Science.gov

Sample records for large recirculation zone

  1. Recirculation zone dynamics of a transversely excited swirl flow and flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Jacqueline; Lieuwen, Tim

    2012-07-01

    This work investigates the response of the vortex breakdown region of a swirling, annular jet to transverse acoustic excitation for both non-reacting and reacting flows. This swirling flow field consists of a central vortex breakdown region, two shear layers, and an annular fluid jet. The vortex breakdown bubble, a region of highly turbulent recirculating flow in the center of the flowfield, is the result of a global instability of the swirling jet. Additionally, the two shear layers originating from the inner and outer edge of the annular nozzle are convectively unstable and rollup due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Unlike the convectively unstable shear layers that respond in a monotonic manner to acoustic forcing, the recirculation zone exhibits a range of response characteristics, ranging from minimal response to exhibiting abrupt bifurcations at large forcing amplitudes. In this study, the response of the time-average and fluctuating recirculation zone is measured as a function of forcing frequency, amplitude, and symmetry. The time-average flow field is shown to exhibit both monotonically varying and abrupt bifurcation features as acoustic forcing amplitude is increased. The unsteady motion in the recirculation zone is dominated by the low frequency precession of the vortex breakdown bubble. In the unforced flow, the azimuthal m = -2 and m = -1 modes (i.e., disturbances rotating in the same direction as the swirl flow) dominate the velocity disturbance field. These modes correspond to large scale deformation of the jet column and two small-scale precessing vortical structures in the recirculation zone, respectively. The presence of high amplitude acoustic forcing changes the relative amplitude of these two modes, as well as the character of the self-excited motion. For the reacting flow problem, we argue that the direct effect of these recirculation zone fluctuations on the flame response to flow forcing is not significant. Rather, flame wrinkling in

  2. Experimental verification of a secondary recirculation zone in a labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Tatterson, G. B.; Johnson, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a secondary recirculation zone inside the cavities of a labyrinth seal operating at a Reynolds number of 15,000 and a Taylor number of 10,300 has been experimentally verified. A three-dimensional laser Doppler anemometer system was used to measure the complete mean velocity and Reynolds stress tensor distributions in the first, third, fifth and seventh cavities of a seven cavity labyrinth seal which had a clearance of 1.27 mm.

  3. Mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine having a pilot mixer with a corner flame stabilizing recirculation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Zhongtao (Inventor); Cohen, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Fotache, Catalin G. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine is provided, including a main mixer, and a pilot mixer having an annular housing in which a corner is formed between an aft portion of the housing and a bulkhead wall in which a corner recirculation zone is located to stabilize and anchor the flame of the pilot mixer. The pilot mixer can further include features to cool the annular housing, including in the area of the corner recirculation zone.

  4. Capture Zone Analyses of Two Airlift Recirculation Wells in the Southern Sector of A/M Area

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, S.E.

    1999-09-14

    This report documents a series of capture zone analyses performed to access the expected overall performance of two (of the twelve) vertical airlift recirculation wells (ARWs) (specifically, SSR-011 and SRR-012) located in the Southern Sector of A/M Area.

  5. The STREON Recirculation Chamber: An Advanced Tool to Quantify Stream Ecosystem Metabolism in the Benthic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, J. T.; Utz, R.; McLaughlin, B.

    2013-12-01

    The STReam Experimental Observatory Network is a large-scale experimental effort that will investigate the effects of eutrophication and loss of large consumers in stream ecosystems. STREON represents the first experimental effort undertaken and supported by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).Two treatments will be applied at 10 NEON sites and maintained for 10 years in the STREON program: the addition of nitrate and phosphate to enrich concentrations by five times ambient levels and electrical fields that exclude top consumers (i.e., fish or invertebrates) of the food web from the surface of buried sediment baskets. Following a 3-5 week period, the sediment baskets will be extracted and incubated in closed, recirculating metabolic chambers to measure rates of respiration, photosynthesis, and nutrient uptake. All STREON-generated data will be open access and available on the NEON web portal. The recirculation chamber represents a critical infrastructural component of STREON. Although researchers have applied such chambers for metabolic and nutrient uptake measurements in the past, the scope of STREON demands a novel design that addresses multiple processes often neglected by earlier models. The STREON recirculation chamber must be capable of: 1) incorporating hyporheic exchange into the flow field to ensure measurements of respiration include the activity of subsurface biota, 2) operating consistently with heterogeneous sediments from sand to cobble, 3) minimizing heat exchange from the motor and external environment, 4) delivering a reproducible uniform flow field over the surface of the sediment basket, and 5) efficient assembly/disassembly with minimal use of tools. The chamber also required a means of accommodating an optical dissolved oxygen probe and a means to inject/extract water. A prototype STREON chamber has been designed and thoroughly tested. The flow field within the chamber has been mapped using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV

  6. Central recirculation zone analysis in an unconfined tangential swirl burner with varying degrees of premixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Kay, P.; Griffiths, A.

    2011-06-01

    Swirl-stabilised combustion is one of the most widely used techniques for flame stabilisation, uses ranging from gas turbine combustors to pulverised coal-fired power stations. In gas turbines, lean premixed systems are of especial importance, giving the ability to produce low NOx systems coupled with wide stability limits. The common element is the swirl burner, which depends on the generation of an aerodynamically formed central recirculation zone (CRZ) and which serves to recycle heat and active chemical species to the root of the flame as well as providing low-velocity regions where the flame speed can match the local flow velocity. Enhanced mixing in and around the CRZ is another beneficial feature. The structure of the CRZ and hence that of the associated flames, stabilisation and mixing processes have shown to be extremely complex, three-dimensional and time dependent. The characteristics of the CRZ depend very strongly on the level of swirl (swirl number), burner configuration, type of flow expansion, Reynolds number (i.e. flowrate) and equivalence ratio. Although numerical methods have had some success when compared to experimental results, the models still have difficulties at medium to high swirl levels, with complex geometries and varied equivalence ratios. This study thus focuses on experimental results obtained to characterise the CRZ formed under varied combustion conditions with different geometries and some variation of swirl number in a generic swirl burner. CRZ behaviour has similarities to the equivalent isothermal state, but is strongly dependent on equivalence ratio, with interesting effects occurring with a high-velocity fuel injector. Partial premixing and combustion cause more substantive changes to the CRZ than pure diffusive combustion.

  7. Zone generator for Large Space Telescope technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    A concept is presented for monitoring the optical adjustment and performance of a Large Space Telescope which consists of a 1.2m diameter turntable with a laser stylus to operate at speeds up to 30 rpm. The focus of the laser stylus is under closed loop control. A technique for scribing zones of suitable depth, width, and uniformity applicable to large telescope mirrors is also reported.

  8. Capillary zone electrophoresis of large DNA.

    PubMed

    Guszczynski, T; Pulyaeva, H; Tietz, D; Garner, M M; Chrambach, A

    1993-01-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) of DNA 23.1 to 48.5 kb in length in polyacrylamide solutions of several concentrations provides evidence for polymer concentration and DNA length-dependent stretching and orientation of these species and suggests an effective separation at a polymer concentration of about 0.6%. Applying a 0.1% polyacrylamide concentration to the lambda-phage DNA ladder, at least 5 components are separated; separation improves with lowering of the field strength to 2 V/cm and, correspondingly, extended duration of CZE. Saccharomyces pombe chromosomal DNA separates into 3 major components on CZE at high field strength (270 V/cm) in 0.9% polyacrylamide solution, confirming a previous finding made on electrophoresis in a 1.1 mm ID tube at low field strength. However, the finding is limited to one source of the DNA plug, and the chromosomal identity of the components remains unknown. Methodological problems in the CZE of large DNA relate to the need for extended duration of pressure injection if absorbance detection is applied, the need to define the starting zone after extended pressure injection, the need to melt and digest agarose plugs prior to loading, and related needs for thermostating of the sample chamber and for software compatible with low voltage operation. PMID:8354238

  9. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  10. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  11. Large-Area Zone Plate Fabrication with Optical Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Denbeaux, G.

    2011-09-09

    Zone plates as condenser optics for x-ray microscopes offer simple optical designs for both illumination and spectral resolution when used as a linear monochromator. However, due to the long write times for electron beam lithography, both the availability and the size of zone plates for condensers have been limited. Since the resolution provided by the linear monochromator scales almost linearly with the diameter of the zone plate, the full potential for zone plate monochromators as illumination systems for x-ray microscopes has not been achieved. For example, the 10-mm-diameter zone plate has demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/{Delta}E = 700[1], but with a 26-mm-diameter zone plate, the calculated spectral resolution is higher than E/{Delta}E = 3000. These large-area zone plates are possible to fabricate with the leading edge semiconductor lithography tools such as those available at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the University at Albany. One of the lithography tools available is the ASML TWINSCAN XT: 1950i with 37-nm resolution [2]. A single 300-mm wafer can contain more than 60 fields, each with a large area condenser, and the throughput of the tool can be more than one wafer every minute.

  12. Gas turbine combustor stabilization by heat recirculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganji, A.; Short, J.; Branch, M. C.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of heat recirculation for stabilization of lean mixtures and emission reduction has been studied in detail for a typical aircraft gas turbine combustor. Thermodynamic calculations have indicated temperature and heat recirculation rates for operation of the combustor over a range of combustion zone equivalence ratios and for varying modes of desired engine operation. Calculations indicate the feasibility of stabilizing the combustion zone at equivalence ratios as low as 0.2 with achievable heat recirculation rates. Detailed chemical kinetic calculations suggest that combustor heat release is maintained with reaction completion substantially before the NO forming reactions, even though CO is rapidly oxidized in this same region.

  13. Demonstration of the feasibility of large-port-count optical switching using a hybrid Mach-Zehnder interferometer-semiconductor optical amplifier switch module in a recirculating loop.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Q; Wonfor, A; Wei, J L; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2014-09-15

    For what we believe is the first time, the feasibility of large-port-count nanosecond-reconfiguration-time optical switches is demonstrated using a hybrid approach, where Mach-Zehnder interferometric (MZI) switches provide low-loss, high-speed routing with short semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) being integrated to enhance extinction. By repeatedly passing signals through a monolithic hybrid dilated 2×2 switch module in a recirculating loop, the potential performance of high-port-count switches using the hybrid approach is demonstrated. Experimentally, a single pass switch penalty of only 0.1 dB is demonstrated for the 2×2 module, while even after seven passes through the switch, equivalent to a 128×128 router, a penalty of only 2.4 dB is recorded at a data rate of 10 Gb/s. PMID:26466241

  14. Dynamic effect of leachate recirculation on batch mode solid state anaerobic digestion: Influence of recirculated volume, leachate to substrate ratio and recirculation periodicity.

    PubMed

    Degueurce, Axelle; Trémier, Anne; Peu, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Performances of batch mode solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) were investigated through several leachate recirculation strategies. Three parameters were shown to particularly influence methane production rates (MPR) and methane yields: the length of the interval between two recirculation events, the leachate to substrate (L:S) ratio and the volume of leachate recirculated. A central composite factor design was used to determine the influence of each parameter on methane production. Results showed that lengthening the interval between two recirculation events reduced methane yield. This effect can be counteracted by recirculating a large volume of leachate at a low L:S ratio. Steady methane production can be obtained by recirculating small amounts of leachate, and by lengthening the interval between two recirculations, regardless of the L:S ratio. However, several combinations of these parameters led to similar performances meaning that leachate recirculation practices can be modified as required by the specific constraints SSAD plants configurations. PMID:27281433

  15. Large earthquake processes in the northern Vanuatu subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, K. Michael; Ammon, Charles J.; Lay, Thorne

    2014-12-01

    The northern Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides) subduction zone (11°S to 14°S) has experienced large shallow thrust earthquakes with Mw > 7 in 1966 (MS 7.9, 7.3), 1980 (Mw 7.5, 7.7), 1997 (Mw 7.7), 2009 (Mw 7.7, 7.8, 7.4), and 2013 (Mw 8.0). We analyze seismic data from the latter four earthquake sequences to quantify the rupture processes of these large earthquakes. The 7 October 2009 earthquakes occurred in close spatial proximity over about 1 h in the same region as the July 1980 doublet. Both sequences activated widespread seismicity along the northern Vanuatu subduction zone. The focal mechanisms indicate interplate thrusting, but there are differences in waveforms that establish that the events are not exact repeats. With an epicenter near the 1980 and 2009 events, the 1997 earthquake appears to have been a shallow intraslab rupture below the megathrust, with strong southward directivity favoring a steeply dipping plane. Some triggered interplate thrusting events occurred as part of this sequence. The 1966 doublet ruptured north of the 1980 and 2009 events and also produced widespread aftershock activity. The 2013 earthquake rupture propagated southward from the northern corner of the trench with shallow slip that generated a substantial tsunami. The repeated occurrence of large earthquake doublets along the northern Vanuatu subduction zone is remarkable considering the doublets likely involved overlapping, yet different combinations of asperities. The frequent occurrence of large doublet events and rapid aftershock expansion in this region indicate the presence of small, irregularly spaced asperities along the plate interface.

  16. Flume simulation of sedimentation in recirculating flow

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.C. ); Rubin, D.M. ); Ikeda, H. )

    1990-05-01

    A 4-m-wide flume at the University of Tsukuba Environmental Research Center was used to simulate flow conditions near debris fans in bedrock gorges. Flow was constricted to 2 m by a semicircular obstruction. During the authors experiments (discharge = 600 L/sec; Froude number of constricted flow = 1) a zone of recirculating current extended 25-30 m downstream from the separation point at the constriction. The pattern and velocity of surface flow was determined using time-lapse photography; subsurface velocity was measured with a two-dimensional electromagnetic current meter. During 32-hr of run time, a fine, very coarse sand mixture was fed into the flow at a rate between 0.5-1 kg/sec. Oscillation ripples developed beneath the separation surface that bounds the recirculation zone, and upstream-migrating dunes and ripples developed within the recirculation zone upstream from the reattachment point. A mid-channel expansion bar was deposited downstream from the reattachment point. Sedimentation within the recirculation zone continued by vertical aggradation and by upstream migration of dunes and ripples. Sediments within the recirculation zone were areally sorted with the finest sediment deposited near the separation point. These patterns are consistent with field observations of bars along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

  17. Confined turbulent swirling recirculating flow predictions. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abujelala, M. T.; Lilley, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    The capability and the accuracy of the STARPIC computer code in predicting confined turbulent swirling recirculating flows is presented. Inlet flow boundary conditions were demonstrated to be extremely important in simulating a flowfield via numerical calculations. The degree of swirl strength and expansion ratio have strong effects on the characteristics of swirling flow. In a nonswirling flow, a large corner recirculation zone exists in the flowfield with an expansion ratio greater than one. However, as the degree of inlet swirl increases, the size of this zone decreases and a central recirculation zone appears near the inlet. Generally, the size of the central zone increased with swirl strength and expansion ratio. Neither the standard k-epsilon turbulence mode nor its previous extensions show effective capability for predicting confined turbulent swirling recirculating flows. However, either reduced optimum values of three parameters in the mode or the empirical C sub mu formulation obtained via careful analysis of available turbulence measurements, can provide more acceptable accuracy in the prediction of these swirling flows.

  18. Lattice Design for the LHEC Recirculating Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng; Eide, Anders; Zimmermann, Frank; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

    2011-05-20

    In this paper, we present a lattice design for the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) recirculating linac. The recirculating linac consists of one roughly 3-km long linac hosting superconducting RF (SRF) accelerating cavities, two arcs and one transfer line for the recirculation. In two passes through a pulsed SRF linac the electron beam can get a maximum energy of 140 GeV. Alternatively, in the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) option the beam passes through a CW linac four times (two passes for acceleration and two for deceleration) for a maximum energy of 60 GeV.

  19. Large deglacial shifts of the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone

    PubMed Central

    Jacobel, A. W.; McManus, J. F.; Anderson, R. F.; Winckler, G.

    2016-01-01

    The position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is sensitive to changes in the balance of heat between the hemispheres which has fundamental implications for tropical hydrology and atmospheric circulation. Although the ITCZ is thought to experience the largest shifts in position during deglacial stadial events, the magnitude of shifts has proven difficult to reconstruct, in part because of a paucity of high-resolution records, particularly those including spatial components. Here we track the position of the ITCZ from 150 to 110 ka at three sites in the central equatorial Pacific at sub-millennial time resolution. Our results provide evidence of large, abrupt changes in tropical climate during the penultimate deglaciation, coincident with North Atlantic Heinrich Stadial 11 (∼136–129 ka). We identify this event both as a Northern Hemisphere increase in aeolian dust and as a shift in the mean position of the ITCZ a minimum of 4° southwards at 160° W. PMID:26794654

  20. Large deglacial shifts of the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone.

    PubMed

    Jacobel, A W; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Winckler, G

    2016-01-01

    The position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is sensitive to changes in the balance of heat between the hemispheres which has fundamental implications for tropical hydrology and atmospheric circulation. Although the ITCZ is thought to experience the largest shifts in position during deglacial stadial events, the magnitude of shifts has proven difficult to reconstruct, in part because of a paucity of high-resolution records, particularly those including spatial components. Here we track the position of the ITCZ from 150 to 110 ka at three sites in the central equatorial Pacific at sub-millennial time resolution. Our results provide evidence of large, abrupt changes in tropical climate during the penultimate deglaciation, coincident with North Atlantic Heinrich Stadial 11 (∼136-129 ka). We identify this event both as a Northern Hemisphere increase in aeolian dust and as a shift in the mean position of the ITCZ a minimum of 4° southwards at 160° W. PMID:26794654

  1. Cooling Along Hyporheic Pathlines in a Large River Riparian Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, B. R.; Forshay, K. J.; Brooks, J.; Adeuya, R. K.; Cline, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    Floodplains can contribute to hyporheic cooling and moderation of temperature for rivers, but extent and magnitude are dependent on ground water hydrology. Here we illustrate the controls and dynamics of hyporheic cooling in the ground water of a large river floodplain. We used field data and numerical flow modeling in a region where cooling may influence the formation of coldwater refugia, a valuable ecosystem service for the preservation of salmon habitat. Hyporheic flow and ground water temperature were extensively monitored and characterized along a floodplain section of the Willamette River, Oregon, USA. Numerical flow modeling was done for the strongly contrasting dry and wet season flow patterns. During the warm dry season of our study, we observed significant temperature reduction with distance along most of the pathlines. Examination of particle tracking results indicate that in our site's floodplain areas, hyporheic flow during the wet season often has a locally downward component due to recharge from infiltration of rainfall, although dry season ground water flow also often moves deeper along the longer pathlines. In the dry season, pathlines trend to horizontal. Overall, the observed dry season temperature profiles obeyed the analytical solution to a one-dimensional steady-state governing equation for heat transfer in porous media, with differing thermal Péclet numbers. In one gravel bar, a mean pathline length of about 600 m reduced temperature 18 to 11 degrees Celsius. This cooling occurred over a residence time of 3-4 years before re-emergence, and incorporates the water table fluctuation, and wet season recharge from infiltration of rainfall that produces a locally downward trend of the hyporheic water prior to moving upward and discharging to cutoffs and alcoves. In some of the islands, wet season ground water underwent sufficient mounding to halt or reverse dry season river water that had entered the hyporheic zone. In our floodplain site water

  2. The dispersion of the jet fluid due to the large scale motion in bluffbody flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.; Martins, Luis-Filipe; Kelly, John; Rotman, Douglas

    1991-06-01

    The unsteady flow established behind the bluff body, simulated numerically using the vortex method, is found to depend strongly on the velocity ratio between the two streams. At low jet velocity, the recirculation zone is long and quiet and the jet flow is stagnated close to the bluffbody. As the jet velocity approaches the annular flow velocity, the recirculation zone becomes unsteady with strong oscillations associated with the shedding of large eddies from both sides of the bluffbody, and the jet stagnation point approaches that of the annular flow. At even higher jet velocities, the jet penetrates through the recirculation zone and the unsteadiness is weakened. Simulations of the dispersion of the inner jet fluid into the recirculation zone show that these large scale phenomena play an important role in the mixing between the two streams. At low jet velocities, the jet fluid is dispersed almost uniformly within the recirculation zone of the bluffbody, while at high jet velocities, the jet fluid remains confined within a narrow zone around the centerline of the bluffbody. For intermediate values of the jet velocity, mixed zones appear intermittently in the form of large toroidal eddies which are shed from the downstream end of the recirculation zone.

  3. Cooling Along Hyporheic Pathlines in a Large River Riparian Zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Floodplains can contribute to hyporheic cooling and moderation of temperature for rivers, but extent and magnitude are dependent on ground water hydrology. Here we illustrate the controls and dynamics of hyporheic cooling in the ground water of a large river floodplain with field...

  4. Airlift recirculation well test results -- Southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Hiergesell, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A and M-Areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952--1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. A plume of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the Lost Lake aquifer is moving generally southward with the natural flow of groundwater. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, a series of wells is being installed to contain and treat the plume. Airlift Recirculation Wells (ARW) are a new and innovative technology with potential for more cost effective implementation than conventional pump and treat systems. Two Airlift Recirculation Wells have been installed and tested to quantify performance parameters needed to locate a line of these wells along the leading edge of the contaminant plume. The wells proved to be very sensitive to proper development, but after this requirement was met, performance was very good. The Zone of Capture has been estimated to be within a radius of 130--160 ft. around the wells. Thus a line of wells spaced at 250 ft. intervals could intercept the contaminant plume. At SSR-012, TCE was stripped from the groundwater at approximately 1.2 lb./day. The longer term effect of the recirculation wells upon the plume and the degree of recirculation within the aquifer itself will require additional data over a longer time period for an accurate review. Data collection is ongoing.

  5. Mill recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Musto, R.L.

    1984-10-23

    A mill recirculation system that is operative for purposes of effecting the pulverization and firing of solid fuels, while yet possessing all of the desirable features of a direct fired system. The subject system includes pulverizer means classifier means and burner means as well as a preestablished fluid flow path by which the pulverizer means and the classifier means are interconnected in fluid flow relation with the burner means. In accord with the mode of operation of the subject mill recirculation system a stream of solid fuel is made to flow along the fluid flow path such that the solid fuel is pulverized in the pulverizer means, classified according to particle size in the classifier means and fired in the burner means. Further, a stream of a suitable gaseous medium is made to flow along the flow path such that the gaseous medium is operative to cause the solid fuel to be conveyed therewith through the pulverizer means while being dried thereby and to be conveyed therewith from the pulverizer means to the classifier means. At the classifier means a separation is had of the stream of the gaseous medium such that a portion of the gaseous medium is recirculated along with the oversize solid fuel particles bach to the pulverizer means, while the remainder of the gaseous medium is operative to convey the solid fuel particles that are of the desired size from the classifier means to the burner means for burning, i.e., firing, in the latter.

  6. Quiet zone within a seismic gap near western Nicaragua: Possible location of a future large earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harlow, D.H.; White, R.A.; Cifuentes, I.L.; Aburto, Q.A.

    1981-01-01

    A 5700-square-kilometer quiet zone occurs in the midst of the locations of more than 4000 earthquakes off the Pacific coast of Nicaragua. The region is indicated by the seismic gap technique to be a likely location for an earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. The quiet zone has existed since at least 1950; the last large earthquake originating from this area occurred in 1898 and was of magnitude 7.5. A rough estimate indicates that the magnitude of an earthquake rupturing the entire quiet zone could be as large as that of the 1898 event. It is not yet possible to forecast a time frame for the occurrence of such an earthquake in the quiet zone. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  7. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  8. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  9. The Evolution and Natural State of Large-Scale Vapor-Dominated Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1986-01-21

    Numerical simulation is used to define the rather special conditions under which large-scale vapor-dominated zones can evolve. Given an adequate supply of heat, a vapor-dominated zone can evolve within low-permeability barriers without changes in rock properties or boundary conditions. However, the evolution of the system is accelerated in cases involving an initially high fluid throughflow rate that decreases with time. Near-steady-state pressures within the vapor-dominated zone are shown to vary with depth to the caprock.

  10. Large-scale laboratory measurements of sheet flow sediment transport in the swash zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanckriet, T. M.; Puleo, J. A.; Foster, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Existing sediment transport models show poor predictive quality when applied to the swash zone, indicating that the underlying processes of swash zone sediment transport are not yet fully understood. The recognition that more detailed measurements are needed to improve understanding of swash-zone processes has led to several recent innovations in swash-zone measurement techniques. One of these innovative measurement techniques, the Conductivity Concentration Profiler (CCP), was developed to address the issue of near-bed (sheet flow) sediment transport, which is believed to be an important part of the overall swash-zone sediment transport. Measurements of sheet flow processes in the swash zone from the Barrier Dynamics Experiment (Bardex-II) are presented. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of a coastal barrier system and develop an increased understanding of cross-shore sediment transport processes in the nearshore zone of sandy beaches. A 70-m long, near-prototype scale sandy barrier was constructed in a large wave flume facility and equipped with over 200 sensors to measure hydrodynamics and sediment processes ranging from the shoaling-wave zone to the back barrier. CCP sensors were deployed at three locations in the swash zone as part of the ';swash and berm dynamics' work package. Onshore-directed pressure gradients, observed during the initial stages of uprush, enhanced sediment mobilization. The combination of near-bed sediment mobilization due to pressure gradients (known as plug flow) and shear stress (sheet flow) is examined. Sediment load in the sheet flow layer is also compared to suspended load and total load measured using an array of optical backscatter sensors. The sheet flow layer thickness is compared to hydrodynamic forcing such as bed shear stress and the effect of groundwater exchange.

  11. The Impact of Laptop-Free Zones on Student Performance and Attitudes in Large Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar-Roca, Nancy M.; Williams, Adrienne E.; O'Dowd, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if laptop use in lecture negatively impacts learning outcomes of surrounding students taking notes on paper. Two sections of a large introductory biology course (greater than 400 students/section) were zoned into a laptop-permitted and a laptop-free area. Two sections in which laptop users could sit anywhere…

  12. Large-scale folding in the upper part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone, NW Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Ernest; Brodie, Katharine; James, Tony; Burlini, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    New geological mapping has led to a new interpretation of the large-scale superimposed folding in the upper part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone, Italian Alps. The region is widely held to represent an upended section through lower continental crust of northern Italy. The dominant fold structure, extending some 40 km along strike, is the Massone tight to isoclinal antiform, with a hinge line strongly curved through 115°. This folds pre-existing large-scale folds that formed during regional migmatization, probably during the Hercynian orogeny, to form a type-2 interference geometry. The region then suffered post-orogenic mafic magmatic underplating and other magmatism, accompanied by crustal stretching, with contact metamorphism and migmatization causing the imposition of the final pattern of metamorphic isograds. The Ivrea-Verbano zone was brought into contact with the overlying metamorphic rocks of the Serie dei Laghi on a major shear zone. Sub-solidus stretching continued though displacements on low-angle, high-temperature shear zones. Most of the Ivrea-Verbano zone was finally tilted to the vertical and emplaced into its present position after the Mesozoic era and probably during Alpine orogenesis, forming the vertical limb of a crustal-scale double kink.

  13. Seismic gaps and source zones of recent large earthquakes in coastal Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.; Spence, W.

    1979-01-01

    The earthquakes of central coastal Peru occur principally in two distinct zones of shallow earthquake activity that are inland of and parallel to the axis of the Peru Trench. The interface-thrust (IT) zone includes the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 17 October 1966 and 3 October 1974. The coastal-plate interior (CPI) zone includes the great earthquake of 31 May 1970, and is located about 50 km inland of and 30 km deeper than the interface thrust zone. The occurrence of a large earthquake in one zone may not relieve elastic strain in the adjoining zone, thus complicating the application of the seismic gap concept to central coastal Peru. However, recognition of two seismic zones may facilitate detection of seismicity precursory to a large earthquake in a given zone; removal of probable CPI-zone earthquakes from plots of seismicity prior to the 1974 main shock dramatically emphasizes the high seismic activity near the rupture zone of that earthquake in the five years preceding the main shock. Other conclusions on the seismicity of coastal Peru that affect the application of the seismic gap concept to this region are: (1) Aftershocks of the great earthquakes of 1966, 1970, and 1974 occurred in spatially separated clusters. Some clusters may represent distinct small source regions triggered by the main shock rather than delimiting the total extent of main-shock rupture. The uncertainty in the interpretation of aftershock clusters results in corresponding uncertainties in estimates of stress drop and estimates of the dimensions of the seismic gap that has been filled by a major earthquake. (2) Aftershocks of the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 1966 and 1974 generally did not extend seaward as far as the Peru Trench. (3) None of the three great earthquakes produced significant teleseismic activity in the following month in the source regions of the other two earthquakes. The earthquake hypocenters that form the basis of this study were relocated using station

  14. Slip zone and energetics of a large earthquake from the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kuo-Fong; Tanaka, Hidemi; Song, Sheng-Rong; Wang, Chien-Ying; Hung, Jih-Hao; Tsai, Yi-Ben; Mori, Jim; Song, Yen-Fang; Yeh, Eh-Chao; Soh, Wonn; Sone, Hiroki; Kuo, Li-Wei; Wu, Hung-Yu

    2006-11-23

    Determining the seismic fracture energy during an earthquake and understanding the associated creation and development of a fault zone requires a combination of both seismological and geological field data. The actual thickness of the zone that slips during the rupture of a large earthquake is not known and is a key seismological parameter in understanding energy dissipation, rupture processes and seismic efficiency. The 1999 magnitude-7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan, produced large slip (8 to 10 metres) at or near the surface, which is accessible to borehole drilling and provides a rare opportunity to sample a fault that had large slip in a recent earthquake. Here we present the retrieved cores from the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project and identify the main slip zone associated with the Chi-Chi earthquake. The surface fracture energy estimated from grain sizes in the gouge zone of the fault sample was directly compared to the seismic fracture energy determined from near-field seismic data. From the comparison, the contribution of gouge surface energy to the earthquake breakdown work is quantified to be 6 per cent. PMID:17122854

  15. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  16. Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

    2013-02-01

    Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management. PMID:23076973

  17. Analysis of the dopant segregation effects at the floating zone growth of large silicon crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlbauer, A.; Muiznieks, A.; Virbulis, J.

    1997-10-01

    A computer simulation is carried out to study the dopant concentration fields in the molten zone and in the growing crystal for the floating zone (FZ) growth of large (> 100mm) Si crystals with the needle-eye technique and with feed/crystal rotation. The mathematical model developed in the previous work is used to calculate the shape of the molten zone and the velocity field in the melt. The influence of melt convection on the dopant concentration field is considered. The significance of the rotation scheme of the feed rod and crystal on the dopant distribution is investigated. The calculated dopant concentration directly at the growth interface is used to determine the normalized lateral resistivity distribution in the single crystal. The calculated resistivity distributions are compared with lateral spreading resistivity measurements in the single crystal.

  18. Source Parameters of Large Magnitude Subduction Zone Earthquakes Along Oaxaca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannon, M. L.; Bilek, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Subduction zones are host to temporally and spatially varying seismogenic activity including, megathrust earthquakes, slow slip events (SSE), nonvolcanic tremor (NVT), and ultra-slow velocity layers (USL). We explore these variations by determining source parameters for large earthquakes (M > 5.5) along the Oaxaca segment of the Mexico subduction zone, an area encompasses the wide range of activity noted above. We use waveform data for 36 earthquakes that occurred between January 1, 1990 to June 1, 2014, obtained from the IRIS DMC, generate synthetic Green's functions for the available stations, and deconvolve these from the ­­­observed records to determine a source time function for each event. From these source time functions, we measured rupture durations and scaled these by the cube root to calculate the normalized duration for each event. Within our dataset, four events located updip from the SSE, USL, and NVT areas have longer rupture durations than the other events in this analysis. Two of these four events, along with one other event, are located within the SSE and NVT areas. The results in this study show that large earthquakes just updip from SSE and NVT have slower rupture characteristics than other events along the subduction zone not adjacent to SSE, USL, and NVT zones. Based on our results, we suggest a transitional zone for the seismic behavior rather than a distinct change at a particular depth. This study will help aid in understanding seismogenic behavior that occurs along subduction zones and the rupture characteristics of earthquakes near areas of slow slip processes.

  19. An autostereoscopic display with high resolution and large number of view zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wu-Li; Hsu, Wei-Liang; Tsai, Chao-Hsu; Wang, Chy-Lin; Wu, Chang-Shuo; Yang, Jinn-Cherng; Cheng, Shu-Chuan

    2008-02-01

    For a spatial-multiplexed 3D display, trade-off between resolution and number of view-zones are usually unavoidable due to the limited number of pixels on the screen. In this paper, we present a new autostereoscopic system, named as "integrated-screen system," to substantially increase the total number of pixels on the screen, which in turn increase both the resolution and number of view-zones. In the integrated-screen system, a large number of mini-projectors are arrayed and the images are tiled together without seams in between. For displaying 3D images, the lenticular screen with predesigned tilted angle is used for distributing different viewing zones. In order to achieve good performance, we design a brand-new projector with special lens set to meet the low-distortion requirement because the distortion of the image will induce serious crosstalk between view-zones. The proposed system has two advantages. One is the extensibility of the screen size. The size of the display can be chosen based on the applications we deal with, including the size of the projected pixel and the number of viewing zones. The other advantage is that the integrated-screen system provides projected pixels in great density to solve the major problem of the poor resolution that a lenticular-type 3D display has.

  20. Hydroxyl time series and recirculation in turbulent nonpremixed swirling flames

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenfelder, Walter A.; Laurendeau, Normand M.; Ji, Jun; King, Galen B.; Gore, Jay P.; Renfro, Michael W.

    2006-10-15

    Time-series measurements of OH, as related to accompanying flow structures, are reported using picosecond time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (PITLIF) and particle-imaging velocimetry (PIV) for turbulent, swirling, nonpremixed methane-air flames. The [OH] data portray a primary reaction zone surrounding the internal recirculation zone, with residual OH in the recirculation zone approaching chemical equilibrium. Modeling of the OH electronic quenching environment, when compared to fluorescence lifetime measurements, offers additional evidence that the reaction zone burns as a partially premixed flame. A time-series analysis affirms the presence of thin flamelet-like regions based on the relation between swirl-induced turbulence and fluctuations of [OH] in the reaction and recirculation zones. The OH integral time-scales are found to correspond qualitatively to local mean velocities. Furthermore, quantitative dependencies can be established with respect to axial position, Reynolds number, and global equivalence ratio. Given these relationships, the OH time-scales, and thus the primary reaction zone, appear to be dominated by convection-driven fluctuations. Surprisingly, the OH time-scales for these nominally swirling flames demonstrate significant similarities to previous PITLIF results in nonpremixed jet flames. (author)

  1. Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems With Unknown Dead Zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mou; Tao, Gang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed and analyzed for a class of uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems with unknown dead zone and external disturbances. To tackle the unknown nonlinear interaction functions in the large-scale system, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is employed to approximate them. To further handle the unknown approximation errors and the effects of the unknown dead zone and external disturbances, integrated as the compounded disturbances, the corresponding disturbance observers are developed for their estimations. Based on the outputs of the RBFNN and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme is designed for uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems by using a decentralized backstepping technique. The closed-loop stability of the adaptive control system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the satisfactory tracking performance is achieved under the integrated effects of unknown dead zone, actuator fault, and unknown external disturbances. Simulation results of a mass-spring-damper system are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme for uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems. PMID:26340792

  2. 77 FR 29254 - Safety Zones, Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... when the safety zone is in place. The pilot onboard the large cruise ship will be authorized to allow... arrangements with the pilot onboard the large cruise ship may enter into this safety zone in accordance...

  3. Modeling of leachate recirculation using vertical wells in bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Cao, Ben-Yi; Zhang, Xu; Xie, Hai-Jian

    2015-06-01

    Leachate recirculation (LR) in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills operated as bioreactors offers significant economic and environmental benefits. The subsurface application method of vertical wells is one of the most common LR techniques. The objective of this study was to develop a novel two-dimensional model of leachate recirculation using vertical wells. This novel method can describe leachate flow considering the effects of MSW settlement while also accounting separately for leachate flow in saturated and unsaturated zones. In this paper, a settlement model for MSW when considering the effects of compression and biodegradation on the MSW porosity was adopted. A numerical model was proposed using new governing equations for the saturated and unsaturated zones of a landfill. The following design parameters were evaluated by simulating the recirculated leachate volume and the influence zones of waste under steady-state flow conditions: (1) the effect of MSW settlement, (2) the effect of the initial void ratio, (3) the effect of the injected head, (4) the effect of the unit weight, (5) the effect of the biodegradation rate, and (6) the effect of the compression coefficient. The influence zones of LR when considering the effect of MSW settlement are smaller than those when neglecting the effect. The influence zones and LR volume increased with an increase in the injection pressure head and initial void ratio of MSW. The proposed method and the calculation results can provide important insight into the hydrological behavior of bioreactor landfills. PMID:25874416

  4. How Large Scale Flows in the Solar Convection Zone may Influence Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    Large scale flows within the solar convection zone are the primary drivers of the Sun s magnetic activity cycle. Differential rotation can amplify the magnetic field and convert poloidal fields into toroidal fields. Poleward meridional flow near the surface can carry magnetic flux that reverses the magnetic poles and can convert toroidal fields into poloidal fields. The deeper, equatorward meridional flow can carry magnetic flux toward the equator where it can reconnect with oppositely directed fields in the other hemisphere. These axisymmetric flows are themselves driven by large scale convective motions. The effects of the Sun s rotation on convection produce velocity correlations that can maintain the differential rotation and meridional circulation. These convective motions can influence solar activity themselves by shaping the large-scale magnetic field pattern. While considerable theoretical advances have been made toward understanding these large scale flows, outstanding problems in matching theory to observations still remain.

  5. Characterizing Mega-Earthquake Related Tsunami on Subduction Zones without Large Historical Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. R.; Lee, R.; Astill, S.; Farahani, R.; Wilson, P. S.; Mohammed, F.

    2014-12-01

    Due to recent large tsunami events (e.g., Chile 2010 and Japan 2011), the insurance industry is very aware of the importance of managing its exposure to tsunami risk. There are currently few tools available to help establish policies for managing and pricing tsunami risk globally. As a starting point and to help address this issue, Risk Management Solutions Inc. (RMS) is developing a global suite of tsunami inundation footprints. This dataset will include both representations of historical events as well as a series of M9 scenarios on subductions zones that have not historical generated mega earthquakes. The latter set is included to address concerns about the completeness of the historical record for mega earthquakes. This concern stems from the fact that the Tohoku Japan earthquake was considerably larger than had been observed in the historical record. Characterizing the source and rupture pattern for the subduction zones without historical events is a poorly constrained process. In many case, the subduction zones can be segmented based on changes in the characteristics of the subducting slab or major ridge systems. For this project, the unit sources from the NOAA propagation database are utilized to leverage the basin wide modeling included in this dataset. The length of the rupture is characterized based on subduction zone segmentation and the slip per unit source can be determined based on the event magnitude (i.e., M9) and moment balancing. As these events have not occurred historically, there is little to constrain the slip distribution. Sensitivity tests on the potential rupture pattern have been undertaken comparing uniform slip to higher shallow slip and tapered slip models. Subduction zones examined include the Makran Trench, the Lesser Antilles and the Hikurangi Trench. The ultimate goal is to create a series of tsunami footprints to help insurers understand their exposures at risk to tsunami inundation around the world.

  6. Automated, reproducible delineation of zones at risk from inundation by large volcanic debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, Steve P.; Iverson, Richard M.

    1997-01-01

    Large debris flows can pose hazards to people and property downstream from volcanoes. We have developed a rapid, reproducible, objective, and inexpensive method to delineate distal debris-flow hazard zones. Our method employs the results of scaling and statistical analyses of the geometry of volcanic debris flows (lahars) to predict inundated valley cross-sectional areas (A) and planimetric areas (B) as functions of lahar volume. We use a range of specified lahar volumes to evaluate A and B. In a Geographic Information System (GIS) we employ the resulting range of predicted A and B to delineate gradations in inundation hazard, which is highest near the volcano and along valley thalwegs and diminishes as distances from the volcano and elevations above valley floors increase. Comparison of our computer-generated hazard maps with those constructed using traditional, field-based methods indicates that our method can provide an accurate means of delineating lahar hazard zones.

  7. Investigation on inlet recirculation characteristics of double suction centrifugal compressor with unsymmetrical inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ce; Wang, Yingjun; Lao, Dazhong; Tong, Ding; Wei, Longyu; Liu, Yixiong

    2016-08-01

    The inlet recirculation characteristics of double suction centrifugal compressor with unsymmetrical inlet structures were studied in numerical method, mainly focused on three issues including the amounts and differences of the inlet recirculation in different working conditions, the circumferential non-uniform distributions of the inlet recirculation, the recirculation velocity distributions of the upstream slot of the rear impeller. The results show that there are some differences between the recirculation of the front impeller and that of the rear impeller in whole working conditions. In design speed, the recirculation flow rate of the rear impeller is larger than that of the front impeller in the large flow range, but in the small flow range, the recirculation flow rate of the rear impeller is smaller than that of the front impeller. In different working conditions, the recirculation velocity distributions of the front and rear impeller are non-uniform along the circumferential direction and their non-uniform extents are quite different. The circumferential non-uniform extent of the recirculation velocity varies with the working conditions change. The circumferential non-uniform extent of the recirculation velocity of front impeller and its distribution are determined by the static pressure distribution of the front impeller, but that of the rear impeller is decided by the coupling effects of the inlet flow distortion of the rear impeller, the circumferential unsymmetrical distribution of the upstream slot and the asymmetric structure of the volute. In the design flow and small flow conditions, the recirculation velocities at different circumferential positions of the mean line of the upstream slot cross-section of the rear impeller are quite different, and the recirculation velocities distribution forms at both sides of the mean line are different. The recirculation velocity distributions in the cross-section of the upstream slot depend on the static pressure

  8. Relating rheology to geometry in large-scale natural shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, John

    2016-04-01

    The geometry and width of the ductile roots of plate boundary scale faults are very poorly understood. Some field and geophysical data suggests widths of tens of km in the lower crust, possibly more in the upper mantle. Other observations suggest they are much narrower. Dip slip shear zones may flatten out and merge into zones of subhorizontal lower crustal or asthenospheric flow. The width of a ductile shear zone is simply related to relative velocity and strain rate. Strain rate is related to stress through the constitutive relationship. Can we constrain the stress, and do we understand the rheology of materials in ductile shear zones? A lot depends on how shear zones are initiated. If they are localized by pre-existing structures, width and/or rheology may be inherited, and we have too many variables. If shear zones are localized primarily by shear heating, initial shear stress has to be very high (> 1 GPa) to overcome conductive heat loss, and very large feedbacks (both positive and negative) make the system highly unstable. Microstructural weakening requires a minimum level of stress to cause deformation and damage in surrounding rock, thereby buffering the stress. Microstructural weakening leads to grain-size sensitive creep, for which we have constitutive laws, but these are complicated by phase mixing in polyphase materials, by viscous anisotropy, by hydration, and by changes in mineral assemblage. Here are some questions that need to be addressed. (1) If grain-size reduction by dynamic recrystallization results in a switch to grain-size sensitive creep (GSSC) in a stress-buffered shear zone, does dynamic recrystallization stop? Does grain growth set in? If grain-size is still controlled by dislocation processes, then the effective stress exponent for GSSC is 4-5, even though the dominant mechanism may be diffusion and/or grain-boundary sliding (GBS). (2) Is phase mixing in ultramylonites primarily a result of GBS + neighbour switching, creep cavitation and

  9. Coastal recirculation potential affecting air pollutants in Portugal: The role of circulation weather types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Jerez, Sonia; Mendes, Manuel; Trigo, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are under increasing development and experience air pollution episodes regularly. These episodes are often related to peaks in local emissions from industry or transportation, but can also be associated with regional transport from neighbour urban areas influenced by land-sea breeze recirculation. This study intends to analyze the relation between circulation weather patterns, air mass recirculation and pollution levels in three coastal airsheds of Portugal (Lisbon, Porto and Sines) based on the application of an objective quantitative measure of potential recirculation. Although ventilation events have a dominant presence throughout the studied 9-yrs period on all the three airsheds, recirculation and stagnation conditions occur frequently. The association between NO2, SO2 and O3 levels and recirculation potential is evident during summer months. Under high average recirculation potential and high variability, NO2 and SO2 levels are higher for the three airsheds, whilst for O3 each airshed responds differently. This indicates a high heterogeneity among the three airsheds in (1) the type of emission - traffic or industry - prevailing for each contaminant, and (2) the response to the various circulation weather patterns and recirculation situations. Irrespectively of that, the proposed methodology, based on iterative K-means clustering, allows to identify which prevailing patterns are associated with high recirculation potential, having the advantage of being applicable to any geographical location.

  10. Large area x-ray collimator-the zone plate approach.

    PubMed

    Menz, Benedikt; Braig, Christoph; Bräuninger, Heinrich; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Predehl, Peter

    2015-09-10

    One question of particular interest in the measurement of x-ray imaging optics for space telescopes concerns the characteristics of the point spread function (PSF) in orbit and the focal length for an infinite source distance. In order to measure such a PSF, a parallel x-ray beam with a diameter of several centimeters to meters is required. For this purpose a large area transmission x-ray zone plate (ZP) for collimating x-ray beams has been designed, built, and tested. Furthermore we present a setup to determine large-scale aberrations of the collimated beam. From x-ray measurements we obtain an upper limit for the angular resolution of ±0.2 arc sec and a first-order diffraction efficiency of ≈13%. These results show that it is possible to use a ZP as a collimator for the PANTER x-ray test facility. PMID:26368954

  11. Unusually large shear wave anisotropy for chlorite in subduction zone settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookherjee, Mainak; Mainprice, David

    2014-03-01

    Using first principle simulations we calculated the elasticity of chlorite. At a density ρ~ 2.60 g cm-3, the elastic constant tensor reveals significant elastic anisotropy: VP ~27%, VS1 ~56%, and VS2 ~43%. The shear anisotropy is exceptionally large for chlorite and enhances upon compression. Upon compression, the shear elastic constant component C44 and C55 decreases, whereas C66 shear component stiffens. The softening in C44 and C55 is reflected in shear modulus, G, and the shear wave velocity, VS. Our results on elastic anisotropy at conditions relevant to the mantle wedge indicates that a 10-20 km layer of hydrated peridotite with serpentine and chlorite could account for the observed shear polarization anisotropy and associated large delay times of 1-2 s observed in some subduction zone settings. In addition, chlorite could also explain the low VP/VS ratios that have been observed in recent high-resolution seismological studies.

  12. Repeating and not so Repeating Large Earthquakes in the Mexican Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Singh, S.; Iglesias, A.; Perez-Campos, X.

    2013-12-01

    The rupture area and recurrence interval of large earthquakes in the mexican subduction zone are relatively small and almost the entire length of the zone has experienced a large (Mw≥7.0) earthquake in the last 100 years (Singh et al., 1981). Several segments have experienced multiple large earthquakes in this time period. However, as the rupture areas of events prior to 1973 are only approximately known, the recurrence periods are uncertain. Large earthquakes occurred in the Ometepec, Guerrero, segment in 1937, 1950, 1982 and 2012 (Singh et al., 1981). In 1982, two earthquakes (Ms 6.9 and Ms 7.0) occurred about 4 hours apart, one apparently downdip from the other (Astiz & Kanamori, 1984; Beroza et al. 1984). The 2012 earthquake on the other hand had a magnitude of Mw 7.5 (globalcmt.org), breaking approximately the same area as the 1982 doublet, but with a total scalar moment about three times larger than the 1982 doublet combined. It therefore seems that 'repeat earthquakes' in the Ometepec segment are not necessarily very similar one to another. The Central Oaxaca segment broke in large earthquakes in 1928 (Mw7.7) and 1978 (Mw7.7) . Seismograms for the two events, recorded at the Wiechert seismograph in Uppsala, show remarkable similarity, suggesting that in this area, large earthquakes can repeat. The extent to which the near-trench part of the fault plane participates in the ruptures is not well understood. In the Ometepec segment, the updip portion of the plate interface broke during the 25 Feb 1996 earthquake (Mw7.1), which was a slow earthquake and produced anomalously low PGAs (Iglesias et al., 2003). Historical records indicate that a great tsunamigenic earthquake, M~8.6, occurred in the Oaxaca region in 1787, breaking the Central Oaxaca segment together with several adjacent segments (Suarez & Albini 2009). Whether the updip portion of the fault broke in this event remains speculative, although plausible based on the large tsunami. Evidence from the

  13. Solar Sail - Fresnel Zone Plate Lens for a Large Space Based Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J T

    2002-02-13

    A Fresnel zone plate lens made with solar sail material could be used as the primary optic for a very large aperture telescope on deep space probes propelled by solar sails. The large aperture telescope capability could enable significant science on fly-by missions to the asteroids, Pluto, Kuiper belt or the tort cloud and could also enable meaningful interstellar fly-by missions for laser propelled sails. This type of lens may also have some potential for laser communications and as a solar concentrator. The techniques for fabrication of meter size and larger Fresnel phase plate optics are under development at LLNL, and we are extending this technology to amplitude zone plates made from sail materials. Corrector optics to greatly extend the bandwidth of these Fresnel optics will be demonstrated in the future. This novel telescope concept will require new understanding of the fabrication, deployment and control of gossamer space structures. It will also require new materials technology for fabricating these optics and understanding their long term stability in a space environment.

  14. Vertical stress transfer after large subduction zone earthquakes: 2007 Tocopilla /North Chile case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, S.; Sobiesiak, M.; Victor, P.

    2011-12-01

    Large interplate subduction zone earthquakes occur on fault planes within the seismogenic interface which, in the case of Northern Chile, usually start to break at the down dip end of the coupled interface, propagating towards the trench. Although the rupture is a horizontally oriented process, some vertical connectivity between the interface and the upper crust should be expected. We study two clusters of aftershock seismicity from the Mw 7.7, 2007, Tocopilla earthquake in Northern Chile Both clusters seem to align along vertical profiles in the upper crust above the main shock rupture plane. The first cluster has a rather dissipative character at the up-dip limit of the rupture plane in the off-shore area around the Peninsula of Mejillones. It developed in the early stage of the aftershock sequence. The second cluster lies above the pronounced aftershock sequence of a secondary large Mw 6.9 slab-push event on 16th of December 2007. This type of compressional event can occur after large thrust earthquakes. A comparison of the epicentral distribution of the crustal events belonging to the aftershock sequence suggests a possible relation to the Cerro Fortuna Fault in the Coastal Cordillera which is a subsidiary fault strand of the major Atacama Fault Zone. We compute the Coulomb stress change on the respective faults of both clusters analyzed to see where slip is promoted or inhibited due to the slip on the subduction interface. We then combine these results with the spatial and temporal aftershock distribution, focal mechanism solutions, b-value mappings and geological evidences to understand the process behind the ascending seismicity clusters and their relation to the main shock of the major Tocopilla event.

  15. In Situ Biotreatment of TBA with Recirculation/Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    North, Katharine P.; Mackay, Douglas M.; Kayne, Julian S.; Petersen, Daniel; Rasa, Ehsan; Rastegarzadeh, Laleh; Holland, Reef B.; Scow, Kate M.

    2012-01-01

    The potential for in situ biodegradation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) by creation of aerobic conditions in the subsurface with recirculating well pairs was investigated in two field studies conducted at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). In the first experiment, a single recirculating well pair with bromide tracer and oxygen amendment successfully delivered oxygen to the subsurface for 42 days. TBA concentrations were reduced from approximately 500 μg/L to below the detection limit within the treatment zone and the treated water was detected in a monitoring transect several meters downgradient. In the second experiment, a site-calibrated model was used to design a double recirculating well pair with oxygen amendment, which successfully delivered oxygen to the subsurface for 291 days and also decreased TBA concentrations to below the detection limit. Methylibium petroleiphilum strain PM1, a known TBA-degrading bacterium, was detectable at the study site but addition of oxygen had little impact on the already low baseline population densities, suggesting that there was not enough carbon within the groundwater plume to support significant new growth in the PM1 population. Given favorable hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions, the use of recirculating well pairs to introduce dissolved oxygen into the subsurface is a viable method to stimulate in situ biodegradation of TBA or other aerobically-degradable aquifer contaminants. PMID:23358537

  16. In Situ Biotreatment of TBA with Recirculation/Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    North, Katharine P; Mackay, Douglas M; Kayne, Julian S; Petersen, Daniel; Rasa, Ehsan; Rastegarzadeh, Laleh; Holland, Reef B; Scow, Kate M

    2012-01-01

    The potential for in situ biodegradation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) by creation of aerobic conditions in the subsurface with recirculating well pairs was investigated in two field studies conducted at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). In the first experiment, a single recirculating well pair with bromide tracer and oxygen amendment successfully delivered oxygen to the subsurface for 42 days. TBA concentrations were reduced from approximately 500 μg/L to below the detection limit within the treatment zone and the treated water was detected in a monitoring transect several meters downgradient. In the second experiment, a site-calibrated model was used to design a double recirculating well pair with oxygen amendment, which successfully delivered oxygen to the subsurface for 291 days and also decreased TBA concentrations to below the detection limit. Methylibium petroleiphilum strain PM1, a known TBA-degrading bacterium, was detectable at the study site but addition of oxygen had little impact on the already low baseline population densities, suggesting that there was not enough carbon within the groundwater plume to support significant new growth in the PM1 population. Given favorable hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions, the use of recirculating well pairs to introduce dissolved oxygen into the subsurface is a viable method to stimulate in situ biodegradation of TBA or other aerobically-degradable aquifer contaminants. PMID:23358537

  17. Chronology of historical tsunamis in Mexico and its relation to large earthquakes along the subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, G.; Mortera, C.

    2013-05-01

    The chronology of historical earthquakes along the subduction zone in Mexico spans a time period of approximately 400 years. Although the population density along the coast of Mexico has always been low, relative to that of central Mexico, several of the large subduction earthquakes reports include references to the presence of tsunamis invading the southern coast of Mexico. Here we present a chronology of historical tsunamis affecting the Pacific coast of Mexico and compare this with the historical record of subduction events and to the existing Mexican and worldwide catalogs of tsunamis in the Pacific basin. Due to the geographical orientation of the Pacific coat of Mexico, tsunamis generated on the other subduction zones of the Pacific have not had damaging effects in the country. Among the tsunamis generated by local earthquakes, the largest one by far is the one produced by the earthquake of 28 March 1787. The reported tsunami has an inundation area that reaches for over 6 km inland. The length of the coast where the tsunami was reported extends for over 450 km. In the last 100 years two large tsunamis have been reported along the Pacific coast of Mexico. On 22 June 1932 a tsunami with reported wave heights of up to 11 m hit the coast of Jalisco and Colima. The town of Cuyutlan was heavily damaged and approximately 50 people lost their lives do to the impact of the tsunami. This unusual tsunami was generated by an aftershock (M 6.9) of the large 3 June 1932 event (M 8.1). The main shock of 3 June did not produce a perceptible tsunami. It has been proposed that the 22 June event is a tsunami earthquake generated on the shallow part of the subduction zone. On 16 November 1925 an unusual tsunami was reported in the town of Zihuatanejo in the state of Guerrero, Mexico. No earthquake on the Pacific rim occurs at the same time as this tsunami and the historical record of hurricanes and tropical storms do not list the presence of a meteorological disturbance that

  18. Groundwater in the Earth's critical zone: Relevance to large-scale patterns and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Although we have an intuitive understanding of the behavior and functions of groundwater in the Earth's critical zone at the scales of a column (atmosphere-plant-soil-bedrock), along a toposequence (ridge to valley), and across a small catchment (up to third-order streams), this paper attempts to assess the relevance of groundwater to understanding large-scale patterns and processes such as represented in global climate and Earth system models. Through observation syntheses and conceptual models, evidence are presented that groundwater influence is globally prevalent, it forms an environmental gradient not fully captured by the climate, and it can profoundly shape critical zone evolution at continental to global scales. Four examples are used to illustrate these ideas: (1) groundwater as a water source for plants in rainless periods, (2) water table depth as a driver of plant rooting depth, (3) the accessibility of groundwater as an ecological niche separator, and (4) groundwater as the lower boundary of land drainage and a global driver of wetlands. The implications to understanding past and future global environmental change are briefly discussed, as well as critical discipline, scale, and data gaps that must be bridged in order for us to translate what we learn in the field at column, hillslope and catchment scales, to what we must predict at regional, continental, and global scales.

  19. Sediment transport dynamics in the swash zone under large-scale laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruju, Andrea; Conley, Daniel; Masselink, Gerd; Puleo, Jack

    2016-06-01

    A laboratory experiment was carried out to study sediment transport dynamics occurring in the swash zone of a coarse-sandy beach built in a large-scale wave flume. Hydro- and morpho-dynamic as well as sediment transport data were collected using sensors mounted on a scaffold rig deployed in the lower swash zone close to the moving bed. The high resolution of near-bed data permitted quantitative evaluation of suspended and sheet flow contributions to the total sediment transport. Although sheet flow sediment fluxes were higher than suspended fluxes, the vertically integrated suspended sediment load overcame the sheet flow load during uprush and it was on the same order of magnitude during backwash. The observed cumulative sediment transport was generally larger than the morphological changes occurring shoreward of the rig location implying either an underestimation of the offshore sediment transport or an overestimation of the onshore fluxes obtained from concentration and velocity profile data. Low correlations were found between net swash profile changes and runup parameters suggesting that local hydrodynamic parameters provide little or no predictability of accretion and erosion of an upper beach which is near equilibrium. The balance between erosion and deposition induced by individual swash events brought a dynamic equilibrium with small differences between the profiles measured at the start and at the end of the run.

