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1

Optimal mixing in recirculation zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coarse-scale mixing in a recirculation zone is described with a simple vortex model. Time-dependent forcing is employed to change the vortex motion and mixing properties. An optimal mixing problem is defined in which the flux across the recirculation region shall be maximized under the side-constraints of bounded vortex motion and bounded actuation. Concepts of control theory and chaotic advection are

Bernd R. Noack; Igor Mezic; Gilead Tadmor; Andrzej Banaszuk

2004-01-01

2

The structure of the recirculation zone of a bluff-body combustor  

SciTech Connect

The instantaneous mixing and reactive scalar fields have been measured in the recirculation zones of turbulent non-premixed flames stabilized on a bluff body, using the spontaneous Raman scattering technique. The measured means and rms fluctuations of mixture fraction, temperature, and the mass fractions of stable species are presented for various axial locations in the recirculation zone of CH{sub 4}/CO and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} flames. The diameters of the bluff body and the central fuel jet are 50 and 2 mm, respectively. Both flames are about 40 cm in length and have a full, luminous recirculation zone that extends for about one bluff-body diameter from the exit plane. Two regions of almost homogeneous mixture are identified within the recirculation zone: A large outer region, which on average is fuel lean, and an inner region, which is smaller and closer to the central fuel jet. Combustion is more intense in the inner region, where mean mixture fraction is stoichiometric and the peak values for temperature and mass fractions of combustion products are reached. Finite-rate chemical kinetic effects exist but not a high enough levels to cause localized extinction in the recirculation zone.

Masri, A.R.; Dally, B.B. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering; Barlow, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Carter, C.D. [Systems Research Labs., Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

1994-12-31

3

Prediction of recirculation zones in isothermal coaxial jet flows relevant to combustors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the recirculation zones in confined coaxial turbulent jets are investigated numerically employing the kappa - epsilon turbulence model. The geometrical arrangement corresponds to the experimental study of Owen (AIAA J. 1976) and the investigation is undertaken to provide information for isothermal flow relevant to combustor flows. For the first time, the shape, size, and location of the recirculation zones for the above experimental configuration are correctly predicted. The processes leading to the observed results are explained. Detailed comparisons of the prediction with measurements are made. It is shown that the recirculation zones are very sensitive to the central jet exit configuration and the velocity ratio of the jets.

Nallasamy, M.

1987-01-01

4

Fluid residence times within a recirculation zone created by an extraction–injection well pair  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present several analytical and semi-analytical solutions to evaluate the fluid residence times within the recirculation zone created by an extraction–injection well pair for several types of flow fields. The flow fields include: a well doublet in the absence of regional flow; an ‘encaged recirculation cell’ where a well doublet is located within and parallel to a uniform regional flow;

Jian Luo; Peter K. Kitanidis

2004-01-01

5

Particle capture by turbulent recirculation zones measured using long-time Lagrangian particle tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the trajectories of particles into, and around, the recirculation zone formed in water flowing through a\\u000a sudden pipe expansion with radius ratio 1:3.7, at Reynolds numbers between 5,960 and 41,700 over a range of particle Stokes\\u000a number (here defined as $$ St = {\\\\frac{{T_{\\\\text{f}} }}{{\\\\tau_{\\\\text{p}} }}} $$, where T\\u000a f is an appropriate mean or turbulent timescale

Y. W. SiuA; A. M. K. P. Taylor

2011-01-01

6

Experimental verification of a secondary recirculation zone in a labyrinth seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of a secondary recirculation zone inside the cavities of a labyrinth seal operating at a Reynolds number of 15,000 and a Taylor number of 10,300 has been experimentally verified. A three-dimensional laser Doppler anemometer system was used to measure the complete mean velocity and Reynolds stress tensor distributions in the first, third, fifth and seventh cavities of a seven cavity labyrinth seal which had a clearance of 1.27 mm.

Morrison, G. L.; Tatterson, G. B.; Johnson, M. C.

1988-01-01

7

Mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine having a pilot mixer with a corner flame stabilizing recirculation zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine is provided, including a main mixer, and a pilot mixer having an annular housing in which a corner is formed between an aft portion of the housing and a bulkhead wall in which a corner recirculation zone is located to stabilize and anchor the flame of the pilot mixer. The pilot mixer can further include features to cool the annular housing, including in the area of the corner recirculation zone.

Dai, Zhongtao (Inventor); Cohen, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Fotache, Catalin G. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

8

Prediction of central recirculation zone size for a complete burner-quarl-furnace system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the swirl flow burning process of fuels, the central recirculation zone plays an important role in flame stabilization by providing a hot flow of recirculated combustion products, which reduce both the length of flame and the stabilized flame distance from the burner mouth. In this paper, a new modified swirl number, S exp xx, related to the characteristic size of the burner quarl, is introduced to correlate the isothermal and burning flows. Using a well-known two-dimensional computational model, the isothermal flow pattern in a complete burner-quarl-furnace system is computed. On this basis, the theoretical swirl number S exp xx is calculated and used as a correlation parameter for predicting the central recirculation zone size in burning flow conditions. Experimental tests for both nonreacting and reacting flows on the same complete burner-quarl-furnace system, for comparing the theoretical and experimental swirl number s exp xx, have been conducted, and the validity of this new correlation parameter has been proved.

Cristea, Eugen-Dan B.

1987-03-01

9

The STREON Recirculation Chamber: An Advanced Tool to Quantify Stream Ecosystem Metabolism in the Benthic Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STReam Experimental Observatory Network is a large-scale experimental effort that will investigate the effects of eutrophication and loss of large consumers in stream ecosystems. STREON represents the first experimental effort undertaken and supported by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).Two treatments will be applied at 10 NEON sites and maintained for 10 years in the STREON program: the addition of nitrate and phosphate to enrich concentrations by five times ambient levels and electrical fields that exclude top consumers (i.e., fish or invertebrates) of the food web from the surface of buried sediment baskets. Following a 3-5 week period, the sediment baskets will be extracted and incubated in closed, recirculating metabolic chambers to measure rates of respiration, photosynthesis, and nutrient uptake. All STREON-generated data will be open access and available on the NEON web portal. The recirculation chamber represents a critical infrastructural component of STREON. Although researchers have applied such chambers for metabolic and nutrient uptake measurements in the past, the scope of STREON demands a novel design that addresses multiple processes often neglected by earlier models. The STREON recirculation chamber must be capable of: 1) incorporating hyporheic exchange into the flow field to ensure measurements of respiration include the activity of subsurface biota, 2) operating consistently with heterogeneous sediments from sand to cobble, 3) minimizing heat exchange from the motor and external environment, 4) delivering a reproducible uniform flow field over the surface of the sediment basket, and 5) efficient assembly/disassembly with minimal use of tools. The chamber also required a means of accommodating an optical dissolved oxygen probe and a means to inject/extract water. A prototype STREON chamber has been designed and thoroughly tested. The flow field within the chamber has been mapped using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) under various velocity settings. The extent of exchange with the sediment was assessed by means of a saline tracer injection and adjustment using flow-regulating components was explored. Performance under a broad range of temperatures (1 to 30 °C) was assessed. Finally, a novel heat-exchange mechanism meant to minimize warming during operations was evaluated. All prototype assessments demonstrate the applicability of the STREON chamber under a broad range of conditions. Though the STREON recirculation chamber has been designed to satisfy the specific needs of the STREON program, the open-access nature of the NEON network should facilitate scope expansion in the coming decades. The STREON recirculation chamber design and all prototype testing data will be accessible to facilitate chamber use elsewhere. The large number of chamber assemblies required for STREON operations should facilitate the acquisition of units by researchers working outside of the NEON network. Furthermore, the current scope of STREON includes the use of the chambers only once annually, thus a valuable tool for stream ecosystem measurements will be readily available at STREON sites for potential use by researchers interested in such measurements.

Brock, J. T.; Utz, R.; McLaughlin, B.

2013-12-01

10

Enhancing simultaneous nitritation and anammox in recirculating biofilters: effects of unsaturated zone depth and alkalinity dissolution of packing materials.  

PubMed

This study investigated effects of unsaturated zone depth on nitrogen removal via simultaneous nitritation and anammox in three vertical flow recirculating biofilters. The biofilters had different depths (25, 40, and 60 cm) of an unsaturated zone and the same depth (35 cm) of a saturated zone. Unsaturated zone depth could be regulated to maintain suitable dissolved oxygen concentrations and enhance entrapment of carbon dioxide for co-occurrence of aerobic ammonia oxidation and anammox in the saturated zones. The biofilters with the larger unsaturated zones had higher ammonium and total inorganic nitrogen removal rates (16.2-33.5 g N/m(3)/d and 4.6-16.7 g N/m(3)/d, respectively) than the biofilter with the smallest unsaturated zone (11.9-18.1 g N/m(3)/d and 4.4-7.9 g N/m(3)/d, respectively). Electric arc furnace slag and marble chips were packed in the unsaturated and saturated zones, respectively, as low-cost materials to supplement alkalinity and buffer pH. Laboratory experiments showed that the maximum alkalinity dissolution efficiency was 513 mg CaCO(3)/kg marble chips and 761 mg CaCO(3)/kg electric arc furnace slag. Marble chips and electric arc furnace slag could increase dairy wastewater pH up to 7 and 9, respectively. The laboratory results are also useful for utilization of furnace slag and marble chips in constructed wetlands. PMID:23182247

Wen, Jianfeng; Tao, Wendong; Wang, Ziyuan; Pei, Yuansheng

2013-01-15

11

Zone generator for Large Space Telescope technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept is presented for monitoring the optical adjustment and performance of a Large Space Telescope which consists of a 1.2m diameter turntable with a laser stylus to operate at speeds up to 30 rpm. The focus of the laser stylus is under closed loop control. A technique for scribing zones of suitable depth, width, and uniformity applicable to large telescope mirrors is also reported.

Erickson, K. E.

1974-01-01

12

Recirculating rotary gas compressor  

DOEpatents

A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1992-02-25

13

Rupture Zones of Large South American Earthquakes and Some Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to forecast likely locations for large shallow South American earthquakes in the near future by examining the past space-time pattern of occurrence of large (M _ 7.7) earthquakes, the lateral extent of their rupture zones, and, where possible, the direction of rupture propagation. Rupture zones of large shallow earthquakes generally abut and do not overlap. Patterns of

John A. Kelleher

1972-01-01

14

Wind tunnel investigation on the retention of air pollutants in three-dimensional recirculation zones in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article discusses an experimental investigation of turbulent dispersion processes in a typical three-dimensional urban geometry, in reduced scale, in neutrally stable conditions. Wind tunnel experiments were carried out for characterizing the flow and the dispersion of a pollutant around a scaled model (1:400) of a group of eight 10-floor buildings surrounding a square. The situation corresponded to the dispersion of fine inertialess particles released from a line source positioned upstream of the urban geometry. After the sudden interruption of the source generation, the particles persisted in the recirculation cavity between the buildings, with the concentration decaying exponentially with time. This is in accordance with previous works on the dispersion process around bluff bodies of different shapes [e.g., Humphries and Vincent, 1976. An experimental investigation of the detention of airborne smoke in the wake bubble behind a disk. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 73, 453-464; Vincent, 1977. Model experiments on the nature of air pollution transport near buildings. Atmospheric Environment 11, 765-774; Fackrell, 1984. Parameters characterizing dispersion in the near wake of buildings. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 16, 97-118]. The main parameter in the investigation was the characteristic time constant for the concentration decay. The measurements of the variation in the concentration of the fine particles were performed by means of a photo-detection technique based on the attenuation of light. The velocity fields were evaluated with the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The dimensionless residence time H for the particles ( H= ?U/ L, where ? is the time constant for the concentration decay, U the free-stream velocity, and L is a characteristic dimension for the urban geometry, as defined by Humphries and Vincent [1976. An experimental investigation of the detention of airborne smoke in the wake bubble behind a disk. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 73, 453-464] was determined for various locations in the scaled model, in the range of Reynolds numbers ( Re) between 8000 and 64,000. H was found to be 6.5±1.0.

Gomes, Marcos Sebastião de Paula; Isnard, André Augusto; Pinto, José Maurício do Carmo

15

A satellite magnetic perspective of subduction zones, large igneous provinces, rifts, and diffuse plate boundary zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large and intermediate-scale tectonic features such as subduction zones, large igneous provinces, rifts, and diffuse plate boundary zones are often seen to have a magnetic signature visible from the perspective of near-Earth magnetic field satellites such as CHAMP and Orsted. Why do these tectonic features have a magnetic signature, while others do not? A new model of the lithospheric field

M. E. Purucker; K. A. Whaler

2008-01-01

16

Gas turbine combustor stabilization by heat recirculation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of heat recirculation for stabilization of lean mixtures and emission reduction has been studied in detail for a typical aircraft gas turbine combustor. Thermodynamic calculations have indicated temperature and heat recirculation rates for operation of the combustor over a range of combustion zone equivalence ratios and for varying modes of desired engine operation. Calculations indicate the feasibility of stabilizing the combustion zone at equivalence ratios as low as 0.2 with achievable heat recirculation rates. Detailed chemical kinetic calculations suggest that combustor heat release is maintained with reaction completion substantially before the NO forming reactions, even though CO is rapidly oxidized in this same region.

Ganji, A.; Short, J.; Branch, M. C.; Oppenheim, A. K.

1975-01-01

17

Recirculating flow and sedimentation in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debris fans debouching into the bottom of Grand Canyon create rapids and flow separation in the Colorado River. The patterns of flow and the behavior of recirculation zones formed by flow separation are consistent throughout the Canyon's length. Zones of recirculating flow occur along the margin of channel expansions. Recirculation zones are comprised of one primary eddy; secondary eddies and

John C. Schmidt

1990-01-01

18

Hydro-mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste subject to leachate recirculation in a large-scale compression reactor cell.  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of a laboratory experiment on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) subjected to one-dimensional compression in a 1 m3 instrumented cell. The focus was on the hydro-mechanical behavior of the material under conditions of confinement and leachate percolation that replicate those found in real-scale landfills. The operation of the apparatus is detailed together with the testing methodology and the monitoring program. Two samples of waste were tested: the first extended over a period of 10 months ('Control Test') and the second for 22 months ('Enhanced Test' with leachate recirculation). Consolidation data is reported with regard to both short-term (stress-dependent) and long-term (time-dependent) settlements. A discussion follows based on the derived values of primary and secondary compression ratios. Correlations between compression parameters and the biodegradation process are presented. In particular, results clearly highlight the effect of leachate recirculation on waste settlement: 24% secondary deformation reached after slightly less than 2 years (equivalent to a 5-fold increase in compressibility) and 17.9% loss of dry matter. Comparisons are proposed considering the results derived from the few monitoring programs conducted on experimental bioreactors worldwide. Finally, the hydraulic characterization of waste is discussed with regard to the evaluation of effective porosity and permeability. PMID:16563727

Olivier, Franck; Gourc, Jean-Pierre

2007-01-01

19

Validation for a recirculation model.  

PubMed

Recent Clean Air Act regulations designed to reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions have placed new restrictions on painting operations. Treating large volumes of air which contain dilute quantities of VOCs can be expensive. Recirculating some fraction of the air allows an operator to comply with environmental regulations at reduced cost. However, there is a potential impact on employee safety because indoor pollutants will inevitably increase when air is recirculated. A computer model was developed, written in Microsoft Excel 97, to predict compliance costs and indoor air concentration changes with respect to changes in the level of recirculation for a given facility. The model predicts indoor air concentrations based on product usage and mass balance equations. This article validates the recirculation model using data collected from a C-130 aircraft painting facility at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Air sampling data and air control cost quotes from vendors were collected for the Hill AFB painting facility and compared to the model's predictions. The model's predictions for strontium chromate and isocyanate air concentrations were generally between the maximum and minimum air sampling points with a tendency to predict near the maximum sampling points. The model's capital cost predictions for a thermal VOC control device ranged from a 14 percent underestimate to a 50 percent overestimate of the average cost quotes. A sensitivity analysis of the variables is also included. The model is demonstrated to be a good evaluation tool in understanding the impact of recirculation. PMID:11318387

LaPuma, P T

2001-04-01

20

Evidence for large earthquakes at the Cascadia Subduction Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, historically unprecedented earthquakes at the Cascadia subduction zone in western North America have left signs of sudden land level change, tsunamis, and strong shaking in coastal sediments. The coastal geological evidence suggests that many of the earthquakes occurred at the boundary between the overriding North American plate and the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. This hypothesis is consistent with

John J. Clague

1997-01-01

21

Evidence for large earthquakes at the Cascadia subduction zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, historically unprecedented earthquakes at the Cascadia subduction zone in western North America have left signs of sudden land level change, tsunamis, and strong shaking in coastal sediments. The coastal geological evidence suggests that many of the earthquakes occurred at the boundary between the overriding North American plate and the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. This hypothesis is consistent with

John J. Clague

1997-01-01

22

Confined turbulent swirling recirculating flow predictions. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability and the accuracy of the STARPIC computer code in predicting confined turbulent swirling recirculating flows is presented. Inlet flow boundary conditions were demonstrated to be extremely important in simulating a flowfield via numerical calculations. The degree of swirl strength and expansion ratio have strong effects on the characteristics of swirling flow. In a nonswirling flow, a large corner recirculation zone exists in the flowfield with an expansion ratio greater than one. However, as the degree of inlet swirl increases, the size of this zone decreases and a central recirculation zone appears near the inlet. Generally, the size of the central zone increased with swirl strength and expansion ratio. Neither the standard k-epsilon turbulence mode nor its previous extensions show effective capability for predicting confined turbulent swirling recirculating flows. However, either reduced optimum values of three parameters in the mode or the empirical C sub mu formulation obtained via careful analysis of available turbulence measurements, can provide more acceptable accuracy in the prediction of these swirling flows.

Abujelala, M. T.; Lilley, D. G.

1985-01-01

23

A satellite magnetic perspective of subduction zones, large igneous provinces, rifts, and diffuse plate boundary zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large and intermediate-scale tectonic features such as subduction zones, large igneous provinces, rifts, and diffuse plate boundary zones are often seen to have a magnetic signature visible from the perspective of near-Earth magnetic field satellites such as CHAMP and Orsted. Why do these tectonic features have a magnetic signature, while others do not? A new model of the lithospheric field (MF-6, Maus et al., 2008) extending to spherical harmonic degree 120 (333 km wavelength) has been used to evaluate the magnetic state of the lithosphere under the assumption that the magnetization is either induced (with a seismic starting model), or remanent (with a minimum norm approach). Some of the features identified from these images include the Tethyan and NE Siberian diffuse plate boundary zones, the Red Sea rift, and Cretaceous rift basins developed on the West African shield. Almost without exception, subduction zones exhibit a magnetic signature, as do many large igneous provinces. In this talk we discuss some of the new insights this magnetic perspective provides, and speculate on the controls which determine whether tectonic features will be expressed magnetically.

Purucker, M. E.; Whaler, K. A.

2008-12-01

24

Large earthquake processes in the northern Vanuatu subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides) subduction zone (11°S to 14°S) has experienced large shallow thrust earthquakes with Mw > 7 in 1966 (MS 7.9, 7.3), 1980 (Mw 7.5, 7.7), 1997 (Mw 7.7), 2009 (Mw 7.7, 7.8, 7.4), and 2013 (Mw 8.0). We analyze seismic data from the latter four earthquake sequences to quantify the rupture processes of these large earthquakes. The 7 October 2009 earthquakes occurred in close spatial proximity over about 1 h in the same region as the July 1980 doublet. Both sequences activated widespread seismicity along the northern Vanuatu subduction zone. The focal mechanisms indicate interplate thrusting, but there are differences in waveforms that establish that the events are not exact repeats. With an epicenter near the 1980 and 2009 events, the 1997 earthquake appears to have been a shallow intraslab rupture below the megathrust, with strong southward directivity favoring a steeply dipping plane. Some triggered interplate thrusting events occurred as part of this sequence. The 1966 doublet ruptured north of the 1980 and 2009 events and also produced widespread aftershock activity. The 2013 earthquake rupture propagated southward from the northern corner of the trench with shallow slip that generated a substantial tsunami. The repeated occurrence of large earthquake doublets along the northern Vanuatu subduction zone is remarkable considering the doublets likely involved overlapping, yet different combinations of asperities. The frequent occurrence of large doublet events and rapid aftershock expansion in this region indicate the presence of small, irregularly spaced asperities along the plate interface.

Cleveland, K. Michael; Ammon, Charles J.; Lay, Thorne

2014-12-01

25

Exhaust gas recirculating apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design is given of apparatus associated with an engine on a motor vehicle for either stopping the recirculation of exhaust gas through the engine completely or allowing it at a controlled rate, depending upon the operating condition of the engine. A regulating valve provided with a pair of diaphragms is installed in the exhaust gas recirculating circuit, and a

H. Nohira; K. Kobashi

1975-01-01

26

Lattice Design for the LHEC Recirculating Linac  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present a lattice design for the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) recirculating linac. The recirculating linac consists of one roughly 3-km long linac hosting superconducting RF (SRF) accelerating cavities, two arcs and one transfer line for the recirculation. In two passes through a pulsed SRF linac the electron beam can get a maximum energy of 140 GeV. Alternatively, in the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) option the beam passes through a CW linac four times (two passes for acceleration and two for deceleration) for a maximum energy of 60 GeV.

Sun, Yipeng; /CERN; Eide, Anders; /CERN; Zimmermann, Frank; /CERN; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

2011-05-20

27

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculation passageway leads from an engine exhaust passageway to an engine induction passageway downstream of a throttle valve. A fuel control member of an injection pump moves the throttle valve in the opening direction to reduce the vacuum in the induction passageway and thereby the amount of exhaust gas recirculation only when the fuel control member is moved beyond a predetermined position in the fuel increasing direction. A stopper limits movement of the throttle valve in the closing direction.

Wake, J.; Matsuda, H.

1980-01-01

28

Characterization of a sudden expansion flow chamber to study the response of endothelium to flow recirculation.  

PubMed

In order to simulate regions of flow separation observed in vivo, a conventional parallel plate flow chamber was modified to produce an asymmetric sudden expansion. The flow field was visualized using light reflecting particles and the size of the recirculation zone was measured by image analysis of the particles. Finite element numerical solutions of the two and three-dimensional forms of the Navier-Stokes equation were used to determine the wall shear stress distribution and predict the location of reattachment. For two different size expansions, numerical estimates of the reattachment point along the centerline of the flow chamber agreed well with experimental values for Reynolds numbers below 473. Even at a Reynolds number of 473, the flow could be approximated as two-dimensional for 80 percent of the chamber width. Peak shear stresses in the recirculation zone as high as 80 dyne/cm2 and shear stress gradients of 2500 (dyne/cm2)/cm were produced. As an application of this flow chamber, subconfluent bovine aortic endothelial cell shape and orientation were examined in the zone of recirculation during a 24 h exposure to flow at a Reynolds number of 267. After 24 h, gradients in cell orientation and shape were observed within the recirculation zone. At the location of reattachment, where the wall shear stress was zero but the shear stress gradients were large, cells plated at low density were still aligned with the direction of flow. No preferred orientation was observed at the gasket edge where the wall shear stress and shear stress gradients were zero. At higher cell densities, no alignment was observed at the separation point.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7666657

Truskey, G A; Barber, K M; Robey, T C; Olivier, L A; Combs, M P

1995-05-01

29

High ratio recirculating gas compressor  

DOEpatents

A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1989-01-01

30

High ratio recirculating gas compressor  

DOEpatents

A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1989-08-22

31

Unsaturated-zone wedge beneath a large, natural lake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Belle Taine (480 ha) in north central Minnesota receives on average 76,000 m3 d-1 of water from Little Sand Creek but has no outlet. Water seeps out of the lake, flows through glacial outwash, and discharges into three nearby lakes with stages 13-14 m lower than Belle Taine. Seepage-meter data indicate water is seeping out of Belle Taine at velocities up to 263 cm d-1. Hydraulic-head measurements made in the lake bed indicate the sediments are unsaturated beneath a portion of the lake edge, and a wedge of unsaturated sediments extends beneath the lake bed as much as 20 m from the shoreline. At the shoreline the water table is as much as 6.7 m below the lake surface. Modeling results of a similar hypothetical setting indicate that the horizontal extent of an unsaturated zone beneath a lake depends on (1) the permeability contrast between the outwash and the lake bed, (2) anisotropy, (3) lake bed slope, and (4) thickness of the lower-permeability lake bed sediments. Although rarely documented, unsaturated sediments beneath a lake may not be extremely uncommon. Similar, much smaller unsaturated-zone areas also have been observed beneath two other lakes in Minnesota.

Rosenberry, D.O.

2000-01-01

32

Engine exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine employs a recirculation control valve in a passageway connecting the engine exhaust passage to the engine intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. An air conduit having an air control valve therein furnishes atmospheric air to the intake passage downstream from the throttle valve. Vacuum responsive actuators are provided for

H. Nishimura; T. Shioya; T. Umemoto

1981-01-01

33

Cooling Along Hyporheic Pathlines in a Large River Riparian Zone  

EPA Science Inventory

Floodplains can contribute to hyporheic cooling and moderation of temperature for rivers, but extent and magnitude are dependent on ground water hydrology. Here we illustrate the controls and dynamics of hyporheic cooling in the ground water of a large river floodplain with field...

34

Quiet zone within a seismic gap near western Nicaragua: Possible location of a future large earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 5700-square-kilometer quiet zone occurs in the midst of the locations of more than 4000 earthquakes off the Pacific coast of Nicaragua. The region is indicated by the seismic gap technique to be a likely location for an earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. The quiet zone has existed since at least 1950; the last large earthquake originating from this area occurred in 1898 and was of magnitude 7.5. A rough estimate indicates that the magnitude of an earthquake rupturing the entire quiet zone could be as large as that of the 1898 event. It is not yet possible to forecast a time frame for the occurrence of such an earthquake in the quiet zone. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

Harlow, D.H.; White, R.A.; Cifuentes, I.L.; Aburto, Q.A.

1981-01-01

35

Combustion-gas recirculation system  

DOEpatents

A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lacon, IL)

2007-10-09

36

Residual strength of slip zones of large landslides in the Three Gorges area, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slip zones of the large landslides in the Three Gorges area are commonly composed of fine-grained soils with substantial amount of coarse-grained particles, particularly gravel-sized particles. In this study, residual strength of the soils from slip zones of these landslides were examined in relation to their index properties based on a survey of 170 landslides. It was found that laboratory-determined

B. P. Wen; A. Aydin; N. S. Duzgoren-Aydin; Y. R. Li; H. Y. Chen; S. D. Xiao

2007-01-01

37

Hydroxyl time series and recirculation in turbulent nonpremixed swirling flames  

SciTech Connect

Time-series measurements of OH, as related to accompanying flow structures, are reported using picosecond time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (PITLIF) and particle-imaging velocimetry (PIV) for turbulent, swirling, nonpremixed methane-air flames. The [OH] data portray a primary reaction zone surrounding the internal recirculation zone, with residual OH in the recirculation zone approaching chemical equilibrium. Modeling of the OH electronic quenching environment, when compared to fluorescence lifetime measurements, offers additional evidence that the reaction zone burns as a partially premixed flame. A time-series analysis affirms the presence of thin flamelet-like regions based on the relation between swirl-induced turbulence and fluctuations of [OH] in the reaction and recirculation zones. The OH integral time-scales are found to correspond qualitatively to local mean velocities. Furthermore, quantitative dependencies can be established with respect to axial position, Reynolds number, and global equivalence ratio. Given these relationships, the OH time-scales, and thus the primary reaction zone, appear to be dominated by convection-driven fluctuations. Surprisingly, the OH time-scales for these nominally swirling flames demonstrate significant similarities to previous PITLIF results in nonpremixed jet flames. (author)

Guttenfelder, Walter A.; Laurendeau, Normand M.; Ji, Jun; King, Galen B.; Gore, Jay P. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1288 (United States); Renfro, Michael W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States)

2006-10-15

38

Recirculation of municipal landfill leachate  

E-print Network

RECIRCULATION OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE A Thesis by BRIAN JUDE PINKO4ISKI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering RECIRCULATION OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE A Thesis by BRIAN JUDE PINKOWSKI Approved as to style and content by: Charles P. Giammona (Chair of Committee) Roy . Harm, (Member) Kirk W. Brown (Member) Donald A. Maxwel...

Pinkowski, Brian Jude

1987-01-01

39

Large-scale laboratory measurements of sheet flow sediment transport in the swash zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing sediment transport models show poor predictive quality when applied to the swash zone, indicating that the underlying processes of swash zone sediment transport are not yet fully understood. The recognition that more detailed measurements are needed to improve understanding of swash-zone processes has led to several recent innovations in swash-zone measurement techniques. One of these innovative measurement techniques, the Conductivity Concentration Profiler (CCP), was developed to address the issue of near-bed (sheet flow) sediment transport, which is believed to be an important part of the overall swash-zone sediment transport. Measurements of sheet flow processes in the swash zone from the Barrier Dynamics Experiment (Bardex-II) are presented. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of a coastal barrier system and develop an increased understanding of cross-shore sediment transport processes in the nearshore zone of sandy beaches. A 70-m long, near-prototype scale sandy barrier was constructed in a large wave flume facility and equipped with over 200 sensors to measure hydrodynamics and sediment processes ranging from the shoaling-wave zone to the back barrier. CCP sensors were deployed at three locations in the swash zone as part of the ';swash and berm dynamics' work package. Onshore-directed pressure gradients, observed during the initial stages of uprush, enhanced sediment mobilization. The combination of near-bed sediment mobilization due to pressure gradients (known as plug flow) and shear stress (sheet flow) is examined. Sediment load in the sheet flow layer is also compared to suspended load and total load measured using an array of optical backscatter sensors. The sheet flow layer thickness is compared to hydrodynamic forcing such as bed shear stress and the effect of groundwater exchange.

Lanckriet, T. M.; Puleo, J. A.; Foster, D. L.

2013-12-01

40

The Impact of Laptop-Free Zones on Student Performance and Attitudes in Large Lectures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to determine if laptop use in lecture negatively impacts learning outcomes of surrounding students taking notes on paper. Two sections of a large introductory biology course (greater than 400 students/section) were zoned into a laptop-permitted and a laptop-free area. Two sections in which laptop users could sit anywhere…

Aguilar-Roca, Nancy M.; Williams, Adrienne E.; O'Dowd, Diane K.

2012-01-01

41

Adaptation to heat and water shortage in large, arid-zone mammals.  

PubMed

Although laboratory studies of large mammals have revealed valuable information on thermoregulation, such studies cannot predict accurately how animals respond in their natural habitats. Through insights obtained on thermoregulatory behavior, body temperature variability, and selective brain cooling in free-living mammals, we show here how we can better understand the physiological capacity of large mammals to cope with hotter and drier arid-zone habitats likely with climate change. PMID:24789980

Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Duncan

2014-05-01

42

Journal of Crystal Growth 194 (1998) 321--330 Combined heat transfer in floating zone growth of large silicon  

E-print Network

Journal of Crystal Growth 194 (1998) 321--330 Combined heat transfer in floating zone growth the combined heat transfer in floating zone growth of large Si crystals with needle-eye technique factors associated with the components in the float zone furnace and both the diffuse and specular

Guo, Zhixiong "James"

1998-01-01

43

Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management. PMID:23076973

von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

2013-02-01

44

An Ongoing Large Slow Slip Event in the Southern Central Alaska Subduction Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze time series of GPS measurement in southern central Alaska, and identify an ongoing long-term slow slip event (SSE) occurring since the end of 2008 around Anchorage Alaska area, starting 7-8 years later after the end of the previous 1998-2001 SSE. The slow slip event is counter-acting the background linear trend of plate convergence between Pacific and North America plates. Significant velocity changes are very obvious in north and height directions, and detectable in the east. Detailed analysis of continuous GPS time series indicates this slow slip event started at ~2008.96, and is still continuing since then. This slow slip event appears to have a very slow rise time, unlike the 1998-2001 event. Through mid-2012, GPS time series during this long-term slow slip can be well fitted with a linear term plus an exponential (or logarithmic) term. The velocity changes are located around and north of Anchorage, which indicates that the SSE is occurring at the downdip of the locked seismogenic zone of the southern central Alaska subduction zone, like the 1998-2001 event. We will use both continuous and campaign (including the campaign measurements of later summer of 2012) GPS measurements to better constrain the location and amplitude of the ongoing SSE in southern central Alaska, and compare with the 1964 earthquake rupture zone to discuss the relationship between locked zone, SSE zone and free slip zone in terms of their contributions to large earthquake in Alaska subduction zone.

Freymueller, J. T.; Fu, Y.

2012-12-01

45

An autostereoscopic display with high resolution and large number of view zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a spatial-multiplexed 3D display, trade-off between resolution and number of view-zones are usually unavoidable due to the limited number of pixels on the screen. In this paper, we present a new autostereoscopic system, named as "integrated-screen system," to substantially increase the total number of pixels on the screen, which in turn increase both the resolution and number of view-zones. In the integrated-screen system, a large number of mini-projectors are arrayed and the images are tiled together without seams in between. For displaying 3D images, the lenticular screen with predesigned tilted angle is used for distributing different viewing zones. In order to achieve good performance, we design a brand-new projector with special lens set to meet the low-distortion requirement because the distortion of the image will induce serious crosstalk between view-zones. The proposed system has two advantages. One is the extensibility of the screen size. The size of the display can be chosen based on the applications we deal with, including the size of the projected pixel and the number of viewing zones. The other advantage is that the integrated-screen system provides projected pixels in great density to solve the major problem of the poor resolution that a lenticular-type 3D display has.

Chen, Wu-Li; Hsu, Wei-Liang; Tsai, Chao-Hsu; Wang, Chy-Lin; Wu, Chang-Shuo; Yang, Jinn-Cherng; Cheng, Shu-Chuan

2008-02-01

46

Multiple active zones in hybrid QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations for large biomolecular systems.  

PubMed

A new QM/MM molecular dynamics approach that can deal with the dynamics of large real systems involving several simultaneous active zones is presented. Multiple, unconnected but interacting quantum regions are treated independently in an ordinary QM/MM approach but in a manner which converges to a unique simulation. The multiple active zones in the hybrid QM/MM molecular dynamics methodology (maz-QM/MM MD) involve molecular dynamics that is driving the whole simulation with several parallel executions of energy gradients within the QM/MM approach that merge into each MD step. The Ewald-summation method is used to incorporate long-range electrostatic interactions among the active zones in conjunction with periodic boundary conditions. To illustrate and ascertain capabilities and limitations, we present several benchmark calculations using this approach. Our results show that the maz-QM/MM MD method is able to provide simultaneous treatment of several active zones of very large proteins such as the Cu-4His-?C* cage, a self-assembly of a 24-mer cage-like protein ferritin. PMID:25783778

Torras, Juan

2015-04-01

47

77 FR 29254 - Safety Zones, Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA00 Safety Zones, Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest...moving safety zone around large cruise ships as they transit the Lower Mississippi...between the Port of New Orleans Cruise Ship Terminal, mile marker 96.0...

2012-05-17

48

Automatic multiple-zone rigid-body refinement with a large convergence radius  

PubMed Central

Rigid-body refinement is the constrained coordinate refinement of one or more groups of atoms that each move (rotate and translate) as a single body. The goal of this work was to establish an automatic procedure for rigid-body refinement which implements a practical compromise between runtime requirements and convergence radius. This has been achieved by analysis of a large number of trial refinements for 12 classes of random rigid-body displacements (that differ in magnitude of introduced errors), using both least-squares and maximum-likelihood target functions. The results of these tests led to a multiple-zone protocol. The final parameterization of this protocol was optimized empirically on the basis of a second large set of test refinements. This multiple-zone protocol is implemented as part of the phenix.refine program. PMID:19649324

Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Adams, Paul D.

2009-01-01

49

Integrated Dynamic Aquaculture and Wastewater Treatment Modelling for Recirculating Aquaculture Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in land based sh tanks, where the sh tank euen t is biologically treated and then recirculated back to the sh tanks, of- fers a possibility for large scale ecologically sustainable sh production. In order to fully exploit the advantages of RAS, however, the water exchange should be as small as possible. This implies strong demands

Torsten E. I. Wika; Bjorn T. Lind

50

Integrated dynamic aquaculture and wastewater treatment modelling for recirculating aquaculture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in land based fish tanks, where the fish tank effluent is biologically treated and then recirculated back to the fish tanks, offers a possibility for large scale ecologically sustainable fish production. In order to fully exploit the advantages of RAS, however, the water exchange should be as small as possible. This implies strong demands on the

Torsten E. I. Wik; Björn T. Lindén; Per I. Wramner

2009-01-01

51

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control valve in an exhaust gas recirculation line for an engine is operated by vacuum pressure from a regulating valve. The regulating valve has a vacuum chamber positioned between two orifices mounted in a line leading to atmospheric air intake. An air valve located downstream from said regulating valve and orifices controls vacuum pressure from a control suction air

M. Kawamoto; Y. Otobe

1983-01-01

52

Rockfall susceptibility zoning at a large scale: From geomorphological inventory to preliminary land use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rockfall, up to several hundreds of cubic meters, is a frequent and rapid landslide which menaces extensive areas in mountainous territories. Rockfall susceptibility zoning map at a large scale (1:5000–1:25000) can be the first tool for land use planning in order to manage rockfall risk. A methodology allowing to analyze susceptibility in extensive areas with optimum cost\\/benefit relationship is needed.

Ramon Copons; Joan M. Vilaplana

2008-01-01

53

Large-Scale Flows in the Convection Zone Using Ring-Diagram Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many important scales of motion in the solar convection zone that require intensive investigations by new helioseismic methods. A number of studies have focused on solar rotation and meridional flows and have provided significant information for solar models. The local technique known as ring-diagram analysis is most effective for inferring large-scale velocity flows in layers above 0.97 R_\\/sun.

