 4.3-, 3.3-, 2.1-, and 2.1-fold, respectively. These results suggest that this patient suffered from a deficiency in micronutrients such as essential minerals and vitamins, which resulted in a disturbance in the ability to excrete harmful metals into the urine and hair. It is possible that a deficiency of micronutrients and a high burden of heavy metals play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Nutritional treatment may be an effective approach to this disease. PMID:21834785

  11. Familiality of Tourette Syndrome, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Heritability Analysis in a Large Sib-Pair Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Carol A.; Grados, Marco A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a genetic component that is highly comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the genetic relations between these disorders have not been clearly elucidated. This study examined the familial relations among TS,…

  12. Resident Owners, Hired Managers and Hired, Full-Time Workers of Large Wisconsin Farms: Background-SES, Family Structure and Behavioral Integration Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodefeld, Richard D.; Lancelle, Mark

    The organizational structure of farms is changing. Farm numbers have declined, sizes have increased, and changes have evolved in levels and types of structural differentiation. Corresponding changes have occurred in the farm work force, its socioeconomic status, family structure, and behavioral characteristics. The impact may be considerable. A…

  13. The Quality of Teachers' Interactive Conversations with Preschool Children from Low-Income Families during Small-Group and Large-Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennifer J.; de Groot Kim, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the quality of preschool teachers' interactive conversations with three- and four-year-olds in two Head Start classrooms serving children from low-income families in the United States. Over a period of 20?weeks, 10 bi-weekly observations of conversations (totaling 15?h per classroom) were conducted in one small-group (Play…

  14. Sex differences in adrenocortical structure and function. XVI. Stereological and karyometric studies on the cortex of the suprarenal gland of intact adult male and female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Malendowicz, L K

    1984-01-01

    The histological structure of intact adult male and female Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) suprarenal cortex has been described, and quantitative stereological and karyometric studies were performed. The weight of the gland relative to body weight was higher in female than in male gerbils, but the volume of the gland was similar in both sexes. The relative volume of the zona reticularis was higher in the female, while no sex difference was observed in the absolute volume of all suprarenal components (expressed in mm3). In all cortical zones, average cell volume was higher in the female; the nuclear volume of the zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis were also higher in the female. In the zona fasciculata, some large cells with large nuclei (greater than 210 micrometers 3) were observed. These are probably polyploid cells and have not been described in other species. The suprarenal cortex of the male gerbil contained more parenchymal cells than that of the female, the difference being dependent upon variation in the number of cells in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. Despite these structural differences, gland homogenates from male and female animals secreted similar amounts of cortisol and the plasma levels in the two sexes were the same. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6490533

  15. Sex differences in adrenocortical structure and function. XVI. Stereological and karyometric studies on the cortex of the suprarenal gland of intact adult male and female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Malendowicz, L K

    1984-10-01

    The histological structure of intact adult male and female Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) suprarenal cortex has been described, and quantitative stereological and karyometric studies were performed. The weight of the gland relative to body weight was higher in female than in male gerbils, but the volume of the gland was similar in both sexes. The relative volume of the zona reticularis was higher in the female, while no sex difference was observed in the absolute volume of all suprarenal components (expressed in mm3). In all cortical zones, average cell volume was higher in the female; the nuclear volume of the zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis were also higher in the female. In the zona fasciculata, some large cells with large nuclei (greater than 210 micrometers 3) were observed. These are probably polyploid cells and have not been described in other species. The suprarenal cortex of the male gerbil contained more parenchymal cells than that of the female, the difference being dependent upon variation in the number of cells in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. Despite these structural differences, gland homogenates from male and female animals secreted similar amounts of cortisol and the plasma levels in the two sexes were the same. PMID:6490533

  16. A large set of Finnish affected sibling pair families with type 2 diabetes suggests susceptibility loci on chromosomes 6, 11, and 14.

    PubMed

    Silander, Kaisa; Scott, Laura J; Valle, Timo T; Mohlke, Karen L; Stringham, Heather M; Wiles, Kerry R; Duren, William L; Doheny, Kimberly F; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Chines, Peter; Narisu, Narisu; White, Peggy P; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Jackson, Anne U; Li, Chun; Ghosh, Soumitra; Magnuson, Victoria L; Colby, Kimberly; Erdos, Michael R; Hill, Jason E; Hollstein, Pablo; Humphreys, Kathleen M; Kasad, Roshni A; Lambert, Jessica; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Lin, George; Morales-Mena, Anabelle; Patzkowski, Kristin; Pfahl, Carrie; Porter, Rachel; Rha, David; Segal, Leonid; Suh, Yong D; Tovar, Jason; Unni, Arun; Welch, Christian; Douglas, Julie A; Epstein, Michael P; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Hagopian, William; Buchanan, Thomas A; Watanabe, Richard M; Bergman, Richard N; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the Finland-United States Investigation of NIDDM Genetics (FUSION) study is to identify genes that predispose to type 2 diabetes or are responsible for variability in diabetes-related traits via a positional cloning and positional candidate gene approach. In a previously published genome-wide scan of 478 Finnish affected sibling pair (ASP) families (FUSION 1), the strongest linkage results were on chromosomes 20 and 11. We now report a second genome-wide scan using an independent set of 242 Finnish ASP families (FUSION 2), a detailed analysis of the combined set of 737 FUSION 1 + 2 families (495 updated FUSION 1 families), and fine mapping of the regions of chromosomes 11 and 20. The strongest FUSION 2 linkage results were on chromosomes 6 (maximum logarithm of odds score [MLS] = 2.30 at 95 cM) and 14 (MLS = 1.80 at 57 cM). For the combined FUSION 1 + 2 families, three results were particularly notable: chromosome 11 (MLS = 2.98 at 82 cM), chromosome 14 (MLS = 2.74 at 58 cM), and chromosome 6 (MLS = 2.66 at 96 cM). We obtained smaller FUSION 1 + 2 MLSs on chromosomes X (MLS = 1.27 at 152 cM) and 20p (MLS = 1.21 at 20 cM). Among the 10 regions that showed nominally significant evidence for linkage in FUSION 1, four (on chromosomes 6, 11, 14, and X) also showed evidence for linkage in FUSION 2 and stronger evidence for linkage in the combined FUSION 1 + 2 sample. PMID:14988269

  17. [Electrogenic activity of Na-K-ATPase and calcium ions in m. soleus fibers of rats and Mongolian gerbil during simulation of gravitational unloading].

    PubMed

    Kravtsova, V V; Ogneva, I V; Altaeva, E G; Razgovorova, I A; Tiapkina, O V; Nikol'skiĭ, E E; Shenkman, B S; Krivoĭ, I I

    2010-01-01

    Some of the electrophysiological parameters of m. soleus of rat and Mongolian gerbil, and Ca ions content in fiber myoplasm were compared in different periods of gravitational unloading simulated by tail-suspension. No difference was found between the control animals as for membrane potential at rest, electrogenic activities of Na-K-ATPase and its isoforms, and input resistance of m. soleus fibers. At the same time, unlike rats, gerbils exhibited a substantial Ca decrease in myoplasm. From day one to 14 of gravitational unloading the pace of electrophysiological changes in gerbil's m. soleus was noticeably slower than of rat's, whereas Ca ions depositing in myoplasm was observed in both species already at the beginning ofsuspension. Analysis of the results suggests that adaptive changes in m. soleus of Mongolian gerbil and rat during simulated gravitational unloading are fundamentally different due to, probably, peculiar water-electrolyte metabolism, type of locomotion, and other factors which are still unclear. PMID:20799658

  18. FAMILY BOMBYLIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2016-01-01

    Bombyliidae is one of the largest Diptera families with more than 4,500 recognized species worldwide. Their species vary from robust to thin, and may be small to large (2-20mm) and looks like bees or wasps. They also present great variation in color. Adults can often be seen either resting and sunning themselves on trails, rocks or twigs or feeding on flowering plants as they are nectar feeders. All reared bee flies are predators or parasitoids of arthropods. The Colombian fauna of bombyliids comprises at the moment 22 species, and 12 genera, of which, six are endemic species. Nonetheless, this number may be much higher, as Colombia is a megadiverse country and there are not many specimens of this family deposited in collections all over the world. PMID:27395279

  19. Mongolian pines (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in the Hulun Buir steppe, China, respond to climate in adjustment to the local water supply.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The growth response of Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) to climate was studied at three sites in the Hulun Buir steppe on the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Correlation analysis revealed two patterns of response: (1) trees on two sites in the upstream section of the Yimin River are strongly limited by temperature and precipitation during the growing season from April to September, and (2) trees in the convergence area of the downstream section of the Yimin River and of the midstream section of the Hailar River are sensitive to precipitation during winter (December-January) and early spring (April) as well as to the early growing season temperature (April and June). These responses can be attributed to the positions where groundwater, recharged by the runoff from summer to autumn (July-September), could supply sufficient water needed for tree growth. Therefore, the patterns of growth-climate responses and of climate variation trends in this steppe region should be considered for the management and afforestation of Mongolian pines. PMID:24292925

  20. Mongolian pines ( Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in the Hulun Buir steppe, China, respond to climate in adjustment to the local water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The growth response of Mongolian pine ( Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) to climate was studied at three sites in the Hulun Buir steppe on the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Correlation analysis revealed two patterns of response: (1) trees on two sites in the upstream section of the Yimin River are strongly limited by temperature and precipitation during the growing season from April to September, and (2) trees in the convergence area of the downstream section of the Yimin River and of the midstream section of the Hailar River are sensitive to precipitation during winter (December-January) and early spring (April) as well as to the early growing season temperature (April and June). These responses can be attributed to the positions where groundwater, recharged by the runoff from summer to autumn (July-September), could supply sufficient water needed for tree growth. Therefore, the patterns of growth-climate responses and of climate variation trends in this steppe region should be considered for the management and afforestation of Mongolian pines.

  1. Family size effects: a review.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M E; Schubert, H J; Schubert, D S

    1985-03-01

    Larger families are more frequent with early marriage and rapid birth of the first child. In larger families, child rearing becomes more rule ridden, less individualized, with corporal punishment and less investment of resources. Smaller families tend to result in higher IQ, academic achievement, and occupational performance. Large families produce more delinquents and alcoholics. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher in large families as birth weights decrease. Mothers of large families are at higher risk of several physical diseases. Common methodological errors are indicated and exemplary studies are described. PMID:3900289

  2. Detrital zircon record of the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks in Russian Altai: Implications on their provenance and the tectonic nature of the Altai-Mongolian terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    An integrated U-Pb and Hf-isotope study on detrital zircons from the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks along the Charysh-Terekta-Ulagan-Sayan suture zone in Russian Altai was conducted in order to trace their provenance and tectonic setting. Most of the zircons possess oscillatory zoning and high Th/U ratios (> 0.1), indicating their magmatic origin. The investigated samples yield similar zircon populations, i.e., dominant groups with late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic ages, followed by those from Mesoproterozoic to late Neoproterozoic and minor ones from Archean to middle Mesoproterozoic, indicating multiple tectono-thermal events in the source area. Comparison with surrounding tectonic units shows that the Tuva-Mongolian terrane and its adjacent island arcs possibly provided substantial materials to the sedimentary basin. These rocks show detrital zircon age patterns and Hf-isotope compositions similar to their counterparts in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane in western Mongolia, but different from those in the Gorny Altai terrane. Therefore, the investigated meta-sedimentary units possibly represented the northernmost segment of the Altai-Mongolian terrane. With combination of previous studies in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane, our data suggest that the Altai-Mongolian terrane possibly represents a coherent continental arc-accretionary prism system built upon the active margin of the western Mongolia during the Cambrian to Ordovician and thus does not support the micro-continent model with a passive margin. A compilation of U-Pb and Hf-isotope data of detrital zircons from the whole Altai-Mongolian terrane shows that the source area (i.e., the western Mongolia) underwent two most extensive magmatic activities at ca. 1.02-0.67 Ga and 0.67-0.43 Ga. These zircons possess both positive and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting significant crustal growth and reworking during the magmatic activities. Our study underlines a crucial role of Precambrian

  3. High use of complementary and alternative medicine among a large cohort of women with a family history of breast cancer: the Sister Study.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Heather; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Falci, Laura; Ulmer, Ross; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-04-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high among U.S. women, yet information is limited on use among women at increased breast cancer risk. We analyzed CAM use among women with a family history of breast cancer. CAM use was analyzed among women enrolled 2003-2009 in the Sister Study cohort. Eligible women were aged 35-74, U.S. or Puerto Rican residents, no personal history of breast cancer, and had ≥1 sister with breast cancer. Baseline data on CAM use in the past year were available for 49,734 women. Logistic regression models examined the association between CAM use and Gail Model breast cancer risk score. Results were compared to female participants in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (n = 7965). Among Sister Study participants, there was high use of vitamin/mineral supplements (79 %), mind-body practices (41 %), manipulative/body-based practices (32 %), and botanicals (23 %). Overall use was higher than the U.S. female population. No association was observed between familial breast cancer risk and CAM use. Black women were more likely to use spirituality/meditation-based CAM modalities, while non-Hispanic white and Asian women were high users of dietary supplements. In a cohort of women with increased breast cancer risk due to family history, CAM use is higher than women in the general U.S. population and is associated with race/ethnicity. Use was not associated with breast cancer risk. Given the high prevalence of CAM use among women at risk for breast caner, research on the effectiveness of CAM use for disease prevention is needed. PMID:27017506

  4. High proportion of large genomic rearrangements in hMSH2 in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families of the Basque Country.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Ojembarrena, Enrique; Beristain, Elena; Errasti, Javier; Viguera, Noelia; Tejada Minguéz, Maria-Isabel

    2007-10-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), which represents the most common form of inherited colorectal cancer, results from germline alterations of the mismatch repair genes MSH2, MLH1 and MSH6. Rearrangements of MSH2 and MLH1 are involved in at least 10% and 4.3%, respectively, of the HNPCC families fulfilling the Amsterdam (AMS) criteria. We applied a recently developed method, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), to study MLH1/MSH2 copy number changes in 29 unrelated Basque Country HNPCC families. We detected six different genomic rearrangements in total (6/29=20.69%), four in MSH2 gene (13.79%), and two in MLH1 gene. All of the MSH2 rearrangements were genomic deletions involving several exons. The MLH1 rearrangements were initially detected as one deletion of exon 18 and one deletion of exon 19, but after sequencing analysis, these deletions were not confirmed and corresponded to base pair mutations. We conclude that MLPA is an excellent tool for detecting exon copy number changes in MLH1 and MSH2 in the DNA from HNPCC patients, although all detected rearrangements should be confirmed by an independent molecular methodology. Furthermore, our results in the Basque Country show higher percentages of rearrangements than previously published by other authors. PMID:17582678

  5. Distinctive proteolytic activity of cell envelope proteinase of Lactobacillus helveticus isolated from airag, a traditional Mongolian fermented mare's milk.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Mari; Ueno, Hiroshi M; Watanabe, Masayuki; Tatsuma, Yumi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Taku; Nakajima, Hadjime

    2015-03-16

    Airag is a traditional fermented milk of Mongolia that is usually made from raw mare's milk. Lactobacillus helveticus is one of the lactic acid bacteria most frequently isolated from airag. In this study, we investigated the genetic and physiological characteristics of L. helveticus strains isolated from airag and clarified their significance in airag by comparing them with strains from different sources. Six strains of L. helveticus were isolated from five home-made airag samples collected from different regions of Mongolia. The optimal temperature for acidification in skim milk was 30 to 35°C for all the Mongolian strains, which is lower than those for the reference strains (JCM 1554 and JCM 1120(T)) isolated from European cheeses. All of the strains had a prtH1-like gene encoding a variant type of cell envelope proteinase (CEP). The CEP amino acid sequence in Snow Brand Typeculture (SBT) 11087 isolated from airag shared 71% identity with PrtH of L. helveticus CNRZ32 (AAD50643.1) but 98% identity with PrtH of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 (AEG40278.1) isolated from a traditional fermented milk in Tibet. The proteolytic activities of the CEP from SBT11087 on artificial substrate (N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide) and pure casein were measured using an intact-cell degradation assay. The activity of the CEP from SBT11087 was observed to be weak and exhibited a lower optimal temperature (40°C) than those from the reference strains (45-50°C). The specificity of the SBT11087 CEP for αS1-casein was typical of the CEPs previously reported in L. helveticus, as determined through the degradation profiles obtained through gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses. In contrast, the degradation profile of β-casein revealed that the CEP of SBT11087 primarily hydrolyzes its C-terminal domain and hydrolyzed nine of the 16 cleavage sites shared among the CEPs of other L. helveticus strains. Thus, the CEP of SBT11087 is distinct from those from

  6. Family Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  7. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  8. Family Arguments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  9. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Family Health History Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Family Health History The Basics Family Health History & Chronic Disease Planning ...