  20. Electric fields and large-scale undulations in the evening sector of the diffuse auroral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baishev, D. G.; Barkova, E. S.; Stepanov, A. E.; Rich, F.; Yumoto, K.

    2010-02-01

    The synchronous observations of strong electric fields and large-scale undulations observed on December 12, 2004, in the evening sector of the diffuse auroral zone 0900-1000 UT (~1700-1800 MLT) have been analyzed. The appearance of strong northward electric field at ~0900 UT was almost simultaneously registered at Tixie Bay ionospheric station (71.6° N, 128.9° E, L =, 5.6) and on the DMSP F15 satellite. At 0910-1000 UT, the all-sky TV camera at Tixie Bay and the DMSP satellites (F13, F14, and F15) registered eight undulations propagating westward at a velocity of 0.7—0.8 km/s. The undulation parameters registered during the TV observations agree with the satellite measurements. The distinctive feature of the analyzed event consists in that an intense electric field and undulations were localized within the diffuse zone in the region of increased precipitation of keV electrons. A comparison of the ground-based and satellite measurements made it possible to draw the conclusion on the necessary conditions for formation of diffuse undulations.

  1. Quantifying hyporheic zones formed by large woody debris: Synthesis of numerical, laboratory flume, and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, A. H.; Cardenas, M. B.; Buttles, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    The flow of river water around wood debris creates pressure gradients along the riverbed that drive a large zone of river-groundwater mixing, or hyporheic exchange. River water downwells into the riverbed upstream of a channel-spanning log and upwells downstream. Using laboratory flume experiments and coupled CFD-groundwater flow simulations, we develop a predictive relationship for the pressure wave created by a channel-spanning log and resulting hyporheic flow. Amplitude of the pressure wave (and thus hyporheic exchange) increases with channel Froude number and blockage ratio (log diameter:channel flow depth). This relationship can be used to predict losses or gains in river-groundwater connectivity due to removal or addition of instream wood debris. We tested this relationship in a second-order stream in Valles Caldera National Preserve (NM). Log additions created alternating zones of upwelling and downwelling in a reach that was previously losing throughout. Though losing conditions limited the magnitude of exchange, the fundamental shift in exchange patterns from losing to nested flows could influence habitat complexity and transport of nutrients and energy.

  2. Long-term variability of oceanic frontal zones associated with large-scale atmospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmin, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Global satellite sea surface temperature (SST) measurements and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind data for the period of 1982-2009 have been used to study the relationship between long-term variability of oceanic frontal zones (OFZ) and large-scale atmospheric forcing. Statistically significant positive correlations between the maximum magnitude of the meridional gradient of zonally averaged SST and meridional shear of zonal wind (which is an estimate of the Ekman convergence intensity) were found for all subpolar and subtropical OFZ of the World Ocean. Variability of the latitudinal position of OFZ cores may be associated with Ekman advection variability due to zonal wind variations. Strengthening of zonal wind results in a shift of subpolar OFZ cores to the south/north in the Northern/Southern hemispheres.

  3. Multi-scale multireference configuration interaction calculations for large systems using localized orbitals: partition in zones.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cristian; Calzado, Carmen J; Ben Amor, Nadia; Sanchez Marin, Jose; Maynau, Daniel

    2012-09-14

    A new multireference configuration interaction method using localised orbitals is proposed, in which a molecular system is divided into regions of unequal importance. The advantage of dealing with local orbitals, i.e., the possibility to neglect long range interaction is enhanced. Indeed, while in the zone of the molecule where the important phenomena occur, the interaction cut off may be as small as necessary to get relevant results, in the most part of the system it can be taken rather large, so that results of good quality may be obtained at a lower cost. The method is tested on several systems. In one of them, the definition of the various regions is not based on topological considerations, but on the nature, σ or π, of the localised orbitals, which puts in evidence the generality of the approach. PMID:22979845

  4. Multi-scale multireference configuration interaction calculations for large systems using localized orbitals: Partition in zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cristian; Calzado, Carmen J.; Amor, Nadia Ben; Marin, Jose Sanchez; Maynau, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    A new multireference configuration interaction method using localised orbitals is proposed, in which a molecular system is divided into regions of unequal importance. The advantage of dealing with local orbitals, i.e., the possibility to neglect long range interaction is enhanced. Indeed, while in the zone of the molecule where the important phenomena occur, the interaction cut off may be as small as necessary to get relevant results, in the most part of the system it can be taken rather large, so that results of good quality may be obtained at a lower cost. The method is tested on several systems. In one of them, the definition of the various regions is not based on topological considerations, but on the nature, σ or π, of the localised orbitals, which puts in evidence the generality of the approach.

  5. Toroidal transducer with two large focal zones for increasing the coagulated volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenot, J.; Melodelima, D.; Kocot, A.; Chavrier, F.; Chapelon, J. Y.

    2012-11-01

    Toroidal HIFU transducers have been shown to generate large conical ablations (7 cm3 in 40 seconds). The focal zone is composed of a first ring-shaped focal zone and an overlap of ultrasound beams behind this first focus. A HIFU device has been developed on this principle to treat liver metastases during an open procedure. Although these large lesions contribute to reduce treatment time, it is still needed to juxtapose 4 to 9 single HIFU lesions to treat liver metastasis (2 cm in diameter) with safety margins. In this work, a different toroidal geometry was used. With this transducer, the overlap area is located between the probe and the focal ring. The objective was to use this transducer with electronic focusing in order to create a spherical shape lesion with sufficient volume for the destruction of a metastasis of 2 cm in diameter without any mechanical displacement. The operating frequency of the toroidal transducer was 2.5 MHz. The radius of curvature was 70 mm with a diameter of 67 mm. The focal ring had a radius of 15 mm. The overlap zone extent between 35 to 55 mm from the emitting surface. An ultrasound-imaging probe (working at 7.5 MHz) was placed in a central circular opening of 26 mm in the HIFU transducer and was aligned with the focal plane. The transducer was divided into 32 rings of 78 mm2. Using a 32 channels amplifier with a phase resolution of 1.4 degrees, it was possible to change the diameter (0 to 15 mm) and depth (45 to 85 mm) of the focus circle to maximize dimensions of the lesion. Tests were conducted in vitro, in bovine liver samples. This toroidal geometry and the use of electronic beam steering allow the creation of roughly spherical lesions (diameter of 47 mm, depth of 35 mm). This treatment was obtained in 6 minutes and 10 seconds without any mechanical displacement of the transducer. The lesions obtained were homogeneous and no untreated area was observed. In conclusion, these results indicate that the treatment of a liver

  6. Recirculated and Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-05-01

    Linacs that are recirculated share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, including the ability to accelerate electron beams from an injector to high energy with relatively little (normalized) emittance growth and the ability to deliver ultrashort bunch duration pulses to users. When such linacs are energy recovered, the additional possibility of accelerating very high average beam current arises. Because this combination of beam properties is not possible from either a conventional linac, or from storage rings where emittance and pulse length are set by the equilibrium between radiation damping and quantum excitation of oscillations about the closed orbit, energy recovered linacs are being considered for an increasing variety of applications. These possibilities extend from high power free-electron lasers and recirculated linac light sources, to electron coolers for high energy colliders or actual electron-ion colliding- beam machines based on an energy recovered linac for the electrons.

  7. Large-Scale Structures in the Zone of Avoidance: The Galactic Anticenter Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Nanyao Y.; Freudling, Wolfram

    1995-01-01

    We have selected a sample of 876 galaxy candidates from the IRAS Point Source Catalog in the region of 2(exp h) < alpha < 10(exp h) and 0 deg < delta < 36 deg, which crosses the Galactic anticenter part of the Zone of Avoidance (ZOA) and includes most of the highly obscured Orion-Taurus complex region. We have identified galaxies among the candidate sources by attempting to detect the 21 cm H I line of those sources which were not known to be galaxies at the beginning of the survey. In this manner, we constructed a galaxy sample which is largely free from Galactic reddening. Of the 272 observed candidates, 89 were detected in the H I line up to a heliocentric velocity of v(sub h) approximately 16,000 km/s. The resulting galaxy sample of 717 galaxies is fairly complete (within about 10%) and uniform (within about 4%) in the part of the survey area 10 deg away from the Galactic plane and for velocities up to at least 9000 km/s. This provides, for the first time, a largely unbiased view on the large-scale structures in much of the survey area. Our main results are the following: (1) Several large voids are identified. In particular, a void between alpha approximately equals 3(sup h) and 4(sup h), up to v(sub h) approximately 6000 km/s, separates the Pisces-Perseus supercluster at alpha < 3(sup h) from structures at alpha > 4(sup h); and a "nearby void" occupies most of our survey area and reaches out to a redshift of nearly 3000 km/s. (2) We found no nearby galaxy concentration that could significantly contribute to the "Local Velocity Anomoly" (LVA), but a general excess of galaxies around v(sub h) approximately 5000 km/s in the survey area. (3) The contrast between the "Great Wall" at v(sub h) approximately 8500 km/s and the void in front of it appears to gradually diffuse out after it enters the Zone of Avoidance from the northern Galactic hemisphere. (4) Our data combined with other galaxy surveys in or near the Galactic anticenter part of the ZOA suggest that the

  8. Observations of large earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone over 110 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Krishna Singh, Shri; Martínez-Peláez, Liliana; Garza-Girón, Ricardo; Lund, Björn; Ji, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Fault slip during an earthquake is observed to be highly heterogeneous, with areas of large slip interspersed with areas of smaller or even no slip. The cause of the heterogeneity is debated. One hypothesis is that the frictional properties on the fault are heterogeneous. The parts of the rupture surface that have large slip during earthquakes are coupled more strongly, whereas the areas in between and around creep continuously or episodically. The continuously or episodically creeping areas can partly release strain energy through aseismic slip during the interseismic period, resulting in relatively lower prestress than on the coupled areas. This would lead to subsequent earthquakes having large slip in the same place, or persistent asperities. A second hypothesis is that in the absence of creeping sections, the prestress is governed mainly by the accumulative stress change associated with previous earthquakes. Assuming homogeneous frictional properties on the fault, a larger prestress results in larger slip, i.e. the next earthquake may have large slip where there was little or no slip in the previous earthquake, which translates to non-persistent asperities. The study of earthquake cycles are hampered by short time period for which high quality, broadband seismological and accelerographic records, needed for detailed studies of slip distributions, are available. The earthquake cycle in the Mexican subduction zone is relatively short, with about 30 years between large events in many places. We are therefore entering a period for which we have good records for two subsequent events occurring in the same segment of the subduction zone. In this study we compare seismograms recorded either at the Wiechert seismograph or on a modern broadband seismometer located in Uppsala, Sweden for subsequent earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone rupturing the same patch. The Wiechert seismograph is unique in the sense that it recorded continuously for more than 80 years

  9. Correlating Large Igneous Provinces with Lower Mantle Seismic Structure - Where Is the Plume Generation Zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, J.; Kaye, B. T.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Huybers, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Deep mantle seismic structure is dominated by two large, low shear wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) below Africa and the Pacific. While different tomography models have come to a consensus over the general geometry of these provinces, the degree of thermal versus chemical heterogeneity that defines them is contentious. The location of plumes that rise from these large structures may provide insight into this question. Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are thought to be the surface expression of plumes that formed in the deep mantle and subsequently rose through the mantle and erupted at the surface. When restored to their original location of eruption, these LIPs appear to lie approximately above the margins of LLSVPs. This spatial correlation has been used to argue that plumes are preferentially generated at margins of LLSVPs, a notion that would tend to favor a significant chemical gradient at this margin. We assessed the robustness of this correlation by performing a series of Monte Carlo-based statistical tests (Austermann et al., Geophys. J. Int., 2014). These tests confirm that the reconstructed locations of LIPs are spatially correlated with margins of LLSVPs, but they also show that LIPs are correlated with the full areal extent of LLSVPs (parameterized as regions of slower-than-average shear wave velocity). These two correlations cannot be statistically distinguished, which means the areal extent of LLSVPs is an equally likely zone for plume generation. Therefore, based on current tomography models and reconstructed locations of LIPs, we cannot distinguish whether LIPs originated preferentially at the margins of LLSVPs or whether this correlation is merely an outcome of their origin across the full areal extent of these large scale, deep mantle structures. We will discuss the implications of our findings on the growing debate over the relative contributions of thermal and chemical effects on the net buoyancy of the LLSVPs, a factor that ultimately controls

  10. Ozonation followed by ultraviolet irradiation provides effective bacteria inactivation in a freshwater recirculating system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recirculating aquaculture systems may require an internal disinfection process to control population growth of pathogens and heterotrophic bacteria. Ozonation and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are two technologies that have been used to treat relatively large aquaculture flows, including flows withi...

  11. Quality Evaluation of Cone Biopsy Specimens Obtained by Large Loop Excision of the Transformation Zone

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Ramos, Aristoteles Mauricio; Garcia Ramos, Erika Souza; dos Reis, Helena Lucia Barroso; de Rezende, Ricardo Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Background Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) has been used for the diagnosis and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions, and it is the first choice of treatment in the majority of cervical pathology services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of thermal artifacts, the need for serial sections, the percentage of clear and involved resection margins and the relationship between endocervical gland involvement and the severity of the lesion in samples resected using LLETZ. Methods A retrospective study was performed at Santa Casa de Misericordia School of Science (HSCMV), Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil with a sample of 52 histopathology slides from patients submitted to conization because of abnormal cytology findings and a biopsy result of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2, CIN 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test. Results Serial sections were required to confirm diagnosis in four of 52 cases. Thermal artifacts were present in all cases, with grade I being the most common (94.2% of cases). Clear margins were found in 96.2% of cases. No association was found between glandular involvement and CIN 1 (P > 0.05); however, there was an association with CIN 2 and CIN 3 (P < 0.05). Conclusion The amount of excised tissue was sufficient, thermal artifacts were slight, resection margins were clear in most of cases, and a possible association was found between glandular involvement and the severity of the lesion. PMID:25699117

  12. Large, pre-digital earthquakes of the Bonin-Mariana subduction zone, 1930-1974

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Reymond, Dominique; Hongsresawat, Sutatcha

    2013-02-01

    The Bonin-Mariana subduction zone is the end-member example of a decoupled system, as described by Uyeda and Kanamori (1979), with no interplate thrust solutions of moments greater than 8 × 1025 dyn cm known in the CMT catalog, although a number of earthquakes are reported with assigned magnitudes around or above 7, both during the WWSSN period and the historical pre-1962 era. We present a systematic study of these events, including relocation and inversion of moment tensors. We obtain 15 new moment tensor solutions, featuring a wide variety of focal mechanisms both in the fore-arc and the outer rise, and most importantly a shallow-dipping interplate thrust mechanism with a moment of 4 × 1027 dyn cm for the event of 28 December 1940 at a location 175 km East of Pagan. Our results show that the modern CMT catalog still undersamples the seismicity of the Mariana arc, which is thus not immune to relatively large, albeit rare, interplate thrust events, with moments 40 times that of the largest Global-CMT solution. Frequency-magnitude relations would then suggest a return time of 320 years for a magnitude 8 interplate thrust faulting earthquake in the Bonin-Mariana system.

  13. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

    2008-07-30

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  14. Constitutive modeling of large inelastic deformation of amorphous polymers: Free volume and shear transformation zone dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voyiadjis, George Z.; Samadi-Dooki, Aref

    2016-06-01

    Due to the lack of the long-range order in their molecular structure, amorphous polymers possess a considerable free volume content in their inter-molecular space. During finite deformation, these free volume holes serve as the potential sites for localized permanent plastic deformation inclusions which are called shear transformation zones (STZs). While the free volume content has been experimentally shown to increase during the course of plastic straining in glassy polymers, thermal analysis of stored energy due to the deformation shows that the STZ nucleation energy decreases at large plastic strains. The evolution of the free volume, and the STZs number density and nucleation energy during the finite straining are formulated in this paper in order to investigate the uniaxial post-yield softening-hardening behavior of the glassy polymers. This study shows that the reduction of the STZ nucleation energy, which is correlated with the free volume increase, brings about the post-yield primary softening of the amorphous polymers up to the steady-state strain value; and the secondary hardening is a result of the increased number density of the STZs, which is required for large plastic strains, while their nucleation energy is stabilized beyond the steady-state strain. The evolutions of the free volume content and STZ nucleation energy are also used to demonstrate the effect of the strain rate, temperature, and thermal history of the sample on its post-yield behavior. The obtained results from the model are compared with the experimental observations on poly(methyl methacrylate) which show a satisfactory consonance.

  15. Transition and acoustic response of recirculation structures in an unconfined co-axial isothermal swirling flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, R.; Miglani, Ankur; Basu, Saptarshi

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the first observations of transition from a pre-vortex breakdown (Pre-VB) flow reversal to a fully developed central toroidal recirculation zone in a non-reacting, double-concentric swirling jet configuration and its response to longitudinal acoustic excitation. This transition proceeds with the formation of two intermediate, critical flow regimes. First, a partially penetrated vortex breakdown bubble (VBB) is formed that indicates the first occurrence of an enclosed structure as the centre jet penetration is suppressed by the growing outer roll-up eddy; resulting in an opposed flow stagnation region. Second, a metastable transition structure is formed that marks the collapse of inner mixing vortices. In this study, the time-averaged topological changes in the coherent recirculation structures are discussed based on the non-dimensional modified Rossby number (Rom) which appears to describe the spreading of the zone of swirl influence in different flow regimes. Further, the time-mean global acoustic response of pre-VB and VBB is measured as a function of pulsing frequency using the relative aerodynamic blockage factor (i.e., maximum radial width of the inner recirculation zone). It is observed that all flow modes except VBB are structurally unstable as they exhibit severe transverse radial shrinkage (˜20%) at the burner Helmholtz resonant modes (100-110 Hz). In contrast, all flow regimes show positional instability as seen by the large-scale, asymmetric spatial shifting of the vortex core centres. Finally, the mixing transfer function M (f) and magnitude squared coherence λ2(f) analysis is presented to determine the natural coupling modes of the system dynamic parameters (u', p'), i.e., local acoustic response. It is seen that the pre-VB flow mode exhibits a narrow-band, low pass filter behavior with a linear response window of 100-105 Hz. However, in the VBB structure, presence of critical regions such as the opposed flow stagnation region

  16. Lesser Antilles Subduction Zone Investigation by a Cluster of Large Seismic Experiments in the Forearc Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, T.

    2007-12-01

    Thales LAST stands for Lesser Antilles Subduction zone Team which gathers the scientific teams of a cluster of surveys and cruises that have been carried out in 2007 and coordinated under the European Union THALES WAS RIGHT project (Coord. A. Hirn). This cluster is composed by the German cruise TRAIL with the vessel F/S Merian (PI E. Flueh and H. Kopp, IFM-GEOMAR), the French cruise SISMANTILLES 2 with the IFREMER vessel N/O Atalante (PI M. Laigle, IPG Paris and JF. Lebrun, Univ. Antilles Guyane), and French cruise OBSANTILLES with the IRD vessel N/O Antea (PI P. Charvis, Geoazur, Nice, France). During these cruises and surveys, 84 Ocean Bottom 3-components Seismometers (OBS) and 20 Hydrophones (OBHs) have been brought together from several pools (Geoazur, INSU, IPGP, IFM-GEOMAR, AWI,), with up to 30 land stations (CSIC Barcelone, IPG Paris, INSU-RLBM and -LITHOSCOPE) in addition to the permanent onshore arrays of IPGP and SRU. The deployment of all these instruments has been supported principally by ANR Catastrophes Telluriques et Tsunamis (SUBSISMANTI), by the EU SALVADOR Programme of IFM-GEOMAR, as well as by the EU project THALES WAS RIGHT on the Antilles and Hellenic active subductions to which contribute IPGP, Geoazur, IFM-GEOMAR (Germany), ETH Zurich (Switzerland), CSIC Barcelona (Spain), Univ. Trieste (Italy) and NOA Athens (Greece). The main goal of this large seismic investigation effort is the understanding of the behaviour of the seismogenic zone and location of potential source regions of mega-thrust earthquakes. Specific goals are the mapping of the subduction interplate in the range where it may be seismogenic along the Lesser Antilles Arc from Antigua to southern Martinique Islands, as a contribution to identification and localisation in advance of main rupture zones of possible future major earthquakes, and to the search for transient signals of the activity. The forearc region, commonly considered as a proxy to the seismogenic portion of the

  17. Foreshock patterns preceding large earthquakes in the subduction zone of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minadakis, George; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.

    2016-04-01

    Some of the largest earthquakes in the globe occur in the subduction zone of Chile. Therefore, it is of particular interest to investigate foreshock patterns preceding such earthquakes. Foreshocks in Chile were recognized as early as 1960. In fact, the giant (Mw9.5) earthquake of 22 May 1960, which was the largest ever instrumentally recorded, was preceded by 45 foreshocks in a time period of 33h before the mainshock, while 250 aftershocks were recorded in a 33h time period after the mainshock. Four foreshocks were bigger than magnitude 7.0, including a magnitude 7.9 on May 21 that caused severe damage in the Concepcion area. More recently, Brodsky and Lay (2014) and Bedford et al. (2015) reported on foreshock activity before the 1 April 2014 large earthquake (Mw8.2). However, 3-D foreshock patterns in space, time and size were not studied in depth so far. Since such studies require for good seismic catalogues to be available, we have investigated 3-D foreshock patterns only before the recent, very large mainshocks occurring on 27 February 2010 (Mw 8.8), 1 April 2014 (Mw8.2) and 16 September 2015 (Mw8.4). Although our analysis does not depend on a priori definition of short-term foreshocks, our interest focuses in the short-term time frame, that is in the last 5-6 months before the mainshock. The analysis of the 2014 event showed an excellent foreshock sequence consisting by an early-weak foreshock stage lasting for about 1.8 months and by a main-strong precursory foreshock stage that was evolved in the last 18 days before the mainshock. During the strong foreshock period the seismicity concentrated around the mainshock epicenter in a critical area of about 65 km mainly along the trench domain to the south of the mainshock epicenter. At the same time, the activity rate increased dramatically, the b-value dropped and the mean magnitude increased significantly, while the level of seismic energy released also increased. In view of these highly significant seismicity

  18. 77 FR 65816 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River... the Lower Mississippi River between the Port of New Orleans Cruise Ship Terminal, mile marker 96.0... Mississippi River. DATES: This rule is effective December 5, 2012. ADDRESSES: Documents mentioned in...

  19. The Active and Periactive Zone Organization and the Functional Properties of Small and Large Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Raquel; Tabares, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The arrival of an action potential (AP) at a synaptic terminal elicits highly synchronized quanta release. Repetitive APs produce successive synaptic vesicle (SV) fusions that require management of spent SV components in the presynaptic membrane with minimum disturbance of the secretory apparatus. To this end, the synaptic machinery is structured accordingly to the strength and the range of frequencies at which each particular synapse operates. This results in variations in the number and dimension of Active Zones (AZs), amount and distribution of SVs, and probably, in the primary endocytic mechanisms they use. Understanding better how these structural differences determine the functional response in each case has been a matter of long-term interest. Here we review the structural and functional properties of three distinct types of synapses: the neuromuscular junction (NMJ; a giant, highly reliable synapse that must exocytose a large number of quanta with each stimulus to guarantee excitation of the postsynaptic cell), the hippocampal excitatory small synapse (which most often has a single release site and a relatively small pool of vesicles), and the cerebellar mossy fiber-granule cell synapse (which possesses hundreds of release sites and is able to translocate, dock and prime vesicles at high speed). We will focus on how the release apparatus is organized in each case, the relative amount of vesicular membrane that needs to be accommodated within the periAZ upon stimulation, the different mechanisms for retrieving the excess of membrane and finally, how these factors may influence the functioning of the release sites. PMID:27252645

  20. The Active and Periactive Zone Organization and the Functional Properties of Small and Large Synapses.

    PubMed

    Cano, Raquel; Tabares, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The arrival of an action potential (AP) at a synaptic terminal elicits highly synchronized quanta release. Repetitive APs produce successive synaptic vesicle (SV) fusions that require management of spent SV components in the presynaptic membrane with minimum disturbance of the secretory apparatus. To this end, the synaptic machinery is structured accordingly to the strength and the range of frequencies at which each particular synapse operates. This results in variations in the number and dimension of Active Zones (AZs), amount and distribution of SVs, and probably, in the primary endocytic mechanisms they use. Understanding better how these structural differences determine the functional response in each case has been a matter of long-term interest. Here we review the structural and functional properties of three distinct types of synapses: the neuromuscular junction (NMJ; a giant, highly reliable synapse that must exocytose a large number of quanta with each stimulus to guarantee excitation of the postsynaptic cell), the hippocampal excitatory small synapse (which most often has a single release site and a relatively small pool of vesicles), and the cerebellar mossy fiber-granule cell synapse (which possesses hundreds of release sites and is able to translocate, dock and prime vesicles at high speed). We will focus on how the release apparatus is organized in each case, the relative amount of vesicular membrane that needs to be accommodated within the periAZ upon stimulation, the different mechanisms for retrieving the excess of membrane and finally, how these factors may influence the functioning of the release sites. PMID:27252645

  1. Modelling streamflow in a large anastomosing river of the arid zone, Diamantina River, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costelloe, J. F.; Grayson, R. B.; McMahon, T. A.

    2006-05-01

    Anastomosing rivers form a subset of the anabranching family of river types and provide considerable challenges to modelling of their streamflow because of complex flow patterns across greatly varying floodplain widths. Estimates of distributed flow data are required for catchment management purposes and ecological studies of these rivers but are hindered by a paucity of measured discharge data. A grid-based, semi-distributed, conceptual model structure is applied to a 330 km reach of the arid zone Diamantina River of central Australia. Model complexity is constrained by data availability with only a single gauging station located at the downstream end of the reach to provide discharge data for model calibration. The model uses a simple conceptual bucket structure and accounts for exceptionally high transmission losses as well as flow patterns and wave speeds that vary with discharge within the reach. The intricate flow patterns across the floodplains widths of up to 50 km are simulated using a grid-based structure that required the following features: (i) cell connections that are explicitly defined using a code that allows for multi-directional flow from a cell; and (ii) each cell having a binary flow pattern, with the second connection pattern being triggered when the surface storage of the cell exceeds a calibrated level for a given land-type. Satellite images were used to define the flow paths, and hence cell connection patterns, utilised by various sized floods. The model was able to provide acceptable simulation of large floods but with decreasing model performance in the simulation of small to medium sized floods. Simulation suggested that incorrectly defined flow paths for the smaller floods were a major factor in this decreased performance. The capability of the model would be improved by further detailed mapping, using satellite imagery, of spatial patterns of inundation as discharge varies.

  2. Beam breakup in superconducting recirculating linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph J. Bisognano

    1988-05-01

    The performance and operational flexibility of superconducting recirculating linacs can be limited by a variety of collective phenomena which are grouped under the name beam breakup. In this note the various beam breakup phenomena found in recirculating superconducting radio frequency linacs are described and appraised relative to beam performance.

  3. NPHP4 controls ciliary trafficking of membrane proteins and large soluble proteins at the transition zone

    PubMed Central

    Awata, Junya; Takada, Saeko; Standley, Clive; Lechtreck, Karl F.; Bellvé, Karl D.; Pazour, Gregory J.; Fogarty, Kevin E.; Witman, George B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protein nephrocystin-4 (NPHP4) is widespread in ciliated organisms, and defects in NPHP4 cause nephronophthisis and blindness in humans. To learn more about the function of NPHP4, we have studied it in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. NPHP4 is stably incorporated into the distal part of the flagellar transition zone, close to the membrane and distal to CEP290, another transition zone protein. Therefore, these two proteins, which are incorporated into the transition zone independently of each other, define different domains of the transition zone. An nphp4-null mutant forms flagella with nearly normal length, ultrastructure and intraflagellar transport. When fractions from isolated wild-type and nphp4 flagella were compared, few differences were observed between the axonemes, but the amounts of certain membrane proteins were greatly reduced in the mutant flagella, and cellular housekeeping proteins >50 kDa were no longer excluded from mutant flagella. Therefore, NPHP4 functions at the transition zone as an essential part of a barrier that regulates both membrane and soluble protein composition of flagella. The phenotypic consequences of NPHP4 mutations in humans likely follow from protein mislocalization due to defects in the transition zone barrier. PMID:25150219

  4. Fabrication of large-scale multilevel phase-type Fresnel zone plate arrays by femtosecond laser direct writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan-Hao; Tian, Zhen-Nan; Jiang, Tong; Niu, Li-Gang; Gao, Bing-Rong

    2016-03-01

    We report on the fabrication of large-scale eight-level phase-type Fresnel zone plate arrays (FZPAs) by femtosecond-laser direct writing technology. A high-speed galvanometer scanning system was used to fabricate each Fresnel zone plate to realize high fabrication efficiency. To overcome the limited fabrication scale in the case of galvanometer scanning, inter-plate movements were controlled by multi-axis air-bearing precise positioning stages. With the system, FZPAs whose fill-factor was designed to be 100% realized a diffraction efficiency of 89%. The focusing and imaging properties of the FZPAs were also evaluated, and the FZPAs showed high fidelity.

  5. Rheologic evolution of low-grade metasedimentary rocks and granite across a large strike-slip fault zone: A case study of the Kellyland fault zone, Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, W. A.; Monz, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    We examine a large strike-slip fault zone that juxtaposes low-grade clastic metasedimentary rocks with coarse-grained granite near the brittle-ductile transition. The load-bearing matrixes in granite-derived ultramylonites and pelite and wacke metasedimentary intervals are texturally similar, and all deformed by diffusion-assisted granular flow. Granite underwent rapid strengthening as the pluton cooled followed by rapid weakening driven by brittle grain-size reduction and mixing that catalyzed ultramylonite formation. The textural and mineralogical similarity of pelitic intervals across the zone indicates they experienced little textural and reaction weakening. Wacke intervals record progressive textural and reaction weakening in an open system. Quartz recrystallized grain sizes in granite-derived ultramylonites record ∼2-times more differential stress than those in metasedimentary rocks in the interior of the zone. The relative weakness of metasedimentary rocks is correlated with fluid influx that likely enhanced diffusion and grain-boundary sliding in pelitic and wacke intervals and catalyzed textural and reaction weakening in wacke intervals. The lack of evidence for fluid and ionic communication with granitic rocks indicates that fluid movement was restricted to foliation-parallel pathways within single rock units. This localized fluid influx is the best explanation for the strength contrasts between texturally similar fault rocks deformed by similar mechanisms.

  6. A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were grown hydroponically, using continuously recirculating nutrient solution. Two culture tray designs were tested; one tray design used only nutrient solution, while the other used a sphagnum-filled pod development compartment just beneath the cover and above the nutrient solution. Both trays were fitted with slotted covers to allow developing gynophores to reach the root zone. Peanut seed yields averaged 350 gm-2 dry mass, regardless of tray design, suggesting that substrate is not required for hydroponic peanut production.

  7. The Pliny-Strabo trench region: A large shear zone resulting from slab tearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özbakır, Ali D.; Şengör, A. M. C.; Wortel, M. J. R.; Govers, R.

    2013-08-01

    The eastern part of the Hellenic subduction zone is composed of the Pliny and Strabo "trenches" that have been regarded as a zone of convergence between the subducting African lithosphere and the overriding Anatolian-Aegean plate. In the Pliny and Strabo "trenches", the oblique relative plate motion is generally thought to be accommodated by a typical strain partitioning consisting of strike-slip and convergence components. Notwithstanding the occurrence of strike-slip motion parallel with the Pliny-Strabo "trenches", trench-normal thrusting is not observed so far. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis to investigate the deformation mechanisms of the eastern part of the Hellenic Trench system. Our analyses of offshore faulting and mechanisms of earthquakes in the overriding Aegean lithosphere show that the region of the Pliny and Strabo "trenches" obeys the mechanics of the sinistral shear zone model of Tchalenko (1970). We propose that the trench perpendicular convergence is taken up by the Rhodes fold and thrust belt, which has been postulated off the southeast coast of Rhodes. Several regional P-wave tomography results give indications of a slow seismic anomaly under this zone, which is interpreted as a tear between the Hellenic and Cyprus subduction zones. The primary reason for such tear and its propagation is the ongoing rollback of the subducted part of the African lithosphere, also referred to as "the Aegean slab". Our work elucidates the surface expression of this tearing process in the form of the development of a shear zone between the Aegean lithosphere in the NW and the African lithosphere in the SE, the Pliny-Strabo Shear Zone.

  8. Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a California Hot Climate Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng; Yin, Rongxin; Brown, Carrie; Kim, DongEun

    2009-06-01

    The potential for using building thermal mass for load shifting and peak energy demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies. Previous Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory research has demonstrated that the approach is very effective in cool and moderately warm climate conditions (California Climate Zones 2-4). However, this method had not been tested in hotter climate zones. This project studied the potential of pre-cooling the building early in the morning and increasing temperature setpoints during peak hours to reduce cooling-related demand in two typical office buildings in hotter California climates ? one in Visalia (CEC Climate Zone 13) and the other in San Bernardino (CEC Climate Zone 10). The conclusion of the work to date is that pre-cooling in hotter climates has similar potential to that seen previously in cool and moderate climates. All other factors being equal, results to date indicate that pre-cooling increases the depth (kW) and duration (kWh) of the possible demand shed of a given building. The effectiveness of night pre-cooling in typical office building under hot weather conditions is very limited. However, night pre-cooling is helpful for office buildings with an undersized HVAC system. Further work is required to duplicate the tests in other typical buildings and in other hot climate zones and prove that pre-cooling is truly effective.

  9. Plant zonation in a tropical irregular estuary: can large occurrence zones be explained by a tradeoff model?

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J P N; Matsumoto, R S; Takao, L K; Lima, M I S

    2015-08-01

    Estuaries present an environmental gradient that ranges from almost fresh water conditions to almost marine conditions. Salinity and flooding are the main abiotic drivers for plants. Therefore, plant zonation in estuaries is closely related to the tidal cycles. It is expected that the competitive abilities of plants would be inversely related to the tolerance toward environmental stress (tradeoff). Thus, in estuaries, plant zonation tends to be controlled by the environment near the sandbar and by competition away from it. This zonation pattern has been proposed for regular non-tropical estuaries. For tropical estuaries, the relative importance of rain is higher, and it is not clear to what extent this model can be extrapolated. We measured the tidal influence along the environmental gradient of a tropical irregular estuary and quantified the relative importance of the environment and the co-occurrence degree. Contrary to the narrow occurrence zone that would be expected for regular estuaries, plants presented large occurrence zones. However, the relative importance of the environment and competition followed the same patterns proposed for regular estuaries. The environmental conditions allow plants to occur in larger zones, but these zones arise from smaller and infrequent patches distributed across a larger area, and most species populations are concentrated in relatively narrow zones. Thus, we concluded that the zonation pattern in the Massaguaçu River estuary agrees with the tradeoff model. PMID:26465720

  10. Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczucinski, W.

    2013-12-01

    Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded

  11. TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-25

    The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

  12. Large-scale metal zoning in a late-Precambrian skarn-type mineralization, Wadi Kid, SE Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmy, H. M.; Shalaby, I. M.; Abdel Rahman, H. B.

    2014-02-01

    A Precambrian skarn-type mineralization is recently discovered in the Wadi Kid area in southeast Sinai, Egypt. Two sulfide ore types define large scale metal zoning; Cu-Zn-Co in calc-silicate rocks and Zn-Pb-As-Ag in metapelites. The sulfides and host rocks underwent amphibolite facies metamorphism (2.1-4.2 kbar and 500-620 °C). Dating by the chemical Th-U-total Pb isochrone method yields an Th-Pb isochrone age of 660 ± 25 Ma for metamorphic monazite from metapelites. Overall structural and textural relationships of silicate and sulfide minerals favor syn-tectonic formation during granitoids emplacement in a continental margin setting. Large-scale metal zoning reflects variable distances from the causative pluton(s). The Wadi Kid area is highly prospective for Cu, Zn, Pb and Ag mineralization.

  13. Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuka, V.; Brechler, J.

    2013-04-01

    We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model) to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.

  14. Recirculating cross-correlation detector

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

    1985-01-18

    A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

  15. Combined heat transfer in floating zone growth of large silicon crystals with radiation on diffuse and specular surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhixiong; Maruyama, Shigenao; Togawa, Shinji

    1998-01-01

    Numerical analyses are conducted to investigate the combined heat transfer in floating zone growth of large Si crystals with needle-eye technique. The radiation element method, REM2, is employed to determine the radiative heat exchange, in which the view factors associated with the components in the float zone furnace and both the diffuse and specular reflection components are incorporated. The boundary element method and the finite difference method are adopted to calculate the electromagnetic field and the heat conduction, respectively. The effect of surface radiative characteristics of Si melt and crystal, i.e., diffuse and/or specular, is discussed in detail. It is found that the consideration of specular surfaces increases the Joulean heat and the radiative heat flux. The temperature fields are obtained for the cases of diffuse and specular, and the difference between the two different cases is obvious in the crystal and molten zone areas. The molten zone is enlarged when the specular surface is accounted for. The interface shape is examined and found to be in good agreement with the experiment.

  16. Regional and Large-Scale Climate Influences on Tree-Ring Reconstructed Null Zone Position in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D.; Griffin, D.; Cleaveland, M.; Fye, F.; Meko, D.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Redmond, K.

    2007-05-01

    between these consecutive two-year droughts and null zone maxima. Composite analyses of the Palmer drought index over North America indicate that the drought and wetness regimes associated with maxima and minima in reconstructed null zone position are largely restricted to the California sector. Composite analyses of the 20th century global sea surface temperature (SST) field indicate that wet years over central California with good oak growth, high flows, and a seaward position for the null zone (minima) are associated with warm El Nino conditions and a "Pineapple Express" SST pattern. The composite SST pattern is not as strong during dry years with poor growth, low flows, and a landward position of the null zone (maxima), but the composite warm SST anomaly in the eastern North Pacific during maxima would be consistent with a persistent ridge and drought over western North America.

  17. Large-scale hydraulic structure of a seismogenic fault at 10 km depth (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Mittempergher, Silvia; Garofalo, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The definition of hydraulic properties of fault zones is a major issue in structural geology, seismology, and in several applications (hydrocarbons, hydrogeology, CO2 sequestration, etc.). The permeability of fault rocks can be measured in laboratory experiments, but its upscaling to large-scale structures is not straightforward. For instance, typical permeability of fine-grained fault rock samples is in the 10-18-10-20 m2 range, but, according to seismological estimates, the large-scale permeability of active fault zones can be as high as 10-10 m2. Solving this issue is difficult because in-situ measurements of large-scale permeability have been carried out just at relatively shallow depths - mainly in oil wells and exceptionally in active tectonic settings (e.g. SAFOD at 3 km), whilst deeper experiments have been performed only in the stable continental crust (e.g. KTB at 9 km). In this study, we apply discrete fracture-network (DFN) modelling techniques developed for shallow aquifers (mainly in nuclear waste storage projects like Yucca Mountain) and in the oil industry, in order to model the hydraulic structure of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps). This fault, now exposed in world-class glacier-polished outcrops, has been exhumed from ca. 8 km, where it was characterized by a well-documented seismic activity, but also by hydrous fluid flow evidenced by alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and along cataclasites. The GLFZ does not show a classical seal structure that in other fault zones corresponds to a core zone characterized by fine-grained fault rocks. However, permeability is heterogeneous and the permeability tensor is strongly anisotropic due to fracture preferential orientation. We will show with numerical experiments that this hydraulic structure results in a channelized fluid flow (which is consistent with the observed hydrothermal alteration pattern). This results in a counterintuitive situation

  18. Interaction of Particles with Recirculating Flow Regions inside Cavities of Inertial Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Hamed; di Carlo, Dino

    2015-11-01

    Confined inertial flow over cavities of a microfluidic device leads to formation of recirculating flow regions, i.e flow cells, inside cavities which can entrap particles from the free stream. Besides its significance as a fundamental problem in fluid mechanics of mixtures, understanding particle interaction with recirculating flow regions inside cavities is important in biomedical applications, such as Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) separation and platelet deposition in arterial stenosis. In the present work, a lattice-Boltzmann model with resolved particle-corner interaction combined with microfluidic experiments enabled improved understanding of the particle exchange within flow cells in confined inertial flow. Formation of a limit cycle trajectory, observed in experiments and numerical simulations, is a key feature in particle accumulation. By varying the dimensions of the cavity and channel Reynolds number, The length and location of the limit cycle trajectory also varies, altering of the rate of particle exchange and level of accumulation with recirculating zones inside cavities.

  19. Weak Compliance Undermines the Success of No-Take Zones in a Large Government-Controlled Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Stuart J.; Hoey, Andrew S.; Maynard, Jeffrey; Kartawijaya, Tasrif; Cinner, Joshua; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Baird, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of marine protected areas depends largely on whether people comply with the rules. We quantified temporal changes in benthic composition, reef fish biomass, and fishing effort among marine park zones (including no-take areas) to assess levels of compliance following the 2005 rezoning of the government-controlled Karimunjawa National Park (KNP), Indonesia. Four years after the rezoning awareness of fishing regulations was high amongst local fishers, ranging from 79.5±7.9 (SE) % for spatial restrictions to 97.7±1.2% for bans on the use of poisons. Despite this high awareness and strong compliance with gear restrictions, compliance with spatial restrictions was weak. In the four years following the rezoning reef fish biomass declined across all zones within KNP, with >50% reduction within the no-take Core and Protection Zones. These declines were primarily driven by decreases in the biomass of groups targeted by local fishers; planktivores, herbivores, piscivores, and invertivores. These declines in fish biomass were not driven by changes in habitat quality; coral cover increased in all zones, possibly as a result of a shift in fishing gears from those which can damage reefs (i.e., nets) to those which cause little direct damage (i.e., handlines and spears). Direct observations of fishing activities in 2009 revealed there was limited variation in fishing effort between zones in which fishing was allowed or prohibited. The apparent willingness of the KNP communities to comply with gear restrictions, but not spatial restrictions is difficult to explain and highlights the complexities of the social and economic dynamics that influence the ecological success of marine protected areas. Clearly the increased and high awareness of fishery restrictions following the rezoning is a positive step. The challenge now is to understand and foster the conditions that may facilitate compliance with spatial restrictions within KNP and marine parks worldwide. PMID

  20. Large-magnitude transient strain accumulation on the Blackwater fault, Eastern California shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskin, Michael; Iriondo, Alex

    2004-04-01

    We investigate the Quaternary slip rate for the Blackwater fault, Eastern California shear zone, through mapping and geochronology of offset volcanic rocks. Basalt flows of the Black Mountains support the presence of faulting at 3.77 ± 0.11 Ma, 1.8 ± 0.1 km of subsequent slip, and a well-constrained long-term slip rate of 0.49 ± 0.04 mm/yr. Total slip diminishes northward, evidenced by a 0.3 1.8 km offset of a 7.23 ± 1.07 Ma dacite flow in the Black Hills and fault termination in the Lava Mountains, 5 km short of the Garlock fault. Slow long-term slip rate together with sparse evidence for Holocene rupture contradict predictions of rapid slip rate from tectonic geodesy. These results support the conclusion that as much as 95% of geodetic strain accumulation across the Blackwater fault, and thus from 1 to 6 mm/yr of geodetic strain measured across the Eastern California shear zone, is a transitory phenomenon. Discrepant geologic and geodetic results may indicate an increased near-term seismic hazard, but merit caution for interpretation of fault slip rates from geodesy alone.

  1. Detection and possible role of two large nondivisible zones on the Escherichia coli chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo, J E; François, V; Louarn, J M

    1988-01-01

    Inversion of many predetermined segments of the Escherichia coli chromosome was attempted by using a system for in vivo selection of genomic rearrangements. Two types of constraints on these inversions were observed: (i) a sensitivity to rich medium when the distance between oriC and the 86- to 91-min region (which carries loci essential for transcription and translation) is increased; (ii) a poor viability or inviability of inversions having at least one endpoint in the one-third of the chromosome around replication terminators (with an exception for some inversions ending between these terminators). Although the first constraint is simply explained by a decreased dosage of the region involved, the second one may result from disruption of two long-range chromosomal organizations. The nondivisible zones thus disclosed coincide remarkably well with the two zones that we have previously described, which are polarized with respect to their replication. It is proposed that the two phenomena result from a sequence-dependent and polarized organization of the terminal region of the chromosome, which defines chromosome replication arms and may participate in nucleoid organization. Images PMID:3059345

  2. Evidence for large prehistoric earthquakes in the northern New Madrid Seismic Zone, central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.; Schweig, E.S.; Tuttle, M.P.; Ellis, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    We surveyed the area north of New Madris, Missouri, for prehistoric liquefaction deposits and uncovered two new sites with evidence of pre-1811 earthquakes. At one site, located about 20 km northeast of New Madrid, Missouri, radiocarbon dating indicates that an upper sand blow was probably deposited after A.D. 1510 and a lower sand blow was deposited prior to A.D. 1040. A sand blow at another site about 45 km northeast of New Madrid, Missouri, is dated as likely being deposited between A.D.55 and A.D. 1620 and represents the northernmost recognized expression of prehistoric liquefaction likely related to the New Madrid seismic zone. This study, taken together with other data, supports the occurrence of at least two earthquakes strong enough to indcue liquefaction or faulting before A.D. 1811, and after A.D. 400. One earthquake probably occurred around AD 900 and a second earthquake occurred around A.D. 1350. The data are not yet sufficient to estimate the magnitudes of the causative earthquakes for these liquefaction deposits although we conclude that all of the earthquakes are at least moment magnitude M ~6.8, the size of the 1895 Charleston, Missouri, earthquake. A more rigorous estimate of the number and sizes of prehistoric earthquakes in the New Madrid sesmic zone awaits evaluation of additional sites.

  3. Chronology and dynamics of a large silicic magmatic system. Central Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, B.F.; Wilson, C.J.N. ); McWilliams, M.O. ); Lanphere, M.A.; Pringle, M.S. ); Weaver, S.D. ); Briggs, R.M. )

    1995-01-01

    The central Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand is a region of intense Quaternary silicic volcanism accompanying rapid extension of continental crust. At least 34 caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions have produced a complex sequence of relatively short-lived, nested, and/or overlapping volcanic centers over 1.6 m.y. Silicic volcanism at Taupo is similar to the Yellowstone system in size, longevity, thermal flux, and magma output rate. However, Taupo contrasts with Yellowstone in the exceptionally high frequency, but small size, of caldera-forming eruptions. This contrast reflects the thin, rifted nature of the crust, which precludes the development of long-term magmatic cycles at Taupo. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Mixing zone hydrodynamics in a large confluence: a case study of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehata, M. M.; Petrie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Confluences are a basic component in all fluvial systems, which are often characterized by complex flow and sediment transport patterns. Addressing confluences, however, started only recently in parallel with new advances of flow measurement tools and computational techniques. A limited number of field studies exist investigating flow hydrodynamics through confluences, particularly for large confluences with central zone widths of 100 m or greater. Previous studies have indicated that the size of the confluent rivers and the post-confluence zone may impact flow and sediment transport processes in the confluence zone, which consequently could impact the biodiversity within the river network. This study presents the results of a field study conducted at the confluence of the Snake and the Clearwater rivers near the towns of Clarkston, WA and Lewiston, ID (average width of 700 m at the confluence center). This confluence supports many different and, sometimes, conflicting purposes including commercial navigation, recreation, and fish and wildlife conservation. The confluence properties are affected by dredging operations carried out periodically to maintain the minimum water depth required for safe flow conveyance and navigation purposes. Also, a levee system was constructed on the confluence banks as an extra flood control measure. In the recent field work, an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler was used to measure water velocity profiles at cross sections in the confluence region. Fixed and moving vessel measurements were taken at selected locations to evaluate both the spatial and temporal variation in velocity throughout the confluence. The confluence bathymetry was surveyed with a multi-beam sonar to investigate existent bed morphological elements. The results identify the velocity pattern in the mixing zone between the two rivers. The present findings are compared to previous studies on small confluences to demonstrate the influence of scale on flow processes.

  5. Induced seismicity and CO2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection in a multilayered sedimentary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, A.; Rutqvist, J.; Jeanne, P.; Cappa, F.

    2013-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics including the potential for reactivating faults associated with large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations has recently become more widely recognized. However, not withstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is more important from safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this work extends previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on short-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence of potential leakage of either brine or CO2 to shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. We account for a stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through a fault zone as its permeability changes during a reactivation, also causing seismicity. We analyze several scenarios related to the injected amount of CO2 (and hence as a function of the overpressure) both involving minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain permeability coupling functions, as well as increasing the complexity of the fault zone in terms of hydromechanical heterogeneities. We conclude that whereas it is very difficult to predict how much fault permeability could change upon reactivation, this process can have a significant impact on the leakage rate. The presence of hydromechanical heterogeneity influences the pressure diffusion, as well as the effective normal and shear stress evolution. Hydromechanical heterogeneities (i) strengthen the fault zone resulting in earthquake of small magnitude, and (ii) prevent a good fluid migration upward along the fault. We also study the effects of the caprock and aquifer thickness on the resulting induced seismicity and CO2 leakage, both in heterogeneous and homogeneous fault zone. Results show that a thin caprock or aquifer allows smaller events

  6. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2013-09-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts post a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high gas pressure in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  7. Seismic constraints on a large dyking event and initiation of a transform fault zone in Western Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, AbdulHakim; Doubre, Cecile; Leroy, Sylvie; Perrot, Julie; Audin, Laurence; Rolandone, Frederique; Keir, Derek; Al-Ganad, Ismael; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Mohamed, Kassim; Vergne, Jerome; Jacques, Eric; Nercessian, Alex

    2013-04-01

    In November 2010, a large number of events were recorded by the world seismic networks showing important activity occurring along the western part of the Aden Ridge. West of the Shulka El Sheik fracture zone, events in this large seismic swarm (magnitudes above 5) occurred in a complex area, where the change of both the ridge direction and the bathymetry suggest the propagation of the ridge into a continental lithosphere and the influence of the Afar plume. We combine several sets of data from permanent networks and temporary 3C broad stations installed after the beginning of the event along the southern and eastern coasts of Yemen and Djibouti respectively, we located more than 600 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 2.5 to 5.6 that occurred during the first months following the first event. The spatial distribution of the main seismicity reveals a very clear N115° -trending alignment, parallel to the mean direction of the en-echelon spreading segments that form the ridge at this longitude. Half of the events, which represent half of the total seismic energy released during the first months, are located in the central third section of the segment. Here several volcanic cones and recent lava flows observed from bathymetric and acoustic reflectivity data during the Tadjouraden cruise (Audin, 1999, Dauteuil et al., 2001) constitute the sea floor. In addition to this main activity, two small groups of events suggest the activiation of landslides into a large fan and the activity in a volcanic area 50 km due east from the main active zone. The time evolution of the seismicity shows several bursts of activity. Some of them are clearly related to sudden activities within the volcanic areas, when others exhibit horizontal migration of the events, with velocity around ˜ 1 km/h. The time-space evolution of the seismicity clearly reveals the intrusion of dykes associated with magma propagation from the crustal magmatic centres into the rift zone. Taking into account

  8. Diagnostics For Recirculating And Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey A. Krafft; Jean-Claude Denard

    2002-12-18

    In this paper, the electron beam diagnostics developed for recirculating electron accelerators will be reviewed. The main novelties in dealing with such accelerators are: to have sufficient information and control possibilities for the longitudinal phase space, to have means to accurately set the recirculation path length, and to have a means to distinguish the beam passes on measurements of position in the linac proper. The solutions to these problems obtained at Jefferson Laboratory and elsewhere will be discussed. In addition, more standard instrumentation (profiling and emittance measurements) will be reviewed in the context of recirculating linacs. Finally, and looking forward, electron beam diagnostics for applications to high current energy recovered linacs will be discussed.

  9. Numerical study of transient behaviour of molten zone during industrial FZ process for large silicon crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudevičs, A.; Muižnieks, A.; Ratnieks, G.; Mühlbauer, A.; Wetzel, Th.

    2004-05-01

    The fully transient axisymmetric model has been developed for calculation of phase boundaries in large (up to 200 mm diameter) industrial floating zone (FZ) silicon single crystal growth with the needle-eye technique. The transient model is implemented in a specialized computer program. The model and program are based on a previously developed model and program for steady-state FZ process calculations. This transient approach allows studying of such substantially time-dependent process phases as the growth of the starting and ending cones of the crystal rod, which are particularly important for growth of large crystals in practice. Numerous calculations are carried out and the results for reducing crystal diameter during growth process are presented.

  10. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    SciTech Connect

    Englesson, G.A.; Hilsmeier, A.E.; Mann, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate.

  11. On the nature of large auroral zone electric fields at 1-R/E/ altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.; Falthammar, C.-G.; Block, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Mechanisms that may support magnetic-field-aligned electric fields in collisionless plasma are discussed in the light of recent magnetospheric observations, which for the first time allow a quantitative test of the theoretical models. Data from barium ion releases which indicate large field-aligned potential drops and direct electric field probe measurements at high altitude which reveal electric fields of several hundred millivolts per meter are discussed. It is concluded that the large field strengths observed (1) cannot be explained by anomalous resistivity or thermoelectric effects based on wave-particle interaction, (2) are much larger than required merely to balance the local mirror forces, and (3) are compatible with electric double layers of the same nature as those observed in the laboratory.

  12. Fabrication and evaluation of a weak zone plate for monitoring performance of large orbiting telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental study of the feasibility of monitoring the optical performance of a large telescope by means of a very faint phase hologram imprinted upon the primary mirror is reported. Tests have been made using an f/5 telescope with a 0.3 m aperture. The results indicate that a usable hologram can be so faint and so restricted in area that it will probably not interfere significantly with normal operation of a 3.0 m telescope at wavelengths longer than 100 nm for stars brighter than magnitude 29.

  13. Global Omori law decay of triggered earthquakes: Large aftershocks outside the classical aftershock zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2002-01-01

    Triggered earthquakes can be large, damaging, and lethal as evidenced by the 1999 shocks in Turkey and the 2001 earthquakes in El Salvador. In this study, earthquakes with Ms ??? 7.0 from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) catalog are modeled as dislocations to calculate shear stress changes on subsequent earthquake rupture planes near enough to be affected. About 61% of earthquakes that occured near (defined as having shear stress change ???????? ??? 0.01 MPa) the Ms ??? 7.0 shocks are associated with calculated shear stress increases, while ???39% are associated with shear stress decreases. If earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases are interpreted as triggered, then such events make up at least 8% of the CMT catalog. Globally, these triggered earthquakes obey an Omori law rate decay that lasts between ???7-11 years after the main shock. Earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases occur at higher rates than background up to 240 km away from the main shock centroid. Omori's law is one of the few time-predictable patterns evident in the global occurrence of earthquakes. If large triggered earthquakes habitually obey Omori's law, then their hazard can be more readily assessed. The characteristics rate change with time and spatial distribution can be used to rapidly assess the likelihood of triggered earthquakes following events of Ms ??? 7.0. I show an example application to the M = 7.7 13 January 2001 El Salvador earthquake where use of global statistics appears to provide a better rapid hazard estimate than Coulomb stress change calculations.

  14. Global Omori law decay of triggered earthquakes: large aftershocks outside the classical aftershock zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Triggered earthquakes can be large, damaging, and lethal as evidenced by the 1999 shocks in Turkey and the 2001 earthquakes in El Salvador. In this study, earthquakes with Ms ≥ 7.0 from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) catalog are modeled as dislocations to calculate shear stress changes on subsequent earthquake rupture planes near enough to be affected. About 61% of earthquakes that occurred near (defined as having shear stress change ∣Δτ∣ ≥ 0.01 MPa) the Ms ≥ 7.0 shocks are associated with calculated shear stress increases, while ∼39% are associated with shear stress decreases. If earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases are interpreted as triggered, then such events make up at least 8% of the CMT catalog. Globally, these triggered earthquakes obey an Omori law rate decay that lasts between ∼7–11 years after the main shock. Earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases occur at higher rates than background up to 240 km away from the main shock centroid. Omori's law is one of the few time-predictable patterns evident in the global occurrence of earthquakes. If large triggered earthquakes habitually obey Omori's law, then their hazard can be more readily assessed. The characteristic rate change with time and spatial distribution can be used to rapidly assess the likelihood of triggered earthquakes following events of Ms ≥ 7.0. I show an example application to the M = 7.7 13 January 2001 El Salvador earthquake where use of global statistics appears to provide a better rapid hazard estimate than Coulomb stress change calculations.