D. A. Haber

1999-01-01

54

How Large Scale Flows in the Solar Convection Zone may Influence Solar Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large scale flows within the solar convection zone are the primary drivers of the Sun s magnetic activity cycle. Differential rotation can amplify the magnetic field and convert poloidal fields into toroidal fields. Poleward meridional flow near the surface can carry magnetic flux that reverses the magnetic poles and can convert toroidal fields into poloidal fields. The deeper, equatorward meridional flow can carry magnetic flux toward the equator where it can reconnect with oppositely directed fields in the other hemisphere. These axisymmetric flows are themselves driven by large scale convective motions. The effects of the Sun s rotation on convection produce velocity correlations that can maintain the differential rotation and meridional circulation. These convective motions can influence solar activity themselves by shaping the large-scale magnetic field pattern. While considerable theoretical advances have been made toward understanding these large scale flows, outstanding problems in matching theory to observations still remain.

Hathaway, D. H.

2004-01-01

55

Automated, reproducible delineation of zones at risk from inundation by large volcanic debris flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large debris flows can pose hazards to people and property downstream from volcanoes. We have developed a rapid, reproducible, objective, and inexpensive method to delineate distal debris-flow hazard zones. Our method employs the results of scaling and statistical analyses of the geometry of volcanic debris flows (lahars) to predict inundated valley cross-sectional areas (A) and planimetric areas (B) as functions of lahar volume. We use a range of specified lahar volumes to evaluate A and B. In a Geographic Information System (GIS) we employ the resulting range of predicted A and B to delineate gradations in inundation hazard, which is highest near the volcano and along valley thalwegs and diminishes as distances from the volcano and elevations above valley floors increase. Comparison of our computer-generated hazard maps with those constructed using traditional, field-based methods indicates that our method can provide an accurate means of delineating lahar hazard zones.

Schilling, Steve P.; Iverson, Richard M.

1997-01-01

56

Compromise between ventilation, filtration strategies and recirculation rates for the design and operation of air-conditioned facilities in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of filtration, ventilation and recirculation rate on concentration of condensed-phase, ozone (of outdoor origin)-derived oxidation products (secondary organic aerosols (SOA)) in a model room with a ventilation system that recirculates a large percentage (90%) of its supply air. Additionally, it critically evaluates the potential approach for filtering recirculated air and also avoiding the negative consequence

Moshood Olawale Fadeyi

2012-01-01

57

DOGBONE GEOMETRY FOR RECIRCULATING ACCELERATORS.  

SciTech Connect

Most scenarios for accelerating muons require recirculating acceleration. A racetrack shape for the accelerator requires particles with lower energy in early passes to traverse almost the same length of arc as particles with the highest energy. This extra arc length may lead to excess decays and excess cost. Changing the geometry to a dogbone shape, where there is a single linac and the beam turns completely around at the end of the linac, returning to the same end of the linac from which it exited, addresses this problem. In this design, the arc lengths can be proportional to the particle's momentum. This paper proposes an approximate cost model for a recirculating accelerator, attempts to make cost-optimized designs for both racetrack and dogbone geometries, and demonstrates that the dogbone geometry does appear to be more cost effective.

BERG,J.S.; JOHNSTONE,C.; SUMMERS,D.

2001-06-18

58

Flow field in the wake of a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake produced by a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow is studied experimentally in a water facility using particle image velocimetry. The bluff body has a rectangular cross section of height, , and width, , such that the aspect ratio, AR = H/ D, is equal to 3. The motion of the bluff body is uniform and rectilinear, and corresponds to a Reynolds number based on width, Re D = 9,600. The recirculating flow is confined within a hemicylindrical enclosure and is generated by planar jets emanating from slots of width, , such that . Under these conditions, experiments are performed in a closed-loop facility that enables complete optical access to the near-wake. Velocity fields are obtained up to a distance of downstream of the moving body. Data include a selection of phase-averaged velocity fields representative of the wake for a baseline case (no recirculation) and an interaction case (with recirculation). Results indicate that the transient downwash flow typically observed in wakes behind finite bodies of small aspect ratio is significantly perturbed by the recirculating flow. The wake is displaced from the ground plane and exhibits a shorter recirculation zone downstream of the body. In summary, it was found that the interaction between a bluff body wake and a recirculating flow pattern alters profoundly the dynamics of the wake, which has implications on scalar transport in the wake.

Poussou, Stephane B.; Plesniak, Michael W.

2015-02-01

59

Unusually large shear wave anisotropy for chlorite in subduction zone settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using first principle simulations we calculated the elasticity of chlorite. At a density ?~ 2.60 g cm-3, the elastic constant tensor reveals significant elastic anisotropy: VP ~27%, VS1 ~56%, and VS2 ~43%. The shear anisotropy is exceptionally large for chlorite and enhances upon compression. Upon compression, the shear elastic constant component C44 and C55 decreases, whereas C66 shear component stiffens. The softening in C44 and C55 is reflected in shear modulus, G, and the shear wave velocity, VS. Our results on elastic anisotropy at conditions relevant to the mantle wedge indicates that a 10-20 km layer of hydrated peridotite with serpentine and chlorite could account for the observed shear polarization anisotropy and associated large delay times of 1-2 s observed in some subduction zone settings. In addition, chlorite could also explain the low VP/VS ratios that have been observed in recent high-resolution seismological studies.

Mookherjee, Mainak; Mainprice, David

2014-03-01

60

Ozonation followed by ultraviolet irradiation provides effective bacteria inactivation in a freshwater recirculating system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recirculating aquaculture systems may require an internal disinfection process to control population growth of pathogens and heterotrophic bacteria. Ozonation and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are two technologies that have been used to treat relatively large aquaculture flows, including flows withi...

61

A large slow slip event and the depth of the seismogenic zone in the south central Alaska subduction zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modeled crustal deformation before, during and after a slow slip event (SSE) on the plate interface in southern Alaska. We divided the GPS time series into three time periods: before 1998, 1998 to 2001, and 2001–2002; the first and last periods represent the steady deformation, while the middle period represents the SSE. We found a stationary zone of ?100%

Yusaku Ohta; Jeffrey T. Freymueller; Sigrún Hreinsdóttir; Hisashi Suito

2006-01-01

62

DESERT - A multi-scale study of a large active shear zone, the Dead Sea Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do shear zones work and what controls them ? To be able to address this central question of plate tectonics, the DEad SEa Rift Transect (DESERT) group performed an interdisciplinary and multi-scale study of the Dead Sea Rift. DESERT consists of several coincident seismic, magnetotelluric and seismological sub-projects performed by partners from Germany, Israel, Jordan and Palestine. The Dead Sea Rift / Dead Sea Transform acts as the hinge between the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt and the Afro-Arabian rift system and has a left-lateral motion of about 105 km as of today. The nearly linear structure of this world geological site provides a natural laboratory to study large active faults. The key to understanding the geodynamics and plate tectonics in this region, is a detailed knowledge of the crustal and upper mantle structure on scales from plate tectonics to meters. This presentation will give an overview of the results of the seismic/seismological and magnetotelluric sub-projects of DESERT: (a) Wide-angle reflection/refraction; (b) Near-vertical reflection; (c) Controlled source array; (d) Passive seismological array; (e) Magnetotelluric pilot-study. One result on the plate tectonic scale is that the Moho depth gradually increases from 28 to 38 km along the profile, but that no Moho updoming is observed under the "rift". Therefore it seems that the mantle only played a minor role in the extension process associated with the rift. On the meter scale it was possible to excite fault guided waves which indicate that the low-velocity zone associated with the fault zone shows a velocity reduction of 10 to 25 %, but only a width of 10 to 20 meters.

Weber, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Abu-Ayyash, K.; El-Kelani, R.

2001-12-01

63

Desert - A Multi-scale Study of A Large Active Shear Zone, The Dead Sea Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do shear zones work and what controls them ? To be able to address this central question of plate tectonics, the DEad SEa Rift Transect (DESERT) group performed an interdisciplinary and multi-scale study of the Dead Sea Rift. DESERT consists of several coincident seismic, magnetotelluric and seismological sub-projects performed by partners from Germany, Israel, Jordan and Palestine. The Dead Sea Rift / Dead Sea Transform acts as the hinge between the Alpine- Himalayan mountain belt and the Afro-Arabian rift system and has a left-lateral mo- tion of about 105 km as of today. The nearly linear structure of this world geological site provides a natural laboratory to study large active faults. The key to understand- ing the geodynamics and plate tectonics in this region, is a detailed knowledge of the crustal and upper mantle structure on scales from plate tectonics to meters. This presentation will give an overview of the results of the seismic/seismological and magnetotelluric sub-projects of DESERT: (a) Wide-angle reflection/refraction; (b) Near-vertical reflection; (c) Controlled source array; (d) Passive seismological array; (e) Magnetotelluric pilot-study. One result on the plate tectonic scale is that the Moho depth gradually increases from 28 to 38 km along the profile, but that no Moho updoming is observed under the "rift". Therefore it seems that the mantle only played a minor role in the extension process associated with the rift. On the meter scale it was possible to excite fault guided waves which indicate that the low-velocity zone associated with the fault zone shows a velocity reduction of 10 to 25 %, but only a width of 10 to 20 meters.

Weber, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Abu-Ayyyash, K.; El-Kelani, R.; Desert Group

64

A Study of NO{sub x} Reduction by Fuel Injection Recirculation  

SciTech Connect

Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments in natural-gas fired boilers have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub X}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of the present investigation is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub X} reduction observed between FIR and FGR by studying laminar diffusion flames. The purpose of studying laminar flames is to isolate chemical effects from the effects of turbulent mixing and heat transfer, which are inherent in practical boilers. Numerical simulations of H{sub 2}-air and CH{sub 4}-air counterflow diffusion flames using full kinetics were performed and NO{sub X} emission indices calculated for various conditions. Studies were conducted in which a N{sub 2} diluent was added either on the fuel- or air-side of the flame for conditions of either fixed initial velocities or fixed fuel mass flux. Results from these simulation studies indicate that a major factor in diluent effectiveness is the differential effect on flame zone residence times associated with fuel-side verses air-side dilution. Simulations in which flow velocities were fixed as diluent was added either to the air or fuel stream showed lower NO{sub X} emissions for air-side dilution; however, if instead, fuel mass fluxes were fixed as diluent was added, which results in an increase in the velocity of the streams, fuel-side dilution was more effective. These results were independent of whether H{sub 2} or Ch{sub 4} was used as the fuel.

Feese, J.J.; Turns, S.R.

1996-08-01

65

Chronology of historical tsunamis in Mexico and its relation to large earthquakes along the subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chronology of historical earthquakes along the subduction zone in Mexico spans a time period of approximately 400 years. Although the population density along the coast of Mexico has always been low, relative to that of central Mexico, several of the large subduction earthquakes reports include references to the presence of tsunamis invading the southern coast of Mexico. Here we present a chronology of historical tsunamis affecting the Pacific coast of Mexico and compare this with the historical record of subduction events and to the existing Mexican and worldwide catalogs of tsunamis in the Pacific basin. Due to the geographical orientation of the Pacific coat of Mexico, tsunamis generated on the other subduction zones of the Pacific have not had damaging effects in the country. Among the tsunamis generated by local earthquakes, the largest one by far is the one produced by the earthquake of 28 March 1787. The reported tsunami has an inundation area that reaches for over 6 km inland. The length of the coast where the tsunami was reported extends for over 450 km. In the last 100 years two large tsunamis have been reported along the Pacific coast of Mexico. On 22 June 1932 a tsunami with reported wave heights of up to 11 m hit the coast of Jalisco and Colima. The town of Cuyutlan was heavily damaged and approximately 50 people lost their lives do to the impact of the tsunami. This unusual tsunami was generated by an aftershock (M 6.9) of the large 3 June 1932 event (M 8.1). The main shock of 3 June did not produce a perceptible tsunami. It has been proposed that the 22 June event is a tsunami earthquake generated on the shallow part of the subduction zone. On 16 November 1925 an unusual tsunami was reported in the town of Zihuatanejo in the state of Guerrero, Mexico. No earthquake on the Pacific rim occurs at the same time as this tsunami and the historical record of hurricanes and tropical storms do not list the presence of a meteorological disturbance that could explain a surge wave of the height reported. Here we investigate the morphology of the trench in this region to analyze whether a local landslide on the trench slope or in the continental shelf could be the cause of this tsunami.

Suarez, G.; Mortera, C.

2013-05-01

66

Large-scale modeling of reactive solute transport in fracture zones of granitic bedrocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep repositories located in fractured granite formations is being considered by several countries. The assessment of the safety of such repositories requires using numerical models of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical processes. These models are being developed from data and knowledge gained from in situ experiments such as the Redox Zone Experiment carried out at the underground laboratory of Äspö in Sweden. This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the construction of the access tunnel on the hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions of a fracture zone intersected by the tunnel. Most chemical species showed dilution trends except for bicarbonate and sulphate which unexpectedly increased with time. Molinero and Samper [Molinero, J. and Samper, J. Groundwater flow and solute transport in fracture zones: an improved model for a large-scale field experiment at Äspö (Sweden). J. Hydraul. Res., 42, Extra Issue, 157-172] presented a two-dimensional water flow and solute transport finite element model which reproduced measured drawdowns and dilution curves of conservative species. Here we extend their model by using a reactive transport which accounts for aqueous complexation, acid-base, redox processes, dissolution-precipitation of calcite, quartz, hematite and pyrite, and cation exchange between Na + and Ca 2+. The model provides field-scale estimates of cation exchange capacity of the fracture zone and redox potential of groundwater recharge. It serves also to identify the mineral phases controlling the solubility of iron. In addition, the model is useful to test the relevance of several geochemical processes. Model results rule out calcite dissolution as the process causing the increase in bicarbonate concentration and reject the following possible sources of sulphate: (1) pyrite dissolution, (2) leaching of alkaline sulphate-rich waters from a nearby rock landfill and (3) dissolution of iron monosulphides contained in Baltic seafloor sediments. Based on these results, microbially mediated processes are postulated as the most likely hypothesis to explain the measured increase of dissolved bicarbonates and sulphates after tunnel construction.

Molinero, Jorge; Samper, Javier

2006-01-01

67

33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. 159...and Testing § 159.127 Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. ...recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters....

2010-07-01

68

Repeated large Slow Slip Events at the southcentral Alaska subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify and study an ongoing Slow Slip Event (SSE) in the southcentral Alaska subduction zone using GPS measurements. This is the second large SSE in this region since modern geodetic measurements became available in 1993. We divide the ongoing SSE into two phases according to their transient displacement time evolution; their slip distributions are similar to each other but slip rates are slightly different. This ongoing SSE occurs downdip of the main asperity that ruptured in the 1964 Alaska earthquake, on the same part of the subduction interface as the earlier 1998-2001 SSE. The average slip rate of this SSE is ?4-5 cm/yr, with a cumulative moment magnitude of Mw 7.5 (Mw 7.3 and Mw 7.1 For Phases I and II, respectively) through the end of 2012. The time and space dependence of the GPS displacements suggest that the slip area remained nearly the same during Phase I, while the slip rate increased with time. The SSEs occur on a transitional section of the subduction plate interface between the fully locked updip part and the freely slipping deeper part. During the 1964 earthquake, slip on the region of the SSE was much lower than slip in the updip region. Based on this observation and the repeated SSEs, we conclude that this part of the interface slips repeatedly in SSEs throughout the interseismic period and does not build up a large slip deficit to be released through large slip in earthquakes.

Fu, Yuning; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

2013-08-01

69

Review article Disinfestation of recirculating nutrient solutions  

E-print Network

) Abstract ­ Recirculating nutrient systems offer a good method to control nutrient leaching from greenhouses of recirculating nutrient systems by the greenhouse industry. This review discusses and compares five broadly different methods of disease control in these systems, namely heat, filtration, chemical, radiation

Boyer, Edmond

70

Toroidal transducer with two large focal zones for increasing the coagulated volume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toroidal HIFU transducers have been shown to generate large conical ablations (7 cm3 in 40 seconds). The focal zone is composed of a first ring-shaped focal zone and an overlap of ultrasound beams behind this first focus. A HIFU device has been developed on this principle to treat liver metastases during an open procedure. Although these large lesions contribute to reduce treatment time, it is still needed to juxtapose 4 to 9 single HIFU lesions to treat liver metastasis (2 cm in diameter) with safety margins. In this work, a different toroidal geometry was used. With this transducer, the overlap area is located between the probe and the focal ring. The objective was to use this transducer with electronic focusing in order to create a spherical shape lesion with sufficient volume for the destruction of a metastasis of 2 cm in diameter without any mechanical displacement. The operating frequency of the toroidal transducer was 2.5 MHz. The radius of curvature was 70 mm with a diameter of 67 mm. The focal ring had a radius of 15 mm. The overlap zone extent between 35 to 55 mm from the emitting surface. An ultrasound-imaging probe (working at 7.5 MHz) was placed in a central circular opening of 26 mm in the HIFU transducer and was aligned with the focal plane. The transducer was divided into 32 rings of 78 mm2. Using a 32 channels amplifier with a phase resolution of 1.4 degrees, it was possible to change the diameter (0 to 15 mm) and depth (45 to 85 mm) of the focus circle to maximize dimensions of the lesion. Tests were conducted in vitro, in bovine liver samples. This toroidal geometry and the use of electronic beam steering allow the creation of roughly spherical lesions (diameter of 47 mm, depth of 35 mm). This treatment was obtained in 6 minutes and 10 seconds without any mechanical displacement of the transducer. The lesions obtained were homogeneous and no untreated area was observed. In conclusion, these results indicate that the treatment of a liver metastasis up to 2 cm in diameter is conceivable with safety margins. An in vivo validation on porcine model is under progress.

Vincenot, J.; Melodelima, D.; Kocot, A.; Chavrier, F.; Chapelon, J. Y.

2012-11-01

71

A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were grown hydroponically, using continuously recirculating nutrient solution. Two culture tray designs were tested; one tray design used only nutrient solution, while the other used a sphagnum-filled pod development compartment just beneath the cover and above the nutrient solution. Both trays were fitted with slotted covers to allow developing gynophores to reach the root zone. Peanut seed yields averaged 350 gm-2 dry mass, regardless of tray design, suggesting that substrate is not required for hydroponic peanut production.

Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

72

Present wind activity on Mars - Relation to large latitudinally zoned sediment deposits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relation of present Martian winds to large latitudinally zoned sediment deposits has been investigated using global wind streak data and mapping of large sand and dust deposits. Dune sand deposits occur primarily in three latitude belts: north polar (74-85 degrees North), low latitude (5 degrees North-20 degrees South), and south polar (40-80 degrees South). Comparison with wind streak data shows the high-latitude dunes to be in areas of seasonally reversing winds. The present winds can form latitudinal dune belts from a variety of initial dune distributions, including uniform distribution and a polar source. The presence of dune sand within the polar layered deposits, the erosional state of the deposits, and the present surface wind flow away from the poles indicate that both polar dune concentrations have been derived from erosion of the layered deposits. The low-latitude dunes are topographically confined in canyons and craters; they are probably subject to long-term reversal of orientations with climate cycles.

Thomas, P.

1982-01-01

73

Observer-based control of vortex motion in a combustor recirculation region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established paradigms for observers design are yet a missing component in efforts to introduce feedback control of turbulent flows. This case study concerns tracking a reference orbit in a combustor recirculation zone. Actuation is by perturbations of a corner potential, and the sensed output is fluid velocity at a single boundary point. Control design is based on a single vortex

Gilead Tadmor; Andrzej Banaszuk

2002-01-01

74

Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation––a review on advanced and novel concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from Diesel engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration of the working fluid in the combustion chamber. However, as NOx reduces, particulate matter (PM) increases, resulting from the lowered oxygen concentration. When EGR further increases, the engine operation reaches zones with higher instabilities, increased carbonaceous

Ming Zheng; Graham T. Reader; J. Gary Hawley

2004-01-01

75

Large mid-Holocene and late Pleistocene earthquakes on the Oquirrh fault zone, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Oquirrh fault zone is a range-front normal fault that bounds the east side of Tooele Valley and it has long been recognized as a potential source for large earthquakes that pose a significant hazard to population centers along the Wasatch Front in central Utah. Scarps of the Oquirrh fault zone offset the Provo shoreline of Lake Bonneville and previous studies of scarp morphology suggested that the most recent surface-faulting earthquake occurred between 9000 and 13,500 years ago. Based on a potential rupture length of 12 to 21 km from previous mapping, moment magnitude (Mw) estimates for this event range from 6.3 to 6.6 In contrast, our results from detailed mapping and trench excavations at two sites indicate that the most-recent event actually occurred between 4300 and 6900 yr B.P. (4800 and 7900 cal B.P.) and net vertical displacements were 2.2 to 2.7 m, much larger than expected considering estimated rupture lengths for this event. Empirical relations between magnitude and displacement yield Mw 7.0 to 7.2. A few, short discontinuous fault scarps as far south as Stockton, Utah have been identified in a recent mapping investigation and our results suggest that they may be part of the Oquirrh fault zone, increasing the total fault length to 32 km. These results emphasize the importance of integrating stratigraphic and geomorphic information in fault investigations for earthquake hazard evaluations. At both the Big Canyon and Pole Canyon sites, trenches exposed faulted Lake Bonneville sediments and thick wedges of fault-scarp derived colluvium associated with the most-recent event. Bulk sediment samples from a faulted debris-flow deposit at the Big Canyon site yield radiocarbon ages of 7650 ?? 90 yr B.P. and 6840 ?? 100 yr B.P. (all lab errors are ??1??). A bulk sediment sample from unfaulted fluvial deposits that bury the fault scarp yield a radiocarbon age estimate of 4340 ?? 60 yr B.P. Stratigraphic evidence for a pre-Bonneville lake cycle penultimate earthquake was exposed at the Pole Canyon site, and although displacement is not well constrained, the penultimate event colluvial wedge is comparable in size to the most-recent event wedges. Charcoal from a marsh deposit, which overlies the penultimate event colluvium and was deposited during the Bonneville lake cycle transgression, yields an AMS radiocarbon age of 20,370 ?? 120 yr B.P. Multiple charcoal fragments from fluvial deposits faulted during the penultimate event yield an AMS radiocarbon age of 26,200 ?? 200 yr B.P. Indirect stratigraphic evidence for an antepenultimate event was also exposed at Pole Canyon. Charcoal from fluvial sediments overlying the eroded free-face for this event yields an AMS age of 33,950 ?? 1160 yr B.P., providing a minimum limiting age on the antepenultimate event. Ages for the past two events on the Oquirrh fault zone yield a recurrence interval of 13,300 to 22,100 radiocarbon years and estimated slip rates of 0.1 to 0.2 mm/yr. Temporal clustering of earthquakes on the nearby Wasatch fault zone in the late Holocene does not appear to have influenced activity on the Oquirrh fault zone. However, consistent with findings on the Wasatch fault zone and with some other Quaternary faults within the Bonneville basin, we found evidence for higher rates of activity during interpluvial periods than during the Bonneville lake cycle. If a causal relation between rates of strain release along faults and changes in loads imposed by the lake does exist, it may have implications for fault dips and mechanics. However, our data are only complete for one deep-lake cycle (the past 32,000 radiocarbon years), and whether this pattern persisted during the previous Cutler Dam and Little Valley deep-lake cycles is unknown. ?? 1994.

Olig, S.S.; Lund, W.R.; Black, B.D.

1994-01-01

76

Xenon Recirculation-Purification with a Heat Exchanger  

E-print Network

Liquid-xenon based particle detectors have been dramatically growing in size during the last years, and are now exceeding the one-ton scale. The required high xenon purity is usually achieved by continuous recirculation of xenon gas through a high-temperature getter. This challenges the traditional way of cooling these large detectors, since in a thermally well insulated detector, most of the cooling power is spent to compensate losses from recirculation. The phase change during recondensing requires five times more cooling power than cooling the gas from ambient temperature to -100C (173 K). Thus, to reduce the cooling power requirements for large detectors, we propose to use the heat from the purified incoming gas to evaporate the outgoing xenon gas, by means of a heat exchanger. Generally, a heat exchanger would appear to be only of very limited use, since evaporation and liquefaction occur at zero temperature difference. However, the use of a recirculation pump reduces the pressure of the extracted liquid, forces it to evaporate, and thus cools it down. We show that this temperature difference can be used for an efficient heat exchange process. We investigate the use of a commercial parallel plate heat exchanger with a small liquid xenon detector. Although we expected to be limited by the available cooling power to flow rates of about 2 SLPM, rates in excess of 12 SLPM can easily be sustained, limited only by the pump speed and the impedance of the flow loop. The heat exchanger operates with an efficiency of (96.8 +/- 0.5)%. This opens the possibility for fast xenon gas recirculation in large-scale experiments, while minimizing thermal losses.

K. L. Giboni; E. Aprile; B. Choi; T. Haruyama; R. F. Lang; K. E. Lim; A. J. Melgarejo; G. Plante

2011-03-04

77

TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

Lee, S.

2014-06-25

78

Quality Evaluation of Cone Biopsy Specimens Obtained by Large Loop Excision of the Transformation Zone  

PubMed Central

Background Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) has been used for the diagnosis and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions, and it is the first choice of treatment in the majority of cervical pathology services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of thermal artifacts, the need for serial sections, the percentage of clear and involved resection margins and the relationship between endocervical gland involvement and the severity of the lesion in samples resected using LLETZ. Methods A retrospective study was performed at Santa Casa de Misericordia School of Science (HSCMV), Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil with a sample of 52 histopathology slides from patients submitted to conization because of abnormal cytology findings and a biopsy result of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2, CIN 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test. Results Serial sections were required to confirm diagnosis in four of 52 cases. Thermal artifacts were present in all cases, with grade I being the most common (94.2% of cases). Clear margins were found in 96.2% of cases. No association was found between glandular involvement and CIN 1 (P > 0.05); however, there was an association with CIN 2 and CIN 3 (P < 0.05). Conclusion The amount of excised tissue was sufficient, thermal artifacts were slight, resection margins were clear in most of cases, and a possible association was found between glandular involvement and the severity of the lesion. PMID:25699117

Garcia Ramos, Aristoteles Mauricio; Garcia Ramos, Erika Souza; dos Reis, Helena Lucia Barroso; de Rezende, Ricardo Bueno

2015-01-01

79

A comparison of damage zone decay around small and large faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in fracture density around faults is a useful proxy for assessing the stress field when the damaged formed. However, the damage surrounding large faults will inevitably be a function of the superposition of several main fault strands, in addition to farther-flung secondary faults, that form over many episodes of slip. To investigate the decay of fracture density away from a single fault with presumably few episodes of slip, we measure damage around small faults that are isolated or have few discrete strands. We compare the fracture decay from our small fault profiles with profiles compiled from the literature, as well as fracture profiles we collected along a section of the San Andreas Fault. We are measuring linear fracture density at Four Mile Beach along several faults with displacements ranging from less than one meter to a few meters. Most of the faults experienced normal displacement and are hosted within the thinly-bedded Santa Cruz mudstone. On the opposite end of the displacement spectrum, we are collecting fracture data at Logan Quarry, a granodiorite quarry located on the western side of the San Andreas Fault in Aromas, CA. Because of the size of the field site, we developed a new fracture counting technique using ground-based LiDAR. We use an RMS roughness parameter to define the existence of a fracture and count the number of fractures along a linear transect, creating a dataset comparable to the Four Mile Beach dataset. Preliminary results imply that damage decay around faults is well described using a power law. However, the rapidity of the decay may be a function of fault displacement. For small faults that are relatively isolated, the slope of the power law curve is approximately negative one. As fault displacement increases, the slope of the decay decreases. We suggest that this change is due to the superposition of decay profiles at secondary faults, which can form in increasing numbers and at increasing distances as the fault matures. In addition to looking at the decay of fracture density away from the fault, we also look at the width of the damage zone. Again, we compare our datasets with published studies and find that damage zone width grows approximately linearly with displacement at small offsets, but grows more slowly at offsets larger than 10-100m. This suggests that most new strands form early in the displacement history of the fault.

Savage, H. M.; Brodsky, E. E.; Johns, M.

2008-12-01

80

Nearby Large-Scale Structures and the Zone of Avoidance ASP Conference Series, Vol. ASP Conference Series, Vol. ***, 2004  

E-print Network

objects, it is now possible to study the performance of 2MASS in mapping the extragalactic large Series, Vol. ***, 2004 A.P. Fairall and P.A. Woudt The Zone of Avoidance: Optical Compared to Near) with deep optical searches are compared to the distribution of objects in the 2MASS Ex- tended Source

Kraan-Korteweg, Renée C.

81

Recirculating cross-correlation detector  

DOEpatents

A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

1985-01-18

82

Lesser Antilles Subduction Zone Investigation by a Cluster of Large Seismic Experiments in the Forearc Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thales LAST stands for Lesser Antilles Subduction zone Team which gathers the scientific teams of a cluster of surveys and cruises that have been carried out in 2007 and coordinated under the European Union THALES WAS RIGHT project (Coord. A. Hirn). This cluster is composed by the German cruise TRAIL with the vessel F/S Merian (PI E. Flueh and H. Kopp, IFM-GEOMAR), the French cruise SISMANTILLES 2 with the IFREMER vessel N/O Atalante (PI M. Laigle, IPG Paris and JF. Lebrun, Univ. Antilles Guyane), and French cruise OBSANTILLES with the IRD vessel N/O Antea (PI P. Charvis, Geoazur, Nice, France). During these cruises and surveys, 84 Ocean Bottom 3-components Seismometers (OBS) and 20 Hydrophones (OBHs) have been brought together from several pools (Geoazur, INSU, IPGP, IFM-GEOMAR, AWI,), with up to 30 land stations (CSIC Barcelone, IPG Paris, INSU-RLBM and -LITHOSCOPE) in addition to the permanent onshore arrays of IPGP and SRU. The deployment of all these instruments has been supported principally by ANR Catastrophes Telluriques et Tsunamis (SUBSISMANTI), by the EU SALVADOR Programme of IFM-GEOMAR, as well as by the EU project THALES WAS RIGHT on the Antilles and Hellenic active subductions to which contribute IPGP, Geoazur, IFM-GEOMAR (Germany), ETH Zurich (Switzerland), CSIC Barcelona (Spain), Univ. Trieste (Italy) and NOA Athens (Greece). The main goal of this large seismic investigation effort is the understanding of the behaviour of the seismogenic zone and location of potential source regions of mega-thrust earthquakes. Specific goals are the mapping of the subduction interplate in the range where it may be seismogenic along the Lesser Antilles Arc from Antigua to southern Martinique Islands, as a contribution to identification and localisation in advance of main rupture zones of possible future major earthquakes, and to the search for transient signals of the activity. The forearc region, commonly considered as a proxy to the seismogenic portion of the subduction mega-thrust fault plane, and which is here the main target has been localized along 3 transects to the Arc thanks to a preliminary survey in 2001, the French SISMANTILLES cuise. We will present the first results obtained during these experiments dedicated specifically to image at depth the seismic structure and activity of this region. To image faults at depth and the detailed upper-crustal structure, 3700 km of multi-beam bathymetry and multi-channel reflection seismic profiles have been collected along a grid comprising 7 strike-lines of up to 300 km long and spaced by 15 km and 12 transects of up to 150 km long and spaced by 25 km (SISMANTILLES 2). All these airgun shots dedicated to deep penetration have been recorded by the 84 OBSs and 20 OBHs deployed by the F/S Merian and N/O Atalante on the nodes of this grid of profiles. It will permit to get Vp constraints on the deep forearc region and mantle wedge by wide-angle refraction studies, as well as constraints on the updip and downdip limits of the seismogenic part of the mega-thrust fault plane. Two of these transects have been extended across the whole arc during the TRAIL survey, with up to 50 OBSs deployed along both 240 km long profiles. All these OBSs remained several months beyond the shot experiments for local earthquakes Vp and Vp/Vs tomography. They have been recovered and partly redeployed by N/O Antea during the OBSANTILLES survey. A significant number of those instruments had broadband seismometers, a notable originality in the case of the OBSs to detect low-frequency transient signals.

Last, T.

2007-12-01

83

Isotopic variation of fishes in freshwater and estuarine zones of a large subtropical coastal lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used stable C and N isotope ratios of tissues from 29 fish species from a large subtropical lagoon in southern Brazil to examine spatial variability in isotopic composition and vertical trophic structure across freshwater and estuarine habitats. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated a smooth gradation in trophic positions among species, with most fishes occupying the secondary and tertiary consumer level. Fish assemblages showed a significant shift in their carbon isotopic signatures between freshwater and estuarine sites. Depleted carbon signatures (from -24.7‰ to -17.8‰) were found in freshwater, whereas more enriched signatures (from -19.1‰ to -12.3‰) were obtained within the estuarine zone downstream. Based on our survey of the C 3 and C 4 plants and isotopic values for phytoplankton and benthic microalgae reported for ecosystems elsewhere, we hypothesized that the observed ?13C differences in the fish assemblage between freshwater and estuarine sites is due to a shift from assimilating organic matter ultimately derived from C 3 freshwater marsh vegetation and phytoplankton at the freshwater site ( ?13C ranging from -25‰ to -19‰), to C 4 salt-marsh (e.g. Spartina) and widgeon grass ( Ruppia maritima), benthic microalgae and marine phytoplankton at the estuarine sites (from -18‰ to -12‰). Our results suggested that fish assemblages are generally supported by autochthonous primary production. Freshwater fishes that likely were displaced downstream into the estuary during periods of high freshwater discharge had depleted ?13C values that were characteristic of the upper lagoon. These results suggest that spatial foodweb subsidies can occur within the lagoon.

Garcia, A. M.; Hoeinghaus, D. J.; Vieira, J. P.; Winemiller, K. O.

2007-07-01

84

Effects of a large northern European no-take zone on flatfish populations.  

PubMed

In March 2006, a 360?km² no-take zone (NTZ) was established north of Gotland in the central Baltic Sea, with the purpose to scientifically evaluate the effects of a fishing ban on flatfish populations. A monitoring programme was set up to study the populations in the NTZ and in a reference area east of Gotland where the fishing pressure was high. The programme included fishing with multimesh survey nets, modelling of potential larval export and estimation of fish consumption by large marine predators. Overall, the results showed a clear positive effect of the NTZ on turbot Scophthalmus maximus, with higher densities in the closed area compared with the fished area and also higher densities after closure compared with before. The NTZ also had older individuals and a more even sex ratio. This, in combination with a high potential for larval export from the NTZ to Gotland, shows that the marine reserve may be important for maintaining a viable S. maximus stock at Gotland. Also, for flounder Platichthys flesus, the densities were higher in the NTZ compared to the reference area and there was a net larval export to the fished area. For both species, density-dependent growth was evident, with a lower length at age in the closed area. Potential predation by grey seal Halichoerus grypus and great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinesis on flatfishes, that could hamper the evaluation of the marine reserve, was also addressed. Taken together, the results show that there are clear benefits of the fishing ban for both flatfish species within the NTZ, while the net effects on fisheries are difficult to quantify. PMID:24090556

Florin, A-B; Bergström, U; Ustups, D; Lundström, K; Jonsson, P R

2013-10-01

85

Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded the recommended concentrations for freshwater plants after one year. The new soil formation and vegetation recovery depends mainly on the rate of biological production. In tropical climate the vegetation largely recovered already after the first rainy season and supported the new soil formation. In temperate climate this process was much slower, in particular in flat lying areas and on coastal dunes with poor sandy soils. In polar climate only limited vegetation recovery (mainly of Salix species) has been observed after 12 years and vegetation withered due to salt stress still marked the tsunami inundation limit and the new soil formation was very slow and focused on low lying, wet areas buried with thin tsunami deposits cover. The post-tsunami recovery processes may be grouped into climate-related (vegetation recovery, removal of salts from soils) and non climate-related (e.g. beach recovery) or modified by climatic and local factors (for instance, the rate of tsunami deposits reworking and thus new soil formation). The rate of recovery varies from days / weeks as in case of beach recovery to several decades as in case of new soil formation on tsunami deposits. The study was partly funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. The review results from studies in collaboration with number of researchers from Australia, Japan, Poland, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States to whom I express sincere thanks.

Szczucinski, W.

2013-12-01

86

Large-scale metal zoning in a late-Precambrian skarn-type mineralization, Wadi Kid, SE Sinai, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Precambrian skarn-type mineralization is recently discovered in the Wadi Kid area in southeast Sinai, Egypt. Two sulfide ore types define large scale metal zoning; Cu-Zn-Co in calc-silicate rocks and Zn-Pb-As-Ag in metapelites. The sulfides and host rocks underwent amphibolite facies metamorphism (2.1-4.2 kbar and 500-620 °C). Dating by the chemical Th-U-total Pb isochrone method yields an Th-Pb isochrone age of 660 ± 25 Ma for metamorphic monazite from metapelites. Overall structural and textural relationships of silicate and sulfide minerals favor syn-tectonic formation during granitoids emplacement in a continental margin setting. Large-scale metal zoning reflects variable distances from the causative pluton(s). The Wadi Kid area is highly prospective for Cu, Zn, Pb and Ag mineralization.

Helmy, H. M.; Shalaby, I. M.; Abdel Rahman, H. B.

2014-02-01

87

Seismically active fracture zones and distribution of large accumulations of metals in the central part of Andean South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the geometry of distribution of earthquake foci in the central part of Andean South America between 18? and\\u000a 34?S made the delineation of several seismically active fracture zones in the continental wedge overlying the subducting Nazca\\u000a plate possible. Correlation of their position with the distribution of hypogene accumulations of metals revealed that the\\u000a majority of large mineral

V. Hanuš; J. Van?k; A. Špi?ák

2000-01-01

88

Lesser Antilles Subduction Zone Investigation by a Cluster of Large Seismic Experiments in the Forearc Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thales LAST stands for Lesser Antilles Subduction zone Team which gathers the scientific teams of a cluster of surveys and cruises that have been carried out in 2007 and coordinated under the European Union THALES WAS RIGHT project (Coord. A. Hirn). This cluster is composed by the German cruise TRAIL with the vessel F\\/S Merian (PI E. Flueh and H.