  10. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  11. Penetrance of HNPCC-related cancers in a retrolective cohort of 12 large Newfoundland families carrying a MSH2 founder mutation: an evaluation using modified segregation models

    PubMed Central

    Kopciuk, Karen A; Choi, Yun-Hee; Parkhomenko, Elena; Parfrey, Patrick; McLaughlin, John; Green, Jane; Briollais, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate risk (penetrance) estimates for associated phenotypes in carriers of a major disease gene are important for genetic counselling of at-risk individuals. Population-specific estimates of penetrance are often needed as well. Families ascertained from high-risk disease clinics provide substantial data to estimate penetrance of a disease gene, but these estimates must be adjusted for possible specific sources of bias. Methods A cohort of 12 independently ascertained HNPCC families harbouring a founder MSH2 mutation was identified from a cancer genetics clinic in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. Carrier status was known for 247 family members but phenotype information on up to 85 additional relatives with unknown carrier status was available; using modified segregation models these additional individuals could be included in the analyses. Three HNPCC-related phenotypes were evaluated as age at diagnosis of: any HNPCC cancer (first cancer), colorectal cancer (CRC), and endometrial cancer (EC) for females. Results Lifetime (age 70) risk estimates for male and female carriers were similar for developing any HNPCC cancer (Males = 98.2%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = (93.8%, 99.9%); Females = 92.8%, 95% CI = (82.4%, 99.1%)) but female carriers experienced substantially reduced lifetime risk for developing CRC compared to male carriers (Females = 38.9%, 95% CI = (24.2%, 62.1%); Males = 84.5%, 95% CI = (67.3%, 91.3%)). Female non-carriers had very low lifetime risk for these two outcomes while male non-carriers had lifetime risks intermediate to the female carriers and non-carriers. Female carriers had a lifetime risk of developing EC of 82.4%. Relative risks for developing any HNPCC cancer (carriers relative to non-carriers) were substantially greater for females compared to their male counterparts (Females = 54.8, 95%CI = (4.4, 379.8); Males = 9.7, 95% CI = (0.3, 23.8)). Relative risks for developing CRC at age 70 were substantially greater for females

  12. Family planning reaches Mongolia's spacious steppes.

    PubMed

    Davaasuren, L; Naranchimeg, J

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, Mr. Bolooj organized a branch of the Mongolian Family Welfare Association (MFWA), an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), in the smallest administrative district in western Mongolia. Most of the people are nomadic shepherds, and there are 10 times as many domestic animals as humans in the sparsely population country. In rural areas, the idea of family planning is alien, and Mongolia's mass media also has a difficult time understanding population concerns. Mr. Bolooj began by using the media to explain the goals of the IPPF and the MFWA. He then recruited and trained volunteer medical workers to provide reproductive health services. In its first six months of operation, the MFWA branch created 38 hours of reproductive health lessons for use in local schools. These lessons included information on the importance of good hygiene despite the scarcity of water for bathing. The population is so scattered, however, that it is very expensive to reach individual households. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, maternal health services have deteriorated, and maternal mortality has increased. The new National Reproductive Health Program seeks to provide delivery rooms in remote areas. The MFWA branch is also working to help women who are heading households. A course on contraceptive choices organized for 50 women of childbearing age resulted in 12 acceptors of the IUD, 15 of oral contraceptives, and six of injectables. PMID:12293466

  13. A Comprehensive Catalog of Human KRAB-associated Zinc Finger Genes: Insights into the Evolutionary History of a Large Family of Transcriptional Repressors

    SciTech Connect

    Huntley, S; Baggott, D M; Hamilton, A T; Tran-Gyamfi, M; Yang, S; Kim, J; Gordon, L; Branscomb, E; Stubbs, L

    2005-09-30

    Krueppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotic species. In mammals, most ZNF proteins comprise a single class of transcriptional repressors in which a chromatin interaction domain, called the Krueppel-associated box (KRAB) is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs. KRAB-ZNF loci are specific to tetrapod vertebrates, but have expanded dramatically in numbers through repeated rounds of segmental duplication to create a gene family with hundreds of members in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the human genome for key motifs and used them to construct and manually curate gene models. The resulting KRAB-ZNF gene catalog includes 326 known genes, 243 of which were structurally corrected by manual annotation, and 97 novel KRAB-ZNF genes; this single family therefore comprises 20% of all predicted human transcription factor genes. Many of the genes are alternatively spliced, yielding a total of 743 distinct predicted proteins. Although many human KRAB-ZNF genes are conserved in mammals, at least 136 and potentially more than 200 genes of this type are primate-specific including many recent segmental duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are active in a wide variety of human tissues suggesting roles in many key biological processes, but most member genes remain completely uncharacterized. Because of their sheer numbers, wide-ranging tissue-specific expression patterns, and remarkable evolutionary divergence we predict that KRAB-ZNF transcription factors have played critical roles in crafting many aspects of human biology, including both deeply conserved and primate-specific traits.

  14. Responses to climate and economic risks and opportunities across national and ecological boundaries: changing household strategies on the Mongolian plateau

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Daniel G.; Agrawal, Arun; Sass, Daniel A.; Wang, Jun; Hua, Jin; Xie, Yichun

    2013-01-01

    Climate changes on the Mongolian Plateau are creating new challenges for the households and communities of the region. Much of the existing research on household choices in response to climate variability and change focuses on environmental risks and stresses. In contrast, our analysis highlights the importance of taking into account environmental and economic opportunities in explaining household adaptation choices. We surveyed over 750 households arrayed along an ecological gradient and matched across the national border in Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, asking what changes in livelihoods strategies households made over the last ten years, and analyzed these choices in two broad categories of options: diversification and livestock management. We combined these data with remotely sensed information about vegetation growth and self-reported exposure to price fluctuations. Our statistical results showed that households experiencing lower ecological and economic variability, higher average levels of vegetation growth, and with greater levels of material wealth, were often those that undertook more actions to improve their conditions in the face of variability. The findings have implications both for how interventions aimed at supporting ongoing choices might be targeted and for theory construction related to social adaptation. PMID:24910710

  15. Inhibitory effect of etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on stomach carcinogenesis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils

    SciTech Connect

    Magari, Hirohito; Shimizu, Yasuhito; Inada, Ken-ichi; Enomoto, Shotaro; Tomeki, Tatsuji; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Arii, Kenji; Nakata, Hiroya; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Tatematsu, Masae; Ichinose, Masao E-mail: ichinose@wakayama-med.ac.jp

    2005-08-26

    The effect of the selective COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, on Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-associated stomach carcinogenesis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils (MGs). Hp-infected MGs were fed for 23 weeks with drinking water containing 10 ppm N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. They were then switched to distilled water and placed on a diet containing 5-30 mg/kg/day etodolac for 30 weeks. We found that etodolac dose-dependently inhibited the development of gastric cancer, and no cancer was detected at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Etodolac did not affect the extent of inflammatory cell infiltration or oxidative DNA damage, but it significantly inhibited mucosal cell proliferation and dose-dependently repressed the development of intestinal metaplasia in the stomachs of Hp-infected MGs. These results suggest that COX-2 is a key molecule in inflammation-mediated stomach carcinogenesis and that chemoprevention of stomach cancer should be possible by controlling COX-2 expression or activity.

  16. [Study on identification of "Digeda" raw materials in Mongolian patent medicine by PCR amplification of specific alleles].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhan-hu; Huang, Xian-zhang; Long, Ping; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Dong-dong; Wang, Ying-li; Li, Min-hui

    2015-03-01

    To explore a new method for identification of Mongolian patent medicine (MPM) by PCR amplification of specific alleles. Eight kinds of MPM were used to study the identification of "Digeda" raw materials. The total DNA of Lomatogonium rotatum and Corydalis bungeana samples were extracted through modified CTAB method, psbA-trnH sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced directionally. Specific primer was designed. The DNA of 8 kinds of MPM also was extracted and purified by the commercial DNA purification kits. The rbcL and two pair of specific primers sequences were amplified. The specific amplified products were sequenced in forward directions. All specific sequences were aligned and were analyzed. The results indicated that L rotatum can be identified by specific primers from Digeda-4 Tang, Digeda-8 San, Digeda-4 San, and C. bungeana medicinal materials can be identified by specific primers from Li Dan Ba Wei San, Yi He Ha Ri-12 and A Ga Ri-35. PCR amplification of specific alleles can stably and accurately distinguish raw medicinal materials in MPM. PMID:26087535

  17. Overweight, resting heart rate, and prediabetes/diabetes: A population-based prospective cohort study among Inner Mongolians in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao Yan; Wu, Jia Hui; Zhou, Jing Wen; Liang, Zhu; Qiu, Qiao Yan; Xu, Tian; Zhang, Ming Zhi; Zhong, Chong Ke; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Yong Hong

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the cumulative effect of overweight and resting heart rate on prediabetes/diabetes incidence in an 10-year follow-up study in Inner Mongolians. Among 1729 participants who were free from prediabetes and diabetes at baseline, 503 and 155 subjects developed prediabetes and diabetes, respectively. We categorized the participants into 4 subgroups according to overweight and resting heart rate status. The multivariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) in normal weight with heart rate ≥80 bpm, overweight with heart rate <80 bpm, and overweight with heart rate ≥80 bpm were 1.24 (0.95-1.61), 1.83 (1.29-2.61), 2.20 (1.41-3.45) for prediabetes and 1.52 (0.97-2.40), 3.64 (2.21-6.01), 4.61 (2.47-8.61) for diabetes, respectively, compared with normal weight with heart rate <80 bpm. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for the prediction of diabetes incidence for a model containing overweight and resting heart rate, along with conventional factors (AUC = 0.751), was significantly (P = 0.003) larger than the one containing only conventional factors (AUC = 0.707). Our study indicated that overweight was an independent risk factor of prediabetes and diabetes, and overweight with faster resting heart rate might further increase the risk of prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:27029423

  18. [Cytological and cytogenetic studies of cells of Mongolian gerbils' retinal epithelium and marrow following 12-day space flight].

    PubMed

    Vorozhtsova, S V; Abrosimova, A N; Fedorenko, B S; Rakov, D V

    2011-01-01

    The paper report the results of studying mitotic activity and cytogenetic disorders in marrow and retinal epithelium cells of Mongolian gerbils in 21 - 23 hrs. of landing space apparatus Foton-M3, and the animals of synchronous and vivarium controls. Cells of the space flown gerbils displayed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) gain in the ratio of mitosis prophases and metaphases to the sum of ana- and telophases (1.7 +/- 0.3 and 2 +/- 0.1, respectively) as compared to these parameters in the synchronous and vivarium controls, where the ratio made up 0.6 +/- 0.1 and 0.7 +/- 0.1, respectively. Frequency of aberrant mytoses in the form of bridges was increased equally in both types of cells. Patterns of chromosome damages occurred in flight infer that the major portion of changes was not due to chromosome breakage but adhesion and ensuing wrong disjunction. These results seem to have been caused by acute g-stress to organism during re-entry and return from micro-g to the normal gravity. PMID:21675195

  19. Changes in Spatial Patterns of Caragana stenophylla along a Climatic Drought Gradient on the Inner Mongolian Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li-Na; Guo, Hong-Yu; Gabler, Christopher A.; Li, Qing-Fang; Ma, Cheng-Cang

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the influence of water availability on plant population spatial patterns. We studied changes in the spatial patterns of Caragana stenophylla along a climatic drought gradient within the Inner Mongolian Plateau, China. We examined spatial patterns, seed density, “nurse effects” of shrubs on seedlings, transpiration rates and water use efficiency (WUE) of C. stenophylla across semi-arid, arid, and intensively arid zones. Our results showed that patches of C. stenophylla populations shifted from a random to a clumped spatial pattern towards drier environments. Seed density and seedling survival rate of C. stenophylla decreased from the semi-arid zone to the intensively arid zone. Across the three zones, there were more C. stenophylla seeds and seedlings underneath shrub canopies than outside shrub canopies; and in the intensively arid zone, there were almost no seeds or seedlings outside shrub canopies. Transpiration rates of outer-canopy leaves and WUE of both outer-canopy and inner-canopy leaves increased from the semi-arid zone to the intensively arid zone. In the intensively arid zone, transpiration rates and WUE of inner-canopy leaves were significantly lower and higher, respectively, than those of outer-canopy leaves. We conclude that, as drought stress increased, seed density decreased, seed proportions inside shrubs increased, and “nurse effects” of shrubs on seedlings became more important. These factors, combined with water-saving characteristics associated with clumped spatial patterns, are likely driving the changes in C. stenophylla spatial patterns. PMID:25785848

  20. Does Long-Term Use of Silver Nanoparticles Have Persistent Inhibitory Effect on H. pylori Based on Mongolian Gerbil's Model?