  15. Global Omori law decay of triggered earthquakes: Large aftershocks outside the classical aftershock zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-09-01

    Triggered earthquakes can be large, damaging, and lethal as evidenced by the1999 shocks in Turkey and the 2001 earthquakes in El Salvador. In this study, earthquakes with Ms ≥ 7.0 from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) catalog are modeled as dislocations to calculate shear stress changes on subsequent earthquake rupture planes near enough to be affected. About 61% of earthquakes that occurred near (defined as having shear stress change ∣Δτ∣ ≥ 0.01 MPa) the Ms ≥ 7.0 shocks are associated with calculated shear stress increases, while ˜39% are associated with shear stress decreases. If earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases are interpreted as triggered, then such events make up at least 8% of the CMT catalog. Globally, these triggered earthquakes obey an Omori law rate decay that lasts between ˜7-11 years after the main shock. Earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases occur at higher rates than background up to 240 km away from the main shock centroid. Omori's law is one of the few time-predictable patterns evident in the global occurrence of earthquakes. If large triggered earthquakes habitually obey Omori's law, then their hazard can be more readily assessed. The characteristic rate change with time and spatial distribution can be used to rapidly assess the likelihood of triggered earthquakes following events of Ms ≥ 7.0. I show an example application to the M = 7.7 13 January 2001 El Salvador earthquake where use of global statistics appears to provide a better rapid hazard estimate than Coulomb stress change calculations.

  16. Nitrogen removal in recirculated duckweed ponds system.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, L; Koottatep, T

    2007-01-01

    Duckweed-based ponds (DWBPs) have the potential for nitrogen (N) removal from wastewater; however, operational problems such as duckweed die-off regularly occur. In this study, effluent recirculation was applied to the DWBPs to solve the above problem as well as to investigate N removal mechanisms. Two pilot scale recirculated DWBPs were employed to treat municipal wastewater. The average removal efficiencies for TN, TKN and NH4-N were 75%, 89% and 92%, respectively at TN loading of 1.3 g/m2.d and were 73%, 74% and 76%, respectively at TN loading of 3.3 g/m2.d. The effluent of the system under both operational conditions had stable quality and met the effluent standard. Duckweed die-off was not observed during the study, which proves the system stability and effluent recirculation which is thought to be a reason. N-mass balance revealed that nitrification-denitrification and duckweed uptake play major roles in these recirculated DWBPs. The rates of nitrification-denitrification were increased as TN loading was higher, which might be an influence from an abundance of N and a suitable condition. The rates of N uptake by duckweed were found similar and did not depend on the higher TN loading applied, as the duckweed has limited capacity to assimilate it. PMID:17591202

  17. Recirculation as a Form of Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jeffrey J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses nine forms of conservation practices: sustained yield, repair, careful use, greater efficiency, lower consumption, doing without, substitution, new resources, and recycling. Suggests recirculation (saving goods from discard and from being broken down in a new manufacturing stage) as a 10th form of conservation practice. (Author/JN)

  18. Better Management Practices for Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under the 2004 federal aquaculture effluent limitation guidelines (Federal Register 2004), recirculating aquaculture systems with an annual production exceeding 45,454 kg (100,000 pounds) are classified as concentrated aquatic animal production (CAAP) facilities and are required to obtain a National...

  19. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device...

  20. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device...

  1. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device...

  2. Large shield volcanos on Venus: The effect of neutral buoyancy zone development on evolution and altitude distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddie, S.; Head, James W., III

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan mission to Venus has emphasized the importance of volcanism in shaping the surface of the planet. Volcanic plains make up 80 percent of the terrain and hundreds of regions of localized eruptions have been identified. Large volcanos, defined as edifices with diameters greater than 100 km, are the sites of some of the most voluminous eruptions. Head et al. have identified 158 of these structures. Their spatial distribution is neither random nor arranged in linear chains as on the Earth; large volcanos on Venus are concentrated in two large, near-equatorial clusters that are also the site of many other forms of volcanic activity. The set of conditions that must be met on Venus that controls the change from widespread, distributed volcanism to focused, shield-building volcanism is not well understood. Future studies of transitional features will help to address this problem. It is likely, however, that the formation and evolution of a neutral buoyancy zone (NBZ) plays an important role in both determining the style of the volcanism and the development of the volcanic feature once it has begun to erupt. Head and Wilson have suggested that the high surface pressure on Venus may inhibit volatile exsolution, which may influence the density distribution of the upper crust and hence control the nature and location of a NBZ. The extreme variations in pressure with elevation may result in significantly different characteristics of such a NBZ at different locations on the planet. In order to test these ideas regarding the importance of NBZ development in the evolution of a large shield and to determine the style of volcanism, three large volcanos that occur at different basal elevations were examined and the distribution of large volcanos as a function of altitude was determined.

  3. River Food Web Response to Large-Scale Riparian Zone Manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Conservation programs often focus on select species, leading to management plans based on the autecology of the focal species, but multiple ecosystem components can be affected both by the environmental factors impacting, and the management targeting, focal species. These broader effects can have indirect impacts on target species through the web of interactions within ecosystems. For example, human activity can strongly alter riparian vegetation, potentially impacting both economically-important salmonids and their associated river food web. In an Olympic Peninsula river, Washington state, USA, replicated large-scale riparian vegetation manipulations implemented with the long-term (>40 yr) goal of improving salmon habitat did not affect water temperature, nutrient limitation or habitat characteristics, but reduced canopy cover, causing reduced energy input via leaf litter, increased incident solar radiation (UV and PAR) and increased algal production compared to controls. In response, benthic algae, most insect taxa, and juvenile salmonids increased in manipulated areas. Stable isotope analysis revealed a predominant contribution of algal-derived energy to salmonid diets in manipulated reaches. The experiment demonstrates that riparian management targeting salmonids strongly affects river food webs via changes in the energy base, illustrates how species-based management strategies can have unanticipated indirect effects on the target species via the associated food web, and supports ecosystem-based management approaches for restoring depleted salmonid stocks. PMID:23284786

  4. Aerosol Generation and Circulation in the Shore Zone of a Large Alpine Lake - Lake Tahoe, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancuren, R. A.; Pederson, J. R.; Lashgari, A.; Dolislager, L.; McCauley, E.

    2007-12-01

    The temporal, spatial, and size-distribution patterns of particles in ambient air over shore areas and the surface of Lake Tahoe (Nevada and California) were studied as part of the 2003-2004 Lake Tahoe Atmospheric Deposition Study (LTADS). The concentration of population along the shoreline of Lake Tahoe makes accurate characterization of local aerosol generation and transport especially important in estimation of annual particle flux onto the surface of the lake. Road dust and smoke are major components of aerosols around the lake, and strong gradients in concentrations and size distributions occur as functions of location, land use, traffic activity, and time of day. Measurements taken while cruising on the lake show that aerosol concentrations in near-shore areas are primarily controlled by a combination of diurnal cycling of land- and lake- breezes coupled with varying particle emissions driven by cycles of human activity. Source-associated particle size distributions were shown to be conserved over wide ranges of particle concentrations. Particle concentrations over water were shown to be highly localized, with highest concentrations just offshore from urbanized areas, lowest concentrations along undeveloped shoreline, and low-to-intermediate concentrations over the middle areas of the lake. Based in part on these observations, particle deposition to the lake is seen to be dominated by mesoscale processes, with only minor contributions from regional or large scale atmospheric circulation.

  5. River food web response to large-scale riparian zone manipulations.

    PubMed

    Wootton, J Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Conservation programs often focus on select species, leading to management plans based on the autecology of the focal species, but multiple ecosystem components can be affected both by the environmental factors impacting, and the management targeting, focal species. These broader effects can have indirect impacts on target species through the web of interactions within ecosystems. For example, human activity can strongly alter riparian vegetation, potentially impacting both economically-important salmonids and their associated river food web. In an Olympic Peninsula river, Washington state, USA, replicated large-scale riparian vegetation manipulations implemented with the long-term (>40 yr) goal of improving salmon habitat did not affect water temperature, nutrient limitation or habitat characteristics, but reduced canopy cover, causing reduced energy input via leaf litter, increased incident solar radiation (UV and PAR) and increased algal production compared to controls. In response, benthic algae, most insect taxa, and juvenile salmonids increased in manipulated areas. Stable isotope analysis revealed a predominant contribution of algal-derived energy to salmonid diets in manipulated reaches. The experiment demonstrates that riparian management targeting salmonids strongly affects river food webs via changes in the energy base, illustrates how species-based management strategies can have unanticipated indirect effects on the target species via the associated food web, and supports ecosystem-based management approaches for restoring depleted salmonid stocks. PMID:23284786

  6. Crystal zoning in a large-volume ignimbrite: constraints on the thermal history of a supervolcano magma system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, N. E.; Pyle, D. M.; Wilson, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical zoning of crystals provides an important archive of information that allows for the reconstruction of complex thermal histories and changes in melt composition of the magma reservoir during crystallization. Here we investigate cathodoluminescence (CL) and Ti zonation in quartz crystals extracted from pumices from the Whakamaru and Rangitaiki ignimbrite units (part of the large-volume Whakamaru Group Ignimbrites), New Zealand, to reconstruct the thermal history of the parent magma chamber(s). CL intensity images are taken as a proxy for Ti content and temperature variation during crystal growth, and direct estimates of temperature are made using the TitaniQ geothermometer (Wark & Watson 2006 Cont. Min. Pet.) based on Ti concentration in quartz. These results are reviewed in comparison with temperatures from Fe-Ti oxide geothermometry. Quartz zoning is also compared to zonation in feldspars (using BSE imaging) from the same pumice clasts in order to establish the degree to which different crystal species record similar or contrasting magmatic histories. Quartz crystals in Whakamaru pumice display a variety of CL zoning patterns and resorption boundaries. Overgrowths typically appear to truncate CL growth zoning within the crystal core, indicating periods of resorption and subsequent re-growth - consistent with magma recharge causing a marked change in conditions (temperature and/or volatile saturation) and multi-stage crystallisation. Crystals typically display a dark (lower Ti) resorbed core, with an abrupt change to a CL-bright rim, although irregular textures and complex variations between crystals are observed. Core-to-rim profiles of Ti concentration in analysed quartz crystals show Ti variations within the range 50-225 ppm, corresponding to crystallisation temperatures of 733-935°C (assuming TiO2 activity in the melt of 0.6), with the lowest values recorded in the crystal core, increasing in a step-wise pattern towards the rim. These values are

  7. Formulation and Application of a Physically-Based Rupture Probability Model for Large Earthquakes on Subduction Zones: A Case Study of Earthquakes on Nazca Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdyiar, M.; Galgana, G.; Shen-Tu, B.; Klein, E.; Pontbriand, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Most time dependent rupture probability (TDRP) models are basically designed for a single-mode rupture, i.e. a single characteristic earthquake on a fault. However, most subduction zones rupture in complex patterns that create overlapping earthquakes of different magnitudes. Additionally, the limited historic earthquake data does not provide sufficient information to estimate reliable mean recurrence intervals for earthquakes. This makes it difficult to identify a single characteristic earthquake for TDRP analysis. Physical models based on geodetic data have been successfully used to obtain information on the state of coupling and slip deficit rates for subduction zones. Coupling information provides valuable insight into the complexity of subduction zone rupture processes. In this study we present a TDRP model that is formulated based on subduction zone slip deficit rate distribution. A subduction zone is represented by an integrated network of cells. Each cell ruptures multiple times from numerous earthquakes that have overlapping rupture areas. The rate of rupture for each cell is calculated using a moment balance concept that is calibrated based on historic earthquake data. The information in conjunction with estimates of coseismic slip from past earthquakes is used to formulate time dependent rupture probability models for cells. Earthquakes on the subduction zone and their rupture probabilities are calculated by integrating different combinations of cells. The resulting rupture probability estimates are fully consistent with the state of coupling of the subduction zone and the regional and local earthquake history as the model takes into account the impact of all large (M>7.5) earthquakes on the subduction zone. The granular rupture model as developed in this study allows estimating rupture probabilities for large earthquakes other than just a single characteristic magnitude earthquake. This provides a general framework for formulating physically

  8. Primary zone dynamics in a gas turbine combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, J. P.; Barron, D.; Seal, M.; Morgan, D.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1989-01-01

    Fluid mechanical investigations simulating the flow in the primary zone of a gas turbine combustor are presented using three generic test rigs: (1) rotating pipe yielding a swirling jet of air; (2) primary zone model with a single swirler and various primary jet configurations, operated with air; and (3) two rectangular models of a (stretched-out) annular combustor with five swirlers in the backwall and with various primary jet configurations, one operated with air and the other with water. Concentration measurements are obtained using laser sheet imaging techniques and velocity measurements using a laser Doppler velocimeter. The results show recirculation zones, intense mixing, instabilities of the interacting jets and the presence of large random vortical motions. The flowfields are shown to exhibit bimodal behavior, have asymmetries despite symmetrical geometry and inlet conditions and display strong jet/swirler and swirler/swirler interactions.

  9. The absorption chiller in large scale solar pond cooling design with condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone

    SciTech Connect

    Tsilingiris, P.T. )

    1992-07-01

    The possibility of using solar ponds as low-cost solar collectors combined with commercial absorption chillers in large scale solar cooling design is investigated. The analysis is based on the combination of a steady-state solar pond mathematical model with the operational characteristics of a commercial absorption chiller, assuming condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone (U.C.Z.). The numerical solution of the nonlinear equations involved leads to results which relate the chiller capacity with pond design and environmental parameters, which are also employed for the investigation of the optimum pond size for a minimum capital cost. The derived cost per cooling kW for a 350 kW chiller ranges from about 300 to 500 $/kW cooling. This is almost an order of magnitude lower than using a solar collector field of evacuated tube type.

  10. Flux-free growth of large superconducting crystal of FeSe by traveling-solvent floating-zone technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Mingwei; Yuan, Dongna; Wu, Yue; Zhou, Huaxue; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhou, Fang

    2014-12-01

    A flux-free solution to the growth of large and composition homogeneous superconducting FeSe crystal is reported for the first time, which is based on the traveling-solvent floating-zone technique. The size of the crystal samples prepared by this approach is up to 15 × 6 × 2 mm3, being far bigger than previously reported in all dimensions, and the main phase of the crystals is of a single preferred orientation along the tetragonal (101) plane. X-ray diffraction analysis identifies the main phase to be the superconducting tetragonal β-FeSe. The superconducting transition temperature (TC) is determined to be 9.4 K by AC magnetic susceptibility and electronic transport measurements. A nearly perfect diamagnetic shielding of -97% is observed, indicating a bulk superconductivity in the crystal sample.

  11. The large normal-faulting Mariana Earthquake of April 5, 1990 in uncoupled subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Satake, Kenji; Abe, Katsuyuki

    1992-02-01

    A large, Ms = 7.5, shallow earthquake occurred beneath the Mariana trench on April 5, 1990. From the relocated aftershock distribution, the fault area is estimated to be 70 × 40 km2. A tsunami observed on the Japanese islands verifies that the depth of the main shock is shallow. For waveform analysis, we use long-period surface waves and body waves recorded at global networks of GDSN, IRIS, GEOSCOPE and ERIOS. The centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution from surface waves indicates normal faulting on a fault whose strike is parallel to the local axis of the Mariana trench, with the tension axis perpendicular to it. The seismic moment is 1.4 × 1020 Nm (× 1027 dyn.cm) which gives Mw = 7.3. Far-field P and SH waves from 13 stations are used to determine the source time function. Since the sea around the epicentral region is about 5 km deep, body waveforms are contaminated with water reverberations. The inversion results in a source time function with a predominantly single event with a duration of 10 sec, a seismic moment of 2.1 × 1020 Nm, and a focal mechanism given by strike = 198°, dip = 48°, slip = 90°. The short duration indicates a small area of the rupture. The location of the main shock with respect to the aftershock area suggests that the nodal plane dipping to the west is preferred for the fault plane. The local stress drop of the single subevent is estimated to be 150 MPa (1.5 Kbars). The Mariana earthquake is considered to have occurred in an uncoupled region, in response to the gravitational pull caused by the downgoing Pacific plate.

  12. Induced seismicity and CO2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection in a multilayered sedimentary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rinaldi, Antonio; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeanne, Pierre; Cappa, Frederic; Guglielmi, Yves

    2014-05-01

    Overpressure caused by the direct injection of CO2 into a deep sedimentary system may produce changes in the state of stress, as well as, have an impact on the sealing capabilities of the targeted system. The importance of geomechanics including the potential for reactivating faults associated with large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations has recently become more widely recognized. However, not withstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is more important from safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this work extends previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on both short- and long-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence of potential leakage of either brine or CO2 to shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. The first part of this work aims to study the fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term (5 years) integrity of the CO2 repository, and hence on the potential leakage of CO2 to shallow groundwater aquifers. Increased pore pressure can alter the stress distribution on a fault/fracture zone, which may produce changes in the permeability related to the elastic and/or plastic strain (or stress) during single (or multiple) shear ruptures. We account for stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes along with strain and stress variations. We analyze several scenarios related to the injected amount of CO2 (and hence related to potential overpressure) involving both involving minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain permeability coupling functions, as well as increasing the complexity of the system in terms of hydromechanical heterogeneities. We conclude that

  13. Structure of the Koyna-Warna Seismic Zone, Maharashtra, India: A possible model for large induced earthquakes elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchings, R. D.; Dixit, M. M.; Goldman, M. R.; Kumar, S.

    2015-05-01

    The Koyna-Warna area of India is one of the best worldwide examples of reservoir-induced seismicity, with the distinction of having generated the largest known induced earthquake (M6.3 on 10 December 1967) and persistent moderate-magnitude (>M5) events for nearly 50 years. Yet, the fault structure and tectonic setting that has accommodated the induced seismicity is poorly known, in part because the seismic events occur beneath a thick sequence of basalt layers. On the basis of the alignment of earthquake epicenters over an ~50 year period, lateral variations in focal mechanisms, upper-crustal tomographic velocity images, geophysical data (aeromagnetic, gravity, and magnetotelluric), geomorphic data, and correlation with similar structures elsewhere, we suggest that the Koyna-Warna area lies within a right step between northwest trending, right-lateral faults. The sub-basalt basement may form a local structural depression (pull-apart basin) caused by extension within the step-over zone between the right-lateral faults. Our postulated model accounts for the observed pattern of normal faulting in a region that is dominated by north-south directed compression. The right-lateral faults extend well beyond the immediate Koyna-Warna area, possibly suggesting a more extensive zone of seismic hazards for the central India area. Induced seismic events have been observed many places worldwide, but relatively large-magnitude induced events are less common because critically stressed, preexisting structures are a necessary component. We suggest that releasing bends and fault step-overs like those we postulate for the Koyna-Warna area may serve as an ideal tectonic environment for generating moderate- to large- magnitude induced (reservoir, injection, etc.) earthquakes.

  14. Multi-Point Interferometric Rayleigh Scattering using Dual-Pass Light Recirculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Danehy, Paul M.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time an interferometric Rayleigh scattering system using dual-pass light recirculation (IRS-LR) capable of simultaneously measuring at multiple points two orthogonal components of flow velocity in combustion flows using single shot laser probing. An additional optical path containing the interferometer input mirror, a quarter-wave plate, a polarization dependent beam combiner, and a high reflectivity mirror partially recirculates the light that is rejected by the interferometer. Temporally- and spatially-resolved acquisitions of Rayleigh spectra in a large-scale combustion-heated supersonic axi-symmetric jet were performed to demonstrate the technique. Recirculating of Rayleigh scattered light increases the number of photons analyzed by the system up to a factor of 1.8 compared with previous configurations. This is equivalent to performing measurements with less laser energy or performing measurements with the previous system in gas flows at higher temperatures.

  15. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts pose a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution, and the permeability is required to be several orders of magnitude less than that of normal coal and enough length is also in demand. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high-pressure gas in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high-pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  16. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  17. Re-circulating linac vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Russell P.; Corlett, John N.; Zholents, Alexander A.

    2003-05-09

    The vacuum system for a proposed 2.5 GeV, 10{Mu}A recirculating linac synchrotron light source [1] is readily achievable with conventional vacuum hardware and established fabrication processes. Some of the difficult technical challenges associated with synchrotron light source storage rings are sidestepped by the relatively low beam current and short beam lifetime requirements of a re-circulating linac. This minimal lifetime requirement leads directly to relatively high limits on the background gas pressure through much of the facility. The 10{Mu}A average beam current produces very little synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption and thus the need for an ante-chamber in the vacuum chamber is eliminated. In the arc bend magnets, and the insertion devices, the vacuum chamber dimensions can be selected to balance the coherent synchrotron radiation and resistive wall wakefield effects, while maintaining the modest limits on the gas pressure and minimal outgassing.

  18. High Power Picosecond Laser Pulse Recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering based light sources. We demonstrate up to 36x average power enhancement of frequency doubled sub-millijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses.

  19. Scaling of Wakefield Effects in Recirculating Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    L. Merminga; G. R. Neil; B. C. Yunn; J. J. Bisognano

    2001-07-01

    Expressions for the induced energy spread and emittance degradation of a single bunch due to the longitudinal and transverse impedance of rf cavities at the end of a linac structure are presented. Scaling of the formulae with rf frequency is derived. Scaling of the threshold current for the multibunch, multipass beam breakup (BBU) instability in recirculating linacs with accelerator and beam parameters is also derived.

  20. Designing and Testing of Self-Cleaning Recirculating Zebrafish Tanks.

    PubMed

    Nema, Shubham; Bhargava, Yogesh

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance of large number of zebrafish in captive conditions is a daunting task. This can be eased by the use of recirculating racks with self-cleaning zebrafish tanks. Commercially available systems are costly, and compatibility of intercompany products has never been investigated. Although various cost-effective designs and methods of construction of custom-made recirculating zebrafish racks are available in literature, the design of self-cleaning zebrafish tanks is still not available. In this study, we report the design and method of construction of the self-cleaning unit, which can be fitted in any zebrafish tank. We validated the design by investigating sediment cleaning process in rectangular and cylindrical tank geometries using time lapse imaging. Our results suggest that for both tank geometries, the tanks fitted with self-cleaning unit provided superior sediment cleaning than the tanks fitted with overflow-drain unit. Although the self-cleaning unit could clean the sediment completely from both geometries over prolonged period, the cleaning of sediments was faster in the cylindrical tank than the rectangular tank. In conclusion, cost and efforts of zebrafish maintenance could be significantly reduced through the installation of our self-cleaning unit in any custom-made zebrafish tank. PMID:27096937

  1. Recirculating gas separator for electric submersible

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a gas separator apparatus for a submersible well pump. It comprises: a rotary gas separator means; and recirculating means for recirculating a portion of the liquid discharged from the discharge outlet back to the separating chamber so that a gas-to-liquid ratio in the separator means is substantially lower than a gas-to-liquid ratio of well fluid entering the well fluid inlet wherein the recirculating means. This patent also describes a method of pumping liquid from a well producing well fluids having a relatively high gas-to-liquid ratio. It comprises: centrifugally separating the well fluid into a liquid and a gas with a separator located downhole in the well; directing the separated liquid toward an inlet of a submersible well pump; recycling a portion of the separated liquid to the separator; and providing an effective gas-to-liquid ratio in the separator substantially lower than a gas-to-liquid ratio of the well fluid prior to separation.

  2. Estimation of recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone based on seismic moment accumulation/release model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 10¹⁷ N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

  3. Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 1017 N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

  4. Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell.

    PubMed

    Tallec, G; Bureau, C; Peu, P; Benoist, J C; Lemunier, M; Budka, A; Presse, D; Bouchez, T

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N(2)O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N(2)O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N(2)O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N(2)O releases: 8.1 +/- 0.16 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 384), 4.2 +/- 0.14 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 132) and 1.9 +/- 0.10 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N(2)O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N(2)O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection. PMID:19297142

  5. Variations of mesoscale and large-scale sea ice morphology in the 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment as observed by microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.; Josberger, E. G.; Gloersen, P.; Johannessen, O. M.; Guest, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    The data acquired during the summer 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in the Fram Strait-Greenland Sea marginal ice zone, using airborne active and passive microwave sensors and the Nimbus 7 SMMR, were analyzed to compile a sequential description of the mesoscale and large-scale ice morphology variations during the period of June 6 - July 16, 1984. Throughout the experiment, the long ice edge between northwest Svalbard and central Greenland meandered; eddies were repeatedly formed, moved, and disappeared but the ice edge remained within a 100-km-wide zone. The ice pack behind this alternately diffuse and compact edge underwent rapid and pronounced variations in ice concentration over a 200-km-wide zone. The high-resolution ice concentration distributions obtained in the aircraft images agree well with the low-resolution distributions of SMMR images.

  6. Monitoring extent of moisture variations due to leachate recirculation in an ELR/bioreactor landfill using resistivity imaging.

    PubMed

    Manzur, Shahed Rezwan; Hossain, Md Sahadat; Kemler, Vance; Khan, Mohammad Sadik

    2016-09-01

    Bioreactor or enhanced leachate recirculation (ELR) landfills are designed and operated for accelerated waste stabilization, accelerated decomposition, and an increased rate of gas generation. The major aspects of a bioreactor landfill are the addition of liquid and the recirculation of collected leachate back into the waste mass through the subsurface leachate recirculation system (LRS). The performance of the ELR landfill largely depends on the existing moisture content within the waste mass; therefore, it is of utmost importance to determine the moisture variations within the landfill. Traditionally, the moisture variation of the ELR landfill is determined by collecting samples through a bucket auger boring from the landfill, followed by laboratory investigation. Collecting the samples through a bucket auger boring is time consuming, labor intensive, and cost prohibitive. Moreover, it provides the information for a single point within the waste mass, but not for the moisture distribution within the landfill. Fortunately, 2D resistivity imaging (RI) can be performed to assess the moisture variations within the landfill and provide a continuous image of the subsurface, which can be utilized to evaluate the performance of the ELR landfill. During this study, the 2D resistivity imaging technique was utilized to determine the moisture distribution and moisture movement during the recirculation process of an ELR landfill in Denton, Texas, USA. A horizontal recirculation pipe was selected and monitored periodically for 2.5years, using the RI technique, to investigate the performance of the leachate recirculation. The RI profile indicated that the resistivity of the solid waste decreased as much as 80% with the addition of water/leachate through the recirculation pipe. In addition, the recirculated leachate traveled laterally between 11m and 16m. Based on the resistivity results, it was also observed that the leachate flow throughout the pipe was non-uniform. The non

  7. Recirculating linacs for a neutrino factory - Arc optics design and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Bogacz; Valeri Lebedev

    2001-10-21

    A conceptual lattice design for a muon accelerator based on recirculating linacs (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 472 (2001) 499, these proceedings) is presented here. The challenge of accelerating and transporting a large phase space of short-lived muons is answered here by presenting a proof-of-principle lattice design for a recirculating linac accelerator. It is the centerpiece of a chain of accelerators consisting of a 3GeV linac and two consecutive recirculating linear accelerators, which facilitates acceleration starting after ionization cooling at 190MeV/c and proceeding to 50GeV. Beam transport issues for large-momentum-spread beams are accommodated by appropriate lattice design choices. The resulting arc optics is further optimized with a sextupole correction to suppress chromatic effects contributing to the emittance dilution. The presented proof-of-principle design of the arc optics with horizontal separation of multi-pass beams can be extended to all passes in both recirculating linacs.

  8. Recirculating linacs for a neutrino factory - Arc optics design and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Valeri Lebedev; S. Bogacz

    2001-10-25

    A conceptual lattice design for a muon accelerator based on recirculating linacs (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 472 (2001) 499, these proceedings) is presented here. The challenge of accelerating and transporting a large phase space of short-lived muons is answered here by presenting a proof-of-principle lattice design for a recirculating linac accelerator. It is the centerpiece of a chain of accelerators consisting of a 3 GeV linac and two consecutive recirculating linear accelerators, which facilitates acceleration starting after ionization cooling at 190 MeV/c and proceeding to 50 GeV. Beam transport issues for large-momentum-spread beams are accommodated by appropriate lattice design choices. The resulting arc optics is further optimized with a sextupole correction to suppress chromatic effects contributing to the emittance dilution. The presented proof-of-principle design of the arc optics with horizontal separation of multi-pass beams can be extended to all passes in both recirculating linacs.

  9. Interaction of droplets in recirculation regions within microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Nastaran; Hosseini, Ashkan; Shojaei-Zadeh, Shahab

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the interaction of oil droplets in continuous water phase as they travel across the streamlines of a recirculation region using microfluidic devices. Oil droplets are first generated using hydrodynamic focusing and then enter a recirculation region. The droplets then keep recirculating until they are pushed out by the incoming ones. We show that the frequency of droplet generation, viscosity contrast (oil to water), and geometry determine which droplets to stay in the recirculation region and which one to leave. Using flow field simulations, we investigate the migration of droplets and their trajectories based on the geometry of the recirculation region, the bubble size, and fluid properties. Under favorable conditions, when droplets interact within the recirculation region for long enough time, the film thickness that separates the two interfaces reduces and droplets will coalesce. The proposed design thus provides a suitable platform to study droplet coalescence within microfluidic devices.

  10. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  11. Investigation of swirler/dilution jet flow split on primary zone flow patterns in a water model can-type combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutmos, P.; McGuirk, J. J.

    1985-03-01

    LDA measurements of the three mean velocity components and the corresponding turbulence intensities have been made to provide qualitative and quantitative information on the flow field in a water model of a can type gas turbine combustion chamber. The combustor geometry comprised a swirl driven primary zone, annulus fed rows of primary and secondary jets and an exit contraction. The effect of variation of the flow split between the swirler and the dilution holes on the flow pattern in the primary zone has been investigated in detail. Flow visualization studies revealed that significant changes occur in this region due to the interaction between the swirling flow and the radially directed primary jets. A large toroidal recirculation was formed and high levels of turbulence energy generated in the core of the combustor at low levels of swirler flow rate. As the swirl level increases the strength of this recirculation was observed to weaken and become less stable. Beyond a critical level, the primary recirculation was pushed off center and the undesirable feature of a forward velocity on the combustor axis in the primary zone was observed. Despite the dramatic changes brought about in the primary zone the flow pattern downstream of the secondary jets was practically the same for all flow splits due to the strong mixing caused by the two rows of jets.

  12. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  13. Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoseismology of an intraplate seismic zone in a large alluvial valley, the New Madrid seismic zone, Central USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guccione, Margaret J.

    2005-10-01

    The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) is an intraplate right-lateral strike-slip and thrust fault system contained mostly within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The most recent earthquake sequence in the zone occurred in 1811 1812 and had estimated moment magnitudes of 7 8 (e.g., [Johnston, A.C., 1996. Seismic moment assessment of stable continental earthquakes, Part 3: 1811 1812 New Madrid, 1886 Charleston, and 1755 Lisbon. Geophysical Journal International 126, 314 344; Johnston, A.C., Schweig III, E.S, 1996. The enigma of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811 1812. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 24, 339 384; Hough, S.E., Armbruster, J.G., Seeber, L., Hough, J.F., 2000. On the modified Mercalli intensities and magnitudes of the New Madrid earthquakes. Journal of Geophysical Research 105 (B10), 23,839 23,864; Tuttle, M.P., 2001. The use of liquefaction features in paleoseismology: Lessons learned in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States. Journal of Seismology 5, 361 380]). Four earlier prehistoric earthquakes or earthquake sequences have been dated A.D. 1450 ± 150, 900 ± 100, 300 ± 200, and 2350 B.C. ± 200 years using paleoliquefaction features, particularly those associated with native American artifacts, and in some cases surface deformation ([Craven, J. A. 1995. Paleoseismology study in the New Madrid seismic zone using geological and archeological features to constrain ages of liquefaction deposits. M.S thesis, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, U.S.A.; Tuttle, M.P., Lafferty III, R.H., Guccione, M.J., Schweig III, E.S., Lopinot, N., Cande, R., Dyer-Williams, K., Haynes, M., 1996. Use of archaeology to date liquefaction features and seismic events in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States. Geoarchaeology 11, 451 480; Guccione, M.J., Mueller, K., Champion, J., Shepherd, S., Odhiambo, B., 2002b. Stream response to repeated co-seismic folding, Tiptonville dome, western Tennessee. Geomorphology 43(2002), 313 349; Tuttle, M

  14. Maximizing Number of Passes in Recirculating Energy Recovery Linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, S. Alex

    2016-03-01

    The next generation of high energy recirculating linear accelerators (RLAs) will rely on the energy recovery (ER) process for their extreme high current operation. Here, we discuss optimum design of multi-pass linac optics for an RLA based on a large scale superconducting linac. Initial strategy used in the design of 60 GeV, 6 pass RLA for the LHeC, has been extended to 10 passes for the proposed CEBAF ER experiment. The presented optimization scheme addresses overall beam transport performance, as well as specific beam dynamics issues, such as, beam stability due to collective effects. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  15. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-11

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  16. In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Krumhansl, James L.; Chwirka, Joseph D.

    2009-04-07

    A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

  17. Geomechanical effects on CO2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Rutqvist, Jonny; Cappa, Frédéric

    2013-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics—including the potential for faults to reactivate during large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations—has recently become more widely recognized. However, notwithstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is actually more important from public safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this paper extends the previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence on the potential for leakage of either brine or CO2 to reach the shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. We consider stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes during a reactivation, also causing seismicity. We analyze several scenarios related to the volume of CO2 injected (and hence as a function of the overpressure), involving both minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain-permeability coupling functions. We conclude that whereas it is very difficult to predict how much fault permeability could change upon reactivation, this process can have a significant impact on the leakage rate. Moreover, our analysis shows that induced seismicity associated with fault reactivation may not necessarily open up a new flow path for leakage. Results show a poor correlation between magnitude and amount of fluid leakage, meaning that a single event is generally not enough to substantially change the permeability along the entire fault length. Finally, and consequently, even if some changes in permeability occur, this does not mean that the CO2 will migrate up along the entire fault, breaking through the caprock to enter the overlying aquifer.

  18. Method and apparatus for advanced staged combustion utilizing forced internal recirculation

    DOEpatents

    Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Nester, Serguei; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2003-12-16

    A method and apparatus for combustion of a fuel in which a first-stage fuel and a first-stage oxidant are introduced into a combustion chamber and ignited, forming a primary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the total heat output produced by combustion of the first-stage fuel and the first-stage oxidant is removed from the primary combustion zone, forming cooled first-stage combustion products. A portion of the cooled first-stage combustion products from a downstream region of the primary combustion zone is recirculated to an upstream region of primary combustion zone. A second-stage fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the primary combustion zone and ignited, forming a secondary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the heat from the secondary combustion zone is removed. In accordance with one embodiment, a third-stage oxidant is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the secondary combustion zone, forming a tertiary combustion zone.

  19. Gray zone lymphoma with features intermediate between classical Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: characteristics, outcomes, and prognostication among a large multicenter cohort.

    PubMed

    Evens, Andrew M; Kanakry, Jennifer A; Sehn, Laurie H; Kritharis, Athena; Feldman, Tatyana; Kroll, Aimee; Gascoyne, Randy D; Abramson, Jeremy S; Petrich, Adam M; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco J; Al-Mansour, Zeina; Adeimy, Camille; Hemminger, Jessica; Bartlett, Nancy L; Mato, Anthony; Caimi, Paolo F; Advani, Ranjana H; Klein, Andreas K; Nabhan, Chadi; Smith, Sonali M; Fabregas, Jesus C; Lossos, Izidore S; Press, Oliver W; Fenske, Timothy S; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Vose, Julie M; Blum, Kristie A

    2015-09-01

    Gray zone lymphoma (GZL) with features between classical Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a recently recognized entity reported to present primarily with mediastinal disease (MGZL). We examined detailed clinical features, outcomes, and prognostic factors among 112 GZL patients recently treated across 19 North American centers. Forty-three percent of patients presented with MGZL, whereas 57% had non-MGZL (NMGZL). NMGZL patients were older (50 versus 37 years, P = 0.0001); more often had bone marrow involvement (19% versus 0%, P = 0.001); >1 extranodal site (27% versus 8%, P = 0.014); and advanced stage disease (81% versus 13%, P = 0.0001); but they had less bulk (8% versus 44%, P = 0.0001), compared with MGZL patients. Common frontline treatments were cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone +/- rituximab (CHOP+/-R) 46%, doxorubicin-bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine +/- rituximab (ABVD+/-R) 30%, and dose-adjusted etoposide-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-vincristine-prednisone-rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) 10%. Overall and complete response rates for all patients were 71% and 59%, respectively; 33% had primary refractory disease. At 31-month median follow-up, 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival rates were 40% and 88%, respectively. Interestingly, outcomes in MGZL patients seemed similar compared with that of NMGZL patients. On multivariable analyses, performance status and stage were highly prognostic for survival for all patients. Additionally, patients treated with ABVD+/-R had markedly inferior 2-year PFS (22% versus 52%, P = 0.03) compared with DLBCL-directed therapy (CHOP+/-R and DA-EPOCH-R), which persisted on Cox regression (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.83; P = 0.04). Furthermore, rituximab was associated with improved PFS on multivariable analyses (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.69; P = 0.002). Collectively, GZL is a heterogeneous

  20. Rock magnetism constrain response thickness on earth surface to large earthquake: Evidence from the Bajiaomiao Outcrop of the Wenchuan Earthquake Rupture Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Li, H.; Lee, T.; Song, S.; Sun, Z.; Wang, X.; Chou, Y.; Chevalier, M.; Si, J.; Wang, H.

    2013-12-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake has raptured along two fault zones, the Yingxiu-Beichuan f and the Anxian-Guanxian fault zones. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) funded by the Chinese government, drilled five holes close to the two seismic fault zones. Fault gouge with various thicknesses were found in the drill holes and at the earth surface outcrops. In general, one such large earthquake creates several centimeters-thick fault gouge, i.e. the repeated large earthquakes must have taken place in the Longmen Shan region in order to accumulate the amount of gouge observed here. Rock magnetism is an economic, easy-access and non-destructive method for deciphering the magnetic mineral assemblage during large earthquake slip process, which can give us more information about this intercontinental earthquake dynamics, thanks to the occurrence of many large earthquakes as well as to the thick fault gouge present here. The Bajiaomiao outcrop, crossing to the Yingxiu-Beichuan seismic fault rapture zone, consisted of fault breccia and gouge in the hanging wall and Quaternary conglomerate in the footwall. The samples from the hanging wall of this outcrop were used to study rock magnetic porperties. Basing on the in-situ field magnetic susceptibility measurement, high magnetic susceptibility values were found in the fault gouge, possibly induced by more new-formed ferrimagnetic minerals. We apply other rock magnetic methods (such as Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM), high-temperature thermomagnetism (K-T)) to the samples from the Bajiaomiao outcrop. The IRM results show that the magnetite was present in the gouge and fault breccia of the hand hall of the Yingxiu-Beichuan seismic fault rapture zone. Basing on the K-T results, magnetite and other ferromagnetic minerals existed in the gouge and fault breccia; the <2 cm thick gouge close to the fault rapture zone had existed the only magnetic mineral of magnetite. This < 2cm gouge was most

  1. Measurement of SRS reactor recirculation pump performance using pump motor power

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehouse, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    In order to accurately predict reactor hydraulic behavior during a hypothetical Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA) the performance of reactor coolant pumps under off-design conditions must be understood. The LOCA of primary interest for the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors involves the aspiration of air into the recirculated heavy water flow as reactor tank inventory is lost (system temperatures are too low to result in significant flashing of water coolant into steam). Entrained air causes degradation in the performance of the large recirculation pumps. The amount of degradation is a parameter used in computer codes which predict the course of the accident. This paper describes the analysis of data obtained during in-reactor simulated LOCA tests, and presents the head degradation curve for the SRS reactor recirculation pumps. The greatest challenge of the analysis was to determine a reasonable estimate of mixture density at the pump suction. Specially designed three-beam densitometers were used to determine mixture density. Since it was not feasible to place them in the most advantageous location the measured pump motor power, along with other techniques (pressure corrected gamma densitometer void fraction), were used to calculate the average mixture density at the pump impeller. These techniques provided good estimates of pump suction mixture density. Measurements from more conventional instruments were used to arrive at the value of pump two-component head over a wide range of flows. The results were significantly different from previous work with commercial reactor recirculation pumps.

  2. Recirculating Planar Magnetron Modeling and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzi, Matthew; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Hoff, Brad; French, Dave; Lau, Y. Y.

    2011-10-01

    We present simulations and initial experimental results of a new class of crossed field device: Recirculating Planar Magnetrons (RPM). Two geometries of RPM are being explored: 1) Dual planar-magnetrons connected by a recirculating section with axial magnetic field and transverse electric field, and 2) Planar cathode and anode-cavity rings with radial magnetic field and axial electric field. These RPMs have numerous advantages for high power microwave generation by virtue of larger area cathodes and anodes. The axial B-field RPM can be configured in either the conventional or inverted (faster startup) configuration. Two and three-dimensional EM PIC simulations show rapid electron spoke formation and microwave oscillation in pi-mode. Smoothbore prototype axial-B RPM experiments are underway using the MELBA accelerator at parameters of -300 kV, 1-20 kA and pulselengths of 0.5-1 microsecond. Implementation and operation of the first RPM slow wave structure, operating at 1GHz, will be discussed. Research supported by AFOSR, AFRL, L-3 Communications, and Northrop Grumman. Done...processed 1830 records...17:52:57 Beginning APS data extraction...17:52:57

  3. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOEpatents

    Fensom, Rod; Kidder, David J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  4. PULSED-FOCUSING RECIRCULATING LINACS FOR MUON ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland PAUL

    2014-12-31

    Since the muon has a short lifetime, fast acceleration is essential for high-energy applications such as muon colliders, Higgs factories, or neutrino factories. The best one can do is to make a linear accelerator with the highest possible accelerating gradient to make the accelerating time as short as possible. However, the cost of such a single linear accelerator is prohibitively large due to expensive power sources, cavities, tunnels, and related infrastructure. As was demonstrated in the Thomas Jefferson Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), an elegant solution to reduce cost is to use magnetic return arcs to recirculate the beam through the accelerating RF cavities many times, where they gain energy on each pass. In such a Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA), the magnetic focusing strength diminishes as the beam energy increases in a conventional linac that has constant strength quadrupoles. After some number of passes the focusing strength is insufficient to keep the beam from going unstable and being lost. In this project, the use of fast pulsed quadrupoles in the linac sections was considered for stronger focusing as a function of time to allow more successive passes of a muon beam in a recirculating linear accelerator. In one simulation, it was shown that the number of passes could be increased from 8 to 12 using pulsed magnet designs that have been developed and tested. This could reduce the cost of linac sections of a muon RLA by 8/12, where more improvement is still possible. The expense of a greater number of passes and corresponding number of return arcs was also addressed in this project by exploring the use of ramped or FFAG-style magnets in the return arcs. A better solution, invented in this project, is to use combined-function dipole-quadrupole magnets to simultaneously transport two beams of different energies through one magnet string to reduce costs of return arcs by almost a factor of

  5. Performance model of a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nickel hydrogen battery cell has been utilized to describe the chemical and physical changes during charge and overcharge in a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. In particular, the movement of gas and electrolyte have been examined as a function of the amount of electrolyte put into the cell stack during cell activation, and as a function of flooding in regions of the gas screen in this cell design. Additionally, a two-dimensional variation on this model has been utilized to describe the effects of non-uniform loading in the nickel-electrode on the movement of gas and electrolyte within the recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. The type of nonuniform loading that has been examined here is that associated with higher than average loading near the surface of the sintered nickel electrode, a condition present to some degree in many nickel electrodes made by electrochemical impregnation methods. The effects of high surface loading were examined primarily under conditions of overcharge, since the movement of gas and electrolyte in the overcharging condition was typically where the greatest effects of non-uniform loading were found. The results indicate that significant changes in the capillary forces between cell components occur as the percentage of free volume in the stack filled by electrolyte becomes very high. These changes create large gradients in gas-filled space and oxygen concentrations near the boundary between the separator and the hydrogen electrode when the electrolyte fill is much greater than about 95 percent of the stack free volume. At lower electrolyte fill levels, these gaseous and electrolyte gradients become less extreme, and shift through the separator towards the nickel electrode. Similarly, flooding of areas in the gas screen cause higher concentrations of oxygen gas to approach the platinum/hydrogen electrode that is opposite the back side of the nickel electrode. These results illustrate the need for

  6. Alpine re-activation of pre-Alpine structures: details from a large-scale shear zone in the Aar massif (Central Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrens, Philip; Baumberger, Roland; Herwegh, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The Aar massif belongs to the external massifs of the Alps and is mainly composed of granitoids and gneisses. Post-Variscan granitoid rocks have intruded old gneisses belonging to the pre-Variscan basement. Despite numerous detailed studies in the past decades, the overall exhumation history and the associated massif internal deformation (internal strain distribution and its evolution in time, kinematics etc.) are largely unknown at present. In this project, we aim to investigate the role of shear zones in the deformation history at a variety of scales. In this context it is important to understand their microstructural evolution, the involved deformation processes, kinematics and relative ages as well as the associated changes in rheology. A detailed study was conducted along a major shear zone located at the southern margin of the Aar massif (running from Furka to Grimsel Pass and Oberaar Glacier), where the Grimsel Granodiorite (GrGr) is juxtapositioned to strongly foliated gneisses. Preliminary results show that a crenulation of these gneisses predates the age of the granitoid intrusion, meaning they must be older than 298 Ma. The crenulation and a related axial plane foliation (145/80°) define mechanical anisotropies within these Pre-Variscan rocks. The intruding granite has exploited these anisotropies a first time during its emplacement in post-Variscan times. The lithological boundary between the intruded GrGr and Pre-Variscan rocks causes strain again to localize during Alpine deformation and results in a 40 m wide large-scale shear zone. The older part of the shear zone shows cm-scale shear zones with vertical lineations shearing off the aforementioned pre-Alpine axial plane foliation. Hence the contact is reactivated, now as Alpine normal/ reverse fault, a second time. Towards the youngest parts of the shear zone the stretching lineation on the shear surfaces turns from vertical towards a subhorizontal position, indicating a change from initial vertical

  7. Sensitivity of bandpass filters using recirculating delay-line structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyde, Eric C.

    1996-12-01

    Recirculating delay lines have value notably as sensors and optical signal processors. Most useful applications depend on a high-finesse response from a network. A proof that, with given response parameters, more complex systems can produce behavior that is more stable to the effects of nonidealities than a single recirculating loop is presented.

  8. Energy conservation by partial recirculation of peanut drying air

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.H.

    1983-06-01

    Conventional, recirculating, and intermittent type peanut dryers were compared in a three-year study. Comparisons indicate that partial recirculation of peanut drying air may reduce energy consumption per unit of water removed by approximately 25% while also reducing required drying time and maintaining high quality.

  9. Energy savings from air recirculation in peanut curing

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.F.; Cundiff, J.S.; Vaughan, D.H.

    1982-12-01

    A thin-layer peanut drying simulation model was adapted to incorporate air recirculation. Laboratory crop dryers were designed and constructed to conduct experiments to verify the model. Five batches of peanuts were dried using different recirculation strategies. The model successfully predicted the results.

  10. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  17. Inshore recirculating systems for the production of marine finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for both commercial and experimental uses have been developing for decades in many parts of the world. There are several driving forces behind the implementation of recirculating technology for aquaculture production systems. The availability of good and stab...

  18. Exogenous processes study in the coastal zone of the large reservoirs in the archaeological monuments placement (Volga-Kama region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynullin, Iskander; Usmanov, Bulat

    2014-05-01

    The problem of conservation of archaeological heritage is highly relevant for the Republic of Tatarstan (RT), because in its territory identified, studied and registered around 4,300 archaeological sites. Most of archaeological sites from the Mesolithic to the late Middle Ages, now situated in the coastal zone of reservoirs where archaeological objects destroying because of intensive abrasion processes. The Volga and Kama rivers region attracted people for millennia. This territory of the Russian Plain is abounding in archaeological sites of various ages. During the Upper Paleolithic study region was quite convenient for living activity of the first inhabitants because of its situation out of the glacier limits. The sites on the banks are deposited within deluvial sediments of the Late Valday glaciation which have been accumulated on the slope of the Volga and Kama valleys, placing the third terrace and the segmentations of the second terrace over the flood-plain and now completely or fragmentary destroyed by reservoir waters. The analysis of remote sensing (1958-2013) and field survey (2011-2013) data performed. Georeferencing and alignment of the historical maps with remote sensing data makes possible to reveal mistakes in old site plans and re-create the shape of the destroyed archaeological objects, as well to get the exact size of the monument and its correct orientation. Results showed also that the studying sites caused a great rate of destruction of coastline. Cultural heritage sites monitoring, with information about the chronology, cultural layer value, settlement specifics, etc., taking into account the methods used in landscape ecology and field archaeological survey, allows to evaluate damage and the intensity of archaeological sites destruction through the dangerous exogenous processes estimation. Exogenous processes data and archaeological GIS integration will form unified system of archaeological rescue works, will provide analysis of large amount

  19. Effects of Fluctuating River flow on Groundwater/Surface Water Mixing in the Hyporheic Zone of a Regulated, Large Cobble Bed River

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Dresel, P. Evan

    2006-10-31

    Physicochemical relationships in the boundary zone between groundwater and surface water (i.e., the hyporheic zone) are controlled by surface water hydrology and the hydrogeologic properties of the riverbed. We studied how sediment permeability and river discharge altered the vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) and water quality of the hyporheic zone within the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The Columbia River at Hanford is a large, cobble-bed river where water level fluctuates up to 2 m daily because of hydropower generation. Concomitant with recording river stage, continuous readings were made of water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and water level of the hyporheic zone. The water level data were used to calculate VHG between the river and hyporheic zone. Sediment permeability was estimated using slug tests conducted in piezometers installed into the river bed. The response of water quality measurements and VHG to surface water fluctuations varied widely among study sites, ranging from no apparent response to co-variance with river discharge. At some sites, a hysteretic relationship between river discharge and VHG was indicated by a time lag in the response of VHG to changes in river stage. The magnitude, rate of change, and hysteresis of the VHG response varied the most at the least permeable location (hydraulic conductivity (K) = 2.9 x 10-4 cms-1), and the least at the most permeable location (K=8.0 x 10-3 cms-1). Our study provides empirical evidence that sediment properties and river discharge both control the water quality of the hyporheic zone. Regulated rivers, like the Columbia River at Hanford, that undergo large, frequent discharge fluctuations represent an ideal environment to study hydrogeologic processes over relatively short time scales (i.e., days to weeks) that would require much longer periods of time to evaluate (i.e., months to years) in un-regulated systems.

  20. Full-scale demonstration of in situ cometabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene in groundwater 1. Dynamics of a recirculating well system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Rahul K.; Hopkins, Gary D.; Goltz, Mark N.; Gorelick, Steven M.; McCarty, Perry L.

    2002-04-01

    Recirculating well systems provide an engine for the in situ treatment of subsurface contaminants. Although numerous recirculating wells have been installed in the field, for such systems, there is a paucity of comprehensive monitoring data and models constrained to data appearing in the research literature. Here we present an extensive data set combined with detailed inverse and simulation analyses for a two-well groundwater recirculation system used for in situ bioremediation at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California. The ``conveyor belt'' flow system, which was established for in situ treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) in two bioactive zones, was created by pumping water upward in one well and downward in another well, each well being screened in both the upper and lower aquifers. A bromide tracer test was conducted and extensively monitored for 60 days. Combined inverse analysis was conducted on hydraulic heads from 38 monitoring wells, 32 bromide concentration histories, and a constraint on the degree of recirculation that was based on TCE concentration data. Four different formulations involving alternative weighting schemes used in a nonlinear weighted least squares simulation-regression analysis were explored. The best formulation provided parameter estimates with tight bounds on estimated covariances, suggesting that the model provides a reasonable description of the hydrogeologic system. Our investigation indicates the geometry of the recirculation zone and the degree of recirculation under two different sets of operating conditions. Surprisingly, our analysis suggests that the effects of aquifer heterogeneity are not significant at this site under the conditions of forced recirculation. Furthermore, anomalous flow through an open monitoring well created significant vertical short-circuiting between the generally insulated aquifers. Flow through this small open conduit was equivalent to as much as 33% of the flow through the pumping wells. Using

  1. Upgrade of the hot zone for large-size high-performance multi-crystalline silicon ingot casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiyong; Zhong, Genxiang; Zhou, Xucheng; Zhang, Zhaoyu; Wang, Zixu; Chen, Wenliang; Huang, Xinming

    2016-05-01

    Casting larger silicon ingots by upgrading the hot zone is one of the main methods used to reduce the cost of multi-crystalline silicon wafers. In this paper, a new hot zone is designed and a transient global model is applied to investigate the effects of the new hot zone on the electricity consumption, the crystal growth rate, and the shape of the C-M interface during the solidification process. Based on the simulation results, a generation-five, directional-solidification furnace was upgraded and implemented in casting experiments. The experimental results show that the feedstock capacity increased by 77.8%, the crystal growth efficiency increased by 53.8%, and the average yield rate of the silicon ingots increased by 9%. The crystal-melt interface was flatter and the growth direction of the grains was almost straight upward.

  2. 33 CFR 165.839 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. 165.839 Section...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. (a) Location. Within the Lower Mississippi River and Southwest Pass, moving safety zones are established around...

  3. 33 CFR 165.839 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. 165.839 Section...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. (a) Location. Within the Lower Mississippi River and Southwest Pass, moving safety zones are established around...

  4. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerrero, Hector; Bickford, Dennis

    2007-06-05

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  5. Recirculating Linac Accelerators For Future Muon Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Yves Roblin, Alex Bogacz, Vasiliy Morozov, Kevin Beard

    2012-04-01

    Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require rapid acceleration of shortlived muons to multi-GeV and TeV energies. A Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) that uses superconducting RF structures can provide exceptionally fast and economical acceleration to the extent that the focusing range of the RLA quadrupoles allows each muon to pass several times through each high-gradient cavity. A new concept of rapidly changing the strength of the RLA focusing quadrupoles as the muons gain energy is being developed to increase the number of passes that each muon will make in the RF cavities, leading to greater cost effectiveness. We discuss the optics and technical requirements for RLA designs, using RF cavities capable of simultaneous acceleration of both m+ and m- species. The design will include the optics for the multi-pass linac and droplet-shaped return arcs.

  6. Recirculating Molten Metal Supply System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-07-01

    The melter furnace includes a heating chamber (16), a pump chamber (18), a degassing chamber (20), and a filter chamber (22). The pump chamber (18) is located adjacent the heating chamber (16) and houses a molten metal pump (30). The degassing chamber (20) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the pump chamber (18), and houses a degassing mechanism (36). The filter chamber (22) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the degassing chamber (20). The filter chamber (22) includes a molten metal filter (38). The melter furnace (12) is used to supply molten metal to an externally located holder furnace (14), which then recirculates molten metal back to the melter furnace (12).

  7. Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2003-06-19

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

  8. Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

  9. Recirculating planar magnetrons: simulations and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Franzi, Matthew; Gilgenbach, Ronald; French, David; Lau, Y.Y.; Simon, David; Hoff, Brad; Luginsland, John W.

    2011-07-01

    The Recirculating Planar Magnetron (RPM) is a novel crossed-field device whose geometry is expected to reduce thermal load, enhance current yield as well as ease the geometric limitations in scaling to high RF frequencies as compared to the conventional cylindrical magnetrons. The RPM has two different adaptations: A. Axial B field and radial E field; B. Radial B field and axial E field. The preliminary configuration (A) to be used in experiments at the University of Michigan consists of two parallel planar sections which join on either end by cylindrical regions to form a concentric extruded ellipse. Similar to conventional magnetrons, a voltage across the AK gap in conjunction with an axial magnetic field provides the electrons with an ExB drift. The device is named RPM because the drifting electrons recirculate from one planar region to the other. The drifting electrons interact with the resonantly tuned slow wave structure on the anode causing spoke formation. These electron spokes drive a RF electric field in the cavities from which RF power may be extracted to Waveguides. The RPM may be designed in either a conventional configuration with the anode on the outside, for simplified extraction, or as an inverted magnetron with the anode at the inner conductor, for fast start-up. Currently, experiments at the Pulsed Power and Microwave Laboratory at the University of Michigan are in the setup and design phase. A conventional RPM with planar cavities is to be installed on the Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator (MELBA) and is anticipated to operate at -200kV, 0.2T with a beam current of 1-10 kA at 1GHz. The conventional RPM consists of 12 identical planar cavities, 6 on each planar side, with simulated quality factor of 20.

  10. No pre-eruptive uplift in the Emeishan large igneous province: New evidences from its 'inner zone', Dali area, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bei; Guo, Zhaojie; Liu, Runchao; Liu, Dongdong; Du, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in Southwest China has been considered a typical example of crustal domal uplift caused by mantle plume upwelling prior to the onset of volcanism. However, this model has been questioned by the discovery of hydromagmatic volcaniclastic deposits formed in a marine environment, located near the central ELIP area (the 'inner zone') which is inferred to be the zone of maximum uplift. The volcanology of the inner zone has thus far been poorly documented, fueling the debate about whether or not pre-eruptive uplift occurred prior to plume upwelling. Understanding the volcanology of this inner zone is therefore critical in constraining the eruption environment of the central ELIP. Our work has revealed new volcanological observations in the inner zone (Dali area), which can systematically constrain volcanism and paleoenvironment. The Basal Succession of the sequence is a thick pillow lavas pile with hyaloclastites, implying an initial deeper submarine stage of eruptions. Limestones and submarine fallout tuffs are interbedded with these pillow lavas. Above that, abundant mafic volcaniclastic products developed, which contain palagonite-rimmed lapilli-tuffs, base surge deposits and peperites, suggesting hydroclastic volcanism in a shallower submarine environment. The Upper Succession of the sequence preserves columnar-jointed lava flows and subaerial fallout tuffs, reflecting subaerial volcanism after the volcanic center emerged above the sea level. These abundant and systematic natures of this evidence suggest that the initial volcanism of the central ELIP occurred in a deep submarine environment. The submarine-to-subaerial transition is caused by progressive emplacement of voluminous magmatic products infilling the inner zone during the continuous emplacement of ELIP, rather than by crustal doming prior to the onset of volcanisms.