T. Last

2007-01-01

89

Large-scale hydraulic structure of a seismogenic fault at 10 km depth (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The definition of hydraulic properties of fault zones is a major issue in structural geology, seismology, and in several applications (hydrocarbons, hydrogeology, CO2 sequestration, etc.). The permeability of fault rocks can be measured in laboratory experiments, but its upscaling to large-scale structures is not straightforward. For instance, typical permeability of fine-grained fault rock samples is in the 10-18-10-20 m2 range, but, according to seismological estimates, the large-scale permeability of active fault zones can be as high as 10-10 m2. Solving this issue is difficult because in-situ measurements of large-scale permeability have been carried out just at relatively shallow depths - mainly in oil wells and exceptionally in active tectonic settings (e.g. SAFOD at 3 km), whilst deeper experiments have been performed only in the stable continental crust (e.g. KTB at 9 km). In this study, we apply discrete fracture-network (DFN) modelling techniques developed for shallow aquifers (mainly in nuclear waste storage projects like Yucca Mountain) and in the oil industry, in order to model the hydraulic structure of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps). This fault, now exposed in world-class glacier-polished outcrops, has been exhumed from ca. 8 km, where it was characterized by a well-documented seismic activity, but also by hydrous fluid flow evidenced by alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and along cataclasites. The GLFZ does not show a classical seal structure that in other fault zones corresponds to a core zone characterized by fine-grained fault rocks. However, permeability is heterogeneous and the permeability tensor is strongly anisotropic due to fracture preferential orientation. We will show with numerical experiments that this hydraulic structure results in a channelized fluid flow (which is consistent with the observed hydrothermal alteration pattern). This results in a counterintuitive situation where a permeable fault zone act as a barrier to fluid flow.

Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Mittempergher, Silvia; Garofalo, Paolo

2014-05-01

90

Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -Part 1  

E-print Network

Cir 120 Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems - Part 1, Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory, Ruskin FL 33570, Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School Cooperating. Nick T. Place , Dean Introduction Recirculating aquaculture systems, also known as water reuse

Watson, Craig A.

91

ELECTROPHORESIS GEL BUFFER RECIRCULATOR FOR UNDER 20 DOLLARS  

EPA Science Inventory

Procedures requiring extended periods of electrophoresis frequently require recirculation of the get buffer in order to reduce gel artifacts. ere we describe a recirculation device which can be built inexpensively and will fit many different model get boxes....

92

Weak Compliance Undermines the Success of No-Take Zones in a Large Government-Controlled Marine Protected Area  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of marine protected areas depends largely on whether people comply with the rules. We quantified temporal changes in benthic composition, reef fish biomass, and fishing effort among marine park zones (including no-take areas) to assess levels of compliance following the 2005 rezoning of the government-controlled Karimunjawa National Park (KNP), Indonesia. Four years after the rezoning awareness of fishing regulations was high amongst local fishers, ranging from 79.5±7.9 (SE) % for spatial restrictions to 97.7±1.2% for bans on the use of poisons. Despite this high awareness and strong compliance with gear restrictions, compliance with spatial restrictions was weak. In the four years following the rezoning reef fish biomass declined across all zones within KNP, with >50% reduction within the no-take Core and Protection Zones. These declines were primarily driven by decreases in the biomass of groups targeted by local fishers; planktivores, herbivores, piscivores, and invertivores. These declines in fish biomass were not driven by changes in habitat quality; coral cover increased in all zones, possibly as a result of a shift in fishing gears from those which can damage reefs (i.e., nets) to those which cause little direct damage (i.e., handlines and spears). Direct observations of fishing activities in 2009 revealed there was limited variation in fishing effort between zones in which fishing was allowed or prohibited. The apparent willingness of the KNP communities to comply with gear restrictions, but not spatial restrictions is difficult to explain and highlights the complexities of the social and economic dynamics that influence the ecological success of marine protected areas. Clearly the increased and high awareness of fishery restrictions following the rezoning is a positive step. The challenge now is to understand and foster the conditions that may facilitate compliance with spatial restrictions within KNP and marine parks worldwide. PMID:23226237

Campbell, Stuart J.; Hoey, Andrew S.; Maynard, Jeffrey; Kartawijaya, Tasrif; Cinner, Joshua; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Baird, Andrew H.

2012-01-01

93

Production of cobia in recirculating systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Only limited information exists with respect to rearing juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum to stocker and marketable sizes using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). To investigate this topic, two rearing trials were conducted using commercial scale RAS. In Trial 1, juvenile cobia (29 g) we...

94

Solar heating systems for recirculation aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature over the past 25 years indicates that there has been a continued interest in using passive and active solar technologies to reduce the conventional energy required to maintain water temperatures in small recirculation aquaculture systems. Although all of the experimental systems reviewed report favourable results, there is little information available to guide system designers. This paper describes the

R. J. Fuller

2007-01-01

95

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed that has an exhaust gas recirculation passage, a constant pressure chamber disposed at an intermediate portion of the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a pressure regulating valve operative in response to the exhaust gas pressure in the constant pressure chamber, a first flow-rate control valve actuated by vacuum regulated

Y. Ikuta; M. Matsuo

1981-01-01

96

Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine has an exhaust gas recirculation passage, a constant pressure chamber disposed in the exhaust gas recirculation passage, a pressure regulating valve operative in response to the exhaust gas pressure in the constant pressure chamber, a first flow-rate control valve adapted to be actuated by the vacuum regulated by the pressure

Y. Ikuta; M. Matsuo

1981-01-01

97

A model for large-scale plastic yield of the Gorda deformation zone  

SciTech Connect

A solution satisfying both continuity and force balance for an elastoplastic Gorda plate in planar coordinates is presented. Continuity on a plane is used to approximate continuity on a spherical surface due to the small area under consideration. The zone of plastic yield vs the seismicity does not change much with fault strength along the Mendocino. Due to the nature of the deformation, the direction of maximum shear stress near the Mendocino triple junction is between 40 and 50 deg to the Mendocino transform in both cases, but curves sharply in the neighborhood of the transform if the fault is strong. It is concluded that the strength of the Mendocino relative to the lithosphere varied over time. Five million years ago a change in pole position increased convergence of the Blanco fracture zone and Mendocino transform, exponentially increasing brittle shear stresses across the fault. Between 2.47 Ma and 1.8 Ma the convergence stabilized, and the resistance to sliding along the transform decayed back to residual levels. The relative slip along the fault during this time was about 1 km. As a result of this history, previous models either for flexural-slip or for right-lateral shear will fit the deformation at different times. 35 refs.

Denlinger, R.P. (Hawaii Volcano Observatory, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (United States))

1992-10-01

98

The influence of productivity and width of littoral zone on the trophic position of a large-bodied omnivore.  

PubMed

Omnivory is common in many food webs. Omnivores in different habitats can potentially change their feeding behaviour and alter their trophic position and role according to habitat conditions. Here we examine the trophic level and diet of the omnivorous signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in gradients of trophic status and lake size, both of which have been previously suggested to affect trophic position of predators separately or combined as productive space. We found the trophic position of omnivorous crayfish to be positively correlated with lake trophic status, but found no evidence for any influence of lake size or productive space on crayfish trophic position. The higher trophic position of crayfish in eutrophic lakes was largely caused by a shift in crayfish diet and not by an increase in trophic links in basal parts of the food web. Hence, our results support the "productivity hypothesis," suggesting that food chains can be longer in more productive systems. Furthermore, stable isotope data indicated that larger crayfish are more predatory than smaller crayfish in lakes with wider littoral zones. Wider littoral zones promoted the development of intrapopulation differences in trophic position whereas narrow littoral zones did not. Hence, differences in habitat quality between and within lakes seem to influence the trophic positions of omnivorous crayfish. PMID:18368427

Stenroth, Patrik; Holmqvist, Niklas; Nyström, Per; Berglund, Olof; Larsson, Per; Granéli, Wilhelm

2008-06-01

99

On the stability of a recirculation bubble and its application in compact combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2D channel flow expands asymmetrically via a sudden expansion splitter plate, the Reynolds number based on the channel height and mean velocity is 1.47 x 10^4. A recirculation bubble generated by a momenturm-driven counter flowing secondary stream located downstream of the sudden expansion is experimentally investigated by means of hot-wire anemometry and PIV. It is conjectured that the fluid field created is one of a separated region of locally absolutely unstable flow. This separated region is the result of both the partial stagnation of the main flow due to the spreading of the second counter-current flow as well as the entrainment of the secondary jet. The secondary stream augments the initial shear layer that has been created after the expansion and a separation bubble appears. This secondary jet creates a control mechanism for the fluid field. The low-velocity zone downstream of the expansion that has been created is necessary for flame anchoring, and the large turbulence levels recorded (total turbulence levels exceeding 100% of the inlet velocity) dramatically increase mixing and may lead to more efficient compact combustion in backward-facing step-combustors.

Anderson, Matt; Strykowski, Paul

2009-11-01

100

Multi-Point Interferometric Rayleigh Scattering using Dual-Pass Light Recirculation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes for the first time an interferometric Rayleigh scattering system using dual-pass light recirculation (IRS-LR) capable of simultaneously measuring at multiple points two orthogonal components of flow velocity in combustion flows using single shot laser probing. An additional optical path containing the interferometer input mirror, a quarter-wave plate, a polarization dependent beam combiner, and a high reflectivity mirror partially recirculates the light that is rejected by the interferometer. Temporally- and spatially-resolved acquisitions of Rayleigh spectra in a large-scale combustion-heated supersonic axi-symmetric jet were performed to demonstrate the technique. Recirculating of Rayleigh scattered light increases the number of photons analyzed by the system up to a factor of 1.8 compared with previous configurations. This is equivalent to performing measurements with less laser energy or performing measurements with the previous system in gas flows at higher temperatures.

Bivolaru, Daniel; Danehy, Paul M.; Cutler, Andrew D.

2008-01-01

101

Chronology and dynamics of a large silicic magmatic system. Central Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand  

SciTech Connect

The central Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand is a region of intense Quaternary silicic volcanism accompanying rapid extension of continental crust. At least 34 caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions have produced a complex sequence of relatively short-lived, nested, and/or overlapping volcanic centers over 1.6 m.y. Silicic volcanism at Taupo is similar to the Yellowstone system in size, longevity, thermal flux, and magma output rate. However, Taupo contrasts with Yellowstone in the exceptionally high frequency, but small size, of caldera-forming eruptions. This contrast reflects the thin, rifted nature of the crust, which precludes the development of long-term magmatic cycles at Taupo. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Houghton, B.F.; Wilson, C.J.N. (Wairakei Research Center, Taupo (New Zealand)); McWilliams, M.O. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Lanphere, M.A.; Pringle, M.S. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Weaver, S.D. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)); Briggs, R.M. (Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand))

1995-01-01

102

Seismic constraints on a large dyking event and initiation of a transform fault zone in Western Gulf of Aden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2010, a large number of events were recorded by the world seismic networks showing important activity occurring along the western part of the Aden Ridge. West of the Shulka El Sheik fracture zone, events in this large seismic swarm (magnitudes above 5) occurred in a complex area, where the change of both the ridge direction and the bathymetry suggest the propagation of the ridge into a continental lithosphere and the influence of the Afar plume. We combine several sets of data from permanent networks and temporary 3C broad stations installed after the beginning of the event along the southern and eastern coasts of Yemen and Djibouti respectively, we located more than 600 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 2.5 to 5.6 that occurred during the first months following the first event. The spatial distribution of the main seismicity reveals a very clear N115° -trending alignment, parallel to the mean direction of the en-echelon spreading segments that form the ridge at this longitude. Half of the events, which represent half of the total seismic energy released during the first months, are located in the central third section of the segment. Here several volcanic cones and recent lava flows observed from bathymetric and acoustic reflectivity data during the Tadjouraden cruise (Audin, 1999, Dauteuil et al., 2001) constitute the sea floor. In addition to this main activity, two small groups of events suggest the activiation of landslides into a large fan and the activity in a volcanic area 50 km due east from the main active zone. The time evolution of the seismicity shows several bursts of activity. Some of them are clearly related to sudden activities within the volcanic areas, when others exhibit horizontal migration of the events, with velocity around ˜ 1 km/h. The time-space evolution of the seismicity clearly reveals the intrusion of dykes associated with magma propagation from the crustal magmatic centres into the rift zone. Taking into account that the geodetic moment is one order of magnitude higher than the seismic moment during such events, the seismic activity of this event of the Aden ridge represents a major rifting episode certainly associated with the opening of the segment by dyking estimated to be higher than 10 m. Several computed focal mechanisms are dextral strike-slip in the western part of the dyking area could be related to a nascent transform fault zone.

Ahmed, AbdulHakim; Doubre, Cecile; Leroy, Sylvie; Perrot, Julie; Audin, Laurence; Rolandone, Frederique; Keir, Derek; Al-Ganad, Ismael; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Mohamed, Kassim; Vergne, Jerome; Jacques, Eric; Nercessian, Alex

2013-04-01

103

Large eddy simulation of soot evolution in an aircraft combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated kinetics-based Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach for soot evolution in turbulent reacting flows is applied to the simulation of a Pratt & Whitney aircraft gas turbine combustor, and the results are analyzed to provide insights into the complex interactions of the hydrodynamics, mixing, chemistry, and soot. The integrated approach includes detailed models for soot, combustion, and the unresolved interactions between soot, chemistry, and turbulence. The soot model is based on the Hybrid Method of Moments and detailed descriptions of soot aggregates and the various physical and chemical processes governing their evolution. The detailed kinetics of jet fuel oxidation and soot precursor formation is described with the Radiation Flamelet/Progress Variable model, which has been modified to account for the removal of soot precursors from the gas-phase. The unclosed filtered quantities in the soot and combustion models, such as source terms, are closed with a novel presumed subfilter PDF approach that accounts for the high subfilter spatial intermittency of soot. For the combustor simulation, the integrated approach is combined with a Lagrangian parcel method for the liquid spray and state-of-the-art unstructured LES technology for complex geometries. Two overall fuel-to-air ratios are simulated to evaluate the ability of the model to make not only absolute predictions but also quantitative predictions of trends. The Pratt & Whitney combustor is a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor in which combustion first occurs in a fuel-rich primary zone characterized by a large recirculation zone. Dilution air is then added downstream of the recirculation zone, and combustion continues in a fuel-lean secondary zone. The simulations show that large quantities of soot are formed in the fuel-rich recirculation zone, and, furthermore, the overall fuel-to-air ratio dictates both the dominant soot growth process and the location of maximum soot volume fraction. At the higher fuel-to-air ratio, the maximum soot volume fraction is found inside the recirculation zone; at the lower fuel-to-air ratio, turbulent fluctuations in the mixture fraction promote the oxidation of soot inside the recirculation zone and suppress the accumulation of a large soot volume fraction. Downstream, soot exits the combustor in intermittent fuel-rich pockets that are not mixed during the injection of dilution air and subsequent secondary fuel-lean combustion. At the higher fuel-to-air ratio, the frequency of these fuel-rich pockets is increased, leading to higher soot emissions from the combustor. Quantitatively, the soot emissions from the combustor are overpredicted by about 50%, which is a substantial improvement over previous works utilizing RANS to predict such emissions. In addition, the ratio between the two fuel-to-air ratios predicted by LES compares very favorably with the experimental measurements. Furthermore, soot growth is dominated by an acetylene-based pathway rather than an aromatic-based pathway, which is usually the dominant mechanism in nonpremixed flames. This finding is the result of the interactions between the hydrodynamics, mixing, chemistry, and soot in the recirculation zone and the resulting residence times of soot at various mixture fractions (compositions), which are not the same in this complex recirculating flow as in nonpremixed jet flames.

Mueller, Michael E.; Pitsch, Heinz

2013-11-01

104

Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04

105

High Power Picosecond Laser Pulse Recirculation  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering based light sources. We demonstrate up to 36x average power enhancement of frequency doubled sub-millijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses.

Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

2010-04-12

106

Experimental characterization of the initial zone of an annular jet with a very large diameter ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents an experimental investigation of a large diameter ratio annular air jet by particle image velocimetry, Laser Doppler Anemometry, hot-wire anemometry and time-resolved tomography. Annular jets consist of a round nozzle with an obstacle placed in its center. These jets are thus defined by an external and an internal diameter corresponding to the round nozzle lips and the diameter of the obstacle, respectively. The ratio between these two diameters defines the behavior of the flow across a characteristic diameter called diameter ratio. In most industrial applications these jets have large diameter ratios, superior to 0.7.

Danlos, Amélie; Lalizel, Gildas; Patte-Rouland, Béatrice

2013-01-01

107

Experimental characterization of the initial zone of an annular jet with a very large diameter ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents an experimental investigation of a large diameter ratio annular air jet by particle image velocimetry, Laser Doppler Anemometry, hot-wire anemometry and time-resolved tomography. Annular jets consist of a round nozzle with an obstacle placed in its center. These jets are thus defined by an external and an internal diameter corresponding to the round nozzle lips and the diameter of the obstacle, respectively. The ratio between these two diameters defines the behavior of the flow across a characteristic diameter called diameter ratio. In most industrial applications these jets have large diameter ratios, superior to 0.7.

Danlos, Amélie; Lalizel, Gildas; Patte-Rouland, Béatrice

2012-12-01

108

Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N(2)O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N(2)O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N(2)O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N(2)O releases: 8.1 +/- 0.16 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 384), 4.2 +/- 0.14 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 132) and 1.9 +/- 0.10 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N(2)O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N(2)O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection. PMID:19297142

Tallec, G; Bureau, C; Peu, P; Benoist, J C; Lemunier, M; Budka, A; Presse, D; Bouchez, T

2009-07-01

109

Bathymetry-Density Interaction as a Driver for Seawater Recirculation in Submarine Groundwater Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mechanism for shallow saltwater recirculation as a component of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in coastal areas is proposed and evaluated. The proposed process occurs as a result of the interaction between bedform topography and buoyancy forces without requiring transient forcing (e.g., tides or waves) or currents over the bedform. Under hydrostatic seawater, the equivalent freshwater head is greatest on the seabed surface at the troughs of the bedform and lowest at the crest. In this mechanism, the inverted salinity (and density) profile in the presence of both a bedform on the seafloor and upward flow of fresher groundwater from depth induces a downward flow of saline porewater under the troughs and upward flow under the adjacent crest of the bedform. The magnitude and occurrence of the mechanism were evaluated and tested using the SEAWAT model. The results indicate that this mechanism could drive seawater recirculation and contribute 20 to 30 percent of local SGD under a range of realistic conditions. Bedform shape, hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic head and salinity at depth in the porous media, aquifer thickness, effective porosity, and hydrodynamic dispersion are among the factors that control the occurrence and magnitude of the recirculation of seawater, though the upward flux of fresher water is a dominant control. The hydraulic head at depth generally decreases with distance offshore as the head dissipates with the upward flow and discharge of the deeper fresher groundwater. Thus, one might anticipate the occurrence of a banded pattern—approximately parallel to the shoreline—of saltwater recirculation due to topographic-density interaction. Close to shore, the underlying head might be so large as to preclude saltwater recirculation, and far offshore fresher groundwater at depth may be absent or the head might be so small as to preclude upwards flow of deeper groundwater, thereby also eliminating the saltwater recirculation due to topographic-density interaction.

Konikow, L. F.; Akhavan, M.; Sawyer, A. H.; Michael, H. A.; Langevin, C. D.

2012-12-01

110

Primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma: a short review with brief discussion of mediastinal gray zone lymphoma.  

PubMed

Primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It commonly presents as a bulky lesion in the anterior-superior mediastinum with symptoms related to local invasion or compression. Microscopic examination typically shows infiltration of medium-large cells surrounded by collagen fibrosis. The neoplastic cells express B-cell markers, and CD30 often shows heterogeneous staining. Comparative genomic hybridization has identified gains in loci of 9p24 and 2p15 as well as Xp11.4-21 and Xq24-26. Amplification of REL and BCL11A at 2p as well as elevated expression of JAK2, PDL1, and PDL2 at 9p has been demonstrated. Nodular sclerosis classic Hodgkin lymphoma needs to be differentiated from PMBCL and cases with overlapped features have been described as mediastinal gray zone lymphoma. Primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma carries a favorable prognosis in comparison to conventional DLBCL. PMID:21366467

Hutchinson, Charles Blake; Wang, Endi

2011-03-01

111

Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoseismology of an intraplate seismic zone in a large alluvial valley, the New Madrid seismic zone, Central USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) is an intraplate right-lateral strike-slip and thrust fault system contained mostly within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The most recent earthquake sequence in the zone occurred in 1811–1812 and had estimated moment magnitudes of 7–8 (e.g., [Johnston, A.C., 1996. Seismic moment assessment of stable continental earthquakes, Part 3: 1811–1812 New Madrid, 1886 Charleston, and 1755

Margaret J. Guccione

2005-01-01

112

Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoseismology of an intraplate seismic zone in a large alluvial valley, the New Madrid seismic zone, Central USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) is an intraplate right-lateral strike-slip and thrust fault system contained mostly within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The most recent earthquake sequence in the zone occurred in 1811 1812 and had estimated moment magnitudes of 7 8 (e.g., [Johnston, A.C., 1996. Seismic moment assessment of stable continental earthquakes, Part 3: 1811 1812 New Madrid, 1886

Margaret J. Guccione

2005-01-01

113

Flux-free growth of large superconducting crystal of FeSe by traveling-solvent floating-zone technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flux-free solution to the growth of large and composition homogeneous superconducting FeSe crystal is reported for the first time, which is based on the traveling-solvent floating-zone technique. The size of the crystal samples prepared by this approach is up to 15 × 6 × 2 mm3, being far bigger than previously reported in all dimensions, and the main phase of the crystals is of a single preferred orientation along the tetragonal (101) plane. X-ray diffraction analysis identifies the main phase to be the superconducting tetragonal ?-FeSe. The superconducting transition temperature (TC) is determined to be 9.4 K by AC magnetic susceptibility and electronic transport measurements. A nearly perfect diamagnetic shielding of ?97% is observed, indicating a bulk superconductivity in the crystal sample.

Ma, Mingwei; Yuan, Dongna; Wu, Yue; Zhou, Huaxue; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhou, Fang

2014-12-01

114

Higher-order Laue zone line contrast in large-angle convergent-beam electron diffraction around a dislocation.  

PubMed

The physical picture of higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) line contrast in a large-angle convergent-beam electron diffraction pattern around a dislocation, which is used for determining the Burgers vector, was examined. To evaluate the analytical expression of diffracted wave amplitude, we introduced an approximate form of the atomic displacement field of a dislocation. We showed that the four features of the HOLZ line contrast, that is, splitting, fading, bending and periodical contrast can be explained by analysis of the atomic displacement field. The localized lattice plane bending around a dislocation core made a HOLZ line split, fade and bend. However, we found that the periodical contrast of a HOLZ line was produced by the change of phase difference of the atomic displacement field between the crystals above and below the slip plane across the dislocation line. PMID:11555141

Toda, A; Ikarashi, N; Ono, H

2001-09-01

115

The absorption chiller in large scale solar pond cooling design with condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of using solar ponds as low-cost solar collectors combined with commercial absorption chillers in large scale solar cooling design is investigated. The analysis is based on the combination of a steady-state solar pond mathematical model with the operational characteristics of a commercial absorption chiller, assuming condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone (U.C.Z.). The numerical solution of the nonlinear equations involved leads to results which relate the chiller capacity with pond design and environmental parameters, which are also employed for the investigation of the optimum pond size for a minimum capital cost. The derived cost per cooling kW for a 350 kW chiller ranges from about 300 to 500 $/kW cooling. This is almost an order of magnitude lower than using a solar collector field of evacuated tube type.

Tsilingiris, P.T. (Commercial Bank of Greece, Athens (Greece))

1992-07-01

116

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

DOEpatents

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21

117

Method and apparatus for advanced staged combustion utilizing forced internal recirculation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for combustion of a fuel in which a first-stage fuel and a first-stage oxidant are introduced into a combustion chamber and ignited, forming a primary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the total heat output produced by combustion of the first-stage fuel and the first-stage oxidant is removed from the primary combustion zone, forming cooled first-stage combustion products. A portion of the cooled first-stage combustion products from a downstream region of the primary combustion zone is recirculated to an upstream region of primary combustion zone. A second-stage fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the primary combustion zone and ignited, forming a secondary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the heat from the secondary combustion zone is removed. In accordance with one embodiment, a third-stage oxidant is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the secondary combustion zone, forming a tertiary combustion zone.

Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Nester, Serguei; Abbasi, Hamid A.

2003-12-16

118

An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale coal and gas outbursts pose a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution, and the permeability is required to be several orders of magnitude less than that of normal coal and enough length is also in demand. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high-pressure gas in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high-pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

2014-08-01

119

Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine  

DOEpatents

A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

2008-05-27

120

River Food Web Response to Large-Scale Riparian Zone Manipulations  

PubMed Central

Conservation programs often focus on select species, leading to management plans based on the autecology of the focal species, but multiple ecosystem components can be affected both by the environmental factors impacting, and the management targeting, focal species. These broader effects can have indirect impacts on target species through the web of interactions within ecosystems. For example, human activity can strongly alter riparian vegetation, potentially impacting both economically-important salmonids and their associated river food web. In an Olympic Peninsula river, Washington state, USA, replicated large-scale riparian vegetation manipulations implemented with the long-term (>40 yr) goal of improving salmon habitat did not affect water temperature, nutrient limitation or habitat characteristics, but reduced canopy cover, causing reduced energy input via leaf litter, increased incident solar radiation (UV and PAR) and increased algal production compared to controls. In response, benthic algae, most insect taxa, and juvenile salmonids increased in manipulated areas. Stable isotope analysis revealed a predominant contribution of algal-derived energy to salmonid diets in manipulated reaches. The experiment demonstrates that riparian management targeting salmonids strongly affects river food webs via changes in the energy base, illustrates how species-based management strategies can have unanticipated indirect effects on the target species via the associated food web, and supports ecosystem-based management approaches for restoring depleted salmonid stocks. PMID:23284786

Wootton, J. Timothy

2012-01-01

121

River food web response to large-scale riparian zone manipulations.  

PubMed

Conservation programs often focus on select species, leading to management plans based on the autecology of the focal species, but multiple ecosystem components can be affected both by the environmental factors impacting, and the management targeting, focal species. These broader effects can have indirect impacts on target species through the web of interactions within ecosystems. For example, human activity can strongly alter riparian vegetation, potentially impacting both economically-important salmonids and their associated river food web. In an Olympic Peninsula river, Washington state, USA, replicated large-scale riparian vegetation manipulations implemented with the long-term (>40 yr) goal of improving salmon habitat did not affect water temperature, nutrient limitation or habitat characteristics, but reduced canopy cover, causing reduced energy input via leaf litter, increased incident solar radiation (UV and PAR) and increased algal production compared to controls. In response, benthic algae, most insect taxa, and juvenile salmonids increased in manipulated areas. Stable isotope analysis revealed a predominant contribution of algal-derived energy to salmonid diets in manipulated reaches. The experiment demonstrates that riparian management targeting salmonids strongly affects river food webs via changes in the energy base, illustrates how species-based management strategies can have unanticipated indirect effects on the target species via the associated food web, and supports ecosystem-based management approaches for restoring depleted salmonid stocks. PMID:23284786

Wootton, J Timothy

2012-01-01

122

In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system  

DOEpatents

A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM); Dwyer, Brian P. (Albuquerque, NM); Krumhansl, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Chwirka, Joseph D. (Tijeras, NM)

2009-04-07

123

Reflective Amplified Recirculating Delay Line Bandpass Filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new microwave photonic filter structure that can achieve a high Q factor, high stopband rejection, and high skirt selectivity bandpass filter response simultaneously is presented. It is based on reflecting the signal back into a single amplified optical recirculating delay line and comprises coherent summation of the multiple signals that constitute each tap and incoherent summation of the successive taps. This introduces a new class of filter operation and effectively enables the realization of a higher order bandpass filter characteristic in a very simple structure. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate a multiple-tap high-Q bandpass filter response that also displays high stopband rejection level and high skirt selectivity.

Chan, Erwin H. W.; Minasian, Robert A.

2007-06-01

124

Is the New Madrid Seismic Zone at risk for a large earthquake?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students do background reading on the possible origins of intraplate seismicity and also read Nuttli's 1973 paper on the 1811-1812 New Madrid sequence. They construct frequency magnitude diagrams using data they acquire themselves from the openly archived University of Memphis catalog, Southern California Earthquake Center catalog, and USGS global catalog. They use these diagrams to estimate a recurrence interval for large magnitude earthquakes at the NMSZ. They then split into teams to read papers detailing campaign GPS surveys, paleoseismic measurements, and heat flow measurements. Each team is responsible for summarizing their set of papers for the other students. The culminating assignment is to update Gomberg and Schweig's 2002 USGS pamphlet "Earthquake hazard in the heart of the homeland" using scientific results that postdate the original pamphlet (including their own analysis). We also end with a "teaching and learning discussion" in which the students, who are usually high school teachers themselves, trade ideas about how they could repurpose parts of the lesson for use in their own classrooms. This activity gives students practice in data analysis and reading scientific papers, it shows them a few resources where they can find openly available data, and it gives them a chance to participate in the practice of science. Teaching Tips Adaptations that allow this activity to be successful in an online environment This lesson was constructed specifically for an online course and didn't exist beforehand. I think it could work in a face-to-face course, too. Elements of this activity that are most effective Students,especially ones who are not as literate with software plotting / analysis programs, find the problem set somewhat difficult because the datasets are large and I am asking them to collect the data themselves, then use it to make a second-order plot and analyze that, instead of just plotting "A" vs. "B" and analyzing it. That being said, I know that students are excited to be able to produce a plot themselves that exactly mimics one they can find in a published paper, and furthermore they are happy to find resources such as the USGS earthquake catalog that contain available real-time data. The part where they have to compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of each technique used to study the NMSZ (seismology, paleoseismology, GPS, etc) is important because they get a real sense of how different approaches are important to resolve a scientific debate. I know they are learning something when they get frustrated because there isn't an easy answer! Recommendations for other faculty adapting this activity to their own course: -Be prepared to help students get through the technical aspects of some of the scientific papers, especially if they are not used to reading scientific papers. When I pick the papers for them to read, I purposely pick ones that aren't too long (Science, Nature, GRL, etc) and I try to pick ones that came with a press release, "news and views" or similar, and then I tell the students to read the press release first and then the paper. -Be prepared to give students hints about counting and sorting data to make the frequency-magnitude diagrams because you'd rather lead them towards how to make the plots and then let them get on with the analysis as opposed to letting them get so frustrated with their lack of technical skills that they aren't interested in the science anymore. This exercise should be about seismology; it shouldn't be an excel tutorial! I have a little set of screen capture movie how-to hints under a hidden url, and when I can tell that a student is really suffering I reveal them.

Eliza Richardson

125

Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model  

PubMed Central

Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7?±?0.3)?×?1017?N?m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900?±?400?yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

Zhang, Shimin

2013-01-01

126

Large-eddy simulation of swirling reacting flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent, swirling flows are encountered frequently in various chemical engineering processes. In combustion processes swirling flames are of interest due to the fact that provide enhanced mixing and reduce the pollutants formation. The challenge in understanding turbulent swirling flows stems mainly from the complexity of the flow field which is subject to vortex breakdown, recirculation and flow instability. In general the flow instabilities arise at high swirl numbers and can be used to control the performance of combustors. In the present study a large-eddy simulation (LES) approach with Smagorinsky eddy viscosity subgrid scale model is used to predict the swirling flame. The conserved scalar mixture fraction-based thermo-chemical variables are described using the steady laminar flamelet model. The present study shows that LES together with a laminar flamelet model provides a good prediction of the structure of turbulent swirling flames. Also LES captured very well the complex flame structures involving vortex breakdown which leads to swirl-induced recirculation zones, flow instability, and the occurrence of localized extinction. Also, the present study shows that the formation of an elongated recirculation (bluff-body stabilized) zone is strongly dependent on the swirl number and the ratio of momentum in the swirling annulus and central fuel jet.

Ilie, Marcel

2009-03-01

127

High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve  

DOEpatents

In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

2005-01-18

128

PULSED-FOCUSING RECIRCULATING LINACS FOR MUON ACCELERATION  

SciTech Connect

Since the muon has a short lifetime, fast acceleration is essential for high-energy applications such as muon colliders, Higgs factories, or neutrino factories. The best one can do is to make a linear accelerator with the highest possible accelerating gradient to make the accelerating time as short as possible. However, the cost of such a single linear accelerator is prohibitively large due to expensive power sources, cavities, tunnels, and related infrastructure. As was demonstrated in the Thomas Jefferson Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), an elegant solution to reduce cost is to use magnetic return arcs to recirculate the beam through the accelerating RF cavities many times, where they gain energy on each pass. In such a Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA), the magnetic focusing strength diminishes as the beam energy increases in a conventional linac that has constant strength quadrupoles. After some number of passes the focusing strength is insufficient to keep the beam from going unstable and being lost. In this project, the use of fast pulsed quadrupoles in the linac sections was considered for stronger focusing as a function of time to allow more successive passes of a muon beam in a recirculating linear accelerator. In one simulation, it was shown that the number of passes could be increased from 8 to 12 using pulsed magnet designs that have been developed and tested. This could reduce the cost of linac sections of a muon RLA by 8/12, where more improvement is still possible. The expense of a greater number of passes and corresponding number of return arcs was also addressed in this project by exploring the use of ramped or FFAG-style magnets in the return arcs. A better solution, invented in this project, is to use combined-function dipole-quadrupole magnets to simultaneously transport two beams of different energies through one magnet string to reduce costs of return arcs by almost a factor of two. A patent application was filed for this invention and a detailed report published in Physical Review Special Topics. A scaled model using an electron beam was developed and proposed to test the concept of a dog bone RLA with combined-function return arcs. The efforts supported by this grant were reported in a series of contributions to particle accelerator conferences that are reproduced in the appendices and summarized in the body of this report.

Johnson, Rolland PAUL

2014-12-31

129

Full-scale demonstration of in situ cometabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene in groundwater 1. Dynamics of a recirculating well system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recirculating well systems provide an engine for the in situ treatment of subsurface contaminants. Although numerous recirculating wells have been installed in the field, for such systems, there is a paucity of comprehensive monitoring data and models constrained to data appearing in the research literature. Here we present an extensive data set combined with detailed inverse and simulation analyses for a two-well groundwater recirculation system used for in situ bioremediation at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California. The ``conveyor belt'' flow system, which was established for in situ treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) in two bioactive zones, was created by pumping water upward in one well and downward in another well, each well being screened in both the upper and lower aquifers. A bromide tracer test was conducted and extensively monitored for 60 days. Combined inverse analysis was conducted on hydraulic heads from 38 monitoring wells, 32 bromide concentration histories, and a constraint on the degree of recirculation that was based on TCE concentration data. Four different formulations involving alternative weighting schemes used in a nonlinear weighted least squares simulation-regression analysis were explored. The best formulation provided parameter estimates with tight bounds on estimated covariances, suggesting that the model provides a reasonable description of the hydrogeologic system. Our investigation indicates the geometry of the recirculation zone and the degree of recirculation under two different sets of operating conditions. Surprisingly, our analysis suggests that the effects of aquifer heterogeneity are not significant at this site under the conditions of forced recirculation. Furthermore, anomalous flow through an open monitoring well created significant vertical short-circuiting between the generally insulated aquifers. Flow through this small open conduit was equivalent to as much as 33% of the flow through the pumping wells. Using the model as a guide, we treated the aquifer system and bioactive zones as an equivalent mixed reactor to develop simple expressions relating effluent concentrations to influent concentrations. We demonstrate how these expressions are useful in predicting the removal of TCE that had undergone in situ bioremediation in the recirculatory treatment well system. The finite element model developed in this work serves as the foundation for a reactive transport simulator that we developed to analyze bioremediation which occurred during a 444 day experiment [Gandhi et al., 2002].

Gandhi, Rahul K.; Hopkins, Gary D.; Goltz, Mark N.; Gorelick, Steven M.; McCarty, Perry L.

2002-04-01

130

Recirculating Air Filtration Significantly Reduces Exposure to Airborne Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background Airborne nanoparticles from vehicle emissions have been associated with adverse effects in people with pulmonary and cardiovascular disease, and toxicologic studies have shown that nanoparticles can be more hazardous than their larger-scale counterparts. Recirculating air filtration in automobiles and houses may provide a low-cost solution to reducing exposures in many cases, thus reducing possible health risks. Objectives We investigated the effectiveness of recirculating air filtration on reducing exposure to incidental and intentionally produced airborne nanoparticles under two scenarios while driving in traffic, and while generating nanomaterials using gas-phase synthesis. Methods We tested the recirculating air filtration in two commercial vehicles when driving in traffic, as well as in a nonventilation room with a nanoparticle generator, simulating a nanomaterial production facility. We also measured the time-resolved aerosol size distribution during the in-car recirculation to investigate how recirculating air filtration affects particles of different sizes. We developed a recirculation model to describe the aerosol concentration change during recirculation. Results The use of inexpensive, low-efficiency filters in recirculation systems is shown to reduce nanoparticle concentrations to below levels found in a typical office within 3 min while driving through heavy traffic, and within 20 min in a simulated nanomaterial production facility. Conclusions Development and application of this technology could lead to significant reductions in airborne nanoparticle exposure, reducing possible risks to health and providing solutions for generating nanomaterials safely. PMID:18629306

Pui, David Y.H.; Qi, Chaolong; Stanley, Nick; Oberdörster, Günter; Maynard, Andrew

2008-01-01

131

Energy conservation by partial recirculation of peanut drying air  

SciTech Connect

Conventional, recirculating, and intermittent type peanut dryers were compared in a three-year study. Comparisons indicate that partial recirculation of peanut drying air may reduce energy consumption per unit of water removed by approximately 25% while also reducing required drying time and maintaining high quality.

Young, J.H.