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Lu, Chien-Yu; Yang, Yuan-Chieh; Chin, Chieh; Weng, Bi-Chuang; Liu, Chung-Jung; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chang, Lin-Li; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Su, Hong-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is urgent to find alternative agents due to increasing failure rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. The study surveyed the long-term effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on H. pylori based on Mongolian gerbil's model. Materials and Methods. Fifty gerbils were randomly allocated to six groups (A–F). Group (Gr) A: the gerbils were fed with broth; Gr B and D: the gerbils were fed with AgNP/clay complex (0.1% of weight); Gr C and E: the gerbils were fed with AgNP/clay complex(1% of weight); and Gr D, E, and F: the gerbils were inoculated with H. pylori. At the 20th experimental week, the gerbils were sacrificed. Histology was evaluated according to the classification of the Sydney system. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results. The AgNP/clay has more obvious inhibitory effect on H. pylori in vitro. There was a trend of higher concentrations of AgNP with stronger inhibitory effect on H. pylori growth (P = 0.071). There were no significant differences of inflammation among groups D, E, and F (P = 0.688).Conclusion. AgNP/clay would be a potential and safe agent for inhibiting H. pylori. It should be helpful for eradication of H. pylori infection. PMID:24864246

  1. The Protective Effects of 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid on Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Mucosa in Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Donghui; Jiang, Jing; You, Lili; Jia, Zhifang; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Cai, Hongke; Wang, Shidong; Hou, Zhen; Suo, Yue-er; Cao, Xueyuan

    2016-01-01

    18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a major component of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is widely used therapeutically in clinic. In this study, the effect of GRA on Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected gastritis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils in vivo. The gerbils were randomly divided into groups: uninfected; H. pylori-infected; H. pylori + antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and esomeprazole); and H. pylori + GRA. The gastric intraluminal pH value, histopathological changes, and the expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS) were investigated. The results showed that, in the H. pylori + GRA group, the intraluminal gastric pH value was lower (2.14 ± 0.08 versus 3.17 ± 0.23, P < 0.05), erosion and hyperplasia were alleviated, the infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was attenuated (P < 0.05), and the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the H. pylori-infected group. There was no significant difference in results between the H. pylori + GRA group and the H. pylori + antibiotics group. This study indicated that GRA significantly attenuated H. pylori-infected gastritis in gerbils and has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic drug. PMID:27006947

  2. Scent-marking and sexual activity may reflect social hierarchy among group-living male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Shimozuru, Michito; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2006-12-30

    Social hierarchy plays an important role in the lives of gregarious species. We investigated how social hierarchy between male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) housed together before sexual maturity affected their scent-marking behavior, endocrine status and physical traits as adults. The social rank between paired males was assessed based on sexual activity in adulthood at 18 and 20 weeks of age. In most cases, the male that showed higher sexual activity at 18 weeks also exhibited greater sexual performance at 20 weeks, suggesting a precedence relationship between paired males regarding reproductive opportunity. Sexually active males scent-marked more often than their cage mate, particularly after a sexual experience. No significant differences in physical traits (e.g., the weight of the ventral gland, testes and adrenal glands) or endocrine status (e.g., fecal testosterone and corticosterone levels) were found between the two males. These findings suggest that social rank between familiar males formed during cohabitation, and rank was closely correlated with scent-marking activity, but not with endocrine status. PMID:16959280

  3. Primary Genetic Investigation of a Hyperlipidemia Model: Molecular Characteristics and Variants of the Apolipoprotein E Gene in Mongolian Gerbil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuehuan; Wu, Jiusheng; Shi, Qiaojuan; Guo, Honggang; Ying, Huazhong; Xu, Ningying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish a novel Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) hyperlipidemia model and to investigate its susceptibility genetic basis. Two rodent (gerbil and rat) hyperlipidemia models were induced by feeding a high fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC) diet. There were significant increases of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in gerbils within a 4-week modeling period. About 10–30% of >8-month-old individuals developed hyperlipidemia spontaneously. The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene was cloned by merging a sequence of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and nested polymerase chain reaction products. The results revealed an open reading frame of 948 bp, encoding a protein of 298 amino acids. The gene without a 5′-UTR region in the first intron was highly homologous to human Apo-A-I and rat Apo-A-IV. The distribution of expression of the ApoE gene in liver, brain, heart, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland was detected by an ABC immunohistochemical procedure. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; C97T, G781T, and A1774T) were first found using PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in a closed population containing 444 animals. Correlation analysis confirmed that new SNPs , age, and gender were associated significantly (P < 0.05) with hyperlipidemia. PMID:25006576

  4. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-01-19

    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271-1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. PMID:25487330

  5. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271–1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. PMID:25487330

  6. Responses to climate and economic risks and opportunities across national and ecological boundaries: changing household strategies on the Mongolian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Daniel G.; Agrawal, Arun; Sass, Daniel A.; Wang, Jun; Hua, Jin; Xie, Yichun

    2013-12-01

    Climate changes on the Mongolian Plateau are creating new challenges for the households and communities of the region. Much of the existing research on household choices in response to climate variability and change focuses on environmental risks and stresses. In contrast, our analysis highlights the importance of taking into account environmental and economic opportunities in explaining household adaptation choices. We surveyed over 750 households arrayed along an ecological gradient and matched across the national border in Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, asking what changes in livelihoods strategies households made over the last ten years, and analyzed these choices in two broad categories of options: diversification and livestock management. We combined these data with remotely sensed information about vegetation growth and self-reported exposure to price fluctuations. Our statistical results showed that households experiencing lower ecological and economic variability, higher average levels of vegetation growth, and with greater levels of material wealth, were often those that undertook more actions to improve their conditions in the face of variability. The findings have implications both for how interventions aimed at supporting ongoing choices might be targeted and for theory construction related to social adaptation.

  7. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition along a degradation gradient in the Inner Mongolian steppe, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaotian; Liu, Hongyan; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Wei; Hu, Guozheng; Qi, Zhaohuan

    2015-01-01

    Although nitrogen addition and recovery from degradation can both promote production of grassland biomass, these two factors have rarely been investigated in combination. In this study, we established a field experiment with six N-treatment (CK, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 g N m−2 yr−1) on five fields with different degradation levels in the Inner Mongolian steppe of China from 2011–2013. Our observations showed that while the external nitrogen increased the aboveground biomass in all five grasslands, the magnitude of the effects differed with the severity of degradation. Fields with a higher level of degradation tended to have a higher saturation value (20 g N m−2 yr−1) than those with a lower degradation level ( < 10 g N m−2 yr−1). After three years of experimentation, species richness showed little change across degradation levels. Among the four functional groups of grasses, sedges, forbs and legumes, grasses shared the most similar response patterns with those of the whole community, demonstrating the predominant role that they play in the restoration of grassland under a stimulus of nitrogen addition. PMID:26194184

  8. Modeling greenup date of dominant grass species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland using air temperature and precipitation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jing; Xu, Lin; Liu, Li; Ding, Deng

    2014-05-01

    This work was undertaken to examine the combined effect of air temperature and precipitation during late winter and early spring on modeling greenup date of grass species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. We used the traditional thermal time model and developed two revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation to simulate greenup date of three dominant grass species at six stations from 1983 to 2009. Results show that climatic controls on greenup date of grass species were location-specific. The revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation show higher simulation parsimony and efficiency than the traditional thermal time model for five of 11 data sets at Bayartuhushuo, Xilinhot and Xianghuangqi, whereas the traditional thermal time model indicates higher simulation parsimony and efficiency than the revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation for the other six data sets at E'ergunayouqi, Ewenkeqi and Chaharyouyihouqi. The mean root mean square error of the 11 models is 4.9 days. Moreover, the influence of late winter and early spring precipitation on greenup date seems to be stronger at stations with scarce precipitation than at stations with relatively abundant precipitation. From the mechanism perspectives, accumulated late winter and early spring precipitation may play a more important role as the precondition of forcing temperature than as the supplementary condition of forcing temperature in triggering greenup. Our findings suggest that predicting responses of grass phenology to global climate change should consider both thermal and moisture scenarios in some semiarid and arid areas.

  9. Quantification of flavonoid glycosides in an aqueous extract from the traditional Mongolian medicinal plant Dianthus versicolor FISCH.

    PubMed

    Obmann, Astrid; Zehl, Martin; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Narantuya, Samdan; Reznicek, Gottfried; Kletter, Christa; Glasl, Sabine

    2011-02-01

    An HPLC-diode array detection (DAD) method was established in order to investigate dried aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor FISCH. (Caryophyllaceae), a plant used in traditional Mongolian medicine against liver impairment. Aqueous extracts were separated on an Aquasil(®) C(18) column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile (ACN) and water (adjusted to pH 2.8 with formic acid) as the mobile phase. LC-IT-MS facilitated the assignment of 26 flavonoids, among them a series of rare C-glycosylated as well as O-glycosylated derivatives, which are assumed to be the active principles. Quantification was performed and validated using isovitexin-7-O-glucoside (saponarin) as the external standard. The method showed good linear behaviour (r(2) ≥0.9999) over the investigated concentration range (0.007-3.5 mg/mL). The good precision of the method allowed the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoid-glycosides in the aqueous extracts prepared from five different D. versicolor samples. Depending on the origin of the samples, the total flavonoid content was found to vary considerably from 0.41 to 3.30% in the aqueous extracts and from 0.07 to 0.57% in the crude drug. In addition, the relative composition of the various flavonoids was found to differ strongly. These results highlight the need for proper quality control for this herbal drug. PMID:21268252

  10. Changes in spatial patterns of Caragana stenophylla along a climatic drought gradient on the Inner Mongolian Plateau.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Na; Guo, Hong-Yu; Gabler, Christopher A; Li, Qing-Fang; Ma, Cheng-Cang

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the influence of water availability on plant population spatial patterns. We studied changes in the spatial patterns of Caragana stenophylla along a climatic drought gradient within the Inner Mongolian Plateau, China. We examined spatial patterns, seed density, "nurse effects" of shrubs on seedlings, transpiration rates and water use efficiency (WUE) of C. stenophylla across semi-arid, arid, and intensively arid zones. Our results showed that patches of C. stenophylla populations shifted from a random to a clumped spatial pattern towards drier environments. Seed density and seedling survival rate of C. stenophylla decreased from the semi-arid zone to the intensively arid zone. Across the three zones, there were more C. stenophylla seeds and seedlings underneath shrub canopies than outside shrub canopies; and in the intensively arid zone, there were almost no seeds or seedlings outside shrub canopies. Transpiration rates of outer-canopy leaves and WUE of both outer-canopy and inner-canopy leaves increased from the semi-arid zone to the intensively arid zone. In the intensively arid zone, transpiration rates and WUE of inner-canopy leaves were significantly lower and higher, respectively, than those of outer-canopy leaves. We conclude that, as drought stress increased, seed density decreased, seed proportions inside shrubs increased, and "nurse effects" of shrubs on seedlings became more important. These factors, combined with water-saving characteristics associated with clumped spatial patterns, are likely driving the changes in C. stenophylla spatial patterns. PMID:25785848

  11. Families in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... have led to deployment of large numbers of military personnel (active duty, Reserves, National Guard). As a result ... worries and plans for the future. Let your child know that the family member is making a ...

  12. Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) using a large insert BAC library

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in plants is a trait with potential economic, agricultural and environmental impact. In relation to the food industry, PPO-induced browning causes unacceptable discolouration in fruit and vegetables: from an agriculture perspective, PPO can protect plants against pathogens and environmental stress, improve ruminant growth by increasing nitrogen absorption and decreasing nitrogen loss to the environment through the animal's urine. The high PPO legume, red clover, has a significant economic and environmental role in sustaining low-input organic and conventional farms. Molecular markers for a range of important agricultural traits are being developed for red clover and improved knowledge of PPO genes and their structure will facilitate molecular breeding. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library comprising 26,016 BAC clones with an average 135 Kb insert size, was constructed from Trifolium pratense L. (red clover), a diploid legume with a haploid genome size of 440–637 Mb. Library coverage of 6–8 genome equivalents ensured good representation of genes: the library was screened for polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes. Two single copy PPO genes, PPO4 and PPO5, were identified to add to a family of three, previously reported, paralogous genes (PPO1–PPO3). Multiple PPO1 copies were identified and characterised revealing a subfamily comprising three variants PPO1/2, PPO1/4 and PPO1/5. Six PPO genes clustered within the genome: four separate BAC clones could be assembled onto a predicted 190–510 Kb single BAC contig. Conclusion A PPO gene family in red clover resides as a cluster of at least 6 genes. Three of these genes have high homology, suggesting a more recent evolutionary event. This PPO cluster covers a longer region of the genome than clusters detected in rice or previously reported in tomato. Full-length coding sequences from PPO4, PPO5, PPO1/5 and PPO1/4 will facilitate functional studies and provide

  13. A missense mutation in the PISA domain of HsSAS-6 causes autosomal recessive primary microcephaly in a large consanguineous Pakistani family.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muzammil A; Rupp, Verena M; Orpinell, Meritxell; Hussain, Muhammad S; Altmüller, Janine; Steinmetz, Michel O; Enzinger, Christian; Thiele, Holger; Höhne, Wolfgang; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Baig, Shahid M; Ansar, Muhammad; Nürnberg, Peter; Vincent, John B; Speicher, Michael R; Gönczy, Pierre; Windpassinger, Christian

    2014-11-15

    Asymmetric cell division is essential for normal human brain development. Mutations in several genes encoding centrosomal proteins that participate in accurate cell division have been reported to cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH). By homozygosity mapping including three affected individuals from a consanguineous MCPH family from Pakistan, we delineated a critical region of 18.53 Mb on Chromosome 1p21.3-1p13.1. This region contains the gene encoding HsSAS-6, a centrosomal protein primordial for seeding the formation of new centrioles during the cell cycle. Both next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed a homozygous c.185T>C missense mutation in the HsSAS-6 gene, resulting in a p.Ile62Thr substitution within a highly conserved region of the PISA domain of HsSAS-6. This variant is neither present in any single-nucleotide polymorphism or exome sequencing databases nor in a Pakistani control cohort. Experiments in tissue culture cells revealed that the Ile62Thr mutant of HsSAS-6 is substantially less efficient than the wild-type protein in sustaining centriole formation. Together, our findings demonstrate a dramatic impact of the mutation p.Ile62Thr on HsSAS-6 function and add this component to the list of genes mutated in primary microcephaly. PMID:24951542

  14. Putting the "family" back into family therapy.

    PubMed

    Breunlin, Douglas C; Jacobsen, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we examine the field of family therapy by drawing a distinction between two forms of practice: Whole Family Therapy (WFT), defined as treating the whole family, and Relational Family Therapy (RFT), defined as working with a subsystem of the family or an individual while retaining a systemic lens. Our thesis is that the practice of WFT has been in decline for some time and steps must be taken to keep it from becoming a defunct practice. We consider the trajectory of WFT and RFT throughout the development of family therapy through reference to the people, the literature, training, and practice patterns associated with family therapy. We remind the reader of the many benefits of WFT and suggest that today WFT is likely to be practiced in conjunction with RFT and individual therapy. Since training of family therapists today is largely located in degree-granting programs, we identify constraints to including WFT in such programs. We conclude by offering suggestions that can enhance a program's ability to train students in WFT. PMID:24948531

  15. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  16. Two Novel Mutations in Myosin Binding Protein C Slow Causing Distal Arthrogryposis Type 2 in Two Large Han Chinese Families May Suggest Important Functional Role of Immunoglobulin Domain C2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuefu; Zhong, Bomeng; Han, Weitian; Zhao, Ning; Liu, Wei; Sui, Yu; Wang, Yawen; Lu, Yongping; Wang, Hong; Li, Jianxin; Jiang, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Distal arthrogryposes (DAs) are a group of disorders that mainly involve the distal parts of the limbs and at least ten different DAs have been described to date. DAs are mostly described as autosomal dominant disorders with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance, but recently autosomal recessive pattern was reported in distal arthrogryposis type 5D. Mutations in the contractile genes are found in about 50% of all DA patients. Of these genes, mutations in the gene encoding myosin binding protein C slow MYBPC1 were recently identified in two families with distal arthrogryposis type 1B. Here, we described two large Chinese families with autosomal dominant distal arthrogryposis type 2(DA2) with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Some unique overextension contractures of the lower limbs and some distinctive facial features were present in our DA2 pedigrees. We performed follow-up DNA sequencing after linkage mapping and first identified two novel MYBPC1 mutations (c.1075G>A [p.E359K] and c.956C>T [p.P319L]) responsible for these Chinese DA2 families of which one introduced by germline mosacism. Each mutation was found to cosegregate with the DA2 phenotype in each family but not in population controls. Both substitutions occur within C2 immunoglobulin domain, which together with C1 and the M motif constitute the binding site for the S2 subfragment of myosin. Our results expand the phenotypic spectrum of MYBPC1-related arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). We also proposed the possible molecular mechanisms that may underlie the pathogenesis of DA2 myopathy associated with these two substitutions in MYBPC1. PMID:25679999

  17. A novel type of class I gene organization in vertebrates: a large family of non-MHC-linked class I genes is expressed at the RNA level in the amphibian Xenopus.