  11. Development of large-field high-resolution hard x-ray imaging microscopy and microtomography with Fresnel zone plate objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Terada, Yasuko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Tamura, Shigeharu

    2013-09-01

    A hard x-ray imaging microscope system of high spatial resolution and large field of view (FOV) has been developed at the beamline 37 XU of SPring-8. By utilizing the 30 m-long experimental station, large magnification can be attained with a large diameter Fresnel zone plate (FZP) objective. Some configurations of microscope systems were tested. In a typical condition, a magnification of 133 and a FOV of 123 μm are attained using a FZP with a diameter of 310 μm and an outermost zone width of 100 nm, and the spatial resolution evaluated by observing resolution test chart is 160 nm in full pitch of periodic object with an exposure time of 1 s. When a FZP with an outermost zone width of 50 nm is used, a spatial resolution better than 100 nm is achieved. Phase-contrast imaging by Zernike's method was also tested, and three dimensional measurement by computer tomography (CT) method was also carried out.

  12. Micro-Fresnel-Zone-Plate Array on Flexible Substrate for Large Field-of-View and Focus Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Moghimi, Mohammad J.; Fernandes, Jayer; Kanhere, Aditi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-01-01

    Field of view and accommodative focus are two fundamental attributes of many imaging systems, ranging from human eyes to microscopes. Here, we present arrays of Fresnel zone plates fabricated on a flexible substrate, which allows for the adjustment of both the field of view and optical focus. Such zone plates function as compact and lightweight microlenses and are fabricated using silicon nanowires. Inspired by compound eyes in nature, these microlenses are designed to point along various angles in order to capture images, offering an exceptionally wide field of view. Moreover, by flexing the substrate, the lens position can be adjusted, thus achieving axial focus scanning. An array of microlenses on a flexible substrate was incorporated into an optical system to demonstrate high resolution imaging of objects located at different axial and angular positions. These silicon based microlenses could be integrated with electronics and have a wide range of potential applications, from medical imaging to surveillance. PMID:26515117

  13. Exhaust gas recirculation method for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanabe, T.; Kimura, K.; Asakura, M.; Shiina, T.

    1988-07-19

    This patent describes a method of controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust passage, an intake passage, an exhaust gas recirculating passage communicating the exhaust passage with the intake passage, and exhaust gas recirculating valve; and a transmission having a shift lever. The valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve is controlled in response to operating conditions of the engine so as to regulate the amount of exhaust gas recirculation to values appropriate to the operating conditions of the engine. The method comprising the steps of (1) determining whether or not the engine is in at least one of a predetermined accelerating condition and a predetermined decelerating condition; (2) varying the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve by a predetermined value when the engine is determined to be in at least one of the predetermined accelerating condition and the predetermined decelerating condition; (3) detecting a position of the shift lever of the transmission; and (4) correcting the predetermined value in accordance with the detected position of the shift lever so as to increase the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve as the shift lever of the transmission is set to a higher speed position.

  14. Recirculating induction accelerators for inertial fusion: Prospects and status

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cable, M.D.

    1995-09-03

    The US is developing the physics and technology of induction accelerators for heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion. The recirculating induction accelerator repeatedly passes beams through the same set of accelerating and focusing elements, thereby reducing both the length and gradient of the accelerator structure. This promises an attractive driver cost, if the technical challenges associated with recirculation can be met. Point designs for recirculator drivers were developed in a multi-year study by LLNL, LBNL, and FM Technologies, and that work is briefly reviewed here. To validate major elements of the recirculator concept, we are developing a small (4-5-m diameter) prototype recirculator which will accelerate a space-charge-dominated beam of K{sup +} ions through 15 laps, from 80 to 320 keV and from 2 to 8 mA. Transverse beam confinement is effected via permanent-magnet quadrupoles; bending is via electric dipoles. This ``Small Recirculator`` is being developed in a build-and-test sequence of experiments. An injector, matching section, and linear magnetic channel using seven half-lattice periods of permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses are operational. A prototype recirculator half-lattice period is being fabricated. This paper outlines the research program, and presents initial experimental results.

  15. Recirculating induction accelerators for inertial fusion: Prospects and status

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cable, M.D.

    1995-11-29

    The U.S. is developing the physics and technology of induction accelerators for heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion. The recirculating induction accelerator repeatedly passes beams through the same set of accelerating and focusing elements, thereby reducing both the length and gradient of the accelerator structure. This promises an attractive driver cost, if the technical challenges associated with recirculation can be met. Point designs for recirculator drivers were developed in a multi-year study by LLNL, LBNL, and FM Technologies, and that work is briefly reviewed here. To validate major elements of the recirculator concept, we are developing a small (4.5-m diameter) prototype recirculator which will accelerate a space-charge-dominated beam of K{sup +} ions through 15 laps, from 80 to 320 keV and from 2 to 8 mA. Transverse beam confinement is effected via permanent-magnet quadrupoles; bending is via electric dipoles. This {open_quotes}Small Recirculator{close_quotes} is being developed through a sequence of experiments. An injector, matching section, and linear magnetic channel using seven half-lattice periods of permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses are operational. A prototype recirculator half-lattice period is being fabricated. This paper outlines the research program, and presents initial experimental results.

  16. Origin and emplacement of the andesite of Burroughs Mountain, a zoned, large-volume lava flow at Mount Rainier, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockstill, K.R.; Vogel, T.A.; Sisson, T.W.

    2002-01-01

    Burroughs Mountain, situated at the northeast foot of Mount Rainier, WA, exposes a large-volume (3.4 km3) andesitic lava flow, up to 350 m thick and extending 11 km in length. Two sampling traverses from flow base to eroded top, over vertical sections of 245 and 300 m, show that the flow consists of a felsic lower unit (100 m thick) overlain sharply by a more mafic upper unit. The mafic upper unit is chemically zoned, becoming slightly more evolved upward; the lower unit is heterogeneous and unzoned. The lower unit is also more phenocryst-rich and locally contains inclusions of quenched basaltic andesite magma that are absent from the upper unit. Widespread, vuggy, gabbronorite-to-diorite inclusions may be fragments of shallow cumulates, exhumed from the Mount Rainier magmatic system. Chemically heterogeneous block-and-ash-flow deposits that conformably underlie the lava flow were the earliest products of the eruptive episode. The felsic-mafic-felsic progression in lava composition resulted from partial evacuation of a vertically-zoned magma reservoir, in which either (1) average depth of withdrawal increased, then decreased, during eruption, perhaps due to variations in effusion rate, or (2) magmatic recharge stimulated ascent of a plume that brought less evolved magma to shallow levels at an intermediate stage of the eruption. Pre-eruptive zonation resulted from combined crystallization- differentiation and intrusion(s) of less evolved magma into the partly crystallized resident magma body. The zoned lava flow at Burroughs Mountain shows that, at times, Mount Rainier's magmatic system has developed relatively large, shallow reservoirs that, despite complex recharge events, were capable of developing a felsic-upward compositional zonation similar to that inferred from large ash-flow sheets and other zoned lava flows. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Design study of a gas turbine combustor with heat recirculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganji, A.; Branch, M. C.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    A means of avoiding stoichiometric combustion, reducing emissions, and yet providing stable burning for lean mixtures is based on the use of heat recirculation rather than flow recirculation. This paper is concerned with the calculations of the design parameters of a gas turbine combustor with heat exchanger to produce the desired preheat temperature. The combustor inlet temperature, maximum temperature, equivalence ratio and recirculated heat are determined by thermodynamic analysis. The heat transfer analysis then provides the dimensions of the system to produce the predetermined boundary conditions. It is indicated that practical combustor design may be feasible for reactant mixtures as low as equivalence ratio 0.2.

  18. Energy conservation in fruit dehydrators utilizing recirculation of exhaust air and heat-recovery heat exchangers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, J.E.; Thompson, T.L.

    1981-12-01

    Dehydration of fruit in the United States is often done by means of a tunnel dehydrator utilizing large quantities of fossil fuel. Existing dehydrators have been designed to operate with maximum product through-put and with little regard for energy efficiency. By incorporating dampers for air recirculation and thermal energy recovery equipment on the exhaust air, the energy required in dehydration was cut by over 40%, satisfying the original objectives of the program. A commercial dehydrator tunnel was modified by installing a heat recovery heat exchanger and an exhaust air recirculation damper. Another tunnel was equipped with the exhaust air recirculation damper only. A third tunnel was unmodified. These three tunnels of a 24 tunnel facility were equipped with individual natural gas meters to measure energy consumption. The energy consumption of the heat exchanger equipped tunnel normally amounted to approximately 40% of the unmodified tunnel during raisin production.

  19. Large Eddy Simulations of forced ignition of a non-premixed bluff-body methane flame with Conditional Moment Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Triantafyllidis, A.; Mastorakos, E.; Eggels, R.L.G.M.

    2009-12-15

    Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced ignition of a bluff-body stabilised non-premixed methane flame using the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) turbulent combustion model have been performed. The aim is to investigate the feasibility of the use of CMC/LES for ignition problems and to examine which, if any, of the characteristics already observed in related experiments could be predicted. A three-dimensional formulation of the CMC equation was used with simple and detailed chemical mechanisms, and sparks with different parameters (location, size) were used. It was found that the correct pattern of flame expansion and overall flame appearance were predicted with reasonable accuracy with both mechanisms, but the detailed mechanism resulted in expansion rates closer to the experiment. Moreover, the distribution of OH was predicted qualitatively accurately, with patches of high and low concentration in the recirculation zone during the ignition transient, consistent with experimental data. The location of the spark relative to the recirculation zone was found to determine the pattern of the flame propagation and the total time for the flame stabilisation. The size was also an important parameter, since it was found that the flame extinguishes when the spark is very small, in agreement with expectations from experiment. The stabilisation mechanism of the flame was dominated by the convection and sub-grid scale diffusion of hot combustion products from the recirculation zone to the cold gases that enter the burner, as revealed by analysis of the CMC equation. (author)

  20. Recirculating Linac Acceleration - End-to-End Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Bogacz

    2010-03-01

    A conceptual design of a high-pass-number Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) for muons is presented. The scheme involves three superconducting linacs (201 MHz): a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair multi-pass (4.5-pass) 'Dogbone' RLAs. Acceleration starts after ionization cooling at 220 MeV/c and proceeds to 12.6 GeV. The Pre-accelerator captures a large muon phase space and accelerates muons to relativistic energies, while adiabatically decreasing the phase-space volume, so that effective acceleration in the RLA is possible. The RLA further compresses and shapes up the longitudinal and transverse phase-spaces, while increasing the energy. Appropriate choice of multi-pass linac optics based on FODO focusing assures large number of passes in the RLA. The proposed 'Dogbone' configuration facilitates simultaneous acceleration of both mu± species through the requirement of mirror symmetric optics of the return 'droplet' arcs. Finally, presented end-to-end simulation validates the efficiency and acceptance of the accelerator system.

  1. Tiny is mighty: seagrass beds have a large role in the export of organic material in the tropical coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Lucy G; Ziegler, Alan D; van Oevelen, Dick; Cathalot, Cecile; Herman, Peter M J; Wolters, Jan W; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM) with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand). We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and δ13C and δ15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial) and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and should be

  2. Tiny Is Mighty: Seagrass Beds Have a Large Role in the Export of Organic Material in the Tropical Coastal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Lucy G.; Ziegler, Alan D.; van Oevelen, Dick; Cathalot, Cecile; Herman, Peter M. J.; Wolters, Jan W.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM) with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand). We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and δ13C and δ15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial) and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and should be

  3. Lessons Learned From Large-Scale Evapotranspiration and Root Zone Soil Moisture Mapping Using Ground Measurements (meteorological, LAS, EC) and Remote Sensing (METRIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Allen, R. G.; Myint, S. W.; Ogden, F. L.

    2015-12-01

    Large scale mapping of evapotranspiration and root zone soil moisture is only possible when satellite images are used. The spatial resolution of this imagery typically depends on its temporal resolution or the satellite overpass time. For example, the Landsat satellite acquires images at 30 m resolution every 16 days while the MODIS satellite acquires images at 250 m resolution every day. In this study we deal with optical/thermal imagery that is impacted by cloudiness contrary to radar imagery that penetrates through clouds. Due to cloudiness, the temporal resolution of Landsat drops from 16 days to about one clear sky Landsat image per month in the southwestern USA and about one every ten years in the humid tropics of Panama. Only by launching additional satellites can the temporal resolution be improved. Since this is too costly, an alternative is found by using ground measurements with high temporal resolution (from minutes to days) but poor spatial resolution. The challenge for large-scale evapotranspiration and root zone soil moisture mapping is to construct a layer stack consisting of N time layers covering the period of interest each containing M pixels covering the region of interest. We will present examples of the Phoenix Active Management Area in AZ (14,600 km2), Green River Basin in WY (44,000 km2), the Kishwaukee Watershed in IL (3,150 km2), the area covered by Landsat Path 28/Row 35 in OK (30,000 km2) and the Agua Salud Watershed in Panama (200 km2). In these regions we used Landsat or MODIS imagery for mapping evapotranspiration and root zone soil moisture by the algorithm Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) together with meteorological measurements and sometimes either Large Aperture Scintillometers (LAS) or Eddy Covariance (EC). We conclude with lessons learned for future large-scale hydrological studies.

  4. Nappe-Bounding Shear Zones Initiated On Syn-Tectonic, Pegmatite-Filled Extensional Shear Fractures During Deep-Crustal Nappe Flow In A Large Hot Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Nicholas; Gerbi, Christopher; Marsh, Jeffrey; Regan, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) of the Proterozoic western Grenville Province is an extensive exposure of the mid-crustal levels (upper amphibolite facies, lesser granulites) of a large hot orogen. Numerical models give a credible prediction of structure and metamorphism accompanying CGB deep-crustal nappe flow and define a temporal framework based on four developmental phases: thickening, heating, nappe-flow and post convergence extensional spreading. These phases are diachronous in direction of orogen propagation and imply a spatial framework: externides (close to orogen-craton boundary) containing moderately inclined thickening and/or extensional structures, and internides containing thickening structures overprinted by sub-horizontal nappe flow structures, which may be locally overprinted by those due to extensional spreading. Although on average of granitoid composition, CGB nappes differ in rheology, varying from fertile and weak (unmetamorphosed before Grenville, meltable) to infertile and strong (metamorphosed at high grade before Grenville, unmeltable) or mixed fertile-infertile protoliths. Deformation style varies from diffuse in fertile nappes, weakened by pervasive melting, to localised in shear zones on boundaries or interiors of infertile nappes. Specifically, in terms of deformation phase and location within the orogen, shear zones occur as: thickening structures of externides, early thickening- and later overprinting nappe-flow structures of infertile internide nappes, and extension-related shear zones in externides and internides. Many of the nappe-flow shear zones of the internides are associated with pegmatites. One example has been recognized of a preserved progression from small-scale fracture arrays to regional shear zone. The sequence is present on a km-scale and initiates in the interior of a nappe of layered granulite with arrays of pegmatite filled extensional-shear fractures (mm to cm width) displaying amphibolized margins. The fracture

  5. Pulsed Magnet Arc Designs for Recirculating Linac Muon Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    K.B. Beard, R.P. Johnson, S.A. Bogacz, G.M. Wang

    2009-05-01

    Recirculating linear accelerators (RLAs) using both pulsed quadrupoles and pulsed dipoles can be used to quickly accelerate muons in the 3 – 2000 GeV range. Estimates on the requirements for the pulsed quadrupoles and dipoles are presented.

  6. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters. These samples must be collected in accordance with § 159.123(b) and tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136....

  7. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters. These samples must be collected in accordance with § 159.123(b) and tested in accordance with 40 CFR part 136....

  8. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters. These samples must be collected in accordance with § 159.123(b) and tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136....

  9. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters. These samples must be collected in accordance with § 159.123(b) and tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136....

  10. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters. These samples must be collected in accordance with § 159.123(b) and tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136....

  11. Eddy-driven recirculation of Atlantic Water in Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattermann, Tore; Isachsen, Pâl. Erik; Appen, Wilken-Jon; Albretsen, Jon; Sundfjord, Arild

    2016-04-01

    Eddy-resolving regional ocean model results in conjunction with synthetic float trajectories and observations provide new insights into the recirculation of the Atlantic Water (AW) in Fram Strait that significantly impacts the redistribution of oceanic heat between the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. The simulations confirm the existence of a cyclonic gyre around the Molloy Hole near 80°N, suggesting that most of the AW within the West Spitsbergen Current recirculates there, while colder AW recirculates in a westward mean flow south of 79°N that primarily relates to the eastern rim of the Greenland Sea Gyre. The fraction of waters recirculating in the northern branch roughly doubles during winter, coinciding with a seasonal increase of eddy activity along the Yermak Plateau slope that also facilitates subduction of AW beneath the ice edge in this area.

  12. Recirculation of the Canary Current in Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Guerra, A.; Espino-Falcón, E.; Vélez-Belchí, P.; Pérez-Hernández, M. D.; Martínez, A.; Cana, L.

    2015-12-01

    CTD and LADCP data measured in October 2014 are used to describe water masses, geostrophic circulation and mass transport in the Eastern Boundary of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. Initial geostrophic velocities are adjusted to velocities from the LADCP data to estimate an initial velocity at the reference layer. Final reference velocities and consequently circulation is estimated from an inverse box model applied to an ocean divided into 12 neutral density layers. This allows us to evaluate mass fluxes consistent with the thermal wind equation and mass conservation. Ekman transport derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is added to the first layer and adjusted with the inverse model. The Canary Current (CC) transports southward a net mass of 3.8±0.7 Sv (1 Sv=106 m3/s≈109 kg/s) of North Atlantic Central Water (NACW) at the thermocline layers (~0-700 m) and 1.9±0.6 Sv of a mixture of Mediterranean Water (MW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) at intermediate layers (~800-1400 m). The CC recirculates northward at a rate of 4.8±0.8 Sv at the thermocline layers between the Lanzarote Island and the African coast (Lanzarote Passage) on this occasion. Separately, at intermediate layers, AAIW flows northward at a rate of 2.4±0.6 Sv through the Lanzarote Passage transported by the Intermediate Poleward Undercurrent (IPUC).

  13. A closed recirculated sea-water system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1967-01-01

    Study of a virus disease in the chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) necessitated the use of a marine environment to study the long range effects of the disease and to complete the life cycle of its etiologic agent. A closed recirculated sea-water system was designed for use under experimental laboratory conditions so that controlled studies of the disease could be made. As others may wish to do marine environment studies in the laboratory, the design and operation of our system are presented. Other systems currently in use have been described by Chin (1959), DeWitt and Salo (1960), McCrimmon and Berst (1966), and the authors of collected papers edited by Clark and Clark (1964). Preparatory to the design and construction of the system in use in this laboratory, visits were made to marine systems in use at the University of Washington's College of Fisheries, Seattle, -washington, and Friday Harbor Laboratory, San Juan Island, Washington; the Washington State Department of Fisheries' Point whitney Shellfish Laboratory, Brinnon, Washington; Humboldt State College, Arcata, California; and the Steinhart Aquarium of the California Academy of Science, San Francisco, California.

  14. Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal

    DOEpatents

    Richards, George A.; Berry, David A.

    2008-10-28

    A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

  15. The Impact of Tropical Recirculation on Polar Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahan, S. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Steenrod, S. D.

    2009-01-01

    We derive the tropical modal age of air from an analysis of the water vapor tape recorder. We combine the observationally derived modal age with mean age of air from CO2 and SF6 to create diagnostics for the independent evaluation of the vertical transport rate and horizontal recirculation into the tropics between 16-32 km. These diagnostics are applied to two Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model (CTM) age tracer simulations to give new insights into the tropical transport characteristics of the meteorological fields from the GEOS4-GCM and the GEOS4-DAS. Both simulations are found to have modal ages that are in reasonable agreement with the empirically derived age (i.e ., transit times) over the entire altitude range. Both simulations show too little horizontal recirculation into the tropics above 22 km, with the GEOS4-DAS fields having greater recirculation. Using CH4 as a proxy for mean age, comparisons between HALOE and model CH4 in the Antarctic demonstrate how the strength of tropical recirculation affects polar composition in both CTM experiments. Better tropical recirculation tends to improve the CH4 simulation in the Antarctic. However, mean age in the Antarctic lower stratosphere can be compromised by poor representation of tropical ascent, tropical recirculation, or vortex barrier strength. The connection between polar and tropical composition shown in this study demonstrates the importance of diagnosing each of these processes separately in order to verify the adequate representation of the processes contributing to polar composition in models.

  16. Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, S.; Nomoto, Y.; Oda, T.; Yokooku, K.

    1984-09-18

    An internal combustion engine is provided with an exhaust gas recirculating passage for communicating the intake passage and the exhaust passage thereof. The recirculating passage is provided with a valve for controlling the amount of recirculated exhaust gas. A fundamental air-fuel ratio control value for regulating the air-fuel ratio of the intake gas to a predetermined value is corrected by an operating condition correction value according to the operating condition of the engine. The operating condition correction value is successively changed to an optimal value by comparing the actually obtained air-fuel ratio with a predetermined value. The operating condition correction value for correcting the fundamental air-fuel ratio control value when the exhaust gas recirculation is carried out is changed independently from the same for correcting the fundamental air-fuel ratio correction value when the exhaust gas recirculation is not carried out. The initial values of the former correction value and the latter correction value are compared with each other, while the present values of the former correction value and the latter correction value are compared with each other. The comparison value of the initial values and the comparison value of the present values are compared with each other to detect clogging of the recirculating passage. When clogging is detected, the valve is controlled to compensate for the clogging.

  17. Characterizing a large shear-zone with seismic and magnetotelluric methods: The case of the Dead Sea Transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maercklin, N.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Haberland, C.; Ritter, O.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M.; Weckmann, U.

    2005-01-01

    Seismic tomography, imaging of seismic scatterers, and magnetotelluric soundings reveal a sharp lithologic contrast along a ???10 km long segment of the Arava Fault (AF), a prominent fault of the southern Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the Middle East. Low seismic velocities and resistivities occur on its western side and higher values east of it, and the boundary between the two units coincides partly with a seismic scattering image. At 1-4 km depth the boundary is offset to the east of the AF surface trace, suggesting that at least two fault strands exist, and that slip occurred on multiple strands throughout the margin's history. A westward fault jump, possibly associated with straightening of a fault bend, explains both our observations and the narrow fault zone observed by others. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Role of microscopic properties in the evolution of large scale internal structure in the UltraLow Velocity Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Amiya; Hier-Majumder, Saswata

    2016-04-01

    Seismic observations at the Earth's core -mantle boundary show regions marked by anomalously low shear (30%) and compressional wave (10%) speeds, called UltraLow Velocity Zones (ULVZs). These ULVZs are characterized by their low topography (few tens of km above the core-mantle boundary) spanning few thousand of km in length and possible presence of partial melting, and a 8-10% increase in density compared to the surrounding mantle materials and low viscosity. Current understanding attributes presence of partial melt in the ULVZs for its low viscosity. Recent studies have shown that such rheology can be explained by the presence of Fe-rich phases, which does not require the presence of partial melt in the system. Ascent of such a dense, low viscosity material from the core-mantle boundary is mechanically difficult. Earlier studies have shown mantle convection as the guiding factor in controlling the flow and geometry of the ULVZs, without any quantification about their internal structure. There have been some recent studies in 1D and 2D, which models ULVZs as multiphase system. However, there is no numerical model that shows the evolution of ULVZs in 3D and development of the internal structures within these zones. Rock deformation experiments and theoretical analysis explicitly show that the melt-volume fraction and the dihedral angle have strong effect on the melt topology and seismic properties in partially molten systems like ULVZs. Employing these well constrained microstructural properties, the present study aims to explore the complex three-dimensional internal structure within the patchy ULVZs geometry. Our two-phase finite element model shows that the partial melt segregate within the ULVZ as a function of strong deformation in the matrix.

  19. Topographic steering, flow recirculation, velocity redistribution, and bed topography in sharp meander bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanckaert, K.

    2010-09-01

    The bed topography and associated flow field are investigated in a laboratory configuration with parameters that are representative for sharp natural meander bends. Zones of inward mass transport are characterized by a quasi-linear transverse bed profile, whereas zones of outward mass transport, induced by pronounced curvature variations, are characterized by a quasi-horizontal shallow point bar at the inside of the bend, a deep pool at the outside, and an increase in overall cross-sectional area. These quasi-bilinear bed profiles can be attributed to the curvature-induced secondary flow that is confined to the pool. Topographic steering, mainly due to mass conservation, concentrates the major part of the discharge over the deepest zones of the bend. But the pattern of depth-averaged velocities, which is relevant with respect to the development of the bed topography, does not show maximum values over the deepest zones. A term-by-term analysis of the depth-averaged streamwise momentum equation reveals that the water surface gradient is the principal mechanism with respect to flow velocity redistribution, although inertia and secondary flow are also processes of dominant order of magnitude. A required condition for the occurrence of adverse pressure gradients and flow recirculation due to planform curvature variations is established. A different type of flow recirculation, due to a subtle feedback between the flow and the bed topography, occurs over the point bar. The neglect of the influence of vertical velocities impinging on the bed in models for sediment transport is identified as a major shortcoming in the modeling of the morphodynamics of meandering river channels.

  20. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report.

  1. Long and Short-term Hydro-Tectonic Events in the South-Iceland Seismic Zone, Associated with Two Large Earthquakes in June 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjornsson, G.; Flovenz, O. G.; Saemundsson, K.

    2001-12-01

    Two large earthquakes (M 6.6), which struck the S-Iceland Seismic Zone on June 17 and June 21 2000, caused considerable pressure changes in geothermal as well as groundwater reservoirs. These reservoirs range in depth from surface down to a minimum of 2 km. An effort has been made to collect and analyze the hydraulic changes caused by the quakes. Four primary sets of hydraulic events are identified from these data. Firstly, pre-quake fluctuations on a time scale of 23 hours to 6 months. Secondly, immediate pressure changes, perfectly correlated to the focal mechanism of the two quakes. Thirdly, a recovery period of several weeks to months, which in some cases may correlate with a new stress field and, consequently, a change in the shallow crust permeability. These permanent permeability changes have enhanced productivity of two geothermal reservoirs by as much as 1/3. Fourthly, we have identified after-quake local hydraulic perturbations, which may relate to a sudden change in fracture porosity or a change of reservoir status from confined to unconfined. Other events are also of interest, like an ice dammed flooding of a major river in January 2001, near the fault zone of the June 21 quake. This hydraulic load caused lively and synchronized pressure fluctuations in two wells, 15-20 km away. The data collected by the after-quake monitoring program strongly suggest that hydraulic pressure is a valuable parameter in understanding tectonic processes within the S-Iceland seismic zone.

  2. Interface shape, heat transfer and fluid flow in the floating zone growth of large silicon crystals with the needle-eye technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlbauer, Alfred; Muiznieks, Andris; Virbulis, Janis; Lüdge, Anke; Riemann, Helge

    1995-05-01

    A computer simulation is carried out to study the interface shape, heat transfer and fluid flow in the floating zone (FZ) growth of large (> 100 mm) Si crystals with the needle-eye technique and with feed/crystal rotation. Natural convection, thermocapillary convection, electromagnetic (EM) forces and rotation in the melt are considered. The unknown shape of the molten zone is calculated as a coupled thermal-electromagnetic-hydrodynamic problem and compared with that observed during experiments. The effects of the growth rate and the process stage on the shape of the interface are demonstrated. It was observed that natural convection and rotation dominate over thermocapillary and EM convection, at least for conditions corresponding to the industrial FZ Si production with the needle-eye technique. It is shown that under these conditions the rotation destabilizes the flow and only unsteady flows exist in the molten zone. The calculated distributions of the oscillation amplitude of the tangential velocity at the growing interface correspond to the radial resistivity distributions measured in the single crystal by the photo-scanning method.

  3. Elastic Properties of Subduction Zone Materials in the Large Shallow Slip Environment for the Tohoku 2011 Earthquake: Laboratory data from JFAST Core Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppson, T.; Tobin, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw=9.0) produced large displacements of ~50 meters near the Japan Trench. In order to understand earthquake propagation and slip stabilization in this environment, quantitative values of the real elastic properties of fault zones and their surrounding wall rock material is crucial. Because elastic and mechanical properties of faults and wallrocks are controlling factors in fault strength, earthquake generation and propagation, and slip stabilization, an understanding of these properties and their depth dependence is essential to understanding and accurately modeling earthquake rupture. In particular, quantitatively measured S-wave speeds, needed for estimation of elastic properties, are scarce in the literature. We report laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements performed at elevated pressures, as well as the calculated dynamic elastic moduli, for samples of the rock surrounding the Tohoku earthquake principal fault zone recovered by drilling during IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). We performed measurements on five samples of gray mudstone from the hanging wall and one sample of underthrust brown mudstone from the footwall. We find P- and S-wave velocities of 2.0 to 2.4 km/s and 0.7 to 1.0 km/s, respectively, at 5 MPa effective pressure. At the same effective pressure, the hanging wall samples have shear moduli ranging from 1.4 to 2.2 GPa and the footwall sample has a shear modulus of 1.0 GPa. While these values are perhaps not surprising for shallow, clay-rich subduction zone sediments, they are substantially lower than the 30 GPa commonly assumed for rigidity in earthquake rupture and propagation models [e.g., Ide et al., 1993; Liu and Rice, 2005; Loveless and Meade, 2011]. In order to better understand the elastic properties of shallow subduction zone sediments, our measurements from the Japan Trench are compared to similar shallow drill core samples from the Nankai Trough, Costa Rica

  4. Bio-desulfurization of biogas using acidic biotrickling filter with dissolved oxygen in step feed recirculation.

    PubMed

    Chaiprapat, Sumate; Charnnok, Boonya; Kantachote, Duangporn; Sung, Shihwu

    2015-03-01

    Triple stage and single stage biotrickling filters (T-BTF and S-BTF) were operated with oxygenated liquid recirculation to enhance bio-desulfurization of biogas. Empty bed retention time (EBRT 100-180 s) and liquid recirculation velocity (q 2.4-7.1 m/h) were applied. H2S removal and sulfuric acid recovery increased with higher EBRT and q. But the highest q at 7.1 m/h induced large amount of liquid through the media, causing a reduction in bed porosity in S-BTF and H2S removal. Equivalent performance of S-BTF and T-BTF was obtained under the lowest loading of 165 gH2S/m(3)/h. In the subsequent continuous operation test, it was found that T-BTF could maintain higher H2S elimination capacity and removal efficiency at 175.6±41.6 gH2S/m(3)/h and 89.0±6.8% versus S-BTF at 159.9±42.8 gH2S/m(3)/h and 80.1±10.2%, respectively. Finally, the relationship between outlet concentration and bed height was modeled. Step feeding of oxygenated liquid recirculation in multiple stages clearly demonstrated an advantage for sulfide oxidation. PMID:25569031

  5. Mortality during a Large-Scale Heat Wave by Place, Demographic Group, Internal and External Causes of Death, and Building Climate Zone

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Lauren; Hoshiko, Sumi; Dobraca, Dina; Jackson, Rebecca; Smorodinsky, Svetlana; Smith, Daniel; Harnly, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Mortality increases during periods of elevated heat. Identification of vulnerable subgroups by demographics, causes of death, and geographic regions, including deaths occurring at home, is needed to inform public health prevention efforts. We calculated mortality relative risks (RRs) and excess deaths associated with a large-scale California heat wave in 2006, comparing deaths during the heat wave with reference days. For total (all-place) and at-home mortality, we examined risks by demographic factors, internal and external causes of death, and building climate zones. During the heat wave, 582 excess deaths occurred, a 5% increase over expected (RR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.08). Sixty-six percent of excess deaths were at home (RR = 1.12, CI 1.07–1.16). Total mortality risk was higher among those aged 35–44 years than ≥65, and among Hispanics than whites. Deaths from external causes increased more sharply (RR = 1.18, CI 1.10–1.27) than from internal causes (RR = 1.04, CI 1.02–1.07). Geographically, risk varied by building climate zone; the highest risks of at-home death occurred in the northernmost coastal zone (RR = 1.58, CI 1.01–2.48) and the southernmost zone of California’s Central Valley (RR = 1.43, CI 1.21–1.68). Heat wave mortality risk varied across subpopulations, and some patterns of vulnerability differed from those previously identified. Public health efforts should also address at-home mortality, non-elderly adults, external causes, and at-risk geographic regions. PMID:27005646

  6. Visualisation of isothermal large coherent structures in a swirl burner

    SciTech Connect

    Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Griffiths, A.

    2009-09-15

    Lean premixed combustion using swirl flame stabilisation is widespread amongst gas turbine manufacturers. The use of swirl mixing and flame stabilisation is also prevalent in many other non-premixed systems. Problems that emerge include loss of stabilisation as a function of combustor geometry and thermo-acoustic instabilities. Coherent structures and their relationship with combustion processes have been a concern for decades due to their complex nature. This paper thus adopts an experimental approach to characterise large coherent structures in swirl burners under isothermal conditions so as to reveal the effects of swirl in a number of geometries and cold flow patterns that are relevant in combustion. Aided by techniques such as Hot Wire Anemometry, High Speed Photography and Particle Image Velocimetry, the recognition of several structures was achieved in a 100 kW swirl burner model. Several varied, interacting, structures developed in the field as a consequence of the configurations used. New structures never observed before were identified, the results not only showing the existence of very well defined large structures, but also their dependency on geometrical and flow parameters. The PVC is confirmed to be a semi-helical structure, contrary to previous simulations performed on the system. The appearance of secondary recirculation zones and suppression of the vortical core as a consequence of geometrical constrictions are presented as a mechanism of flow control. The asymmetry of the Central Recirculation Zone in cold flows is observed in all the experiments, with its elongation dependent on Re and swirl number used. (author)

  7. Replication fork progression is paused in two large chromosomal zones flanking the DNA replication origin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Masahiro Tatsumi; Oshima, Taku; Chumsakul, Onuma; Ishikawa, Shu; Maki, Hisaji

    2016-08-01

    Although the speed of nascent DNA synthesis at individual replication forks is relatively uniform in bacterial cells, the dynamics of replication fork progression on the chromosome are hampered by a variety of natural impediments. Genome replication dynamics can be directly measured from an exponentially growing cell population by sequencing newly synthesized DNA strands that were specifically pulse-labeled with the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). However, a short pulse labeling with BrdU is impracticable for bacteria because of poor incorporation of BrdU into the cells, and thus, the genomewide dynamics of bacterial DNA replication remain undetermined. Using a new thymidine-requiring Escherichia coli strain, eCOMB, and high-throughput sequencing, we succeeded in determining the genomewide replication profile in bacterial cells. We also found that fork progression is paused in two ~200-kb chromosomal zones that flank the replication origin in the growing cells. This origin-proximal obstruction to fork progression was overcome by an increased thymidine concentration in the culture medium and enhanced by inhibition of transcription. These indicate that DNA replication near the origin is sensitive to the impediments to fork progression, namely a scarcity of the DNA precursor deoxythymidine triphosphate and probable conflicts between replication and transcription machineries. PMID:27353572

  8. Onshore-offshore seismic networks: an inescapable approach to reveal the crustal structure and the seismic activity of large subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvis, P.; Galve, A.; Laigle, M.; Hirn, A.; Hello, Y. M.; Oge, A.; Yates, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Ninety percent of the seismic energy released worldwide and ninety percent of the largest earthquakes and tsunamis occur in subduction zones. Several recent catastrophic subduction earthquakes surprised us on many aspects, either because we had been unable to anticipate their extremely large magnitude (2011 Tohoku Earthquake, Mw 9.0), or because we had considered the subduction as partly aseismic (2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake, Mw 9.1). One of the reasons for our present ignorance of the behavior of large subduction earthquakes is the lack of marine data to image and monitor the structure and evolution of megathrust faults offshore. Over the last 15 years, our group has conducted several passive and active seismic experiments* in the forearc regions of the Ecuador-Colombia, Lesser Antilles and Hellenic subduction zones. The objectives of these experiments were to image the subduction interplate fault at depth and accurately locate the current earthquake activity of the megathrusts using arrays of combined ocean-bottom and land-based seismometers. In the case of very large events and in the absence of geodetic data in the offshore part of the faults, the precise knowledge of current seismicity is mandatory to estimate the seismogenic behavior and potential of the fault interface. 2D dense active seismic lines, shot jointly with multichannel acquisitions, provide invaluable images of the deep structure of the Lesser Antilles arc and forearc, which allow locating the updip and downdip limits of the expected seismogenic zone. Assuming that the Moho is the downdip limit of the seismogenic zone, the 26 km-thick crust of the arc makes the seismogenic zone 3 times wider than it is in ';standard' oceanic arcs (like Marianas). 3D active and passive experiments in the Lesser Antilles and Ecuador forearcs provide an unprecedented way to image the structure in 3D down to the lower plate. The tomography documents the spatial variability of the interplate fault structure and of

  9. Case study of controlled recirculation at a Wyoming trona mine

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, C.; Scott, D.; Frey, G.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled recirculation has been used in the metal/nonmetal mining industry for energy savings when heating and cooling air, in undersea mining and for increasing airflow to mining areas. For safe and effective use of controlled district recirculation, adequate airflow to dilute contaminants must exist prior to implementation, ventilation circuit parameters must be accurately quantified, ventilation network modeling must be up to date, emergency planning scenarios must be performed and effective monitoring and control systems must be installed and used. Safety and health issues that must be considered and may be improved through the use of controlled district recirculation include blasting fumes, dust, diesel emissions, radon and contaminants from mine fires. Controlled recirculation methods are expected to become more widely used as mines reach greater working depths, requiring that these health and safety issues be well understood. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted two controlled recirculation tests over three days at a Wyoming trona mine, utilizing an inline booster fan to improve airflow to a remote and difficult-to-ventilate development section. Test results were used to determine the effect that recirculation had on air qualities and quantities measured in that section and in other adjacent areas. Pre-test conditions, including ventilation quantities and pressures, were modeled using VnetPC. During each test, ventilation quantities and pressures were measured, as well as levels of total dust. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas was used to simulate a mine contaminant to monitor recirculation wave cycles. Results showed good correlation between the model results and measured values for airflows, pressure differentials, tracer gas arrival times, mine gasses and dust levels. PMID:26251567

  10. Growth of Si Bulk Crystals with Large Diameter Ratio Using Small Crucibles by Creating a Large Low-Temperature Region Inside a Si Melt Contained in an NOC Furnace Developed Using Two Zone Heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kazuo; Ono, Satoshi; Murai, Ryota; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2016-06-01

    Three zone heaters were generally used for a noncontact crucible (NOC) furnace. For practical reasons a simpler NOC furnace was developed with two zone heaters, which had a carbon heat holder to cover the three roles of each heater. Large low-temperature regions were obtained, and silicon ingots were grown in small crucibles with a large diameter and diameter ratio. Here, the diameter ratio is the ratio of the ingot diameter to the crucible diameter and can be as large as 0.90. The diameter ratio was controlled mainly by the temperature reduction of the first heater. Power changes of the second heater did not have a significant impact on the ingot diameter. Using this NOC furnace, maximum ingot diameters of 28.0, 33.5, and 45.0 cm were obtained using crucibles of 33, 40, and 50 cm in diameter, respectively. The oxygen concentration of the ingots did not strongly depend on the diameter ratio and were always low because convection in the Si melt was markedly suppressed by the carbon heat holder. Moreover, the oxygen concentration of the ingots has a tendency to become lower as the crucible diameter becomes larger.

  11. Large Earthquake Hazard of the San Jacinto Fault Zone, CA, from Long Record of Simulated Seismicity Assimilating the Available Instrumental and Paleoseismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zöller, G.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate spatio-temporal properties of earthquake patterns in the San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ), California, between Cajon Pass and the Superstition Hill Fault, using a long record of simulated seismicity constrained by available seismological and geological data. The model provides an effective realization of a large segmented strike-slip fault zone in a 3D elastic half-space, with heterogeneous distribution of static friction chosen to represent several clear step-overs at the surface. The simulated synthetic catalog reproduces well the basic statistical features of the instrumental seismicity recorded at the SJFZ area since 1981. The model also produces events larger than those included in the short instrumental record, consistent with paleo-earthquakes documented at sites along the SJFZ for the last 1,400 years. The general agreement between the synthetic and observed data allows us to address with the long-simulated seismicity questions related to large earthquakes and expected seismic hazard. The interaction between m ≥ 7 events on different sections of the SJFZ is found to be close to random. The hazard associated with m ≥ 7 events on the SJFZ increases significantly if the long record of simulated seismicity is taken into account. The model simulations indicate that the recent increased number of observed intermediate SJFZ earthquakes is a robust statistical feature heralding the occurrence of m ≥ 7 earthquakes. The hypocenters of the m ≥ 5 events in the simulation results move progressively towards the hypocenter of the upcoming m ≥ 7 earthquake.

  12. Constraints on strain rates during large-scale mid-crustal shearing: An example from the basal Vaddas shear zone, northern Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, Deta; Stünitz, Holger; Nasipuri, Pritam; Menegon, Luca

    2013-04-01

    The Caledonian orogen in Scandinavia is characterized by large-scale crustal nappe stacks which were emplaced east-/southeast-wards onto the Baltica shield. Whereas original thrust relationships are generally obscured by syn- to post-collisional extensional deformation in the southern and central Scandinavian Caledonides, several large-scale thrust systems are well-preserved in the northern Scandinavian Caledonides in Troms and Finnmark. One example is the mid-crustal Vaddas shear zone, which emplaced the Vaddas nappe on top of the Kalak nappe complex. In this contribution we present a structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the rocks under- and overlying the Vaddas shear zone in northern Troms, in order to estimate the strain rate associated with thrusting along this major shear zone. The Vaddas nappe above the investigated shear zone consists mainly of Upper Ordovician to Silurian metasediments, which were deposited in a marine environment and which were intruded by voluminous gabbroic intrusions, before they were sheared off from their substratum and transported on top of the Kalak nappe complex during the Caledonian orogeny. PT conditions from one of these gabbroic bodies indicate that the body intruded the metasediments at ~9 kbar (Getsinger et al., subm to G3), which corresponds to a depth of ~34 km. U-Pb SIMS dating of zircons from this gabbro indicate that intrusion occurred at 439±2 Ma. The Vaddas nappe is separated from the Kalak nappe by an at least ~150 m thick, amphibolite-facies shear zone with a subhorizontal fabric and top-to-the-SE shear sense. It has developed within the lowest part of the Vaddas nappe as well as the upper part of the Kalak nappe complex and PT calculations indicate that final shearing occurred at ~450° C and ~6 kbar (depth of ~23 km). U-Pb TIMS dating of titanites, which grow parallel to the shear fabric in the Kalak nappe complex, gives 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 442±1 to 429±1 Ma, indicating that

  13. Holocene paleoseismicity, temporal clustering, and probabilities of future large (M > 7) earthquakes on the Wasatch fault zone, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCalpin, J.P.; Nishenko, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The chronology of M>7 paleoearthquakes on the central five segments of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) is one of the best dated in the world and contains 16 earthquakes in the past 5600 years with an average repeat time of 350 years. Repeat times for individual segments vary by a factor of 2, and range from about 1200 to 2600 years. Four of the central five segments ruptured between ??? 620??30 and 1230??60 calendar years B.P. The remaining segment (Brigham City segment) has not ruptured in the past 2120??100 years. Comparison of the WFZ space-time diagram of paleoearthquakes with synthetic paleoseismic histories indicates that the observed temporal clusters and gaps have about an equal probability (depending on model assumptions) of reflecting random coincidence as opposed to intersegment contagion. Regional seismicity suggests that for exposure times of 50 and 100 years, the probability for an earthquake of M>7 anywhere within the Wasatch Front region, based on a Poisson model, is 0.16 and 0.30, respectively. A fault-specific WFZ model predicts 50 and 100 year probabilities for a M>7 earthquake on the WFZ itself, based on a Poisson model, as 0.13 and 0.25, respectively. In contrast, segment-specific earthquake probabilities that assume quasi-periodic recurrence behavior on the Weber, Provo, and Nephi segments are less (0.01-0.07 in 100 years) than the regional or fault-specific estimates (0.25-0.30 in 100 years), due to the short elapsed times compared to average recurrence intervals on those segments. The Brigham City and Salt Lake City segments, however, have time-dependent probabilities that approach or exceed the regional and fault specific probabilities. For the Salt Lake City segment, these elevated probabilities are due to the elapsed time being approximately equal to the average late Holocene recurrence time. For the Brigham City segment, the elapsed time is significantly longer than the segment-specific late Holocene recurrence time.

  14. Small scale recirculating vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW) for the treatment and reuse of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Sklarz, M Y; Yakirevich, A; Soares, M I M

    2008-01-01

    The quantity of freshwater available worldwide is declining, revealing a pressing need for its more efficient use. Moreover, in many developing countries and lightly populated areas, raw wastewater is discarded into the environment posing serious ecological and health problems. Unfortunately, this situation will persist unless low-cost, effective and simple technologies are brought in. The aim of this study is to present such a treatment method, a novel setup which is termed recirculating vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW). The RVFCW is composed of two components: (i) a three-layer bed consisting of planted organic soil over an upper layer of filtering media (i.e. tuff or beads) and a lower layer of limestone pebbles, and (ii) a reservoir located beneath the bed. Wastewater flows directly into the plant root zone and trickles down through the three-layer bed into the reservoir, allowing passive aeration. From the reservoir the water is recirculated back to the bed, several times, until the desired purification is achieved. The results obtained show that the RVFCW is an effective and convenient strategy to treat (domestic, grey and agro) wastewater for re-use in irrigation. The system performance is expected to be further improved once current optimization experiments and mathematical modeling studies are concluded. PMID:18701805

  15. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2015-12-22

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a turbine housing includes a turbine inlet in fluid communication with a turbine volute configured to house a turbine wheel, the turbine inlet configured to direct an exhaust gas flow from an engine to the turbine wheel. The turbine housing also includes a turbine outlet in fluid communication with the turbine volute, the turbine outlet configured to direct the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas conduit and a first exhaust gas recirculation supply port located on and in fluid communication with the turbine outlet, the first exhaust gas recirculation supply port being configured to direct a portion of the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas recirculation supply conduit.

  16. Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

  17. Hydrothermal carbonization: process water characterization and effects of water recirculation.

    PubMed

    Stemann, Jan; Putschew, Anke; Ziegler, Felix

    2013-09-01

    Poplar wood chips were treated hydrothermally and the increase of process efficiency by water recirculation was examined. About 15% of the carbon in the biomass was dissolved in the liquid phase when biomass was treated in de-ionized water at 220 °C for 4 h. The dissolved organic matter contained oxygen and was partly aerobically biodegradable. About 30-50% of the total organic carbon originated from organic acids. A polar and aromatic fraction was extracted and a major portion of the organic load was of higher molecular weight. By process water recirculation organic acids in the liquid phase concentrated and catalyzed dehydration reactions. As a consequence, functional groups in hydrothermally synthesized coal declined and dewaterability was enhanced. Recirculated reactive substances polymerized and formed additional solid substance. As a result, carbon and energetic yields of the produced coal rose to 84% and 82%, respectively. PMID:23792664

  18. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko -Jen

    2015-09-15

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a compressor housing includes a compressor inlet in fluid communication with a compressor volute configured to house a compressor wheel, the compressor inlet configured to provide a first air flow to the compressor wheel and a compressor outlet in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the compressor outlet configured to direct a compressed gas to an intake manifold. The compressor housing further includes an exhaust gas recirculation inlet port in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the exhaust gas recirculation inlet port being configured to combine an exhaust gas flow with the air flow to the compressor wheel.

  19. Simulating Large-Scale Earthquake Dynamic Rupture Scenarios On Natural Fault Zones Using the ADER-DG Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Alice; Pelties, Christian

    2014-05-01

    In this presentation we will demonstrate the benefits of using modern numerical methods to support physic-based ground motion modeling and research. For this purpose, we utilize SeisSol an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) scheme to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time using three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. We recently verified the method in various advanced test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite, including branching and dipping fault systems, heterogeneous background stresses, bi-material faults and rate-and-state friction constitutive formulations. Now, we study the dynamic rupture process using 3D meshes of fault systems constructed from geological and geophysical constraints, such as high-resolution topography, 3D velocity models and fault geometries. Our starting point is a large scale earthquake dynamic rupture scenario based on the 1994 Northridge blind thrust event in Southern California. Starting from this well documented and extensively studied event, we intend to understand the ground-motion, including the relevant high frequency content, generated from complex fault systems and its variation arising from various physical constraints. For example, our results imply that the Northridge fault geometry favors a pulse-like rupture behavior.

  20. A search for evidence of large body Earth impacts associated with biological crisis zones in the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Gilmore, J. S.; Knight, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The natural history of the Earth, how the present plant and animal species developed, how others completely died out, etc., was studied. The rock strata sampled and studied were at the time of deposition at sea bottom. It was found that, exactly at the stratigraphic level corresponding to the extinction, a thin clay layer was greatly enriched in the the rare element iridium. It was hypothesized that the excess irridium at the boundary came from a large steroid like object that hit the earth, and that the impact of this object threw up a dust cloud dense enough and long lasting enough to bring about the extinction of a wide variety of plants and animals, producing the unique break in in the fossil record, the cretaceous-tertiary boundary. The same iridium and platinum metals enrichement are found in a thin clay layer that corresponds with the boundary as difined by sudden radical changes in plant populations. The irridium enrichement is confirmed at other fresh water origin rites in the Raton Basin.

  1. Determination of cationic surfactants by capillary zone electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography with deoxycholate micelles in the presence of large organic solvent concentrations.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F; Mongay-Fernández, C; Ramis-Ramos, G

    2000-10-20

    Mixtures of the cationic surfactants benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) were quickly resolved and reproducibly and reliably determined by using background electrolytes (BGEs) containing 80 mM borate, pH 8.5, bile salts and large concentrations of an organic solvent. When the bile salt is present, the separation mechanism changes from capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to a mixed micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)-CZE, with predominant MEKC interactions, which lead to an excellent resolution of all the solutes, including the C12-C18 homologues of BKC and CPC. A BGE containing 50 mM sodium deoxycholate and 30% ethanol for an extreme resolution, or 20% tetrahydrofuran for an adequate resolution within a much shorter analysis time, is recommended. The procedure was applied to the determination of the surfactants in industrial and household formulations, with excellent resolution between the homologues, detection limits of a few microg ml(-1) and reproducibilities below 2%. PMID:11105866

  2. Radiocarbon and geochemical constraints on shallow groundwater recharge in a large arid zone river, Cooper Creek, SW Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Joshua; Cendón, Dioni; Nanson, Gerald; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    In the arid and semi-arid internally drained Lake Eyre Basin of central Australia, large mud dominated anabranching river systems transport monsoon derived floodwaters into the centre of the continent during the summer months, and subsequently spend much of the year under low to no flow conditions. Cooper Creek has the largest catchment in this basin, and in south west Queensland has a wide (20-60km) floodplain and multiple channel system. Enlarged channel segments, known as waterholes or billabongs, can retain water throughout much of the dry season, and their mud base can often be scoured during floods into the underlying sandy alluvium where the shallow groundwater table exists ~3-5m below the base of the waterholes. Little is known of the groundwater recharge mechanisms in this ecologically important and hydrologically unregulated river system, thus a number of piezometer transects were construct across the floodplain between two waterholes to investigate groundwater recharge processes in further detail. Samples recovered from all piezometers were analysed for major-trace element, water stable isotopes (δ2H and δ180), 3H and 14C. Water stable isotopes reveal shallow groundwater is recharged by high magnitude, low frequency monsoonal flood events, with minor evaporative enrichment probably linked to recent smaller flooding events. 14C dating of dissolved inorganic carbon reveals recharge is most effective beneath the deepest channel segments of the waterholes, and that residence time of the shallow groundwater increases with distance from major waterholes, with the post 1950's 14C bomb pulse signature present only in close proximity to the channels. 3H allows further refinement of the shallow groundwater residence times, with no 3H detected in groundwater over ~500m from the waterholes, indicating groundwater recharge is slow and restricted to major flooding events. The increase in groundwater residence time with distance from waterholes, is also accompanied

  3. In-tank aeration, a necessary compliment of loaded systems in an airlift recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water treatment components in recirculating aquaculture systems in generally address solids removal, nitrification, circulation, aeration, and degasification. Airlift pumps in a recirculating aquaculture system can address water circulation, aeration, and degasification. Recent data indicates oxygen...

  4. Low-head saltwater recirculating aquaculture systems utilized for juvenile red drum production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recirculating aquaculture systems reuse water with mechanical and biological treatment between each use and thus require wastewater treatment techniques for continuous waste removal. However, the traditional techniques and equipment utilized in recirculating aquaculture systems are expensive. The d...

  5. An experimental investigation of confined, multiple, turbulent jet mixing with recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.

    1984-12-01

    An axisymmetric duct that simulated a combustor configuration, was used to examine the flow fields in combustors that utilize injector plates to establish turbulent jet mixing of fuels and oxidizers. Five different injector plates were tested. Flow fields downstream of the plates were investigated using flow visualization and laser velocimetry. Qualitative data for flows created by rings of discrete jets were obtained with dye injection and hydrogen bubble generation flow visualization techniques. Wall static pressure distributions were measured with a sensitive pressure transducer. The velocity and turbulence fields were quantified using a Bragg-diffracted, two-component laser doppler velocimeter (LV). The locations and extents of recirculation zones and jet expansion rates were deduced from the LV data. Results show that the flow due to an annular jet is two dimensional, but those due to discrete jets are fully three dimensional.

  6. An Inexpensive Recirculating Aquaculture System with Multiple Use Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scurlock, Gerald Don, Jr.; Cook, S. Bradford; Scurlock, Carrie Ann

    1999-01-01

    Describes the construction of an inexpensive recirculating aquaculture system that can hold up to 46 pounds of fish, invertebrates, and mussels for classroom use. The system is versatile, requires little maintenance, and can be used for both teaching and research purposes. (WRM)

  7. A Cure for Multipass Beam Breakup in Recirculating Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Byung C. Yunn

    2004-07-02

    We investigate a method to control the multipass dipole beam breakup instability in a recirculating linac including energy recovery. Effectiveness of an external feedback system for such a goal is shown clearly in a simplified model. We also verify the theoretical result with a simulation study.

  8. A METHOD TO CONTROL MULTIPASS BEAM BREAKUP IN RECIRCULATING LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Byung Yunn

    2003-05-01

    We investigate a method to control the multipass dipole beam breakup instability in a recirculating linac including energy recovery. Effectiveness of an external feedback system for such a goal is shown clearly in a simplified model. We also verify the theoretical result with a simulation study.

  9. Confined Turbulent Swirling Recirculating Flow Predictions. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abujelala, M. T.

    1984-01-01

    Turbulent swirling flow, the STARPIC computer code, turbulence modeling of turbulent flows, the k-xi turbulence model and extensions, turbulence parameters deduction from swirling confined flow measurements, extension of the k-xi to confined swirling recirculating flows, and general predictions for confined turbulent swirling flow are discussed.

  10. Application of airlift technology in recirculation aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marine hatcheries implementing recirculating aquaculture technology require pristine water quality and must be designed to provide a disease free environment as much as possible to limit disease transmission. Given the aggressive nature of a variety of marine pathogens, design considerations with re...

  11. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOEpatents

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  12. Towards Non-thrombogenic Performance of Blood Recirculating Devices

    PubMed Central

    Bluestein, D.; Chandran, K. B.; Manning, K. B.

    2010-01-01

    Implantable blood recirculating devices have provided life saving solutions to patients with severe cardiovascular diseases. However, common problems of hemolysis and thromboembolism remain an impediment to these devices. In this article, we present a brief review of the work by several groups in the field that has led to the development of new methodologies that may facilitate achieving the daunting goal of optimizing the thrombogenic performance of blood recirculating devices. The aim is to describe work which pertains to the interaction between flow-induced stresses and the blood constituents, and that supports the hypothesis that thromboembolism in prosthetic blood recirculating devices is initiated and maintained primarily by the non-physiological flow patterns and stresses that activate and enhance the aggregation of blood platelets, increasing the risk of thromboembolism and cardioembolic stroke. Such work includes state-of-the-art numerical and experimental tools used to elucidate flow-induced mechanisms leading to thromboembolism in prosthetic devices. Following the review, the paper describes several efforts conducted by some of the groups active in the field, and points to several directions that should be pursued in the future in order to achieve the goal for blood recirculating prosthetic devices becoming more effective as destination therapy in the future. PMID:20131098

  13. Ground Motion Simulation for a Large Active Fault System using Empirical Green's Function Method and the Strong Motion Prediction Recipe - a Case Study of the Noubi Fault Zone -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Kumamoto, T.; Fujita, M.