1983-06-01

132

Energy savings from air recirculation in peanut curing  

SciTech Connect

A thin-layer peanut drying simulation model was adapted to incorporate air recirculation. Laboratory crop dryers were designed and constructed to conduct experiments to verify the model. Five batches of peanuts were dried using different recirculation strategies. The model successfully predicted the results.

Cook, D.F.; Cundiff, J.S.; Vaughan, D.H.

1982-12-01

133

Downhole weir for measuring flow rate in recirculation wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recirculating wells are increasingly being used for ground water remediation and aquifer characterization investigations. Determination of flow rate is required for proper design and spacing of recirculation wells. The measurement of flow rate, however, can be difficult using standard equipment. To overcome some of the flow measurement problems associated with more common measurement systems, a new device in the form

Tyler Gilmore; John Davis; James Coates

1998-01-01

134

Exhaust gas recirculation valve with adjustable pressure transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation valve assembly is provided for controlling the recirculation of exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine. The assembly includes a fixed body portion having an exhaust inlet and an exhaust outlet port and an adjustable exhaust back-pressure transducer portion movable within the valve. A diaphragm is attached to the body and to the upper and lower

D. P. Dunham; W. A. Treadwell

1980-01-01

135

Effects of recirculating flow on U-937 cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells.  

PubMed

We used a sudden-expansion flow chamber to examine U-937 cell adhesion to unactivated and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in recirculating flow. For both unactivated and TNF-alpha-activated HUVEC, U-937 cells exhibited transient arrests within approximately 150 microm of flow reattachment. Few arrests occurred directly at the reattachment site. U-937 cell rolling was not observed. At all other locations within the recirculation zone, U-937 cells did not exhibit transient arrests or rolling. TNF-alpha activation increased the frequency of U-937 cell arrests near reattachment but did not change the median arrest duration. Numerically simulated cell trajectories failed to predict attachment near the reattachment point. Deviations between experiment and theory may result from the nonspherical shape and deformability of U-937 cells. These results demonstrate that U-937 cell transient arrests occur preferentially in the vicinity of the reattachment point in recirculating flow. Possible mechanisms for adhesion include low shear stress, curved streamlines, fluid velocity components normal to the endothelium, and formation of larger contact areas. PMID:9683448

Barber, K M; Pinero, A; Truskey, G A

1998-08-01

136

AP1000 Features Prevent Potential Containment Recirculation Screen Plugging  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of plant design development and evaluations that demonstrate that the AP1000 plant is not subject to potential containment recirculation screen plugging following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). Following a LOCA in a pressurized water reactor, it is necessary to recirculate water from the containment back into the reactor to maintain long term core cooling. The AP1000 utilizes passive safety systems to provide containment recirculation for long term core cooling following a LOCA. The AP1000 also has non-safety pumps which provide a backup means of providing recirculation. Screens are provided around the recirculation pipes to prevent debris from blocking recirculation flow and core cooling passages. Debris may be generated by the LOCA blowdown from insulation and coatings used inside containment. Even with effective cleanliness programs, there may be some resident debris such as dust and dirt. The potential for plugging the recirculation screens is a current PWR licensing issue. The AP1000 design provides inherent advantages with respect to the potential plugging of containment recirculation screens. These characteristics include prevention of fibrous debris generation, improved debris settling and improved recirculation screen design. Debris settling analysis demonstrates that failure of coatings does not result in debris being transported to the screens before it settles to the floor. Additional analysis also shows that the plant can tolerate conservative amounts of resident debris being transported to the screens. The AP1000 significantly reduces the probability of plugging the containment recirculation screens and significantly reduces inspection and maintenance of coatings used inside containment. (authors)

Andreychek, Timothy; Anderson, Richard; Schulz, Terry [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, P.O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA, 15230 (United States)

2004-07-01

137

Recirculating Linac Accelerators For Future Muon Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require rapid acceleration of shortlived muons to multi-GeV and TeV energies. A Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) that uses superconducting RF structures can provide exceptionally fast and economical acceleration to the extent that the focusing range of the RLA quadrupoles allows each muon to pass several times through each high-gradient cavity. A new concept of rapidly changing the strength of the RLA focusing quadrupoles as the muons gain energy is being developed to increase the number of passes that each muon will make in the RF cavities, leading to greater cost effectiveness. We discuss the optics and technical requirements for RLA designs, using RF cavities capable of simultaneous acceleration of both m+ and m- species. The design will include the optics for the multi-pass linac and droplet-shaped return arcs.

Yves Roblin, Alex Bogacz, Vasiliy Morozov, Kevin Beard

2012-04-01

138

Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus  

DOEpatents

A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

Guerrero, Hector (Evans, GA); Bickford, Dennis (Folly Beach, SC)

2007-06-05

139

Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

140

Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

Joseph Rabovitser

2003-06-19

141

33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone 165.1318 Section 165.1318...Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension...notice by the Captain of the Port Columbia River. Captain of the Port Columbia...

2012-07-01

142

33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1318 Section 165.1318...Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Notice of enforcement or...notice by the Captain of the Port Columbia River. Captain of the Port Columbia...

2013-07-01

143

33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1318 Section 165.1318...Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Notice of enforcement or...notice by the Captain of the Port Columbia River. Captain of the Port Columbia...

2014-07-01

144

33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone 165.1318 Section 165.1318...Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension...notice by the Captain of the Port Columbia River. Captain of the Port Columbia...

2011-07-01

145

Stable Isotope Evidence for Large-Scale Infiltration of Metamorphic Fluids Generated during Shallow Subduction into the Eastern Peninsular Ranges Mylonite Zone (EPRMZ), Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

New ?O and ?D data confirm and amplify the conclusion by Holk et al. (1991) that, during the late Cretaceous or earliest Tertiary, there was large-scale infiltration of metamorphic water at depths of at least 15 km into the lower plate of the EPRMZ, a major crustal shear zone that transects a 15 x 15 km tonalite pluton west of

Gregory J. Holk; Hugh P. Taylor Jr; L. Peter Gromet

2006-01-01

146

Growth and Culture of Larval and Juvenile Tautogs in a Closed Recirculating-Seawater System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-captured and laboratory-held adult tautogs Tautoga onitis were allowed to spawn naturally under laboratory conditions. Embryos were cultured to hatching and raised successfully through the larval stage to 490-d-old posthatch juveniles. A large (8,500-L), closed, recirculating-seawater system, designed with a biological filter containing air diffusers that passed a strong air?water mixture through a high-surface-area substrate, was used to culture the

Dean M. Perry; Renee Mercaldo-Allen; Stacy Burgh

2001-01-01

147

Exhaust gas recirculation method for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust passage, an intake passage, an exhaust gas recirculating passage communicating the exhaust passage with the intake passage, and exhaust gas recirculating valve; and a transmission having a shift lever. The valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve is controlled in response to operating conditions of the engine so as to regulate the amount of exhaust gas recirculation to values appropriate to the operating conditions of the engine. The method comprising the steps of (1) determining whether or not the engine is in at least one of a predetermined accelerating condition and a predetermined decelerating condition; (2) varying the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve by a predetermined value when the engine is determined to be in at least one of the predetermined accelerating condition and the predetermined decelerating condition; (3) detecting a position of the shift lever of the transmission; and (4) correcting the predetermined value in accordance with the detected position of the shift lever so as to increase the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve as the shift lever of the transmission is set to a higher speed position.

Kawanabe, T.; Kimura, K.; Asakura, M.; Shiina, T.

1988-07-19

148

Rock magnetism constrain response thickness on earth surface to large earthquake: Evidence from the Bajiaomiao Outcrop of the Wenchuan Earthquake Rupture Zone, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake has raptured along two fault zones, the Yingxiu-Beichuan f and the Anxian-Guanxian fault zones. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) funded by the Chinese government, drilled five holes close to the two seismic fault zones. Fault gouge with various thicknesses were found in the drill holes and at the earth surface outcrops. In general, one such large earthquake creates several centimeters-thick fault gouge, i.e. the repeated large earthquakes must have taken place in the Longmen Shan region in order to accumulate the amount of gouge observed here. Rock magnetism is an economic, easy-access and non-destructive method for deciphering the magnetic mineral assemblage during large earthquake slip process, which can give us more information about this intercontinental earthquake dynamics, thanks to the occurrence of many large earthquakes as well as to the thick fault gouge present here. The Bajiaomiao outcrop, crossing to the Yingxiu-Beichuan seismic fault rapture zone, consisted of fault breccia and gouge in the hanging wall and Quaternary conglomerate in the footwall. The samples from the hanging wall of this outcrop were used to study rock magnetic porperties. Basing on the in-situ field magnetic susceptibility measurement, high magnetic susceptibility values were found in the fault gouge, possibly induced by more new-formed ferrimagnetic minerals. We apply other rock magnetic methods (such as Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM), high-temperature thermomagnetism (K-T)) to the samples from the Bajiaomiao outcrop. The IRM results show that the magnetite was present in the gouge and fault breccia of the hand hall of the Yingxiu-Beichuan seismic fault rapture zone. Basing on the K-T results, magnetite and other ferromagnetic minerals existed in the gouge and fault breccia; the <2 cm thick gouge close to the fault rapture zone had existed the only magnetic mineral of magnetite. This < 2cm gouge was most likely induced by one large earthquake. Recently, no evidence shows that this <2 cm-thick gouge close to Yingxiu-Beichuan seismic fault surface rapture zone was induced by the large 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake.

Liu, D.; Li, H.; Lee, T.; Song, S.; Sun, Z.; Wang, X.; Chou, Y.; Chevalier, M.; Si, J.; Wang, H.

2013-12-01

149

Geomechanical effects on CO{sub 2} leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection  

SciTech Connect

The importance of geomechanics—including the potential for faults to reactivate during large scale geologic carbon sequestration operations—has recently become more widely recognized. However, notwithstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO{sub 2} to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is actually more important from public safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this work extends the previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence on the potential for leakage of either brine or CO{sub 2} to reach the shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. We consider stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes during a reactivation, also causing seismicity. We analyze several scenarios related to the volume of CO{sub 2} injected (and hence as a function of the overpressure), involving both minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain-permeability coupling functions. We conclude that whereas it is very difficult to predict how much fault permeability could change upon reactivation, this process can have a significant impact on the leakage rate. Moreover, our analysis shows that induced seismicity associated with fault reactivation may not necessarily open up a new flow path for leakage. Results show a poor correlation between magnitude and amount of fluid leakage, meaning that a single event is generally not enough to substantially change the permeability along the entire fault length. Consequently, even if some changes in permeability occur, this does not mean that the CO{sub 2} will migrate up along the entire fault, breaking through the caprock to enter the overlying aquifer.

Rinaldi, A.P.; Rutqvist, J.; Cappa, F.

2013-09-01

150

Impact of the construction of a large dam on riparian vegetation cover at different elevation zones as observed from remotely sensed data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of the construction of a large dam on riparian vegetation cover can be multifold. How the riparian vegetation cover changes at different elevation zones in response to the construction of a large dam and the subsequent impound of reservoir water is still an open question. In this study, we used satellite remote sensing data integrated with geographic information system (GIS) to monitor vegetation cover change at different riparian elevation zones on a large spatial scale, taking the Three Gorges Dam in China as an example. Due to the large scale of this newly formed reservoir, it is expected to impact the riparian vegetation canopy both directly and indirectly. We chose to monitor vegetation cover changes along the 100 km riparian stretch of river directly upstream of the Three Gorges Dam site, over the construction period of eleven years (2000-2010), using MODIS vegetation indices products, digital elevation model (DEM) data from ASTER, and the time series water level data of the Three Gorges reservoir as the data sources. Results show that non-vegetated area increased in the inundated zone (below 175 m), as expected; area of densely vegetated land cover increased within the elevation zone of 175-775 m and no change in vegetation cover was observed above 775 m in elevation. Regression analysis between the vegetation index data and the reservoir water level shows that increasing water levels have had a negative impact on vegetation cover below 175 m, a positive impact on vegetation cover is limited to the region between 175 and 775 m, and no significant impact was observed above 775 m. MODIS EVI product is less sensitive in mapping non-vegetated land cover change, but more sensitive in mapping vegetated land cover change, caused by the reservoir water level variation; both products are similar in effectively tracking a trend between land cover change in each elevation zone with time or with reservoir water level.

Kellogg, Christopher H.; Zhou, Xiaobing

2014-10-01

151

DETERMINATION OF THE SOLIDS REMOVAL EFFICIENCY FOR SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM USING PARTICLE SIEVE ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A major target in the recirculating water treatment scheme of an aquaculture production system is removal of suspended solids. The large volumes of waste fish generate are highly organic in nature and contribute to filter clogging, ammonia production, oxygen consumption, and disease for systems empl...

152

Alpine re-activation of pre-Alpine structures: details from a large-scale shear zone in the Aar massif (Central Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aar massif belongs to the external massifs of the Alps and is mainly composed of granitoids and gneisses. Post-Variscan granitoid rocks have intruded old gneisses belonging to the pre-Variscan basement. Despite numerous detailed studies in the past decades, the overall exhumation history and the associated massif internal deformation (internal strain distribution and its evolution in time, kinematics etc.) are largely unknown at present. In this project, we aim to investigate the role of shear zones in the deformation history at a variety of scales. In this context it is important to understand their microstructural evolution, the involved deformation processes, kinematics and relative ages as well as the associated changes in rheology. A detailed study was conducted along a major shear zone located at the southern margin of the Aar massif (running from Furka to Grimsel Pass and Oberaar Glacier), where the Grimsel Granodiorite (GrGr) is juxtapositioned to strongly foliated gneisses. Preliminary results show that a crenulation of these gneisses predates the age of the granitoid intrusion, meaning they must be older than 298 Ma. The crenulation and a related axial plane foliation (145/80°) define mechanical anisotropies within these Pre-Variscan rocks. The intruding granite has exploited these anisotropies a first time during its emplacement in post-Variscan times. The lithological boundary between the intruded GrGr and Pre-Variscan rocks causes strain again to localize during Alpine deformation and results in a 40 m wide large-scale shear zone. The older part of the shear zone shows cm-scale shear zones with vertical lineations shearing off the aforementioned pre-Alpine axial plane foliation. Hence the contact is reactivated, now as Alpine normal/ reverse fault, a second time. Towards the youngest parts of the shear zone the stretching lineation on the shear surfaces turns from vertical towards a subhorizontal position, indicating a change from initial vertical movement towards strike-slip shearing during a late stage of the shear zone activity. This highest strain event clearly shows a 160/80° orientation of mylonitic and ultramylonitic foliations. In more competent boudins-shaped rocks open fissures developed within the high strain domain. Shear sense indicators related to the subhorizontal lineations, i.e. C' structures, sheared boudins and asymmetric folds, indicate a dextral shear sense. This dextral shearing is coeval with dextral faulting along the Simplon line and represents the third reactivation of the pre-Alpine anisotropies. In sum, this shear zone illustrates the importance of mechanical anisotropies and pre-existing structures for strain distribution, localization and shear zone kinematics in case of the basement rocks.

Wehrens, Philip; Baumberger, Roland; Herwegh, Marco

2013-04-01

153

Single sideband suppressed carrier modulator based frequency shifting recirculating delay line microwave photonic filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution low-noise single-laser photonic filter that can operate to high frequencies is presented. It is based on the single-sideband suppressed carrier electro-optic modulator frequency shifter that enables high frequency shifts to be realised in a frequency shifting amplified recirculating delay line loop structure. Designs to minimise the unwanted spurious harmonic frequencies generated by the single-sideband suppressed carrier modulator are presented. Simulations are presented to investigate the gain spectrum limitations that arise from the bandwidth narrowing of the erbium-doped fibre amplifier due to the important self-filtering effects that occur when the signals circulate inside the frequency shifting amplified recirculating delay line loop, and new techniques to counter this effect and to realise a large number of taps is presented. Experimental results demonstrate a high-resolution microwave photonic filter with a Q of 107 and with low-noise performance.

Chan, E. H. W.; Minasian, R. A.

2013-02-01

154

Effects of Fluctuating River flow on Groundwater/Surface Water Mixing in the Hyporheic Zone of a Regulated, Large Cobble Bed River  

SciTech Connect

Physicochemical relationships in the boundary zone between groundwater and surface water (i.e., the hyporheic zone) are controlled by surface water hydrology and the hydrogeologic properties of the riverbed. We studied how sediment permeability and river discharge altered the vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) and water quality of the hyporheic zone within the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The Columbia River at Hanford is a large, cobble-bed river where water level fluctuates up to 2 m daily because of hydropower generation. Concomitant with recording river stage, continuous readings were made of water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and water level of the hyporheic zone. The water level data were used to calculate VHG between the river and hyporheic zone. Sediment permeability was estimated using slug tests conducted in piezometers installed into the river bed. The response of water quality measurements and VHG to surface water fluctuations varied widely among study sites, ranging from no apparent response to co-variance with river discharge. At some sites, a hysteretic relationship between river discharge and VHG was indicated by a time lag in the response of VHG to changes in river stage. The magnitude, rate of change, and hysteresis of the VHG response varied the most at the least permeable location (hydraulic conductivity (K) = 2.9 x 10-4 cms-1), and the least at the most permeable location (K=8.0 x 10-3 cms-1). Our study provides empirical evidence that sediment properties and river discharge both control the water quality of the hyporheic zone. Regulated rivers, like the Columbia River at Hanford, that undergo large, frequent discharge fluctuations represent an ideal environment to study hydrogeologic processes over relatively short time scales (i.e., days to weeks) that would require much longer periods of time to evaluate (i.e., months to years) in un-regulated systems.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Dresel, P. Evan

2006-10-31

155

Future of recirculating systems in the US aquaculture industry  

SciTech Connect

Recirculating systems consist of a culture unit, a recirculating pump, and a treatment block which facilitate extended re-use of water in the rearing of aquatic animals. As water re-use is extended from a few hours to months or even years, the complexity of the treatment block increases. Classified as either `open` with greater than 10 percent water replacement per day or `closed` with less than 10 percent daily replacement, most recirculating systems include aerators, clarifiers, and biofilters as key core elements. The aquaculture industry is increasingly facing a variety of socio-economic issues which will dramatically influence its future development. These problems range from increased competition for water rights through price depression and foreign imports to predation by protected migratory birds. As water-use, environmental, and conservation conflicts grow, the cost differences between the flow-through and closed production technologies will narrow, increasing the industry`s use of recirculating systems.

Malone, R.F.

1994-08-01

156

Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N{sub 2}O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N{sub 2}O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N{sub 2}O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N{sub 2}O releases: 8.1 {+-} 0.16 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 384), 4.2 {+-} 0.14 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 132) and 1.9 {+-} 0.10 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N{sub 2}O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N{sub 2}O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection.

Tallec, G.; Bureau, C. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France); Peu, P.; Benoist, J.C. [Cemagref, UR GERE, 17 Avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes (France); Lemunier, M. [Suez-Environnement, CIRADE, 38 Av. Jean Jaures, 78440 Gargenville (France); Budka, A.; Presse, D. [SITA France, 132 Rue des 3 Fontanot, 92000 Nanterre Cedex (France); Bouchez, T. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France)], E-mail: theodore.bouchez@cemagref.fr

2009-07-15

157

Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal  

DOEpatents

A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV)

2008-10-28

158

LONGITUDINAL REFERENCE PARTICLE MOTION IN NEARLY ISOCHRONOUS FFAG RECIRCULATING ACCELERATORS.  

SciTech Connect

A Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) arc can be used to reduce the cost of a recirculating accelerator. Path length variation with energy in such an arc can limit its usefulness, however, due to phase offset at the linac. This paper examines the dynamics of the reference particle in an FFAG recirculating accelerator, and describes the limitations on the design because of path length variation with energy.

BERG,J.S.

2001-07-01

159

Decadal variability of the Kuroshio Extension: mesoscale eddies and recirculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eddy-resolving multidecadal ocean model hindcast simulation is analyzed to investigate time-varying signals of the two\\u000a recirculation gyres present respectively to the north and south of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) jet. The northern recirculation\\u000a gyre (NRG), which has been detected at middepth recently by profiling float and moored current meter observations, is a major\\u000a focus of the present study. Low-frequency

Bunmei Taguchi; Bo Qiu; Masami Nonaka; Hideharu Sasaki; Shang-Ping Xie; Niklas Schneider

2010-01-01

160

Large Eddy Simulations of forced ignition of a non-premixed bluff-body methane flame with Conditional Moment Closure  

SciTech Connect

Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced ignition of a bluff-body stabilised non-premixed methane flame using the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) turbulent combustion model have been performed. The aim is to investigate the feasibility of the use of CMC/LES for ignition problems and to examine which, if any, of the characteristics already observed in related experiments could be predicted. A three-dimensional formulation of the CMC equation was used with simple and detailed chemical mechanisms, and sparks with different parameters (location, size) were used. It was found that the correct pattern of flame expansion and overall flame appearance were predicted with reasonable accuracy with both mechanisms, but the detailed mechanism resulted in expansion rates closer to the experiment. Moreover, the distribution of OH was predicted qualitatively accurately, with patches of high and low concentration in the recirculation zone during the ignition transient, consistent with experimental data. The location of the spark relative to the recirculation zone was found to determine the pattern of the flame propagation and the total time for the flame stabilisation. The size was also an important parameter, since it was found that the flame extinguishes when the spark is very small, in agreement with expectations from experiment. The stabilisation mechanism of the flame was dominated by the convection and sub-grid scale diffusion of hot combustion products from the recirculation zone to the cold gases that enter the burner, as revealed by analysis of the CMC equation. (author)

Triantafyllidis, A.; Mastorakos, E. [Hopkinson Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Eggels, R.L.G.M. [Rolls Royce Deutschland, Blankenfelde-Mahlow (Germany)

2009-12-15

161

Exogenous processes study in the coastal zone of the large reservoirs in the archaeological monuments placement (Volga-Kama region)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of conservation of archaeological heritage is highly relevant for the Republic of Tatarstan (RT), because in its territory identified, studied and registered around 4,300 archaeological sites. Most of archaeological sites from the Mesolithic to the late Middle Ages, now situated in the coastal zone of reservoirs where archaeological objects destroying because of intensive abrasion processes. The Volga and Kama rivers region attracted people for millennia. This territory of the Russian Plain is abounding in archaeological sites of various ages. During the Upper Paleolithic study region was quite convenient for living activity of the first inhabitants because of its situation out of the glacier limits. The sites on the banks are deposited within deluvial sediments of the Late Valday glaciation which have been accumulated on the slope of the Volga and Kama valleys, placing the third terrace and the segmentations of the second terrace over the flood-plain and now completely or fragmentary destroyed by reservoir waters. The analysis of remote sensing (1958-2013) and field survey (2011-2013) data performed. Georeferencing and alignment of the historical maps with remote sensing data makes possible to reveal mistakes in old site plans and re-create the shape of the destroyed archaeological objects, as well to get the exact size of the monument and its correct orientation. Results showed also that the studying sites caused a great rate of destruction of coastline. Cultural heritage sites monitoring, with information about the chronology, cultural layer value, settlement specifics, etc., taking into account the methods used in landscape ecology and field archaeological survey, allows to evaluate damage and the intensity of archaeological sites destruction through the dangerous exogenous processes estimation. Exogenous processes data and archaeological GIS integration will form unified system of archaeological rescue works, will provide analysis of large amount data in a short time, to update and enter new data, etc. This approach will help to determine the most problematic areas, in their funding valuation and archaeological excavations planning and broaden knowledge about the past of the peoples living in study region.

Gaynullin, Iskander; Usmanov, Bulat

2014-05-01

162

Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report.

Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L. [and others] [and others

1998-08-01

163

Turbulent transport modeling of shear flows around an aerodynamic wing. Development of turbulent near-wall model and its application to recirculating flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in implementing and refining two near-wall turbulence models in which the near-wall region is divided into either two or three zones is outlined. These models were successfully applied to the computation of recirculating flows. The research was further extended to obtaining experimental results of two different recirculating flow conditions in order to check the validity of the present models. Two different experimental apparatuses were set up: axisymmetric turbulent impinging jets on a flat plate, and turbulent flows in a circular pipe with a abrupt pipe expansion. It is shown that generally better results are obtained by using the present near-wall models, and among the models the three-zone model is superior to the two-zone model.

Amano, R. S.

1982-01-01

164

Bio-desulfurization of biogas using acidic biotrickling filter with dissolved oxygen in step feed recirculation.  

PubMed

Triple stage and single stage biotrickling filters (T-BTF and S-BTF) were operated with oxygenated liquid recirculation to enhance bio-desulfurization of biogas. Empty bed retention time (EBRT 100-180 s) and liquid recirculation velocity (q 2.4-7.1 m/h) were applied. H2S removal and sulfuric acid recovery increased with higher EBRT and q. But the highest q at 7.1 m/h induced large amount of liquid through the media, causing a reduction in bed porosity in S-BTF and H2S removal. Equivalent performance of S-BTF and T-BTF was obtained under the lowest loading of 165 gH2S/m(3)/h. In the subsequent continuous operation test, it was found that T-BTF could maintain higher H2S elimination capacity and removal efficiency at 175.6±41.6 gH2S/m(3)/h and 89.0±6.8% versus S-BTF at 159.9±42.8 gH2S/m(3)/h and 80.1±10.2%, respectively. Finally, the relationship between outlet concentration and bed height was modeled. Step feeding of oxygenated liquid recirculation in multiple stages clearly demonstrated an advantage for sulfide oxidation. PMID:25569031

Chaiprapat, Sumate; Charnnok, Boonya; Kantachote, Duangporn; Sung, Shihwu

2015-03-01

165

Holocene paleoseismicity, temporal clustering, and probabilities of future large (M > 7) earthquakes on the Wasatch fault zone, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clu:onology of M>7 palcoearthquakes on the central five segments of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) is one of the best dated in the world and contains 16 earthquakes in the past 5600 years with an average repeat thne of 350 years. Repeat times for individual segments vary by a factor of 2, and range from about 1200 to 2600

J. P. McCalpin; S. P. Nishenko

1996-01-01

166

Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern South America and Large-Scale Convective Patterns in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of daily extreme precipitation events in southeast South America (São Paulo, Brazil) and the spatial features of convective activity in the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) are investigated. Precipitation data from surface stations in São Paulo state from 1979 to 1996 are used to determine the frequency of occurrence of extremely heavy daily precipitation events. Daily averages of

Leila M. V. Carvalho; Charles Jones; Brant Liebmann

2002-01-01

167

Origin and emplacement of the andesite of Burroughs Mountain, a zoned, large-volume lava flow at Mount Rainier, Washington, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burroughs Mountain, situated at the northeast foot of Mount Rainier, WA, exposes a large-volume (3.4 km3) andesitic lava flow, up to 350 m thick and extending 11 km in length. Two sampling traverses from flow base to eroded top, over vertical sections of 245 and 300 m, show that the flow consists of a felsic lower unit (100 m thick) overlain sharply by a more mafic upper unit. The mafic upper unit is chemically zoned, becoming slightly more evolved upward; the lower unit is heterogeneous and unzoned. The lower unit is also more phenocryst-rich and locally contains inclusions of quenched basaltic andesite magma that are absent from the upper unit. Widespread, vuggy, gabbronorite-to-diorite inclusions may be fragments of shallow cumulates, exhumed from the Mount Rainier magmatic system. Chemically heterogeneous block-and-ash-flow deposits that conformably underlie the lava flow were the earliest products of the eruptive episode. The felsic-mafic-felsic progression in lava composition resulted from partial evacuation of a vertically-zoned magma reservoir, in which either (1) average depth of withdrawal increased, then decreased, during eruption, perhaps due to variations in effusion rate, or (2) magmatic recharge stimulated ascent of a plume that brought less evolved magma to shallow levels at an intermediate stage of the eruption. Pre-eruptive zonation resulted from combined crystallization- differentiation and intrusion(s) of less evolved magma into the partly crystallized resident magma body. The zoned lava flow at Burroughs Mountain shows that, at times, Mount Rainier's magmatic system has developed relatively large, shallow reservoirs that, despite complex recharge events, were capable of developing a felsic-upward compositional zonation similar to that inferred from large ash-flow sheets and other zoned lava flows. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Stockstill, K.R.; Vogel, T.A.; Sisson, T.W.

2002-01-01

168

Northern boundary currents and adjacent recirculations off southwestern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full-depth hydrographic and velocity measurements along 115°E south of Australia (WHP section I9S) reveal an active northern boundary current regime within 200-300 km of the Australian continental shelf and an offshore recirculation regime within the South Australian Basin. In the upper ocean an oft-described westward-flowing northern boundary current, the Flinders Current, extends through the thermocline and the salinity minimum strata of Antarctic Intermediate Water, with an opposing eastward recirculation to its south. The new data shows that beneath the Flinders Current, an eastward-flowing deep northern boundary current transports water of subtropical Indian Ocean origin supplied by southward deep flow along the western continental slope of Australia in the Perth Basin. Between these northern boundary currents and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, thermocline and deep geostrophic shears indicate weak recirculations, eastward at thermocline levels and westward in the deep water. Lowered Acoustic Doppler current profiler data reveal stronger organized recirculations to both the Flinders Current and the deep northern boundary current, with the westward deep recirculation exceeding the eastward transport of the deep northern boundary current and thus representing a net supply of deep water to the Perth Basin.

Hufford, Gwyneth E.; McCartney, Michael S.; Donohue, Kathleen A.

1997-11-01

169

33 CFR 165.839 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to...Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to...Location. Within the Lower Mississippi River and Southwest Pass, moving...

2014-07-01

170

33 CFR 165.839 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to...Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to...Location. Within the Lower Mississippi River and Southwest Pass, moving...

2013-07-01

171

33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Portland, OR Captain of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and shall proceed as directed by the on-scene official patrol or large passenger vessel...anchor, unless authorized by the on-scene official patrol or large passenger vessel...underway or at anchor, contact the on-scene official patrol or large passenger...

2010-07-01

172

Nappe-Bounding Shear Zones Initiated On Syn-Tectonic, Pegmatite-Filled Extensional Shear Fractures During Deep-Crustal Nappe Flow In A Large Hot Orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) of the Proterozoic western Grenville Province is an extensive exposure of the mid-crustal levels (upper amphibolite facies, lesser granulites) of a large hot orogen. Numerical models give a credible prediction of structure and metamorphism accompanying CGB deep-crustal nappe flow and define a temporal framework based on four developmental phases: thickening, heating, nappe-flow and post convergence extensional spreading. These phases are diachronous in direction of orogen propagation and imply a spatial framework: externides (close to orogen-craton boundary) containing moderately inclined thickening and/or extensional structures, and internides containing thickening structures overprinted by sub-horizontal nappe flow structures, which may be locally overprinted by those due to extensional spreading. Although on average of granitoid composition, CGB nappes differ in rheology, varying from fertile and weak (unmetamorphosed before Grenville, meltable) to infertile and strong (metamorphosed at high grade before Grenville, unmeltable) or mixed fertile-infertile protoliths. Deformation style varies from diffuse in fertile nappes, weakened by pervasive melting, to localised in shear zones on boundaries or interiors of infertile nappes. Specifically, in terms of deformation phase and location within the orogen, shear zones occur as: thickening structures of externides, early thickening- and later overprinting nappe-flow structures of infertile internide nappes, and extension-related shear zones in externides and internides. Many of the nappe-flow shear zones of the internides are associated with pegmatites. One example has been recognized of a preserved progression from small-scale fracture arrays to regional shear zone. The sequence is present on a km-scale and initiates in the interior of a nappe of layered granulite with arrays of pegmatite filled extensional-shear fractures (mm to cm width) displaying amphibolized margins. The fracture arrays develop into systems of pegmatite cored amphibolite facies shear zones (cm to dm width) lying within metre-scale corridors of variably retrogressed unsheared layered granulite. The sequence culminates with transposition of the layered protolith within the kilometre-scale amphibolite facies shear zone that forms the base of the granulite nappe. The pegmatitic hydrous magma clearly plays a role in initial crack formation, progressive retrogression and weakening of the granulite but its source remains obscure.

Culshaw, Nicholas; Gerbi, Christopher; Marsh, Jeffrey; Regan, Peter

2014-05-01

173

Visualisation of isothermal large coherent structures in a swirl burner  

SciTech Connect

Lean premixed combustion using swirl flame stabilisation is widespread amongst gas turbine manufacturers. The use of swirl mixing and flame stabilisation is also prevalent in many other non-premixed systems. Problems that emerge include loss of stabilisation as a function of combustor geometry and thermo-acoustic instabilities. Coherent structures and their relationship with combustion processes have been a concern for decades due to their complex nature. This paper thus adopts an experimental approach to characterise large coherent structures in swirl burners under isothermal conditions so as to reveal the effects of swirl in a number of geometries and cold flow patterns that are relevant in combustion. Aided by techniques such as Hot Wire Anemometry, High Speed Photography and Particle Image Velocimetry, the recognition of several structures was achieved in a 100 kW swirl burner model. Several varied, interacting, structures developed in the field as a consequence of the configurations used. New structures never observed before were identified, the results not only showing the existence of very well defined large structures, but also their dependency on geometrical and flow parameters. The PVC is confirmed to be a semi-helical structure, contrary to previous simulations performed on the system. The appearance of secondary recirculation zones and suppression of the vortical core as a consequence of geometrical constrictions are presented as a mechanism of flow control. The asymmetry of the Central Recirculation Zone in cold flows is observed in all the experiments, with its elongation dependent on Re and swirl number used. (author)

Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Griffiths, A. [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen's Building, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

174

Large enhancements in low latitude total electron content during 15 May 2005 geomagnetic storm in Indian zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results pertaining to the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to a major geomagnetic storm that occurred on 15 May 2005 are presented. These results are also the first from the Indian zone in terms of (i) GPS derived total electron content (TEC) variations following the storm (ii) Local low latitude electrodynamics response to penetration of high latitude convection electric field (iii) effect of storm induced traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD's) on GPS-TEC in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) zone. Data set comprising of ionospheric TEC obtained from GPS measurements, ionograms from an EIA zone station, New Delhi (Geog. Lat. 28.42° N, Geog. Long. 77.21° E), ground based magnetometers in equatorial and low latitude stations and solar wind data obtained from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) has been used in the present study. GPS receivers located at Udaipur (Geog. Lat. 24.73° N, Geog. Long. 73.73° E) and Hyderabad (Geog. Lat. 17.33° N, Geog. Long. 78.47° E) have been used for wider spatial coverage in the Indian zone. Storm induced features in vertical TEC (VTEC) have been obtained comparing them with the mean VTEC of quiet days. Variations in solar wind parameters, as obtained from ACE and in the SYM-H index, indicate that the storm commenced on 15 May 2005 at 02:39 UT. The main phase of the storm commenced at 06:00 UT on 15 May with a sudden southward turning of the Z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz) and subsequent decrease in SYM-H index. The dawn-to-dusk convection electric field of high latitude origin penetrated to low and equatorial latitudes simultaneously as corroborated by the magnetometer data from the Indian zone. Subsequent northward turning of the IMF-Bz, and the penetration of the dusk-to-dawn electric field over the dip equator is also discernible. Response of the low latitude ionosphere to this storm may be characterized in terms of (i) enhanced background level of VTEC as compared to the mean VTEC, (ii) peaks in VTEC and foF2 within two hours of prompt penetration of electric field and (iii) wave-like modulations in VTEC and sudden enhancement in hmF2 within 4-5 h in to the storm. These features have been explained in terms of the modified fountain effect, local low latitude electrodynamic response to penetration electric field and the TIDs, respectively. The study reveals a strong positive ionospheric storm in the Indian zone on 15 May 2005. Consequences of such major ionospheric storms on the systems that use satellite based navigation solutions in low latitude, are also discussed.

Dashora, N.; Sharma, S.; Dabas, R. S.; Alex, S.; Pandey, R.

2009-05-01

175

Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

2002-05-01

176

Hydrothermal carbonization: process water characterization and effects of water recirculation.  

PubMed

Poplar wood chips were treated hydrothermally and the increase of process efficiency by water recirculation was examined. About 15% of the carbon in the biomass was dissolved in the liquid phase when biomass was treated in de-ionized water at 220 °C for 4 h. The dissolved organic matter contained oxygen and was partly aerobically biodegradable. About 30-50% of the total organic carbon originated from organic acids. A polar and aromatic fraction was extracted and a major portion of the organic load was of higher molecular weight. By process water recirculation organic acids in the liquid phase concentrated and catalyzed dehydration reactions. As a consequence, functional groups in hydrothermally synthesized coal declined and dewaterability was enhanced. Recirculated reactive substances polymerized and formed additional solid substance. As a result, carbon and energetic yields of the produced coal rose to 84% and 82%, respectively. PMID:23792664

Stemann, Jan; Putschew, Anke; Ziegler, Felix

2013-09-01

177

Tiny Is Mighty: Seagrass Beds Have a Large Role in the Export of Organic Material in the Tropical Coastal Zone  

PubMed Central

Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM) with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand). We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and ?13C and ?15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial) and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and should be considered in coastal management especially with respect to their importance as a nutrient source for other ecosystems and organisms. PMID:25386853

Gillis, Lucy G.; Ziegler, Alan D.; van Oevelen, Dick; Cathalot, Cecile; Herman, Peter M. J.; Wolters, Jan W.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

2014-01-01

178

Recirculating gas stripper system for 15 UD Pelletron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new recirculating turbo molecular pump-based gas stripper system has been designed and installed in the high-voltage terminal of the 15 UD pelletron. The system has been installed as a part of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility development program and is being used for regular accelerator operation. The vacuum inside the accelerator during gas strip has improved considerably. Beam transmission through the accelerating column is increased. The system is performing satisfactorily. The design and performance of the gas recirculating system is presented.

Chopra, S.; Pawar, N. S.; Singh, M. P.; Kumar, Rakesh; Prasad, J.; Patel, V. P.; Pal, Raj; Sota, M.; Devarani, K.; Ojha, S.; Gargari, S.; Joshi, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Datta, S. K.