    PubMed Central

    Flajnik, M F; Kasahara, M; Shum, B P; Salter-Cid, L; Taylor, E; Du Pasquier, L

    1993-01-01

    A Xenopus class I cDNA clone, isolated from a cDNA expression library using antisera, is a member of a large family of non-classical class I genes (class Ib) composed of at least nine subfamilies, all of which are expressed at the RNA level. The subfamilies are well conserved in their immunoglobulin-like alpha 3 domains, but their peptide-binding regions (PBRs) and cytoplasmic domains are very divergent. In contrast to the great allelic diversity found in the PBR of classical class I genes, the alleles of one of the Xenopus non-classical subfamilies are extremely well conserved in all regions. Several of the invariant amino acids essential for the anchoring of peptides in the classical class I groove are not conserved in some subfamilies, but the class Ib genes are nevertheless more closely related in the PBR to classical and non-classical genes linked to the MHC in mammals and birds than to any other described class I genes like CD1 and the neonatal rat intestinal Fc receptor. Comparison with the Xenopus MHC-linked class Ia protein indicate that amino acids presumed to interact with beta 2-microglobulin are identical or conservatively changed in the two major class I families. Genomic analyses of Xenopus species suggest that the classical and non-classical families diverged from a common ancestor before the emergence of the genus Xenopus over 100 million years ago; all of the non-classical genes appear to be linked on a chromosome distinct from the one harboring the MHC. We hypothesize that this class Ib gene family is under very different selection pressures from the classical MHC genes, and that each subfamily may have evolved for a particular function. Images PMID:8223448

  18. Obsessive–compulsive symptoms in a large population-based twin-family sample are predicted by clinically based polygenic scores and by genome-wide SNPs

    PubMed Central

    den Braber, A; Zilhão, N R; Fedko, I O; Hottenga, J-J; Pool, R; Smit, D J A; Cath, D C; Boomsma, D I

    2016-01-01

    Variation in obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS) has a heritable basis, with genetic association studies starting to yield the first suggestive findings. We contribute to insights into the genetic basis of OCS by performing an extensive series of genetic analyses in a homogeneous, population-based sample from the Netherlands. First, phenotypic and genetic longitudinal correlations over a 6-year period were estimated by modeling OCS data from twins and siblings. Second, polygenic risk scores (PRS) for 6931 subjects with genotype and OCS data were calculated based on meta-analysis results from IOCDF-GC, to investigate their predictive value. Third, the contribution of measured single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to the heritability was estimated using random-effects modeling. Last, we performed an exploratory genome-wide association study (GWAS) of OCS, testing for SNP- and for gene-based associations. Stability in OCS (test–retest correlation 0.63) was mainly explained by genetic stability. The PRS based on clinical samples predicted OCS in our population-based twin-family sample. SNP-based heritability was estimated at 14%. GWAS revealed one SNP (rs8100480), located within the MEF2BNB gene, associated with OCS (P=2.56 × 10−8). Additional gene-based testing resulted in four significantly associated genes, which are located in the same chromosomal region on chromosome 19p13.11: MEF2BNB, RFXANK, MEF2BNB-MEF2B and MEF2B. Thus, common genetic variants explained a significant proportion of OCS trait variation. Genes significantly associated with OCS are expressed in the brain and involved in development and control of immune system functions (RFXANK) and regulation of gene expression of muscle-specific genes (MEF2BNB). MEF2BNB also showed a suggestive association with OCD in an independent case–control study, suggesting a role for this gene in the development of OCS. PMID:26859814

  19. RNA Interference Suppression of Genes in Glycosyl Transferase Families 43 and 47 in Wheat Starchy Endosperm Causes Large Decreases in Arabinoxylan Content1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lovegrove, Alison; Wilkinson, Mark D.; Freeman, Jackie; Pellny, Till K.; Tosi, Paola; Saulnier, Luc; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A.C.

    2013-01-01

    The cell walls of wheat (Triticum aestivum) starchy endosperm are dominated by arabinoxylan (AX), accounting for 65% to 70% of the polysaccharide content. Genes within two glycosyl transferase (GT) families, GT43 (IRREGULAR XYLEM9 [IRX9] and IRX14) and GT47 (IRX10), have previously been shown to be involved in the synthesis of the xylan backbone in Arabidopsis, and close homologs of these have been implicated in the synthesis of xylan in other species. Here, homologs of IRX10 TaGT47_2 and IRX9 TaGT43_2, which are highly expressed in wheat starchy endosperm cells, were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) constructs driven by a starchy endosperm-specific promoter. The total amount of AX was decreased by 40% to 50% and the degree of arabinosylation was increased by 25% to 30% in transgenic lines carrying either of the transgenes. The cell walls of starchy endosperm in sections of grain from TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenics showed decreased immunolabeling for xylan and arabinoxylan epitopes and approximately 50% decreased cell wall thickness compared with controls. The proportion of AX that was water soluble was not significantly affected, but average AX polymer chain length was decreased in both TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenics. However, the long AX chains seen in controls were absent in TaGT43_2 RNAi transgenics but still present in TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenics. The results support an emerging picture of IRX9-like and IRX10-like proteins acting as key components in the xylan synthesis machinery in both dicots and grasses. Since AX is the main component of dietary fiber in wheat foods, the TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 genes are of major importance to human nutrition. PMID:23878080

  20. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a large population-based twin-family sample are predicted by clinically based polygenic scores and by genome-wide SNPs.

    PubMed

    den Braber, A; Zilhão, N R; Fedko, I O; Hottenga, J-J; Pool, R; Smit, D J A; Cath, D C; Boomsma, D I

    2016-01-01

    Variation in obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) has a heritable basis, with genetic association studies starting to yield the first suggestive findings. We contribute to insights into the genetic basis of OCS by performing an extensive series of genetic analyses in a homogeneous, population-based sample from the Netherlands. First, phenotypic and genetic longitudinal correlations over a 6-year period were estimated by modeling OCS data from twins and siblings. Second, polygenic risk scores (PRS) for 6931 subjects with genotype and OCS data were calculated based on meta-analysis results from IOCDF-GC, to investigate their predictive value. Third, the contribution of measured single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to the heritability was estimated using random-effects modeling. Last, we performed an exploratory genome-wide association study (GWAS) of OCS, testing for SNP- and for gene-based associations. Stability in OCS (test-retest correlation 0.63) was mainly explained by genetic stability. The PRS based on clinical samples predicted OCS in our population-based twin-family sample. SNP-based heritability was estimated at 14%. GWAS revealed one SNP (rs8100480), located within the MEF2BNB gene, associated with OCS (P=2.56 × 10(-8)). Additional gene-based testing resulted in four significantly associated genes, which are located in the same chromosomal region on chromosome 19p13.11: MEF2BNB, RFXANK, MEF2BNB-MEF2B and MEF2B. Thus, common genetic variants explained a significant proportion of OCS trait variation. Genes significantly associated with OCS are expressed in the brain and involved in development and control of immune system functions (RFXANK) and regulation of gene expression of muscle-specific genes (MEF2BNB). MEF2BNB also showed a suggestive association with OCD in an independent case-control study, suggesting a role for this gene in the development of OCS. PMID:26859814

  1. Sugar beet contains a large CONSTANS-LIKE gene family including a CO homologue that is independent of the early-bolting (B) gene locus

    PubMed Central

    Chia, T. Y. P.; Müller, A.; Jung, C.; Mutasa-Göttgens, E. S.

    2008-01-01

    Floral transition in the obligate long-day (LD) plant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is tightly linked to the B gene, a dominant early-bolting quantitative trait locus, the expression of which is positively regulated by LD photoperiod. Thus, photoperiod regulators like CONSTANS (CO) and CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) genes identified in many LD and short-day (SD)-responsive plants have long been considered constituents and/or candidates for the B gene. Until now, the photoperiod response pathway of sugar beet (a Caryophyllid), diverged from the Rosids and Asterids has not been identified. Here, evidence supporting the existence of a COL gene family is provided and the presence of Group I, II, and III COL genes in sugar beet, as characterized by different zinc-finger (B-box) and CCT (CO, CO-like, TOC) domains is demonstrated. BvCOL1 is identified as a close-homologue of Group 1a (AtCO, AtCOL1, AtCOL2) COL genes, hence a good candidate for flowering time control and it is shown that it maps to chromosome II but distant from the B gene locus. The late-flowering phenotype of A. thaliana co-2 mutants was rescued by over-expression of BvCOL1 thereby suggesting functional equivalence with AtCO, and it is shown that BvCOL1 interacts appropriately with the endogenous downstream genes, AtFT and AtSOC1 in the transgenic plants. Curiously, BvCOL1 has a dawn-phased diurnal pattern of transcription, mimicking that of AtCOL1 and AtCOL2 while contrasting with AtCO. Taken together, these data suggest that BvCOL1 plays an important role in the photoperiod response of sugar beet. PMID:18495636

  2. Serological Evidence for Non-Lethal Exposures of Mongolian Wild Birds to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Martin; Koel, Björn F.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Lewis, Nicola S.; Smith, Derek J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) in wild birds is logistically demanding due to the very low rates of virus detection. Serological approaches may be more cost effective as they require smaller sample sizes to identify exposed populations. We hypothesized that antigenic differences between classical Eurasian H5 subtype viruses (which have low pathogenicity in chickens) and H5N1 viruses of the Goose/Guangdong/96 H5 lineage (which are HPAIV) may be used to differentiate populations where HPAIVs have been circulating, from those where they have not. To test this we performed hemagglutination inhibition assays to compare the reactivity of serum samples from wild birds in Mongolia (where HPAIV has been circulating, n = 1,832) and Europe (where HPAIV has been rare or absent, n = 497) to a panel of reference viruses including classical Eurasian H5 (of low pathogenicity), and five HPAIV H5N1 antigens of the Asian lineage A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96. Antibody titres were detected against at least one of the test antigens for 182 Mongolian serum samples (total seroprevalence of 0.10, n = 1,832, 95% adjusted Wald confidence limits of 0.09–0.11) and 25 of the European sera tested (total seroprevalence of 0.05, n = 497, 95% adjusted Wald confidence limits of 0.03–0.07). A bias in antibody titres to HPAIV antigens was found in the Mongolian sample set (22/182) that was absent in the European sera (0/25). Although the interpretation of serological data from wild birds is complicated by the possibility of exposure to multiple strains, and variability in the timing of exposure, these findings suggest that a proportion of the Mongolian population had survived exposure to HPAIV, and that serological assays may enhance the targeting of traditional HPAIV surveillance toward populations where isolation of HPAIV is more likely. PMID:25502318

  3. Comprehensive genomic analyses associate UGT8 variants with musical ability in a Mongolian population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hansoo; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ju, Young Seok; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Hong, Dongwan; von Grotthuss, Marcin; Lee, Dong-Sung; Park, Changho; Kim, Jennifer Hayeon; Kim, Boram; Yoo, Yun Joo; Cho, Sung-Il; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Charles; Kim, Jong-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Background Musical abilities such as recognising music and singing performance serve as means for communication and are instruments in sexual selection. Specific regions of the brain have been found to be activated by musical stimuli, but these have rarely been extended to the discovery of genes and molecules associated with musical ability. Methods A total of 1008 individuals from 73 families were enrolled and a pitch-production accuracy test was applied to determine musical ability. To identify genetic loci and variants that contribute to musical ability, we conducted family-based linkage and association analyses, and incorporated the results with data from exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridisation analyses. Results We found significant evidence of linkage at 4q23 with the nearest marker D4S2986 (LOD=3.1), whose supporting interval overlaps a previous study in Finnish families, and identified an intergenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1251078, p=8.4×10−17) near UGT8, a gene highly expressed in the central nervous system and known to act in brain organisation. In addition, a non-synonymous SNP in UGT8 was revealed to be highly associated with musical ability (rs4148254, p=8.0×10−17), and a 6.2 kb copy number loss near UGT8 showed a plausible association with musical ability (p=2.9×10−6). Conclusions This study provides new insight into the genetics of musical ability, exemplifying a methodology to assign functional significance to synonymous and non-coding alleles by integrating multiple experimental methods. PMID:23118445

  4. Cancer, Families, and Family Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maureen; Gillig, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of the family counselor in working with cancer patients and their families. Suggests ways in which the family counselor can work proactively with families in the area of cancer prevention and helping them cope more effectively with its impact on their lives. Uses a clinical case example to illustrate intervention with cancer…

  5. Family therapy by family doctors

    PubMed Central

    Neighbour, R.

    1982-01-01

    The experiences of a group of general practitioners learning and attempting family therapy are described. Three principles for working with whole families — facilitation, formulation and focussing — are illustrated by case histories. Family therapy in general practice can be effective for patients and worthwhile for family doctors. PMID:7153974

  6. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.)