    2005-12-01

    The 1995 Hyogo-ken Nambu Earthquake (1995) near Kobe, Japan, spurred research on strong motion prediction. To mitigate damage caused by large earthquakes, a highly precise method of predicting future strong motion waveforms is required. In this study, we applied empirical Green's function method to forward modeling in order to simulate strong ground motion in the Noubi Fault zone and examine issues related to strong motion prediction for large faults. Source models for the scenario earthquakes were constructed using the recipe of strong motion prediction (Irikura and Miyake, 2001; Irikura et al., 2003). To calculate the asperity area ratio of a large fault zone, the results of a scaling model, a scaling model with 22% asperity by area, and a cascade model were compared, and several rupture points and segmentation parameters were examined for certain cases. A small earthquake (Mw: 4.6) that occurred in northern Fukui Prefecture in 2004 were examined as empirical Green's function, and the source spectrum of this small event was found to agree with the omega-square scaling law. The Nukumi, Neodani, and Umehara segments of the 1891 Noubi Earthquake were targeted in the present study. The positions of the asperity area and rupture starting points were based on the horizontal displacement distributions reported by Matsuda (1974) and the fault branching pattern and rupture direction model proposed by Nakata and Goto (1998). Asymmetry in the damage maps for the Noubi Earthquake was then examined. We compared the maximum horizontal velocities for each case that had a different rupture starting point. In the case, rupture started at the center of the Nukumi Fault, while in another case, rupture started on the southeastern edge of the Umehara Fault; the scaling model showed an approximately 2.1-fold difference between these cases at observation point FKI005 of K-Net. This difference is considered to relate to the directivity effect associated with the direction of rupture

  14. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    PubMed

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. PMID:26143355

  15. A new technique for 100-fold increase in the FSR of optical recirculating delay line filters using a time compression unit.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T A; Chan, E H W; Minasian, R A

    2012-10-01

    A new technique that increases the free spectral range (FSR) of a recirculating delay line filter, is presented. The concept is based on a time-compression unit, which is used in conjunction with a frequency-shifting recirculating loop that generates multi-spectral characteristics, and the idea exploits the optical wavelength domain by wavelength-to-time mapping of the taps using an oppositely time-oriented dispersive element so that the taps travel different lengths, to time compress the tap separation. This technique solves, for the first time, the long-standing problem of the small FSR limitation in recirculating microwave photonic delay line filters, opening the way to realize the main functionalities required in microwave photonic filters. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate a large 100-fold increase in the FSR of the bandpass filter response. PMID:23188320

  16. Paleoseismology of the Nephi Segment of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Juab County, Utah - Preliminary Results From Two Large Exploratory Trenches at Willow Creek

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machette, Michael N.; Crone, Anthony J.; Personius, Stephen F.; Mahan, Shannon; Dart, Richard L.; Lidke, David J.; Olig, Susan S.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, we identified a small parcel of U.S. Forest Service land at the mouth of Willow Creek (about 5 km west of Mona, Utah) that was suitable for trenching. At the Willow Creek site, which is near the middle of the southern strand of the Nephi segment, the WFZ has vertically displaced alluvial-fan deposits >6-7 m, forming large, steep, multiple-event scarps. In May 2005, we dug two 4- to 5-m-deep backhoe trenches at the Willow Creek site, identified three colluvial wedges in each trench, and collected samples of charcoal and A-horizon organic material for AMS (acceleration mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating, and sampled fine-grained eolian and colluvial sediment for luminescence dating. The trenches yielded a stratigraphic assemblage composed of moderately coarse-grained fluvial and debris-flow deposits and discrete colluvial wedges associated with three faulting events (P1, P2, and P3). About one-half of the net vertical displacement is accommodated by monoclinal tilting of fan deposits on the hanging-wall block, possibly related to massive ductile landslide deposits that are present beneath the Willow Creek fan. The timing of the three surface-faulting events is bracketed by radiocarbon dates and results in a much different fault chronology and higher slip rates than previously considered for this segment of the Wasatch fault zone.

  17. Sodium recirculation and isotonic transport in toad small intestine.

    PubMed

    Nedergaard, S; Larsen, E H; Ussing, H H

    1999-04-01

    Isolated small intestine of toad (Bufo bufo) was mounted on glass tubes for perfusion studies with oxygenated amphibian Ringer's solution containing glucose and acetate. Under open-circuit conditions (Vt = -3.9 +/- 1.8 mV, N = 14) the preparation generated a net influx of 134Cs+. The time course of unidirectional 134Cs+-fluxes was mono-exponential with similar rate constants for influx and outflux when measured in the same preparation. The flux-ratio was time invariant from the beginning of appearance of the tracers to steady state was achieved. Thus, just a single pathway, the paracellular pathway, is available for transepithelial transport of Cs+. From the ratio of unidirectional Cs+-fluxes the paracellular force was calculated to be, 18.2 +/- 1.5 mV (N = 6), which is directed against the small transepithelial potential difference. The paracellular netflux of cesium ions, therefore, is caused by solvent drag. The flux of 134Cs+ entering and trapped by the cells was of a magnitude similar to that passing the paracellular route. Therefore, independent of the convective flux of 134Cs+, every second 134Cs+ ion flowing into the lateral space was pumped into the cells rather than proceeding, via the low resistance pathway, to the serosal bath. It is thus indicated that the paracellular convective flow of 134Cs+ is driven by lateral Na+/K+-pumps. Transepithelial unidirectional 42K+ fluxes did not reach steady state within an observation period of 70 min, indicating that components of the fluxes in both directions pass the large cellular pool of potassium ions. The ratio of unidirectional 24Na+ fluxes was time-variant and declined from an initial value of 3.66 +/- 0.34 to a significantly smaller steady-state value of 2.57 +/- 0.26 (P < 0.001, N = 5 paired observations), indicating that sodium ions pass the epithelium both via the paracellular and the cellular pathway. Quantitatively, the larger ratio of paracellular Na+ fluxes, as compared to that of paracellular Cs

  18. Holocene behavior of the Brigham City segment: implications for forecasting the next large-magnitude earthquake on the Wasatch fault zone, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, Stephen F.; DuRoss, Christopher B.; Crone, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The Brigham City segment (BCS), the northernmost Holocene‐active segment of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ), is considered a likely location for the next big earthquake in northern Utah. We refine the timing of the last four surface‐rupturing (~Mw 7) earthquakes at several sites near Brigham City (BE1, 2430±250; BE2, 3490±180; BE3, 4510±530; and BE4, 5610±650 cal yr B.P.) and calculate mean recurrence intervals (1060–1500  yr) that are greatly exceeded by the elapsed time (~2500  yr) since the most recent surface‐rupturing earthquake (MRE). An additional rupture observed at the Pearsons Canyon site (PC1, 1240±50 cal yr B.P.) near the southern segment boundary is probably spillover rupture from a large earthquake on the adjacent Weber segment. Our seismic moment calculations show that the PC1 rupture reduced accumulated moment on the BCS about 22%, a value that may have been enough to postpone the next large earthquake. However, our calculations suggest that the segment currently has accumulated more than twice the moment accumulated in the three previous earthquake cycles, so we suspect that additional interactions with the adjacent Weber segment contributed to the long elapse time since the MRE on the BCS. Our moment calculations indicate that the next earthquake is not only overdue, but could be larger than the previous four earthquakes. Displacement data show higher rates of latest Quaternary slip (~1.3  mm/yr) along the southern two‐thirds of the segment. The northern third likely has experienced fewer or smaller ruptures, which suggests to us that most earthquakes initiate at the southern segment boundary.

  19. Research on leachate recirculation from different types of landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qi . E-mail: wangqi@craes.org.cn; Matsufuji, Yasushi; Dong Lu; Huang Qifei; Hirano, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Ayako

    2006-07-01

    Landfills can produce a great amount of leachate containing highly concentrated organic matter. This is especially true for the initial leachate from landfilled municipal solid wastes (MSW) that generally has concentrations of COD{sub Cr} and BOD{sub 5} up to 80,000 and 50,000 mg/L, respectively. The leachate could be disposed by means of recirculating technique, which decomposes the organics through the action of proliferating microorganisms and thereby purifies the leachate, and simultaneously accelerates organic decomposition through water saturation control. Data from experimental results indicated that leachate recirculating could reduce the organic concentration considerably, with a maximum reduction rate of COD{sub Cr} over 95%; and, using a semi-aerobic process, NH{sub 3}-N concentration of treated leachate could be under 10 mg/L. In addition, the organic concentration in MSW decreased greatly.

  20. Digital feedwater and recirculation flow control for GPUN Oyster Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Burjorjee, D. ); Gan, B. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the digital system for feedwater and recirculation control that GPU Nuclear will be installing at Oyster Creek during its next outage - expected circa December 1992. The replacement was motivated by considerations of reliability and obsolescence - the analog equipment was aging and reaching the end of its useful life. The new system uses Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.'s software platform running on dual, redundant, industrial-grade 386 computers with opto-isolated field input/output (I/O) accessed through a parallel bus. The feedwater controller controls three main feed regulating valves, two low flow regulating valves, and two block valves. The recirculation controller drives the five scoop positioners of the hydraulic couplers. The system also drives contacts that lock up the actuators on detecting an open circuit in their current loops.

  1. Leachate pre-treatment strategies before recirculation in landfill bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, V; Bouchez, T; Bureau, C; Mailly, N; Mazeas, L; Duquennoi, C; Audic, J M; Hébé, L; Bernet, N

    2005-01-01

    Nitrified leachate recirculation represents a promising strategy for a more sustainable landfill management. Our objective was to determine the reactions involved in nitrate reduction in municipal solid waste batch biodegradation tests. Anaerobic digestion of waste in the three control reactors showed a good reproducibility. In two test reactors, nitrate was added at various moments of the waste degradation process. We observed that: (1) H2S concentration controlled the nitrate reduction pathway: above a certain threshold of H2S, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) replaced denitrification. (2) N2O/N2 ratio varied with the organic carbon concentration: the lower the easily biodegradable carbon concentration, the higher the N2O/N2 ratio. (3) N2 was consumed after denitrification. The possibility of a nitrogen fixation reaction in the presence of NH4 is discussed. Nitrified leachate recirculation during acidogenesis should be avoided because of higher H2S production which could induce DNRA. PMID:16180441

  2. Displacement of large-scale open solar magnetic fields from the zone of active longitudes and the heliospheric storm of November 3-10, 2004: 2. "Explosion" of singularity and dynamics of sunspot formation and energy release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, K. G.

    2010-12-01

    A more detailed scenario of one stage (August-November 2004) of the quasibiennial MHD process "Origination ... and dissipation of the four-sector structure of the solar magnetic field" during the decline phase of cycle 23 has been constructed. It has been indicated that the following working hypothesis on the propagation of an MHD disturbance westward (in the direction of solar rotation) and eastward (toward the zone of active longitudes) with the displacement of the large-scale open solar magnetic field (LOSMF) from this zone can be constructed based on LOSMF model representations and data on sunspot formation, flares, active filaments, and coronal ejections as well as on the estimated contribution of sporadic energy release to the flare luminosity and kinetic energy of ejections: (1) The "explosion" of the LOSMF singularity and the formation in the explosion zone of an anemone active region (AR), which produced the satellite sunspot formation that continued west and east of the "anemone," represented a powerful and energy-intensive source of MHD processes at this stage. (2) This resulted in the origination of two "governing" large-scale MHD processes, which regulated various usual manifestations of solar activity: the fast LOSMF along the neutral line in the solar atmosphere, strongly affecting the zone of active longitudes, and the slow LOSMF in the outer layers of the convection zone. The fronts of these processes were identified by powerful (about 1031 erg) coronal ejections. (3) The collision of a wave reflected from the zone of active longitudes with the eastern front of the hydromagnetic impulse of the convection zone resulted in an increase in LOSMF magnetic fluxes, origination of an active sector boundary in the zone of active longitudes, shear-convergent motions, and generation and destabilization of the flare-productive AR 10696 responsible for the heliospheric storm of November 3-10, 2004.

  3. Control of synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, David; Benson, Stephen; Li, Rui; Roblin, Yves; Tennant, Christopher; Krafft, Geoffrey; Terzic, Balsa; Tsai, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Studies of beam quality during recirculation have been extended to an arc providing bunch compression with positive momentum compaction. It controls both incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) using methods including optics balance and generates little microbunching gain. We detail the dynamical basis for the design, discuss the design process, give an example, and provide simulations of ISR and CSR effects. Reference will be made to a complete analysis of microbunching effects.

  4. Tracking studies in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.; Brooks, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.

    2015-07-13

    Beam and polarization tracking studies in eRHIC energy recovery electron recirculator are presented, based on a very preliminary design of the FFAG lattice. These simulations provide examples of some of the beam and spin optics aspects of the linear FFAG lattice concept and its application in eRHIC, they provide code benchmarking for synchrotron radiation and spin diffusion in addition, and pave the way towards end-to-end 6-D(phasespace)+3D(spin) tracking simulations.

  5. The species-specific structure of microanatomical compartments in the human spleen: strongly sialoadhesin-positive macrophages occur in the perifollicular zone, but not in the marginal zone.

    PubMed Central

    Steiniger, B; Barth, P; Herbst, B; Hartnell, A; Crocker, P R

    1997-01-01

    The microanatomical structure of human and rat splenic white pulp is compared, with special emphasis on the localization of the marginal zone occupied by immunoglobulin M (IgM)+ IgD-/dull B lymphocytes and its specialized macrophages. Our study reveals that in contrast to rats, the marginal zone of humans primarily exists in the vicinity of primary and secondary splenic follicles and that it is almost absent around the periarteriolar T-cell zones. We demonstrate that in humans there is an additional compartment, the perifollicular zone, located between the marginal zone and the red pulp. The perifollicular zone is a dynamic region of variable cellular and phenotypic composition, which can be regarded either as a part of the red pulp or of the follicles. In most cases the perifollicular zone appears as a compartment of the red pulp containing erythrocyte-filled spaces which differ from the typical red pulp sinusoids. Similar to the splenic cords, the perifollicular zone mostly harbours scattered B and T lymphocytes. However, sometimes B lymphocytes clearly predominate in the perifollicular area. In addition, strongly sialoadhesin-positive macrophages form sheaths around capillaries in the perifollicular zone. Such capillary sheaths are not observed in rats. In humans weakly sialoadhesin-positive macrophages are also present in the perifollicular zone and in the red pulp. In some specimens sialoadhesin is, however, strongly expressed by a large number of dispersed perifollicular macrophages. Interestingly, in striking contrast to rats, the human marginal zone does not contain sialoadhesin-positive macrophages and marginal metallophilic macrophages are also absent in humans. Thus, sialoadhesin-positive macrophages and IgM+ IgD- memory B lymphocytes both share the marginal zone as a common compartment in rats, while they occupy different compartments in humans. We show that the human splenic marginal zone does not contain a marginal sinus and assume that in humans the

  6. A recirculating linac-based facility for ultrafast X-ray science

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N; Barletta, W.A.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W.M.; Green, M.A.; Heimann, P.; Leone, S.; Lidia, S.; Li, D.; Ratti, A.; Robinson, K.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Wan, W.; Wells, R.; Wolski, A.; Zholents, A.; Placidi, M.; Pirkl, W.; Parmigiani, F.

    2003-05-06

    We present an updated design for a proposed source of ultra-fast synchrotron radiation pulses based on a recirculating superconducting linac, in particular the incorporation of EUV and soft x-ray production. The project has been named LUX - Linac-based Ultrafast X-ray facility. The source produces intense x-ray pulses with duration of 10-100 fs at a 10 kHz repetition rate, with synchronization of 10 s fs, optimized for the study of ultra-fast dynamics. The photon range covers the EUV to hard x-ray spectrum by use of seeded harmonic generation in undulators, and a specialized technique for ultra-short-pulse photon production in the 1-10 keV range. High-brightness rf photocathodes produce electron bunches which are optimized either for coherent emission in free-electron lasers, or to provide a large x/y emittance ration and small vertical emittance which allows for manipulation to produce short-pulse hard x-rays. An injector linac accelerates the beam to 120 MeV, and is followed by four passes through a 600-720 MeV recirculating linac. We outline the major technical components of the proposed facility.

  7. A Recirculating Linac-Based Facility for Ultrafast X-Ray Science

    SciTech Connect

    J. N. Corlett; W. A. Barletta; S. DeSantis; L. Doolittle; W. M. Fawley; M.A. Green; P. Heimann; S. Leone; S. Lidia; D. Li; A. Ratti; K. Robinson; R. Schoenlein; J. Staples; W. Wan; R. Wells; A.Wolski; A. Zholents; F. Parmigiani; M. Placidi; W. Pirkl; R. A. Rimmer; S. Wang

    2003-05-01

    We present an updated design for a proposed source of ultra-fast synchrotron radiation pulses based on a recirculating superconducting linac [1,2], in particular the incorporation of EUV and soft x-ray production. The project has been named LUX--Linac-based Ultrafast X-ray facility. The source produces intense x-ray pulses with duration of 10-100 fs at a 10 kHz repetition rate, with synchronization of 10's fs, optimized for the study of ultra-fast dynamics. The photon range covers the EUV to hard x-ray spectrum by use of seeded harmonic generation in undulators, and a specialized technique for ultra-short pulse photon production in the 1-10 keV range. High brightness rf photocathodes produce electron bunches which are optimized either for coherent emission in free electron lasers, or to provide a large x/y emittance ration and small vertical emittance which allows for manipulation to produce short-pulse hard x-rays. An injector linac accelerates the beam to 120 MeV, and is followed by f our passes through a 600-720 MeV recirculating linac. We outline the major technical components of the proposed facility.

  8. Recirculating, passive micromixer with a novel sawtooth structure.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Kevin P; Ferullo, Julia R; Baeumner, Antje J

    2006-02-01

    A microfluidic device capable of recirculating nano to microlitre volumes in order to efficiently mix solutions is described. The device consists of molded polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) channels with pressure inlet and outlet holes sealed by a glass lid. Recirculation is accomplished by a repeatedly reciprocated flow over an iterated sawtooth structure. The sawtooth structure serves to change the fluid velocity of individual streamlines differently depending on whether the fluid is flowing backwards or forward over the structure. Thus, individual streamlines can be accelerated or decelerated relative to the other streamlines to allow sections of the fluid to interact that would normally be linearly separated. Low Reynolds numbers imply that the process is reversible, neglecting diffusion. Computer simulations were carried out using FLUENT. Subsequently, fluorescent indicators were employed to experimentally verify these numerical simulations of the recirculation principal. Finally, mixing of a carboxyfluorescein labeled DMSO plug with an unlabeled DMSO plug across an immiscible hydrocarbon plug was investigated. At cycling rates of 1 Hz across five sawtooth units, the time was recorded to reach steady state in the channels, i.e. until both DMSO plugs had the same fluorescence intensity. In the case of the sawtooth structures, steady state was reached five times faster than in channels without sawtooth structures, which verified what would be expected based on numerical simulations. The microfluidic mixer is unique due to its versatility with respect to scaling, its potential to also mix solutions containing small particles such as beads and cells, and its ease of fabrication and use. PMID:16450034

  9. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOEpatents

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1988-07-19

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture is described. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combustor chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture. 10 figs.

  10. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.

    1989-01-01

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combuston chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end of the combustor chamber and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture.

  11. Recirculation of Laser Power in an Atomic Fountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, WIlliam M.; Moore, James D.

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for laser-cooling atoms in a cesium atomic fountain frequency standard relies on recirculation of laser light through the atom-collection region of the fountain. The recirculation, accomplished by means of reflections from multiple fixed beam-splitter cubes, is such that each of two laser beams makes three passes. As described below, this recirculation scheme offers several advantages over prior designs, including simplification of the laser system, greater optical power throughput, fewer optical and electrical connections, and simplification of beam power balancing. A typical laser-cooled cesium fountain requires the use of six laser beams arranged as three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating beams to decelerate the atoms and hold them in a three-dimensional optical trap in vacuum. Typically, these trapping/cooling beams are linearly polarized and are positioned and oriented so that (1) counter-propagating beams in each pair have opposite linear polarizations and (2) three of the six orthogonal beams have the sum of their propagation directions pointing up, while the other three have the sum of their propagation directions pointing down. In a typical prior design, two lasers are used - one to generate the three "up" beams, the other to generate the three "down" beams. For this purpose, the output of each laser is split three ways, then the resulting six beams are delivered to the vacuum system, independently of each other, via optical fibers. The present recirculating design also requires two lasers, but the beams are not split before delivery. Instead, only one "up" beam and one oppositely polarized "down" beam are delivered to the vacuum system, and each of these beams is sent through the collection region three times. The polarization of each beam on each pass through the collection region is set up to yield the same combination of polarization and propagation directions as described above. In comparison with the prior design, the present

  12. High-resolution mapping of two large-scale transpressional fault zones in the California Continental Borderland: Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge and Ferrelo faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, Mark R.; Kohler, Monica D.; Shintaku, Natsumi; Weeraratne, Dayanthie S.

    2015-05-01

    New mapping of two active transpressional fault zones in the California Continental Borderland, the Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge fault and the Ferrelo fault, was carried out to characterize their geometries, using over 4500 line-km of new multibeam bathymetry data collected in 2010 combined with existing data. Faults identified from seafloor morphology were verified in the subsurface using existing seismic reflection data including single-channel and multichannel seismic profiles compiled over the past three decades. The two fault systems are parallel and are capable of large lateral offsets and reverse slip during earthquakes. The geometry of the fault systems shows evidence of multiple segments that could experience throughgoing rupture over distances exceeding 100 km. Published earthquake hypocenters from regional seismicity studies further define the lateral and depth extent of the historic fault ruptures. Historical and recent focal mechanisms obtained from first-motion and moment tensor studies confirm regional strain partitioning dominated by right slip on major throughgoing faults with reverse-oblique mechanisms on adjacent structures. Transpression on west and northwest trending structures persists as far as 270 km south of the Transverse Ranges; extension persists in the southern Borderland. A logjam model describes the tectonic evolution of crustal blocks bounded by strike-slip and reverse faults which are restrained from northwest displacement by the Transverse Ranges and the southern San Andreas fault big bend. Because of their potential for dip-slip rupture, the faults may also be capable of generating local tsunamis that would impact Southern California coastlines, including populated regions in the Channel Islands.

  13. Integrated strong cation-exchange hybrid monolith coupled with capillary zone electrophoresis and simultaneous dynamic pH junction for large-volume proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Yan, Xiaojing; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-06-01

    A sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange (SCX) monolith was synthesized at the proximal end of a capillary zone electrophoresis column and used for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample preconcentration. Sample was prepared in an acidic buffer and deposited onto the SCX-SPE monolith and eluted using a basic buffer. Electrophoresis was performed in an acidic buffer. This combination of buffers results in formation of a dynamic pH junction, which allows use of relatively large elution buffer volume while maintaining peak efficiency and resolution. All experiments were performed with a 50 µm ID capillary, a 1cm long SCX-SPE monolith, a 60cm long separation capillary, and a electrokinetically pumped nanospray interface. The volume of the capillary is 1.1 µL. By loading 21 µL of a 1×10(-7) M angiotensin II solution, an enrichment factor of 3000 compared to standard electrokinetic injection was achieved on this platform while retaining efficient electrophoretic performance (N=44,000 plates). The loading capacity of the sulfonate SCX hybrid monolith was determined to be ~15 pmol by frontal analysis with 10(-5) M angiotensin II. The system was also applied to the analysis of a 10(-4) mg/mL bovine serum albumin tryptic digest; the protein coverage was 12% and 11 peptides were identified. Finally, by loading 5.5 µL of a 10(-3) mg/mL E. coli digest, 109 proteins and 271 peptides were identified in a 20 min separation; the median separation efficiency generated by these peptides was 25,000 theoretical plates. PMID:25863379

  14. The Southern Part of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SSVZ; 42-46S) of the Andes: History of Medium and Large Explosive Holocene Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, C. R.; Naranjo, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Chaitén volcano is one of 13 large volcanic centers, and numerous small cones, comprising the southern part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), that results from the subduction of the Nazca plate (at 7.8 cm/yr) between the landward extension of the Chiloé FZ at 42S and the Chile Rise - Trench triple junction at 46S. Chaitén is a rhyolite dome inside a 3 km diameter caldera located 15 km west of the larger Michinmahuida stratovolcano. Other stratovolcanoes in the SSVZ include Yate, Hornopirén, Corcovado, Yanteles, Melimoyu, Mentolat, Cay and Macá. Hudson volcano, the southernmost in the Southern SVZ, is a large 10 km caldera, while Huequi and Hualaihué - Cordón Cabrera are a group of small aligned cinder cones possibly related to a larger eroded volcanic complex. Prior to the May 2008 eruption of Chaitén, the only well documented historic eruptions in this segment of the Andean arc were the explosive eruption of Hudson in August 1991 (Naranjo et al. 1993), and two eruptions of Michinmahuida in 1742 and 1834-35. Tephra deposits provide evidence of 11 prehistoric explosive Holocene eruptions of the southernmost SSVZ Hudson volcano, including two large eruptions near <6700 and <3600 BP (Naranjo and Stern 1998). The 6700 BP eruption produced greater than 18 km3 of andesitic tephra, possibly the largest Holocene eruption in all the southern Andes. Although Hudson is clearly the most active of the Southern SVZ volcanoes in terms of both volume and frequency of explosive eruptions, tephra deposits indicate that seven of the other SSVZ volcanoes, including Chaitén, also have had medium to large Holocene explosive eruptions (Naranjo and Stern 2004). Three of these eruptions were from Corcovado at approximately <9190, <7980 and <6870 BP, one from Yanteles at <9180 BP, two from Melimoyu at <2740 and <1750 BP, one from Mentolat at <6960 and one from Macá at <1540 BP. Two other eruptions, at <6350 and <3820 BP, we interpret as having been produced by

  15. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  16. A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Final report, January 1995--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Feese, J.J.; Turns, S.R.

    1996-08-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments in natural-gas fired boilers have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of the present investigation is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR by studying laminar diffusion flames. The purpose of studying laminar flames is to isolate chemical effects from the effects of turbulent mixing and heat transfer, which are inherent in practical boilers. The results of both the numerical simulations and the experiments suggest that, although molecular transport and chemical kinetic phenomena are affected by the location of diluent addition depending on flow conditions, the greater effectiveness of FIR over FGR in practical applications may result from differences in turbulent mixing and heat transfer. Further research is required to understand how differences in diluent-addition location affect NO{sub x} production in turbulent flames. The present study, however, provides an underlying basis for understanding how flow conditions can affect flame chemistry. 51 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Energy balance affected by electrolyte recirculation and operating modes in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kyle S; Kelly, Patrick T; He, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    Energy recovery and consumption in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) can be significantly affected by the operating conditions. This study investigated the effects of electrolyte recirculation and operation mode (continuous vs sequence batch reactor) on the energy balance in a tubular MFC. It was found that decreasing the anolyte recirculation also decreased the energy recovery. Because of the open environment of the cathode electrode, the catholyte recirculation consumed 10 to 50 times more energy than the anolyte recirculation, and resulted in negative energy balances despite the reduction of the anolyte recirculation. Reducing the catholyte recirculation to 20% led to a positive energy balance of 0.0288 kWh m(-3). The MFC operated as a sequence batch reactor generated less energy and had a lower energy balance than the one with continuous operation. Those results encourage the further development of MFC technology to achieve neutral or even positive energy output. PMID:25842536

  18. Recirculation-aeration: Bibliography for aquaculture. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Perschbacher, P.W.; Powell, R.V.; Freeman, D.W.; Lorio, W.J.; Hanfman, D.T.

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography includes literature citations through 1992 related to water recirculation and aeration in aquaculture. The focus is on filtration, aeration, and circulation techniques in various aquaculture situations.

  19. Investigation of groundwater recirculation for the removal of RDX from the Pantex Plant perched aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, A.L.; Barnes, D.L.; Boles, K.M.; Charbeneau, R.J.; Black, S.; Rainwater, K.

    1998-07-01

    The Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas, is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that has been in operation since 1942. Past and present operations at Pantex include the creation of chemical high explosives components for nuclear weapons and assembly and disassembly of nuclear weapons. The Pantex Plant is underlain by the Ogallala aquifer, which in this area, consists of the main water-bearing unit and a perched water zone. These are separated by a fine-grained zone of low permeability. Multiple contaminant plumes containing high explosive (HE) compounds have been detected in the perched aquifer beneath the plant. The occurrence of these contaminants is the result of past waste disposal practices at the facility. RDX is an HE compound, which has been detected in the groundwater of the perched aquifer at significant concentrations. A pilot-scale, dual-phase extraction treatment system has been installed at one location at the plant, east of Zone 12, to test the effectiveness of such a system on the removal of these contaminants from the subsurface. A tracer test using a conservative tracer, bromide (Br), was conducted at the treatment site in 1996. In addition to the bromide, RDX and water elevations in the aquifer were monitored. Using data from the tracer test and other relevant data from the investigations at Pantex, flow and contaminant transport in the perched aquifer were simulated with groundwater models. The flow was modeled using MODFLOW and the transport of contaminants in the aqueous phase was modeled using MT3D. Modeling the perched aquifer had been conducted to characterize the flow in the perched aquifer; estimate RDX retardation in the perched aquifer; and evaluate the use of groundwater re-circulation to enhance the extraction of RDX from the perched aquifer.

  20. Numerical Model of Turbulence, Sediment Transport, and Sediment Cover in a Large Canyon-Bound River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, L. V.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    during the High Flow Experiment (HFE) of 2008. The model accurately reproduces the size and position of the major recirculation currents, and the error in velocity magnitude was found to be less than 17% or 0.22 m/s absolute error. The mean deviation of the direction of velocity with respect to the measured velocity was found to be 20 degrees. Large-scale turbulence structures with vorticity predominantly in the vertical direction are produced at the shear layer between the main channel and the separation zone. However, these structures rapidly become three-dimensional with no preferred orientation of vorticity. Surprisingly, cross-stream velocities, into the main recirculation zone just upstream of the point of reattachment and out of the main recirculation region just downstream of the point of separation, are highest near the bed. Lateral separation eddies are more efficient at storing and exporting sediment than previously modeled. The input of sediment to the eddy recirculation zone occurs near the reattachment zone and is relatively continuous in time. While, the export of sediment to the main channel by the return current occurs in pulses. Pulsation of the strength of the return current becomes a key factor to determine the rates of erosion and deposition in the main recirculation zone.

  1. Thousand-fold volumetric concentration of live cells with a recirculating acoustofluidic device.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Ola; Oh, Seung Soo; Antfolk, Maria; Eisenstein, Michael; Laurell, Thomas; Soh, H Tom

    2015-08-18

    The ability to concentrate cells from dilute samples into smaller volumes is an essential process step for most biological assays. Volumetric concentration is typically achieved via centrifugation, but this technique is not well suited for handling small number of cells, especially outside of the laboratory setting. In this work, we describe a novel device that combines acoustofluidics with a recirculating architecture to achieve >1000-fold enrichment of cells in a label-free manner, at high volumetric throughput (>500 μL min(-1)) and with high recovery (>98.7%). We demonstrate that our device can be used with a wide variety of different cell types and show that this concentration strategy does not affect cell viability. Importantly, our device could be readily adopted to serve as a "sample preparation" module that can be integrated with other microfluidic devices to allow analysis of dilute cellular samples in large volumes. PMID:26226316

  2. Tools to Predict Beam Breakup in Recirculating Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Beard; Nikolitsa Merminga; Byung Yunn

    2003-05-01

    An important limitation on the maximum beam current in a recirculating linac is due to beam breakup caused by higher order modes (HOM) excited in the RF cavities. A HOM delivers a transverse kick to a beam bunch, the bunch on the next pass can then drive the HOM and cause it to grow until the beam is lost. Two codes, MATBBU1 and TDBBU2, have been written to estimate the threshold current for a set of HOMs and accelerator optics. The relative merits and limitations of each is discussed in detail.

  3. Gun and optics calculations for the Fermilab recirculation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kroc, T.

    1997-10-01

    Fermilab is investigating electron cooling to recycle 8 Gev antiprotons recovered from the Tevatron. To do so, it is developing an experiment to recirculate 2 Mev electrons generated by a Pelletron at National Electrostatics Corporation. This paper reports on the optics calculations done in support of that work. We have used the computer codes EGN2 and MacTrace to represent the gun area and acceleration columns respectively. In addition to the results of our simulations, we discuss some of the problems encountered in interfacing the two codes.

  4. Bio-inspired robotic legs drive viscous recirculating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Hayashi, Rintaro

    2015-11-01

    Crustaceans actuate multiple legs in a well-coordinated sequence to generate suitable flow for feeding and swimming. Inspired by tiny crustacean larvae operating at low Reynolds number, we study a scaled-up model in which slender rods oscillate independently in a bath of glycerol. Experiments reveal qualitatively different flow patterns depending on the phase and orientation of actuated rods. The observations are analyzed in the framework of slender-body theory for Stokes flow. This study shows that simple oscillatory motion of multiple legs can produce complex recirculating flows, with potential applications for mixing and pumping.

  5. Characteristics of velocity pulsations in a turbulent recirculated melt flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpo, M.; Jakovics, A.; Baake, E.

    2005-06-01

    For the modern industrial applications it is necessary to develop and investigate metallic and oxide materials of high purity or predicted composition. Such materials can be produced by the induction melting method, especially in inductor and cold crucible furnaces. Measurements taken in experimental furnaces show that the velocity pulsations dominate for the heat and mass exchange in the melt, especially in a zone between typical upper and lower eddies. Understanding of the pulsation mechanism and development of models to estimate the exchange characteristics are very important for the development and optimisation of industrial furnaces. The authors present experimental results and propose a simple 3D large eddy simulation (LES) model of the induction furnace that can be adapted to qualitative analysis of experimental data. Tables 2, Figs 13, Refs 7.

  6. Method and apparatus for affecting a recirculation zone in a cross flow

    DOEpatents

    Bathina, Mahesh; Singh, Ramanand

    2012-07-17

    Disclosed is a cross flow apparatus including a surface and at least one outlet located at the surface. The cross flow apparatus further includes at least one guide at the surface configured to direct an intersecting flow flowing across the surface and increase a velocity of a cross flow being expelled from the at least one outlet downstream from the at least one outlet.

  7. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  8. Mesoscale eddies in the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf Stream Recirculation region: Vertical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelao, Renato M.

    2014-03-01

    Sea level anomalies from altimeters are combined with decade-long potential temperature and salinity profiles from Argo floats to investigate the vertical structure of mesoscale eddies in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) and the Gulf Stream Recirculation region. Eddy detection and eddy tracking algorithms are applied to the satellite observations, and hydrography profiles from floats that surfaced inside eddies are used to construct three-dimensional composites of cyclones and anticyclones. Eddies are characterized by large temperature and salinity anomalies at 500-1000 m depth and near the surface, and by small anomalies at 200-400 m below the surface at the depth of the North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water. Anomalies associated with anticyclones are generally larger and found deeper in the water column compared to those due to the presence of cyclones. Geostrophic velocities around eddies generally exceed their translation speed in the top 1000 m of the water column. As such, these eddies can trap water in their interior as they propagate westward. Combining the volume of water inside eddies above their trapping depths with the number of eddies that propagate into the SAB each year, it is estimated that cyclones and anticyclones transport 3.5 ± 0.9 Sv and 4.1 ± 1.7 Sv onshore toward the Gulf Stream, respectively. The total volume transport of 7.6 ± 2.2 Sv represents an important fraction of previous estimates of the onshore transport in the Gulf Stream Recirculation gyre. Since eddies are characterized by large temperature and salinity anomalies, they also contribute significantly to the onshore transport of heat and salt.

  9. Effect of irradiation on nonlinear optical recirculation cavity performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitta, M.; Tikhoplav, R.; Jovanovic, I.

    2012-02-01

    In applications such as the production of hydrogen ions for accelerators in spallation neutron sources, charge stripping of hydrogen ions using high-power lasers represents an attractive technical approach. The use of laser-ion interaction in conjunction with a laser recirculation cavity holds promise for improved efficiency, but the high-radiation environment raises concerns about the longevity of the key components of such a system, especially the nonlinear crystal used for frequency conversion. We present the results of an in-reactor irradiation experiment in which a sample beta-barium borate crystal has been irradiated with fast neutrons and gamma-rays, accompanied with the Monte Carlo analysis of the irradiation dose and its comparison with typical conditions at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The results suggest that our design of the laser recirculation cavity exhibits a radiation hardness consistent with maintaining enhancement factors of the order of 10 over >10 years, but a more detailed experimental study is needed to investigate the radiation hardness of cavity designs exhibiting greater enhancement factors.

  10. Passive mode control in the recirculating planar magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzi, Matthew; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.; Hoff, Brad; Greening, Geoff; Zhang, Peng

    2013-03-01

    Preliminary experiments of the recirculating planar magnetron microwave source have demonstrated that the device oscillates but is susceptible to intense mode competition due, in part, to poor coupling of RF fields between the two planar oscillators. A novel method of improving the cross-oscillator coupling has been simulated in the periodically slotted mode control cathode (MCC). The MCC, as opposed to a solid conductor, is designed to electromagnetically couple both planar oscillators by allowing for the propagation of RF fields and electrons through resonantly tuned gaps in the cathode. Using the MCC, a 12-cavity anode block with a simulated 1 GHz and 0.26 c phase velocity (where c is the speed of light) was able to achieve in-phase oscillations between the two sides of the device in as little as 30 ns. An analytic study of the modified resonant structure predicts the MCC's ability to direct the RF fields to provide tunable mode separation in the recirculating planar magnetron. The self-consistent solution is presented for both the degenerate even (in phase) and odd (180° out of phase) modes that exist due to the twofold symmetry of the planar magnetrons.

  11. Harmonic Generation in the Multifrequency Recirculating Planar Magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exelby, S. C.; Greening, G. B.; Jordan, N. M.; Simon, D.; Zhang, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    The Multifrequency Recirculating Planar Magnetron (MFRPM) is a high power microwave source adapted from the Recirculating Planar Magnetrona, currently under investigation at the University of Michigan. The device features 2 dissimilar periodic structures allowing for the generation of (L-band) 1- and (S-band) 2-GHz high power microwave pulses simultaneously. These distinct frequencies offer the potential for variable coupling for defense applications, such as counter-IED. Experiments have been performed on the RPM, driven by the Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator with a Ceramic insulator (MELBA-C) using a -300kV, 1-10 kA, 0.3-1.0 us pulse applied to the cathode. Using the Mode Control Cathodeb and a coax-to-waveguide extraction system, the MFRPM has demonstrated simultaneous production of 20 MW at 1 GHz and 10 MW at 2 GHz. The L-band oscillator also produced both 2- and 4-GHz oscillations when the S-band oscillator turns on. These harmonics persist after the S-band oscillator turns off. Ongoing work will attempt to isolate these harmonics to measure the power accurately and confirm these observations. Supported by the Office of Naval Research grant no. N00014-13-1-0566 and L-3 Communications.

  12. A one-equation turbulence model for recirculating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Bai, JunQiang; Xu, JingLei; Li, Yi

    2016-06-01

    A one-equation turbulence model which relies on the turbulent kinetic energy transport equation has been developed to predict the flow properties of the recirculating flows. The turbulent eddy-viscosity coefficient is computed from a recalibrated Bradshaw's assumption that the constant a 1 = 0.31 is recalibrated to a function based on a set of direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. The values of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy consist of the near-wall part and isotropic part, and the isotropic part involves the von Karman length scale as the turbulent length scale. The performance of the new model is evaluated by the results from DNS for fully developed turbulence channel flow with a wide range of Reynolds numbers. However, the computed result of the recirculating flow at the separated bubble of NACA4412 demonstrates that an increase is needed on the turbulent dissipation, and this leads to an advanced tuning on the self-adjusted function. The improved model predicts better results in both the non-equilibrium and equilibrium flows, e.g. channel flows, backward-facing step flow and hump in a channel.

  13. Self-Recirculating Casing Treatment Concept for Enhanced Compressor Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    A state-of-the-art CFD code (APNASA) was employed in a computationally based investigation of the impact of casing bleed and injection on the stability and performance of a moderate speed fan rotor wherein the stalling mass flow is controlled by tip flow field breakdown. The investigation was guided by observed trends in endwall flow characteristics (e.g., increasing endwall aerodynamic blockage) as stall is approached and based on the hypothesis that application of bleed or injection can mitigate these trends. The "best" bleed and injection configurations were then combined to yield a self-recirculating casing treatment concept. The results of this investigation yielded: 1) identification of the fluid mechanisms which precipitate stall of tip critical blade rows, and 2) an approach to recirculated casing treatment which results in increased compressor stall range with minimal or no loss in efficiency. Subsequent application of this approach to a high speed transonic rotor successfully yielded significant improvements in stall range with no loss in compressor efficiency.

  14. Continuous hydroponic wheat production using a recirculating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Owens, L. P.; Hinkle, C. R.; Prince, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Continuous crop production, where plants of various ages are growing simultaneously in a single recirculating nutrient solution, is a possible alternative to batch production in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System. A study was conducted at John F. Kennedy Space Center where 8 trays (0.24 sq m per tray) of Triticum aestivum L. Yecora Rojo were grown simultaneously in a growth chamber at 23 C, 65 percent relative humidity, 1000 ppm CO2, continuous light, with a continuous flow, thin film nutrient delivery system. The same modified Hoagland nutrient solution was recirculated through the plant trays from an 80 L reservoir throughout the study. It was maintained by periodic addition of water and nutrients based on chemical analyses of the solution. The study was conducted for 216 days, during which 24 trays of wheat were consecutively planted (one every 9 days), 16 of which were grown to maturity and harvested. The remaining 8 trays were harvested on day 216. Grain yields averaged 520 g m(exp -2), and had an average edible biomass of 32 percent. Consecutive yields were unaffected by nutrient solution age. It was concluded that continual wheat production will work in this system over an extended period of time. Certain micronutrient deficiencies and toxicities posed problems and must be addressed in future continuous production systems.

  15. Passive mode control in the recirculating planar magnetron

    SciTech Connect

    Franzi, Matthew; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, Geoff; Zhang, Peng; Hoff, Brad

    2013-03-15

    Preliminary experiments of the recirculating planar magnetron microwave source have demonstrated that the device oscillates but is susceptible to intense mode competition due, in part, to poor coupling of RF fields between the two planar oscillators. A novel method of improving the cross-oscillator coupling has been simulated in the periodically slotted mode control cathode (MCC). The MCC, as opposed to a solid conductor, is designed to electromagnetically couple both planar oscillators by allowing for the propagation of RF fields and electrons through resonantly tuned gaps in the cathode. Using the MCC, a 12-cavity anode block with a simulated 1 GHz and 0.26 c phase velocity (where c is the speed of light) was able to achieve in-phase oscillations between the two sides of the device in as little as 30 ns. An analytic study of the modified resonant structure predicts the MCC's ability to direct the RF fields to provide tunable mode separation in the recirculating planar magnetron. The self-consistent solution is presented for both the degenerate even (in phase) and odd (180 Degree-Sign out of phase) modes that exist due to the twofold symmetry of the planar magnetrons.

  16. High-energy Picosecond Laser Pulse Recirculation for Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Anderson, S G; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Hernandez, J E; Johnson, M; McNabb, D P; Messerly, M; Pruet, J; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; Tremaine, A M; Barty, C J

    2007-06-12

    Frequency upconversion of laser-generated photons by inverse Compton scattering for applications such as nuclear spectroscopy and gamma-gamma collider concepts on the future ILC would benefit from an increase of average source brightness. The primary obstacle to higher average brightness is the relatively small Thomson scattering cross section. It has been proposed that this limitation can be partially overcome by use of laser pulse recirculation. The traditional approach to laser recirculation entails resonant coupling of low-energy pulse train to a cavity through a partially reflective mirror. Here we present an alternative, passive approach that is akin to 'burst-mode' operation and does not require interferometric alignment accuracy. Injection of a short and energetic laser pulse is achieved by placing a thin frequency converter, such as a nonlinear optical crystal, into the cavity in the path of the incident laser pulse. This method leads to the increase of x-ray/gamma-ray energy proportional to the increase in photon energy in frequency conversion. Furthermore, frequency tunability can be achieved by utilizing parametric amplifier in place of the frequency converter.

  17. Evaluation of a Shaker Dust Collector for Use in a Recirculating Ventilation System.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas M; Sawvel, Russell A; Park, Jae Hong; Anthony, T Renée

    2015-01-01

    General ventilation with recirculated air may be cost-effective to control the concentration of low-toxicity, contaminants in workplaces with diffuse, dusty operations, such as in agriculture. Such systems are, however, rarely adopted with little evidence showing improved air quality and ability to operate under harsh conditions. The goal of this work was to examine the initial and long-term performance of a fabric-filter shaker dust collector (SDC) in laboratory tests and as deployed within a recirculating ventilation system in an agricultural building. In laboratory tests, collection efficiency and pressure drop were tracked over several filter loading cycles, and the recovery of filter capacity (pressure drop) from filter shaking was examined. Collection efficiencies of particles larger than 5 μm was high (>95%) even when the filter was pristine, showing effective collection of large particles that dominate inhalable concentrations typical of agricultural dusts. For respirable-sized particles, collection efficiencies were low when the filter was pristine (e.g., 27% for 1 μm) but much higher when a dust cake developed on the filter (>99% for all size particles), even after shaking (e.g., 90% for 1 μm). The first shake of a filter was observed to recovery a substantial fraction of filter capacity, with subsequent shakes providing little benefit. In field tests, the SDC performed effectively over a period of three months in winter when incorporated in a recirculating ventilation system of a swine farrowing room. Trends in collection efficiency and pressure drop with loading were similar to those observed in the laboratory with overall collection efficiencies high (>80%) when pressure drop exceeded 230 Pa, or 23% of the maximum loading recommended by the manufacturer. This work shows that the SDC can function effectively over the harsh winter in swine rearing operations. Together with findings of improved air quality in the farrowing room reported in a

  18. Evaluation of a Shaker Dust Collector for Use in a Recirculating Ventilation System

    PubMed Central

    Sawvel, Russell A.; Park, Jae Hong; Anthony, T. Renée

    2016-01-01

    General ventilation with recirculated air may be cost-effective to control the concentration of low-toxicity, contaminants in workplaces with diffuse, dusty operations, such as in agriculture. Such systems are, however, rarely adopted with little evidence showing improved air quality and ability to operate under harsh conditions. The goal of this work was to examine the initial and long-term performance of a fabric-filter shaker dust collector (SDC) in laboratory tests and as deployed within a recirculating ventilation system in an agricultural building. In laboratory tests, collection efficiency and pressure drop were tracked over several filter loading cycles, and the recovery of filter capacity (pressure drop) from filter shaking was examined. Collection efficiencies of particles larger than 5 μm was high (>95%) even when the filter was pristine, showing effective collection of large particles that dominate inhalable concentrations typical of agricultural dusts. For respirable-sized particles, collection efficiencies were low when the filter was pristine (e.g., 27% for 1 μm) but much higher when a dust cake developed on the filter (>99% for all size particles), even after shaking (e.g., 90% for 1 μm). The first shake of a filter was observed to recovery a substantial fraction of filter capacity, with subsequent shakes providing little benefit. In field tests, the SDC performed effectively over a period of three months in winter when incorporated in a recirculating ventilation system of a swine farrowing room. Trends in collection efficiency and pressure drop with loading were similar to those observed in the laboratory with overall collection efficiencies high (>80%) when pressure drop exceeded 230 Pa, or 23% of the maximum loading recommended by the manufacturer. This work shows that the SDC can function effectively over the harsh winter in swine rearing operations. Together with findings of improved air quality in the farrowing room reported in a companion

  19. Unit process engineering for water quality control and biosecurity in marine water recirculating systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-intensity systems that treat and recirculate water must maintain a culture environment that can sustain near optimum fish health and growth at the design carrying capacity. Water recirculating systems that use centralized treatment systems can benefit from the economies of scale to decrease th...

  20. Influence of recirculation on Y-Q characteristic curve of hydrodynamic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klas, Roman; Pochylý, František; Rudolf, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Contribution is focused on discussion of different design modifications of the volute, impeller and rotor-stator cavity in case of very low specific speed pump with recirculation channels. Amount of the liquid flowing through the recirculation channels has significant effect on delivery height, stability of the head curve and hydraulic efficiency. Analysis of these effects is based on the evaluation of the dissipated power in different internal parts of the pump and for different flow rates. It has already been proved in our previous research that volute has substantial impact on stability of the head curve. It is apparent that similar effect can also be attributed to distribution and shape of the recirculation channels. This fact is connected with the inflow into the channels and with magnitude of the flow rate through the recirculation channels. Influence of mentioned parameters on recirculation is discussed in present paper.

  1. Timing of large earthquakes since A.D. 800 on the Mission Creek strand of the San Andreas fault zone at Thousand Palms Oasis, near Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fumal, T.E.; Rymer, M.J.; Seitz, G.G.

    2002-01-01

    Paleoseismic investigations across the Mission Creek strand of the San Andreas fault at Thousand Palms Oasis indicate that four and probably five surface-rupturing earthquakes occurred during the past 1200 years. Calendar age estimates for these earthquakes are based on a chronological model that incorporates radio-carbon dates from 18 in situ burn layers and stratigraphic ordering constraints. These five earthquakes occurred in about A.D. 825 (770-890) (mean, 95% range), A.D. 982 (840-1150), A.D. 1231 (1170-1290), A.D. 1502 (1450-1555), and after a date in the range of A.D. 1520-1680. The most recent surface-rupturing earthquake at Thousand Palms is likely the same as the A.D. 1676 ?? 35 event at Indio reported by Sieh and Williams (1990). Each of the past five earthquakes recorded on the San Andreas fault in the Coachella Valley strongly overlaps in time with an event at the Wrightwood paleoseismic site, about 120 km northwest of Thousand Palms Oasis. Correlation of events between these two sites suggests that at least the southernmost 200 km of the San Andreas fault zone may have ruptured in each earthquake. The average repeat time for surface-rupturing earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in the Coachella Valley is 215 ?? 25 years, whereas the elapsed time since the most recent event is 326 ?? 35 years. This suggests the southernmost San Andreas fault zone likely is very near failure. The Thousand Palms Oasis site is underlain by a series of six channels cut and filled since about A.D. 800 that cross the fault at high angles. A channel margin about 900 years old is offset right laterally 2.0 ?? 0.5 m, indicating a slip rate of 4 ?? 2 mm/yr. This slip rate is low relative to geodetic and other geologic slip rate estimates (26 ?? 2 mm/yr and about 23-35 mm/yr, respectively) on the southernmost San Andreas fault zone, possibly because (1) the site is located in a small step-over in the fault trace and so the rate is not be representative of the Mission Creek fault

  2. Outlet plug for recirculation loop of nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Dalke, C. A.; Stoll, B. G.

    1985-10-22

    A stopper apparatus for use in blocking the unvalved nozzle of a cooling fluid filled nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a plug, typically in the shape of a frustoconical member having inflatable gaskets for sealing against a seat of generally unknown surface characteristics and means for positioning and urging the plug into position to seal the nozzle. The plug is typically positioned by suspension cables whereby the apparatus can be temporarily inserted and removed from the pressure vessel. The urging means is generally a two-way hydraulically driven jack controlled by remotely-actuated hydraulic lines. The apparatus is a tool which permits temporary sealing of a submerged outlet in a reactor vessel to permit maintenance on a fluid recirculation loop.

  3. Successful water reuse in open recirculating cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vaska, M.; Lee, B.

    1994-12-31

    Water reuse in open recirculating cooling water systems is becoming increasingly prevalent in industry. Reuse can incorporate a number of varied approaches with the primary goal being water conservation. Market forces driving this trend include scarcity of fresh water makeup sources and higher costs associated with pretreatment of natural waters. Utilization of reuse water for cooling tower makeup has especially detrimental effects on corrosion and deposit rates. Additionally, once the reuse water is cycled and treated with inhibitors, dispersants and microbiocides, acceptability for discharge to a public waterway can be a concern. The task for water treatment suppliers is to guide industry in the feasibility and procedures for successfully achieving these goals. This paper focuses particularly on reuse of municipal wastewater for cooling tower makeup and explores techniques which have been found especially effective. Case histories are described where these concepts have been successfully applied in practice.

  4. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  5. Numerical investigation of recirculation in the UTSI MHD combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.J.; Lee, J.J.; Giel, T.V. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    Numerical studies were carried out to investigate the gross structure of flow in cylindrical combustors. The combustor configurations studied are variations of a working design used at the University of Tennessee Space Institute to burn pulverized coal at temperatures in excess of 3000K for generation of a plasma feeding a magnetohydrodynamic channel. The numerical studies were conducted for an isothermal fluid; the main objective of the calculations was to study the effect of the oxidant injection pattern on the gross structure of recirculating flows within the combustor. The calculations illustrate the basic features of the flow in combustors of this type and suggest implications for the injection of coal and oxidizer in this type of combustor.

  6. Microbial diversity of biological filters in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Harold J; Mirzoyan, Natella; Saito, Keiko

    2010-06-01

    Development of environmentally sustainable farming of marine and freshwater species using recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) requires a complete understanding of the biological component involved in wastewater treatment. This component integrates biofilters composed of microbial communities whose structure, dynamics, and activities are responsible for system success. Engineering highly efficient, environmentally sound, disease-free, and economically viable systems necessitates a thorough knowledge of microbial processes involved in all facets of RAS biofilters and has only recently been the focus of comprehensive studies. These studies have included the application of molecular tools to characterize community diversity and have identified key processes useful for improving system performance. In this paper we summarize the current understanding of the microbial diversity and physiology of RAS biofilters and discuss directions for future studies. PMID:20371171

  7. RECENT PROGRESS TOWARD A MUON RECIRCULATING LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Slawomir Bogacz, Vasiliy Morozov, Yves Roblin, Kevin Beard

    2012-07-01

    Both Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require very rapid acceleration due to the short lifetime of muons. After a capture and bunching section, a linac raises the energy to about 900 MeV, and is followed by one or more Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA), possibly followed by a Rapid Cycling Synchnotron (RCS) or Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) ring. A RLA reuses the expensive RF linac section for a number of passes at the price of having to deal with different energies within the same linac. Various techniques including pulsed focusing quadruopoles, beta frequency beating, and multipass arcs have been investigated via simulations to improve the performance and reduce the cost of such RLAs.

  8. Multipass Arc Lattice Design for Recirculating Linac Muon Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    G.M. Wang, R.P. Johnson, S.A. Bogacz, D. Trbojevic

    2009-05-01

    Recirculating linear accelerators (RLA) are the most likely means to achieve rapid acceleration of short-lived muons to multi-GeV energies required for Neutrino Factories and TeV energies required for Muon Colliders. A drawback of this scheme is that a separate return arc is required for each passage of the muons through the linac. In the work described here, a novel arc optics based on a Non-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NSFFAG) lattice is developed, which would provide sufficient momentum acceptance to allow multiple passes (two or more consecutive energies) to be transported in one string of magnets. An RLA with significantly fewer arcs will reduce the cost. We will develop the optics and technical requirements to allow the maximum number of passes by using an adjustable path length to accurately control the returned beam to synchronize with the linac RF phase.

  9. SUPERFLIC: A recirculating superconducting linear collider toponium factory

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.

    1990-10-01

    The conceptual design of a 0.3--0.4 TeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider which uses superconducting RF (SRF) accelerating cavities is presented. This machine is intended to provide high luminosity and low collision energy spread to allow precise studies of the t{bar t} resonant states. Only through use of SRF is such a collider made possible. It features use of recirculation arcs as a partial remedy to presently low SRF accelerating gradients. Development of this type of collider is motivated by and could serve as a stepping stone to exploiting SRF at higher energies. In TeV-range SRF colliders the serious difficulties arising from the beam-beam interaction, very small beam sizes and tolerances characteristic of normal conducting machines can be greatly diminished. 21 refs.

  10. Energy stability in recirculating, energy-recovering linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Merminga, L.; Bisognano, J.J.; Delayen, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    Recirculating, energy-recovering linacs can be used as driver accelerators for high power FELs. Instabilities which arise from fluctuations of the cavity fields are investigated. Energy changes can cause beam loss on apertures, or, when coupled to M{sub 56}, phase oscillations. Both effects change the beam induced voltage in the cavities and can lead to unstable variations of the accelerating field. Stability analysis for small perturbations from equilibrium is performed and threshold currents are determined. Furthermore, the analytical model is extended to include amplitude and phase feedback, with the transfer function in the feedback path presently modeled as a low-pass filter. The feedback gain and bandwidth required for stability are calculated for the high power UV FEL proposed for construction at CEBAF. 4 refs.

  11. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, C L; Garland, J L; Sager, J C

    1996-12-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented. PMID:11541570

  12. Dynamics of microorganism populations in recirculating nutrient solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, R. F.