2005-09-01

179

Experimental investigation of reactive turbulent recirculating jet mixing in a dump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ducted, subsonic, hydrogen air turbulent jet mixing flowfield was investigated, both with and without combustion. The geometric configuration was representative of a sudden expansion or dump combustor, with a central air jet surrounded by a low velocity hydrogen stream at an overall equivalence ratio of 0.12. The ratio of the duct to inner nozzle diameter was 2.5. Radial distributions of mean axial and radial velocity, axial and radial turbulent intensity, velocity cross correlation, gas composition, static temperature and total pressure, as well as axial distributions of wall static pressure, were obtained for axial stations from zero to six duct diameters from the combustor entrance. The data indicate that mixing is slower in the chemically reactive flow field than in the nonreactive flow field, and that the presence of combustion has a significant effect on the size and location of the recirculation zone within the mixing duct.

Smith, G. D.; Giel, T. V.; Catalano, C. G.

1980-01-01

180

In-tank aeration, a necessary compliment of loaded systems in an airlift recirculating aquaculture system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water treatment components in recirculating aquaculture systems in generally address solids removal, nitrification, circulation, aeration, and degasification. Airlift pumps in a recirculating aquaculture system can address water circulation, aeration, and degasification. Recent data indicates oxygen...

181

Characterizing a large shear-zone with seismic and magnetotelluric methods: The case of the Dead Sea Transform  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic tomography, imaging of seismic scatterers, and magnetotelluric soundings reveal a sharp lithologic contrast along a ???10 km long segment of the Arava Fault (AF), a prominent fault of the southern Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the Middle East. Low seismic velocities and resistivities occur on its western side and higher values east of it, and the boundary between the two units coincides partly with a seismic scattering image. At 1-4 km depth the boundary is offset to the east of the AF surface trace, suggesting that at least two fault strands exist, and that slip occurred on multiple strands throughout the margin's history. A westward fault jump, possibly associated with straightening of a fault bend, explains both our observations and the narrow fault zone observed by others. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Maercklin, N.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Haberland, C.; Ritter, O.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M.; Weckmann, U.

2005-01-01

182

A simplified multi-zone model for determining the placement of bio-defense sensors in large buildings  

E-print Network

The anthrax mailings of 2001 increased public and government awareness to the threat of bio-terrorism. Particularly vulnerable to a bio-terrorist event are large indoor facilities such as convention centers, office buildings, ...

Van Broekhoven, Scott B. (Scott Bennett)

2008-01-01

183

Novel concept development of an internal recirculation catalyst for mild gasification: Progress report, March 1-May 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of work on DOE Contract AC21-86MC23057, ''Novel Concept Development of Internal Recirculation Catalysts for Mild Gasification.'' The objective of the program is to provide an overall evaluation of a novel process concept for mild coal gasification by completing work in three major tasks: (1) Laboratory-Scale Experiments, (2) Bench-Scale Tests, and (3) Proof-of-Concept Tests and Evaluation (optional). All work in this quarter was performed on Task 1, Laboratory-Scale Experiments. Results from 63 experiments included devolatilization of Illinois No. 6 coal in helium and a helium-hydrogen mixture and Wyodak coal in helium. Experiments included on-line product analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Product analysis by GC extended the upper boiling point limit of detectable products to compounds 15 carbon atoms larger than could be analyzed with the GC/MS method and substantially increased the recovery of the condensable product fraction. The presence of CsOH caused several changes in the nature of the chemical composition of the condensable devolatilization products. These included increases in the degree of aliphatic character of the product at more severe thermal conditions, an increase in the phenolic content at all thermal conditions and decreases in organosulfur compounds with accompanying increases in hydrogen sulfide. CsOH also caused large increases in the yield of carbon dioxide and slight increases in the sums of char and a heavy tar which was of insufficient volatility to leave the reaction zone. Experiments with pure n-C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ indicated that this non-volatile tar must have had a mean boiling point substantially above 1000/sup 0/F.

Solka, B.H.; Anderson, G.L.; Feldkirchner, H.L.; Babu, S.P.

1987-09-01

184

Occurrence of large temperature inversion in the thermohaline frontal zone at the Yellow Sea entrance in winter and its relation to advection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

inversion (higher temperature at a deeper depth) in winter and its relation to advection were investigated by analyzing both conductivity-temperature-depth data in the southern Yellow Sea (YS) and northwestern East China Sea during the winter of 2002-2003 and time series data of temperature, salinity, and currents at a buoy station at the YS entrance. Significant temperature inversions occur predominantly along the thermohaline front at the YS entrance where the Cheju Warm Current Water (CWCW) and the cold coastal waters meet. In February 2003, on the northern frontal zone along 34°N where isotherms and isohalines declined downward to the north, particularly large inversions with temperature differences of larger than 2.0°C were observed to occur more in troughs than in the crests of the wave-like frontal meander where the cold Korean coastal water (KCW) advances farther southward. The inversion persisted until mid-April at the buoy station in the frontal zone, and both temperature and salinity showed simultaneous variations in the same manner. During episodic occurrences of large inversions, temperature and salinity decreased sharply in the upper layer, but increased concurrently in the lower layer. These episodic inversions were found to be closely related to the westward advection of the KCW in the upper layer and the northward advection of the CWCW in the lower layer. It is considered that these advections may play an important role in maintaining baroclinicity in the northern frontal zone, which is responsible for driving the westward transversal flow across the YS entrance.

Lie, Heung-Jae; Cho, Cheol-Ho; Jung, Kyung Tae

2015-01-01

185

Confined Turbulent Swirling Recirculating Flow Predictions. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbulent swirling flow, the STARPIC computer code, turbulence modeling of turbulent flows, the k-xi turbulence model and extensions, turbulence parameters deduction from swirling confined flow measurements, extension of the k-xi to confined swirling recirculating flows, and general predictions for confined turbulent swirling flow are discussed.

Abujelala, M. T.

1984-01-01

186

Anaerobic digestion of sludge from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) produce high volumes of biosolid waste which is a potential source of pollution if not properly treated. A reduction in sludge-mass would therefore minimize the potential environmental hazard and economic burden stemming from its disposal. Recently, anaerobic digestion was suggested as an alternative to aquaculture sludge digestion and stabilization in RAS. This practice results not

Natella Mirzoyan; Yossi Tal; Amit Gross

2010-01-01

187

Modelling thermal environment of a recirculating aquaculture facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic viability of fish production in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) facility depends, in part, on minimizing the energy requirements of operating such facilities. A step-wise, steady-state thermal model was developed to simulate the RAS thermal environment and energy expenditure for heating, ventilation, water pumping, biofilter operation, and lighting over a production cycle. The model was validated using temperature and

Sahdev Singh; Lori S. Marsh

1996-01-01

188

Exergetic performance analysis of a recirculating aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines exergetic aspects of a Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS) for Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax) fingerling rearing at the Trabzon Central Fisheries Research Institute, Turkey. In its thermodynamic analysis, each component of the RAS is treated as a steady-state steady flow system and its exergetic efficiencies are studied. In addition, the following parameters are measured and recorded

Haydar Kucuk; Adnan Midilli; Atilla Özdemir; Eyüp Çakmak; Ibrahim Dincer

2010-01-01

189

10 Commercially Feasible Urban Recirculating Aquaculture: Addressing the Marine Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the global collapse of marine fisheries and the environmental issues associated with net-pen aquaculture practices, there is a pressing need to develop fully contained and environmentally sus- tainable approaches to producing seafood. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), which provide this approach, have been widely used over the last two decades to farm freshwater species. However, the cost associated with the

Yonathan Zohar; Yossi Tal; Harold Schreier; Colin Steven; John Stubblefield

190

Ozone Application in Recirculating Aquaculture System: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), particulates (including feces, uneaten feed, bacteria, and algae) can cause several problems, in that they may harbor pathogens, can physically irritate the fish, and upon decomposition, release ammonia and consume oxygen. Mechanical filters, foam fractionators, and other engineered devices are used to remove particles quickly from aquaculture systems, in order to improve fish health and

Alex Augusto Gonçalves; Graham A. Gagnon

2011-01-01

191

Rating fixed film nitrifying biofilters used in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting the performance of biofilters is an engineering challenge that is critical to both designers and managers. The task is complicated by the wide variety of water quality expectations and environmental conditions displayed by a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). A myriad of biofilters designs have been generated reflecting approaches of engineers attempting to maximize specific surface area and oxygen transfer

Ronald F. Malone; Timothy J. Pfeiffer

2006-01-01

192

Towards Non-thrombogenic Performance of Blood Recirculating Devices  

PubMed Central

Implantable blood recirculating devices have provided life saving solutions to patients with severe cardiovascular diseases. However, common problems of hemolysis and thromboembolism remain an impediment to these devices. In this article, we present a brief review of the work by several groups in the field that has led to the development of new methodologies that may facilitate achieving the daunting goal of optimizing the thrombogenic performance of blood recirculating devices. The aim is to describe work which pertains to the interaction between flow-induced stresses and the blood constituents, and that supports the hypothesis that thromboembolism in prosthetic blood recirculating devices is initiated and maintained primarily by the non-physiological flow patterns and stresses that activate and enhance the aggregation of blood platelets, increasing the risk of thromboembolism and cardioembolic stroke. Such work includes state-of-the-art numerical and experimental tools used to elucidate flow-induced mechanisms leading to thromboembolism in prosthetic devices. Following the review, the paper describes several efforts conducted by some of the groups active in the field, and points to several directions that should be pursued in the future in order to achieve the goal for blood recirculating prosthetic devices becoming more effective as destination therapy in the future. PMID:20131098

Bluestein, D.; Chandran, K. B.; Manning, K. B.

2010-01-01

193

Design of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system  

E-print Network

Design of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system Ann M. Widmer temperature control to maintain static temperatures, increase temperatures 1 8C/day, and maintain diel in fish tanks to a desired set temperature and then calculated the amount of hot or cold water to add

Bonar, Scott A.

194

Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to review the potential of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the exhaust emissions, particularly NOX emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique. A detailed analysis of previous and current results of EGR effects on the emissions and performance of Diesel engines, spark ignition engines and duel fuel engines is introduced.

G. H. Abd-Alla

2002-01-01

195

Recirculating Liquid Nitrogen System for Operation of Cryogenic Pumps  

E-print Network

1 Recirculating Liquid Nitrogen System for Operation of Cryogenic Pumps IEPC-2011-217 Presented on propellant gases of interest. Cryopumps utilize a liquid nitrogen- cooled radiation shroud to allow cryogenerators to reliquify nitrogen gas removes the cost of LN2 from cryopump operations. The High- Power

Walker, Mitchell

196

Exhaust gas recirculation system of a motor vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement for an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system of a motor vehicle is described. The system consists of: (1) a diaphragm type EGR valve mounted on an EGR pipe which connects the exhaust manifold and the intake manifold; (2) an opening path for air from the atmosphere diverged from a connecting pipe which connects the diaphragm chamber of the

Hamanishi

1977-01-01

197

The effect of flow recirculation on abdominal aortic aneurysm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presences of flow recirculation at the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) region yield the unpredictable failure of aneurismal wall. The failure of the aneurismal wall is closely related to the hemodynamic factor. Hemodynamic factor such as pressure and velocity distribution play a significance role of aneurysm growth and rupture. By using the computational approach, the influence of hemodynamic factor is investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method on the virtual AAA model. The virtual 3D AAAs model was reconstructed from Spiral Computed Tomography scan (CT-scan). The blood flow is assumed as being transient, laminar and Newtonian within a rigid section of the vessel. The blood flow also driven by an imposed of pressure gradient in the form of physiological waveform. The pulsating blood flow is also considered in this simulation. The results on pressure distribution and velocity profile are analyzed to interpret the behaviour of flow recirculation. The results show the forming of vortices is seen at the aneurysm bulge. This vortices is form at the aneurysm region then destroyed rapidly by flow recirculation. Flow recirculation is point out much higher at distal end of aneurysm closed to iliac bifurcation. This phenomenon is managed to increase the possibility of aneurysm growth and rupture.

Taib, Ishkrizat; Amirnordin, Shahrin Hisham; Madon, Rais Hanizam; Mustafa, Norrizal; Osman, Kahar

2012-06-01

198

Principles of Water Recirculation and Filtration in Aquaculture 1  

E-print Network

FA12 Principles of Water Recirculation and Filtration in Aquaculture 1 Michael McGee and Charles McGee, former assistant professor and extension aquaculture specialist, and Charles Cichra, associate culture units. These systems have practical applications in commercial aquaculture hatcheries, holding

Watson, Craig A.

199

An Inexpensive Recirculating Aquaculture System with Multiple Use Capabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction of an inexpensive recirculating aquaculture system that can hold up to 46 pounds of fish, invertebrates, and mussels for classroom use. The system is versatile, requires little maintenance, and can be used for both teaching and research purposes. (WRM)

Scurlock, Gerald Don, Jr.; Cook, S. Bradford; Scurlock, Carrie Ann

1999-01-01

200

Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

1982-08-19

201

Vacuum regulation valve in an exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum regulation valve operable to regulate the vacuum in the vacuum line of an exhaust gas recirculation system, includes a compact construction and a buffer means which is effective to eliminate the clattering sounds inherent in the conventional vacuum regulation valve.

M. Washio; T. Harada

1978-01-01

202

Digital feedwater and recirculation flow control for GPUN Oyster Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the digital system for feedwater and recirculation control that GPU Nuclear will be installing at Oyster Creek during its next outage - expected circa December 1992. The replacement was motivated by considerations of reliability and obsolescence - the analog equipment was aging and reaching the end of its useful life. The new system uses Atomic Energy of

D. Burjorjee; B. Gan

1992-01-01

203

Large Earthquake Hazard of the San Jacinto Fault Zone, CA, from Long Record of Simulated Seismicity Assimilating the Available Instrumental and Paleoseismic Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate spatio-temporal properties of earthquake patterns in the San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ), California, between Cajon Pass and the Superstition Hill Fault, using a long record of simulated seismicity constrained by available seismological and geological data. The model provides an effective realization of a large segmented strike-slip fault zone in a 3D elastic half-space, with heterogeneous distribution of static friction chosen to represent several clear step-overs at the surface. The simulated synthetic catalog reproduces well the basic statistical features of the instrumental seismicity recorded at the SJFZ area since 1981. The model also produces events larger than those included in the short instrumental record, consistent with paleo-earthquakes documented at sites along the SJFZ for the last 1,400 years. The general agreement between the synthetic and observed data allows us to address with the long-simulated seismicity questions related to large earthquakes and expected seismic hazard. The interaction between m ? 7 events on different sections of the SJFZ is found to be close to random. The hazard associated with m ? 7 events on the SJFZ increases significantly if the long record of simulated seismicity is taken into account. The model simulations indicate that the recent increased number of observed intermediate SJFZ earthquakes is a robust statistical feature heralding the occurrence of m ? 7 earthquakes. The hypocenters of the m ? 5 events in the simulation results move progressively towards the hypocenter of the upcoming m ? 7 earthquake.

Zöller, G.; Ben-Zion, Y.

2014-11-01

204

NITROGEN REMOVAL FOR ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL: A RECIRCULATING SAND FILTER/ROCK TANK DESIGN  

E-print Network

NITROGEN REMOVAL FOR ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL: A RECIRCULATING SAND FILTER/ROCK TANK DESIGN, C. G. McKiel ABSTRACT: The nitrogen removal abilities of recirculating sand filter/rock tank (RSF in recirculating sand filters, with an average of 66% for the two-year study period. Denitrification was achieved

Gold, Art

205

Constraints on strain rates during large-scale mid-crustal shearing: An example from the basal Vaddas shear zone, northern Caledonides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caledonian orogen in Scandinavia is characterized by large-scale crustal nappe stacks which were emplaced east-/southeast-wards onto the Baltica shield. Whereas original thrust relationships are generally obscured by syn- to post-collisional extensional deformation in the southern and central Scandinavian Caledonides, several large-scale thrust systems are well-preserved in the northern Scandinavian Caledonides in Troms and Finnmark. One example is the mid-crustal Vaddas shear zone, which emplaced the Vaddas nappe on top of the Kalak nappe complex. In this contribution we present a structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the rocks under- and overlying the Vaddas shear zone in northern Troms, in order to estimate the strain rate associated with thrusting along this major shear zone. The Vaddas nappe above the investigated shear zone consists mainly of Upper Ordovician to Silurian metasediments, which were deposited in a marine environment and which were intruded by voluminous gabbroic intrusions, before they were sheared off from their substratum and transported on top of the Kalak nappe complex during the Caledonian orogeny. PT conditions from one of these gabbroic bodies indicate that the body intruded the metasediments at ~9 kbar (Getsinger et al., subm to G3), which corresponds to a depth of ~34 km. U-Pb SIMS dating of zircons from this gabbro indicate that intrusion occurred at 439±2 Ma. The Vaddas nappe is separated from the Kalak nappe by an at least ~150 m thick, amphibolite-facies shear zone with a subhorizontal fabric and top-to-the-SE shear sense. It has developed within the lowest part of the Vaddas nappe as well as the upper part of the Kalak nappe complex and PT calculations indicate that final shearing occurred at ~450° C and ~6 kbar (depth of ~23 km). U-Pb TIMS dating of titanites, which grow parallel to the shear fabric in the Kalak nappe complex, gives 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 442±1 to 429±1 Ma, indicating that shearing probably commenced right after intrusion of the Vaddas gabbros and continued over a period of ~10 m.y. Assuming an original dip of the Vaddas shear zone of 30° , the horizontal displacement would be ~23 km as the most conservative assumption (i.e. for a highest thrust angle) for the depth difference of 11 km between intrusion of the gabbro and late shear deformation. Given the thickness of the shear zone of 150 m and the time for the shearing of ~10 m.y., a strain rate of ~5*10-13 s-1 can be estimated. As suggested, this is a conservative estimate, so that strain rates may well have been faster. These strain rates appear to be similar to those of Alpine nappes, so that it is suggested that Caledonian nappe stacking has probably taken place at the same rates or even faster than Alpine ones. Given the fact that the transport distances in the Caledonides are far greater than in the Alps, this would suggest that the Caledonian orogeny has taken place over a longer period of time than in the Alps.

Gasser, Deta; Stünitz, Holger; Nasipuri, Pritam; Menegon, Luca

2013-04-01

206

The Origin of Olivine B-Type Fabric in Naturally Deformed Peridotite: Insight from the Ronda Large-Scale Mantle Shear Zone (spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strain-induced olivine Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO) mostly controls the propagation of seismic waves in the mantle. Hence, it strongly affects the imaging of mantle structures through analyzing of elastic waves coming from deep earthquakes (Ismaïl and Mainprice, 1998). Understanding the relationships between mantle deformation and olivine LPO is thus crucial to objectively interpret the deep mantle structures. Here, based on detailed documentation of olivine LPOs in the Ronda peridotite (southern Spain), we provide evidences of flow-normal a-axis LPO, i.e., B-type fabric, within a kilometer-scale ductile shear zone. This fabric occurs upon entering the shear zone and describes a progressive transition from A-type fabric (parallel-flow a-axis LPO) to B-type fabric. While B-type fabrics have been described from several localities, to our knowledge this is the first olivine fabric transition ever observed in naturally deformed peridotites. Furthermore, while the olivine fabric strength (Jindex) increases in the A-type fabric domain towards the center of the shear zone, the Jindex progressively decreases in the B-type fabric domain. Based on deformation experiments, A-type fabric occurs during high-temperature/low-stress deformation of anhydrous olivine aggregates (Jung and Karato, 2001). In contrast, the B-type fabrics have been observed under a wide range of conditions: 1) at high-temperature/low stress conditions in the presence of melt (Kohlstedt and Holtzman, 2009); 2) at high-stress in the presence of water (Jung and Karato, 2001); 3) under dry conditions at very high pressure (> 3 GPa; Jung et al., 2009); and 4) during diffusion-creep in the presence of orthopyroxene (Sundberg and Cooper, 2008). In our natural example, we conclude that the B-type fabric arises from enhancing diffusion creep at the expense of dislocation creep, because: 1) the B-type fabric is observed to overprint the typical fabric of anhydrous peridotite (A-type), 2) the Ronda peridotites were deformed at pressures lower than 2 GPa at sub-solidus conditions (Garrido et al., 2011), and 3) the A-type/B-type transition correlates with a decrease of temperature, grain size and fabric strength (Jindex) towards the inner shear zone. Our results moreover indicate that B-type fabric is somehow related to large-scale mantle shear zones, and hence it could characterize a signature of lithosphere-scale mantle strain localization.

Précigout, J.; Hirth, G.

2011-12-01

207

77 FR 65816 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...higher potential for loss of life than with any other type of commercial vessel...the reduction of navigable space, and to protect lives, the Coast Guard is establishing...the large cruise ship and the other vessels operating in the...

2012-10-31

208

33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of...appropriate means to effect the widest publicity...United States in Puget Sound, WA, east of 123°30...this section remains in effect around large passenger...Captain of the Port Puget Sound, the Coast Guard...

2012-07-01

209

33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of...appropriate means to effect the widest publicity...United States in Puget Sound, WA, east of 123°30...this section remains in effect around large passenger...Captain of the Port Puget Sound, the Coast Guard...

2011-07-01

210

33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of...appropriate means to effect the widest publicity...United States in Puget Sound, WA, east of 123°30...this section remains in effect around large passenger...Captain of the Port Puget Sound, the Coast Guard...

2014-07-01

211

33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of...appropriate means to effect the widest publicity...United States in Puget Sound, WA, east of 123°30...this section remains in effect around large passenger...Captain of the Port Puget Sound, the Coast Guard...

2013-07-01

212

33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of...appropriate means to effect the widest publicity...United States in Puget Sound, WA, east of 123°30...this section remains in effect around large passenger...Captain of the Port Puget Sound, the Coast Guard...

2010-07-01

213

Phosphorus dynamics at multiple time scales in the pelagic zone of a large shallow lake in Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) dynamics in large shallow lakes are greatly influenced by physical processes such as wind-driven sediment resuspension,\\u000a at times scales from hours to years. Results from long-term (30 year) research on Lake Okeechobee, Florida (area 1,730 km2, mean depth 2.7 m) illustrate key features of these P dynamics. Variations in wind velocity result in changes in water column\\u000a transparency,

Karl E. Havens; Kang-Ren Jin; Nenad Iricanin; R. Thomas James

2007-01-01

214

Phosphorus dynamics at multiple time scales in the pelagic zone of a large shallow lake in Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) dynamics in large shallow lakes are greatly influenced by physical processes such as wind-driven sediment resuspension,\\u000a at times scales from hours to years. Results from long-term (30 year) research on Lake Okeechobee, Florida (area 1,730 km2, mean depth 2.7 m) illustrate key features of these P dynamics. Variations in wind velocity result in changes in water column\\u000a transparency,

Karl E. Havens; Kang-Ren Jin; Nenad Iricanin; R. Thomas James

215

Holocene paleoseismicity, temporal clustering, and probabilities of future large (M > 7) earthquakes on the Wasatch fault zone, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chronology of M>7 paleoearthquakes on the central five segments of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) is one of the best dated in the world and contains 16 earthquakes in the past 5600 years with an average repeat time of 350 years. Repeat times for individual segments vary by a factor of 2, and range from about 1200 to 2600 years. Four of the central five segments ruptured between ??? 620??30 and 1230??60 calendar years B.P. The remaining segment (Brigham City segment) has not ruptured in the past 2120??100 years. Comparison of the WFZ space-time diagram of paleoearthquakes with synthetic paleoseismic histories indicates that the observed temporal clusters and gaps have about an equal probability (depending on model assumptions) of reflecting random coincidence as opposed to intersegment contagion. Regional seismicity suggests that for exposure times of 50 and 100 years, the probability for an earthquake of M>7 anywhere within the Wasatch Front region, based on a Poisson model, is 0.16 and 0.30, respectively. A fault-specific WFZ model predicts 50 and 100 year probabilities for a M>7 earthquake on the WFZ itself, based on a Poisson model, as 0.13 and 0.25, respectively. In contrast, segment-specific earthquake probabilities that assume quasi-periodic recurrence behavior on the Weber, Provo, and Nephi segments are less (0.01-0.07 in 100 years) than the regional or fault-specific estimates (0.25-0.30 in 100 years), due to the short elapsed times compared to average recurrence intervals on those segments. The Brigham City and Salt Lake City segments, however, have time-dependent probabilities that approach or exceed the regional and fault specific probabilities. For the Salt Lake City segment, these elevated probabilities are due to the elapsed time being approximately equal to the average late Holocene recurrence time. For the Brigham City segment, the elapsed time is significantly longer than the segment-specific late Holocene recurrence time.

McCalpin, J.P.; Nishenko, S.P.

1996-01-01

216

Quantifying turbulent wall shear stress in a stenosed pipe using large eddy simulation.  

PubMed

Large eddy simulation was applied for flow of Re=2000 in a stenosed pipe in order to undertake a thorough investigation of the wall shear stress (WSS) in turbulent flow. A decomposition of the WSS into time averaged and fluctuating components is proposed. It was concluded that a scale resolving technique is required to completely describe the WSS pattern in a subject specific vessel model, since the poststenotic region was dominated by large axial and circumferential fluctuations. Three poststenotic regions of different WSS characteristics were identified. The recirculation zone was subject to a time averaged WSS in the retrograde direction and large fluctuations. After reattachment there was an antegrade shear and smaller fluctuations than in the recirculation zone. At the reattachment the fluctuations were the largest, but no direction dominated over time. Due to symmetry the circumferential time average was always zero. Thus, in a blood vessel, the axial fluctuations would affect endothelial cells in a stretched state, whereas the circumferential fluctuations would act in a relaxed direction. PMID:20887027

Gårdhagen, Roland; Lantz, Jonas; Carlsson, Fredrik; Karlsson, Matts

2010-06-01

217

Recirculating industrial air: The impact on air compliance and workers` safety case study -- Hill Air Force Base C-130 painting operations. Final report, September 1996July 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent Clean Air Act regulations require industries, including aircraft painting facilities, to capture volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Because aircraft painting contaminates large airflows with traces of VOCs, conventional air control systems would be prohibitively expensive to apply. Recirculating a portion of the air back into the facility is an option to reduce the amount of air to be treated.

LaPuma

1998-01-01

218

Research on leachate recirculation from different types of landfills  

SciTech Connect

Landfills can produce a great amount of leachate containing highly concentrated organic matter. This is especially true for the initial leachate from landfilled municipal solid wastes (MSW) that generally has concentrations of COD{sub Cr} and BOD{sub 5} up to 80,000 and 50,000 mg/L, respectively. The leachate could be disposed by means of recirculating technique, which decomposes the organics through the action of proliferating microorganisms and thereby purifies the leachate, and simultaneously accelerates organic decomposition through water saturation control. Data from experimental results indicated that leachate recirculating could reduce the organic concentration considerably, with a maximum reduction rate of COD{sub Cr} over 95%; and, using a semi-aerobic process, NH{sub 3}-N concentration of treated leachate could be under 10 mg/L. In addition, the organic concentration in MSW decreased greatly.

Wang Qi [Research Institute of Solid Waste Management, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, No. 8 of Dayangfang, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China) and Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Johnan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan)]. E-mail: wangqi@craes.org.cn; Matsufuji, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Johnan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Dong Lu [Research Institute of Solid Waste Management, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, No. 8 of Dayangfang, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Huang Qifei [Research Institute of Solid Waste Management, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, No. 8 of Dayangfang, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hirano, Fumiaki [Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Johnan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Tanaka, Ayako [Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Johnan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan)

2006-07-01

219

Numerical analysis of confined recirculating gas-solid turbulent flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particle dispersion in confined recirculating turbulent flows has been investigated numerically. The present computational scheme utilizes Eulerian forms of the governing equations and allows two-way coupling between gas and solid phases. A recently developed two-phase closure model based on the multiple-scale turbulence model was used for the estimation of turbulent viscosities and diffusivities. For the particle size and loading considered in this study, the effect of particulate phase on the conveying gas is small, the nonequilibrium between the two phases is significant. Effects of recirculation, expanded chamber size and secondary annular jet momentum on the particle mixing rate are also investigated. In general, the present numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with the available experimental data.

Chen, C. P.

1986-01-01

220

A replacement LH2 recirculation line before installation in Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gary Hamilton (left) and James Stickley, both with United Space Alliance, check out a spare four-inch diameter LH2 recirculation line that will be used to replace a damaged LH2 line in the orbiter Discovery. The line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. Workers noted a dent in the line during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The dent measures 12 inches long and about =-inch deep. Managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope.

1999-01-01

221

A replacement LH2 recirculation line before installation in Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spare four-inch diameter LH2 recirculation line (shown in photo) will be used to replace a damaged LH2 line in the orbiter Discovery. The line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. Workers noted a dent in the line during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The dent measures 12 inches long and about =-inch deep. Managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope.

1999-01-01

222

A replacement LH2 recirculation line before installation in Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

James Stickley (left) and Derry Dilby (right), who are with United Space Alliance, check over a spare four-inch diameter LH2 recirculation line that will be used to replace a damaged LH2 line in the orbiter Discovery. The line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. Workers noted a dent in the line during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The dent measures 12 inches long and about =-inch deep. Managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope.

1999-01-01

223

A dented LH2 recirculation line is removed from Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Payload Changeout Room, Launch Pad 39B, United Space Alliance and NASA workers look at the replacement main propulsion system liquid hydrogen recirculation line (left) to be installed in Shuttle Discovery's aft compartment. At right is the dented line that has been removed. The 12-inch-long dent was discovered during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. The line is being replaced and managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope.

1999-01-01

224

A dented LH2 recirculation line is removed from Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers with United Space Alliance remove Shuttle Discovery's dented main propulsion system liquid hydrogen recirculation line. From left are James Stickley, George Atkins, and Todd Biddle. The 12-inch-long dent was discovered during routine aft compartment inspections Tuesday, Dec. 7. The line recirculates hydrogen from the Shuttle main engines back to the external tank during prelaunch engine conditioning. The line is being replaced and managers expect the replacement work to take about 3 days, followed by system retests and final aft compartment close-outs. Preliminary assessments reflect a launch date of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 no earlier than Dec. 16. STS-103 is the third servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope.

1999-01-01

225

Pelletron-based MeV-range electron beam recirculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the successful recirculation of a DC electron beam at energies 1-1.5 MeV and currents up to 0.7 A with typical relative losses of 5-20×10 -6. Currents of 200 mA were maintained for periods of up to five hours without a single breakdown. We found that the aperture-limiting diaphragm in the gun anode significantly increased the stability of the recirculation. We also found that the stability depended strongly on vacuum pressure in the beamline. The performance of the collector with transverse magnetic fields was found to be adequate for beam currents up to 0.6 A, which is in agreement with our low-energy bench test results.

Crawford, A. C.; Nagaitsev, S.; Sharapa, A.; Shemyakin, A.

1999-10-01

226

Ammonia Conversion Characteristics in a Closed Recirculating Aquaculture System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification and denitrification were commonly used in the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) to decrease the ammonia and nitrate concentration. The variation characteristics of nitrogenous compounds and microbiology in a closed RAS were studied with gradually increasing ammonia-nitrogen (NH4 +-N) concentration. The NH4 +-N was completely converted into nitrite nitrogen (NO2 --N) in 46 days, but the NO2 --N raised slowly

Guang-Yu Wang; Ji-xian Yang; Fang Ma; Lei Chen; Wei-Guo Li; Jingbo Guo

2009-01-01

227

Growth Performance of Walleye, Sander vitreus, in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walleye, Sander vitreus, fingerlings were reared in two recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) to compare growth performance at three stocking densities (11, 24, and 36 kg\\/m). There was a negative relationship between increasing stocking density and growth calculated as percent body weight (BW) gain\\/day, total length (mm) gain\\/day, specific growth rate (SGR) of weight (%\\/day), and SGR of total length (%\\/day).

Chester B. Zarnoch; Martin P. Schreibman; Richard T. Colesante; Michael B. Timmons

2010-01-01

228

Equipment review: The molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS®)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS®) is a form of artificial liver support that has the potential to remove substantial quantities of albumin-bound toxins that have been postulated to contribute to the pathogenesis of liver cell damage, haemodynamic instability and multi-organ failure in patients with acute liver failure (ALF) and acute-on-chronic liver failure (AoCLF). These toxins include fatty acids, bile

Martin Boyle; Jelica Kurtovic; David Bihari; Stephen Riordan; Christian Steiner

2004-01-01

229

Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation  

DOEpatents

A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture is described. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combustor chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture. 10 figs.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

1988-07-19

230

A field-scale test of in situ chemical oxidation through recirculation  

SciTech Connect

In situ chemical oxidation is a developing class of remediation technologies in which organic contaminants are degraded in place by powerful oxidants. Successful implementation of this technology requires an effective means for dispersing the oxidant to contaminated regions in the subsurface. An oxidant delivery technique has been developed wherein the treatment solution is made by adding an oxidant to extracted groundwater. The oxidant-laden groundwater is then injected and recirculated into a contaminated aquifer through multiple horizontal and/or vertical wells. This technique, referred to as in situ chemical oxidation through recirculation (ISCOR), can be applied to saturated and hydraulically conductive formations and used with relatively stable oxidants such as potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}). A field-scale test of ISCOR was conducted at a site (Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) where groundwater in a 5-ft thick silty gravel aquifer is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) at levels that indicate the presence of residual dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). The field test was implemented using a pair of parallel horizontal wells with 200-ft screened sections. For approximately one month, groundwater was extracted from one horizontal well, dosed with crystalline KMnO{sub 4}, and re-injected into the other horizontal well 90 ft away. Post-treatment characterization showed that ISCOR was effective at removing TCE in the saturated region. Lateral and vertical heterogeneities within the treatment zone impacted the uniform delivery of the oxidant solution. However, TCE was not detected in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells and soil samples from borings in locations where the oxidant had permeated.

West, O.R.; Cline, S.R.; Holden, W.L.; Gardner, F.G.; Schlosser, B.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Siegrist, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Houk, T.C. [Bechtel-Jacobs, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

1998-09-01

231

A search for evidence of large body Earth impacts associated with biological crisis zones in the fossil record  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The natural history of the Earth, how the present plant and animal species developed, how others completely died out, etc., was studied. The rock strata sampled and studied were at the time of deposition at sea bottom. It was found that, exactly at the stratigraphic level corresponding to the extinction, a thin clay layer was greatly enriched in the the rare element iridium. It was hypothesized that the excess irridium at the boundary came from a large steroid like object that hit the earth, and that the impact of this object threw up a dust cloud dense enough and long lasting enough to bring about the extinction of a wide variety of plants and animals, producing the unique break in in the fossil record, the cretaceous-tertiary boundary. The same iridium and platinum metals enrichement are found in a thin clay layer that corresponds with the boundary as difined by sudden radical changes in plant populations. The irridium enrichement is confirmed at other fresh water origin rites in the Raton Basin.

Orth, C. J.; Gilmore, J. S.; Knight, J. D.

1985-01-01

232

Simulating Large-Scale Earthquake Dynamic Rupture Scenarios On Natural Fault Zones Using the ADER-DG Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation we will demonstrate the benefits of using modern numerical methods to support physic-based ground motion modeling and research. For this purpose, we utilize SeisSol an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) scheme to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time using three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. We recently verified the method in various advanced test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite, including branching and dipping fault systems, heterogeneous background stresses, bi-material faults and rate-and-state friction constitutive formulations. Now, we study the dynamic rupture process using 3D meshes of fault systems constructed from geological and geophysical constraints, such as high-resolution topography, 3D velocity models and fault geometries. Our starting point is a large scale earthquake dynamic rupture scenario based on the 1994 Northridge blind thrust event in Southern California. Starting from this well documented and extensively studied event, we intend to understand the ground-motion, including the relevant high frequency content, generated from complex fault systems and its variation arising from various physical constraints. For example, our results imply that the Northridge fault geometry favors a pulse-like rupture behavior.

Gabriel, Alice; Pelties, Christian

2014-05-01

233

Changes in surf zone morphodynamics driven by multi-decadal contraction of a large ebb-tidal delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of large-scale deflation (76 million m3 of sediment loss) and contraction (~1 km) of a 150 km2 ebb-tidal delta over a half-century on hydrodynamics and sediment transport at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA), onshore of the delta, is examined using a coupled wave and circulation model. The model is forced with representative wave and tidal conditions using recent (2005) and historic (1956) ebb-tidal delta bathymetry data sets. Comparison of the simulations indicate that along north/south trending Ocean Beach the contraction and deflation of the ebb-tidal delta has resulted in significant differences in the flow and sediment dynamics. Between 1956 and 2005 the transverse bar (the shallow attachment point of the ebb-tidal delta to the shoreline) migrated north ~1 km toward the inlet while a persistent alongshore flow and transport divergence point migrated south by ~500 m (Figure 1). Alongshore migration of these features has resulted in an increasing portion of onshore migrating sediment from the ebb-tidal delta, inferred by the contraction, to be transported north along the beach in 2005 versus south in 1956. The northerly migrating sediment is then trapped by Pt. Lobos, a rocky headland at the northern extreme of the beach, consistent with the observed shoreline accretion in this area. Conversely, alongshore migration of the transverse bar and divergence point has decreased the sediment supply to southern Ocean Beach, consistent with the observed erosion of the shoreline in this area. The approach described here is broadly applicable for investigating the causes of long-term morphological changes along urbanized beaches adjacent to inlet mouths worldwide.Figure 1. Ebb-tidal delta bathymetry in 1956 (A) and 2005 (B), 2 m contour interval to 20 m. Schematized pattern of alongshore transport along Ocean Beach and transport of onshore migrating sediment from the ebb-tidal delta in 1956 (C) and 2005 (D).

Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P.; Elias, E.