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72) of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs) were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP) based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs). Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further exploration of

  7. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72) of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs) were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP) based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs). Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further exploration of

  8. FAMILIAL SUICIDE

    PubMed Central

    Unni, K.E. Sadanaandan

    1996-01-01

    Seven completed suicides in a family of lower socioeconomic status and suburban domicile in Pondicherry are reported. The presence of bipolar affective disorder in the family members and the absence of exogenous factors are illustrated by utilising both family history method and family study method. The details collected formed the basis for the terminology ‘familial suicide’. The management of the index case, one of the only three surviving male members of the family, who presented with suicidal ruminations and depressive features, is described. PMID:21584122

  9. Changes of Ecosystems and Societies on the Mongolian Plateau: Coupled Regulations of Land Use and Changing Climate (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; John, R.; Lu, N.; Wilske, B.; Shao, C.; Li, L.; Zhen, L.

    2009-12-01

    The semi-arid region of the NEESPI domain on the Mongolian plateau lies within the jurisdictions of two governments, with similar geographical settings but contrasting socioeconomic systems - Inner Mongolia (IM) of China and Mongolia (MG). With respect to future temperatures and precipitation, this already water-limited region will experience: (1) a warming trend above the global warming mean (3.3°C by 2100), (2) longer, more intense, and more frequent summer heat waves, (3) altered summer and winter precipitation patterns, and (4) more extreme precipitation events, likely due to the combination of high latitude and altitude. The climate records in IM showed trends of warmer and drier conditions in the region. The annual daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperature increased whereas the diurnal temperature range decreased. On the decadal scale, the warming and drying trends were more significant in the last 30 years than the preceding 20 years. From land use perspective, the dominant land cover, grassland and barren, 0.47 and 0.27 million km2 respectively (41.21 and 23.58%) have increased proportionally. Cropland and urban land use also increased to 0.15 million km2 and 2197 km2 respectively (13.10% and 0.19 %). However, the results further indicated increases in both the homogeneity and fragmentation of the landscape. Increasing homogeneity was mainly related with the reduction in minority cover types such as such as savanna, forests and permanent wetlands and increasing cohesion, aggregation index and clumpy indices. The combined changes play the central role in determining species distribution and ecosystem function such as water and carbon. Our team is organized to examine and model the interactive changes of the natural and human systems at different temporal and spatial scales for use in recommending plans to increase the success of ecosystem and human adaptation to the changing climate and land use on the plateau.

  10. Differential bioavailability, clearance, and tissue distribution of the acyclic tomato carotenoids lycopene and phytoene in mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Moran, Nancy Engelmann; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2013-12-01

    Lycopene (LYC) is the major tomato carotenoid and is the focus of substantial research. Phytoene (PE), a minor tomato carotenoid, is found in human blood and tissues in similar concentrations to LYC. To determine which metabolic differences underlie this phenomenon, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, n = 56) were fed control or tomato powder (TP)-containing diets (to establish steady-state serum and tissue carotenoid concentrations similar to tomato-fed humans) for 26 d. The TP-fed gerbils were then provided either a single, oral, cottonseed oil (CO) vehicle dose and tissues were collected at 6 h or they were provided unlabeled PE or LYC in CO and tissues were evaluated at 6, 12, or 24 h. In vehicle-dosed, TP-fed gerbils, LYC was the major carotenoid (≥ 55% carotenoids) in liver, spleen, testes, and the prostate-seminal vesicle complex, whereas PE was the major serum and adipose carotenoid (≥ 37% total carotenoid) and phytofluene was the major carotenoid (≥ 38%) in adrenals and lungs. PE dosing increased hepatic, splenic, and serum PE concentrations compared with vehicle dosing (P < 0.05) from 6 to 24 h, whereas LYC dosing increased only serum LYC at 6 and 12 h (P < 0.05) compared with vehicle dosing. This suggested PE was more bioavailable and cleared more slowly than LYC. To precisely track absorptive and distributive differences, (14)C-PE or (14)C-LYC (n = 2/group) was provided to TP-fed gerbils. Bioavailability assessed by carcass (14)C-content was 23% for PE and 8% for LYC. Nearly every extra-hepatic tissue accumulated greater dose radioactivity after (14)C-PE than (14)C-LYC dosing. Thus, LYC and PE, which structurally differ only by saturation, pharmacokinetically differ in bioavailability, tissue deposition, and clearance. PMID:24108134

  11. Differential Bioavailability, Clearance, and Tissue Distribution of the Acyclic Tomato Carotenoids Lycopene and Phytoene in Mongolian Gerbils123

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Nancy Engelmann; Clinton, Steven K.; Erdman, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Lycopene (LYC) is the major tomato carotenoid and is the focus of substantial research. Phytoene (PE), a minor tomato carotenoid, is found in human blood and tissues in similar concentrations to LYC. To determine which metabolic differences underlie this phenomenon, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, n = 56) were fed control or tomato powder (TP)-containing diets (to establish steady-state serum and tissue carotenoid concentrations similar to tomato-fed humans) for 26 d. The TP-fed gerbils were then provided either a single, oral, cottonseed oil (CO) vehicle dose and tissues were collected at 6 h or they were provided unlabeled PE or LYC in CO and tissues were evaluated at 6, 12, or 24 h. In vehicle-dosed, TP-fed gerbils, LYC was the major carotenoid (≥55% carotenoids) in liver, spleen, testes, and the prostate-seminal vesicle complex, whereas PE was the major serum and adipose carotenoid (≥37% total carotenoid) and phytofluene was the major carotenoid (≥38%) in adrenals and lungs. PE dosing increased hepatic, splenic, and serum PE concentrations compared with vehicle dosing (P < 0.05) from 6 to 24 h, whereas LYC dosing increased only serum LYC at 6 and 12 h (P < 0.05) compared with vehicle dosing. This suggested PE was more bioavailable and cleared more slowly than LYC. To precisely track absorptive and distributive differences, 14C-PE or 14C-LYC (n = 2/group) was provided to TP-fed gerbils. Bioavailability assessed by carcass 14C-content was 23% for PE and 8% for LYC. Nearly every extra-hepatic tissue accumulated greater dose radioactivity after 14C-PE than 14C-LYC dosing. Thus, LYC and PE, which structurally differ only by saturation, pharmacokinetically differ in bioavailability, tissue deposition, and clearance. PMID:24108134

  12. Dose Response of Listeria monocytogenes Invasion, Fetal Morbidity, and Fetal Mortality after Oral Challenge in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Roulo, Rebecca M.; Fishburn, Jillian D.; Amosu, Mayowa; Etchison, Ashley R.

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can result in adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth or premature delivery. The Mongolian gerbil was recently proposed as the most appropriate small-animal model of listeriosis due to its susceptibility to the same invasion pathways as humans. The objectives of this study were to investigate invasion and adverse pregnancy outcomes in gerbils orally exposed to L. monocytogenes, to compare the dose-response data to those of other animal models, and to investigate differences in the responses of pregnant versus nonpregnant gerbils. Gerbils were orally exposed to 0 (control), 103, 105, 107, or 109 CFU L. monocytogenes in whipping cream. L. monocytogenes was recovered in a dose-dependent manner from fecal samples, adult organs, and pregnancy-associated tissues. Dams exposed to 109 CFU had more invaded organs and higher concentrations of L. monocytogenes in almost all organs than nonpregnant animals, though no differences in fecal shedding were seen between the two groups. Adverse pregnancy outcomes occurred only in the dams treated with 109 CFU. A 50% infectivity dose (ID50) of 2.60 × 106 CFU for fetuses was calculated by fitting the data to a logistic model. Our results suggest that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) falls within the range of 5 × 106 to 5 × 108 CFU. This range includes the guinea pig and nonhuman primate LD50s, but the observation that L. monocytogenes-induced stillbirths can be seen in guinea pigs and primates exposed to lower doses than those at which stillbirths were seen in gerbils indicates that gerbils are not more sensitive to L. monocytogenes invasion. PMID:25156729

  13. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0065). In study 1B, no groups differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver; P = 0.20). In study 2, the 60% raw Butobe group (0.68 ± 0.17 μmol retinol/liver) differed from the 60% cooked Butobe group (0.87 ± 0.24 μmol retinol/liver); neither group differed from baseline (0.80 ± 0.27 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0001). Total liver retinol was higher in the groups fed cooked bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets. PMID:23096010

  14. Overweight, resting heart rate, and prediabetes/diabetes: A population-based prospective cohort study among Inner Mongolians in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shao Yan; Wu, Jia Hui; Zhou, Jing Wen; Liang, Zhu; Qiu, Qiao Yan; Xu, Tian; Zhang, Ming Zhi; Zhong, Chong Ke; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Yong Hong

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the cumulative effect of overweight and resting heart rate on prediabetes/diabetes incidence in an 10-year follow-up study in Inner Mongolians. Among 1729 participants who were free from prediabetes and diabetes at baseline, 503 and 155 subjects developed prediabetes and diabetes, respectively. We categorized the participants into 4 subgroups according to overweight and resting heart rate status. The multivariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) in normal weight with heart rate ≥80 bpm, overweight with heart rate <80 bpm, and overweight with heart rate ≥80 bpm were 1.24 (0.95–1.61), 1.83 (1.29–2.61), 2.20 (1.41–3.45) for prediabetes and 1.52 (0.97–2.40), 3.64 (2.21–6.01), 4.61 (2.47–8.61) for diabetes, respectively, compared with normal weight with heart rate <80 bpm. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for the prediction of diabetes incidence for a model containing overweight and resting heart rate, along with conventional factors (AUC = 0.751), was significantly (P = 0.003) larger than the one containing only conventional factors (AUC = 0.707). Our study indicated that overweight was an independent risk factor of prediabetes and diabetes, and overweight with faster resting heart rate might further increase the risk of prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:27029423

  15. Effects of changing precipitation and warming on functional traits of zonal Stipa plants from Inner Mongolian grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms driving changes in dominant plant species are the key for understanding how grassland ecosystems respond to climate change. In this study, we examined plant functional traits (morphological characteristics: plant height, leaf area, and leaf number; biomasses: aboveground, belowground, and total; and growth indices: root-to-shoot ratio, specific leaf area, and leaf mass ratio) of four zonal Stipa species ( S. baicalensis, S. bungeana, S. grandis, and S. breviflora) from Inner Mongolian grassland in response to warming (control, +1.5, +2.0, +4.0, and +6.0?), changing precipitation (-30%, -15%, control, +15%, and +30%), and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The results showed that warming and changing precipitation had significant interactive effects, different from the accumulation of single-factor effects, on functional traits of Stipa species. The correlation and sensitivity of different plant functional traits to temperature and precipitation differed. Among the four species, the accumulation and variability of functional traits had greater partial correlation with precipitation than temperature, except for leaf number, leaf area, and specific leaf area, in S. breviflora, S. bungeana, and S. grandis. For S. baicalensis, the accumulation and variability of plant height, aboveground biomass, and root-to-shoot ratio only had significant partial correlation with precipitation. However, the variability of morphological characteristics, biomasses, and some growth indices, was more sensitive to temperature than precipitation in S. bungeana, S. grandis, and S. breviflora—except for aboveground biomass and plant height. These results reveal that precipitation is the key factor determining the growth and changes in plant functional traits in Stipa species, and that temperature mainly influences the quantitative fluctuations of the changes in functional traits.

  16. Shifts in vegetation growth in response to multiple factors on the Mongolian Plateau from 1982 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Lijuan; Liu, Qiang; Fraser, Richard; He, Bin; Cui, Xuefeng

    The Mongolian Plateau (MP) steppe is one of the largest steppe environments in the world. To monitor the terrestrial vegetation dynamics on the MP and to ascertain what the driving forces, this study examined the vegetation dynamics in Republic of Mongolia (M) and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IM) of China from the period 1982 to 2011, based on the satellite-derived GIMMS NDVI3g (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data across three biomes (desert, grassland and forest). The results are as followed: (1) Vegetation coverage in IM was generally greater than that in M. Before 2002, time series of NDVI over the MP increased at an average rate of 0.05% yr-1. Additionally, after 2002, the NDVI increased at a rate of 0.21% yr-1. From 1982 to 2011, the area of IM and M with positive anomalies in the NDVI increased at a separate rate of 1.82% yr-1 and 1.76% yr-1, respectively. (2) At the biome scale, the inter-annual forest NDVI variation in IM and desert NDVI for the entire MP had a significant increasing trend (0.06% yr-1 and 0.04% yr-1, respectively). (3) Climate forcing was a dominant controlling factor affecting the vegetation, and the anthropogenic behavior exhibited no significant value in the whole region. However, overgrazing was the most important reason for the regional degradation, particularly in IM. (4) In the future, the forest biome will go to recovery, whereas both the grassland and desert biomes are predicted to degrade continuously.

  17. Geochronology of igneous rocks and formation of the Late Paleozoic south Mongolian active margin of the Siberian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Kovalenko, V. I.; Sal'Nikova, E. B.; Kovach, V. P.; Kozlovsky, A. M.; Kotov, A. B.; Lebedev, V. I.

    2008-04-01

    The succession of magmatic events associated with development of the Early Carboniferous-Early Permian marginal continental magmatic belt of southern Mongolia is studied. In the belt structure there are defined the successive rock complexes: the older one represented by differentiated basalt-andesite-rhyodacite series and younger bimodal complex of basalt-comendite-trachyrhyolite composition. The granodiorite-plagiogranite and banatite (diorite-monzonite-granodiorite) plutonic massifs are associated with the former, while peralkaline granite massifs are characteristic of the latter. First systematic geochronological study of igneous rock associations is performed to establish time succession and structural position of both complexes. Geochronological results and geological relations between rocks of the bimodal and differentiated complexes showed first that rocks of the differentiated complex originated 350 to 330 Ma ago at the initial stage of development of the marginal continental belt. This is evident from geochronological dates obtained for the Adzh-Bogd and Edrengiyn-Nuruu massifs and for volcanic associations of the complex. The dates are consistent with paleontological data. The bimodal association was formed later, 320 to 290 Ma ago. The time span separating formation of two igneous complexes ranges from several to 20 30 m.y. in different areas of the marginal belt. The bimodal magmatism was interrelated with rifting responsible for development of the Gobi-Tien Shan rift zone in the belt axial part and the Main Mongolian lineament along the belt northern boundary. Loci of bimodal rift magmatism likely migrated with time: the respective magmatic activity first initiated on the west of the rift system and then advanced gradually eastward with development of rift structures. Normal granitoids untypical but occurring nevertheless among the products of rift magmatism in addition to peralkaline massifs are assumed to have been formed, when the basic magmatism

  18. Leaf cold acclimation and freezing injury in C3 and C4 grasses of the Mongolian Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P.