    1994-11-01

    This overview covers the basic microbial ecology of recirculating hydroponic solutions. Examples from NASA and Soviet CELSS tests and the commercial hydroponic industry will be used. The sources of microorganisms in nutrient solutions include air, water, seeds, plant containers and plumbing, biological vectors, and personnel. Microbial fates include growth, death, and emigration. Important microbial habitats within nutrient delivery systems are root surfaces, hardware surfaces (biofilms), and solution suspension. Numbers of bacteria on root surfaces usually exceed those from the other habitats by several orders of magnitude. Gram negative bacteria dominate the microflora with fungal counts usually much lower. Trends typically show a decrease in counts with increasing time unless stressed plants increase root exudates. Important microbial activities include carbon mineralization and nitrogen transformations. Important detrimental interactions include competition with plants, and human and plant pathogenesis.

  13. Dynamics of microorganism populations in recirculating nutrient solutions.

    PubMed

    Strayer, R F

    1994-11-01

    This overview covers the basic microbial ecology of recirculating hydroponic solutions. Examples from NASA and Soviet CELSS tests and the commercial hydroponic industry will be used. The sources of microorganisms in nutrient solutions include air, water, seeds, plant containers and plumbing, biological vectors, and personnel. Microbial fates include growth, death, and emigration. Important microbial habitats within nutrient delivery systems are root surfaces, hardware surfaces (biofilms), and solution suspension. Numbers of bacteria on root surfaces usually exceed those from the other habitats by several orders of magnitude. Gram negative bacteria dominate the microflora with fungal counts usually much lower. Trends typically show a decrease in counts with increasing time unless stressed plants increase root exudates. Important microbial activities include carbon mineralization and nitrogen transformations. Important detrimental interactions include competition with plants, and human and plant pathogenesis. PMID:11540206

  14. Dynamics of microorganism populations in recirculating nutrient solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    This overview covers the basic microbial ecology of recirculating hydroponic solutions. Examples from NASA and Soviet Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) tests and the commercial hydroponic industry will be used. The sources of microorganisms in nutrient solutions include air, water, seeds, plant containers and plumbing, biological vectors, and personnel. Microbial fates include growth, death, and emigration. Important microbial habitats within nutrient delivery systems are root surfaces, hardware surfaces (biofilms), and solution suspension. Numbers of bacteria on root surfaces usually exceed those from the other habitats by several orders of magnitude. Gram negative bacteria dominate the microflora with fungal counts usually much lower. Trends typically show a decrease in counts with increasing time unless stressed plants increase root exudates. Important microbial activities include carbon mineralization and nitrogen transformations. Important detrimental interactions include competition with plants, and human and plant pathogenesis.

  15. Dynamics of microorganism populations in recirculating nutrient solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    This overview covers the basic microbial ecology of recirculating hydroponic solutions. Examples from NASA and Soviet CELSS tests and the commercial hydroponic industry will be used. The sources of microorganisms in nutrient solutions include air, water, seeds, plant containers and plumbing, biological vectors, and personnel. Microbial fates include growth, death, and emigration. Important microbial habitats within nutrient delivery systems are root surfaces, hardware surfaces (biofilms), and solution suspension. Numbers of bacteria on root surfaces usually exceed those from the other habitats by several orders of magnitude. Gram negative bacteria dominate the microflora with fungal counts usually much lower. Trends typically show a decrease in counts with increasing time unless stressed plants increase root exudates. Important microbial activities include carbon mineralization and nitrogen transformations. Important detrimental interactions include competition with plants, and human and plant pathogenesis.

  16. Traffic and proliferative responses of recirculating lymphocytes in fetal calves.

    PubMed Central

    Hein, W R; Shelton, J N; Simpson-Morgan, M W; Morris, B

    1988-01-01

    The thoracic duct or efferent prescapular duct was cannulated in four fetal calves aged 121-259 days post-conception. The duration of lymph flow ranged from 2 to 20 days and the mean flow rates sustained over these collection periods varied from 5.4 to 48.8 ml/hr. Lymphocyte output ranged from 4.4 x 10(6) cells/hr in thoracic duct lymph from a 121-day fetus to 3.9 x 10(8) cells/hr in efferent prescapular lymph from a 259-day fetus. The circulating lymphocyte pool in fetal calves of about 120 and 190 days gestational age was calculated to contain, respectively, 4 x 10(8) cells and 2 x 10(10) cells. The proportion of lymphocytes bearing surface immunoglobulin detected in fetal lymph ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Recirculating lymphocytes from fetal calves produced strong proliferative responses when stimulated by T-cell mitogens but responded poorly to B-cell mitogens. Fetal lymphocytes also responded to stimulation by allogeneic cells and stimulated other cells to proliferate during mixed lymphocyte culture. When stimulated with Con A, fetal lymphocytes secreted IL-2 to a degree that was indistinguishable from the secretory behaviour of lymphocytes from adult animals. The results presented in this paper show that chronic lymphatic fistulae can be established successfully in fetal calves to give access to recirculating lymphocytes. This provides a new experimental approach for studying the development of the bovine immune system. PMID:2971606

  17. Innovative approaches to remediation for VOC sites using recirculating wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, G.W.

    1996-12-01

    In-well air stripping with approaches such as the patented NoVOCs system offer both cost and operational advantages over pump and treat, and in situ air sparging technologies. With in-well stripping, the water is treated in the well and discharged without being brought to the surface. Discharged water is circulated through the saturated zone acting as a carrier to continually flush contaminants from the aquifer matrix and transport them to the well for treatment. With pumping rates up to four times those of comparable extraction wells, large radii of influence can be maintained and remediation is achieved faster and more efficiently. In-well stripping is applicable to any strippable contaminant including chlorinated solvents (i.e., TCE and PCE) and hydrocarbons such as the aromatic components in petroleum fuels. Growing costs associated with water discharge, NPDES permits, water rights and, in some areas, salt water intrusion have provided economic incentives to retrofit existing pump and treat systems with NoVOCs units. A large number of wells are amenable to retrofitting depending on their diameter, location and length of screens, and back fill. Even with the new initiatives for intrinsic remediation for petroleum fuel releases, there is a role for the NoVOCs technology. Free product removal wells based on the NoVOCs design eliminate the need to treat and permit water discharges produced when generating a cone of depression for collecting the floating fuel. Additionally, the stripping action and introduction of dissolved oxygen reduce soluble hydrocarbon concentrations to risk levels that can be easily addressed through intrinsic bioremediation.

  18. Photometry and polarimetry of Jupiter at large phase angles. I - Analysis of imaging data of a prominent belt and a zone from Pioneer 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomasko, M. G.; West, R. A.; Castillo, N. D.

    1978-01-01

    Photopolarimetric observations of a prominent bright zone and a dark belt of Jupiter in red and blue light are analyzed which were performed by Pioneer 10 at phase angles of 12, 23, 34, 109, 120, 127, and 150 deg. Geometric and photometric reductions of the imaging data are described, the instrument sensitivity at various times is evaluated, and the data are referred to an absolute scale. The observations are analyzed in detail by comparing the data with results of radiative-transfer calculations for specific scattering models of Jupiter's atmosphere. These models include those with a vertical structure consisting of a layer of Rayleigh-scattering gas above a semiinfinite mixture of cloud particles and gas, those having a small quantity of aerosols in the gas above either the diffuse cloud in a reflecting-scattering model or the top cloud of a two-cloud-layer model, those in which a forward-scattering haze is mixed uniformly with gas, and those containing dust layers. It is found that in both the belt and the zone in red as well as blue light, cloud phase functions are required which provide both strong forward scattering and some backscattering.

  19. Quantitative investigations of the Missouri gravity low: A possible expression of a large, Late Precambrian batholith intersecting the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildenbrand, T.G.; Griscom, A.; Van Schmus, W. R.; Stuart, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of gravity and magnetic anomaly data helps characterize the geometry and physical properties of the source of the Missouri gravity low, an important cratonic feature of substantial width (about 125 km) and length (> 600 km). Filtered anomaly maps show that this prominent feature extends NW from the Reelfoot rift to the Midcontinent Rift System. Geologic reasoning and the simultaneous inversion of the gravity and magnetic data lead to an interpretation that the gravity anomaly reflects an upper crustal, 11-km-thick batholith with either near vertical or outward dipping boundaries. Considering the modeled characteristics of the batholith, structural fabric of Missouri, and relations of the batholith with plutons and regions of alteration, a tectonic model for the formation of the batholith is proposed. The model includes a mantle plume that heated the crust during Late Precambrian and melted portions of lower and middle crust, from which the low-density granitic rocks forming the batholith were partly derived. The batholith, called the Missouri batholith, may be currently related to the release of seismic energy in the New Madrid seismic zone (earthquake concentrations occur at the intersection of the Missouri batholith and the New Madrid seismic zone). Three qualitative mechanical models are suggested to explain this relationship with seismicity. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Sven; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bäfver, Linda; Jones, Frida; Davidsson, Kent; Froitzheim, Jan; Karlsson, Martin; Larsson, Erik; Liske, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. It was demonstrated in full-scale tests at a Waste to Energy plant in Göteborg (Sweden) during nearly two months of operation. Sulfur was recirculated as sulfuric acid from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, thus creating a sulfur loop. The new technology was evaluated by extensive measurement campaigns during operation under normal conditions (reference case) and operation with sulfur recirculation. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulfur content increased during the sulfur recirculation tests. The deposit growth and the particle concentration decreased with sulfur recirculation and the dioxin concentration (I-TEQ) of the flue gas was reduced by approximately 25%. Sulfuric acid dew point measurements showed that the sulfuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO3 concentrations, which may otherwise induce low temperature corrosion. In the sulfur recirculation corrosion probe exposures, the corrosion rate decreased for all tested materials (16Mo3, Sanicro 28 and Inconel 625) and material temperatures (450 °C and 525 °C) compared to the reference exposure. The corrosion rates were reduced by 60-90%. Sulfur recirculation prevented the formation of transition metal chlorides at the metal/oxide interface, formation of chromate and reduced the presence of zinc in the corrosion products. Furthermore, measured corrosion rates at 525 °C with sulfur recirculation in operation were similar or lower compared to those measured at 450 °C material temperature in reference conditions, which corresponds to normal operation at normal steam temperatures. This implies that sulfur recirculation allows for higher steam data and electricity production without increasing corrosion. PMID:24140194

  1. Coastal and synoptic recirculation affecting air pollutants dispersion: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Ilan; Mahrer, Yizhak; Dayan, Uri

    This study examines the spatial distribution of potential recirculation over the East Mediterranean Sea, and the combined effect of synoptic and meso-scale recirculations on plume dispersion in the region. For this purpose, three case studies are performed by the RAMS-HYPACT modeling system, each for a different synoptic scale flow pattern. Both a quantitative measure of the recirculation potential at each grid cell and particle dispersion are calculated. Although the recirculation index is an Eulerian quantity for the wind field and plume dispersion is a manifestation of the Lagrangian behavior of the wind, good correlation is found between the two. Several locations are identified as having high recirculation potential, including southern Cyprus, the coasts of Israel and Lebanon, the eastern slopes of the Judean Mountains and the Haifa Bay in particular. In the latter location, high recirculation potential could be explained by strong interaction between the land-sea surfaces, curvature of the bay and proximity of the Carmel ridge. It is shown that the synoptic and meso-scale recirculations may, under certain conditions, act together and at the same time in determining particle distribution. Under weak synoptic scale flows, particles are recirculated over the entire East Mediterranean Sea basin, returning onshore after a period of 2-3 days to join freshly emitted particles. At the same time, near-shore land-sea breeze effects cause particles to recirculate on smaller time scales of less then one day, sometimes passing as much as three times over the same airshed. A single elevated emission source is shown to have the potential to impair air quality at a coastal strip as long as 100-200 km upon returning onshore.

  2. Floating-Zone Growth and Characterization of Large High Quality Single Crystals of Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2Ox and Control of Oxygen Stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guptasarma, P.; Hinks, D. G.

    1997-03-01

    High quality single crystals of Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2Ox (BSCCO) of sizes upto 8mm x 4mm x 0.2mm were grown from a travelling solvent floating melt-zone (TSFZ) without crucible contact. Polycrystalline rods were consecutively passed twice at growth-rates of 10mm/hr and 0.15-0.25 mm/hr respectively through a mirror-focussed image of two infra-red lamps. Flowing a high-purity mixture of 20% O2 in Ar instead of static air during growth yielded crystals with high as-grown Tc (92 K; ΔT_c<=1K). Oxygen content x of the crystals was varied by annealing in thermodynamically controlled P(O_2) until equilibrium was reached, as evidenced by a sharp superconducting transition.

  3. Large-aperture fast multilevel Fresnel zone lenses in glass and ultrathin polymer films for visible and near-infrared imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Britten, Jerald A; Dixit, Shamusundar N; DeBruyckere, Michael; Steadfast, Daniel; Hackett, James; Farmer, Brandon; Poe, Garrett; Patrick, Brian; Atcheson, Paul D; Domber, Jeanette L; Seltzer, Aaron

    2014-04-10

    The ability to fabricate 4-level diffractive structures with 1 µm critical dimensions has been demonstrated for the creation of fast (∼f/3.1 at 633 nm) Fresnel zone lenses (FZLs) with >60% diffraction efficiency into the -1 focusing order and nearly complete suppression of 0 and +1 orders. This is done using tooling capable of producing optics with 800 mm apertures. A 4-level grating fabricated in glass at 300 mm aperture is shown to have <15  nm rms holographic phase error. Glass FZLs have also been used as mandrels for casting zero-thermal-expansion, 20 µm thick polymer films created with the 4-level structure as a route to mass replication of efficient diffractive membranes for ultralight segmented space-based telescope applications. PMID:24787399

  4. Numerical investigation of the influence of EM-fields on fluid motion and resistivity distribution during floating-zone growth of large silicon single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raming, G.; Muižnieks, A.; Mühlbauer, A.

    2001-08-01

    The floating-zone-process with needle-eye inductor is a complex process with many coupled parameters that have nonlinear influence on the process stability and resistivity distribution in the silicon single crystal. To fulfill the requirements of semiconductor industry for tighter specification of resistivity distribution, additional means like magnetic fields can be used to reach a more homogeneous resistivity distribution without disturbing process stability. The current paper analyses the influence of static and alternating fields on the fluid motion and macroscopic and microscopic resistivity profile by means of numerical calculations. It is found that with a lower frequency of the HF-inductor current and with an additional AC-field the radial resistivity profile can be made more homogeneous. Rotating magnetic fields give only a slightly more homogeneous resistivity profile. DC-fields do not change the radial resistivity distribution qualitatively, but suppress all flow oscillations and therefore axial microscopic resistivity variations.

  5. Evaluation of the impact of nitrate-nitrogen levels in recirculating aquaculture systems on concentrations of the off-flavor compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in water and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic animals raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can develop preharvest “off-flavors” such as “earthy” or “musty” which are caused by the bioaccumulation of the odorous compounds geosmin or 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively, in their flesh. Tainted aquatic products cause large...

  6. Evidence for baroclinic instability in the Gulf Stream recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Nelson G.

    Long term current measurements from Polymode Array 2 are analyzed using the technique of empirical orthogonal functions applied in the frequency domain. The region of especially good instrument coverage and clearest decomposition into empirical modes is also in the Gulf Stream recirculation (∼ 36°N 55°W). On theoretical grounds, this is expected to be an area actively unstable to baroclinic disturbances ( GILL, GREEN and SIMMONS, 1974). Both the horizontal and vertical structure of motions with periods ranging from 10 to 120 days are studied. Spectra reveal that kinetic energy is peaked at 30 day periods with a weaker peak at 12 days. The most energetic empirical mode accounts for about 50% of the measured energy although somewhat less than this at higher subinertial frequencies. Consistent with the theoretical calculations of Gill, Green and Simmons it is found that the zonal phase propagation is nearly independent of frequency and averages about 12 cm s -1 toward the west. The 30 and 12 day energy peaks correspond to wavenumbers (wavelengths) of -0.18 km -1 (350 km) and -.033 km -1 (190 km) respectively. These are almost identical to the predicted scales for secondary and primary growth rate maxima for baroclinically unstable disturbances to a zonal current which is horizontally uniform but whose strength decreases exponentially with depth. Energy in these motions increases toward the west at a rate which is statistically indistinguishable from zero but also from the predicted rate. The vertical structure of these motions is also qualitatively similar to the theoretical modes. Phase for velocity decreases with depth, whereas temperature phase increases leading to energy release concentrated in the thermocline near the steering level which is projected to be somewhere above the shallowest observational level (600 m). The 30 day wave is much less depth dependent in amplitude than the 12 day wave and is responsible for the intense deep eddy field observed in

  7. Homogeneous crystal-rich vs. zoned crystal-poor ignimbrites: how much strain accumulates in large magma reservoirs between a new magma recharge and eruption? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, C.; Bachmann, O.; Dufek, J.; Manga, M.

    2010-12-01

    Silicic volcanic fields often display two different types of deposits: (1) crystal-rich dacitic magmas that display a striking homogeneity at the hand-sample scale and (2 dominantly crystal-poor, rhyolitic magmas that commonly grade into more mafic and more crystal-rich magmas towards the end of the eruption. An well-documented example of this dichotomy is the Central San Juan Volcanic Field (Colorado, USA), where, from the 9 major ignimbrites erupted during the climactic stage (~28.6 to 26.9 Ma), 4 occur as zoned crystal-poor to crystal-rich units and the remaining 5 form crystal-rich homogeneous deposits (make sure you explain what zoned means). In this presentation, we discuss different thermal and mechanical processes that influence the homogeneity of magmas as they evolve in shallow reservoirs. For magma bodies that are able to convect, we discuss the effect of stirring and introduce a new metric for their homogeneity for time-dependent convection. We show that the strain accumulated during 5-10 convective overturns is necessary to homogenize a magma to the hand-sample scale. In contrast, crystal-rich magmas do not experience any/enough stirring as they reach a rigid mush state. For these magmas, we discuss the effect of latent heat buffering as an agent for homogenization of temperature and crystallinity near the solidus. In order to become eruptible again, a crystal mush requires a reactivation event usually, usually attributed to the injection of new, hotter magma. We show that the time required to reactivate a mush, in every relevant case, greatly exceeds the time required to accumulate 5-10 overturns for the part of the mush that is able to convect. This difference in time-scales explains why reactivated mushes are inherently homogenous when they erupt. On the other hand, dominantly crystal-poor magmas do not need to be reactivated. Their homogeneity is governed by the competition between the time between the introduction of heterogeneities (for example

  8. The evaluation of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer associated with airlifts in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airlifts in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide aeration, degasification, and water circulation. They allow the simplification of systems, and if designed properly, can reduce the capital costs and minimize operation and maintenance associated with alternative pumping systems. In order t...

  9. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

    2007-04-17

    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  10. Impact of recirculation on the East Greenland Current in Fram Strait: Results from moored current meter measurements between 1997 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.; Mauritzen, C.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Fahrbach, E.

    2014-10-01

    Transports of total volume and water masses obtained from a mooring array in the East Greenland Current (EGC) in Fram Strait are presented for the period 1997-2009. The array in the EGC was moved along isobaths from 79°N to 78°50‧N in 2002 to line up with moorings in the eastern Fram Strait. Analysis of the time series at the two latitudes shows that associated with the southward move, the annual mean volume transport of the EGC increased from 5.8±1.8 Sv to 8.7±2.5 Sv, mostly related with an increase in barotropic flow. This suggests a recirculation of close to 3 Sv at 78°50‧N as a consequence of the large-scale wind-driven cyclonic gyre in the Nordic Seas. In addition, the volume transport at 78°50‧N showed a clear seasonal cycle which was absent at 79°N. Estimates of the wind-driven Sverdrup transport at two different latitudes show that the difference in total volume transport and seasonality can largely be explained by the wind-stress curl. However, weak transport in 2003 was only partially related with weak Sverdrup transport and coincided also with anomalously weak northerly winds. The stronger recirculation at 78°50‧N has also consequences for the observed Atlantic Water: there is significantly more Atlantic derived water present at the southerly latitude. In addition, the warm anomaly in Fram Strait between 2005 and 2007 doubled the amount of Recirculated Atlantic Water temporarily. Finally, we estimate that close to 2.7 Sv, or 50%, of Atlantic derived water recirculates in Fram Strait.

  11. Laminar-to-turbulence and relaminarization zones detection by simulation of low Reynolds number turbulent blood flow in large stenosed arteries.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Reza; Ghalichi, Farzan; Hossainpour, Siamak; Ghasemzadeh, Kamran

    2016-08-12

    Laminar, turbulent, transitional, or combine areas of all three types of viscous flow can occur downstream of a stenosis depending upon the Reynolds number and constriction shape parameter. Neither laminar flow solver nor turbulent models for instance the k-ω (k-omega), k-ε (k-epsilon), RANS or LES are opportune for this type of flow. In the present study attention has been focused vigorously on the effect of the constriction in the flow field with a unique way. It means that the laminar solver was employed from entry up to the beginning of the turbulent shear flow. The turbulent model (k-ω SST Transitional Flows) was utilized from starting of turbulence to relaminarization zone while the laminar model was applied again with onset of the relaminarization district. Stenotic flows, with 50 and 75% cross-sectional area, were simulated at Reynolds numbers range from 500 to 2000 employing FLUENT (v6.3.17). The flow was considered to be steady, axisymmetric, and incompressible. Achieving results were reported as axial velocity, disturbance velocity, wall shear stress and the outcomes were compared with previously experimental and CFD computations. The analogy of axial velocity profiles shows that they are in acceptable compliance with the empirical data. As well as disturbance velocity and wall shear stresses anticipated by this new approach, part by part simulation, are reasonably valid with the acceptable experimental studies. PMID:27567769

  12. Design of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Widmer, A.M.; Carveth, C.J.; Keffler, J.W.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    We built a recirculating aquaria system with computerized temperature control to maintain static temperatures, increase temperatures 1 ??C/day, and maintain diel temperature fluctuations up to 10 ??C. A LabVIEW program compared the temperature recorded by thermocouples in fish tanks to a desired set temperature and then calculated the amount of hot or cold water to add to tanks to reach or maintain the desired temperature. Intellifaucet?? three-way mixing valves controlled temperature of the input water and ensured that all fish tanks had the same turnover rate. The system was analyzed over a period of 50 days and was fully functional for 96% of that time. Six different temperature treatments were run simultaneously in 18, 72 L fish tanks and temperatures stayed within 0.5 ??C of set temperature. We used the system to determine the upper temperature tolerance of fishes, but it could be used in aquaculture, ecological studies, or other aquatic work where temperature control is required. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recirculating 1-K-Pot for Pulse-Tube Cryostats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Christopher T.; Naylor, Bret J.; Prouve, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A paper describes a 1-K-pot that works with a commercial pulse tube cooler for astrophysics instrumentation testbeds that require temperatures <1.7 K. Pumped liquid helium-4 cryostats were commonly used to achieve this temperature. However, liquid helium-4 cryostats are being replaced with cryostats using pulse tube coolers. The closed-cycle 1K-pot system for the pulse tube cooler requires a heat exchanger on the pulse tube, a flow restriction, pump-out line, and pump system that recirculates helium-4. The heat exchanger precools and liquefies helium- 4 gas at the 2.5 to 3.5 K pulse tube cold head. This closed-cycle 1-K-pot system was designed to work with commercially available laboratory pulse tube coolers. It was built using common laboratory equipment such as stainless steel tubing and a mechanical pump. The system is self-contained and requires only common wall power to operate. The lift of 15 mW at 1.1 K and base temperature of 0.97 K are provided continuously. The system can be scaled to higher heat lifts of .30 to 50 mW if desired. Ground-based telescopes could use this innovation to improve the efficiency of existing cryo

  14. AMTEC recirculating test cell component testing and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, M. L.; Sievers, R. K.; O'Connor, D.; Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Alkali metal thermoelectric converter operation in a recirculating test cell (RTC), which requires a small electromagnetic pump (EM) and a high-temperature beta-double-prime alumina-solid-electrolyte (BASE)-to-metal seal, is discussed. The design of a pump and an active metal braze seal and the initial operation of a cell using these components are described. The pump delivered 0.25 cu cm/min against a 28-psia head. A braze seal system was selected after shear strength tests of Ta or Nb brazed to BASE by a variety of fillers including TiCuNi, TiNi, and TiNiCr. The TiCuNi filler was chosen for environment cell testing and showed no failure or observable degradation after short-term tests up to 1055 K. The pump and the Nb/TiCuNi/BASE seal were used in a test that demonstrated all the operational functions of the RTC for the first time. An increase in the radiation reduction factor at constant input power was observed, indicating that the condenser was being wet by sodium resulting in an increased reflectivity.

  15. Efficiency of an AMTEC recirculating test cell, experiments and projections

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, M.L.; O`Connor, D.; Williams, R.M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    The alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) is an electrochemical device for the direct conversion of heat to electrical energy with efficiencies potentially near Carnot. The future usefulness of AMTEC for space power conversion depends on the efficiency of the devices. Systems studies have projected from 15% to 35% thermal to electric conversion efficiencies, and one experiment has demonstrated 19% efficiency for a short period of time. Recent experiments in a recirculating test cell (RTC) have demonstrated sustained conversion efficiencies as high as 10.2% early in cell life and 9.7% after maturity. Extensive thermal and electrochemical analysis of the cell during several experiments demonstrated that the efficiency could be improved in two ways. First, the electrode performance could be improved. The electrode for these tests operated at about one third the power density of state of the art electrodes. The low power density was caused by a combination of high series resistance and high mass flow resistance. Reducing these resistances could improve the efficiency to greater than 10%. Second, the cell thermal performance could be improved. Efficiencies greater than 14% could be realized through reducing the radiative thermal loss. Further improvements to the efficiency range predicted by systems studies can be accomplished through the development and use of an advanced condenser with improved reflectivity, close to that of a smooth sodium film, and the series connecting of individual cells to further reduce thermal losses.

  16. Aircraft Recirculation Filter for Air-Quality and Incident Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Eckels, Steven J.; Jones, Byron; Mann, Garrett; Mohan, Krishnan R.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    The current research examines the possibility of using recirculation filters from aircraft to document the nature of air-quality incidents on aircraft. These filters are highly effective at collecting solid and liquid particulates. Identification of engine oil contaminants arriving through the bleed air system on the filter was chosen as the initial focus. A two-step study was undertaken. First, a compressor/bleed air simulator was developed to simulate an engine oil leak, and samples were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. These samples provided a concrete link between tricresyl phosphates and a homologous series of synthetic pentaerythritol esters from oil and contaminants found on the sample paper. The second step was to test 184 used aircraft filters with the same gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry system; of that total, 107 were standard filters, and 77 were nonstandard. Four of the standard filters had both markers for oil, with the homologous series synthetic pentaerythritol esters being the less common marker. It was also found that 90% of the filters had some detectable level of tricresyl phosphates. Of the 77 nonstandard filters, 30 had both markers for oil, a significantly higher percent than the standard filters. PMID:25641977

  17. Design of a High-Reynolds Number Recirculating Water Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Libin; Elbing, Brian

    2014-11-01

    An experimental fluid mechanics laboratory focused on turbulent boundary layers, drag reduction techniques, multiphase flows and fluid-structure interactions has recently been established at Oklahoma State University. This laboratory has three primary components; (1) a recirculating water tunnel, (2) a multiphase pipe flow loop, and (3) a multi-scale flow visualization system. The design of the water tunnel is the focus of this talk. The criteria used for the water tunnel design was that it had to produce a momentum-thickness based Reynolds number in excess of 104, negligible flow acceleration due to boundary layer growth, maximize optical access for use of the flow visualization system, and minimize inlet flow non-uniformity. This Reynolds number was targeted to bridge the gap between typical university/commercial water tunnels (103) and the world's largest water tunnel facilities (105) . These objectives were achieved with a 152 mm (6-inch) square test section that is 1 m long and has a maximum flow speed of 10 m/s. The flow non-uniformity was mitigated with the use of a tandem honeycomb configuration, a settling chamber and an 8.5:1 contraction. The design process that produced this final design will be presented along with its current status.

  18. Role of enterohepatic recirculation in drug disposition: cooperation and complications.

    PubMed

    Malik, Mohd Yaseen; Jaiswal, Swati; Sharma, Abhisheak; Shukla, Mahendra; Lal, Jawahar

    2016-05-01

    Enterohepatic recirculation (EHC) concerns many physiological processes and notably affects pharmacokinetic parameters such as plasma half-life and AUC as well as estimates of bioavailability of drugs. Also, EHC plays a detrimental role as the compounds/drugs are allowed to recycle. An in-depth comprehension of this phenomenon and its consequences on the pharmacological effects of affected drugs is important and decisive in the design and development of new candidate drugs. EHC of a compound/drug occurs by biliary excretion and intestinal reabsorption, sometimes with hepatic conjugation and intestinal deconjugation. EHC leads to prolonged elimination half-life of the drugs, altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Study of the EHC of any drug is complicated due to unavailability of the apposite model, sophisticated procedures and ethical concerns. Different in vitro and in vivo methods for studies in experimental animals and humans have been devised, each having its own merits and demerits. Involvement of the different transporters in biliary excretion, intra- and inter-species, pathological and biochemical variabilities obscure the study of the phenomenon. Modeling of drugs undergoing EHC has always been intricate and exigent models have been exploited to interpret the pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs witnessing multiple peaks due to EHC. Here, we critically appraise the mechanisms of bile formation, factors affecting biliary drug elimination, methods to estimate biliary excretion of drugs, EHC, multiple peak phenomenon and its modeling. PMID:26987379

  19. In situ treatment of VOCs by recirculation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Webb, O.F.; Ally, M.R.; Sanford, W.E.; Kearl, P.M.; Zutman, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    The project described herein was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify processes and technologies developed in Germany that appeared to have near-term potential for enhancing the cleanup of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soil and groundwater at DOE sites. Members of the ORNL research team identified and evaluated selected German technologies developed at or in association with the University of Karlsruhe (UoK) for in situ treatment of VOC contaminated soils and groundwater. Project activities included contacts with researchers within three departments of the UoK (i.e., Applied Geology, Hydromechanics, and Soil and Foundation Engineering) during fall 1991 and subsequent visits to UoK and private industry collaborators during February 1992. Subsequent analyses consisted of engineering computations, groundwater flow modeling, and treatment process modeling. As a result of these project efforts, two processes were identified as having near-term potential for DOE: (1) the vacuum vaporizer well/groundwater recirculation well and (2) the porous pipe/horizontal well. This document was prepared to summarize the methods and results of the assessment activities completed during the initial year of the project. The project is still ongoing, so not all facets of the effort are completely described in this document. Recommendations for laboratory and field experiments are provided.

  20. Picosecond Pulse Recirculation for High Average Brightness Thomson Scattering-based Gamma-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, V

    2009-05-28

    Pulse recirculation has been successfully demonstrated with the interaction laser system of LLNL's Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-ray (T-REX) source. The recirculation increased twenty-eight times the intensity of the light coming out of the laser system, demonstrating the capability of increasing the gamma-ray flux emitted by T-REX. The technical approach demonstrated could conceivably increase the average gamma-ray flux output by up to a hundred times.

  1. Control of biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using treated secondary effluent as makeup water with monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Chowdhury, Indranil; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2012-12-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater, an abundant and widely distributed impaired water source, is a promising alternative water source for thermoelectric power plant cooling. However, excessive biological growth is a major challenge associated with wastewater reuse in cooling systems as it can interfere with normal system operation as well as enhance corrosion and scaling problems. Furthermore, possible emission of biological aerosols (e.g., Legionella pneumophila) with the cooling tower drift can lead to public health concerns within the zone of aerosol deposition. In this study, the effectiveness of pre-formed and in-situ-formed monochloramine was evaluated for its ability to control biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater as the only makeup water source. Bench-scale studies were compared with pilot-scale studies for their ability to predict system behavior under realistic process conditions. Effectiveness of the continuous addition of pre-formed monochloramine and monochloramine formed in-situ through the reaction of free chlorine with ammonia in the incoming water was evaluated in terms of biocide residual and its ability to control both planktonic and sessile microbial populations. Results revealed that monochloramine can effectively control biofouling in cooling systems employing secondary-treated municipal wastewater and has advantages relative to use of free chlorine, but that bench-scale studies seriously underestimate biocide dose and residual requirements for proper control of biological growth in full-scale systems. Pre-formed monochloramine offered longer residence time and more reliable performance than in-situ-formed monochloramine due to highly variable ammonia concentration in the recirculating water caused by ammonia stripping in the cooling tower. Pilot-scale tests revealed that much lower dosing rate was required to maintain similar total chlorine residual when pre-formed monochloramine

  2. Anolyte recirculation effects in buffered and unbuffered single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Xun; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Li, Jun; Ye, Ding-ding; Liao, Qiang; Regan, John M

    2015-03-01

    Two identical microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with a floating air-cathode were operated under either buffered (MFC-B) or bufferless (MFC-BL) conditions to investigate anolyte recirculation effects on enhancing proton transfer. With an external resistance of 50 Ω and recirculation rate of 1.0 ml/min, MFC-BL had a 27% lower voltage (9.7% lower maximal power density) but a 64% higher Coulombic efficiency (CE) than MFC-B. MFC-B had a decreased voltage output, batch time, and CE with increasing recirculation rate resulting from more oxygen transfer into the anode. However, increasing the recirculation rate within a low range significantly enhanced proton transfer in MFC-BL, resulting in a higher voltage output, a longer batch time, and a higher CE. A further increase in recirculation rate decreased the batch time and CE of MFC-BL due to excess oxygen transfer into anode outweighing the proton-transfer benefits. The unbuffered MFC had an optimal recirculation rate of 0.35 ml/min. PMID:25514399

  3. Large Pore Ion and Metabolite-Permeable Channel Regulation of Postnatal Ventricular Zone Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells: Interplay between Aquaporins, Connexins, and Pannexins?

    PubMed Central

    Wicki-Stordeur, Leigh E.; Swayne, Leigh Anne

    2012-01-01

    The birth of new neurons from unspecialized neural stem and progenitor cells surrounding the lateral ventricles occurs throughout postnatal life. This process, termed neurogenesis, is complex and multistepped, encompassing several types of cellular behaviours, such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. These behaviours are influenced by numerous factors present in the unique, permissive microenvironment. A major cellular mechanism for sensing the plethora of environmental cues directing this process is the presence of different channel forming proteins spanning the plasma membrane. So-called large pore membrane channels, which are selective for the passage of specific types of small molecules and ions, are emerging as an important subgroup of channel proteins. Here, we focus on the roles of three such large pore channels, aquaporin 4, connexin 43, and pannexin 1. We highlight both their independent functions as well as the accumulating evidence for crosstalk between them. PMID:22754577

  4. Mono-fermentation of chicken manure: ammonia inhibition and recirculation of the digestate.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hong; Jacobi, H Fabian; Strach, Katrin; Xu, Chunming; Zhou, Hongjun; Liebetrau, Jan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of ammonia concentration on the performance and stability of mono-fermentation of chicken manure were investigated in a lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactor at 40 °C. Technical stripping was performed to remove ammonia from the liquid fraction of digestate, and the entire product was recycled to the fermenter to control ammonia concentration in the fermenter. Organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.3 gVS/(L d) was achieved with an average free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) concentration of 0.77 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.39 L/gVS. When OLR was increased to 6.0 gVS/(L d), stable operation could be obtained with an average FAN concentration of 0.86 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.27 L/gVS. Mono-fermentation of chicken manure was successfully carried out at high ammonia concentrations. Controlled recirculation of treated liquid fraction of digestate could be a solution in large-scale application for both: to avoid ammonia inhibition and minimize digestate. PMID:25266688

  5. Temporal and Spatial Pore Water Pressure Distribution Surrounding a Vertical Landfill Leachate Recirculation Well

    PubMed Central

    Kadambala, Ravi; Townsend, Timothy G.; Jain, Pradeep; Singh, Karamjit

    2011-01-01

    Addition of liquids into landfilled waste can result in an increase in pore water pressure, and this in turn may increase concerns with respect to geotechnical stability of the landfilled waste mass. While the impact of vertical well leachate recirculation on landfill pore water pressures has been mathematically modeled, measurements of these systems in operating landfills have not been reported. Pressure readings from vibrating wire piezometers placed in the waste surrounding a liquids addition well at a full-scale operating landfill in Florida were recorded over a 2-year period. Prior to the addition of liquids, measured pore pressures were found to increase with landfill depth, an indication of gas pressure increase and decreasing waste permeability with depth. When liquid addition commenced, piezometers located closer to either the leachate injection well or the landfill surface responded more rapidly to leachate addition relative to those far from the well and those at deeper locations. After liquid addition stopped, measured pore pressures did not immediately drop, but slowly decreased with time. Despite the large pressures present at the bottom of the liquid addition well, much smaller pressures were measured in the surrounding waste. The spatial variation of the pressures recorded in this study suggests that waste permeability is anisotropic and decreases with depth. PMID:21655145

  6. Temporal and spatial pore water pressure distribution surrounding a vertical landfill leachate recirculation well.

    PubMed

    Kadambala, Ravi; Townsend, Timothy G; Jain, Pradeep; Singh, Karamjit

    2011-05-01

    Addition of liquids into landfilled waste can result in an increase in pore water pressure, and this in turn may increase concerns with respect to geotechnical stability of the landfilled waste mass. While the impact of vertical well leachate recirculation on landfill pore water pressures has been mathematically modeled, measurements of these systems in operating landfills have not been reported. Pressure readings from vibrating wire piezometers placed in the waste surrounding a liquids addition well at a full-scale operating landfill in Florida were recorded over a 2-year period. Prior to the addition of liquids, measured pore pressures were found to increase with landfill depth, an indication of gas pressure increase and decreasing waste permeability with depth. When liquid addition commenced, piezometers located closer to either the leachate injection well or the landfill surface responded more rapidly to leachate addition relative to those far from the well and those at deeper locations. After liquid addition stopped, measured pore pressures did not immediately drop, but slowly decreased with time. Despite the large pressures present at the bottom of the liquid addition well, much smaller pressures were measured in the surrounding waste. The spatial variation of the pressures recorded in this study suggests that waste permeability is anisotropic and decreases with depth. PMID:21655145

  7. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bruno; Russell L. Detwiler; Kang Lao; Vahid Serajian; Jean Elkhoury; Julia Diessl; Nicky White

    2012-09-30

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  8. Consequences of bounds on longitudinal emittance growth for the design of recirculating linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J. S.

    2015-05-03

    Recirculating linear accelerators (RLAs) are a cost-effective method for the acceleration of muons for a muon collider in energy ranges from a couple GeV to a few 10s of GeV. Muon beams generally have longitudinal emittances that are large for the RF frequency that is used, and it is important to limit the growth of that longitudinal emittance. This has particular consequences for the arc design of the RLAs. I estimate the longitudinal emittance growth in an RLA arising from the RF nonlinearity. Given an emittance growth limitation and other design parameters, one can then compute the maximum momentum compaction in the arcs. I describe how to obtain an approximate arc design satisfying these requirements based on the deisgn in [1]. Longitudinal dynamics also determine the energy spread in the beam, and this has consequences on the transverse phase advance in the linac. This in turn has consequences for the arc design due to the need to match beta functions. I combine these considerations to discuss design parameters for the acceleration of muons for a collider in an RLA from 5 to 63 GeV.

  9. 13.4km OAM state propagation by recirculating fiber loop.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Patrick; Kristensen, Poul; Ramachandran, Siddharth

    2016-08-22

    Enabled by an enhanced effective index separation (Δneff = 1.7 × 10-4) and low transmission loss (0.8dB/km), OAM states are propagated over 13.4km in an air core fiber using a recirculating fiber loop. We observe that intermodal crosstalk decreases rapidly with increasing effective index separation, Δneff, and an order of magnitude lower crosstalk may be achieved just by doubling Δneff. We find that, in agreement with coupled power theory, our fiber has mode coupling properties analogous to elliptical core PM fibers, which yield ~10 × or more lower crosstalk than for conventional LP fiber mode orders with the same Δneff. This confirms that, for OAM modes, birefringent perturbations rather than shape perturbations matter most. In the process of performing the loop experiment, we demonstrate that OAM states in these fibers can be preserved with low loss (≤ 0.2dB) and low crosstalk (-15dB) while splicing distinct segments of the air-core fiber. For well-designed fibers, we demonstrate that OAM modes can travel distances relevant for large-scale data centers. PMID:27557175

  10. Effectiveness of Low Emission Zones: Large Scale Analysis of Changes in Environmental NO2, NO and NOx Concentrations in 17 German Cities

    PubMed Central

    Morfeld, Peter; Groneberg, David A.; Spallek, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low Emission Zones (LEZs) are areas where the most polluting vehicles are restricted from entering. The effectiveness of LEZs to lower ambient exposures is under debate. This study focused on LEZs that restricted cars of Euro 1 standard without appropriate retrofitting systems from entering and estimated LEZ effects on NO2, NO, and NOx ( = NO2+NO). Methods Continuous half-hour and diffuse sampler 4-week average NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations measured inside and outside LEZs in 17 German cities of 6 federal states (2005–2009) were analysed as matched quadruplets (two pairs of simultaneously measured index values inside LEZ and reference values outside LEZ, one pair measured before and one after introducing LEZs with time differences that equal multiples of 364 days) by multiple linear and log-linear fixed-effects regression modelling (covariables: e.g., wind velocity, amount of precipitation, height of inversion base, school holidays, truck-free periods). Additionally, the continuous half-hour data was collapsed into 4-week averages and pooled with the diffuse sampler data to perform joint analysis. Results More than 3,000,000 quadruplets of continuous measurements (half-hour averages) were identified at 38 index and 45 reference stations. Pooling with diffuse sampler data from 15 index and 10 reference stations lead to more than 4,000 quadruplets for joint analyses of 4-week averages. Mean LEZ effects on NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations (reductions) were estimated to be at most −2 µg/m3 (or −4%). The 4-week averages of NO2 concentrations at index stations after LEZ introduction were 55 µg/m3 (median and mean values) or 82 µg/m3 (95th percentile). Conclusions This is the first study investigating comprehensively the effectiveness of LEZs to reduce NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations controlling for most relevant potential confounders. Our analyses indicate that there is a statistically significant, but rather small reduction of NO2, NO, and NOx

  11. Influence of natural heterogeneity on the efficiency of chemical floods in source zones.

    PubMed

    Ibaraki, M; Schwartz, F W

    2001-01-01

    Several technologies for cleaning up DNAPLs in source zones rely on solubilizing contaminants or destroying them in situ. Typically, these approaches employ an injection/withdrawal system to recirculate this treatment fluids. Our interest is in examining factors that influence delivery efficiency. Although many factors can affect this efficiency, this study looks at the combined influence of density-driven flow and porous media heterogeneities. The analysis is based on a series of numerical simulations of hypothetical chemical floods (e.g., potassium permanganate), which are highly resolved in space and time with a scale that is typical of field installations. Results indicate that the characteristics of convective mixing, i.e., natural, forced, and mixed convection, greatly affect delivery efficiency and patterns of mass transport. The ratio of the Grashof number (Gr) and Reynolds number (Re) proved useful in interpreting the patterns of flooding in a homogeneous porous medium. When higher-permeability layers are included in the domain, they act as conduits, effectively expediting the transport of treatment chemicals from injection to recovery wells. These large fluxes of chemicals in the high-permeability layers produce significant flooding inefficiencies. The problem is less severe in heterogeneous medium where the connectivity through the treatment zone is less well developed. Overall, this paper illustrates that density effects and high-permeability pathways need to be considered in designing chemical floods. PMID:11554243

  12. Photobacterium aquae sp. nov., isolated from a recirculating mariculture system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Song, Lei; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Qi, Fang-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2014-02-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, heterotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated AE6(T), was isolated from a grouper (Epinephelus malabaricas) culture tank in a recirculating mariculture system located in Tianjin, China. Strain AE6(T) was able to grow at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 5.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0.5-7% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3%). It contained Q-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) as the major polar lipids and C(16 : 1)ω7c/C(16 : 1)ω6c (40.4%), C(18 : 1)ω7c (15.5%) and C(16 : 0) (13.5%) as the predominant cellular fatty acids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 47.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain AE6(T) belonged to the genus Photobacterium (94.2-96.8% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the genus and exhibited the highest sequence similarity to Photobacterium aphoticum CECT 7614(T) (96.8%). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using four loci (gyrB, rpoA, pyrH and recA) also revealed that strain AE6(T) was phylogenetically related to the genus Photobacterium. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic evidence, strain AE6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Photobacterium, for which the name Photobacterium aquae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AE6(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12159(T) = JCM 18480(T)). PMID:24096359

  13. Progress toward a prototype recirculating ion induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cable, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    The U.S. Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Program is developing the physics and technology of ion induction accelerators, with the goal of electric power production by means of heavy ion beam-driven inertial fusion (commonly called heavy ion fusion, or HIF). Such accelerators are the principal candidates for inertial fusion power production applications, because they are expected to enjoy high efficiency, inherently high pulse repetition frequency (power plants are expected to inject and burn several fusion targets per second), and high reliability. In addition (and in contrast with laser beams, which are focused with optical lenses) heavy-ion beams will be focused onto the target by magnetic fields, which cannot be damaged by target explosions. Laser beams are used in present-day and planned near-term facilities (such as LLNUs Nova and the National Ignition Facility, which is being designed) because they can focus beams onto very small, intensely illuminated spots for scaled experiments and because the laser technology is already available. An induction accelerator works by passing the beam through a series of accelerating modules, each of which applies an electromotive force to the beam as it goes by; effectively, the beam acts as the secondary winding of a series of efficient one-turn transformers. The authors present plans for and progress toward the development of a small (4.5-m-diam) prototype recirculator, which will accelerate singly charged potassium ions through 15 laps, increasing the ion energy from 80 to 320 keV and the beam current from 2 to 8 mA. Beam confinement and bending are effected with permanent-magnet quadrupoles and electric dipoles, respectively. The design is based on scaling laws and on extensive particle and fluid simulations of the behavior of the space charge-dominated beam.

  14. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  15. Large and high-quality single-crystal growth of cuprate superconductor Bi-2223 using the traveling-solvent floating-zone (TSFZ) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Shintaro; Usui, Tomohiro; Kosugi, Kenta; Sasaki, Nae; Sato, Kentaro; Fujita, Masaki; Yamada, Kazuyoshi; Fujii, Takenori; Watanabe, Takao

    In high superconducting transition temperature (high-Tc) cuprates, it is empirically known that Tc increases on increasing the number of CuO2 planes in a unit cell n from 1 to 3. Bi-family cuprates are ideal for investigating the microscopic mechanism involved. However, it is difficult to grow tri-layered Bi-2223, probably owing to its narrow crystallization field. Here, we report improved crystal growth of this compound using the TSFZ method under conditions slightly different from those in an earlier report [J. Cryst. Growth 223, 175 (2001)]. A Bi-rich feed-rod composition of Bi2.2Sr1.9Ca2Cu3Oy and a slightly oxygen-reduced atmosphere (mixed gas flow of O2 (10%) and Ar (90%)) were adopted for the crystal growth. In addition, to increase the supersaturation of the melts, we applied a large temperature gradient along the solid-liquid interface by shielding a high-angle light beam using Al foil around the quartz tube. In this way, we succeeded in preparing large (2 × 2 × 0 . 05 mm3) and high-quality (almost 100% pure) Bi-2223 single crystals. Hirosaki University Grant for Exploratory Research by Young Scientists and Newly-appointed Scientists.

  16. Kink zone localization, structurally-controlled instability, and large-scale rock slope failure at the Mt. Gorsa porphyry quarry (Trentino, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.; Meloni, F.; Valle, C.; Rivolta, C.; Leva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Rock slope failure is controlled by rock mass strength and anisotropy, and by slope-scale persistent fractures with different spacing, eventually resulting in complex mechanisms as large-scale flexural toppling, block toppling, and kink band slumping. Despite these mechanisms have been studied, their interplay in large rock slope failure is often difficult to ascertain in complex geological settings. We studied the 250 m high porphyry quarry slopes of Mt. Gorsa (Trentino, Italy). Two slopes facing to N and E are carved in Permian rhyolithic ignimbrites, providing spectacular exposures of the inherited geological structure. Despite the strong intact rock, rock mass has a complex structure due to the occurrence of thermal cooling joints, persistent tectonic fractures, and joint sets. Evidence of ongoing displacement of the northern quarry face in 2003 motivated geotechnical and geophysical site investigation, and the initiation of displacement monitoring activities. GB-InSAR measurements using a LiSALab system captured large-scale slope dilation involving 400.000 m3. Further GB-InSAR measurements have been carried out since 2010. In order to understand the mechanisms governing large-scale deformation and failure of the northern slope, we carried out a comprehensive field and modelling study exploiting terrestrial photo mapping, field structural analysis and discontinuity surveys at different locations. On the northern face, 190 Geological Strength Index (GSI) surveys along benches, DEM structural analysis (COLTOP3D), and analysis of GB-InSAR data were carried out, and relationships among rock mass quality, 2003 landslide extent, and measured displacements established. Data show that slope instability is locally constrained by close and persistent cooling joints steeply dipping to the south (K1), persistent fault surfaces moderately dipping to the NNW (K2), and joint sets steeply dipping to NE and WNW (K3 and K4). NNW-dipping, top-to-N kink bands up to 2m wide also

  17. Formation and erosion of the seasonal thermocline in the Kuroshio Extension Recirculation Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Meghan F.; Bond, Nicholas A.; Thomas Farrar, J.; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Jayne, Steven R.; Kawai, Yoshimi; Konda, Masanori; Qiu, Bo; Rainville, Luc; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO) surface mooring are used to analyze the balance of processes affecting the upper ocean heat content and surface mixed layer temperature variations in the Recirculation Gyre (RG) south of the Kuroshio Extension (KE). Cold and dry air blowing across the KE and its warm RG during winter cause very large heat fluxes out of the ocean that result in the erosion of the seasonal thermocline in the RG. Some of this heat is replenished through horizontal heat advection, which may enable the seasonal thermocline to begin restratifying while the net surface heat flux is still acting to cool the upper ocean. Once the surface heat flux begins warming the ocean, restratification occurs rapidly due to the low thermal inertia of the shallow mixed layer depth. Enhanced diffusive mixing below the mixed layer tends to transfer some of the mixed layer heat downward, eroding and potentially modifying sequestered subtropical mode water and even the deeper waters of the main thermocline during winter. Diffusivity at the base of the mixed layer, estimated from the residual of the mixed layer temperature balance, is roughly 3×10-4 m2/s during the summer and up to two orders of magnitude larger during winter. The enhanced diffusivities appear to be due to large inertial shear generated by wind events associated with winter storms and summer tropical cyclones. The diffusivity's seasonality is likely due to seasonal variations in stratification just below the mixed layer depth, which is large during the summer when the seasonal thermocline is fully developed and low during the winter when the mixed layer extends to the top of the thermocline.

  18. Resolving the Effects of Aperture and Volume Restriction of the Flow by Semi-Porous Barriers Using Large-Eddy Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Velissariou, Vasilia; Bohrer, Gil

    2014-09-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS)-based Forest Large-Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) model is used to simulate the effects of large rectangular prism-shaped semi-porous barriers of varying densities under neutrally buoyant conditions. RAFLES model resolves flows inside and above forested canopies and other semi-porous barriers, and it accounts for barrier-induced drag on the flow and surface flux exchange between the barrier and the air. Unlike most other models, RAFLES model also accounts for the barrier-induced volume and aperture restriction via a modified version of the cut-cell coordinate system. We explicitly tested the effects of the numerical representation of volume restriction, independent of the effects of the drag, by comparing drag-only simulations (where we prescribed neither volume nor aperture restrictions to the flow), restriction-only simulations (where we prescribed no drag), and control simulations where both drag and volume plus aperture restrictions were included. Previous modelling and empirical work have revealed the development of important areas of increased uplift upwind of forward-facing steps, and recirculation zones downwind of backward-facing steps. Our simulations show that representation of the effects of the volume and aperture restriction due to the presence of semi-porous barriers leads to differences in the strengths and locations of increased-updraft and recirculation zones, and the length and strength of impact and adjustment zones when compared to simulation solutions with a drag-only representation. These are mostly driven by differences to the momentum budget of the streamwise wind velocity by resolved turbulence and pressure gradient fields around the front and back edges of the barrier. We propose that volume plus aperture restriction is an important component of the flow system in semi-porous environments such as forests and cities and should be considered by large-eddy simulation (LES).

  19. The PM2.5 chemical composition in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement: main sources and local background.

    PubMed

    Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Visin, Flavia; Canal, Andrea; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    Chemical analyses, receptor modeling and meteorological data were combined to determine the composition and sources of PM2.5 sampled daily in a large area in Italy characterized by a high number of heterogeneous industrial emissions and contiguous to a major urban center. The PM2.5 local background in the area, i.e. the common basic composition and concentrations of PM2.5, was determined. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression analysis (FA-MLRA) was used to identify and quantify the main PM sources. Groups of samples with similar source contributions were then sorted using cluster analysis. The potential source location and the influence of long range transport were investigated by using the conditional probability function (CPF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) respectively. On an annual basis, five sources of PM were found relevant. Industrial emissions accounted for 3% of PM mass, whereas the main contribution to PM was related to a combination of ammonium nitrate, combustion (54%) and road traffic (36%), mainly related to urban emissions. The PM2.5 background was estimated to account for 20 μg m(-3). It comprises contributions of 55% ammonium nitrate and combustion, 46% road traffic, 6% fossil fuel combustion and 3% industrial emissions. Source contributions are influenced by both local atmospheric circulation and regional transport. PMID:24912903

  20. Dynamics of the large-scale open solar magnetic field and its specific features in the zone of the main active longitudes in 2006-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, K. G.; Kharshiladze, A. F.

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of the absolute global values (Φ) of the large-scale open solar magnetic field (LOSMF) fluxes at an interval of one solar rotation in 2006-2012 has been studied based on the Wilcox Solar Observatory data and using the ISOPAK original package for modeling the solar magnetic field. The reference points and the duration of the final quasi-biennial interval in cycle 23 (January 2006-May 2007; 17 months) and the phases of the cycle 24 minimum (May 2007-November 2009; 30 months), growth (November 2009-May 2012; 30 months), and the beginning of the maximum (May 2012-January 2013) have been determined. It has been indicated that the absolute values (Φ) decreased sharply at the beginning of the minimum, growth, and the maximum phases to ˜(2, 1.25, 0.75) × 1022 Mx, respectively. During the entire minimum phase, LOSMF corotated super-quasi-rigidly westward in the direction of solar rotation; at the beginning of the growth phase, this field started corotating mostly eastward. The LOSMF polarity reversal in the current cycle 24 started in May-June 2012 (CR 2123-2124), when fields of southern polarity rushed from the Sun's southern hemisphere toward the north. The statement that the solar cycle is a continuous series of quasi-biennial LOSMF intervals is confirmed. In particular, the minimum and growth phases are characterized by opposite LOSMF rotation directions, i.e., super-quasi-rigid corotation (twisting) and detwisting, with identical duration at least in cycle 24.

  1. Validation of enhanced stabilization of municipal solid waste under controlled leachate recirculation using FTIR and XRD.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sapna; Kothiyal, N C; Nema, Arvind K

    2012-07-01

    Leachate recirculation at neutral PH accompanied with buffer/nutrients addition has been used successfully in earlier stabilization of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills. In the present study, efforts were made to enhance the stabilization rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) and organic solid waste (OSW) in simulated landfill bioreactors by controlling the pH of recirculated leachate towards slightly alkaline side in absence of additional buffer and nutrients addition. Enhanced stabilization in waste samples was monitored with the help of analytical tools like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Predominance of bands assigned to inorganic compounds and comparatively lower intensities of bands for organic compounds in the FTIR spectra of waste samples degraded with leachate recirculation under controlled pH confirmed higher rate of biodegradation and mineralization of waste than the samples degraded without controlled leachate recirculation. XRD spectra also confirmed to a greater extent of mineralization in the waste samples degraded under leachate recirculation with controlled pH. Comparison of XRD spectra of two types of wastes pointed out higher degree of mineralization in organic solid waste as compared to municipal solid waste. PMID:24749191

  2. Low NOx Combustion of DME by Means of Flue Gas Recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Ozawa, Mamoru; Terada, Shinya; Iio, Takenori

    This study focuses on the fundamental characteristics of DME (Dimethyl Ether) combustion aiming at development of low-NOx combustion technology with flue gas recirculation, FGR. The flue gas is recirculated into the combustion chamber to reduce the oxygen concentration and to suppress the combustion gas temperature, so that NOx emission is significantly reduced. The fuel gas recirculation at high mixing ratio, however, may lead to unstable combustion of conventional fuels, methane or city gas. On the other hand, DME has very high potential of applicability for the flue gas recirculation even at high mixing ratio because of its high burning velocity and low ignition temperature. Combustion tests were conducted with laboratory-scale 11kW combustor. The maximum FGR ratio is 85% at the initial air ratio of 1.5 with preheated diluted air about 600K. The NOx emission reduced to 13ppm at 0%-O2, which corresponds to about 9% of NOx emission at FGR=0%. The stable combustion is sustained even in the low oxygen concentration by preheating diluted-air up to near the auto-ignition temperature of DME. Finally, the effect of the flue gas recirculation on the NOx and CO emission is discussed with reference to the industrial-scale water-tube boilers.