2012-12-01

234

Recirculation of Laser Power in an Atomic Fountain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique for laser-cooling atoms in a cesium atomic fountain frequency standard relies on recirculation of laser light through the atom-collection region of the fountain. The recirculation, accomplished by means of reflections from multiple fixed beam-splitter cubes, is such that each of two laser beams makes three passes. As described below, this recirculation scheme offers several advantages over prior designs, including simplification of the laser system, greater optical power throughput, fewer optical and electrical connections, and simplification of beam power balancing. A typical laser-cooled cesium fountain requires the use of six laser beams arranged as three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating beams to decelerate the atoms and hold them in a three-dimensional optical trap in vacuum. Typically, these trapping/cooling beams are linearly polarized and are positioned and oriented so that (1) counter-propagating beams in each pair have opposite linear polarizations and (2) three of the six orthogonal beams have the sum of their propagation directions pointing up, while the other three have the sum of their propagation directions pointing down. In a typical prior design, two lasers are used - one to generate the three "up" beams, the other to generate the three "down" beams. For this purpose, the output of each laser is split three ways, then the resulting six beams are delivered to the vacuum system, independently of each other, via optical fibers. The present recirculating design also requires two lasers, but the beams are not split before delivery. Instead, only one "up" beam and one oppositely polarized "down" beam are delivered to the vacuum system, and each of these beams is sent through the collection region three times. The polarization of each beam on each pass through the collection region is set up to yield the same combination of polarization and propagation directions as described above. In comparison with the prior design, the present recirculating design utilizes the available laser light more efficiently, making it possible to trap more atoms at a given laser power or the same number of atoms at a lower laser power. The present design is also simpler in that it requires fewer optical fibers, fiber couplings, and collimators, and fewer photodiodes for monitoring beam powers. Additionally, the present design alleviates the difficulty of maintaining constant ratios among power levels of the beams within each "up" or "down" triplet.

Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, WIlliam M.; Moore, James D.

2007-01-01

235

Ground Motion Simulation for a Large Active Fault System using Empirical Green's Function Method and the Strong Motion Prediction Recipe - a Case Study of the Noubi Fault Zone -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1995 Hyogo-ken Nambu Earthquake (1995) near Kobe, Japan, spurred research on strong motion prediction. To mitigate damage caused by large earthquakes, a highly precise method of predicting future strong motion waveforms is required. In this study, we applied empirical Green's function method to forward modeling in order to simulate strong ground motion in the Noubi Fault zone and examine issues related to strong motion prediction for large faults. Source models for the scenario earthquakes were constructed using the recipe of strong motion prediction (Irikura and Miyake, 2001; Irikura et al., 2003). To calculate the asperity area ratio of a large fault zone, the results of a scaling model, a scaling model with 22% asperity by area, and a cascade model were compared, and several rupture points and segmentation parameters were examined for certain cases. A small earthquake (Mw: 4.6) that occurred in northern Fukui Prefecture in 2004 were examined as empirical Green's function, and the source spectrum of this small event was found to agree with the omega-square scaling law. The Nukumi, Neodani, and Umehara segments of the 1891 Noubi Earthquake were targeted in the present study. The positions of the asperity area and rupture starting points were based on the horizontal displacement distributions reported by Matsuda (1974) and the fault branching pattern and rupture direction model proposed by Nakata and Goto (1998). Asymmetry in the damage maps for the Noubi Earthquake was then examined. We compared the maximum horizontal velocities for each case that had a different rupture starting point. In the case, rupture started at the center of the Nukumi Fault, while in another case, rupture started on the southeastern edge of the Umehara Fault; the scaling model showed an approximately 2.1-fold difference between these cases at observation point FKI005 of K-Net. This difference is considered to relate to the directivity effect associated with the direction of rupture propagation. Moreover, it was clarified that the horizontal velocities by assuming the cascade model was underestimated more than one standard deviation of empirical relation by Si and Midorikawa (1999). The scaling and cascade models showed an approximately 6.4-fold difference for the case, in which the rupture started along the southeastern edge of the Umehara Fault at observation point GIF020. This difference is significantly large in comparison with the effect of different rupture starting points, and shows that it is important to base scenario earthquake assumptions on active fault datasets before establishing the source characterization model. The distribution map of seismic intensity for the 1891 Noubi Earthquake also suggests that the synthetic waveforms in the southeastern Noubi Fault zone may be underestimated. Our results indicate that outer fault parameters (e.g., earthquake moment) related to the construction of scenario earthquakes influence strong motion prediction, rather than inner fault parameters such as the rupture starting point. Based on these methods, we will predict strong motion for approximately 140 to 150 km of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line.

Kuriyama, M.; Kumamoto, T.; Fujita, M.

2005-12-01

236

Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

2012-05-01

237

A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Final report, January 1995--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments in natural-gas fired boilers have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of the present investigation is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR by studying laminar diffusion flames. The purpose of studying laminar flames is to isolate chemical effects from the effects of turbulent mixing and heat transfer, which are inherent in practical boilers. The results of both the numerical simulations and the experiments suggest that, although molecular transport and chemical kinetic phenomena are affected by the location of diluent addition depending on flow conditions, the greater effectiveness of FIR over FGR in practical applications may result from differences in turbulent mixing and heat transfer. Further research is required to understand how differences in diluent-addition location affect NO{sub x} production in turbulent flames. The present study, however, provides an underlying basis for understanding how flow conditions can affect flame chemistry. 51 figs., 7 tabs.

Feese, J.J.; Turns, S.R.

1996-08-01

238

Energy balance affected by electrolyte recirculation and operating modes in microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Energy recovery and consumption in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) can be significantly affected by the operating conditions. This study investigated the effects of electrolyte recirculation and operation mode (continuous vs sequence batch reactor) on the energy balance in a tubular MFC. It was found that decreasing the anolyte recirculation also decreased the energy recovery. Because of the open environment of the cathode electrode, the catholyte recirculation consumed 10 to 50 times more energy than the anolyte recirculation, and resulted in negative energy balances despite the reduction of the anolyte recirculation. Reducing the catholyte recirculation to 20% led to a positive energy balance of 0.0288 kWh m(-3). The MFC operated as a sequence batch reactor generated less energy and had a lower energy balance than the one with continuous operation. Those results encourage the further development of MFC technology to achieve neutral or even positive energy output. PMID:25842536

Jacobson, Kyle S; Kelly, Patrick T; He, Zhen

2015-03-01

239

Technological Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of the analysis of technological zones. A technological zone can be understood as a space within which differences between technical practices, procedures and forms have been reduced, or common standards have been established. Such technological zones take broadly one of three forms: (1) metrological zones associated with the development of common forms of measurement; (2)

Andrew Barry

2006-01-01

240

Investigation of groundwater recirculation for the removal of RDX from the Pantex Plant perched aquifer  

SciTech Connect

The Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas, is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that has been in operation since 1942. Past and present operations at Pantex include the creation of chemical high explosives components for nuclear weapons and assembly and disassembly of nuclear weapons. The Pantex Plant is underlain by the Ogallala aquifer, which in this area, consists of the main water-bearing unit and a perched water zone. These are separated by a fine-grained zone of low permeability. Multiple contaminant plumes containing high explosive (HE) compounds have been detected in the perched aquifer beneath the plant. The occurrence of these contaminants is the result of past waste disposal practices at the facility. RDX is an HE compound, which has been detected in the groundwater of the perched aquifer at significant concentrations. A pilot-scale, dual-phase extraction treatment system has been installed at one location at the plant, east of Zone 12, to test the effectiveness of such a system on the removal of these contaminants from the subsurface. A tracer test using a conservative tracer, bromide (Br), was conducted at the treatment site in 1996. In addition to the bromide, RDX and water elevations in the aquifer were monitored. Using data from the tracer test and other relevant data from the investigations at Pantex, flow and contaminant transport in the perched aquifer were simulated with groundwater models. The flow was modeled using MODFLOW and the transport of contaminants in the aqueous phase was modeled using MT3D. Modeling the perched aquifer had been conducted to characterize the flow in the perched aquifer; estimate RDX retardation in the perched aquifer; and evaluate the use of groundwater re-circulation to enhance the extraction of RDX from the perched aquifer.

Woods, A.L. [ed.; Barnes, D.L. [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Boles, K.M.; Charbeneau, R.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Black, S.; Rainwater, K. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Water Resources Center

1998-07-01

241

Recirculation-aeration: Bibliography for aquaculture. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography includes literature citations through 1992 related to water recirculation and aeration in aquaculture. The focus is on filtration, aeration, and circulation techniques in various aquaculture situations.

Perschbacher, P.W.; Powell, R.V.; Freeman, D.W.; Lorio, W.J.; Hanfman, D.T.

1993-08-01

242

On part load recirculation of pumps and fans-a generic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At part load in turbo machinery, there is a boundary layer separation resulting in a large vortex structure called part load recirculation. Up to now the influence of Reynolds number, relative roughness and degree of turbulence on this important stability limit of machines is not sufficiently understood. To shed some light onto these phenomena, in this work the simplest "machine" is considered by numerical and experimental studies. The apparatus we examine is a circular pipe at rest followed by a rotating co-axial pipe segment. By doing so, we have a generic test case which serves to study the critical flow number, defined by the onset of the separation and formation of a ring vortex.

Stapp, D.; Pelz, P. F.; Loens, J. M.

2013-12-01

243

Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen feedline passive recirculation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the National Launch System design phase, a computer code (FEEDLINE) was written to analyze the feasibility of using passive recirculation propellant conditioning for the LH2 and LO2 feed systems. The FEEDLINE code was employed to provide temperature profiles to the STME design team. The team used the temperature profiles to determine if the required Space Transportation Main Engine net positive suction pressure was met. One desired outcome of the LH2 testing was to determine if modifications are required for the FEEDLINE code. The initial LN2 calibration tests indicate that the environmental heat into the system decreases with increasing heater input.

Holt, Kimberly A.; Cleary, Nicole L.; Nichols, Andrew J.; Perry, Gretchen L. E.

1993-01-01

244

Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen feedline passive recirculation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal of the National Launch System (NLS) program was to design an operationally efficient, highly reliable vehicle with minimal recurring launch costs. To achieve this goal, trade studies of key main propulsion subsystems were performed to specify vehicle design requirements. These requirements include the use of passive recirculation to thermally condition the liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant feed systems and Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) fuel pumps. Rockwell International (RI) proposed a joint independent research and development (JIRAD) program with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to study the LH2 feed system passive recirculation concept. The testing was started in July 1992 and completed in November 1992. Vertical and sloped feedline designs were used. An engine simulator was attached at the bottom of the feedline. This simulator had strip heaters that were set to equal the corresponding heat input from different engines. A computer program is currently being used to analyze the passive recirculation concept in the LH2 vertical feedline tests. Four tests, where the heater setting is the independent variable, were chosen. While the JIRAD with RI was underway, General Dynamics Space Systems (GDSS) proposed a JIRAD with MSFC to explore passive recirculation in the LO2 feed system. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is being used instead of LO2 for safety and economic concerns. To date, three sets of calibration tests have been completed on the sloped LN2 test article. The environmental heat was calculated from the calibration tests in which the strip heaters were turned off. During the LH2 testing, the environmental heat was assumed to be constant. Therefore, the total heat was equal to the environmental heat flux plus the heater input. However, the first two sets of LN2 calibration tests have shown that the environmental heat flux varies with heater input. A Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA/FLUINT) model is currently being built to determine if this variation in environmental heat is due to a change in the wall temperature. During the third set of calibration tests, a faulty reference junction was found. Based on this anomaly with the reference junction, the heat flux calculations from the first two calibration sets are now considered questionable.

Holt, Kimberly Ann; Cleary, Nicole L.; Nichols, Andrew J.; Perry, Gretchen L. E.

1993-01-01

245

Development of beam position monitors for heavy ion recirculators  

SciTech Connect

Work is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to design and build a small-scale, heavy ion recirculating induction accelerator. An essential part of this design work is the development of small nonintercepting diagnostics to measure beam current and position. This paper describes some of this work, with particular emphasis on the development of a small capacitive probe beam position monitor to resolve beam position to the 100 {mu}m level in a 6 cm diameter beam pipe. Initial measured results with an 80 keV potassium ion beam are presented.

Deadrick, F.J.; Barnard, J.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Fessenden, T.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Meridith, J.W. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States). Amador Valley Operations; Rintamaki, J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1995-04-25

246

Recirculation of In-Plant Air at General Motors  

E-print Network

RECIRCULATION OF IN-PLANT AIR AT GENERAL MOTORS Veron L. McKibben General Motors Corporation Detroit, Michigan ABSTRACT The cost of doing business has been increasing at an alarming rate, especially energy-related costs. GM's yearly energy... Lansing, Michigan; at the DDAD Engine Plant in Detroit, Michigan; at the two Hydra-matic facili ties in Warren and Ypsilanti, Michigan; and at the GM of Canada, St. Catharines, Ontario Engine plant. The Oldsmobile facility consists of 900,000 sq. ft...

McKibben, V. L.

1983-01-01

247

Lymphopoiesis and lymphocyte recirculation in the sheep fetus  

PubMed Central

The production and the circulation of lymphocytes has been examined in the sheep fetus where neither foreign antigen nor immunoglobulins occur. It was found that as the lymphoid organs increased in size during fetal life, the numbers and the output of lymphocytes in the thoracic duct lymph increased. The recirculating pool of lymphocytes was estimated to be 5.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(8) cells in fetal lambs 95-100 days of age, 5.7 +/- 1.2 X 10(9) cells in fetuses 130-135 days of age, and 1.2 +/0 9.3 X 10(10) cells in fetuses near to term. The rate of addition of lymphocytes to the recirculating pool was 3.2 +/- 1.9 X 10(6) cells/h in fetuses of 100 days and 3.4 +/- 0.9 X 10(7) cells/h in fetuses of 130 days of age. Lymphocytes recirculated from blood to lymph in fetuses; labeled cells injected into the blood stream reappeared in the thoracic duct lymph promptly and reached maximum levels around 12-18 h after they were injected. Labeled lymphocytes were detected subsequently in greatest numbers in the lymph nodes, particularly in the mesenteric lymph nodes and in the interfollicular areas of the Peyer's patches. Chronic drainage of thoracic duct lymph from fetuses in utero for periods of up to 36 days had no obvious effects on the growth or development of the fetus and only minimal effects on the content of lymphocytes in the various lymphoid tissues even though the number of cells in the blood and lymph were reduced to between 20-30% of normal levels. Thymectomy done in fetuses about 2 mo befor cannulation of the thoracic duct reduced the output of cells in the thoracic duct to about 25% of normal levels and caused a significant reduction in the content of lymphocytes in the various lymphoid tissues. Thymectomized fetal lambs subjected to thoracic duct drainage for periods up to 2 wk in utero had a similar complement of lymphocytes in their lymphoid tissues to intact thymectomized fetal lambs. Lymphocytes obtained from the thoracic duct lymph of lambs thymectomized 2 mo previously recirculated from blood to lymph when they were injected intravenously, although they did this at a significantly slower rate than did lymphocytes from normal lambs. PMID:1244417

1976-01-01

248

Statistical eruption forecast for the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone: typical probabilities of volcanic eruptions as baseline for possibly enhanced activity following the large 2010 Concepción earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probabilistic eruption forecast is provided for ten volcanoes of the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ). Since 70% of the Chilean population lives in this area, the estimation of future eruption likelihood is an important part of hazard assessment. After investigating the completeness and stationarity of the historical eruption time series, the exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic distribution functions are fit to the repose time distributions for the individual volcanoes and the models are evaluated. This procedure has been implemented in two different ways to methodologically compare details in the fitting process. With regard to the probability of at least one VEI ? 2 eruption in the next decade, Llaima, Villarrica and Nevados de Chillán are most likely to erupt, while Osorno shows the lowest eruption probability among the volcanoes analysed. In addition to giving a compilation of the statistical eruption forecasts along the historically most active volcanoes of the SVZ, this paper aims to give "typical" eruption probabilities, which may in the future permit to distinguish possibly enhanced activity in the aftermath of the large 2010 Concepción earthquake.

Dzierma, Y.; Wehrmann, H.

2010-10-01

249

Paleoseismology of the Nephi Segment of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Juab County, Utah - Preliminary Results From Two Large Exploratory Trenches at Willow Creek  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, we identified a small parcel of U.S. Forest Service land at the mouth of Willow Creek (about 5 km west of Mona, Utah) that was suitable for trenching. At the Willow Creek site, which is near the middle of the southern strand of the Nephi segment, the WFZ has vertically displaced alluvial-fan deposits >6-7 m, forming large, steep, multiple-event scarps. In May 2005, we dug two 4- to 5-m-deep backhoe trenches at the Willow Creek site, identified three colluvial wedges in each trench, and collected samples of charcoal and A-horizon organic material for AMS (acceleration mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating, and sampled fine-grained eolian and colluvial sediment for luminescence dating. The trenches yielded a stratigraphic assemblage composed of moderately coarse-grained fluvial and debris-flow deposits and discrete colluvial wedges associated with three faulting events (P1, P2, and P3). About one-half of the net vertical displacement is accommodated by monoclinal tilting of fan deposits on the hanging-wall block, possibly related to massive ductile landslide deposits that are present beneath the Willow Creek fan. The timing of the three surface-faulting events is bracketed by radiocarbon dates and results in a much different fault chronology and higher slip rates than previously considered for this segment of the Wasatch fault zone.

Machette, Michael N.; Crone, Anthony J.; Personius, Stephen F.; Mahan, Shannon A.; Dart, Richard L.; Lidke, David J.; Olig, Susan S.

2007-01-01

250

Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

2014-05-13

251

Method and apparatus for affecting a recirculation zone in a cross flow  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a cross flow apparatus including a surface and at least one outlet located at the surface. The cross flow apparatus further includes at least one guide at the surface configured to direct an intersecting flow flowing across the surface and increase a velocity of a cross flow being expelled from the at least one outlet downstream from the at least one outlet.

Bathina, Mahesh (Andhra Pradesh, IN); Singh, Ramanand (Uttar Pradesh, IN)

2012-07-17

252

Self-Recirculating Casing Treatment Concept for Enhanced Compressor Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A state-of-the-art CFD code (APNASA) was employed in a computationally based investigation of the impact of casing bleed and injection on the stability and performance of a moderate speed fan rotor wherein the stalling mass flow is controlled by tip flow field breakdown. The investigation was guided by observed trends in endwall flow characteristics (e.g., increasing endwall aerodynamic blockage) as stall is approached and based on the hypothesis that application of bleed or injection can mitigate these trends. The "best" bleed and injection configurations were then combined to yield a self-recirculating casing treatment concept. The results of this investigation yielded: 1) identification of the fluid mechanisms which precipitate stall of tip critical blade rows, and 2) an approach to recirculated casing treatment which results in increased compressor stall range with minimal or no loss in efficiency. Subsequent application of this approach to a high speed transonic rotor successfully yielded significant improvements in stall range with no loss in compressor efficiency.

Hathaway, Michael D.

2002-01-01

253

Importance of entero-salivary recirculation in paracetamol pharmacokinetics.  

PubMed

The contribution of an entero-salivary recirculation (salivary secretion-swallowed-reabsorption of drug from the gastrointestinal tract) to the values of the pharmacokinetic parameters of paracetamol was studied in a two-way crossover design. Five healthy volunteers took a tablet of Paracetamol (500 mg) in two occasions separated by a washout period. The difference between the two treatments consisted of saliva that was allowed or not to be swallowed during the 4 h of study. No statistically significant differences were found in the values of the pharmacokinetic parameters between treatments. The half-life time calculated from salivary levels was similar to the values previously reported by other authors. The percent of the oral dose excreted in saliva during 4 h of study was very low (0.1%). Secondary peaks appeared in 8 of 10 profiles. The lack of influence of salivary secretion on the pharmacokinetic parameters of Paracetamol and the low percent secreted in this fluid suggests that entero-salivary recirculation is a possible physiological phenomenon undergoing after oral administration, but it is not one of the principal phenomenon that defines the pharmacokinetic of the drug. We confirm that working with salivary samples in pharmacokinetic studies of paracetamol is a useful tool. PMID:12214325

Schaiquevich, Paula; Niselman, Ada; Rubio, Modesto

2002-09-01

254

Passive mode control in the recirculating planar magnetron  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary experiments of the recirculating planar magnetron microwave source have demonstrated that the device oscillates but is susceptible to intense mode competition due, in part, to poor coupling of RF fields between the two planar oscillators. A novel method of improving the cross-oscillator coupling has been simulated in the periodically slotted mode control cathode (MCC). The MCC, as opposed to a solid conductor, is designed to electromagnetically couple both planar oscillators by allowing for the propagation of RF fields and electrons through resonantly tuned gaps in the cathode. Using the MCC, a 12-cavity anode block with a simulated 1 GHz and 0.26 c phase velocity (where c is the speed of light) was able to achieve in-phase oscillations between the two sides of the device in as little as 30 ns. An analytic study of the modified resonant structure predicts the MCC's ability to direct the RF fields to provide tunable mode separation in the recirculating planar magnetron. The self-consistent solution is presented for both the degenerate even (in phase) and odd (180 Degree-Sign out of phase) modes that exist due to the twofold symmetry of the planar magnetrons.

Franzi, Matthew; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, Geoff; Zhang, Peng [Plasma, Pulsed Power, and Microwave Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Hoff, Brad [Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

2013-03-15

255

Passive mode control in the recirculating planar magnetron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary experiments of the recirculating planar magnetron microwave source have demonstrated that the device oscillates but is susceptible to intense mode competition due, in part, to poor coupling of RF fields between the two planar oscillators. A novel method of improving the cross-oscillator coupling has been simulated in the periodically slotted mode control cathode (MCC). The MCC, as opposed to a solid conductor, is designed to electromagnetically couple both planar oscillators by allowing for the propagation of RF fields and electrons through resonantly tuned gaps in the cathode. Using the MCC, a 12-cavity anode block with a simulated 1 GHz and 0.26 c phase velocity (where c is the speed of light) was able to achieve in-phase oscillations between the two sides of the device in as little as 30 ns. An analytic study of the modified resonant structure predicts the MCC's ability to direct the RF fields to provide tunable mode separation in the recirculating planar magnetron. The self-consistent solution is presented for both the degenerate even (in phase) and odd (180° out of phase) modes that exist due to the twofold symmetry of the planar magnetrons.

Franzi, Matthew; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.; Hoff, Brad; Greening, Geoff; Zhang, Peng

2013-03-01

256

Continuous hydroponic wheat production using a recirculating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous crop production, where plants of various ages are growing simultaneously in a single recirculating nutrient solution, is a possible alternative to batch production in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System. A study was conducted at John F. Kennedy Space Center where 8 trays (0.24 sq m per tray) of Triticum aestivum L. Yecora Rojo were grown simultaneously in a growth chamber at 23 C, 65 percent relative humidity, 1000 ppm CO2, continuous light, with a continuous flow, thin film nutrient delivery system. The same modified Hoagland nutrient solution was recirculated through the plant trays from an 80 L reservoir throughout the study. It was maintained by periodic addition of water and nutrients based on chemical analyses of the solution. The study was conducted for 216 days, during which 24 trays of wheat were consecutively planted (one every 9 days), 16 of which were grown to maturity and harvested. The remaining 8 trays were harvested on day 216. Grain yields averaged 520 g m(exp -2), and had an average edible biomass of 32 percent. Consecutive yields were unaffected by nutrient solution age. It was concluded that continual wheat production will work in this system over an extended period of time. Certain micronutrient deficiencies and toxicities posed problems and must be addressed in future continuous production systems.

Mackowiak, C. L.; Owens, L. P.; Hinkle, C. R.; Prince, R. P.

1989-01-01

257

Interactive method for computation of viscous flow with recirculation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive method is proposed for the solution of two-dimensional, laminar flow fields with identifiable regions of recirculation, such as the shear-layer-driven cavity flow. The method treats the flow field as composed of two regions, with an appropriate mathematical model adopted for each region. The shear layer is computed by the compressible boundary layer equations, and the slowly recirculating flow by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The flow field is solved iteratively by matching the local solutions in the two regions. For this purpose a new matching method utilizing an overlap between the two computational regions is developed, and shown to be most satisfactory. Matching of the two velocity components, as well as the change in velocity with respect to depth is amply accomplished using the present approach, and the stagnation points corresponding to separation and reattachment of the dividing streamline are computed as part of the interactive solution. The interactive method is applied to the test problem of a shear layer driven cavity. The computational results are used to show the validity and applicability of the present approach.

Brandeis, J.; Rom, J.

1981-01-01

258

Numerical Model of Turbulence, Sediment Transport, and Sediment Cover in a Large Canyon-Bound River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado River in Grand Canyon is confined by bedrock and coarse-grained sediments. Finer grain sizes are supply limited, and sandbars primarily occur in lateral separation eddies downstream of coarse-grained tributary debris fans. These sandbars are important resources for native fish, recreational boaters, and as a source of aeolian transport preventing the erosion of archaeological resources by gully extension. Relatively accurate prediction of deposition and, especially, erosion of these sandbar beaches has proven difficult using two- and three-dimensional, time-averaged morphodynamic models. We present a parallelized, three-dimensional, turbulence-resolving model using the Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) technique. DES is a hybrid large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS). RANS is applied to the near-bed grid cells, where grid resolution is not sufficient to fully resolve wall turbulence. LES is applied further from the bed and banks. We utilize the Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence closure with a rough wall extension. The model resolves large-scale turbulence using DES and simultaneously integrates the suspended sediment advection-diffusion equation. The Smith and McLean suspended sediment boundary condition is used to calculate the upward and downward settling of sediment fluxes in the grid cells attached to the bed. The model calculates the entrainment of five grain sizes at every time step using a mixing layer model. Where the mixing layer depth becomes zero, the net entrainment is zero or negative. As such, the model is able to predict the exposure and burial of bedrock and coarse-grained surfaces by fine-grained sediments. A separate program was written to automatically construct the computational domain between the water surface and a triangulated surface of a digital elevation model of the given river reach. Model results compare favorably with ADCP measurements of flow taken on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon during the High Flow Experiment (HFE) of 2008. The model accurately reproduces the size and position of the major recirculation currents, and the error in velocity magnitude was found to be less than 17% or 0.22 m/s absolute error. The mean deviation of the direction of velocity with respect to the measured velocity was found to be 20 degrees. Large-scale turbulence structures with vorticity predominantly in the vertical direction are produced at the shear layer between the main channel and the separation zone. However, these structures rapidly become three-dimensional with no preferred orientation of vorticity. Surprisingly, cross-stream velocities, into the main recirculation zone just upstream of the point of reattachment and out of the main recirculation region just downstream of the point of separation, are highest near the bed. Lateral separation eddies are more efficient at storing and exporting sediment than previously modeled. The input of sediment to the eddy recirculation zone occurs near the reattachment zone and is relatively continuous in time. While, the export of sediment to the main channel by the return current occurs in pulses. Pulsation of the strength of the return current becomes a key factor to determine the rates of erosion and deposition in the main recirculation zone.

Alvarez, L. V.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

2013-12-01

259

Unit process engineering for water quality control and biosecurity in marine water recirculating systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High-intensity systems that treat and recirculate water must maintain a culture environment that can sustain near optimum fish health and growth at the design carrying capacity. Water recirculating systems that use centralized treatment systems can benefit from the economies of scale to decrease th...

260

Membrane biological reactor treatment of a saline backwash flow from a recirculating aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) can minimize water use, allowing fish production in regions where water is scarce and also placing the waterborne wastes into a concentrated and relatively small volume of effluent. The RAS effluent generated during clarifier backwash is usually small in volume (possibly 0.2–0.5% of the total recirculating flow when microscreen filters are used) but contains high

Mark J. Sharrer; Yossi Tal; Drew Ferrier; Joseph A. Hankins; Steven T. Summerfelt

2007-01-01

261

The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of

Ying-Feng Lin; Shuh-Ren Jing; Der-Yuan Lee

2003-01-01

262

Diesel emission control system using combined process of nonthermal plasma and exhaust gas components' recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NOx aftertreatment system, using nonthermal plasma (NTP) reduction and exhaust gas components' recirculation, is investigated. A pilot-scale system is applied to a stationary diesel engine. In this system, NOx is first removed by adsorption, and subsequently, the adsorbent is regenerated by thermal desorption. NOx desorbed is reduced by using nitrogen NTP. Moreover, NOx, CO2, and water vapor recirculated into

Keiichiro Yoshida; Tomoyuki Kuroki; Masaaki Okubo

2009-01-01

263

Studying coastal recirculation with a simplified analytical land-sea breeze model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diurnal cycle of the land and sea breeze is of high importance in determining many aspects of the living conditions in coastal areas. One of these aspects is the buildup of air pollutants concentrations due to air mass recirculation. In order to study the main factors governing the recirculation of an air mass under land-sea breeze conditions, a single

Ilan Levy; Uri Dayan; Yitzhak Mahrer

2008-01-01

264

Characterization of Soot Deposition and Particle Nucleation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is used to control engine out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions from modern diesel engines by re-circulating a portion of the exhaust gases into the intake manifold of an engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger commonly referred to as an EGR cooler. However, EGR cooler fouling due to presence of soot particles and

Anil Singh Bika; Alok Warey; David Long; Sandro Balestrino; Patrick Szymkowicz

2012-01-01

265

2-Methylisoborneol and geosmin uptake by organic sludge derived from a recirculating aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study on a recirculating fish culture system, levels of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol were found to decrease when culture water was recirculated through the anaerobic sludge digestion treatment stage of the system. This finding led us to the present study in which the geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol removal capacity of the sludge derived from this treatment stage was examined

Lior Guttman; Jaap van Rijn

2009-01-01

266

Internal combustion engine with plural spark plugs for each combustion chamber and exhaust recirculation circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is equipped with at least two simultaneously working spark plugs which are arranged distant from each other and located out of a central region of the combustion chamber, and an exhaust recirculation circuit including a flow control valve is arranged to recirculate exhaust gas to a nearly stoichiometric air-fuel mixture to be

Y. Hayashi; H. Kuroda; Y. Nakajima; T. Yoshimura

1978-01-01

267

Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -Part 2: Pathogens1  

E-print Network

Cir 121 Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems - Part 2 Aquaculture Laboratory, Ruskin FL 33570, Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School of Forest Resources Introduction Recirculating aquaculture systems, also known as water reuse systems, have become more and more

Watson, Craig A.

268

Developments in recirculating systems for Arctic char culture in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) tolerate high-density culture conditions, have an excellent fillet yield, are amenable to niche marketing, and are suitable for production within super-intensive recirculating systems. Much of the North American production of Arctic char has been within recirculating systems, which can provide more optimum water temperatures for fish growth and can also overcome limitations created by a lack

Steven T. Summerfelt; Gary Wilton; David Roberts; Tina Rimmerd; Kari Fonkalsrud

2004-01-01

269

Variability of the Kuroshio Extension Jet, Recirculation Gyre, and Mesoscale Eddies on Decadal Time Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve years of sea surface height (SSH) data from multiple satellite altimeters are used to investigate the low-frequency changes and the interconnections of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) jet, its southern recirculation gyre, and their mesoscale eddy field. The dominant signal is characterized by the steady weakening of the KE jet\\/recirculation gyre from 1993 to 1996, followed by a gradual strengthening

Bo Qiu; Shuiming Chen

2005-01-01

270

Scale and geometry effects on heat-recirculating combustors Chien-Hua Chen*  

E-print Network

in the fresh reactants Z Pre-exponential factor in Arrhenius reaction rate (1/s) Heat loss coefficient iScale and geometry effects on heat-recirculating combustors Chien-Hua Chen* and Paul D. Ronney effects on heat-recirculating combustors A simple analysis of linear and spiral counterflow heat

271

Integrated strong cation-exchange hybrid monolith coupled with capillary zone electrophoresis and simultaneous dynamic pH junction for large-volume proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange (SCX) monolith was synthesized at the proximal end of a capillary zone electrophoresis column and used for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample preconcentration. Sample was prepared in an acidic buffer and deposited onto the SCX-SPE monolith and eluted using a basic buffer. Electrophoresis was performed in an acidic buffer. This combination of buffers results in formation of a dynamic pH junction, which allows use of relatively large elution buffer volume while maintaining peak efficiency and resolution. All experiments were performed with a 50µm ID capillary, a 1cm long SCX-SPE monolith, a 60cm long separation capillary, and a electrokinetically pumped nanospray interface. The volume of the capillary is 1.1µL. By loading 21µL of a 1×10(-7)M angiotensin II solution, an enrichment factor of 3000 compared to standard electrokinetic injection was achieved on this platform while retaining efficient electrophoretic performance (N=44,000 plates). The loading capacity of the sulfonate SCX hybrid monolith was determined to be ~15pmol by frontal analysis with 10(-5)M angiotensin II. The system was also applied to the analysis of a 10(-4)mg/mL bovine serum albumin tryptic digest; the protein coverage was 12% and 11 peptides were identified. Finally, by loading 5.5µL of a 10(-3)mg/mL E. coli digest, 109 proteins and 271 peptides were identified in a 20min separation; the median separation efficiency generated by these peptides was 25,000 theoretical plates. PMID:25863379

Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Yan, Xiaojing; Dovichi, Norman J

2015-06-01

272

The Southern Part of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SSVZ; 42-46S) of the Andes: History of Medium and Large Explosive Holocene Eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaitén volcano is one of 13 large volcanic centers, and numerous small cones, comprising the southern part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), that results from the subduction of the Nazca plate (at 7.8 cm/yr) between the landward extension of the Chiloé FZ at 42S and the Chile Rise - Trench triple junction at 46S. Chaitén is a rhyolite dome inside a 3 km diameter caldera located 15 km west of the larger Michinmahuida stratovolcano. Other stratovolcanoes in the SSVZ include Yate, Hornopirén, Corcovado, Yanteles, Melimoyu, Mentolat, Cay and Macá. Hudson volcano, the southernmost in the Southern SVZ, is a large 10 km caldera, while Huequi and Hualaihué - Cordón Cabrera are a group of small aligned cinder cones possibly related to a larger eroded volcanic complex. Prior to the May 2008 eruption of Chaitén, the only well documented historic eruptions in this segment of the Andean arc were the explosive eruption of Hudson in August 1991 (Naranjo et al. 1993), and two eruptions of Michinmahuida in 1742 and 1834-35. Tephra deposits provide evidence of 11 prehistoric explosive Holocene eruptions of the southernmost SSVZ Hudson volcano, including two large eruptions near <6700 and <3600 BP (Naranjo and Stern 1998). The 6700 BP eruption produced greater than 18 km3 of andesitic tephra, possibly the largest Holocene eruption in all the southern Andes. Although Hudson is clearly the most active of the Southern SVZ volcanoes in terms of both volume and frequency of explosive eruptions, tephra deposits indicate that seven of the other SSVZ volcanoes, including Chaitén, also have had medium to large Holocene explosive eruptions (Naranjo and Stern 2004). Three of these eruptions were from Corcovado at approximately <9190, <7980 and <6870 BP, one from Yanteles at <9180 BP, two from Melimoyu at <2740 and <1750 BP, one from Mentolat at <6960 and one from Macá at <1540 BP. Two other eruptions, at <6350 and <3820 BP, we interpret as having been produced by Michinmahuida, because no evidence of tephra from this eruption is found around the Chaitén volcano. The younger and larger of these eruptions (MIC2) generated rhyolites similar in composition to those erupted from Chaitén, suggesting some possible relation between the Michinmahuida and Chaitén magma plumbing systems. Chaitén erupted at approximately <9370 BP based on dating of charcoal within the pyroclastic flow deposit produced by this eruption. This deposit decreases from 3.5 m thick 10 km north of the volcano to 1.5 m thick 30 km north of the volcano, and is covered by a 1.65 to 0.3 m thick tehra fall deposit of rhyolite pumice capped by a thin layer of dark mafic scoria. We consider the pre-May 2008 rhyolite obsidian dome to have formed at this time, or at least before 5610 BP, the age of pre-historic occupation sites with obsidian artifacts fashioned from this obsidian (Stern et al. 2002). Both the thickness of this deposit and the size of the dome in the crater prior to the May 2008 eruption suggest that the current event is not yet as large as the 9370 BP event, which ended with the eruption of a more mafic magma. Thus the current eruption cycle may have a way to go yet before it is complete. Naranjo et al. 1993, Boletin No 44, SERNAGEOMIN, 50 p. Naranjo and Stern 1998, Bull Volcanology 59: 291-306. Naranjo and Stern 2004, Revista Geologica de Chile 31: 225-240. Stern et al. 2002, Anales del Intituto de la Patagonia 30: 167-174.

Stern, C. R.; Naranjo, J. A.

2008-12-01

273

Air pollution in the shore zone of a Large Alpine Lake - 1 - Road dust and urban aerosols at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrated human activity and limited atmospheric mixing create a high potential for airborne pollutant impacts to alpine lakes developed as mountain resorts. Lake Tahoe is a major alpine resort straddling the California-Nevada border, receiving more than two million visitors each year. The lake's clarity has declined substantially since the inception of intense development in the Tahoe basin in the 1970s. The 2002-2004 Lake Tahoe Atmospheric Deposition Study (LTADS) was conducted as part of a multi-agency effort to develop a water quality management plan for the lake. Estimating aerosol deposition to the lake requires detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition over the entire basin - and developing a management plan requires also that the sources of the aerosols be known with considerable specificity. In lieu of the intensive measurement network implied by this level of detail, we hypothesized that a set of measurements to characterized the temporal, spatial, and size distribution patterns of particles in ambient air and in local emissions in the vicinity of Lake Tahoe could be used to extrapolate long time series of simple measurements to an annual aerosol deposition computation. Here we report the results of our detailed aerosol measurement campaign. Our results show that there are strong systematic and repeating gradients in aerosol loading that occur as functions of location, land use, traffic activity, and time of day, and that road dust is a major source of aerosols around the lake. In addition, we observed strong consistency of particle size distributions as a function of source type, largely independent of particle concentrations. Finally, we demonstrated the use of particle counters to directly observe downwind dispersion and deposition of particles. Together, these findings support the use of imputed location- and time-specific size distributions in annual aerosol deposition calculations, even though particle size distributions were not directly measured in the LTADS baseline monitoring program, and that program was conducted at only a limited set of sites in the Tahoe basin. Two companion articles in this journal issue describe the overall findings of the LTADS study (Dolislager et al., "Overview of the Lake Tahoe Atmospheric Deposition Study") and the results of measurements taken on the lake itself (VanCuren et al., "Air Pollution in the Shore Zone of a Large Alpine Lake - 2 - Local and Regional Pollutant Distribution over Lake Tahoe California-Nevada").