    2008-01-01

    The scarcity of C4 plants in cool climates is usually attributed to their lower photosynthetic efficiency than C3 species at low temperatures. However, a lower freezing resistance may also decrease the competitive advantage of C4 plants by reducing canopy duration, especially in continental steppe grasslands, where a short, hot growing season is bracketed by frost events. This paper reports an experimental test of the hypothesis that cold acclimation is negligible in C4 grasses, leading to greater frost damage than in C3 species. The experiments exposed six C3 and three C4 Mongolian steppe grasses to 20 d chilling or control pre-treatments, followed by a high-light freezing event. Leaf resistance to freezing injury was independent of photosynthetic type. Three C3 species showed constitutive freezing resistance characterized by <20% leaf mortality, associated with high photosynthetic carbon fixation and electron transport rates and low leaf osmotic potential. One freezing-sensitive C4 species showed the expected pattern of chilling-induced damage to photosynthesis and >95% leaf mortality after the freezing event. However, three C3 and two C4 species displayed a cold acclimation response, showing significant decreases in osmotic potential and photosynthesis after exposure to chilling, and a 30–72% reduction of leaf freezing injury. This result suggested that down-regulation of osmotic potential may be involved in the cold acclimation process, and demonstrated that there is no inherent barrier to the development of cold acclimation in C4 species from this ecosystem. Cold acclimation via osmoregulation represents a previously undescribed mechanism to explain the persistence of C4 plants in cool climates. PMID:18980952

  19. Modeling greenup date of dominant grass species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland using air temperature and precipitation data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jing; Xu, Lin; Liu, Li; Ding, Deng

    2014-05-01

    This work was undertaken to examine the combined effect of air temperature and precipitation during late winter and early spring on modeling greenup date of grass species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. We used the traditional thermal time model and developed two revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation to simulate greenup date of three dominant grass species at six stations from 1983 to 2009. Results show that climatic controls on greenup date of grass species were location-specific. The revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation show higher simulation parsimony and efficiency than the traditional thermal time model for five of 11 data sets at Bayartuhushuo, Xilinhot and Xianghuangqi, whereas the traditional thermal time model indicates higher simulation parsimony and efficiency than the revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation for the other six data sets at E'ergunayouqi, Ewenkeqi and Chaharyouyihouqi. The mean root mean square error of the 11 models is 4.9 days. Moreover, the influence of late winter and early spring precipitation on greenup date seems to be stronger at stations with scarce precipitation than at stations with relatively abundant precipitation. From the mechanism perspectives, accumulated late winter and early spring precipitation may play a more important role as the precondition of forcing temperature than as the supplementary condition of forcing temperature in triggering greenup. Our findings suggest that predicting responses of grass phenology to global climate change should consider both thermal and moisture scenarios in some semiarid and arid areas. PMID:24065573

  20. Inhibitory effect of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a plant lignan, on Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Nishibe, Sansei; Deyama, Takeshi; Takenaka, Yoshiharu; Hirano, Naoki; Tanaka, Harunari; Takasu, Shinji; Ban, Hisayo; Kumagai, Toshiko; Inada, Ken-Ichi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Tatematsu, Masae

    2007-11-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of certain natural products can lower cancer risk in humans. For example, plant-derived lignans have been shown to exert chemopreventive effects against cancer in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of three such lignans, termed arctiin, arctigenin, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), on the proliferation of Helicobacter pylori and the prevention of H. pylori-associated gastric cancer were investigated in Mongolian gerbils. To examine the effects of arctigenin and NDGA on stomach carcinogenesis, specific pathogen-free male, 5-week-old gerbils were infected with H. pylori, administered 10 p.p.m. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in their drinking water and fed diets containing various concentrations of lignans until they were killed after 52 weeks. At a dietary level of 0.25%, NDGA significantly decreased the incidence of gastric adenocarcinomas. Arctigenin, in contrast, failed to attenuate neoplasia at a level of 0.1%. Both NDGA and arctigenin significantly reduced serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels at doses of 0.25 and 0.05% (NDGA), and 0.1% (arctigenin). Administration of 0.25% NDGA significantly suppressed the formation of intestinal metaplasia both in the antrum and the corpus. Although all three lignans dose-dependently inhibited the in vitro proliferation of H. pylori, there were no differences in the titers of anti-H. pylori antibodies or the amount of the H. pylori-specific urease A gene among all H. pylori-infected groups. These results suggest that NDGA might be effective for prevention of gastric carcinogenesis. The possible mechanisms appear to be related to inhibitory effects on progression of gastritis and antioxidative activity rather than direct antimicrobial influence. PMID:17894552

  1. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  2. Genetic detection of Babesia bigemina from Mongolian cattle using apical membrane antigen-1 gene-based PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Altangerel, Khukhuu; Battsetseg, Badgar; Battur, Banzragch; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2012-06-01

    We developed a new nested PCR (nPCR) assay based on the Babesia bigemina apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) gene sequence for parasite-specific detection. The primers were designed to amplify 738-bp and 211-bp fragments of the AMA-1 gene by primary and nested PCRs, respectively. The assay was proven to be specific for the B. bigemina, whereas the previously established SpeI-AvaI nPCR assay amplified not only the target fragment of B. bigemina but also a homologous one from Babesia ovata. The AMA-1 nPCR assay was also evaluated using field DNA samples extracted from 266 bovine blood samples collected from Mongolia in 2010. In a comparative evaluation, 90 (33.8%) and 25 (9.4%) of the blood samples showed positive reactions for B. bigemina by the SpeI-AvaI nPCR and AMA-1 nPCR assays, respectively. The sequencing analysis of the nPCR products confirmed that the AMA-1 nPCR method had specifically detected the target B. bigemina DNA. However, 4 different kinds of sequences were determined among the SpeI-AvaI nPCR amplicons. Two of them were derived from B. bigemina and B. ovata, while the origins of the others were unknown. In the current study, the presence of B. bigemina was clearly demonstrated among Mongolian cattle populations by the current nPCR assay for the first time. Furthermore, our findings also indicate that the AMA-1 nPCR assay may be a useful diagnostic tool for the specific detection of B. bigemina. PMID:22284301

  3. Gaspra and Ida in families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.

    1992-01-01

    The Galileo flyby candidates 951 Gaspra and 243 Ida are both in families. The former is in a complex of families associated with 8 Flora and the latter is in the Koronis family. The Flora and the Koronis families are described. The Galileo spacecraft will have the opportunity to sample fragments from two types of impacts; one impact totally destroyed the parent body and the other left a large body behind. The types of Ss are also different, the colors of Gaspra and the other Ss in the complex of families near 8 Flora are much redder in U-V than Ida and the Ss of the Koronis family.

  4. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the 1990s" (James Knoll);…

  5. Family Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainor, Peggy

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Kellogg Family Collaborative project that involves the University of Montana and four tribal colleges in a family-strengths approach to improving student retention and achievement. States that the project is grounded in social work theory and research that recognize and reinforce family and student resilience through promotion of…

  6. Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

  7. An Anthropologist among the Psychometricians: Assessment Events, Ethnography, and Differential Item Functioning in the Mongolian Gobi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Tay-Lim, Brenda; Qu, Demin

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the potential for ethnographic observations to inform the analysis of test item performance. In 2010, a standardized, large-scale adult literacy assessment took place in Mongolia as part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP). In a novel form…

  8. Two familial cases of Olmsted-like syndrome with a G573V mutation of the TRPV3 gene.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Y P; Liu, J; Han, J W; Huang, Y P; Gao, Z Q; Yang, Y; Wu, R N

    2016-07-01

    Olmsted syndrome (OS) is a rare disease, characterized by symmetrical, sharply defined, hyperkeratotic, mutilating plaques on the palms and soles, which are associated with periorificial keratotic plaques. Other clinical manifestations of OS include diffuse alopecia, leucokeratosis of the oral mucosa, onychodystrophy, hyperkeratotic linear streaks, follicular hyperkeratosis and constriction of the digits. A recent study identified de novo mutations in the gene for transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), causing constitutive activation of the TRPV3 channel, as a cause of OS. We report familial inheritance of OS in a family from Mongolia, which was caused by a previously undescribed G573V point mutation in TRPV3. To date, mutations in the G573 residue of TRPV3 have been reported in seven cases of OS: G573S in five cases, and G573C and G573A mutations in one case each. We present a Mongolian familial case of G573V point mutation in TRPV3. PMID:27273692

  9. Association between RNF41 gene c.-206 T > A genetic polymorphism and risk of congenital heart diseases in the Chinese Mongolian population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Jin, S Q; Li, W X; Gao, G Q; Zhang, K; Huang, J L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between ring finger protein 41 (RNF41) c.-206 T > A variant and susceptibility to congenital heart disease (CHD) in the Chinese Mongolian population. The association between RNF41 gene c.-206 T > A polymorphism and CHD was examined in two independent case-control studies consisting of 219 CHD patients and 208 healthy controls. Genotype was determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. We found that the genotype frequencies of RNF41 c.-206 T > A differ significantly between the two groups (P < 0.05). The TT and TA genotypes in the CHD group were 80.67 and 19.33%, respectively. On the other hand, the frequencies of TT and TA in the control group were 94.44 and 5.56%, respectively. Furthermore, the allelic frequencies of CHD patients (T, 90.34%; A, 9.66%) were significantly different as compared with those of non-CHD controls (T, 97.22%; A, 2.78%; χ2 = 4.031, P = 0.041). Our study demonstrates that the RNF41 c.-206 T > A polymorphism may be a risk factor for congenital heart disease in the Chinese Mongolian population. PMID:27323192

  10. Dose Effect Evaluation and Therapeutic Window of the Neuro-EPO Nasal Application for the Treatment of the Focal Ischemia Model in the Mongolian Gerbil

    PubMed Central

    Teste, Iliana Sosa; Tamos, Yuneidys Mengana; Cruz, Yamila Rodríguez; Cernada, Adriana Muñoz; Rodríguez, Janette Cruz; Martínez, Nelvis Subirós; Antich, Rosa Maria Coro; González-Quevedo, Alina; Rodríguez, Julio Cesar García

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of disability in Cuba and in several developed countries. A possible neuroprotective agent is the rHu-EPO, whose effects have been demonstrated in models of brain ischemia. The Neuro-EPO is a derivative of the rHu-EPO that avoids the stimulation of erythropoiesis. The aim of this study was to determine the Neuro-EPO delivery into the central nervous system (CNS) to exert a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia model of the Mongolian gerbil. The Neuro-EPO in a rate of 249.4 UI every 8 hours for 4 days showed 25% higher viability efficacy (P > 0.01), improving neurological score and behavior of the spontaneous exploratory activity, the preservation of CA3 areas of the hippocampus, the cortex, and thalamic nuclei in the focal ischemia model of the Mongolian gerbil. In summary, this study, the average dose-used Neuro-EPO (249.4 UI/10 μL/every 8 hours for 4 days), proved to be valid indicators of viability, neurological status, and spontaneous exploratory activity, being significantly lower than that reported for the systemically use of the rHu-EPO as a neuroprotectant. Indeed, up to 12 h after brain ischemia is very positive Neuro-EPO administration by the nasal route as a candidate for neuroprotection. PMID:22701364

  11. Recurrent Inhibition to the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body in the Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones Unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Dondzillo, Anna; Thompson, John A.; Klug, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Principal neurons in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) receive strong and temporally precise excitatory input from globular bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus through the calyx of Held. The extremely large synaptic currents produced by the calyx have sometimes led to the view of the MNTB as a simple relay synapse which converts incoming excitation to outgoing inhibition. However, electrophysiological and anatomical studies have shown the additional presence of inhibitory glycinergic currents that are large enough to suppress action potentials in MNTB neurons at least in some cases. The source(s) of glycinergic inhibition to MNTB are not fully understood. One major extrinsic source of glycinergic inhibitory input to MNTB is the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body. However, it has been suggested that MNTB neurons receive additional inhibitory inputs via intrinsic connections (collaterals of glycinergic projections of MNTB neurons). While several authors have postulated their presence, these collaterals have never been examined in detail. Here we test the hypothesis that collaterals of MNTB principal cells provide glycinergic inhibition to the MNTB. We injected dye into single principal neurons in the MNTB, traced their projections, and immunohistochemically identified their synapses. We found that collaterals terminate within the MNTB and provide an additional source of inhibition to other principal cells, creating an inhibitory microcircuit within the MNTB. Only about a quarter to a third of MNTB neurons receive such collateral inputs. This microcircuit could produce side band inhibition and enhance frequency tuning of MNTB neurons, consistent with physiological observations. PMID:27489949

  12. What makes a family reliable?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.

    1992-01-01

    Asteroid families are clusters of asteroids in proper element space which are thought to be fragments from former collisions. Studies of families promise to improve understanding of large collision events and a large event can open up the interior of a former parent body to view. While a variety of searches for families have found the same heavily populated families, and some searches have found the same families of lower population, there is much apparent disagreement between proposed families of lower population of different investigations. Indicators of reliability, factors compromising reliability, an illustration of the influence of different data samples, and a discussion of how several investigations perceived families in the same region of proper element space are given.