  3. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a recirculating control loop which had no water quality maintenance. Results show that periodic water maintenance can improve performance of the SWME. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage of this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to enhance the robustness of the SWME through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A patented bed design that was developed for a United Technologies Aerospace System military application provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in the SWME recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for the ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  4. Ornithinimicrobium tianjinense sp. nov., isolated from a recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang-Zi; Liu, Ying; Chen, Zhu; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-positive, strictly aerobic and heterotrophic, non-spore-forming actinobacterium (strain B2(T)) isolated from a recirculating aquaculture system was studied for its taxonomic position. Strain B2(T) formed a rudimentary substrate-mycelium that fragmented into short rod-shaped to coccoid cells (0.5 µm×0.5-2.2 µm or 0.5-1.0 µm in diameter). Colonies were yellow, smooth, circular and 1.5-2.0 mm in diameter after incubation on TSA for 3 days at 30 °C. Strain B2(T) grew at 20-40 °C (optimal, 30 °C) and pH 5.5-9.5 (optimal, 6.5-7.0) and in the presence of 0-9% (w/v) NaCl (optimal, 1%). The predominant menaquinone of strain B2(T) was MK-8(H4). The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain B2(T) contained the amino acids ornithine, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine and aspartic acid. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and summed feature 9. Its DNA G+C content was 68.3 mol% (Tm). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain B2(T) was related phylogenetically to members of the genus Ornithinimicrobium with highest similarity (96.6 %) to Ornithinimicrobium kibberense DSM 17687(T), followed by Ornithinimicrobium humiphilum DSM 12362(T) (96.3 %), Ornithinimicrobium pekingense LW6(T) (96.2%) and Ornithinimicrobium murale 01-Gi-040(T) (94.8%). On basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strain B2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Ornithinimicrobium, for which the name Ornithinimicrobium tianjinense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B2(T) ( =CGMCC 1.12160(T) =JCM 18464(T)). PMID:23907216

  5. Noscapine recirculates enterohepatically and induces self-clearance.

    PubMed

    Mukkavilli, Rao; Gundala, Sushma R; Yang, Chunhua; Jadhav, Gajanan R; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-09-18

    Noscapine (Nos), an antitussive benzylisoquinoline opium alkaloid, is a non-toxic tubulin-binding agent currently in Phase II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. While preclinical studies have established its tumor-inhibitory properties in various cancers, poor absorptivity and rapid first-pass metabolism producing several uncharacterized metabolites for efficacy, present an impediment in translating its efficacy in humans. Here we report novel formulations of Nos in combination with dietary agents like capsaicin (Cap), piperine (Pip), eugenol (Eu) and curcumin (Cur) known for modulating Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes. In vivo pharmacokinetic (PK), organ toxicity evaluation of combinations, microsomal stability and in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition effects of Nos, Cap and Pip using human liver microsomes were performed. Single-dose PK screening of combinations revealed that the relative exposure of Nos (2 μg h/mL) was enhanced by 2-fold (4 μg h/mL) by Cap and Pip and their plasma concentration-time profiles showed multiple peaking phenomena for Nos indicating enterohepatic recirculation or differential absorption from intestine. CYP inhibition studies confirmed that Nos, Cap and Pip are not potent CYP inhibitors (IC50>1 μM). Repeated oral dosing of Nos, Nos+Cap and Nos+Pip showed lower exposure (Cmax and AUClast) of Nos on day 7 compared to day 1. Nos Cmax decreased from 3087 ng/mL to 684 ng/mL and AUClast from 1024 ng h/mL to 508 ng h/mL. In presence of Cap and Pip, the decrease in Cmax and AUClast of Nos was similar. This may be due to potential enzyme induction leading to rapid clearance of Nos as the trend was observed in Nos alone group also. The lack of effect on intrinsic clearance of Nos suggests that the potential drug biotransformation modulators employed in this study did not contribute toward increased exposure of Nos on repeated dosing. We envision that Nos-induced enzyme induction could alter the therapeutic efficacy of co

  6. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J.; Houk, T.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

  7. 33 CFR 165.773 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... zone. Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165... within Captain of the Port Zone, Jacksonville, Florida as defined in 33 CFR 3.35-20. (c) Security zone. A... transit and becomes a fixed zone when the escorted vessel is anchored or moored. A security zone will...

  8. 33 CFR 165.773 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... zone. Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165... within Captain of the Port Zone, Jacksonville, Florida as defined in 33 CFR 3.35-20. (c) Security zone. A... transit and becomes a fixed zone when the escorted vessel is anchored or moored. A security zone will...

  9. 33 CFR 165.773 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... zone. Escorted vessel means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165... within Captain of the Port Zone, Jacksonville, Florida as defined in 33 CFR 3.35-20. (c) Security zone. A... transit and becomes a fixed zone when the escorted vessel is anchored or moored. A security zone will...

  10. Effects of anti-recirculation ring on performance of an automotive cooling fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. G.; Zhang, Y. C.; Li, F.; Kong, X. Z.; Luan, X. H.

    2013-12-01

    An investigation has been conducted to evaluate the effects of anti-recirculation ring on performance of automotive axial flow cooling fan by CFD simulation. In order to reduce the element size and save computing time, periodic boundary condition and single flow channel has been applied to the simulation. The grid is composed of tetrahedral mesh and hexahedral mesh. The SST k - ω turbulence model and standard wall function method have been used. CFD results show that optimal design of pressure loss anti-recirculation ring can not only increase P-Q performance and aerodynamic efficiency, but also can improve the pressure distribution on fan tip which can reduce the axial deformation of cooling fan. So it can be proved that good design of anti-recirculation ring will not increase the total axial size of an axial cooling fan.

  11. Environmental performance of air staged combustor with flue gas recirculation to burn coal/biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Anuar, S.H.; Keener, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental and thermal performance of a 1.07 m diameter, 440 kW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor operated at 700{degrees}C-920{degrees}C and burning coal was studied. Flue gas recirculation was incorporated to enhance the thermal performance and air staging was used to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. Studies focused on the effect of excess air, firing rate, and use of sorbent on system performance. The recirculation-staging mode with limestone had the highest thermal efficiency (0.67) using the firing equation. Emission data showed that flue gas recirculation (ratio of 0.7) significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions; and that use of limestone sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of 3 reduced SO{sub 2} emissions by 64% to approximately 0.310 g/MJ.

  12. Development of a Mock Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit to Assess Recirculation.

    PubMed

    Jayewardene, Ishanth Devinda; Xie, Ashleigh; Iyer, Arjun; Pye, Roger; Dhital, Kumud

    2016-01-01

    A limitation of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is the recirculating of newly oxygenated blood back to the VV-ECMO circuit. We compared cannulation strategies for combating recirculation utilizing a mock circulation loop (MCL) with ultrasonic flow probes and pressure transducers ensuring that the MCL was run at physiological hemodynamic parameters. Mean recirculation percentages were lower (ANOVA, F = 14.25; p = 0.0001) with the Wang-Zwische dual lumen cannula (4.00 ± 1.77, n = 7) than both the femoro-jugular (15.23 ± 7.00, n = 8) and the femoro-femoral cannulation configurations (13.49 ± 1.44, n = 8). PMID:26809084

  13. Highly sensitive and reconfigurable fiber optic current sensor by optical recirculating in a fiber loop.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiangbing; Tao, Yemeng; Liu, Yinping; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Wenjia; He, Zuyuan

    2016-08-01

    An advanced fiber optic current sensor (FOCS) is proposed based on recirculating fiber loop architecture for significantly enhancing the current sensitivity. The recirculating loop is constructed by a 2X2 optical switch and the standard single mode fiber (SSMF) is used as the sensing head. The proposed FOCS is coupler-free with low insertion loss which results in a significantly improved current sensitivity. We experimentally obtained a sensitivity of 11.5 degrees/A for 1-Km SSMF FOCS and a sensitivity of 21.2 degrees/A for 500-m SSMF FOCS, both of which have been enhanced by more than ten times. The flexible switch control of recirculating can support the FOCS to work for different current scenarios with the same system and thus reconfigurable operation of the FOCS has been achieved. The significantly enhanced high sensitivity with reconfigurable operation capability makes the proposed FOCS a promising method for practical applications. PMID:27505765

  14. Investigation of hydrocarbon oil transformation by gliding arc discharge: comparison of batch and recirculated configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, J. Christopher; Prantsidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The degradation of liquid dodecane was studied in a gliding arc discharge (GAD) of humid argon or nitrogen. A batch or recirculating configuration was used. The products in the gaseous and liquid phase were analysed by infrared and chromatography and optical emission spectroscopy was used to identify the excited species in the discharge. The best degradation performance comes from the use of humid N2 but a GAD of humid argon produces fewer gas-phase products but more liquid-phase end-products. A wide range of products such as heavier saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons both aliphatic and aromatic, and oxidation products mainly alcohols, but also aldehydes, ketones and esters are produced in the liquid-phase. The recirculating treatment mode is more effective than the batch mode increasing the reactivity and changing the product selectivities. Overall, the study shows promising results for the organic liquid waste treatment, especially in the recirculating mode.

  15. Method and apparatus for control of coherent synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, David R; Tennant, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    A modulated-bending recirculating system that avoids CSR-driven breakdown in emittance compensation by redistributing the bending along the beamline. The modulated-bending recirculating system includes a) larger angles of bending in initial FODO cells, thereby enhancing the impact of CSR early on in the beam line while the bunch is long, and 2) a decreased bending angle in the final FODO cells, reducing the effect of CSR while the bunch is short. The invention describes a method for controlling the effects of CSR during recirculation and bunch compression including a) correcting chromatic aberrations, b) correcting lattice and CSR-induced curvature in the longitudinal phase space by compensating T.sub.566, and c) using lattice perturbations to compensate obvious linear correlations x-dp/p and x'-dp/p.

  16. Recurrent amoebic gill infestation in rainbow trout cultured in a semiclosed water recirculation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, A.C.; Herman, R.L.; Noga, E.J.; Bullock, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Five lots of commercially purchased juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (17-44 g) stocked in a continuous-production water recirculation system became infested with gilt amoebae. The amoebae were introduced into the recirculation system, as evidenced by their presence on gills of fish held in quarantine tanks. Based on their morphology, as seen in histological sections and by electron microscopy, the amoebae appeared to be more closely related to the family Cochliopodiidae than to other taxa of free living amoebae. Attempts to culture the amoebae in different media, at different temperatures of incubation, and in fish cell culture were not successful. Initial treatment of the recirculation system with formalin at 167 parts per million (ppm) for 1 h eliminated amoebae from the gills. Subsequent treatments of the entire system with formalin at 50-167 ppm reduced the intensity of further infestations.

  17. The Spontaneous Formation of a Space-Filling Lattice of Large-Amplitude Vortices throughout the "Dead Zone" of a Protoplanetary Disk and the Role of the Lattice in Star and Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, P. S.; Jiang, C.; Pei, S.; Hassanzadeh, P.

    2012-12-01

    The annular region of a protoplanetary disk, approximately 5 - 12 AU from the protostar and within 1 or 2 pressure scale heights of the mid-plane, has too low a temperature to significantly ionize hydrogen gas and therefore to destabilize the near-Keplerian flow via the magneto-hydrodynamic instability (MRI). Because it is assumed that Keplerian flow is linearly stable and that no hydrodynamic features can arise spontaneously within this region and thereby aid in star formation by transporting angular momentum and energy radially, this region is known as the "dead zone". Here we show that the pronouncement of this region as "dead" is premature (to paraphrase Mark Twain). Baroclinic critical layers can occur in rotating, vertically-stratified, uni-directional shear flows such as that in a protoplanetary disk. They are special cases of neutrally stable eigenmodes. Baroclinic critical layers have logarithmic singularities in density and vertical velocity. They differ from barotropic critical layers associated with Kelvin's cats-eyes in constant-density, unidirectional shear flows, which form at locations where the shear flow velocity matches the eigenmode's phase speed and have singularities only in stream-wise velocities. Baroclinic critical layers are easily excited with no special tuning of parameters by perturbations from vortices or waves. Unlike barotropic critical layers the amplitudes of baroclinic layers become large by drawing energy from the background shear. In the case of protoplanetary disk, energy is extracted from the huge reservoir of kinetic energy in the near-Keplerian shear. The large vertical velocities in the critical layers, coupled with the Coriolis parameter create large-amplitude vortex layers. These layers often roll-up into large coherent vortices. The baroclinic critical layers' growth and roll-up are robust: they form in cylindrical and Cartesian geometries, in Boussinesq fluids and ideal gases, and in flows with uniform and non

  18. Methane emissions from MSW landfill with sandy soil covers under leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

    CH 4 emissions and leachate disposal are recognized as the two major concerns in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Recently, leachate recirculation was attempted to accelerate land-filled waste biodegradation and thus enhanced landfill gas generation. Leachate irrigation was also conducted for volume reduction effectively. Nevertheless, the impacts of leachate recirculation and irrigation on landfill CH 4 emissions have not been previously reported. A field investigation of landfill CH 4 emissions was conducted on selected sandy soil cover with leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation based on whole year around measurement. The average CH 4 fluxes were 311±903, 207±516, and 565±1460 CH 4 m -2 h -1 from site A without leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation, lift B2 with leachate subsurface irrigation, and lift B1 with both leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation, respectively. Both gas recovery and cover soil oxidation minimized CH 4 emissions efficiently, while the later might be more pronounced when the location was more than 5 m away from gas recovery well. After covered by additional clay soil layer, CH 4 fluxes dropped by approximately 35 times in the following three seasons compared to the previous three seasons in lift B2. The diurnal peaks of CH 4 fluxes occurred mostly followed with air or soil temperature in the daytimes. The measured CH 4 fluxes were much lower than those of documented data from the landfills, indicating that the influences of leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation on landfill CH 4 emissions might be minimized with the help of a well-designed sandy soil cover. Landfill cover composed of two soil layers (clay soil underneath and sandy soil above) is suggested as a low-cost and effective alternative to minimize CH 4 emissions.

  19. The Two Branches of the Recirculation of Atlantic Water in Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Schauer, Ursula; Hattermann, Tore; Albretsen, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard is one of the two gateways by which warm Atlantic Water enters the Arctic Ocean providing oceanic heat. The West Spitsbergen Current advects the warm water northward in the eastern Fram Strait. However, only some of this water stays in the boundary current and enters the Arctic Ocean. Another part leaves the boundary current and flows westward across Fram Strait before turning southward in the East Greenland Current. This recirculation of Atlantic Water corresponds with the ice edge in Fram Strait and the two likely depend on each other. Here we present results from a high resolution regional numerical model that shows the recirculation to consist of two branches. The northern branch depends on eddy fluxes while the southern branch exhibits less high frequency variability. We also present a compilation of different observational data in the center of Fram Strait around 0°EW that give insight into the structure of the southern recirculation branch near the ice edge. A glider section resolves the small horizontal scale over which the geostrophic flow occurs. Several meridional CTD sections capture the differences and similarities between different summers. Moorings and Argo floats provide information in winter as well. These observations are compared to the representation of the recirculation in the numerical model. We show that the southern recirculation occurs over a small horizontal distance of about 20km in the vicinity of 79°N and is significantly stronger in winter than in summer. While there is cold freshwater at the surface north of the front, the temperature down to 500m is much higher in the recirculation than further south.

  20. A concentrated solar cavity absorber with direct heat transfer through recirculating metallic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarker, M. R. I.; Saha, Manabendra; Beg, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    A recirculating flow solar particle cavity absorber (receiver) is modeled to investigate the flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics of a novel developing concept. It features a continuous recirculating flow of non-reacting metallic particles (black silicon carbide) with air which are used as a thermal enhancement medium. The aim of the present study is to numerically investigate the thermal behavior and flow characteristics of the proposed concept. The proposed solar particle receiver is modeled using two phase discrete particle model (DPM), RNG k-flow model and discrete ordinate (DO) radiation model. Numerical analysis is carried out considering a solar receiver with only air and the mixture of non-reacting particles and air as a heat transfer as well as heat carrying medium. The parametric investigation is conducted considering the incident solar flux on the receiver aperture and changing air flow rate and recirculation rate inside the receiver. A stand-alone feature of the recirculating flow solar particle receiver concept is that the particles are directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation monotonously through recirculating flow inside the receiver and results in efficient irradiation absorption and convective heat transfer to air that help to achieve high temperature air and consequently increase in thermal efficiency. This paper presents, results from the developed concept and highlights its flow behavior and potential to enhance the heat transfer from metallic particles to air by maximizing heat carrying capacity of the heat transfer medium. The imposed milestones for the present system will be helpful to understand the radiation absorption mechanism of the particles in a recirculating flow based receiver, the thermal transport between the particles, the air and the cavity, and the fluid dynamics of the air and particle in the cavity.

  1. Four-nozzle benchmark wind tunnel model USA code solutions for simulation of multiple rocket base flow recirculation at 145,000 feet altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, N. S.; Johnson, S. L.

    1993-07-01

    Multiple rocket exhaust plume interactions at high altitudes can produce base flow recirculation with attendant alteration of the base pressure coefficient and increased base heating. A search for a good wind tunnel benchmark problem to check grid clustering technique and turbulence modeling turned up the experiment done at AEDC in 1961 by Goethert and Matz on a 4.25-in. diameter domed missile base model with four rocket nozzles. This wind tunnel model with varied external bleed air flow for the base flow wake produced measured p/p(sub ref) at the center of the base as high as 3.3 due to plume flow recirculation back onto the base. At that time in 1961, relatively inexpensive experimentation with air at gamma = 1.4 and nozzle A(sub e)/A of 10.6 and theta(sub n) = 7.55 deg with P(sub c) = 155 psia simulated a LO2/LH2 rocket exhaust plume with gamma = 1.20, A(sub e)/A of 78 and P(sub c) about 1,000 psia. An array of base pressure taps on the aft dome gave a clear measurement of the plume recirculation effects at p(infinity) = 4.76 psfa corresponding to 145,000 ft altitude. Our CFD computations of the flow field with direct comparison of computed-versus-measured base pressure distribution (across the dome) provide detailed information on velocities and particle traces as well eddy viscosity in the base and nozzle region. The solution was obtained using a six-zone mesh with 284,000 grid points for one quadrant taking advantage of symmetry. Results are compared using a zero-equation algebraic and a one-equation pointwise R(sub t) turbulence model (work in progress). Good agreement with the experimental pressure data was obtained with both; and this benchmark showed the importance of: (1) proper grid clustering and (2) proper choice of turbulence modeling for rocket plume problems/recirculation at high altitude.

  2. Hybrid heat exchange for the compression capture of CO2 from recirculated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2004-01-01

    An approach proposed for removal of CO2 from flue gas cools and compresses a portion of a recirculated flue-gas stream, condensing its volatile materials for capture. Recirculating the flue gas concentrates SOx, H2O and CO2 while dramatically reducing N2 and NOx, enabling this approach, which uses readily available industrial components. A hybrid system of indirect and direct-contact heat exchange performs heat and mass transfer for pollutant removal and energy recovery. Computer modeling and experimentation combine to investigate the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, chemistry and engineering design of this integrated pollutant removal (IPR) system.

  3. Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kristoffersen, A.R.; Gadgil, A.J.; Lorenzetti, D.M.

    2004-05-01

    Tracer gas measurements are commonly used to estimate the fresh air exchange rate in a room or building. Published tracer decay methods account for fresh air supply, infiltration, and leaks in ductwork. However, the time delay associated with a ventilation system recirculating tracer back to the room also affects the decay rate. We present an analytical study of tracer gas decay in a well-mixed, mechanically-ventilated room with recirculation. The analysis shows that failing to account for delays can lead to under- or over-estimates of the fresh air supply, depending on whether the decay rate calculation includes the duct volume.

  4. A photonic recirculating delay line for analog-to-digital conversion and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmuda, Henry; Fanto, Michael; McEwen, Thomas; Pawloski, Jared; Norelli, Kristina

    2008-04-01

    Experimental results for a photonic recirculating delay line for high-speed, high-resolution Analog-to-Digital Converted (ADC) and other applications is presented. The approach modifies an analog fiber optic link with a recirculating optical loop as a means to store a time-limited microwave signal so that it may be digitized by using a slower, conventional electronic ADC. Detailed analytical analysis of the dynamic range and noise figure shows that under appropriate conditions the microwave signal degradation is sufficiently small so as to allow the digitization of a multi-gigahertz signal with a resolution greater than 10 effective bits. Experimental results provided support the theory.

  5. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation on Passively Excited Flows by Distributed Local Hot Sources Settled at the D" Layer Below Hotspots and/or Large-Scale Cool Masses at Subduction Zones Within the Static Layered Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, T.; Matsubara, K.; Ishida, M.

    2001-12-01

    To unveil dynamic process associated with three-dimensional unsteady mantle convection, we carried out numerical simulation on passively exerted flows by simplified local hot sources just above the CMB and large-scale cool masses beneath smoothed subduction zones. During the study, we used our individual code developed with the finite difference method. The basic three equations are for the continuity, the motion with the Boussinesq (incompressible) approximation, and the (thermal) energy conservation. The viscosity of our model is sensitive to temperature. To get time integration with high precision, we used the Newton method. In detail, the size and thermal energy of the hot or cool sources are not uniform along the latitude, because we could not select uniform local volumes assigned for the sources within the finite difference grids throughout the mantle. Our results, thus, accompany some latitude dependence. First, we treated the case of the hotspots, neglecting the contribution of the subduction zones. The local hot sources below the currently active hotspots were settled as dynamic driving forces included in the initial condition. Before starting the calculation, we assumed that the mantle was statically layered with zero velocity component. The thermal anomalies inserted instantaneously in the initial condition do excite dynamically passive flows. The type of the initial hot sources was not 'plume' but 'thermal.' The simulation results represent that local upwelling flows which were directly excited over the initial heat sources reached the upper mantle by approximately 30 My during the calculation. Each of the direct upwellings above the hotspots has its own dynamic potential to exert concentric down- and up-welling flows, alternately, at large distances. Simultaneously, the direct upwellings interact mutually within the spherical mantle. As an interesting feature, we numerically observed secondary upwellings somewhere in a wide region covering east Eurasia

  6. An evaluation of a micro programmable logic controller for oxygen monitoring and control in tanks of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of dissolved gases, especially oxygen is an essential component of recirculating aquaculture systems. The use of pure oxygen in a recirculating aquaculture system creates supersaturated concentrations of dissolved oxygen and can reduce fish production costs by supporting greater fish and fee...

  7. Use of a micro programmable logic controller for oxygen monitoring and control in multiple tanks of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In intensive recirculating aquaculture systems the use of supplemental oxygen, specifically pure liquid oxygen, increases the mass of fish that can be supported and eliminates oxygen as a major limiting factor to a system’s carrying capacity. The use of pure oxygen in a recirculating aquaculture sys...

  8. Breathing of a coral cay: Tracing tidally driven seawater recirculation in permeable coral reef sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Erler, Dirk; Tait, Douglas; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2010-12-01

    Coral reefs are characterized by high gross productivity in spite of low nutrient concentrations. This apparent paradox may be partially reconciled if seawater recirculation in permeable sediments over large (meters) and long (hours to days) scales is an important source of recycled nitrogen and phosphorus to coral reefs. In this paper we use radon (222Rn, a natural tracer) to quantify tidally driven pore water (or groundwater) exchange between (1) an offshore coral cay island and its fringing reef lagoon and (2) a reef lagoon and the surrounding ocean. As seawater infiltrates Heron Island at high tide, it acquires a radon signal that can be detected when pore waters emerge from carbonate sands at low tide. A nonsteady state model indicated that vertical pore water upwelling rates (or saline submarine groundwater discharge) were >40 cm/d within the reef lagoon and >100 cm/d outside the lagoon at low tide. Within the lagoon, tidal pumping and temperature-driven convection were the main driving forces of pore water advection. At low tide, the reef lagoon level is about 1 m higher than the surrounding ocean. As a result, a steep hydraulic gradient develops at the reef edge, driving unidirectional filtration through the reef framework. Groundwaters were highly enriched in nitrate (average of 530 μmol, likely influenced by bird guano) relative to lagoon waters (1.9 μmol). Rough but conservative estimates indicated that groundwater-derived nitrate fluxes (7.9 mmol/m2/d) can replace the entire lagoon nitrate inventory every <19 days. We speculate that as offshore coral islands "breath" (inhale seawater at high tide and exhale groundwater at low tide), they release nutrients that lead to sustained productivity within coral reefs.

  9. Development and design of a fluidized bed/upflow sand filter configuration for use in recirculating aquaculture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A fluidized bed/upflow sand filter configuration, was developed and designed for utilization in recirculating aquaculture system, specifically the soft-shell crab and soft-shell crawfish industries. These filters were selected and designed because of their ability to withstand clogging and still maintain high levels of water quality for aquaculture production. The effectiveness of sand grain size was used to evaluate fluidized bed filter performance with filter loadings ranging from 16 to 1285 pounds of crawfish per cubic foot of filter sand. A coarse sand grain size was recommended as a filter media because of it's ability to shear excessive biofilm growth from the and, thus prohibiting clogging from occurring within the filter bed. The fluidized bed/upflow sand filter combination was evaluated in terms of nitrification and oxygen consumption when used with a recirculating crab shedding system. The filter combination's carrying capacity (700 crabs per cubic foot of sand media) exceeded that observed with the submerged rock filter by more than 20 times and was largely explained by the filter's solids removal ability which significantly reduced the filter's oxygen loading rate (OLR). Nitrification rates with the filter combination were extremely high as total ammonia and nitrite levels remained below 1.0 mg-N/l. Verification of a volumetric loading criteria (150 pounds per cubic foot) for this filter combination was further established with performance data obtained from a commercial soft-shell crawfish facility. Water quality monitoring results indicated that the filters maintained total ammonia and nitrite levels below 1.0 mg-N/l under typical operating conditions. Shock loading, pH control, and over-feeding, rather than filter capacity, dominated water quality fluctuations, thereby indicating that the loading criteria was sufficient for commercial operation.

  10. Critical Stokes number for the capture of inertial particles by recirculation cells in two-dimensional quasisteady flows.

    PubMed

    Verjus, Romuald; Angilella, Jean-Régis

    2016-05-01

    Inertial particles are often observed to be trapped, temporarily or permanently, by recirculation cells which are ubiquitous in natural or industrial flows. In the limit of small particle inertia, determining the conditions of trapping is a challenging task, as it requires a large number of numerical simulations or experiments to test various particle sizes or densities. Here, we investigate this phenomenon analytically and numerically in the case of heavy particles (e.g., aerosols) at low Reynolds number, to derive a trapping criterion that can be used both in analytical and numerical velocity fields. The resulting criterion allows one to predict the characteristics of trapped particles as soon as single-phase simulations of the flow are performed. Our analysis is valid for two-dimensional particle-laden flows in the vertical plane, in the limit where the particle inertia, the free-fall terminal velocity, and the flow unsteadiness can be treated as perturbations. The weak unsteadiness of the flow generally induces a chaotic tangle near heteroclinic or homoclinic cycles if any, leading to the apparent diffusion of fluid elements through the boundary of the cell. The critical particle Stokes number St_{c} below which aerosols also enter and exit the cell in a complex manner has been derived analytically, in terms of the flow characteristics. It involves the nondimensional curvature-weighted integral of the squared velocity of the steady fluid flow along the dividing streamline of the recirculation cell. When the flow is unsteady and St>St_{c}, a regular motion takes place due to gravity and centrifugal effects, like in the steady case. Particles driven towards the interior of the cell are trapped permanently. In contrast, when the flow is unsteady and St

  11. Critical Stokes number for the capture of inertial particles by recirculation cells in two-dimensional quasisteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verjus, Romuald; Angilella, Jean-Régis

    2016-05-01

    Inertial particles are often observed to be trapped, temporarily or permanently, by recirculation cells which are ubiquitous in natural or industrial flows. In the limit of small particle inertia, determining the conditions of trapping is a challenging task, as it requires a large number of numerical simulations or experiments to test various particle sizes or densities. Here, we investigate this phenomenon analytically and numerically in the case of heavy particles (e.g., aerosols) at low Reynolds number, to derive a trapping criterion that can be used both in analytical and numerical velocity fields. The resulting criterion allows one to predict the characteristics of trapped particles as soon as single-phase simulations of the flow are performed. Our analysis is valid for two-dimensional particle-laden flows in the vertical plane, in the limit where the particle inertia, the free-fall terminal velocity, and the flow unsteadiness can be treated as perturbations. The weak unsteadiness of the flow generally induces a chaotic tangle near heteroclinic or homoclinic cycles if any, leading to the apparent diffusion of fluid elements through the boundary of the cell. The critical particle Stokes number Stc below which aerosols also enter and exit the cell in a complex manner has been derived analytically, in terms of the flow characteristics. It involves the nondimensional curvature-weighted integral of the squared velocity of the steady fluid flow along the dividing streamline of the recirculation cell. When the flow is unsteady and St>Stc , a regular motion takes place due to gravity and centrifugal effects, like in the steady case. Particles driven towards the interior of the cell are trapped permanently. In contrast, when the flow is unsteady and St

  12. A Mathematical Model of Solute Coupled Water Transport in Toad Intestine Incorporating Recirculation of the Actively Transported Solute

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model of an absorbing leaky epithelium is developed for analysis of solute coupled water transport. The non-charged driving solute diffuses into cells and is pumped from cells into the lateral intercellular space (lis). All membranes contain water channels with the solute passing those of tight junction and interspace basement membrane by convection-diffusion. With solute permeability of paracellular pathway large relative to paracellular water flow, the paracellular flux ratio of the solute (influx/outflux) is small (2–4) in agreement with experiments. The virtual solute concentration of fluid emerging from lis is then significantly larger than the concentration in lis. Thus, in absence of external driving forces the model generates isotonic transport provided a component of the solute flux emerging downstream lis is taken up by cells through the serosal membrane and pumped back into lis, i.e., the solute would have to be recirculated. With input variables from toad intestine (Nedergaard, S., E.H. Larsen, and H.H. Ussing, J. Membr. Biol. 168:241–251), computations predict that 60–80% of the pumped flux stems from serosal bath in agreement with the experimental estimate of the recirculation flux. Robust solutions are obtained with realistic concentrations and pressures of lis, and with the following features. Rate of fluid absorption is governed by the solute permeability of mucosal membrane. Maximum fluid flow is governed by density of pumps on lis-membranes. Energetic efficiency increases with hydraulic conductance of the pathway carrying water from mucosal solution into lis. Uphill water transport is accomplished, but with high hydraulic conductance of cell membranes strength of transport is obscured by water flow through cells. Anomalous solvent drag occurs when back flux of water through cells exceeds inward water flux between cells. Molecules moving along the paracellular pathway are driven by a translateral flow of water, i.e., the model

  13. Microbial community distribution and extracellular enzyme activities in leach bed reactor treating food waste: effect of different leachate recirculation practices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Su Yun; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding the relationship between microbial community and extracellular enzyme activities of leach bed reactor (LBR) treating food waste under different leachate recirculation practices (once per day and continuous) and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios (1:1 and 0.5:1). Microbial community analysis using PCR-DGGE revealed that Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacter sp., and Proteobacteria were the most abundant species. Number of phylotypes was higher in LBRs with intermittent recirculation; whereas, lower number of phylotypes dominated by the key players of degradation was observed with continuous recirculation. The L/S ratio of 1:1 significantly enhanced the volatile solids removal compared with 0.5:1; however, this effect was insignificant under once a day leachate recirculation. Continuous leachate recirculation with 1:1 L/S ratio significantly improved the organic leaching (240 g COD/kgvolatile solid) and showed distinct extracellular enzyme activities suitable for food waste acidogenesis. PMID:24972915

  14. Variability in warm-season atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns over subtropical South America: relationships between the South Atlantic convergence zone and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattingly, Kyle S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2016-03-01

    Warm-season precipitation variability over subtropical South America is characterized by an inverse relationship between the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and precipitation over the central and western La Plata basin of southeastern South America. This study extends the analysis of this "South American Seesaw" precipitation dipole to relationships between the SACZ and large, long-lived mesoscale convective systems (LLCSs) over the La Plata basin. By classifying SACZ events into distinct continental and oceanic categories and building a logistic regression model that relates LLCS activity across the region to continental and oceanic SACZ precipitation, a detailed account of spatial variability in the out-of-phase coupling between the SACZ and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin is provided. Enhanced precipitation in the continental SACZ is found to result in increased LLCS activity over northern, northeastern, and western sections of the La Plata basin, in association with poleward atmospheric moisture flux from the Amazon basin toward these regions, and a decrease in the probability of LLCS occurrence over the southeastern La Plata basin. Increased oceanic SACZ precipitation, however, was strongly related to reduced atmospheric moisture and decreased probability of LLCS occurrence over nearly the entire La Plata basin. These results suggest that continental SACZ activity and large-scale organized convection over the northern and eastern sections of the La Plata basin are closely tied to atmospheric moisture transport from the Amazon basin, while the warm coastal Brazil Current may also play an important role as an evaporative moisture source for LLCSs over the central and western La Plata basin.

  15. A five-year study of coastal recirculation and its effect on air pollutants over the East Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Mahrer, Yitzhak

    2008-08-01

    Many studies have shown that air pollutants concentrations in coastal cities may be gravely affected by coastal recirculation. In this study an attempt is made to examine the properties of coastal recirculation over a long period (5 yrs) at multiple sites along the East Mediterranean Sea (EMS). For this purpose, a single station quantitative measure of horizontal recirculation is used based on wind field measurements over periods of 1-96 hrs. The horizontal recirculation is examined with respect to the integration time period, synoptic flow, seasonality, coastline variations, elevation, and air pollutants concentrations. The interaction between synoptic and mesoscales is shown to be a governing factor by allowing or overruling the land sea breeze winds. Favorite conditions for coastal recirculation are shown to be light or variable winds such as under a Cole or a High-Pressure system. The monthly distribution of the recirculation potential has a bimodal behavior with two peaks during the transitional seasons and October in particular. This is as a result of the annual cycle of night-time land-sea temperature difference driving the land breeze and the more frequent passage of synoptic scale flows with an easterly wind component at the EMS. Two factors leading to variations along the coastline are the urban heat island, weakening the breeze winds and reducing recirculation potential, and the concaved shape of the southern shoreline that causes a convergence and strengthening of the land breeze, thus supporting recirculation. The primary pollutants NOx and SO2 have the highest concentrations during weak daily mean wind speeds. O3 levels depict an almost opposite image of NOx, with higher values for both high and low recirculation, possibly resulting from either long range transport or coastal recirculation.

  16. Zone control of lean gas underfiring for coke ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Corbman, P.; Faber, P.V.

    1982-02-09

    A coke oven battery is disclosed of the type that is underfired with coke oven gas. A system of horizontal bus flues and valve controls is provided for controlling the supply of lean gas fuel, such as blast furnace gas or any other lean gas, selectively to the gas flues in heating zones of the coke oven chamber walls and the recirculation of waste gas therefrom, so as to achieve the optimum fuel consumption under varying bulk density conditions of the coal mass in the coke oven chamber from the coke side to the pusher side.

  17. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis

  18. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    the baseline and finding the ratio between the injected NO amounts. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity and engine operating points affected the NOx decomposition rates of the natural gas engine. A highest NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine. A separate exploratory tests conducted with a gasoline engine with a low air/fuel ratio yielded results that suggested, that high NOx decomposition rates may be possible if a normally lean burn engine were operated at conditions closer to stoichiometric, with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a brief period of time during the NOx decomposition phase and with a wider range of air/fuel ratios. Chemical kinetic model predictions using CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with the established rate and equilibrium models. NOx decomposition rates from 35% to 42% were estimated using the CHEMKIN software. This provided insight on how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for a large bore engine. In the future, the modeling will be used to examine the effect of higher NO{sub 2}/NO ratios that are associated with lower speed and larger bore lean burn operation.

  19. Disinfection of water in recirculating aquaculture systems with peracetic acid (PAA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disinfection behaviour of peracetic acid (PAA) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was investigated. Peracetic acid is a strong oxidizing agent found in various concentrations in different products. Three Wofasteril PAA products (E400 (c), Lspecical; AC 150) were tested in vitro for the...

  20. Geosmin causes off-flavour in arctic charr in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “earthy” and “muddy” off-flavors in pond-reared fish are due to the presence of geosmin or 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in the flesh of the fish. Similar off-flavors have been reported in fish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS); however, little information is available regarding the ...

  1. Process Requirements for Achieving Full-Flow Disinfection of Recirculating Water Using Ozonation and UV Irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A continuous water disinfection process can be used to prevent the introduction and accumulation of obligate and opportunistic fish pathogens in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), especially during a disease outbreak when the causative agent would otherwise proliferate within the system. To p...

  2. Observations on side-swimming rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a controlled 6-month study using six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS), it was observed that rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in all WRAS exhibited a higher-than-normal prevalence of side-swimming (i.e. controlled, forward swimming, but with misaligned orientation suc...

  3. Apparatus for controlling pressure-activated actuator, and apparatus for controlling exhaust-gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, M.; Demizu, A.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes an apparatus for controlling the exhaust-gas circulation of an engine having an exhaust passage and an intake passage. The apparatus consists of: an exhaust-gas recirculation passage connected at one end to the intake passage and at the other end to the exhaust passage, for guiding part of the exhaust gas flowing through the exhaust passage to the intake passage; an exhaust-gas recirculation valve having a pressure chamber and a valve body being moved in accordance with the pressure within the chamber, for opening and closing the exhaust-gas recirculation passage; first valve means for selectively applying a negative pressure and atmospheric pressure to the pressure chamber, thereby to control the opening of the exhaust-gas recirculation valve means; a first duct provided between the first valve means and the pressure chamber; a second duct provided in parallel to the first duct and having choke means; second valve means for selectively connecting the first and second ducts to the pressure chamber; and control means for actuating the second valve means such that the first duct is connected to the pressure chamber in order to change the pressure within the chamber at high speed, and the second duct is connected to the chamber in order to change the pressure within the pressure chamber at low speed.

  4. Researchers evaluate low-energy recirculating system for inland production of marine finfish juveniles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low-energy recirculating aquaculture system consists of nine separate modules which utilize the double drain fish culture tank paired to a moving bed biofilter. The nine fiberglass tanks are five feet in diameter and normal water depth is about three feet for a total tank volume of approximately...

  5. Nitrate removal effectiveness of fluidized sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification biofilters for recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop practical methods to reduce nitrate -nitrogen loads from recirculating aqua-culture systems to facilitate increased food protein production simultaneously with attainment of water quality goals. The most common wastewater denitrification treatment systems utilize methanol-...

  6. Membrane biological reactor treatment of a saline backwash flow from a recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) can minimize water use, allowing fish production in regions where water is scarce and also placing the waterborne wastes into a concentrated and relatively small volume of effluent. The RAS effluent generated during clarifier backwash is usually small in vol...

  7. Multi-point optimization of recirculation flow type casing treatment in centrifugal compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tun, Min Thaw; Sakaguchi, Daisaku

    2016-06-01

    High-pressure ratio and wide operating range are highly required for a turbocharger in diesel engines. A recirculation flow type casing treatment is effective for flow range enhancement of centrifugal compressors. Two ring grooves on a suction pipe and a shroud casing wall are connected by means of an annular passage and stable recirculation flow is formed at small flow rates from the downstream groove toward the upstream groove through the annular bypass. The shape of baseline recirculation flow type casing is modified and optimized by using a multi-point optimization code with a metamodel assisted evolutionary algorithm embedding a commercial CFD code CFX from ANSYS. The numerical optimization results give the optimized design of casing with improving adiabatic efficiency in wide operating flow rate range. Sensitivity analysis of design parameters as a function of efficiency has been performed. It is found that the optimized casing design provides optimized recirculation flow rate, in which an increment of entropy rise is minimized at grooves and passages of the rotating impeller.

  8. Performance of two-stage vegetable waste anaerobic digestion depending on varying recirculation rates.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhuang; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Wanqin; Dong, Renjie

    2014-06-01

    Vegetable waste, which characterized by high moisture content, was evaluated as a substrate for biogas production. The effects of recirculation rate (RR) on the performance of two-stage anaerobic digestion were investigated. The system was operated at an organic loading rate of 1.7 g VS/L/d with varying RRs (0, 0.6, 1, and 1.4). Results demonstrated that volumetric biogas production rates in acidogenic reactor increased from approximately 0.2 7 L/L/d to 0.97 L/L/d, when pH is increased from approximately 5.1 to 6.7. These indicate that recirculation of alkaline effluent from the methanogenic reactor helps create a favorable condition for biogas production in the acidogenic reactor. The decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations from approximately 21,000 mg/L to 6800 mg/L was also observed in the acidogenic reactor. This condition may be attributed to dilution under recirculation. The dynamics between hydrolysis and methanogenesis under recirculation indicated that mass transfer capacity between two-stage reactors improved. PMID:24759642

  9. Gas transfer rates from airlifts used for concurrent aeration, carbon dioxide stripping, and recirculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airlifts simplify recirculating aquaculture systems and can potentially reduce capital costs and minimize maintenance issues. Airlifts have the ability to move and aerate water as well as degass the water of any carbon dioxide. This study evaluated the oxygen transfer and carbon dioxide removal abil...

  10. Flow, aeration, and carbon dioxide transfer rates for airlifts used in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airlift pumping systems reduce the electrical costs of moving water in a recirculating aquaculture system and can be concurrently designed to aerate water and remove carbon dioxide. This study determined the water flow, oxygen transfer, and CO2 removal rates for water using airlift technology in a 1...

  11. Improvement of anaerobic digester performance by wastewater recirculation through an aerated membrane.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine wastewater from an anaerobic digester was recirculated through a silicone hose located in an external aeration chamber to determine its effect on wastewater malodorants and biogas composition. The silicone hose acted as a semipermeable membrane for the passage of small molecules. In the first...

  12. Evaluation of commercial marine fish feeds for production of juvenile cobia in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of feeding three commercially available diets manufactured by three U.S. feed companies on production characteristics and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was evaluated in a 57 d growth trial. Juvenile cobia (26.7 +...

  13. Pilot-scale study of powdered activated carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal.

    PubMed

    Meinel, F; Sperlich, A; Jekel, M

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) is a promising technique for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) from treated wastewater. To enhance the adsorption efficiency, PAC is recycled back into the adsorption stage. This technique was examined in pilot scale in comparison to a reference without recirculation. Coagulation with Fe(3+) was carried out simultaneously to adsorption. Extensive OMP measurements showed that recirculation significantly increased OMP eliminations. Thus, significant PAC savings were feasible. The PAC concentration in the contact reactor proved to be an important operating parameter that can be surrogated by the easily measurable total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. OMP eliminations increased with increasing TSS concentrations. At 20 mg PAC L(-1) and 2.8 g TSS L(-1) in the contact reactor, well-adsorbable carbamazepine was eliminated by 97%, moderately adsorbable diclofenac was eliminated by 92% and poorly-adsorbable acesulfame was eliminated by 54% in comparison to 49%, 35% and 18%, respectively, without recirculation. The recirculation system represents an efficient technique, as the PAC's adsorption capacity is practically completely used. Small PAC dosages yield high OMP eliminations. Poorly-adsorbable gabapentin was eliminated to an unexpectedly high degree. A laboratory-scale biomass inhibition study showed that aerobic biodegradation removed gabapentin in addition to adsorption. PMID:27533867

  14. Achromatic recirculated chicane with fixed geometry and independently variable path length and momentum compaction

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Neil, George R.

    2005-04-26

    A particle beam recirculated chicane geometry that, through the inducement of a pair of 180 degree bends directed by the poles of a pair of controllable magnetic fields allows for variation of dipole position, return loop radii and steering/focussing, thereby allowing the implementation of independent variation of path length and momentum compaction.

  15. The benefits of powdered activated carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal in advanced wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Meinel, F; Zietzschmann, F; Ruhl, A S; Sperlich, A; Jekel, M

    2016-03-15

    PAC adsorption is a widespread option for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) from secondary effluent. For an optimal exploitation of the adsorption capacity, PAC recirculation is nowadays a common practice, although the mechanistic interrelations of the complex recirculation process are not fully resolved. In this work, extensive multi-stage batch adsorption testing with repeated PAC and coagulant dosage was performed to evaluate the continuous-flow recirculation system. Partly loaded PAC showed a distinct amount of remaining capacity, as OMP and DOC removals considerably increased with each additional adsorption stage. At a low PAC dose of 10 mg PAC L(-1), removals of benzotriazole and carbamazepine were shown to rise from <40% in the first stage up to >80% in the 11th stage at 30 min adsorption time per stage. At a high PAC dose of 30 mg PAC L(-1), OMP and DOC removals were significantly higher and reached 98% (for benzotriazole and carbamazepine) after 11 stages. Coagulant dosage showed no influence on OMP removal, whereas a major part of DOC removal can be attributed to coagulation. Multi-stage adsorption is particularly beneficial for small PAC doses and significant PAC savings are feasible. A new model approach for predicting multi-stage OMP adsorption on the basis of a single-stage adsorption experiment was developed. It proved to predict OMP removals and PAC loadings accurately and thus contributes towards understanding the PAC recirculation process. PMID:26773491

  16. Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver

    DOEpatents

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2012-02-07

    A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

  17. Low-head recirculating aquaculture system for juvenile red drum production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service and the Center for Aquaculture and Stock Enhancement at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute-FAU (HBOI-FAU) are collaborating to evaluate low-head recirculating aquaculture system designs to intensively produce red drum juveniles as part of the Florida Fish an...

  18. The development of a TESLA recirculator with superconducting accelerating structures in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guk, I. S.; Dovbnya, A. N.

    2008-12-01

    The recirculator project, which is to be built at the National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (NSC KIPT), is presented. The basic solutions incorporated in the design are given. The TESLA superconducting section is chosen as the accelerating structure of an accelerating complex.

  19. Solids removal from a coldwater recirculating system - comparison of swirl separator and radial-flow settlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solids removal across two settling devices, i.e., a swirl separator and a radial-flow settler, and across a microscreen drum filter was evaluated in a fully recirculating system containing a single 150 m3 'Cornell-type' dual-drain tank during the production of food-size Arctic char and rainbow trout...

  20. Low-dose hydrogen peroxide application in closed recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present work was to simulate water treatment practice with hydrogen peroxide (HP) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Six identical 1700 L pilot scale RAS were divided into two experimental groups based on daily feed allocation and were operated under constant conditions durin...

  1. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b...

  2. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  3. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintentance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessonslearned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  4. Human skin is protected by four functionally and phenotypically discrete populations of resident and recirculating memory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Rei; Gehad, Ahmed; Yang, Chao; Campbell, Laura; Teague, Jessica E.; Schlapbach, Christoph; Elco, Christopher; Huang, Victor; Matos, Tiago R.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Clark, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    The skin of an adult human contains approximately 20 billion memory T cells. Epithelial barrier tissues are infiltrated by a combination of resident and recirculating T cells in mice but the relative proportions and functional activities of resident versus recirculating T cells have not been evaluated in human skin. We discriminated resident from recirculating T cells in human engrafted mice and lymphoma patients using alemtuzumab, a medication that depletes recirculating T cells from skin, and then analyzed these T cell populations in healthy human skin. All non-recirculating resident memory T cells (TRM) expressed CD69, but the majority were CD4+, CD103− and located in the dermis, in contrast to studies in mice. Both CD4+ and CD8+ CD103+ TRM were enriched in the epidermis, had potent effector functions and had a limited proliferative capacity compared to CD103− TRM. TRM of both types had more potent effector functions than recirculating T cells. Induction of CD103 on human T cells was enhanced by keratinocyte contact, depended on TGFβ and was independent of T cell keratinocyte adhesive interactions. We observed two distinct populations of recirculating T cells, CCR7+/L-selectin+ central memory T cells (TCM) and CCR7+/L-selectin− T cells, which we term migratory memory T cells (TMM). Circulating skin-tropic TMM were intermediate in cytokine production between TCM and effector memory T cells. In patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma, malignant TCM and TMM induced distinct inflammatory skin lesions and TMM were depleted more slowly from skin after alemtuzumab, suggesting TMM may recirculate more slowly. In summary, human skin is protected by four functionally distinct populations of T cells, two resident and two recirculating, with differing territories of migration and distinct functional activities. PMID:25787765

  5. Recirculation in swirling flow - A manifestation of vortex breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudier, M. P.; Keller, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    The addition of a sufficiently high degree of swirl to flow going into a circular pipe produces a limited region of reversed flow. Such a vortex breakdown, as it is termed, represents a zone of transition from a supercritical to a subcritical flow state. If the flow remains subcritical, an unavoidable consequence is that the geometry and conditions downstream directly affect the upstream flow up to, and including, the breakdown region. Laser Dopper anemometer measurements of the swirl and axial velocity components, as well as the corresponding streamline patterns, are presented for water flow in a model based upon the geometry of a swirl combustor. It is shown that a strong exit contraction (55 percent of the diameter) has practically no influence on a flow which reverts to supercritical, whereas even a weak contraction (15 percent of the diameter) has a significant influence on a flow which remains subcritical. It is argued that a cold flow is likely to be totally unrepresentative of a reacting flow through the same geometry, and, also, that great care has to be taken over the boundary conditions to be imposed for the numerical computation of subcritical flows.

  6. Effect of self recirculation casing treatment on the performance of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancedo, Matthieu

    Increase in emission regulations in the transport industry brings the need to have more efficient engines. A path followed by the automobile industry is to downsize the size of the internal combustion engine and increase the air density at the intake to keep the engine power when needed. Typically a centrifugal compressor is used to force the air into the engine, it can be powered from the engine shaft (superchargers) or extracting energy contained into the hot exhaust gases with a turbine (turbochargers). The flow range of the compressor needs to match the one of the engine. However compressors mass flow operating range is limited by choke on the high end and surge on the low end. In order to extend the operation at low mass flow rates, the use of passive devices for turbocharger centrifugal compressors was explored since the late 80's. Hence, casing treatments including flow recirculation from the inducer part of the compressor have been shown to move the surge limit to lower flows. Yet, the working mechanisms are still not well understood and thus, to optimize the design of this by-pass system, it is necessary to determine the nature of the changes induced by the device both on the dynamic stability of the pressure delivery and on the flow at the inlet. The compressor studied here features a self-recirculating casing treatment at the inlet. The recirculation passage could be blocked to carry a direct comparison between the cases with and without the flow feature. To grasp the effect on compressor stability, pressure measurements were taken in the different constituting elements of the compressor. The study of the mean pressure variations across the operating map showed that the tongue region is a limiting element. Dynamic pressure measurements revealed that the instabilities generated near the inducer when the recirculation is blocked increase the overall instability levels at the compressor outlet and propagating pressure waves starting at the tongue occurred

  7. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  8. Estimation of Hydraulic Properties Influencing Recharge and Contaminant Transport through Complex Vadose Zones by Analyzing Perched Water Data from the 1994 Large-Scale Infiltration Test at the Idaho National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, K. M.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Layers of strong geologic contrast within the vadose zone can control recharge and contaminant transport to underlying aquifers. Above the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, multiple sedimentary interbeds are interspersed between fractured basalt. These interbeds have a variety of thicknesses and hydraulic properties, and can impede water flow, which allows perched water to collect on the interbeds. The Large-Scale Infiltration Test (LSIT) of 1994 at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) maintained a circular pond, 200 meters in diameter, at a constant head for 20 days. Monitoring wells were arranged in circles of different radii around and within the pond, and perched water levels on a major sedimentary interbed, 55 meters below ground surface, were measured over time. Data showed that water formed a mound on the interbed before seeping through the interbed. Such behavior is consistent with a hypothesis of rapid flow through the fractured basalt being impeded by the sedimentary interbed. In 2014, the USGS, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, used a modified version of a Hantush (1967) equation to model the time-dependent perched water table heights from the LSIT as a function of radial distance from the pond center. The modeled volume change between time-steps and the known inflows to the pond were used in a mass balance to estimate the time-varying volume of water seeping through the interbed. This volume of water, the height of perched water, and the interbed thickness were used in Darcy's Law to estimate the effective saturated hydraulic conductivity of the impeding interbed. Results indicate a slightly higher effective conductivity than laboratory measurements of small core samples taken from the interbed, reflecting the presence of fractures or other heterogeneities that facilitate field-scale flow through the interbed. Applied to other locations, this method can improve estimates of recharge and contaminant transport to underlying aquifers.

  9. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  10. Thermal-hydraulic tests of a recirculation cooling installation for the Rostov nuclear power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balunov, B. F.; Balashov, V. A.; Il'in, V. A.; Krayushnikov, V. V.; Lychakov, V. D.; Meshalkin, V. V.; Ustinov, A. N.; Shcheglov, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    Results obtained from thermal-hydraulic tests of the recirculation cooling installation used as part of the air cooling system under the containments of the Rostov nuclear power station Units 3 and 4 are presented. The operating modes of the installation during normal operation (air cooling on the surface of finned tubes), under the conditions of anticipated operational occurrences (air cooling and steam condensation from a steam-air mixture), and during an accident (condensation of pure steam) are considered. Agreement is obtained between the results of tests and calculations carried out according to the recommendations given in the relevant regulatory documents. A procedure of carrying out thermal calculation for the case of steam condensation from a steam-air mixture on the surface of fins is proposed. The possibility of efficient use of the recirculation cooling installation in the system for reducing emergency pressure under the containment of a nuclear power station is demonstrated.

  11. Recirculation acceleration of high current relativistic electron beams--a feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.

    1981-06-01

    One of the advanced accelerator concepts under study at NBS involves multiplying the energy gained by a long-pulse, high current relativistic electron beam by directing the beam several times through the same induction accelerator during the time of one voltage pulse. Should this concept of the recirculation acceleration of intense electron beams be proven feasible, the savings in cost, size, and weight of a high current accelerator would be considerable. Energy gain by recirculation acceleration through a small-scale proof-of principle facility has been demonstrated at NBS. The study employs a 750A, 750keV electron beam pulse, 2 microsec long, generated by a linear induction accelerator of unique design which was also developed at NBS.

  12. LUX - A recirculating linac-based ultrafast X-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.; Barletta, W.A.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W.M.; Green, M.A.; Heimann, P.; Leone, S.R.; Lidia, S.; Li, D.; Parmigiani, F.; Ratti, A.; Robinson, K.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Wan, W.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wolski, A.; Zholents, A.

    2003-08-01

    We describe the design of a proposed source of ultra-fast synchrotron radiation x-ray pulses based on a recirculating superconducting linac, with an integrated array of ultrafast laser systems. The source produces x-ray pulses with duration of 10-50 fs at a 10 kHz repetition rate, with tunability from EUV to hard x-ray regimes, and optimized for the study of ultra-fast dynamics. A high-brightness rf photocathode provides electron bunches. An injector linac accelerates the beam to the 100 MeV range, and is followed by four passes through a 700 MeV recirculating linac. Ultrafast hard x-ray pulses are obtained by a combination of electron bunch manipulation, transverse temporal correlation of the electrons, and x-ray pulse compression. EUV and soft x-ray pulses as short as 10 fs are generated in a harmonic-cascade free electron laser scheme.

  13. Possible interactions between recirculated landfill leachate and the stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    The stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SOFMSW) is a product of the mechanical/biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal solid waste (MMSW). SOFMSW is considered a 'grey' compost and the presence of pollutants (particularly heavy metals) and residual glass and plastic normally prevents agricultural use, making landfills the typical final destination for SOFMSW. Recirculation of leachate in landfills can be a cost-effective management option, but the long-term sustainability of such a practice must be verified. Column tests were carried out to examine the effect of SOFMSW on leachate recirculation. The results indicate that organic matter may be biologically degraded and metals (copper and zinc) are effectively entrapped through a combination of physical (adsorption), biological (bacterial sulfate reduction), and chemical (precipitation of metal sulfides) processes, while other chemicals (i.e. ammonia nitrogen and chloride) are essentially unaffected by filtration through SOFMSW. PMID:22351654

  14. Thermal characterization of an AMTEC recirculating test cell. [Alkali Metal ThermoElectric Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    An alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) recirculating test cell has been operated in order to determine the magnitudes of the primary heat losses of the cell and the value of the emissivity of the condenser surface. The energy balance included radiation losses, conductive losses, and losses due to the flow of sodium into the cell. The radiative heat flux dominated the heat loss mechanism of the cell at open circuit, and the condenser emissivity was calculated to be about 0.1. It is shown that, if this emissivity can be reduced to 0.02, then parasitic losses in an AMTEC recirculating test cell operating near peak power would be less than 40 percent of the heat required by the cell. The condenser emissivity decreases with elapsed time, resulting in improved thermal performance of the cell.

  15. Identification and origin of plant pathogenic microorganisms in recirculating nutrient solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, M. E.; Rasmussen, S. L.

    1994-11-01

    Avoidance of root-infecting microorganisms was originally considered one of the advantages of cultivation of crops in a soilless, recirculating nutrient solution. However, to date, four viral, three bacterial and 21 fungal pathogens have been identified as causal agents of root disease in hydroponically-grown crops. Root-infecting fungi, particularly those which produce a motile stage known as a zoospore, have been the primary pathogens associated with extensive crop losses. Documented sources of these root pathogens in hydroponic systems include peat, surface water such as rivers and streams, and insects. The severity of disease caused by these introduced root pathogens is primarily governed by the genetic susceptibility of each crop and the temperature of the recirculating nutrient solution.