VanCuren, R.; Pederson, J.; Lashgari, A.; Dolislager, L.; McCauley, E.

2012-01-01

274

A note on the onset of recirculation in a 2D Couette flow over a wavy bottom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laminar Couette flow over a fixed wavy surface was studied with direct numerical simulation in a 2D periodic numerical domain. The mesh was generated by a conformal transformation that sets horizontal flow at the top of the domain, where a constant velocity boundary condition is given. The bottom of the domain is a wavy sinusoidal surface of wave slope 2?a/?. The combined effect of bottom shape, inertia, and viscosity was explored using different Reynolds numbers (Re) and two dimensionless parameters in terms of channel width h, wavelength ?, and the amplitude of the wavy bottom a. Even if the Reynolds number was large, the simulations were not perturbed so the regime was always laminar. However, a recirculation appeared at the vicinity of the trough. The horizontal location of the eddy center was reported as a function of 2?a/? and Re?/h. The conditions for the onset of this recirculation were studied and compared with results from the literature. Two regimes can be clearly identified from the numerical results; a viscous regime with a weak dependence between 2?a/? and Re?/h for small Reynolds numbers and an inertial regime with an exponential dependence between 2?a/? and Re?/h for large Reynolds numbers, which presents an approximate slope of -1/3. Almost all results collapse in one single curve that characterizes the phenomenon (with the exception of some points where the flow is confined due to a large ?/h ratio).

Esquivelzeta-Rabell, F. M.; Figueroa-Espinoza, B.; Legendre, D.; Salles, P.

2015-01-01

275

Research on the contact-impact between balls and re-circulating mechanism using the multibody dynamics simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The re-circulating mechanism of ball screws plays a vital role for its providing the path for steel balls rolling in screw grooves generally in high-speed\\/high-precision ball screw transmitting systems. However it is very hard to directly measure the ball's motion in the re-circulation for the closed recirculation groove. In order to investigate the impact-contact between the balls and re-circulating mechanism,

Hongkui Jiang; Xianchun Song; Wencheng Tang; Xiangrong Xu; Chengrui Zhang

2010-01-01

276

Investigation of the Impact of the Upstream Induction Zone on LIDAR Measurement Accuracy for Wind Turbine Control Applications using Large-Eddy Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several sources of error exist in lidar measurements for feedforward control of wind turbines including the ability to detect only radial velocities, spatial averaging, and wind evolution. This paper investigates another potential source of error: the upstream induction zone. The induction zone can directly affect lidar measurements and presents an opportunity for further decorrelation between upstream wind and the wind that interacts with the rotor. The impact of the induction zone is investigated using the combined CFD and aeroelastic code SOWFA. Lidar measurements are simulated upstream of a 5 MW turbine rotor and the true wind disturbances are found using a wind speed estimator and turbine outputs. Lidar performance in the absence of an induction zone is determined by simulating lidar measurements and the turbine response using the aeroelastic code FAST with wind inputs taken far upstream of the original turbine location in the SOWFA wind field. Results indicate that while measurement quality strongly depends on the amount of wind evolution, the induction zone has little effect. However, the optimal lidar preview distance and circular scan radius change slightly due to the presence of the induction zone.

Simley, Eric; Y Pao, Lucy; Gebraad, Pieter; Churchfield, Matthew

2014-06-01

277

Microbial diversity of biological filters in recirculating aquaculture systems.  

PubMed

Development of environmentally sustainable farming of marine and freshwater species using recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) requires a complete understanding of the biological component involved in wastewater treatment. This component integrates biofilters composed of microbial communities whose structure, dynamics, and activities are responsible for system success. Engineering highly efficient, environmentally sound, disease-free, and economically viable systems necessitates a thorough knowledge of microbial processes involved in all facets of RAS biofilters and has only recently been the focus of comprehensive studies. These studies have included the application of molecular tools to characterize community diversity and have identified key processes useful for improving system performance. In this paper we summarize the current understanding of the microbial diversity and physiology of RAS biofilters and discuss directions for future studies. PMID:20371171

Schreier, Harold J; Mirzoyan, Natella; Saito, Keiko

2010-06-01

278

RECENT PROGRESS TOWARD A MUON RECIRCULATING LINEAR ACCELERATOR  

SciTech Connect

Both Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require very rapid acceleration due to the short lifetime of muons. After a capture and bunching section, a linac raises the energy to about 900 MeV, and is followed by one or more Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA), possibly followed by a Rapid Cycling Synchnotron (RCS) or Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) ring. A RLA reuses the expensive RF linac section for a number of passes at the price of having to deal with different energies within the same linac. Various techniques including pulsed focusing quadruopoles, beta frequency beating, and multipass arcs have been investigated via simulations to improve the performance and reduce the cost of such RLAs.

Slawomir Bogacz, Vasiliy Morozov, Yves Roblin, Kevin Beard

2012-07-01

279

Successful water reuse in open recirculating cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Water reuse in open recirculating cooling water systems is becoming increasingly prevalent in industry. Reuse can incorporate a number of varied approaches with the primary goal being water conservation. Market forces driving this trend include scarcity of fresh water makeup sources and higher costs associated with pretreatment of natural waters. Utilization of reuse water for cooling tower makeup has especially detrimental effects on corrosion and deposit rates. Additionally, once the reuse water is cycled and treated with inhibitors, dispersants and microbiocides, acceptability for discharge to a public waterway can be a concern. The task for water treatment suppliers is to guide industry in the feasibility and procedures for successfully achieving these goals. This paper focuses particularly on reuse of municipal wastewater for cooling tower makeup and explores techniques which have been found especially effective. Case histories are described where these concepts have been successfully applied in practice.

Vaska, M.; Lee, B. [Drew Industrial Division, Boonton, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

280

Multipass Arc Lattice Design for Recirculating Linac Muon Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Recirculating linear accelerators (RLA) are the most likely means to achieve rapid acceleration of short-lived muons to multi-GeV energies required for Neutrino Factories and TeV energies required for Muon Colliders. A drawback of this scheme is that a separate return arc is required for each passage of the muons through the linac. In the work described here, a novel arc optics based on a Non-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NSFFAG) lattice is developed, which would provide sufficient momentum acceptance to allow multiple passes (two or more consecutive energies) to be transported in one string of magnets. An RLA with significantly fewer arcs will reduce the cost. We will develop the optics and technical requirements to allow the maximum number of passes by using an adjustable path length to accurately control the returned beam to synchronize with the linac RF phase.

G.M. Wang, R.P. Johnson, S.A. Bogacz, D. Trbojevic

2009-05-01

281

Dynamics of microorganism populations in recirculating nutrient solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This overview covers the basic microbial ecology of recirculating hydroponic solutions. Examples from NASA and Soviet CELSS tests and the commercial hydroponic industry will be used. The sources of microorganisms in nutrient solutions include air, water, seeds, plant containers and plumbing, biological vectors, and personnel. Microbial fates include growth, death, and emigration. Important microbial habitats within nutrient delivery systems are root surfaces, hardware surfaces (biofilms), and solution suspension. Numbers of bacteria on root surfaces usually exceed those from the other habitats by several orders of magnitude. Gram negative bacteria dominate the microflora with fungal counts usually much lower. Trends typically show a decrease in counts with increasing time unless stressed plants increase root exudates. Important microbial activities include carbon mineralization and nitrogen transformations. Important detrimental interactions include competition with plants, and human and plant pathogenesis.

Strayer, R. F.

1994-01-01

282

Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

1996-01-01

283

Dynamics of microorganism populations in recirculating nutrient solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This overview covers the basic microbial ecology of recirculating hydroponic solutions. Examples from NASA and Soviet Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) tests and the commercial hydroponic industry will be used. The sources of microorganisms in nutrient solutions include air, water, seeds, plant containers and plumbing, biological vectors, and personnel. Microbial fates include growth, death, and emigration. Important microbial habitats within nutrient delivery systems are root surfaces, hardware surfaces (biofilms), and solution suspension. Numbers of bacteria on root surfaces usually exceed those from the other habitats by several orders of magnitude. Gram negative bacteria dominate the microflora with fungal counts usually much lower. Trends typically show a decrease in counts with increasing time unless stressed plants increase root exudates. Important microbial activities include carbon mineralization and nitrogen transformations. Important detrimental interactions include competition with plants, and human and plant pathogenesis.

Strayer, R. F.

1994-01-01

284

Handheld recirculation system and customized media for microfluidic cell culture.  

PubMed

A palm-sized microfluidic recirculation system and customized media enable simplified long-term culture and imaging of cells. The combination of bare Braille display modules, a leveled monolithic surface for complete chip mounting, and a transparent heater improved portability, mechanical stability and optical accessibility. Modification of basal culture media with Leibovitz's L-15 medium enabled an incubator-free culture of carbonate-dependent cells by eliminating the need for exogenous carbon dioxide. This capability is demonstrated through time-lapse recording of proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts for over 2 weeks in ambient atmosphere without medium exchange. The method opens up new possibilities for portable cell culture and for long-term continuous visual monitoring of cells. PMID:16372083

Futai, Nobuyuki; Gu, Wei; Song, Jonathan W; Takayama, Shuichi

2006-01-01

285

A five-year study of coastal recirculation and its effect on air pollutants over the East Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown that air pollutants concentrations in coastal cities may be gravely affected by coastal recirculation. In this study an attempt is made to examine the properties of coastal recirculation over a long period (5 yrs) at multiple sites along the East Mediterranean Sea (EMS). For this purpose, a single station quantitative measure of horizontal recirculation is used

Ilan Levy; Uri Dayan; Yitzhak Mahrer

2008-01-01

286

Traffic and proliferative responses of recirculating lymphocytes in fetal calves.  

PubMed Central

The thoracic duct or efferent prescapular duct was cannulated in four fetal calves aged 121-259 days post-conception. The duration of lymph flow ranged from 2 to 20 days and the mean flow rates sustained over these collection periods varied from 5.4 to 48.8 ml/hr. Lymphocyte output ranged from 4.4 x 10(6) cells/hr in thoracic duct lymph from a 121-day fetus to 3.9 x 10(8) cells/hr in efferent prescapular lymph from a 259-day fetus. The circulating lymphocyte pool in fetal calves of about 120 and 190 days gestational age was calculated to contain, respectively, 4 x 10(8) cells and 2 x 10(10) cells. The proportion of lymphocytes bearing surface immunoglobulin detected in fetal lymph ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Recirculating lymphocytes from fetal calves produced strong proliferative responses when stimulated by T-cell mitogens but responded poorly to B-cell mitogens. Fetal lymphocytes also responded to stimulation by allogeneic cells and stimulated other cells to proliferate during mixed lymphocyte culture. When stimulated with Con A, fetal lymphocytes secreted IL-2 to a degree that was indistinguishable from the secretory behaviour of lymphocytes from adult animals. The results presented in this paper show that chronic lymphatic fistulae can be established successfully in fetal calves to give access to recirculating lymphocytes. This provides a new experimental approach for studying the development of the bovine immune system. PMID:2971606

Hein, W R; Shelton, J N; Simpson-Morgan, M W; Morris, B

1988-01-01

287

Evaluation of the impact of nitrate-nitrogen levels in recirculating aquaculture systems on concentrations of the off-flavor compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in water and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aquatic animals raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can develop preharvest “off-flavors” such as “earthy” or “musty” which are caused by the bioaccumulation of the odorous compounds geosmin or 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively, in their flesh. Tainted aquatic products cause large...

288

Dead Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth currently has more than 400 "dead zones"--marine expanses covering hundreds, or even thousands, of square miles that periodically become virtually lifeless. Explore the surprising causes of Oregon's dead zones, and the pioneering methods used to research them.

289

Impact of recirculation on the East Greenland Current in Fram Strait: Results from moored current meter measurements between 1997 and 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transports of total volume and water masses obtained from a mooring array in the East Greenland Current (EGC) in Fram Strait are presented for the period 1997-2009. The array in the EGC was moved along isobaths from 79°N to 78°50?N in 2002 to line up with moorings in the eastern Fram Strait. Analysis of the time series at the two latitudes shows that associated with the southward move, the annual mean volume transport of the EGC increased from 5.8±1.8 Sv to 8.7±2.5 Sv, mostly related with an increase in barotropic flow. This suggests a recirculation of close to 3 Sv at 78°50?N as a consequence of the large-scale wind-driven cyclonic gyre in the Nordic Seas. In addition, the volume transport at 78°50?N showed a clear seasonal cycle which was absent at 79°N. Estimates of the wind-driven Sverdrup transport at two different latitudes show that the difference in total volume transport and seasonality can largely be explained by the wind-stress curl. However, weak transport in 2003 was only partially related with weak Sverdrup transport and coincided also with anomalously weak northerly winds. The stronger recirculation at 78°50?N has also consequences for the observed Atlantic Water: there is significantly more Atlantic derived water present at the southerly latitude. In addition, the warm anomaly in Fram Strait between 2005 and 2007 doubled the amount of Recirculated Atlantic Water temporarily. Finally, we estimate that close to 2.7 Sv, or 50%, of Atlantic derived water recirculates in Fram Strait.

de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.; Mauritzen, C.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Fahrbach, E.

2014-10-01

290

The evaluation of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer associated with airlifts in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Airlifts in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide aeration, degasification, and water circulation. They allow the simplification of systems, and if designed properly, can reduce the capital costs and minimize operation and maintenance associated with alternative pumping systems. In order t...

291

High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays  

SciTech Connect

Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

2007-04-17

292

Soil nitrifying enrichments as biofilter starters in intensive recirculating saline water aquaculture  

E-print Network

aquaculture Abstract Intensive recirculating aquaculture relies on biofilters to sustain satisfactory water quality in the ponds. Establishment of new biofilters in aquaculture ponds without a start-up culture

Gross, Amit

293

Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture systems -Part 3: General  

E-print Network

Cir 122 Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture systems -Part 3: General Professor, Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory, Ruskin FL 33570, Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences commonly used in aquaculture facilities, wholesale and retail tropical fish facilities, and public aquaria

Watson, Craig A.

294

Both retention and recirculation contribute to long-lived regulatory T-cell accumulation in the thymus.  

PubMed

Natural Treg cells acquire their lineage-determining transcription factor Foxp3 during development in the thymus and are important in maintaining immunologic tolerance. Here, we analyzed the composition of the thymic Treg-cell pool using RAG2-GFP/FoxP3-RFP dual reporter mice and found that a population of long-lived GFP(-) Treg cells exists in the thymus. These long-lived Treg cells substantially increased with age, to a point where they represent >90% of the total thymic Treg-cell pool at 6 months of age. In contrast, long-lived conventional T cells remained at ? 15% of the total thymic pool at 6 months of age. Consistent with these studies, we noticed that host-derived Treg cells represented a large fraction (? 10%) of the total thymic Treg-cell pool in bone marrow chimeras, suggesting that long-lived Treg cells also reside in the thymus of these mice. The pool of long-lived Treg cells in the thymus was sustained by retention of Treg cells in the thymus and by recirculation of peripheral Treg cells back into the thymus. These long-lived thymic Treg cells suppressed T-cell proliferation to an equivalent extent to splenic Treg cells. Together, these data demonstrate that long-lived Treg cells accumulate in the thymus by both retention and recirculation. PMID:24894919

Yang, EnJun; Zou, Tao; Leichner, Theresa M; Zhang, Shirley L; Kambayashi, Taku

2014-09-01

295

Design of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We built a recirculating aquaria system with computerized temperature control to maintain static temperatures, increase temperatures 1 ??C/day, and maintain diel temperature fluctuations up to 10 ??C. A LabVIEW program compared the temperature recorded by thermocouples in fish tanks to a desired set temperature and then calculated the amount of hot or cold water to add to tanks to reach or maintain the desired temperature. Intellifaucet?? three-way mixing valves controlled temperature of the input water and ensured that all fish tanks had the same turnover rate. The system was analyzed over a period of 50 days and was fully functional for 96% of that time. Six different temperature treatments were run simultaneously in 18, 72 L fish tanks and temperatures stayed within 0.5 ??C of set temperature. We used the system to determine the upper temperature tolerance of fishes, but it could be used in aquaculture, ecological studies, or other aquatic work where temperature control is required. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Widmer, A.M.; Carveth, C.J.; Keffler, J.W.; Bonar, Scott A.

2006-01-01

296

Biological flocculation treatment on distillery wastewater and recirculation of wastewater.  

PubMed

In the present study, a wastewater treatment system for the ethanol fermentation industry was developed by recycling distillery wastewater. The waste was able to be recycled for the next fermentation after being treated with bio-flocculation process. The bio-flocculation process contains three steps: screening, treatment with polyaspartic acid and filtration. When the filtrate from this process was recycled, the average ethanol production yield was very close to that in the conventional process using tap water. In contrast, the recycle of wastewater without flocculation and with chemical flocculation showed negative effects on ethanol yield as recycling was repeated. This new process was confirmed to have stable operation over ten recycles. Hazardous materials influencing distillery wastewater recycles on fermentation were also considered. It was found that the content of suspended solids (SS), volatile acid and Fe ions inhibited fermentation and resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Bio-flocculation was shown to be an effective way to diminish the content of inhibitory compounds drastically when the waste was recirculated. PMID:19717237

Zhang, Wen; Xiong, Rongchun; Wei, Gang

2009-12-30

297

In situ treatment of VOCs by recirculation technologies  

SciTech Connect

The project described herein was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify processes and technologies developed in Germany that appeared to have near-term potential for enhancing the cleanup of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soil and groundwater at DOE sites. Members of the ORNL research team identified and evaluated selected German technologies developed at or in association with the University of Karlsruhe (UoK) for in situ treatment of VOC contaminated soils and groundwater. Project activities included contacts with researchers within three departments of the UoK (i.e., Applied Geology, Hydromechanics, and Soil and Foundation Engineering) during fall 1991 and subsequent visits to UoK and private industry collaborators during February 1992. Subsequent analyses consisted of engineering computations, groundwater flow modeling, and treatment process modeling. As a result of these project efforts, two processes were identified as having near-term potential for DOE: (1) the vacuum vaporizer well/groundwater recirculation well and (2) the porous pipe/horizontal well. This document was prepared to summarize the methods and results of the assessment activities completed during the initial year of the project. The project is still ongoing, so not all facets of the effort are completely described in this document. Recommendations for laboratory and field experiments are provided.

Siegrist, R.L.; Webb, O.F.; Ally, M.R.; Sanford, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Kearl, P.M.; Zutman, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (US)

1993-06-01

298

Aircraft Recirculation Filter for Air-Quality and Incident Assessment  

PubMed Central

The current research examines the possibility of using recirculation filters from aircraft to document the nature of air-quality incidents on aircraft. These filters are highly effective at collecting solid and liquid particulates. Identification of engine oil contaminants arriving through the bleed air system on the filter was chosen as the initial focus. A two-step study was undertaken. First, a compressor/bleed air simulator was developed to simulate an engine oil leak, and samples were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. These samples provided a concrete link between tricresyl phosphates and a homologous series of synthetic pentaerythritol esters from oil and contaminants found on the sample paper. The second step was to test 184 used aircraft filters with the same gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry system; of that total, 107 were standard filters, and 77 were nonstandard. Four of the standard filters had both markers for oil, with the homologous series synthetic pentaerythritol esters being the less common marker. It was also found that 90% of the filters had some detectable level of tricresyl phosphates. Of the 77 nonstandard filters, 30 had both markers for oil, a significantly higher percent than the standard filters. PMID:25641977

Eckels, Steven J.; Jones, Byron; Mann, Garrett; Mohan, Krishnan R.; Weisel, Clifford P.

2015-01-01

299

Efficiency of an AMTEC recirculating test cell, experiments and projections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) is an electrochemical device for the direct conversion of heat to electrical energy with efficiencies potentially near Carnot. The future usefulness of AMTEC for space power conversion depends on the efficiency of the devices. Systems studies have projected from 15 to 35 percent thermal to electric conversion efficiencies, and one experiment has demonstrated 19 percent efficiency for a short period of time. Recent experiments in a recirculating test cell (RTC) have demonstrated sustained conversion efficiencies as high as 10.2 percent early in cell life and 9.7 percent after maturity. Extensive thermal and electrochemical analysis of the cell during several experiments demonstrated that the efficiency could be improved in two ways. First, the electrode performance could be improved. The electrode for these tests operated at about one third the power density of state of the art electrodes. The low power density was caused by a combination of high series resistance and high mass flow resistance. Reducing these resistances could improve the efficiency to greater than 10 percent. Second, the cell thermal performance could be improved. Efficiencies greater than 14 percent could be realized through reducing the radiative thermal loss. Further improvements to the efficiency range predicted by systems studies can be accomplished through the development and use of an advanced condenser with improved reflectivity, close to that of a smooth sodium film, and the series connecting of individual cells to further reduce thermal losses.

Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.

1992-01-01

300

AMTEC recirculating test cell component testing and operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alkali metal thermoelectric converter operation in a recirculating test cell (RTC), which requires a small electromagnetic pump (EM) and a high-temperature beta-double-prime alumina-solid-electrolyte (BASE)-to-metal seal, is discussed. The design of a pump and an active metal braze seal and the initial operation of a cell using these components are described. The pump delivered 0.25 cu cm/min against a 28-psia head. A braze seal system was selected after shear strength tests of Ta or Nb brazed to BASE by a variety of fillers including TiCuNi, TiNi, and TiNiCr. The TiCuNi filler was chosen for environment cell testing and showed no failure or observable degradation after short-term tests up to 1055 K. The pump and the Nb/TiCuNi/BASE seal were used in a test that demonstrated all the operational functions of the RTC for the first time. An increase in the radiation reduction factor at constant input power was observed, indicating that the condenser was being wet by sodium resulting in an increased reflectivity.

Underwood, M. L.; Sievers, R. K.; O'Connor, D.; Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

301

Technical Notes: Multiple-Tank Aquarium System with Recirculating Water for Laboratory Studies of Freshwater Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recirculating-water aquarium system for laboratory studies of freshwater fishes is described. The system consists of 216 glass tanks (3.5 gal each), two particle filters, a multistage biofilter, two ultraviolet-light sterilizers, and a regenerative blower for auxiliary aeration. Each tank is connected separately to the recirculating-water supply through inflow and outflow manifold pipes. Water flow to individual tanks is adjustable

Roger W. Rottmann; Donald E. Campton

1989-01-01

302

Exhaust gas recirculation system having flow control valve combined with supersonic nozzle  

SciTech Connect

A channel is disclosed for recirculating a portion of an engine exhaust gas to the induction passage has an intermediately arranged converging-diverging supersonic nozzle with a valve member arranged in the nozzle to vary the cross-sectional area of the channel at the throat, so that the mass flow rate of the recirculated exhaust gas depends solely on the cross-sectional area so far as the gas velocity at the throat is sonic.

Sugihara, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoneda, K.

1981-08-25

303

The impact of recirculation, ventilation and filters on secondary organic aerosols generated by indoor chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of recirculation rates (7 and 14 h?1), ventilation rates (1 and 2 h?1), and filtration on secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated by ozone of outdoor origin reacting with limonene of indoor origin. Experiments were conducted within a recirculating air handling system that serviced an unoccupied, 236 m3 environmental chamber configured to simulate an office; either no filter, a

M. O. Fadeyi; C. J. Weschler; K. W. Tham

2009-01-01

304

Comparison of hydroponic crop production techniques in a recirculating fish culture system  

E-print Network

COMPARISON OF HYDROPONIC CROP PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES IN A RECIRCULATING FISH CULTURE SYSTEM A Thesis by STEVEN WHITAKKR WREN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences COMPARISON OF HYDROPONIC CROP PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES IN A RECIRCULATING FISH CULTURE SYSTEM A Thesis by STEVEN WHITAKER WREN Approved as to style and content by...

Wren, Steven Whitaker

1984-01-01

305

Ventilating characteristics of a recirculating air-curtain laboratory exhaust hood  

E-print Network

VENTILATING CHARACTERISTICS OF A RECIRCULATING AIR-CURTAIN LABORATORY EXHAUST HOOD A Thesis by DALE FLOYD JANES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August, 1978 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene Copyright by Dale Floyd Janes 1978 443229 VENTILATING CHARACTERISTICS OF A RECIRCULATING AIR-CURTAIN LABORATORY EXHAUST HOOD A Thesis by DALE FLOYD JANES Approved as to style and content by...

Janes, Dale Floyd

1978-01-01

306

Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-3 Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling 1 Jun Xiong ZeHua Liu Chao Wang GuoJie Chen Bachelor Senior...(3):33~40. (In Chinese) [7] Jun Xiong, ZeHua Liu ,etc. Re-circulation evapo- rative cooling technology and its application[J]. Building energy & Environment.2005?24?4 ? 41~44. (In Chinese) ...

Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

2006-01-01

307

Grain quality impacts of prohibiting recombination recirculation dust at export grain elevators  

E-print Network

GRAIN QUALITY IMPACTS OF PROHIBITING RECOMBINATION RECIRCULATION DUST AT EXPORT GRAIN ELEVATORS A Thesis by DARYL DREW SPILLMANN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering GRAIN QUALITY IMPACTS OF PROHIBITING RECOMBINATION RECIRCULATION DUST AT EXPORT GRAIN ELEVATORS A Thesis by DARYL DREW SPILLMANN Approved as to style and content by...

Spillmann, Daryl Drew

1992-01-01

308

Correlation and emplacement of a large, zoned, discontinuously exposed ash flow sheet: The 40 Ar\\/ 39 Ar chronology, paleomagnetism, and petrology of the Pahranagat Formation, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many single-cryslal 4oAr\\/3gAr ages and thermoremanent magnetization directions have resolved the problematic stratigraphic correlation of the laterally and vertically zoned rhyolite ash flow sheet of the Pahranagat Formation in the southern Great Basin. This outflow sheet was previously designated by four different stratigraphic names in different locations over its highly discontinuous exposure area of 33,000 kmz. We show that it

Myron G. Best; Eric H. Christiansen; Alan L. Deino; C. Sherman Grommé; David G. Tingeyl

1995-01-01

309

Haldane's rule revisited: do hybrid females have a shorter lifespan? Survival of hybrids in a recent contact zone between two large gull species.  

PubMed

Haldane's rule predicts that particularly high fitness reduction should affect the heterogametic sex of interspecific hybrids. Despite the fact that hybridization is widespread in birds, survival of hybrid individuals is rarely addressed in studies of avian hybrid zones, possibly because of methodological constraints. Here, having applied capture-mark-recapture models to an extensive, 19-year-long data set on individually marked birds, we estimate annual survival rates of hybrid individuals in the hybrid zone between herring (Larus argentatus) and Caspian (Larus cachinnans) gulls. In both parental species, males have a slightly higher survival rate than females (model-weighted mean ± SE: herring gull males 0.88 ± 0.01, females 0.87 ± 0.01, Caspian gull males 0.88 ± 0.01, females 0.87 ± 0.01). Hybrid males do not survive for a shorter time than nonhybrid ones (0.88 ± 0.01), whereas hybrid females have the lowest survival rate among all groups of individuals (0.83 ± 0.03). This translates to a shorter adult (reproductive) lifespan (on average by 1.7-1.8 years, i.e. ca 25%) compared with nonhybrid females. We conclude that, in line with Haldane's rule, the lower survival rate of female hybrids may contribute to selection against hybrids in this hybrid zone. PMID:24820228

Neubauer, G; Nowicki, P; Zagalska-Neubauer, M

2014-06-01

310

Anolyte recirculation effects in buffered and unbuffered single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Two identical microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with a floating air-cathode were operated under either buffered (MFC-B) or bufferless (MFC-BL) conditions to investigate anolyte recirculation effects on enhancing proton transfer. With an external resistance of 50 ? and recirculation rate of 1.0 ml/min, MFC-BL had a 27% lower voltage (9.7% lower maximal power density) but a 64% higher Coulombic efficiency (CE) than MFC-B. MFC-B had a decreased voltage output, batch time, and CE with increasing recirculation rate resulting from more oxygen transfer into the anode. However, increasing the recirculation rate within a low range significantly enhanced proton transfer in MFC-BL, resulting in a higher voltage output, a longer batch time, and a higher CE. A further increase in recirculation rate decreased the batch time and CE of MFC-BL due to excess oxygen transfer into anode outweighing the proton-transfer benefits. The unbuffered MFC had an optimal recirculation rate of 0.35 ml/min. PMID:25514399

Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Xun; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Li, Jun; Ye, Ding-ding; Liao, Qiang; Regan, John M

2015-03-01

311

Effluent recirculation to improve perchlorate reduction in a fixed biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

The effect of effluent recirculation on perchlorate reduction in a nominally plug-flow fixed biofilm reactor was studied in two cases: influent concentrations of 10 and 400 microg/L at low hydraulic loading rates (1.9 and 37.5 m(3)/m(2)/day without and with recirculation, respectively) and after a step increase in perchlorate concentration to 1,000 microg/L at the higher hydraulic loading rate (5 and 100 m(3)/m(2)/day without and with recirculation, respectively). Complete perchlorate reduction was sustained for influent concentrations of 400 and 10 microg/L in both flow regimes at the lower hydraulic loading rates. Reactor tracer profiles showed that biofilm diffusion had a more significant effect on mass transfer in the plug flow reactor compared with recirculation. The recirculation bioreactor acclimated more rapidly to increased hydraulic and perchlorate mass loading rates with significantly lower effluent perchlorate compared to the plug flow reactor: 16 microg/L versus 46 microg/L, respectively, although complete perchlorate removal was not achieved in either flow regime after 21 days acclimation to the higher loading. Total biofilm mass was more uniformly distributed in the recirculation reactor which may have contributed to better performance under increased perchlorate loading. PMID:17385744

Choi, Hyeoksun; Silverstein, Joann

2007-09-01

312

Lycos Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the tradition of Yahooligans (reviewed in the March 22, 1996 Scout Report) and other so-called "green spaces," Lycos has created a new online safe haven for young users which is fairly self-contained, with the exception of the advertisements. (In response to criticisms regarding aggressive marketing to children at similar sites, Lycos claims that the ads are clearly marked and will not collect any personal information.) The site is composed of four sections: the Fun and Games Zone, the Homework Zone, the New and Cool Zone, and an area for parents and teachers. The first two sections are fairly deep, with numerous resources and activities aimed at various age levels. Some links in the Homework Zone lead users outside the site, but they are first presented with a gateway page informing them that they are leaving and offering advice on not divulging personal information.

313

Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations  

SciTech Connect

There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

Mike Bruno; Russell L. Detwiler; Kang Lao; Vahid Serajian; Jean Elkhoury; Julia Diessl; Nicky White

2012-09-30

314

Temporal and spatial pore water pressure distribution surrounding a vertical landfill leachate recirculation well.  

PubMed

Addition of liquids into landfilled waste can result in an increase in pore water pressure, and this in turn may increase concerns with respect to geotechnical stability of the landfilled waste mass. While the impact of vertical well leachate recirculation on landfill pore water pressures has been mathematically modeled, measurements of these systems in operating landfills have not been reported. Pressure readings from vibrating wire piezometers placed in the waste surrounding a liquids addition well at a full-scale operating landfill in Florida were recorded over a 2-year period. Prior to the addition of liquids, measured pore pressures were found to increase with landfill depth, an indication of gas pressure increase and decreasing waste permeability with depth. When liquid addition commenced, piezometers located closer to either the leachate injection well or the landfill surface responded more rapidly to leachate addition relative to those far from the well and those at deeper locations. After liquid addition stopped, measured pore pressures did not immediately drop, but slowly decreased with time. Despite the large pressures present at the bottom of the liquid addition well, much smaller pressures were measured in the surrounding waste. The spatial variation of the pressures recorded in this study suggests that waste permeability is anisotropic and decreases with depth. PMID:21655145

Kadambala, Ravi; Townsend, Timothy G; Jain, Pradeep; Singh, Karamjit

2011-05-01

315

Temporal and Spatial Pore Water Pressure Distribution Surrounding a Vertical Landfill Leachate Recirculation Well  

PubMed Central

Addition of liquids into landfilled waste can result in an increase in pore water pressure, and this in turn may increase concerns with respect to geotechnical stability of the landfilled waste mass. While the impact of vertical well leachate recirculation on landfill pore water pressures has been mathematically modeled, measurements of these systems in operating landfills have not been reported. Pressure readings from vibrating wire piezometers placed in the waste surrounding a liquids addition well at a full-scale operating landfill in Florida were recorded over a 2-year period. Prior to the addition of liquids, measured pore pressures were found to increase with landfill depth, an indication of gas pressure increase and decreasing waste permeability with depth. When liquid addition commenced, piezometers located closer to either the leachate injection well or the landfill surface responded more rapidly to leachate addition relative to those far from the well and those at deeper locations. After liquid addition stopped, measured pore pressures did not immediately drop, but slowly decreased with time. Despite the large pressures present at the bottom of the liquid addition well, much smaller pressures were measured in the surrounding waste. The spatial variation of the pressures recorded in this study suggests that waste permeability is anisotropic and decreases with depth. PMID:21655145

Kadambala, Ravi; Townsend, Timothy G.; Jain, Pradeep; Singh, Karamjit

2011-01-01

316

Mono-fermentation of chicken manure: ammonia inhibition and recirculation of the digestate.  

PubMed

The effects of ammonia concentration on the performance and stability of mono-fermentation of chicken manure were investigated in a lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactor at 40 °C. Technical stripping was performed to remove ammonia from the liquid fraction of digestate, and the entire product was recycled to the fermenter to control ammonia concentration in the fermenter. Organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.3 gVS/(L d) was achieved with an average free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) concentration of 0.77 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.39 L/gVS. When OLR was increased to 6.0 gVS/(L d), stable operation could be obtained with an average FAN concentration of 0.86 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.27 L/gVS. Mono-fermentation of chicken manure was successfully carried out at high ammonia concentrations. Controlled recirculation of treated liquid fraction of digestate could be a solution in large-scale application for both: to avoid ammonia inhibition and minimize digestate. PMID:25266688

Nie, Hong; Jacobi, H Fabian; Strach, Katrin; Xu, Chunming; Zhou, Hongjun; Liebetrau, Jan

2015-02-01

317

Energy stability in recirculating, energy-recovering linacs in the presence of a FEL  

SciTech Connect

Recirculating, energy-recovering linacs can be used as driver accelerators for high power FELs (free electron lasers). Instabilities which arise from fluctuations of the cavity fields are investigated. Energy changes can cause beam loss on apertures, or, when coupled to M{sub 56}, phase oscillations. Both effects change the beam induced voltage in the cavities and can lead to unstable variations of the accelerating field. An analytical model which includes amplitude and phase feedback, has been developed to study the stability of the system for small perturbations from equilibrium. The interaction of the electron beam with the FEL is a major perturbation which affects both the stability of the system and development of startup and recovery scenarios. To simulate the system`s response to such large parameter variations, a numerical model of the beam-cavity interaction has been developed which includes low level rf feedback, phase oscillations and beam loss instabilities and the FEL interaction. Agreement between the numerical model and the linear theory has been demonstrated in the limit of small perturbations. In addition, the model has been benchmarked against experimental data obtained during CEBAF`s high current operation. Numerical simulations have been performed for the high power IR DEMO approved for construction at CEBAF.

Merminga, L.; Bisognano, J.; Delayen, J.R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

1996-07-01

318

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E-print Network

N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE

Kainen, Paul C.

319

Molecular and morphological patterns of introgression between two large white-headed gull species in a zone of recent secondary contact.  

PubMed

Incomplete reproductive isolation promotes gene flow between diverging taxa. However, any gene encoding for traits involved in the reproductive barriers will be less prone to introgression than neutral markers. Comparing introgression rates among loci is thus informative of the number and functions of loci involved in the reproductive barriers. This study aimed at identifying possible mechanisms of restriction to gene flow across a zone of recent secondary contact between Larus argentatus and Larus cachinnans by comparing introgression patterns for nine microsatellite loci, a fragment of mitochondrial DNA and a set of phenotypic traits. The low linkage disequilibrium between neutral nuclear markers indicated introgression without any barrier to gene flow. However, asymmetric introgression of mitochondrial DNA suggested that interspecific crosses may be more successful in one direction. The introgression rate for phenotypic traits was variable and low compared to neutral molecular markers. This was particularly evident in colouration of bare parts: individuals with intermediate colouration were scarcer in sympatry than expected if the genomes recombined freely. We hypothesized that one of these variables, the orbital ring colour, may play a role in mate choice, acting as an incomplete premating barrier through assortative mating. This study emphasizes that multilocus approaches are useful to discriminate among possible mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of hybrid zones. PMID:17651198

Gay, L; Neubauer, G; Zagalska-Neubauer, M; Debain, C; Pons, J-M; David, P; Crochet, P-A

2007-08-01

320

Mineral and organic compounds in leachate from landfill with concentrate recirculation.  

PubMed

The effect of a reverse osmosis concentrate recirculation on the mineral and organic compounds in a landfill leachate was investigated. Investigated was the quality of a leachate from two landfills operated for different periods (a 20-year-old Cell A and a 1-year-old Cell B), where the concentrate was recirculated. Examined were general parameters (conductivity, pH), organic compounds (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic nitrogen, BOD/COD), and inorganic compounds (nitrogen ammonia, sulfite, sulfate, cyanide, boron, chloride, ferrous, zinc, chrome, copper). The findings from the first year of investigation showed that over the initial period of recirculation, the concentration of organic compounds (BOD, COD) increased, but after 6 months their values stabilized. It indicates that the concentrate recirculation accelerated organic decomposition, especially in the new landfill Cell. The analysis of inorganic parameters showed that recirculation landfills produce a leachate with a higher concentration of N-NH4, and Cl(-). In case of the old landfill Cell, an increase in B and Fe was also noticeable. These compounds are cyclically washed out from a waste dump and require an additional pretreatment in order to exclude them from recirculation cycle. The increased concentration of Cu, Zn, and Fe was noticed during the initial months of recirculation and in the season of intense atmospheric precipitation in the leachate from both Cells. Higher values of electro conductivity, Cl(-), N-NH4 (+), B, and Fe in the leachate from the old field indicate that the attenuation capacity of this landfill is close to exhaustion. PMID:25194843

Talalaj, Izabela Anna

2015-02-01

321

COMPARISON OF YIELD, NUTRIENT SOLUTION CHANGES AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF GREENHOUSE TOMATO GROWN IN RECIRCULATING AND NONRECIRCULATING NUTRIENT SOLUTION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out in the years 2005–2007 with greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. ‘Emotion F1’ grown in rockwool with the recirculating and non-recirculating nutrient solution systems. No significant differences were found in yields of fruits in both systems. In the recirculating system there was more intensive accumulation of sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), and zinc (Zn) in

A. Komosa; J. Piróg; Z. Weber; B. Markiewicz

2011-01-01

322

Large-aperture fast multilevel Fresnel zone lenses in glass and ultrathin polymer films for visible and near-infrared imaging applications.  