  13. Mongolian Almond (Prunus mongolica Maxim): The Morpho-Physiological, Biochemical and Transcriptomic Response to Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shulan; Gao, Xiaomin; Liu, Min; Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prunus mongolica Maxim, which is widely established in the Gobi Desert, shows extreme tolerance to drought. However, there is a lack of available transcriptomic resources for this species related to its response to water deficiency. To investigate the mechanisms that allow P. mongolica to maintain growth in extremely arid environments, the response of P. mongolica seedlings to drought stress was analyzed using morphological, physiological, biochemical and high-throughput sequencing approaches. We generated 28,713,735 and 26,650,133 raw reads from no-stress control and drought-stressed P. mongolica seedlings, respectively. In total, we obtained 67,352 transcripts with an average length of 874.44 bp. Compared with the no-stress control, 3,365 transcripts were differentially expressed in the drought-stressed seedlings, including 55.75% (1,876 transcripts) up-regulated and 44.25% (1,489 transcripts) down-regulated transcripts. The photosynthesis response showed a decreasing tendency under drought stress, but the changes in the levels of hormones (auxins, cytokinins and abscisic acid) resulted in the closing of stomata and decreased cell enlargement and division; these changes were effective for promoting P. mongolica survival in Gobi Desert. Next, we analyzed the aquaporin and superoxide dismutase gene families due to their importance in plant resistance to drought stress. We found that all of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein transcripts were down-regulated in the drought-stressed treatment, whereas drought did not affect the expression of nodulin intrinsic protein or small basic intrinsic protein transcripts in P. mongolica seedlings. In addition, activation of iron superoxide dismutase transcription and enhanced transcription of manganese superoxide dismutase were observed in P. mongolica to promote tolerance of drought stress. This study identified drought response genes in P. mongolica seedlings. Our results provide a significant contribution to the

  14. Mongolian Almond (Prunus mongolica Maxim): The Morpho-Physiological, Biochemical and Transcriptomic Response to Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jǖgang; Zheng, Rong; Bai, Shulan; Gao, Xiaomin; Liu, Min; Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prunus mongolica Maxim, which is widely established in the Gobi Desert, shows extreme tolerance to drought. However, there is a lack of available transcriptomic resources for this species related to its response to water deficiency. To investigate the mechanisms that allow P. mongolica to maintain growth in extremely arid environments, the response of P. mongolica seedlings to drought stress was analyzed using morphological, physiological, biochemical and high-throughput sequencing approaches. We generated 28,713,735 and 26,650,133 raw reads from no-stress control and drought-stressed P. mongolica seedlings, respectively. In total, we obtained 67,352 transcripts with an average length of 874.44 bp. Compared with the no-stress control, 3,365 transcripts were differentially expressed in the drought-stressed seedlings, including 55.75% (1,876 transcripts) up-regulated and 44.25% (1,489 transcripts) down-regulated transcripts. The photosynthesis response showed a decreasing tendency under drought stress, but the changes in the levels of hormones (auxins, cytokinins and abscisic acid) resulted in the closing of stomata and decreased cell enlargement and division; these changes were effective for promoting P. mongolica survival in Gobi Desert. Next, we analyzed the aquaporin and superoxide dismutase gene families due to their importance in plant resistance to drought stress. We found that all of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein transcripts were down-regulated in the drought-stressed treatment, whereas drought did not affect the expression of nodulin intrinsic protein or small basic intrinsic protein transcripts in P. mongolica seedlings. In addition, activation of iron superoxide dismutase transcription and enhanced transcription of manganese superoxide dismutase were observed in P. mongolica to promote tolerance of drought stress. This study identified drought response genes in P. mongolica seedlings. Our results provide a significant contribution to the

  15. Limits to sustained energy intake. XIX. A test of the heat dissipation limitation hypothesis in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Deng-Bao; Li, Li; Wang, Lu-Ping; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Hambly, Catherine; Wang, De-Hua; Speakman, John R

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated factors limiting lactating Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) at three temperatures (10, 21 and 30°C). Energy intake and daily energy expenditure (DEE) increased with decreased ambient temperature. At peak lactation (day 14 of lactation), energy intake increased from 148.7±5.7 kJ day(-1) at 30°C to 213.1±8.2 kJ day(-1) at 21°C and 248.7±12.3 kJ day(-1) at 10°C. DEE increased from 105.1±4.0 kJ day(-1) at 30°C to 134.7±5.6 kJ day(-1) at 21°C and 179.5±8.4 kJ day(-1) at 10°C on days 14-16 of lactation. With nearly identical mean litter sizes, lactating gerbils at 30°C exported 32.0 kJ day(-1) less energy as milk at peak lactation than those allocated to 10 or 21°C, with no difference between the latter groups. On day 14 of lactation, the litter masses at 10 and 30°C were 12.2 and 9.3 g lower than those at 21°C, respectively. Lactating gerbils had higher thermal conductance of the fur and lower UCP-1 levels in brown adipose tissue than non-reproductive gerbils, independent of ambient temperature, suggesting that they were attempting to avoid heat stress. Thermal conductance of the fur was positively related to circulating prolactin levels. We implanted non-reproductive gerbils with mini-osmotic pumps that delivered either prolactin or saline. Prolactin did not influence thermal conductance of the fur, but did reduce physical activity and UCP-1 levels in brown adipose tissue. Transferring lactating gerbils from warm to hot conditions resulted in reduced milk production, consistent with the heat dissipation limit theory, but transferring them from warm to cold conditions did not elevate milk production, consistent with the peripheral limitation hypothesis, and placed constraints on pup growth. PMID:23737554

  16. Ethnic family structure.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, P

    1989-04-01

    Using information from large-scale statistical collections and elaborations from ethnographic studies, this paper examines the underlying social processes and structures of migrant families in Australia. Migrants in Australia are often confronted by family values and behavior which run counter to their own. For some migrants, particularly those from the United Kingdom and Western European countries, there is little conflict as Australian family values and behavior approximate their own; the feminine conception of the family is not foreign to them. On the other hand, migrants from Mediterranean countries and from Asia are likely to face a clash between the masculine conception of the family and the dominant feminine conception they find in Australia. Economic structure also often forces an accommodation to the feminine conception of the family. For example, migrant women in Australia are heavily involved in the work force outside the family circle, and, in the main, have relatively low fertility. Age at marriage is increasing and many single women of migrant origin are being educated at the tertiary level and are working before marriage. These changes necessarily expose women and youths to the dominant social values and increase their economic independence, thus disrupting the conventional male family authority. There is evidence of a degree of accommodation to Australian patterns of behavior in migrant groups more inclined to a masculine conception of the family. In other areas, however, which are less directly related to economic pressure, migrant values have been far less accommodating. There is still a high level of endogamy, the 1st birth occurs soon after marriage, divorce rates are low, and the aged are very likely to live with their children. Large migrant groups have been able to maintain these patterns of behavior through the formation of ethnic substructures that form their principal social environment. In the longer term, however, their children are

  17. Phenotype-Genotype Correlation in Wilson Disease in a Large Lebanese Family: Association of c.2299insC with Hepatic and of p. Ala1003Thr with Neurologic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Usta, Julnar; Wehbeh, Antonios; Rida, Khaled; El-Rifai, Omar; Estiphan, Theresa Alicia; Majarian, Tamar; Barada, Kassem

    2014-01-01

    Genotype phenotype correlations in Wilson disease (WD) are best established in homozygous patients or in compound heterozygous patients carrying the same set of mutations. We determined the clinical phenotype of patients with WD carrying the c.2298_2299insC in Exon 8 (c.2299insC) or the p. Ala1003Thr missense substitution in Exon 13 mutations in the homozygous or compound heterozygous state. We investigated 76 members of a single large Lebanese family. Their genotypes were determined, and clinical assessments were carried out for affected subjects. We also performed a literature search retrieving the phenotypes of patients carrying the same mutations of our patients in the homozygous or compound heterozygous state. There were 7 consanguineous marriages in this family and the prevalence of WD was 8.9% and of carriers of ATP7B mutation 44.7%. WD was confirmed in 9 out of 76 subjects. All 9 had the c.2299insC mutation, 5 homozygous and 4-compound heterozygous with p. Ala1003Thr. Six of our patients had hepatic, 2 had neurologic and 1 had asymptomatic phenotype. Based on our data and a literature review, clear phenotypes were reported for 38 patients worldwide carrying the c.2299insC mutation. About 53% of those have hepatic and 29% have neurologic phenotype. Furthermore, there were 10 compound heterozygous patients carrying the p. Ala1003Thr mutation. Among those, 80% having c.2299insC as the second mutation had hepatic phenotype, and all others had neurologic phenotype. We hereby report an association between the c.2299insC mutation and hepatic phenotype and between the p. Ala1003Thr mutation and neurologic phenotype. PMID:25390358

  18. FAMILY LYGISTORRHINIDAE.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-01-01

    The Lygistorrhinidae are a family belonging to the suborder Bibionomorpha, with no previous record from Colombia. This paper refers for the first time to the occurrence of the family in the country, an undetermined species of the genus Lygistorrhina (Probolaeus) Williston. PMID:27395260

  19. Family Potyviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

  20. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  1. Family Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of IMPACT focuses on the empowerment of families with a member who has a developmental disability. It presents strategies and models for a collaborative, respectful approach to service provision, and presents the experiences of families in seeking support and assistance. Feature articles include "Two Generations of Disability: A…

  2. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  3. Representative seroprevalences of human and livestock brucellosis in two Mongolian provinces.

    PubMed

    Zolzaya, Baljinnyam; Selenge, Tsend; Narangarav, Tsegeen; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Erdenechimeg, Dashzevge; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2014-09-01

    Mongolia implemented a brucellosis livestock mass vaccination campaign from 2000 to 2009. However, the number of human cases did not decline since 2004 and the current epidemiological situation in Mongolia was uncertain. The objective of this study was to estimate the representative seroprevalences of humans and livestock in two provinces in view of their comparison with officially reported data. A representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, sheep, goats, cattle, yaks, horses, camels and dogs was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 8054 livestock and dog sera and 574 human sera were collected in Sukhbaatar and Zavkhan provinces. Human and animal sera were tested with the Rose Bengal and ELISA tests. The overall apparent seroprevalence of brucellosis was 27.3% in humans (95% CI 23.7-31.2%), 6.2% (95% CI 5.5-7.1%) in sheep, 5.2% (95% CI 4.4-5.9%) in goats, 16.0% (95% CI 13.7-18.7%) in cattle, 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-7.6%) in camels, 8.3 (95% CI 6.0-11.6%) in horses and 36.4% (95% CI 26.3-48.0%) in dogs. More women than men were seropositive (OR = 1.7; P < 0.0014). Human seroprevalence was not associated with small ruminant and cattle seroprevalence at the nomadic camp (hot ail) level. Annual incidence of clinical brucellosis, inferred from the seroprevalence using a catalytic model, was by a factor of 4.6 (1307/280) in Sukhbaatar and by a factor of 59 (1188/20) in Zavkhan. This represents a 15-fold underreporting of human brucellosis in Mongolia. The lack of access to brucellosis diagnostic testing at the village level hinders rural people from receiving appropriate treatment. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of human and livestock brucellosis in Mongolia. Stringent monitoring and quality control of operational management of a nationwide mass vaccination of small and large ruminants is warranted to assure its effectiveness. More research is needed to

  4. Mongolian-Russian cooperation at the Khureltogoot observatory in the ISON project framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungalag, Namkhai; Rentsenmyagmar, Buyankhishig; Turmunkh, Bayarbat; Tsogt-Ochir, Shijirbayar; Molotov, Igor; Voropaev, Viktor; Kouprianov, Vladimir; Krugly, Yury; Schmalz, Sergey; Pozanenko, Aleksey

    2014-09-01

    Since autumn 2012, the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of Mongolia, in collaboration with the International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) coordinated by the Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics (KIAM), Russian Academy of Sciences, have conducted a large number of astronomical observations of space debris, asteroids, and the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at the new facility of the Khureltogoot observatory near Ulaanbaatar. To the date, ISON joins 35 observation facilities with 80 telescopes of apertures from 12.5 cm to 2.6 m in 15 countries and carries out research on space debris, asteroids, and GRBs. 8.4 million measurements in 1.21 million tracklets of about 4000 Earth-orbiting objects were collected by the ISON network in 2013. It is planned that a part of the orbital data will be accessible via a UN-hosted web page in 2014. A new pavilion was built at Khureltogoot during 2012 to initiate collaboration with ISON. Since November 2012, observations began with the VT-78a 19.2 cm telescopes, with a field of view of 7×7 degrees on a robotic WS-180 mount. The telescope is controlled by the CHAOS TCS software; CCD image processing is done using the APEX II software platform developed within the ISON project. This telescope provides extended surveys of a visible part of the geostationary ring from 0 to 20 degrees inclination, with up to 15 thousand measurements of 500 to 700 objects per night. The limiting magnitude is 14 mag for 10 s exposure time, while the time span of individual tracklets is up to several hours. These surveys help KIAM to increase the accuracy of geostationary Earth-orbit (GEO) object orbits for conjunction analysis, to detect maneuvers of active satellites, and to assist in maintaining the orbits of GEO objects in clusters. Moreover, many HEO objects are detected as a by-product. Since November 2013, a new 40 cm telescope, ORI-40 with the field of view of 2.3×2.3 degrees on a robotic WS

  5. Late Pleistocene to Historical Activity of the Hovd Fault (Mongolian Altay) from Tectonic Geomorphology and Paleoseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, M. A.; Battogtokh, D.; Ritz, J. F.; Kurtz, R.; Braucher, R.; Klinger, Y.; Ulzibat, M.; Chimed, O.; Demberel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Active tectonics of western Mongolia is dominated by large strike-slip fault systems that produced great historical earthquakes: the Bulnay fault (Mw 8.1 and 8.4 in 1905), the Fu-Yun fault (Mw 8.0 in 1931) and the Bogd fault (Mw 8.1 in 1957). Central to these faults is the Altay Range that accommodates ~4 mm/yr of right-lateral motion. An earthquake of similar magnitude occurred in 1761 and has been attributed to the Hovd fault were seemingly fresh surface rupture was reported in 1985. Here, we study the Ar-Hötöl section of the Hovd fault where surface rupture was described over a length of ~200 km. Detailed mapping of stream gullies from high-resolution Pleiades satellite images show a consistent pattern of right-lateral offsets from a few meters to ~500 m. At Climbing Rock, we surveyed a gully offset by 75 ± 5 m. The associated surface was sampled for 10Be profile which yields an exposure age of 154 ± 20 ka. The resulting minimal right-lateral slip rate ranges 0.4-0.6 mm/yr. However, drainage reconstruction suggests this surface may have recorded as much as 400 ± 20 m of cumulative offset. This implies the Hovd fault may accommodate as much as 2.6 ± 0.4 mm/yr, which would make it the main active fault of the Altay. At a smaller scale, TLS topography documents offsets in the order of 2.5-5 m that likely correspond to the most recent surface-rupturing event with Mw ~8. A value of 2.8-3.0 m is reconstructed from a Uiger grave dated AD 750-840. At Marmot Creek and Small Creek, short drainages flow across the fault and form ponds against the main scarp. Two paleoseimic trenches reveal similar stratigraphy with numerous peat layers that developed over alluvial sands. The fault exhibits near vertical strands affecting pre-ponding units as well as a well-developed peat unit radiocarbon-dated AD 1465-1635. This unit likely corresponds to the ground surface at the time of the last rupture. It is overlain with a sandy pond unit on top of which a second continuous peat

  6. Modified temporal-phase-unwrapping method for measuring in real time the out-of-plane displacements of the tympanic membrane of Mongolian Gerbil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Celorio, R. A.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Buytaert, Jan A. N.; Martí-López, Luis; Decraemer, Wim

    2008-12-01

    A technique for measuring in real-time continuous out-of-plane displacements of delicate objects is proposed, and demonstrated on the tympanic membrane of Mongolian Gerbil. The technique is based on the combination of two methods: the spatial phase shifting (SPS) and the modified temporal phase unwrapping (TPU). The combination allows to obtain, in several steps, the phase values of the points that undergo out-of-plane displacement as the object is deformed. The technique reduces the frame acquisition time of the standard TPU used in moiré interferometry by a factor of 4, which is important to diminish post-mortem artifacts during in-vitro experiments and to reduce motion artifacts in in-vivo tests. The proposed technique is robust against problems associated with the temporal phase-shifting method, such as nonlinear phase shift and noise. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  7. [Comparative analysis of structural and functional characteristics of soleus muscle in rats and Mongolian gerbils during gravitational unloading of various duration].