  16. Manipulating flow separation: sensitivity of stagnation points, separatrix angles and recirculation area to steady actuation

    PubMed Central

    Boujo, E.; Gallaire, F.

    2014-01-01

    A variational technique is used to derive analytical expressions for the sensitivity of several geometric indicators of flow separation to steady actuation. Considering the boundary layer flow above a wall-mounted bump, the six following representative quantities are considered: the locations of the separation point and reattachment point connected by the separatrix, the separation angles at these stagnation points, the backflow area and the recirculation area. For each geometric quantity, linear sensitivity analysis allows us to identify regions which are the most sensitive to volume forcing and wall blowing/suction. Validations against full nonlinear Navier−Stokes calculations show excellent agreement for small-amplitude control for all considered indicators. With very resemblant sensitivity maps, the reattachment point, the backflow and recirculation areas are seen to be easily manipulated. By contrast, the upstream separation point and the separatrix angles are seen to remain extremely robust with respect to external steady actuation. PMID:25294968

  17. Effect of enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation and gas extraction on greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, Sonia

    The bioreactor/ enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation with the addition of moisture/ leachate to the landfill, accelerate the process of landfill waste decomposition; and increase the generation of LFG over a shorter period of time. Since emissions from the landfills are directly related to the gas generation, the increase in gas generation might also increase the emission from the landfill. On the contrary, the presence of gas extraction is suggested to mitigate the fugitive emissions from the landfills. Therefore, the motivation of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ELR operation as well as the gas extraction on the greenhouse gas emissions from the landfill. The current study was conducted in the City of Denton Landfill, Texas. Methane emission was investigated using a portable FID and static flux chamber technique from the landfill surface. Emission was measured from an ELR operated cell (cell 2) as well as a conventional cell (cell 0) in the City of Denton Landfill. Methane emission for cell 2 varied from 9544.3 ppm to 0 ppm while for cell 0, it varied from 0 ppm to 47 ppm. High spatial variations were observed during monitoring from both cells 0 and cell 2 which could be recognized as the variation of gas generation below the cover soil. The comparison between emissions from the slope and surface of the landfill showed that more methane emission occurred from the slopes than the top surface. In addition, the average landfill emission showed an increasing trend with increase in temperature and decreasing trend with increasing precipitation. The effect of ELR operation near the recirculation pipes showed a lag period between the recirculation and the maximum emission near the pipe. The emission near the pipe decreased after 1 day of recirculation and after the initial decrease, the emission started to increase and continued to increase up to 7 days after the recirculation. However, approximately after 10 days of recirculation, the

  18. Hexachlorobenzene uptake by fathead minnows and macroinvertebrates in recirculating sediment/water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schuytema, G.S.; Krawczyk, D.F.; Griffis, W.L.; Nebeker, A.V.; Robideaux, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), the worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, and the amphipods Hyalella azteca and Gammarus lacustris were exposed to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in water with and without a bed of HCB-spiked sediment. Water HCB concentrations were maintained by recirculation through HCB-packed columns. Recirculating HCB-bound particulates and possibly eroded HCB particulates were an added source of HCB in addition to the sediment bed. Significant bioaccumulation of HCB in animal tissues was observed in water-only and water-sediment exposures. The presence of the HCB-spiked sediment did not result in a significant increase in the uptake of HCB by the organisms, but there was a substantial increase in sediment HCB levels over time. Higher tissue HCB levels in aquaria without sediment suggest that the sediment was a more efficient sink for HCB than the organisms.

  19. CFB combustor with internal solids recirculation -- Pilot testing and design applications

    SciTech Connect

    Belin, F.; Maryamchik, M.; Fuller, T.A.; Perna, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The new generation of B and W`s CFB boilers with entirely internal recirculation of solids collected by the primary impact separator is uniquely compact and features a simple, low-maintenance solids collection system. Thorough testing of the new concept at the Cold CFB Model and the 2.5 MWth Pilot CFB combustor confirmed its effective performance equal to that of a CFB unit with external solids recirculation from the primary separator. While providing overall advantages of compactness and simplicity, the new design is especially valuable for repowering of the existing power plants where B and W`s CFB boiler fits into the plan area of PC-fired boilers.

  20. Analysis of a heat recirculating cooler for fuel gas sulfur removal in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Geo. A.; Berry, David A.; Freed, Adam

    When using conventional fossil fuels, most fuel cell systems require sulfur removal as part of their fuel processing. A novel approach to enable conventional sulfur removal in high-temperature fuel processing is presented. Using established principles from heat-recirculating combustors, it is suggested that high-temperature syngas can be momentarily cooled to conditions that would permit conventional sulfur removal to be carried out at relatively low temperatures. The recirculated heat is then used to heat the gas back to conditions that are minimally less than the original temperature. A model for evaluating the performance of this concept is presented, and calculations suggest that relative to fuel cell applications, reasonable physical dimensions can be expected in actual applications. For high-pressure syngas (i.e., coal gasification), the physical dimensions will rise with the operating pressure.

  1. Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordils-Striker, Nilda E.; Colon, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

  2. A block-corrected subdomain solution procedure for recirculating flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braaten, M. E.; Patankar, S. V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a robust and efficient subdomain solution procedure for two-dimensional recirculating flows. The solution domain is divided into a number of overlapping subdomains, and a direct fully coupled solution is obtained for each subdomain using a sparse matrix form of LU decomposition. An effective parabolic block correction procedure, which calculates global corrections to the tentative solution by a marching technique similar to that used for boundary layer flows, is used to accelerate the convergence of the basic procedure. The use of effective block correction is found to be essential for the success of the subdomain approach on strongly recirculating flows. In a number of laminar two-dimensional flows, the new block-corrected method performed extremely well, rivaling the best direct methods in execution time, while requiring substantially less computer storage. The new method proved to be from two to ten times faster than conventional iterative methods, while requiring only a moderate increase in storage.

  3. Beam transport design for a recirculating-linac FEL driver

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Douglas, D.; Li, Z.; Cornacchia, M.; Garren, A.

    1996-07-01

    The beam transport system for the CEBAF Industrial FEL includes a two-pass transport of the beam with acceleration from injector to wiggler, followed by energy recovery transport from wiggler to dump. From that context, the authors discuss the general problem of multi-pass energy-recovery beam transport for FELs. Tunable, nearly-isochronous, large-momentum-acceptance transport systems are required. The entire transport must preserve beam quality, particularly in the acceleration transport to the wiggler, and have low losses throughout the entire system. Various possible designs are presented, and results of dynamic analyses are discussed.

  4. Design and performance characteristics of a low-head recirculating aquaculture tank system for low salinity finfish production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water treatment components of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) consist mainly of: solid removal devices, biofiltration, aeration, degassing units, and water distribution. For each component, multiple options are available and the selection is based on system volume, system hydrodynamics, fis...

  5. Evaluating leachate recirculation with cellulase addition to enhance waste biostabilisation and landfill gas production.

    PubMed

    Frank, R R; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2016-09-01

    The effect of leachate recirculation with cellulase augmentation on municipal solid waste (MSW) biostabilisation and landfill gas production was investigated using batch bioreactors to determine the optimal conditions of moisture content, temperature and nutrients. Experimentation was thereafter scaled-up in 7L bioreactors. Three conditions were tested including (1) leachate recirculation only, (2) leachate recirculation with enzyme augmentation and (3) no leachate recirculation (control). Cumulative biogas production of the batch tests indicated that there was little difference between the leachate and control test conditions, producing on average 0.043m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste. However the addition of cellulase at 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste doubled the biogas production (0.074m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). Similar trend was observed with the bioreactors. Cellulase addition also resulted in the highest COD reduction in both the waste and the leachate samples (47% and 42% COD reduction, respectively). In both cases, the quantity of biogas produced was closer to the lower value of theoretical and data-based biogas prediction indicators (0.05-0.4m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). This was likely due to a high concentration of heavy metals present in the leachate, in particular Cr and Mn, which are known to be toxic to methanogens. The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) based on the settings of the study (cellulase concentration of 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste) showed that leachate bioaugmentation using cellulase is economically viable, with a net benefit of approximately €12.1million on a 5Mt mixed waste landfill. PMID:27397800

  6. Generation of Flat Optical Frequency Comb based on Mach-Zehnder Modulator and Recirculating Frequency Shifter Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shibao; Li, Yulong; Fei, Yue; Hu, Faze

    2014-06-01

    We propose a novel scheme to generate optical frequency comb by using Mach-Zehnder modulator and recirculating frequency shifter loop based on IQ modulator driven by radio frequency clock signals. A system of 4 flat and stable comb lines generation based on Mach-Zehnder modulator is set as the seed light source of the recirculating loop. Through theorical analysis and simulation it is shown that the proposed theoretical model is proved in good agreement with simulation results.

  7. Performance of an in-situ rotating biological contactor in a recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Marin, P; Donoso-Bravo, A; Campos, J L; Ruiz-Filippi, G; Chamy, R

    2011-01-01

    The start-up and activation of a nitrifying rotating biological contactor (RBC) and its performance inside a culture tank of rainbow trout were studied. First, in a lab-scale operation, the system was fed with a synthetic medium containing a high ammonia concentration (567 mg NH(4)(+)-N L(-1)) and operated at a high hydraulic retention time (HRT) (6.5 days) to minimize the wash-out of the biomass and promote the biofilm formation. Then, both inlet ammonia concentration and HRT were decreased in order to obtain operational conditions similar to those of the culture tank. During this period, the RBC was able to treat an ammonia loading rate (ALR) of 0.64 g N-NH(4)(+) L(-1) d(-1) with a removal efficiency within 70-100%. Pilot-scale experiments were carried out in culture tanks of rainbow trout. The operation of a recirculating system with the RBC unit was compared with a recirculating system without biological treatment and with a flow-through system. The use of this in-situ nitrifying unit allowed working at a recirculation ratio of 90% without negative effects on either growth or the condition factor of fishes. Up to 70% of ammonia generated was removed and a removal rate of 1.41 g NH(4)(+)-N m(-2) d(-1) was reached. PMID:22156125

  8. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Mike S.; Detwiler, Russell L.; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  9. Removal of nitrogen from MBT residues by leachate recirculation in combination with intermittent aeration.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoai Nam; Münnich, Kai; Fricke, Klaus; Harborth, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) techniques have been used to reduce the emission potential of waste before placement in landfills for a couple of years, especially in Europe. The main focus of MBT is on the reduction of native organic substances and not on nitrogen compounds. As a result, the concentrations of organic substances in leachate from MBT landfills are considerably reduced in comparison to leachates from municipal solid waste landfills, while the ammonia nitrogen concentrations remain at a high level. From the stabilization of old landfills it is well known that recirculation of leachate and supplementary aeration can reduce emissions to an acceptable level in a comparatively short time. In a series of laboratory-scale tests the efficiency of this technique for MBT residues was investigated under different boundary conditions. While the effect of leachate recirculation is also well known for MBT residues, the additional aeration has so far not been investigated. The results show that this technique has only a limited influence on the reduction of organic carbon compounds. In view of nitrogen compounds, only the additional aeration during recirculation shows a strong effect on the quality of leachate, in which the concentrations of ammonium and total nitrogen are reduced by more than 90%. The results indicate that by using simple techniques the long-term emission behavior of MBT residues can be quickly reduced to an acceptable level. PMID:24293068

  10. Anaerobic digestion of food waste - Effect of recirculation and temperature on performance and microbiology.

    PubMed

    Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Hagen, Live H; Svensson, Kine; Linjordet, Roar; Horn, Svein J

    2016-06-01

    Recirculation of digestate was investigated as a strategy to dilute the food waste before feeding to anaerobic digesters, and its effects on microbial community structure and performance were studied. Two anaerobic digesters with digestate recirculation were operated at 37 °C (MD + R) and 55 °C (TD + R) and compared to two additional digesters without digestate recirculation operated at the same temperatures (MD and TD). The MD + R digester demonstrated quite stable and similar performance to the MD digester in terms of the methane yield (around 480 mL CH4 per gVSadded). In both MD and MD + R Methanosaeta was the dominant archaea. However, the bacterial community structure was significantly different in the two digesters. Firmicutes dominated in the MD + R, while Chloroflexi was the dominant phylum in the MD. Regarding the thermophilic digesters, the TD + R showed the lowest methane yield (401 mL CH4 per gVSadded) and accumulation of VFAs. In contrast to the mesophilic digesters, the microbial communities in the thermophilic digesters were rather similar, consisting mainly of the phyla Firmicutes, Thermotoga, Synergistetes and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter. The impact of ammonia inhibition was different depending on the digesters configurations and operating temperatures. PMID:27060528

  11. A Beam Breakup Instability in a Recirculating Linac Caused by a Quadrupole Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Byung Yunn

    2003-05-01

    Following the successful demonstration of energy recovery in a recirculating linac with superconducting cavities at the Jefferson Lab FEL[1], several ambitious electron accelerator projects have recently been proposed or are in study for either a light source or a collider based on this novel technology. These projects all intend to utilize a high quality linac electron beam generated with an average beam current typically in the range of 100's of mA. As is well known, a recirculating linac suffers from a beam breakup instability of a regenerative type caused by a Higher Order Mode (HOM) in an accelerating cavity, which can have a very high Q (quality factor) when superconducting. The instability can degrade the beam quality significantly. We investigate one such beam breakup instability in a recirculating linac that could arise as a result of high Q quadrupole modes excited in the cavity. In a simple model we derive a relation which allows one to deduce the upper limit on tolerable Q ....

  12. Conservation principles suspended solids distribution modelling to support ATS introduction on a recirculating WWTP.

    PubMed

    Gernaey, Krist V; Nielsen, Marinus K; Thornberg, Dines; Höök, Benny; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas; Ingildsen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    A model for the description of the SS distribution in a full-scale recirculating activated sludge WWTP was developed. The model, based on conservation principles, uses on-line plant data as model inputs, and provides a prediction of the SS load in the inlet to the secondary clarifiers and the SS distribution in the WWTP as outputs. The calibrated model produces excellent predictions of the SS load to the secondary clarifiers, an essential variable for the operation of the aeration tank settling (ATS) process. A case study illustrated how the calibrated SS distribution model can be used to evaluate the potential benefit of ATS implementation on a full-scale recirculating WWTP. A reduction of the maximum SS peak load to the secondary clarifiers with 24.9% was obtained with ATS, whereas the cumulative SS load to the clarifiers is foreseen to be reduced with 22.5% for short rain events (4 hours duration) and with 16.6% for long rain events (24 hours duration). The SS distribution model is a useful tool for off-line studies of the potential benefits to be obtained by introducing ATS on a recirculating WWTP. Finally, the successful operation of the ATS process on the full-scale plant is illustrated with data. PMID:15685994

  13. Upwelling-triggered near-geostrophic recirculation in an equatorward facing embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraga-Opazo, Julio; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Ramos, Marcel; Pizarro-Koch, Matías

    2011-12-01

    Underway current velocity profiles were combined with hydrographic profiles at the entrance to Tongoy Bay, an equatorward facing bay in north-central Chile, with the objective of determining its exchange hydrodynamics. To the west, Tongoy Bay is bounded by Lengua de Vaca Point, a ˜6 km-long northward protruding peninsula. Observations were obtained during three surveys (April 2005, December 2005, May 2009) along cross-bay transects for at least one full day. During the surveys, winds were upwelling-favorable and displayed diurnal variations. Non-tidal (tidally averaged) flows showed a consistent clockwise or southern hemisphere cyclonic, recirculation during the three surveys. This recirculation was likely part of a cyclonic gyre (10-20 km in diameter), not entirely resolved by the surveys, and formed by flow separation off Lengua de Vaca Point. Estimates of the baroclinic pressure gradient, combined with analytical solutions of density-driven and wind-driven flows, indicated that the recirculation in Tongoy Bay was nearly in geostrophic balance. An ageostrophic contribution to the dynamics was related to frictional effects derived from local upwelling-favorable winds. A linear superposition of the analytically derived density-driven and wind-driven exchange resulted in a flow pattern that resembled the observed net exchange flows at the bay mouth.

  14. Beam transport for an SRF recirculating-linac FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Douglas, D.; Li, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The beam transport system for the CEBAF UV Demo FEL includes a two-pan transport of the beam with acceleration from injector to wiggler, followed by energy recovery transport from wiggler to dump. From that contact we discuss the general problem of multi-pass energy-recovery beam transport for FELs. Tuneable, nearly-isochronous, large-momentum-acceptance import systems are required. The entire transport must preserve beam quality, particularly in the acceleration transport to the wiggler, and have low losses throughout the entire system. Issues such as injection and final energies, number of passes, linac focusing effects, beam separation, chronicity management, and stability constraints are critical. Various possible designs are discussed. Particle tracking results exploring the design options are also reported.

  15. Recirculating photonic filter: a wavelength-selective time delay for optically controlled phased-array antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegnanarayanan, Siva; Trinh, Paul D.; Jalali, Bahram

    1996-11-01

    A wavelength-selective photonic time delay filter is proposed and demonstrated. The device consists of an optical phased-array waveguide grating in a recirculating feedback configuration. It can function as a true-time-delay generator for squint-free beam steering in optically- controlled phased-array antennas. As the photonic filter uses the optical carrier wavelength to select the desired time delay, a one-to-one map is established between the optical carrier wavelength and the desired antenna direction, thus eliminating complex switching networks required to select the appropriate delay line. The proposed device can also function as the encoder/decoder in wavelength-CDMA. The concept uses a waveguide prism in a symmetric feedback (recirculating) configuration. The modulated optical carrier is steered by the waveguide prism to the appropriate integrated delay line depending on the carrier wavelength. The signal is delayed and is fed back into the symmetric input port. The prism then focuses the delayed beam into the common output port. Thus three sequential operations are performed: (1) wavelength demultiplexing, (2) time delay, and (3) wavelength multiplexing. It is important to note that the recirculating photonic filter has no 1/N loss; all the power at a given wavelength is diffracted into the output port. Furthermore, high resolution (6 - 8 bits) can be obtained in a compact integrated device. A prototype regular recirculating photonic filter true-time delay device was realized using a 8-channel arrayed-waveguide grating demultiplexer and external (off-chip) fiber delay lines. The grating was fabricated in the silica waveguide technology with 0.8 nm channel spacing (FSR equals 6.4 nm) and operating in the 1.5 micrometers wavelength range. Light from an external cavity tunable laser was rf modulated at 10 - 40 MHz and was coupled into the arrayed waveguide grating chip and time/phase measurements were performed sing a digital oscilloscope. Feedback delay

  16. Method and apparatus for recirculation with control of synchrotron radiation

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Tennant, Christopher

    2016-08-02

    A method for controlling beam quality degradation from ISR and CSR and stabilizing the microbunching instability (.mu.BI) in a high brightness electron beam. The method includes providing a super-periodic second order achromat line with each super period being individually linearly achromatic and isochronous, setting individual superperiod tunes to rational fractions of an integer (such as 4.sup.th or 6.sup.th integers), setting individual bend angles to be as small as practical to reduce driving terms due to dispersion and dispersive angle, and setting bend radii as large enough to suppress ISR but not negatively affect the radial dependence of CSR. The method includes setting the structure of the individual superperiods to minimize bend plane beam envelope values in the dipoles to reduce betatron response to a CSR event at a dispersed location, increasing beam angular divergence, and creating dispersion nodes in the dipoles to similarly reduce response to CSR events, and limit R.sub.56 modulation in order to mitigate .mu.BI.

  17. Large Eddy Simulations of Volume Restriction Effects on Canopy-Induced Increased-Uplift Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziefstratiou, E.; Bohrer, G.; Velissariou, V.

    2012-12-01

    ABSTRACT Previous modeling and empirical work have shown the development of important areas of increased uplift past forward-facing steps, and recirculation zones past backward-facing steps. Forests edges represent a special kind of step - a semi-porous one. Current models of the effects of forest edges on the flow represent the forest with a prescribed drag term and does not account for the effects of the solid volume in the forest that restrict the airflow. The RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) resolves flows inside and above forested canopies. RAFLES is spatially explicit, and uses the finite volume method to solve a descretized set of Navier-Stokes equations. It accounts for vegetation drag effects on the flow and on the flux exchange between the canopy and the canopy air, proportional to the local leaf density. For a better representation of the vegetation structure in the numerical grid within the canopy sub-domain, the model uses a modified version of the cut cell coordinate system. The hard volume of vegetation elements, in forests, or buildings, in urban environments, within each numerical grid cell is represented via a sub-grid-scale process that shrinks the open apertures between grid cells and reduces the open cell volume. We used RAFLES to simulate the effects of a canopy of varying foliage and stem densities on flow over virtual qube-shaped barriers under neutrally buoyant conditions. We explicitly tested the effects of the numerical representation of volume restriction, independent of the effects of the leaf drag by comparing drag-only simulations, where we prescribed no volume or aperture restriction to the flow, restriction-only simulations, where we prescribed no drag, and control simulations, where both drag and volume plus aperture restriction were included. Our simulations show that representation of the effects of the volume and aperture restriction due to obstacles to flow is important (figure 1) and leads to differences in the

  18. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed

    Maantay, J

    2001-07-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  19. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  20. Duration of a large Mafic intrusion and heat transfer in the lower crust: A SHRIMP U-Pb zircon Study in the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (Western Alps, Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peressini, G.; Quick, J.E.; Sinigoi, S.; Hofmann, A.W.; Fanning, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Ivrea-Verbano Zone in the western Italian Alps contains one of the world's classic examples of ponding of mantle-derived, mafic magma in the deep crust. Within it, a voluminous, composite mafic pluton, the Mafic Complex, intruded lower-crustal, high-grade paragneiss of the Kinzigite Formation during Permian-Carboniferous time, and is now exposed in cross-section as a result of Alpine uplift. The age of the intrusion is still debated because the results of geochronological studies in the last three decades on different rock types and with various dating techniques range from 250 to about 300 Ma. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon age determinations on 12 samples from several locations within the Mafic Complex were performed to better constrain the age of the igneous event. The results indicate a long history of magma emplacement and cooling, which reconciles the spread in previously published ages. The main intrusive phase took place at 288 ?? 4 Ma, causing a perturbation of the deep-crustal geotherm, which relaxed to the Sm-Nd closure temperature in garnet-free mafic rocks after about 15-20 Myr of sub-solidus cooling at c. 270 Ma. These results suggest that large, deep crustal plutons, such as those identified geophysically at depths of 10-20 km within extended continental crust (e.g. Yellowstone, Rio Grande Rift, Basin and Range) may have formed rapidly but induced a prolonged thermal perturbation. In addition, the data indicate that a significant thermal event affected the country rock of the Mafic Complex at about 310 Ma. The occurrence of an upper amphibolite- to granulite-facies thermal event in the Kinzigite Formation prior to the main intrusive phase of the Mafic Complex has been postulated by several workers, and is corroborated by other geochronological investigations. However, it remains uncertain whether this event (1) was part of a prolonged perturbation of the deep-crustal geotherm, which started long before the onset of

  1. Steady solute fields induced by differential rotation in a small floating zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriott, George M.; Brown, Robert A.

    1984-11-01

    The relationship between flow structure and solute field during mass transfer of a dilute component is analyzed for the multi-cellular rotating flows in a small-scale floating zone. When the recirculating flows are weak, a closed-form solution clearly shows the link between convection pattern and solute distribution across the surface of the growing solid. In the limit of strong convection, finite-element calculations demonstrate the tendency of the composition to become uniform over the majority of the melt. The radial non-uniformity of solute concentration across the solid surface can be severe, even in the presence of vigorous bulk motion; however, the compositional non-uniformity is greatest when the recirculating motion is comparable to the rate of crystal growth. In this case, segregation of more than 100% the average concentration is predicted and points to the danger in attempting to grow compositionally uniform crystals from a nearly convectionless melt.

  2. Future float zone development in industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandfort, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The present industrial requirements for float zone silicon are summarized. Developments desired by the industry in the future are reported. The five most significant problems faced today by the float zone crystal growth method in industry are discussed. They are economic, large diameter, resistivity uniformity, control of carbon, and swirl defects.

  3. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

  4. Large eddy simulation of a swirling transverse jet into a crossflow with investigation of scalar transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denev, Jordan A.; Fröhlich, Jochen; Bockhorn, Henning

    2009-01-01

    The flow field of a turbulent jet emerging from a straight round pipe into a laminar crossflow is investigated by means of large eddy simulations. The concentration of a passive scalar, introduced with the jet, is calculated in order to quantify the mixing of the jet and the crossflow. In the jet, swirl is introduced by means of body forces and a range of jet swirl numbers from S =0 up to S =0.6 is studied. The impact of the jet swirl on the flow field, on the coherent structures, and on the mixing efficiency is investigated and quantified by means of various analyses. It is found that for all swirl numbers larger than zero a clear asymmetry appears in all quantities studied. Additional to the two hanging vortices at both sides of the jet a third vortex is introduced by the swirling pipe flow which interacts with the former. This feature is described in detail as it is not mentioned in the literature. For the strongest swirl investigated a recirculation zone near the jet exit is observed. Despite the asymmetry and even with a recirculation zone at the outlet, the counter-rotating vortex pair still exists in all cases in the downstream flow, where it entrains a large amount of crossflow fluid into the jet. The near field, however, is altered by the jet swirl in several respects. The jet more and more approaches the bottom wall with increasing swirl. As a result, the entrainment is gradually attenuated due to the larger blocking of the secondary flow by the wall. Increased swirl increases both the turbulent kinetic energy in the pipe and the vorticity of the average flow field near the jet exit, and thus stimulates the mixing in these regions. However, this stimulating effect is overwhelmed by the closer position of the jet trajectory to the wall of the channel with increasing swirl, which in turn reduces entrainment of fresh crossflow fluid into the jet. As a final result of these two competing effects, the overall mixing efficiency of a jet into a crossflow is

  5. Two-group interfacial area transport equation in large diameter pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Todd Ryan

    2002-01-01

    The closure relations for the two-group interfacial area transport equation (LATE) by which the changes of interfacial area concentration can be dynamically modeled are set forth in this thesis for the case of large diameter pipes. In the two-group formulation, the sources and sink terms are established by mechanistic modeling of the intra-group and inter-group transport of the bubbles based on five major bubble interaction mechanisms. These mechanisms are bubble coalescence as a result of random collision, RC, wake entrainment, WE, bubble break-up due to turbulent impact, TI, small bubble shearing-off of large bubbles, SO, and bubble break-up due to surface instability for large bubbles, SI. The models developed are supported by experiments using a four-sensor conductivity probe in large diameter test sections, 10.16 cm and 15.24 cm in diameter. A total of 31 different flow conditions under atmospheric pressure are examined in the bubbly to churn-turbulent flow regimes. The local flow parameters measured by the multi-sensor conductivity probe include the local time-averaged void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble Sauter mean diameter, interfacial velocity, and interface frequency for the two groups of bubbles. The model is evaluated against the extensive database and good agreement is obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data. The average error based on the total interfacial area concentration is around 7.0% for interfacial area concentration in both test sections. Recirculation in the large pipes is given special treatment in the measurement analysis. Using upwards and downwards facing probes, information on the missing bubble signals is obtained which is used to correct the local data by either the Effective Bubble Number or Intrusiveness Factor Method. The correction to void fraction is found to be about a 12% increase in the local area averaged value, while interfacial area concentration may increase upwards of 60% in the

  6. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (Precirculating system. PMID:12663210

  7. Inferring heat recirculation and albedo for exoplanetary atmospheres: Comparing optical phase curves and secondary eclipse data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Paris, P.; Gratier, P.; Bordé, P.; Selsis, F.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Basic atmospheric properties, such as albedo and heat redistribution between day- and nightsides, have been inferred for a number of planets using observations of secondary eclipses and thermal phase curves. Optical phase curves have not yet been used to constrain these atmospheric properties consistently. Aims: We model previously published phase curves of CoRoT-1b, TrES-2b, and HAT-P-7b, and infer albedos and recirculation efficiencies. These are then compared to previous estimates based on secondary eclipse data. Methods: We use a physically consistent model to construct optical phase curves. This model takes Lambertian reflection, thermal emission, ellipsoidal variations, and Doppler boosting, into account. Results: CoRoT-1b shows a non-negligible scattering albedo (0.11 < AS < 0.3 at 95% confidence) as well as small day-night temperature contrasts, which are indicative of moderate to high re-distribution of energy between dayside and nightside. These values are contrary to previous secondary eclipse and phase curve analyses. In the case of HAT-P-7b, model results suggest a relatively high scattering albedo (AS ≈ 0.3). This confirms previous phase curve analysis; however, it is in slight contradiction to values inferred from secondary eclipse data. For TrES-2b, both approaches yield very similar estimates of albedo and heat recirculation. Discrepancies between recirculation and albedo values as inferred from secondary eclipse and optical phase curve analyses might be interpreted as a hint that optical and IR observations probe different atmospheric layers, hence temperatures.

  8. Partitioning sources of recharge in environments with groundwater recirculation using carbon-14 and CFC-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourke, Sarah A.; Cook, Peter G.; Dogramaci, Shawan; Kipfer, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    Groundwater recirculation occurs when groundwater is pumped from an aquifer onto the land surface, and a portion of that water subsequently infiltrates back to the aquifer. In environments where groundwater is recirculated, differentiation between various sources of recharge (e.g. natural rainfall recharge vs. recirculated water) can be difficult. Groundwater age indicators, in particular transient trace gases, are likely to be more sensitive tracers of recharge than stable isotopes or chloride in this setting. This is because, unlike stable isotopes or chloride, they undergo a process of equilibration with the atmosphere, and historical atmospheric concentrations are known. In this paper, groundwater age indicators (14C and CFC-12) were used as tracers of recharge by surplus mine water that is discharged to streams. Ternary mixing ratios were calculated based on 14C and CFC-12 concentrations measured along three transects of piezometers and monitoring wells perpendicular to the creeks, and from dewatering wells. Uncertainty in calculated mixing ratios was estimated using a Monte Carlo approach. Ternary mixing ratios in dewatering wells suggest that recharge by mine water accounted for between 10% and 87% of water currently abstracted by dewatering wells. The calculated mixing ratios suggest that recharge by mine water extends to a distance of more than 550 m from the creeks. These results are supported by seepage flux estimates based on the water and chloride balance along the creeks, which suggest that 85-90% of mine water discharged to the creeks recharges the aquifer and recharge by mine water extends between 110 and 730 m from the creeks. Mixing calculations based on gaseous groundwater age indicators could also be used to partition recharge associated with agricultural irrigation or artificial wetland supplementation.

  9. Recirculating Beam Breakup Study for the 12 GeV Upgrade at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Ilkyoung Shin, Todd Satogata, Shahid Ahmed, Slawomir Bogacz, Mircea Stirbet, Haipeng Wang, Yan Wang, Byung Yunn, Ryan Bodenstein

    2012-07-01

    Two new high gradient C100 cryomodules with a total of 16 new cavities were installed at the end of the CEBAF south linac during the 2011 summer shutdown as part of the 12-GeV upgrade project at Jefferson Lab. We surveyed the higher order modes (HOMs) of these cavities in the Jefferson Lab cryomodule test facility and CEBAF tunnel. We then studied recirculating beam breakup (BBU) in November 2011 to evaluate CEBAF low energy performance, measure transport optics, and evaluate BBU thresholds due to these HOMs. This paper discusses the experiment setup, cavity measurements, machine setup, optics measurements, and lower bounds on BBU thresholds by new cryomodules.

  10. Recirculation of reverse osmosis concentrate in lab-scale anaerobic and aerobic landfill simulation reactors.

    PubMed

    Morello, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello; Raga, Roberto; Pivato, Alberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Leachate treatment is a major issue in the context of landfill management, particularly in view of the consistent changes manifested over time in the quality and quantity of leachate produced, linked to both waste and landfill characteristics, which renders the procedure technically difficult and expensive. Leachate recirculation may afford a series of potential advantages, including improvement of leachate quality, enhancement of gas production, acceleration of biochemical processes, control of moisture content, as well as nutrients and microbe migration within the landfill. Recirculation of the products of leachate treatment, such as reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate, is a less common practice, with widespread controversy relating to its suitability, potential impacts on landfill management and future gaseous and leachable emissions. Scientific literature provides the results of only a few full-scale applications of concentrate recirculation. In some cases, an increase of COD and ammonium nitrogen in leachate was observed, coupled with an increase of salinity; which, additionally, might negatively affect performance of the RO plant itself. In other cases, not only did leachate production not increase significantly but the characteristics of leachate extracted from the well closest to the re-injection point also remained unchanged. This paper presents the results of lab-scale tests conducted in landfill simulation reactors, in which the effects of injection of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate RO concentrate were evaluated. Six reactors were managed with different weekly concentrate inputs, under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, with the aim of investigating the short and long-term effects of this practice on landfill emissions. Lab-scale tests resulted in a more reliable identification of compound accumulation and kinetic changes than full-scale applications, further enhancing the development of a mass balance in which gaseous emissions and waste

  11. Involvement of Sialic Acid on Endothelial Cells in Organ-Specific Lymphocyte Recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven D.; Singer, Mark S.; Yednock, Ted A.; Stoolman, Lloyd M.

    1985-05-01

    Mouse lymphocytes incubated on cryostat-cut sections of lymphoid organs (lymph nodes and Peyer's patches) specifically adhere to the endothelium of high endothelial venules (HEV), the specialized blood vessels to which recirculating lymphocytes attach as they migrate from the blood into the parenchyma of the lymphoid organs. Treatment of sections with sialidase eliminated the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node HEV, had no effect on binding to Peyer's patch HEV, and had an intermediate effect on mesenteric lymph node HEV. These results suggest that sialic acid on endothelial cells may be an organ-specific recognition determinant for lymphocyte attachment.

  12. An Rf-gun-driven recirculated linac as injector and FEL driver.

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, A.; Biedron, S.; Eriksson, M.; Freund, H.; Werin, S.

    1999-08-23

    A new pre-injector for the MAX-Laboratory is under design and construction. A thermionic rf gun, designed to operate at medium currents with low back bombardment power, is under construction. The gun will, via a magnetic compressor and energy filter, feed a recirculated linac consisting of two SLED-equipped structures giving 125 MeV each. The first will be delivered in 1999. The system is aimed as a pre-injector for the existing storage rings at MAX-Lab, but will also open up possibilities for a SASE FEL in the UV reaching above 100 MW below 100 run.

  13. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity. PMID:27593269

  14. Application of a fluidized bed reactor charged with aragonite for control of alkalinity, pH and carbon dioxide in marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul S Wills, PhD; Pfeiffer, Timothy; Baptiste, Richard; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Control of alkalinity, dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO2), and pH are critical in marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in order to maintain health and maximize growth. A small-scale prototype aragonite sand filled fluidized bed reactor was tested under varying conditions of alkalinity and dCO2 to develop and model the response of dCO2 across the reactor. A large-scale reactor was then incorporated into an operating marine recirculating aquaculture system to observe the reactor as the system moved toward equilibrium. The relationship between alkalinity dCO2, and pH across the reactor are described by multiple regression equations. The change in dCO2 across the small-scale reactor indicated a strong likelihood that an equilibrium alkalinity would be maintained by using a fluidized bed aragonite reactor. The large-scale reactor verified this observation and established equilibrium at an alkalinity of approximately 135 mg/L as CaCO3, dCO2 of 9 mg/L, and a pH of 7.0 within 4 days that was stable during a 14 day test period. The fluidized bed aragonite reactor has the potential to simplify alkalinity and pH control, and aid in dCO2 control in RAS design and operation. Aragonite sand, purchased in bulk, is less expensive than sodium bicarbonate and could reduce overall operating production costs.

  15. Adenovirus Vector-Induced CD8+ T Effector Memory Cell Differentiation and Recirculation, But Not Proliferation, Are Important for Protective Immunity Against Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, José Ronnie; Dominguez, Mariana R.; Neves, Ramon L.; Ersching, Jonatan; Araújo, Adriano; Santos, Luara I.; Virgilio, Fernando S.; Machado, Alexandre V.; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Heterologous prime-boost vaccination using plasmid DNA followed by replication-defective adenovirus vector generates a large number of specific CD8+ T effector memory (TEM) cells that provide long-term immunity against a variety of pathogens. In the present study, we initially characterized the frequency, phenotype, and function of these T cells in vaccinated mice that were subjected to infectious challenge with the human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. We observed that the frequency of the specific CD8+ T cells in the spleens of the vaccinated mice increased after challenge. Specific TEM cells differentiated into cells with a KLRG1High CD27Low CD43Low CD183LowT-betHigh EomesLow phenotype and capable to produce simultaneously the antiparasitic mediators IFNγ and TNF. Using the gzmBCreERT2/ROSA26EYFP transgenic mouse line, in which the cells that express Granzyme B after immunization, are indelibly labeled with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein, we confirmed that CD8+ T cells present after challenge were indeed TEM cells that had been induced by vaccination. Subsequently, we observed that the in vivo increase in the frequency of the specific CD8+ T cells was not because of an anamnestic immune response. Most importantly, after challenge, the increase in the frequency of specific cells and the protective immunity they mediate were insensitive to treatment with the cytostatic toxic agent hydroxyurea. We have previously described that the administration of the drug FTY720, which reduces lymphocyte recirculation, severely impairs protective immunity, and our evidence supports the model that when large amounts of antigen-experienced CD8+ TEM cells are present after heterologous prime-boost vaccination, differentiation, and recirculation, rather than proliferation, are key for the resultant protective immunity. PMID:24568548

  16. Large-eddy simulation of street canyons and urban microclimate using Uintah:MPMICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemati Hayati, A.; Stoll, R., II; Harman, T.; Pardyjak, E.

    2014-12-01

    Urban microclimate plays an important role in urban water use, energy use, pollutant transport, and the general comfort and well-being of urban inhabitants. The microclimate interacts locally with urban morphology, water levels, properties of urban surfaces, and vegetation cover all of which contribute significantly to the strong spatial variability observed in urban areas. Considerable parts of urban open spaces take the form of street canyons. These urban street canyons play a remarkable role in creating urban microclimates. Within street canyons themselves, a wide variety of phenomena contribute to complex flow patterns. These include various flow structures such as wake fields, circulation zones, isolated roughness flow, wake interference and skimming flows. In addition, heat fluxes from the buildings and the surrounding area enhance the complexity of the flow field inside the canyon. Here, we introduce Uintah:MPMICE for the simulation of fluid structure interactions in urban flows. Uintah:MPMICE has been developed in a massively parallel computational infrastructure, uses material points to represent buildings, and the large-eddy simulation (LES) technique to represent momentum and scalar transport. To validate Uintah:MPMICE, simulations of typical street canyons are compared against published wind tunnel particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) data for the cases of step-up and step-down street canyons. Our findings show promising results in capturing major flow features, namely wake fields, recirculation zones, wake interference, vortex structures, and flow separation in street canyons. LES results demonstrate the ability of the simulations to predict flow topology details such as secondary circulation zones and wall-originating elevated shear layers in step-up and step-down cases, respectively. Furthermore, mean flow and variance statistics indicate sensitivity to inlet boundary conditions; upstream turbulence generation method, in particular, has a significant

  17. Anode gas recirculation for improving the performance and cost of a 5-kW solid oxide fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Ryohei; Tachikawa, Yuya; Sasaki, Kazunari; Ito, Kohei

    2016-09-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the potential to efficiently convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and are expected to be implemented in stationary combined heat and power (CHP) systems. This paper presents the heat balance analysis for a 5-kW medium-sized integrated SOFC system and the evaluation of the effect of anode gas recirculation on the system performance. The risk of carbon deposition on an SOFC anode due to anode gas recirculation is also assessed using the C-H-O diagram obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. These results suggest that a higher recirculation ratio increases net fuel utilization and improves the electrical efficiency of the SOFC system. Furthermore, cost simulation of the SOFC system and comparison with the cost of electricity supply by a power grid indicates that the capital cost is sufficiently low to popularize the SOFC system in terms of the total cost over one decade.

  18. Study of performances, stability and microbial characterization of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor working at low recirculation flow.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Marco; Beccari, Mario; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Majone, Mauro; Rossetti, Simona; Tandoi, Valter

    2013-02-01

    The Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) is a promising wastewater treatment technology characterized by high biomass concentration in the system, good depuration performance and low sludge production. Its main drawback is the high energy consumption required for wastewater recirculation through the reactor bed to ensure both shear stress and oxygen supply. Therefore, the effect of low recirculation flow on the long-term (38 months) performance of a laboratory scale SBBGR was studied. Both the microbial components of the granules, and their main metabolic activities were evaluated (heterotrophic oxidation, nitrification, denitrification, fermentation, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis). The results indicate that despite reduced recirculation, the SBBGR system maintained many of its advantageous characteristics. PMID:23313178

  19. Convection-Enhanced Biopatterning with Recirculation of Hydrodynamically Confined Nanoliter Volumes of Reagents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We present a new methodology for efficient and high-quality patterning of biological reagents for surface-based biological assays. The method relies on hydrodynamically confined nanoliter volumes of reagents to interact with the substrate at the micrometer-length scale. We study the interplay between diffusion, advection, and surface chemistry and present the design of a noncontact scanning microfluidic device to efficiently present reagents on surfaces. By leveraging convective flows, recirculation, and mixing of a processing liquid, this device overcomes limitations of existing biopatterning approaches, such as passive diffusion of analytes, uncontrolled wetting, and drying artifacts. We demonstrate the deposition of analytes, showing a 2- to 5-fold increase in deposition rate together with a 10-fold reduction in analyte consumption while ensuring less than 6% variation in pattern homogeneity on a standard biological substrate. In addition, we demonstrate the recirculation of a processing liquid using a microfluidic probe (MFP) in the context of a surface assay for (i) probing 12 independent areas with a single microliter of processing liquid and (ii) processing a 2 mm2 surface to create 170 antibody spots of 50 × 100 μm2 area using 1.6 μL of liquid. We observe high pattern quality, conservative usage of reagents, micrometer precision of localization and convection-enhanced fast deposition. Such a device and method may facilitate quantitative biological assays and spur the development of the next generation of protein microarrays. PMID:26837532

  20. Novel concept development of an internal recirculation catalyst for mild gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Babu, S.P.; Martin, K.A.; Chao, S.C.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of this program is to provide an overall evaluation of a novel process concept for mild gasification by completing work in three major tasks: (1) Laboratory-Scale Experiments, (2) Bench-Scale Tests, and (3) Proof-of-Concept Tests and Evaluation (optional). During this quarter, experimental work involving potential recirculating catalysts for coal, initiated in the previous quarter, was continued. The construction and shakedown of an all quartz laboratory-scale isothermal free-fall reactor was completed. Three free-fall experiments were performed in an existing stainless-steel free-fall reactor with untreated and ammonia treated Illinois No. 6 high-voltatile bituminous coal, and the analyzed data are presented herein. A survey of available literature on catalyzed devolatilization of coal, coal pretreatment methods, and related topics was made. Based on the results of this survey, two potential recirculating catalysts, in addition to the already selected zinc chloride, were selected for study: ferrous chloride (FeCl{sub 2}) and ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}). Also, based on the survey, two coal pretreatment/chemical comminution methods were selected for study, in addition to methanol treatment: ammonia and n-butylamine pretreatment. A matrix of experiments was formulated to study the three catalysts and three pretreatment methods selected. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Nitrification in brackish water recirculating aquaculture system integrated with activated packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rejish Kumar, V J; Joseph, Valsamma; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2010-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) depend on nitrifying biofilters for the maintenance of water quality, increased biosecurity and environmental sustainability. To satisfy these requirements a packed bed bioreactor (PBBR) activated with indigenous nitrifying bacterial consortia has been developed and commercialized for operation under different salinities for instant nitrification in shrimp and prawn hatchery systems. In the present study the nitrification efficiency of the bioreactor was tested in a laboratory level recirculating aquaculture system for the rearing of Penaeus monodon for a period of two months under higher feeding rates and no water exchange. Rapid setting up of nitrification was observed during the operation, as the volumetric total ammonia nitrogen removal rates (VTR) increased with total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) production in the system. The average Volumetric TAN Removal Rates (VTR) at the feeding rate of 160 g/day from 54-60th days of culture was 0.1533+/-0.0045 kg TAN/m(3)/day. The regression between VTR and TAN explained 86% variability in VTR (P<0.001). The laboratory level RAS demonstrated here showed high performance both in terms of shrimp biomass yield and nitrification and environmental quality maintenance. Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization analysis of the reactor biofilm ensured the presence of autotrophic nitrifier groups such as Nitrosococcus mobilis lineage, Nitrobacter spp and phylum Nitrospira, the constituent members present in the original consortia used for activating the reactors. This showed the stability of the consortia on long term operation. PMID:20150717

  2. 2-Methylisoborneol and geosmin uptake by organic sludge derived from a recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Lior; van Rijn, Jaap

    2009-02-01

    In a previous study on a recirculating fish culture system, levels of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol were found to decrease when culture water was recirculated through the anaerobic sludge digestion treatment stage of the system. This finding led us to the present study in which the geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol removal capacity of the sludge derived from this treatment stage was examined in vitro. It was found that reduction of off-flavor compounds by the sludge was mediated by both chemical/physical sorption and biological degradation. At geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol concentrations within the range of those experienced in fish culture systems, chemical/physical sorption by the sludge was found to account for a 93% reduction in geosmin and a 79% reduction in 2-methylisoborneol from the overlying water within 48h of incubation. Combined with the biological degradation taking place in the sludge, a complete removal of these compounds from the water phase occurred within 9 days of incubation. By means of repeated washing of the geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol contaminate sludge with clean water, relatively small amounts of these compounds were released from the sludge, a possible indication for the fact that absorption, rather than adsorption, underlies the chemical/physical removal process. PMID:18986667

  3. Determination of oxytetracycline residues in matrixes from a freshwater recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Carson, Mary C; Bullock, Graham; Bebak-Williams, Julie

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes related procedures to determine the amount of oxytetracycline (OTC) present in trout tissue (muscle with skin attached), biofilter sand, sediment, and tank water from a recirculating aquaculture system. OTC was extracted from the matrixes by different techniques, depending on complexity of the matrix and desired OTC detection level in that matrix. Listed in order of increasing complexity, OTC was extracted from tank water by dilution with acidic buffer containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); from biofilter sand by shaking with 0.1 N HCl; from sediment by homogenization and shaking with buffer/EDTA; and from ground trout by homogenization and shaking with buffer/EDTA (twice), with further cleanup and concentration of the extract on a polymeric solid-phase extraction cartridge. The 4 procedures all used the same reversed-phase gradient chromatography on a polymeric column with UV detection at 350 nm. The lower limit of detection (estimated) and upper limit of validation for each of these 4 matrixes were 0.04-4.0 microg/g (ppm; trout), 0.03-20 ppm (biofilter sand), 1-6000 ppm (sediment), and 0.003-10 ppm (water). Recoveries ranged from 82 to 108%, with relative standard deviation <20% over the applicable concentration ranges. These procedures were used to monitor OTC residues resulting from medicated feed administered to rainbow trout in a recirculating aquaculture system. PMID:11990017

  4. Linear Fixed-Field Multi-Pass Arcs for Recirculating Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Morozov, S.A. Bogacz, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard

    2012-06-01

    Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA's) provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dog-bone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of two. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dog-bone RLA.

  5. Flue gas recirculation and enhanced performance of waste incinerators under waste uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Tsiliyannis, Christos Aristeides

    2013-07-16

    Variations in waste quantities and composition affect incinerator operating conditions and performance. Fluegas volumes consititute a dominant environmental and financial consideration for efficient waste incinerator (WI) operation, since they affect the temperature, throughput, air pollution control system (APCS) residence time, and pollutant emissions, when the charging rate or composition of any waste is varying. Fluegas recirculation (FGR) in WI is an effective technique for reducing WI atmospheric pollution, mainly NOx emissions, albeit affecting WI throughput, temperature and destruction/removal efficiency. FGR refers to mass recirculation of a possibly cooled fraction of fluegases and differs substantially from fluegas heat recovery. The present work shows that, besides emission control, suitable manipulation of FGR enhances WI performance under waste uncertainty, enabling higher throughput, at the desired temperature and within the allowed APCS residence time range. A dimensionless parameter related to the uncertain wastes' net enthalpy contribution is isolated, which encompasses heat of reaction and enthalpy outflows from fluegas and solids and which reveals whether throughput is decreasing or increasing with temperature and FGR ratio. Normalized throughput and total fluegas volume isotherms manifest the interdependence and enable manipulation for enhanced environmental and economic performance. PMID:23781842

  6. Effect of flue gas recirculation on heat transfer in a supercritical circulating fluidized bed combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczuk, Artur

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on assessment of the effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR) on heat transfer behavior in 1296t/h supercritical coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The performance test in supercritical CFB combustor with capacity 966 MWth was performed with the low level of flue gas recirculation rate 6.9% into furnace chamber, for 80% unit load at the bed pressure of 7.7 kPa and the ratio of secondary air to the primary air SA/PA = 0.33. Heat transfer behavior in a supercritical CFB furnace between the active heat transfer surfaces (membrane wall and superheater) and bed material has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameters of 0.219 and 0.246 mm. Bed material used in the heat transfer experiments had particle density of 2700 kg/m3. A mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach was used in this work. A heat transfer analysis of CFB combustion system with detailed consideration of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient distributions along furnace height is investigated. Heat transfer data for FGR test were compared with the data obtained for representative conditions without recycled flue gases back to the furnace through star-up burners.

  7. Convection-Enhanced Biopatterning with Recirculation of Hydrodynamically Confined Nanoliter Volumes of Reagents.

    PubMed

    Autebert, Julien; Cors, Julien F; Taylor, David P; Kaigala, Govind V

    2016-03-15

    We present a new methodology for efficient and high-quality patterning of biological reagents for surface-based biological assays. The method relies on hydrodynamically confined nanoliter volumes of reagents to interact with the substrate at the micrometer-length scale. We study the interplay between diffusion, advection, and surface chemistry and present the design of a noncontact scanning microfluidic device to efficiently present reagents on surfaces. By leveraging convective flows, recirculation, and mixing of a processing liquid, this device overcomes limitations of existing biopatterning approaches, such as passive diffusion of analytes, uncontrolled wetting, and drying artifacts. We demonstrate the deposition of analytes, showing a 2- to 5-fold increase in deposition rate together with a 10-fold reduction in analyte consumption while ensuring less than 6% variation in pattern homogeneity on a standard biological substrate. In addition, we demonstrate the recirculation of a processing liquid using a microfluidic probe (MFP) in the context of a surface assay for (i) probing 12 independent areas with a single microliter of processing liquid and (ii) processing a 2 mm(2) surface to create 170 antibody spots of 50 × 100 μm(2) area using 1.6 μL of liquid. We observe high pattern quality, conservative usage of reagents, micrometer precision of localization and convection-enhanced fast deposition. Such a device and method may facilitate quantitative biological assays and spur the development of the next generation of protein microarrays. PMID:26837532

  8. The impact of compaction and leachate recirculation on waste degradation in simulated landfills.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jae Hac; Yang, Fan; Xu, Qiyong

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of compaction and leachate recirculation on anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) at different methane formation phases. Two stainless steel lysimeters, C1 and C2, were constructed by equipping a hydraulic cylinder to apply pressure load (42kPs) on the MSW. When MSW started to produce methane, C1 was compacted, but C2 was compacted when the methane production rate declined from the peak generation rate. Methane production of C1was inhibited by the compaction and resulted in producing a total of 106L methane (44L/kgVS). However, the compaction in C2 promoted MSW degradation resulting in producing a total of 298L methane (125L/kgVS). The concentrations of volatile fatty acids and chemical oxygen demand showed temporary increases, when pressure load was applied. It was considered that the increased substrate accessibility within MSW by compaction could cause either the inhibition or the enhancement of methane production, depending the tolerability of methanogens on the acidic inhibition. Leachate recirculation also gave positive effects on methane generation from wet waste in the decelerated methanogenic phase by increasing mass transfer and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids. PMID:27003792

  9. LUX — A Recirculating Linac-based Ultrafast X-ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlett, J. N.; Barletta, W. A.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W. M.; Green, M. A.; Heimann, P.; Leone, S. R.; Lidia, S.; Li, D.; Parmigiani, F.; Ratti, A.; Robinson, K.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Wan, W.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wolski, A.; Zholents, A.

    2004-05-01

    We describe the design of a proposed source of ultra-fast synchrotron radiation x-ray pulses based on a recirculating superconducting linac, with an integrated array of ultrafast laser systems. The source produces x-ray pulses with duration of 10-50 fs at a 10 kHz repetition rate, with tunability from EUV to hard x-ray regimes, and optimized for the study of ultra-fast dynamics. A high-brightness rf photocathode provides electron bunches. An injector linac accelerates the beam to the 100 MeV range, and is followed by four passes through a 700 MeV recirculating linac. Ultrafast hard x-ray pulses are obtained by a combination of electron bunch manipulation, transverse temporal correlation of the electrons, and x-ray pulse compression. EUV and soft x-ray pulses as short as 10 fs are generated in a harmonic-cascade free electron laser scheme. We describe the facility major systems and peformance.

  10. Investigation of sludge re-circulating clarifiers design and optimization through numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Davari, S; Lichayee, M J

    2003-01-01

    In steam thermal power plants (TPP) with open re-circulating wet cooling towers, elimination of water hardness and suspended solids (SS) is performed in clarifiers. Most of these clarifiers are of high efficiency sludge re-circulating type (SRC) with capacity between 500-1,500 m3/hr. Improper design and/or mal-operation of clarifiers in TPPs results in working conditions below design capacity or production of soft water with improper quality (hardness and S.S.). This causes accumulation of deposits in heat exchangers, condenser tubes, cooling and service water pipes and boiler tubes as well as increasing the ionic load of water at the demineralizing system inlet. It also increases the amount of chemical consumptions and produces more liquid and solid waste. In this regard, a software program for optimal design and simulation of SRCs has been developed. Then design parameters of existing SRCs in four TPPs in Iran were used as inputs to developed software program and resulting technical specifications were compared with existing ones. In some cases improper design was the main cause of poor outlet water quality. In order to achieve proper efficiency, further investigations were made to obtain control parameters as well as design parameters for both mal-designed and/or mal-operated SRCs. PMID:14753549

  11. Speeding up the synchronization of pseudorandom signals by a system comprising a convolver and a recirculation-type delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzichkin, A. V.

    1983-10-01

    An algorithm is proposed for the multistage search for pseudorandom signals (PRSs) by a system comprising an acoustoelectronic convolver (AC) and a recirculation-type delay line (RDL). The algorithm is based on the dependence of the maximum output signal of the RDL on the time mismatch between the received PRS and the recirculation period. The noise immunity of the proposed algorithm is evaluated, and it is shown that the proposed AC-RDL system can speed up considerably the synchronization of long-duration PRSs.

  12. Development of a hybrid k-epsilon turbulence model for swirling recirculating flows under moderate to strong swirl intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Chen, Ching-Shun

    1993-03-01

    A hybrid k-epsilon turbulence model, based on the concept that the modification of anisotropic effects should not be made in the flow regions inherent to small streamline curvatures, has been developed and examined with the swirling recirculating flows, with the swirl levels ranging from 0.6 to 1.23 in an abrupt pipe expansion. A fairly satisfactory agreement of model predictions with the experimental data shows that this hybrid k-epsilon model can perform better simulation of swirling recirculating flows as compared to the standard k-epsilon model and the modified k-epsilon model proposed by Abujelala and Lilley (1984).

  13. Characterization of Mycobacterium salmoniphilum as causal agent of mycobacteriosis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., from a freshwater recirculation system.

    PubMed

    Aro, L; Correa, K; Martínez, A; Ildefonso, R; Yáñez, J M

    2014-04-01

    Thirty Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., with low corporal condition relative to other fish present in the culture system, were sampled from a freshwater recirculation pisciculture located in Chile. The most characteristic signs and lesions were cachexia and presence of multiple greyish-white granulomas within internal organs. The external and internal lesions, along with the microscopic, histologic and biochemical findings, were consistent with mycobacteriosis. The identification of Mycobacterium salmoniphilum as the causal agent of the lesions was possible through the use of molecular analyses. This study represents the first report of Mycobacterium salmoniphilum in a freshwater recirculation system and the first case of fish mycobacteriosis described in Chile. PMID:23952471

  14. 26 CFR 1.1394-1 - Enterprise zone facility bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1397C (relating to satisfaction of the rules for qualified zone property) do not apply prior to the... outside of the zone and expects that orders will be received both from customers who will reside or work... deliver large print jobs to customers who reside outside of the zone. So long as K is able to...

  15. Recipe for Hypoxia: Playing the Dead Zone Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastler, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Dead zones--areas experiencing low levels of dissolved oxygen--are growing in shallow ocean waters around the world. Research has shown that dead zones form as a result of a specific type of pollution, called nutrient enrichment or eutrophication, and are found in almost every coastal zone where humans have large populations. Concepts related to…

  16. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  17. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A 300... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is...

  18. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  19. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  20. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...