    PubMed

    Ogneva, I V; Kurushin, V A; Glashev, M M; Mikhaĭlova, E V; Ponomareva, E V; Altaeva, E G; Krivoĭ, I I; Shenkman, B S

    2010-01-01

    A comparative investigation of the dynamics of contractile properties of the whole soleus muscle and its fibers during 3- and 12-day-long hind limb suspension of Wistar rats and Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) has been performed. The data obtained indicate that the structural and functional changes caused by hypogravity in gerbils are slowed down compared with rats. A very intensive drop in water containment in gerbils was found, which can cause shifts in the ionic strength of the intracellular space of the muscle fiber. As a result, the photolytic activity of different enzymes may change, which can induce a less pronounced reduction in Z-disc and M-line stiffness and contractile capabilities in gerbils compared to rats. PMID:21268358

  8. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  9. Regional Approach for Managing for Resilience Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies for Agro-Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Togtohyn, C.; Qi, J.; Galvin, K.

    2011-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau are affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral livelihoods in Mongolia and China. Recently, evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. Regional dust events, changes in hydrological cycle, and land use changes contribute to changing interactions between ecosystem and landscape processes which then affect social-ecological systems. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the socio-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information of the socio-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia and China to the fertile northeast China plain. Sustainability of agro-pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate landscape management provides a potential framework to link ecosystem services across space and time more effectively to meet the needs of agro-pastoral land use, herd quality, and herder's living standards. Under appropriate adaptation strategies agro-pastoralists will have the opportunity to utilize seasonal resources and enhance their ability to process and manufacture products from the available ecosystem services in these dynamic social

  10. Helicobacter pylori eradication by sitafloxacin-lansoprazole combination and sitafloxacin pharmacokinetics in Mongolian gerbils and its in vitro activity and resistance development.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Nishiyama, Akihito; Taneike, Ikue; Yoshida, Kumi; Kanda, Hiroko; Imamura, Yuichiro

    2011-09-01

    A total of 293 strains of Helicobacter pylori, including strains resistant to levofloxacin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, or amoxicillin, were examined for in vitro susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents. Among these agents, sitafloxacin (a fluoroquinolone) showed the greatest activity (MIC(90), 0.06 μg/ml), with high bactericidal activity and synergy in sitafloxacin-lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) combination. In a Mongolian gerbil model with a H. pylori ATCC 43504 challenge, marked eradication effects were observed at ≥1 mg/kg for sitafloxacin, ≥10 mg/kg for levofloxacin, and ≥10 mg/kg for lansoprazole, reflecting MIC levels for each agent (0.008, 0.25, and 2 μg/ml, respectively). The therapeutic rates were 83.3% for the sitafloxacin (0.3 mg/kg)-lansoprazole (2.5 mg/kg) combination and 0% for either sitafloxacin or lansoprazole alone. The maximum serum concentration (C(max)) of sitafloxacin was 0.080 ± 0.054 μg/ml at 30 min, when orally administered at 1 mg/kg. The simultaneous administration of lansoprazole resulted in no difference. In the resistance development assay, MICs of levofloxacin increased 64- to 256-fold with gyrA mutations (Ala88Pro and Asn87Lys), while MICs of sitafloxacin only up to 16-fold with the Asn87Lys mutation. The data suggest that sitafloxacin exhibited superior anti-H. pylori activity with low rates of resistance development in vitro and that, reflecting high in vitro activities, sitafloxacin-lansoprazole combination exhibited strong therapeutic effects in Mongolian gerbils with a C(max) of sitafloxacin that was 10-fold higher than the MIC value at a 1-mg/kg administration. PMID:21730117

  11. Differentiating between Land Use and Climate-driven Change using Long-term Vegetation Index Trends adjusted for Precipitation on the Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, R.; Chen, J.; Kim, Y.; Yang, Z.; Xiao, J.; Shao, C.; Batkhishig, O.

    2014-12-01

    The Mongolian plateau is undergoing consistent warming in addition to an increase in extreme climatic events. Land cover/land use change has accelerated over the past three decades, owing to post liberalization socio-economic changes in Inner Mongolia, China (IM) Mongolia (MG) which have different political systems. Extensive anthropomorphic modifications of ecosystems have the ability to alter the structure and function of ecosystems and ecological processes such as the carbon and water cycle and it is therefore important to differentiate between such changes from climate-driven changes. This study identified climate-driven and human-induced changes in vegetation cover on the Mongolian plateau across desert, grassland and forest biomes as well as administrative divisions. We applied non-parametric trend tests on time series of vegetation index datasets that include MODIS EVI, Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) EVI2, and GIMMS 3g as well as precipitation and temperature obtained from TRMM and MERRA reanalysis datasets. We then correlated the VI trends with the climate drivers to determine and isolate primary climate drivers. VI residuals obtained from the regression of composites of peak season maximum VI and JJA monthly accumulated rainfall were analyzed for detection of trends in vegetation greenness not explained by rainfall dynamics over different time periods (2000-2012, and 1981 to 2010). In addition, we obtained trends in socioeconomic variables like total livestock and population density which were closely correlated with VI residual trends adjusted for rainfall. Some administrative subdivisions in IM and MG showed a decreasing trend in residuals that could be attributed to anthropogenic activity such as grazing, or urbanization, while other subdivisions showed an increasing trend in residuals increasing trend in residuals suggest that vegetation cover has improved and perhaps be attributed to restoration and conservation efforts.

  12. Modeling net primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems in the semi-arid climate of the Mongolian Plateau using LSWI-based CASA ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Gang; Bao, Yuhai; Qin, Zhihao; Xin, Xiaoping; Bao, Yulong; Bayarsaikan, Sainbuyin; Zhou, Yi; Chuntai, Bilegtmandakh

    2016-04-01

    Since the estimate of moisture stress coefficients (MSC) in the current Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) model still requires considerable inputs from ground meteorological data and many soil parameters, here we present a modified CASA model by introducing the land-surface water index (LSWI) and scaled precipitation to model the vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) in the arid and semiarid climate of the Mongolian Plateau. The field-observed NPP data and a previously proposed model (the Yu-CASA model) were used to evaluate the performance of our LSWI-based CASA model. The results show that the NPP predicted by both the LSWI-based CASA model and the Yu-CASA model showed good agreement with the observed NPP in the grassland ecosystems in the study area, with coefficients of determination of 0.717 and 0.714, respectively. The LSWI-based CASA model also performed comparably with the Yu-CASA model at both biome and per-pixel scales when keeping other inputs unchanged, with a difference of approximately 16 g C in the growing-season total NPP and an average value of 2.3 g C bias for each month. This indicates that, unlike an earlier method that estimated MSC based entirely on climatic variables or a soil moisture model, the method proposed here simplifies the model structure, reduces the need for ground measurements, and can provide results comparable with those from earlier models. The LSWI-based CASA model is potentially an alternative method for modelling NPP for a wide range of vegetation types in the Mongolian Plateau.

  13. Family acholeplasmataceae (including phytoplasmas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family Acholeplasmataceae was originally established to accommodate the genus Acholeplasma, comprising the mollicutes that could be cultivated without the supplement of cholesterol and that use UGA as a stop codon instead of coding for tryptophan. It was later shown that the phytoplasmas, a larg...

  14. Unusual families.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan

    2005-03-01

    The introduction of assisted reproduction has led to unusual forms of procreation. This article describes the social consequences of lesbian motherhood and of families headed by single heterosexual mothers. PMID:15819999

  15. FAMILY RHAGIONIDAE.

    PubMed

    Santos, Charles Morphy D; Carmo, Daniel D D

    2016-01-01

    The family Rhagionidae is one of the oldest Brachyeran lineages. Its monophyly is still uncertain. There are four rhagionid genera distributed in Neotropical Region but only three species of Chrysopilus are found in Colombia. PMID:27395270

  16. FAMILY BIBIONIDAE.

    PubMed

    Falaschi, Rafaela Lopes; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-01-01

    The Bibionidae are a family belonging to the suborder Bibionomorpha with four genera and 17 species known from Colombia. This work expands the distribution of these species to other localities in the country. PMID:27395253

  17. Tomorrow's Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Robert S.

    1977-01-01

    Author states that "...the traditional form of family which has been the norm in recent times in the West will persist, but will be forced to "move over" to accommodate other forms of domestic life." (Author)

  18. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... not mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such as illness, disability, addiction, job loss, school problems, and marital issues. Listening to ...

  19. Family Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert

    1966-01-01

    Dr Robert Smith surveys the history of birth control and sounds a warning for the future of mankind, if the population explosion is allowed to continue unchecked. He stresses the importance of the role of the general practitioner in the limitation of births. Sir Theodore Fox describes the work of the Family Planning Association and stresses that, increasingly, this is a specialist service covering all aspects of fertility. He also feels that the general practitioner has a role in family planning. PMID:5954261

  20. Population Landscape of Familial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frank, C.; Fallah, M.; Sundquist, J.; Hemminki, A.; Hemminki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Public perception and anxiety of familial cancer have increased demands for clinical counseling, which may be well equipped for gene testing but less prepared for counseling of the large domain of familial cancer with unknown genetic background. The aim of the present study was to highlight the full scope of familial cancer and the variable levels of risk that need to be considered. Data on the 25 most common cancers were obtained from the Swedish Family Cancer Database and a Poisson regression model was applied to estimate relative risks (RR) distinguishing between family histories of single or multiple affected first-degree relatives and their diagnostic ages. For all cancers, individual risks were significantly increased if a parent or a sibling had a concordant cancer. While the RRs were around 2.00 for most cancers, risks were up to 10-fold increased for some cancers. Familial risks were even higher when multiple relatives were affected. Although familial risks were highest at ages below 60 years, most familial cases were diagnosed at older ages. The results emphasized the value of a detailed family history as a readily available tool for individualized counseling and its preventive potential for a large domain of non-syndromatic familial cancers. PMID:26256549

  1. Lack of association of variants of the renal salt reabsorption-related genes SLC12A3 and ClC-Kb and hypertension in Mongolian and Han populations in Inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Chang, P Y; Zhang, X G; Su, X L

    2011-01-01

    Abnormalities in renal sodium chloride and water reabsorption play important roles in the development of hypertension. Mutations in the genes involved in renal sodium chloride reabsorption can affect blood pressure. Recently, the R904Q variant of the sodium/chloride transporters, member 3 (SLC12A3) gene and the T481S variant of the chloride channel Kb (ClC-Kb) gene were found to be implicated in essential hypertension. We investigated a possible role of the SLC12A3 and ClC-Kb genes in the prevalence of essential hypertension in the Mongolian and Han ethnic groups. The study population comprised 308 unrelated Mongolians with essential hypertension, 271 Mongolian normotensives, 285 unrelated Han with essential hypertension, and 194 Han normotensives living in Inner Mongolia. The presence of the SLC12A3 R904Q and ClC-Kb-T481S polymorphisms was determined using TaqMan PCR. The risk factors for hypertension were age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, total plasma cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The genotype and allele frequencies of SLC12A3 R904Q and ClC-Kb-T481S were not significantly different between hypertensive patients and controls in the Mongolian (SLC12A3 R904Q, P = 0.471 and P = 0.494, ClC-Kb-T481S, P = 0.960 and P = 0.960, respectively) and Han (SLC12A3 R904Q, P = 0.765 and P = 0.777, ClC-Kb-T481S, P = 0.100 and P = 0.103, respectively) populations. There was no significant association between the SLC12A3 R904Q variant and the ClC-Kb-T481S variant and essential hypertension in either ethnic group. PMID:21644212

  2. Teaching Family Therapy: Ten Key Questions for Understanding the Family as Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnikoff, Roy O.

    1981-01-01

    Ten questions for understanding the family as patient are presented as one aspect of an overall teaching plan for family therapy. Seeing the family as patient is important in initial stages of evaluation and therapy. A case study of a large, overly close family is used as an illustration. (Author)

  3. The changing American family.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A; Freedman, D

    1983-10-01

    This Bulletin documents recent changes in American family patterns resulting both from longterm trends in urbanization, industrialization, and economic growth and the disruption of the Great Depression and World War 2, as well as changed attitudes toward marriage, parenthood, divorce, and the roles of women. Following a postwar boom in the 1950s and 1960s, marriage rates have now fallen to levels observed in the early 20th century. Since 1970, the number of unmarried couples living together has more than tripled to 1.9 million in 1983. The divorce rate has now stabilized after more than doubling since 1960, but at the current level, 1/2 of all recent marriages will end in divorce. Most divorced persons remarry fairly quickly, often creating complex families of "step-relatives." With 19% of households with minor children now headed by a women with no husband present, up to 1/2 of all children will live for sometime in a fatherless family before age 18. Over 1/2 of all married women, including 49% of married mothers of preschool children, now hold a paid job outside the home. Working wives boost a family's income by an average 40% but still are expected to shoulder most responsiblility for home and childcare. White women now in their 20s say they expect to have an average of 2 children, but are delaying childbearing to such an extent that 29% could end up childless. Most of the elderly live on their own but usually near children whom they see frequently. Despite changes in traditional family patterns, Americans consistently report that a happy marriage and good family are the most important aspects of life. And though most Americans now live with few or no family members, they maintain active contact with a large network of family. PMID:12312644

  4. Unusual evolutionary conservation and further species-specific adaptations of a large family of Nonclassical MHC class Ib genes across different degrees of genome ploidy in the amphibian subfamily Xenopodinae

    PubMed Central

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Goyos, Ana; Taran, Joseph; De Jesús Andino, Francisco; Ohta, Yuko; Robert, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Nonclassical MHC class Ib (class Ib) genes are a family of highly diverse and rapidly evolving genes wherein gene numbers, organization and expression markedly differ even among closely related species rendering class Ib phylogeny difficult to establish. Whereas among mammals there are few unambiguous class Ib gene orthologs, different amphibian species belonging to the anuran subfamily Xenopodinae exhibit an unusually high degree of conservation among multiple class Ib gene lineages. Comparative genomic analysis of class Ib gene loci of two divergent (~65 million years) Xenopodinae subfamily members X. laevis (allotetraploid) and X. tropicalis (diploid) shows that both species possess a large cluster of class Ib genes denoted as Xenopus/Silurana nonclassical (XNC/SNC). Our study reveals two distinct phylogenetic patterns among these genes: some gene lineages display a high degree of flexibility, as demonstrated by species-specific expansion and contractions, whereas other class Ib gene lineages have been maintained as monogenic subfamilies with very few changes in their nucleotide sequence across divergent species. In this second category, we further investigated the XNC/SNC10 gene lineage that in X. laevis is required for the development of a distinct semi-invariant T cell population. We report compelling evidence of the remarkable high degree of conservation of this gene lineage that is present in all 12 species of the Xenopodinae examined, including species with different degrees of ploidy ranging from 2, 4, 8 to 12N. This suggests that the critical role of XNC10 during early T cell development is conserved in amphibians. PMID:24771209

  5. Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Bouhairie, Victoria Enchia; Goldberg, Anne Carol

    2016-03-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common, inherited disorder of cholesterol metabolism that leads to early cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Statins, ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, niacin, lomitapide, mipomersen, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis are treatments that can lower LDL cholesterol levels. Early treatment can lead to substantial reduction of cardiovascular events and de