PubMed

The ability to fabricate 4-level diffractive structures with 1 µm critical dimensions has been demonstrated for the creation of fast (?f/3.1 at 633 nm) Fresnel zone lenses (FZLs) with >60% diffraction efficiency into the -1 focusing order and nearly complete suppression of 0 and +1 orders. This is done using tooling capable of producing optics with 800 mm apertures. A 4-level grating fabricated in glass at 300 mm aperture is shown to have <15??nm rms holographic phase error. Glass FZLs have also been used as mandrels for casting zero-thermal-expansion, 20 µm thick polymer films created with the 4-level structure as a route to mass replication of efficient diffractive membranes for ultralight segmented space-based telescope applications. PMID:24787399

Britten, Jerald A; Dixit, Shamusundar N; DeBruyckere, Michael; Steadfast, Daniel; Hackett, James; Farmer, Brandon; Poe, Garrett; Patrick, Brian; Atcheson, Paul D; Domber, Jeanette L; Seltzer, Aaron

2014-04-10

323

Modeling slow slip events, non-volcanic tremor and large earthquakes in the Guerrero subduction zone (Mexico) with space-variable frictional weakening and creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore with numerical simulations the range of conditions leading to key observed features of NVT in relation to SSE and earthquakes along the Guerrero segment of the Mexican subduction zone. The Guerrero segment is known to produce some of the largest slow slip events (SSE) recorded so far with equivalent magnitude up to 7.5 Mw. These SSE, with apparent durations of about 4 years, are accompanied by strong activity of Non Volcanic Tremor (NVT) in central Guerrero. Recently, NVT triggered by the 8.8 Mw Maule earthquake were also been reported in that region. The geometry of the Guerrero subduction zone remains sub-horizontal between 150 km to 250 km from the coast, making it easy to model with a simple flat frictional interface. We use a model with a planar interface governed by space-varying static/kinetic friction and dislocation creep in elastic solid. The model is tailored through the employed dimensions, distribution of rheological properties and boundary conditions to the Guerrero segment, with particular attention to conditions of the past 15 years for which observations are available. A section of the fault with zero weakening during frictional slip fails in a mode corresponding to a "critical depinning transition" that produces many observed features of NVT. When a high creep patch representing a section sustaining SSE is added, strong interactions between NVT and SSE are observed as in the natural fault system. We also examine triggering of NVT by larger remote earthquakes, implemented by adding periodic triggering oscillations to the regular tectonic loading. In addition to modeling observations of NVT and SSE made in Guerrero during the past 15 years, the simulations allow us to distinguish aspects of the observed behavior that are robust over long time intervals from aspects that change during intervals longer than the observational period.

Zigone, D.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Campillo, M.

2012-12-01

324

Dead Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from the independent film Big River: A King Corn Companion, the filmmakers explain how agricultural runoff from the Midwest has contributed to a massive "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico. A cornfield treated with conventional chemical fertilizer promises a bumper crop, but chemical runoff from the farm enters the Iowa River, eventually draining into the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. In the Gulf, these dissolved nutrients allow algae to flourish. The algae's decay depletes the water of oxygen, creating a dead zone where shrimp and fish are starved of oxygen and die. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

2010-08-31

325

Exhaust gas recirculation control method and apparatus for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculation control method is described for operating an exhaust gas recirculation control device including a needle valve provided in an exhaust gas recirculation passage for setting an effective diameter of the passage, a position sensor for providing a signal representing a position of the needle valve, and a negative pressure motor for positioning the needle valve. The method comprises: setting a target value for the needle valve according to predetermined operating conditions of the internal combustion engine; measuring a positional deviation between the target value and an actual position of the needle valve as represented by the signal provided by the position sensor; and driving the negative pressure motor with only a single drive pulse having a time width corresponding to the measured positional deviation. An exhaust gas recirculation control apparatus is described for operating an exhaust gas recirculation control device. The apparatus comprises: means for setting a target value for the needle valve according to predetermined operating conditions of the internal combustion engine; and means for measuring a positional deviation between the target value and an actual position of the needle valve as represented by the signal provided by the position sensor.

Tsutsumi, K.

1987-02-10

326

Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a recirculating control loop which had no water quality maintenance. Results show that periodic water maintenance can improve performance of the SWME. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage of this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to enhance the robustness of the SWME through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A patented bed design that was developed for a United Technologies Aerospace System military application provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in the SWME recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for the ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

2014-01-01

327

Electron recirculation in electrostatic multicusp systems: II. System performance scaling of one-dimensional rollover wells  

SciTech Connect

In an earlier paper a comprehensive study was made of the recirculation and losses of electrons in their flow through simple inverse power-law potential wells bounded by similarly inverse power-law dependent magnetic fields. This study examined electron flow and loss behavior in the simplest approximation invoked to describe Polywell confinement systems. The importance of this study, and of the present paper, is that the power balance in Polywell systems is determined entirely by the rate of electron losses; if these are large, then the system can not yield net power. Thus it is of interest to determine those conditions that results in small losses, and to design experiments and systems to attempt to achieve and operate at these most favorable conditions, in order to test and prove the efficacy of the system for the generation of net power from fusion reactions. The outline and summary of this problem presented is generally repeated here, with some modifications to clarify particular physics issues of most concern, in order to avoid having to refer to the earlier document for this general description. As noted, a large body of work has been undertaken over the past 35 or so years in the study of general cusp confinement of plasmas. Nearly all of this has examined single particle electron (or ion) motion or the motion of particles in neutral plasmas within cusped magnetic systems, generally without internal electric potential fields.**INVALID KEYWORDS: controlled nuclear fusion, electron flux, plasma devices, confinement, performance, engineering, scaling factor, multicusp systems, polywell systems

Bussard, R.W.; King, K.E.

1992-01-01

328

Resolving the Effects of Aperture and Volume Restriction of the Flow by Semi-Porous Barriers Using Large-Eddy Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS)-based Forest Large-Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) model is used to simulate the effects of large rectangular prism-shaped semi-porous barriers of varying densities under neutrally buoyant conditions. RAFLES model resolves flows inside and above forested canopies and other semi-porous barriers, and it accounts for barrier-induced drag on the flow and surface flux exchange between the barrier and the air. Unlike most other models, RAFLES model also accounts for the barrier-induced volume and aperture restriction via a modified version of the cut-cell coordinate system. We explicitly tested the effects of the numerical representation of volume restriction, independent of the effects of the drag, by comparing drag-only simulations (where we prescribed neither volume nor aperture restrictions to the flow), restriction-only simulations (where we prescribed no drag), and control simulations where both drag and volume plus aperture restrictions were included. Previous modelling and empirical work have revealed the development of important areas of increased uplift upwind of forward-facing steps, and recirculation zones downwind of backward-facing steps. Our simulations show that representation of the effects of the volume and aperture restriction due to the presence of semi-porous barriers leads to differences in the strengths and locations of increased-updraft and recirculation zones, and the length and strength of impact and adjustment zones when compared to simulation solutions with a drag-only representation. These are mostly driven by differences to the momentum budget of the streamwise wind velocity by resolved turbulence and pressure gradient fields around the front and back edges of the barrier. We propose that volume plus aperture restriction is an important component of the flow system in semi-porous environments such as forests and cities and should be considered by large-eddy simulation (LES).

Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Velissariou, Vasilia; Bohrer, Gil

2014-09-01

329

Kids Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kids Zone is the Atomic Energy of Canada Web site for kids that explores nuclear energy, electricity, and how energy interacts with our environment. The interactive lessons use animations, games, colorful cartoon characters, and other attention grabbing methods to help drive home the "energy is good" theme.

1969-12-31

330

Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Houk, T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant] [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

1998-08-01

331

The Performance of Refrigeration Cycle with Vapor Re-circulation Evaporator Using an Ejector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed new method that re-circulates vapor refrigerant into the evaporator using an ejector to enhance the evaporating heat transfer in the refrigeration cycle. It makes the evaporating heat transfer coefficient higher by increase of the dryness-quality at the inlet of evaporator. We investigated experimentally the coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigeration cycle and the evaporating heat transfer coefficient with a proposal means, under various evaporating and condensing temperatures and heat loads. As a result, the COP of proposed cycle is 5-13% higher than the conventional cycle with a D.C. inverter compressor by re-circulation of refrigerant. Furthermore, we investigated the dry-out length in the evaporator by authorized empirical equation and evaluated the optimum flow rate of re-circulation.

Man'o, Tatsunori; Tanino, Masayuki; Okazaki, Takashi; Koyama, Shigeru

332

The impact of recirculation, ventilation and filters on secondary organic aerosols generated by indoor chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the impact of recirculation rates (7 and 14 h -1), ventilation rates (1 and 2 h -1), and filtration on secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated by ozone of outdoor origin reacting with limonene of indoor origin. Experiments were conducted within a recirculating air handling system that serviced an unoccupied, 236 m 3 environmental chamber configured to simulate an office; either no filter, a new filter or a used filter was located downstream of where outdoor air mixed with return air. For otherwise comparable conditions, the SOA number and mass concentrations at a recirculation rate of 14 h -1 were significantly smaller than at a recirculation rate of 7 h -1. This was due primarily to lower ozone concentrations, resulting from increased surface removal, at the higher recirculation rate. Increased ventilation increased outdoor-to-indoor transport of ozone, but this was more than offset by the increased dilution of SOA derived from ozone-initiated chemistry. The presence of a particle filter (new or used) strikingly lowered SOA number and mass concentrations compared with conditions when no filter was present. Even though the particle filter in this study had only 35% single-pass removal efficiency for 100 nm particles, filtration efficiency was greatly amplified by recirculation. SOA particle levels were reduced to an even greater extent when an activated carbon filter was in the system, due to ozone removal by the carbon filter. These findings improve our understanding of the influence of commonly employed energy saving procedures on occupant exposures to ozone and ozone-derived SOA.

Fadeyi, M. O.; Weschler, C. J.; Tham, K. W.

333

Modeling non-volcanic tremor, slow slip events and large earthquakes in the Guerrero1 subduction zone (Mexico) with space-variable frictional weakening and creep2  

E-print Network

1 Modeling non-volcanic tremor, slow slip events and large earthquakes in the Guerrero1 subduction to key observed22 features of Non Volcanic Tremor (NVT) in relation to Slow Slip Events (SSE) and23 Slip Events (SSE) and Non Volcanic tremor (NVT) are transient phenomena that43 have been observed

Ben-Zion, Yehuda

334

Large Earthquake Hazard of the San Jacinto Fault Zone, CA, from Long Record of Simulated Seismicity Assimilating the Available Instrumental and Paleoseismic Data  

E-print Network

. Because the last paleo-earthquake occurred about 200 years ago, the next large event is likely overdue. 1 record, consistent with paleo- earthquakes documented at sites along the SJFZ for the last 1,400 years.6 event on 9 April 1968 on the Coyote Creek segment. Other historic earthquakes dating back to the nine

Ben-Zion, Yehuda

335

Performance of the prototype gas recirculation system with built-in RGA for INO RPC system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An open loop gas recovery and recirculation system has been developed for the INO RPC system. The gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passing through molecular sieve (3 Å+4 Å). Subsequent scrubbing over basic active alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants. The Isobutane and Freon are then separated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling up to -26C. A Residual Gas Analyser (RGA) is being used in the loop to study the performance of the recirculation system. The results of the RGA analysis will be discussed.

Bhuyan, M.; Datar, V. M.; Joshi, A.; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Rahman, M. A.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.

2012-01-01

336

Foam fractionation efficiency in particulate matter and heterotrophic bacteria removal from a recirculating seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), particulate matter and bacterial communities management are required to maintain water quality. Foam fractionation is a water treatment technology that can be easily applied to water reuse systems to remove bacteria and suspended solids. This study investigated the efficiency of foam fractionation in removing particulate matter and heterotrophic bacteria in a closed recirculating seabass (Dicentrarchus.

Fabio Brambilla; Micaela Antonini; Pietro Ceccuzzi; Genciana Terova; Marco Saroglia

2008-01-01

337

Development and design of a fluidized bed/upflow sand filter configuration for use in recirculating aquaculture systems  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized bed/upflow sand filter configuration, was developed and designed for utilization in recirculating aquaculture system, specifically the soft-shell crab and soft-shell crawfish industries. These filters were selected and designed because of their ability to withstand clogging and still maintain high levels of water quality for aquaculture production. The effectiveness of sand grain size was used to evaluate fluidized bed filter performance with filter loadings ranging from 16 to 1285 pounds of crawfish per cubic foot of filter sand. A coarse sand grain size was recommended as a filter media because of it's ability to shear excessive biofilm growth from the and, thus prohibiting clogging from occurring within the filter bed. The fluidized bed/upflow sand filter combination was evaluated in terms of nitrification and oxygen consumption when used with a recirculating crab shedding system. The filter combination's carrying capacity (700 crabs per cubic foot of sand media) exceeded that observed with the submerged rock filter by more than 20 times and was largely explained by the filter's solids removal ability which significantly reduced the filter's oxygen loading rate (OLR). Nitrification rates with the filter combination were extremely high as total ammonia and nitrite levels remained below 1.0 mg-N/l. Verification of a volumetric loading criteria (150 pounds per cubic foot) for this filter combination was further established with performance data obtained from a commercial soft-shell crawfish facility. Water quality monitoring results indicated that the filters maintained total ammonia and nitrite levels below 1.0 mg-N/l under typical operating conditions. Shock loading, pH control, and over-feeding, rather than filter capacity, dominated water quality fluctuations, thereby indicating that the loading criteria was sufficient for commercial operation.

Burden, D.G.

1988-01-01

338

Microbial community distribution and extracellular enzyme activities in leach bed reactor treating food waste: effect of different leachate recirculation practices.  

PubMed

This study aimed at understanding the relationship between microbial community and extracellular enzyme activities of leach bed reactor (LBR) treating food waste under different leachate recirculation practices (once per day and continuous) and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios (1:1 and 0.5:1). Microbial community analysis using PCR-DGGE revealed that Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacter sp., and Proteobacteria were the most abundant species. Number of phylotypes was higher in LBRs with intermittent recirculation; whereas, lower number of phylotypes dominated by the key players of degradation was observed with continuous recirculation. The L/S ratio of 1:1 significantly enhanced the volatile solids removal compared with 0.5:1; however, this effect was insignificant under once a day leachate recirculation. Continuous leachate recirculation with 1:1 L/S ratio significantly improved the organic leaching (240 g COD/kgvolatile solid) and showed distinct extracellular enzyme activities suitable for food waste acidogenesis. PMID:24972915

Xu, Su Yun; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

2014-09-01

339

Effectiveness of Low Emission Zones: Large Scale Analysis of Changes in Environmental NO2, NO and NOx Concentrations in 17 German Cities  

PubMed Central

Background Low Emission Zones (LEZs) are areas where the most polluting vehicles are restricted from entering. The effectiveness of LEZs to lower ambient exposures is under debate. This study focused on LEZs that restricted cars of Euro 1 standard without appropriate retrofitting systems from entering and estimated LEZ effects on NO2, NO, and NOx (?=?NO2+NO). Methods Continuous half-hour and diffuse sampler 4-week average NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations measured inside and outside LEZs in 17 German cities of 6 federal states (2005–2009) were analysed as matched quadruplets (two pairs of simultaneously measured index values inside LEZ and reference values outside LEZ, one pair measured before and one after introducing LEZs with time differences that equal multiples of 364 days) by multiple linear and log-linear fixed-effects regression modelling (covariables: e.g., wind velocity, amount of precipitation, height of inversion base, school holidays, truck-free periods). Additionally, the continuous half-hour data was collapsed into 4-week averages and pooled with the diffuse sampler data to perform joint analysis. Results More than 3,000,000 quadruplets of continuous measurements (half-hour averages) were identified at 38 index and 45 reference stations. Pooling with diffuse sampler data from 15 index and 10 reference stations lead to more than 4,000 quadruplets for joint analyses of 4-week averages. Mean LEZ effects on NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations (reductions) were estimated to be at most ?2 µg/m3 (or ?4%). The 4-week averages of NO2 concentrations at index stations after LEZ introduction were 55 µg/m3 (median and mean values) or 82 µg/m3 (95th percentile). Conclusions This is the first study investigating comprehensively the effectiveness of LEZs to reduce NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations controlling for most relevant potential confounders. Our analyses indicate that there is a statistically significant, but rather small reduction of NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations associated with LEZs. PMID:25115911

Morfeld, Peter; Groneberg, David A.; Spallek, Michael F.

2014-01-01

340

A five-year study of coastal recirculation and its effect on air pollutants over the East Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have shown that air pollutants concentrations in coastal cities may be gravely affected by coastal recirculation. In this study an attempt is made to examine the properties of coastal recirculation over a long period (5 yrs) at multiple sites along the East Mediterranean Sea (EMS). For this purpose, a single station quantitative measure of horizontal recirculation is used based on wind field measurements over periods of 1-96 hrs. The horizontal recirculation is examined with respect to the integration time period, synoptic flow, seasonality, coastline variations, elevation, and air pollutants concentrations. The interaction between synoptic and mesoscales is shown to be a governing factor by allowing or overruling the land sea breeze winds. Favorite conditions for coastal recirculation are shown to be light or variable winds such as under a Cole or a High-Pressure system. The monthly distribution of the recirculation potential has a bimodal behavior with two peaks during the transitional seasons and October in particular. This is as a result of the annual cycle of night-time land-sea temperature difference driving the land breeze and the more frequent passage of synoptic scale flows with an easterly wind component at the EMS. Two factors leading to variations along the coastline are the urban heat island, weakening the breeze winds and reducing recirculation potential, and the concaved shape of the southern shoreline that causes a convergence and strengthening of the land breeze, thus supporting recirculation. The primary pollutants NOx and SO2 have the highest concentrations during weak daily mean wind speeds. O3 levels depict an almost opposite image of NOx, with higher values for both high and low recirculation, possibly resulting from either long range transport or coastal recirculation.

Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Mahrer, Yitzhak

2008-08-01

341

SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES  

SciTech Connect

The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus the baseline and finding the ratio between the injected NO amounts. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity and engine operating points affected the NOx decomposition rates of the natural gas engine. A highest NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine. A separate exploratory tests conducted with a gasoline engine with a low air/fuel ratio yielded results that suggested, that high NOx decomposition rates may be possible if a normally lean burn engine were operated at conditions closer to stoichiometric, with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a brief period of time during the NOx decomposition phase and with a wider range of air/fuel ratios. Chemical kinetic model predictions using CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with the established rate and equilibrium models. NOx decomposition rates from 35% to 42% were estimated using the CHEMKIN software. This provided insight on how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for a large bore engine. In the future, the modeling will be used to examine the effect of higher NO{sub 2}/NO ratios that are associated with lower speed and larger bore lean burn operation.

Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

2005-01-01

342

Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

Rue, David

2013-09-30

343

Kink zone localization, structurally-controlled instability, and large-scale rock slope failure at the Mt. Gorsa porphyry quarry (Trentino, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock slope failure is controlled by rock mass strength and anisotropy, and by slope-scale persistent fractures with different spacing, eventually resulting in complex mechanisms as large-scale flexural toppling, block toppling, and kink band slumping. Despite these mechanisms have been studied, their interplay in large rock slope failure is often difficult to ascertain in complex geological settings. We studied the 250 m high porphyry quarry slopes of Mt. Gorsa (Trentino, Italy). Two slopes facing to N and E are carved in Permian rhyolithic ignimbrites, providing spectacular exposures of the inherited geological structure. Despite the strong intact rock, rock mass has a complex structure due to the occurrence of thermal cooling joints, persistent tectonic fractures, and joint sets. Evidence of ongoing displacement of the northern quarry face in 2003 motivated geotechnical and geophysical site investigation, and the initiation of displacement monitoring activities. GB-InSAR measurements using a LiSALab system captured large-scale slope dilation involving 400.000 m3. Further GB-InSAR measurements have been carried out since 2010. In order to understand the mechanisms governing large-scale deformation and failure of the northern slope, we carried out a comprehensive field and modelling study exploiting terrestrial photo mapping, field structural analysis and discontinuity surveys at different locations. On the northern face, 190 Geological Strength Index (GSI) surveys along benches, DEM structural analysis (COLTOP3D), and analysis of GB-InSAR data were carried out, and relationships among rock mass quality, 2003 landslide extent, and measured displacements established. Data show that slope instability is locally constrained by close and persistent cooling joints steeply dipping to the south (K1), persistent fault surfaces moderately dipping to the NNW (K2), and joint sets steeply dipping to NE and WNW (K3 and K4). NNW-dipping, top-to-N kink bands up to 2m wide also occur at depth and are exposed on the eastern slope. Close to the northern quarry face, structurally-controlled instabilities (sliding, flexural toppling, block toppling) occur inside individual kinematic domains ranging from tens to thousands cubic meters, leading to significant rock mass degradation (GSI < 35-40) and to disintegrated and weathered rock masses in areas undergoing largest displacements. We investigated the links between local structurally-controlled failure and large-scale rock slope failure using different Finite-Element modelling approaches implemented in the softwares Phase2 v.8 (Rocscience Inc.) and ELFEN (Rockfield Inc.). Performed modelling tasks include: continuum models (Phase, ELFEN), continuum-based jointed rock models (Phase), and hybrid continuum-discrete models (ELFEN). A continuum-based SSR (Shear Strength reduction) back-analysis of the 2003 instability, calibrated on landslide geometry and GB-InSAR displacements, shows that reduced rock mass properties (GSI < 35-40) observed where local-scale structurally-controlled instability occurs, were a pre-requisite for the 2003 global slope instability. Jointed rock and hybrid models suggest that slope excavation results in shear strain localisation along inherited fault surfaces and newly-formed kink bands at different depths. At depths less than some tens of meters, these interact with K1 resulting in step-path failure surfaces, sliding and toppling. Globally, these processes result in dilation and rock mass damage, which in turn promote the required conditions for global slope failure.

Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.; Meloni, F.; Valle, C.; Rivolta, C.; Leva, D.

2012-04-01

344

Geosmin causes off-flavour in arctic charr in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The “earthy” and “muddy” off-flavors in pond-reared fish are due to the presence of geosmin or 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in the flesh of the fish. Similar off-flavors have been reported in fish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS); however, little information is available regarding the ...

345

Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx

Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

2005-01-01

346

Systems engineering for ornamental fish production in a recirculating aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to develop a simulation model for determining the optimal layout and management regime for ornamental fish recirculating aquaculture system (ORAS). The work plan involved: (1) quantifying the effects of fish growth rates, the nature of the products, and the management practices; (2) developing a mathematical simulation model of the ORAS, taking into account all factors that directly

Ilan Halachmi

2006-01-01

347

Quantification of anammox activity in a denitrification reactor for a recirculating aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of anammox bacteria in a denitrification reactor in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for gilthead seabream production was investigated. Organic matter, extracted from the pond's solid filter, was used as the electron donor and carbon source for the denitrification reaction. The reactor was operated at four solid retention times (SRT). At steady state, anammox activity showed similar activity

Ori Lahav; Iris Bar Massada; Dimitry Yackoubov; Ruth Zelikson; Noam Mozes; Yossi Tal; Sheldon Tarre

2009-01-01

348

Removal efficiency and balance of nitrogen in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrogen (N) balance for aquaculture is an important aspect, especially in China, and it is attributed to the eutrophication in many freshwater bodies. In recent years, constructed wetlands (CWs) have been widely used in wastewater treatment and ecosystem restoration. A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) consisting of CWs and 4 fish ponds was set up in Wuhan, China. Channel catfish

Fei Zhong; Wei Liang; Tao Yu; Shui P. Cheng; Feng He; Zhen B. Wu

2011-01-01

349

New developments in recirculating aquaculture systems in Europe: A perspective on environmental sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dual objective of sustainable aquaculture, i.e., to produce food while sustaining natural resources is achieved only when production systems with a minimum ecological impact are used. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) provide opportunities to reduce water usage and to improve waste management and nutrient recycling. RAS makes intensive fish production compatible with environmental sustainability. This review aims to summarize the

C. I. M. Martins; E. H. Eding; M. C. J. Verdegem; L. T. N. Heinsbroek; O. Schneider; J. P. Blancheton; E. Roque d’Orbcastel; J. A. J. Verreth

2010-01-01

350

A conceptual, stoichiometry-based model for single-sludge denitrification in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the near future, the discharge of nitrate from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) to receiving water bodies is expected to be constrained by environmental regulations. Following wastewater treatment terminology, nitrate removal that makes use of the organic solid wastes generated within the RAS as the energy source for denitrification, may be termed ‘single-sludge denitrification’. In this approach, the costs associated

Sivan Klas; Noam Mozes; Ori Lahav

2006-01-01

351

A design study on the optimal water refreshment rate in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refreshment (make-up) water is used in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) mainly to purge off-flavors, to add alkalinity and sometimes for temperature control. Alternatively, alkalinity may be added by means of a chemical base and heat may be supplied by a heating system. The objective of this study is to show how the optimal (minimizing cost) mix of the three controls:

Ido Seginer; Noam Mozes; Ori Lahav

2008-01-01

352

Part-day ozonation for nitrogen and organic carbon control in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on ozone application in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) gives guidelines as to the daily ozone dose as a function of feed rates, but does not indicate whether the ozone should be added continuously throughout the day or in shorter, more intense doses. This study examined the effect of adding the same total amount of ozone (15 g ozone

Valdis Krumins; James Ebeling; Fred Wheaton

2001-01-01

353

A novel computer simulation model for design and management of re-circulating aquaculture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop a simulation model for finding the optimal layout and management regime for a re-circulating aquaculture system (RAS). The work plan involved: (1) quantifying the effects of fish growth and management practices on production; (2) developing a mathematical simulation model for the RAS, taking into account all factors that directly influence system profitability;

Ilan Halachmi; Yitzchak Simon; Rami Guetta; Eric M. Hallerman

2005-01-01

354

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? CULTIVATION OF BABYLONIA SNAIL LARVAE USING CLOSED RECIRCULATING SEAWATER SYSTEM WITH SEMI-CONTINUOUS ALGAL PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

With this study, veliger larvae of Babylonia snail (marine gastropod) were reared in the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) in comparison with control tank with water exchange. The RAS consisted of five components including (1) algal photobioreactor, (2) Babylonia larviculture tank, (3) fluidizing biofilter tank, (4) sedimentation tank, and (5) algal medium preparation tank. Liquid culture of the microalga (Isochrysis galbana)

Yuwadee Aunthasoot; Chansawang Ngamphongsai; Seri Donnua; Sorawit Powtongsook; Ninnaj Chaitanawisuti; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul

355

Evaluation of nitrifying bacteria product to improve nitrification efficacy in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) rely on nitrification to convert toxic ammonia and nitrite to less toxic nitrate. Nitrification is accomplished using biofilters with nitrifying bacteria and can be inefficient in biofilters that are new or that have been compromised due to stressors. Failure in a biofilter can result in very high levels of ammonia or nitrite, both of which are

David D. Kuhn; David D. Drahos; Lori Marsh; George J. Flick Jr.

2010-01-01

356

Growth and survival of larval and juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum in a recirculating raceway system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobia Rachycentron canadum is a fast-growing, pelagic marine species that has recently attracted aquaculturists in both the research and commercial sectors. The typical method of grow-out for this species is in outdoor systems where production is limited to locations and seasons conducive for adequate growth and survival. Expanding the culture of cobia to indoor recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) would allow

Cynthia K. Faulk; Jeffrey B. Kaiser; G. Joan Holt

2007-01-01

357

Process requirements for achieving full-flow disinfection of recirculating water using ozonation and UV irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous water disinfection process can be used to prevent the introduction and accumulation of obligate and opportunistic fish pathogens in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), especially during a disease outbreak when the causative agent would otherwise proliferate within the system. To proactively prevent the accumulation of fish pathogens, ozonation and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation processes have been used separately or in

Steven T. Summerfelt; Mark J. Sharrer; Scott M. Tsukuda; Michael Gearheart

2009-01-01

358

Membrane Filtration Coupled with Chemical Precipitation to Treat Recirculating Aquaculture System Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contain high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous wastes and thus of- ten require proper treatment to prevent potential detrimental impacts on receiving water bodies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of membrane filtration coupled with chemical precip- itation as a pretreatment step with emphasis on phosphorus removal from RAS effluents.

Ling Yang; Hongde Zhou; Richard Moccia

2006-01-01

359

The development of a TESLA recirculator with superconducting accelerating structures in Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recirculator project, which is to be built at the National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (NSC KIPT), is presented. The basic solutions incorporated in the design are given. The TESLA superconducting section is chosen as the accelerating structure of an accelerating complex.

Guk, I. S.; Dovbnya, A. N.

2008-12-01

360

Low-head recirculating aquaculture system for juvenile red drum production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Agricultural Research Service and the Center for Aquaculture and Stock Enhancement at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute-FAU (HBOI-FAU) are collaborating to evaluate low-head recirculating aquaculture system designs to intensively produce red drum juveniles as part of the Florida Fish an...

361

Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells in a micro  

E-print Network

-oxide fuel cells systems are ideally suited to operate on hydrocarbons, directly converting fuelOriginal Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells January 2014 Revised 23 July 2014 Accepted 5 August 2014 Keywords: SOFC Steam reforming Fuel processing

Nielsen, Mads Pagh

362

PERFORMANCE OF A ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTRACTOR IN TILAPIA RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper describes the performance characteristics of an industrial-scale air-driven rotating biological contactor (RBC) installed in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) rearing tilapia at 28 oC. This 3-staged RBC system was configured with stages 1 and 2 possessing approximately the same to...

363

The Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation gyres Steven R. Jayne a,, Nelson G. Hogg b  

E-print Network

Current meter Inverted echo sounders Floats a b s t r a c t This paper reports on the strength echo sounders, and subsurface floats. The position and strength of the recirculation gyres simulated an array of inverted echo sounders and a high-resolution ocean general circulation model are of similar

Qiu, Bo

364

JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS 26, 197-217 (1978) The Calculation of Turbulent Recirculating Flows  

E-print Network

is more suited to the calculation of the flow in gas-turbine com- bustion chambers of varying radiusJOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS 26, 197-217 (1978) The Calculation of Turbulent Recirculating Flows in General Orthogonal Coordinates s. B. POPE' Imperial College of Science and Technology

365

Growth and survival of juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum, at different salinities in a recirculating aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is an emerging aquaculture candidate for both offshore cage culture and land-based systems such as recirculating aquaculture systems. The ability to grow cobia at salinities other than oceanic (?34 ppt) could present culturists with additional production opportunities with this species. Culture at low salinities could also reduce the incidence of disease and simplify water management. In two

Matthew J. Resley; Kenneth A. Webb; G. Joan Holt

2006-01-01

366

Flow, aeration, and carbon dioxide transfer rates for airlifts used in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Airlift pumping systems reduce the electrical costs of moving water in a recirculating aquaculture system and can be concurrently designed to aerate water and remove carbon dioxide. This study determined the water flow, oxygen transfer, and CO2 removal rates for water using airlift technology in a 1...

367

The potential for integrated biological treatment systems in recirculating fish culture-A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive aquaculture in recirculating systems is rapidly developing, and with it arises the need for reliable treatment systems. To enable reuse of water in these systems, biological treatment is considered the most economically feasible approach. In this review the advantages and disadvan- tages of some of the most commonly used biological treatment systems are examined. Using as a comparator the

Jaap van Rijn

368

Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b...

369

Photocatalytic reactors for treating water pollution with solar illumination. III: a simplified analysis for recirculating reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar photoreactor operated in the batch, recirculating mode is analyzed in terms of very simple observable variables such as the impinging photon flux, the incident area, the initial concentration, the flow rate, the reactor volume and a property defined as the Observed Photonic Efficiency. The proposed equipment is made of a tubular reactor, a tank, a pump and the

Gerd Sagawe; Rodolfo J. Brandi; Detlef Bahnemann; Alberto E. Cassano

2004-01-01

370

Method and apparatus for exhaust gas recirculation via reverse flow motoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described which is adapted for use with an engine for exhaust gas recirculation, the engine including a plurality of combustion chambers, an intake port and an exhaust port for each combustion chamber, and a piston being reciprocally movable in each of the combustion chambers between a top dead center position and a bottom dead center position forming

J. M. Clarke; J. J. Faletti

1993-01-01

371

Design and Evaluation of Recirculating Water Systems for Maintenance and Propagation of Freshwater Mussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete system for culturing, rearing, and holding juvenile and adult freshwater mussels (Unionidae) was designed and evaluated for use at hatcheries and research facilities. The system includes air delivery, water conditioning and delivery, algal culturing and automated algal feed delivery, and air-driven water-recirculating units. These systems are appropriate for holding and conditioning adult mussels for spawning, as well as

William F. Henley; Lora L. Zimmerman; Richard J. Neves; Mark R. Kidd

2001-01-01

372

RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM FOR MARINE FINFISH RESEARCH AT HARBOR BRANCH OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS,) for both commercial and experimental uses, has been under development in many parts of the world in response to several driving forces. With regards to sites for coastal aquaculture, the scarcity of affordable land has driven aquaculture endeavors for marine ...

373

Moist Recirculation and Water Vapor Transport on Dry Isentropes* FRE DE RIC LALIBERTE  

E-print Network

Moist Recirculation and Water Vapor Transport on Dry Isentropes* FRE´ DE´ RIC LALIBERTE´ Department in dry isentropic coordinates using reanalysis data is presented. The meridional mass fluxes on surfaces ascend on the equatorward side of storm tracks by following moist isentropes reminiscent of upright deep

Pauluis, Olivier M.

374

Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver  

DOEpatents

A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

Kolb, Gregory J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-02-07

375

Low-dose hydrogen peroxide application in closed recirculating aquaculture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of the present work was to simulate water treatment practice with hydrogen peroxide (HP) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Six identical 1700 L pilot scale RAS were divided into two experimental groups based on daily feed allocation and were operated under constant conditions durin...

376

Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

E-print Network

Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation an adaptive observer for in-cylinder air charge estimation for turbocharged diesel engines without exhaust gas (734) 764-4256 1 #12;Storset et al.- Adaptive Air Charge Est. for TC Diesel Engines 2 1 Introduction

Stefanopoulou, Anna

377

Observations on side-swimming rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in water recirculation aquaculture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During a controlled 6-month study using six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS), it was observed that rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in all WRAS exhibited a higher-than-normal prevalence of side-swimming (i.e. controlled, forward swimming, but with misaligned orientation suc...

378

Electron recirculation in electrostatic multicusp systems: II. System performance scaling of one-dimensional rollover wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper a comprehensive study was made of the recirculation and losses of electrons in their flow through simple inverse power-law potential wells bounded by similarly inverse power-law dependent magnetic fields. This study examined electron flow and loss behavior in the simplest approximation invoked to describe Polywell confinement systems. The importance of this study, and of the present

R. W. Bussard; K. E. King

1992-01-01

379

Practical delay modeling of externally recirculated burned gas fraction for Spark-Ignited Engines  

E-print Network

Practical delay modeling of externally recirculated burned gas fraction for Spark-Ignited Engines D in spark-ignited engines and shows, at the light of supportive experimental results, that a linear delay appearing at high load in downsized Spark-Ignited engines, one of the solutions considered in the automotive

380

Researchers evaluate low-energy recirculating system for inland production of marine finfish juveniles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The low-energy recirculating aquaculture system consists of nine separate modules which utilize the double drain fish culture tank paired to a moving bed biofilter. The nine fiberglass tanks are five feet in diameter and normal water depth is about three feet for a total tank volume of approximately...

381

Improvement of anaerobic digester performance by wastewater recirculation through an aerated membrane.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Swine wastewater from an anaerobic digester was recirculated through a silicone hose located in an external aeration chamber to determine its effect on wastewater malodorants and biogas composition. The silicone hose acted as a semipermeable membrane for the passage of small molecules. In the first...

382

Achromatic recirculated chicane with fixed geometry and independently variable path length and momentum compaction  

DOEpatents

A particle beam recirculated chicane geometry that, through the inducement of a pair of 180 degree bends directed by the poles of a pair of controllable magnetic fields allows for variation of dipole position, return loop radii and steering/focussing, thereby allowing the implementation of independent variation of path length and momentum compaction.

Douglas, David R.; Neil, George R.

2005-04-26

383

Performance of two-stage vegetable waste anaerobic digestion depending on varying recirculation rates.  

PubMed

Vegetable waste, which characterized by high moisture content, was evaluated as a substrate for biogas production. The effects of recirculation rate (RR) on the performance of two-stage anaerobic digestion were investigated. The system was operated at an organic loading rate of 1.7 g VS/L/d with varying RRs (0, 0.6, 1, and 1.4). Results demonstrated that volumetric biogas production rates in acidogenic reactor increased from approximately 0.2 7 L/L/d to 0.97 L/L/d, when pH is increased from approximately 5.1 to 6.7. These indicate that recirculation of alkaline effluent from the methanogenic reactor helps create a favorable condition for biogas production in the acidogenic reactor. The decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations from approximately 21,000 mg/L to 6800 mg/L was also observed in the acidogenic reactor. This condition may be attributed to dilution under recirculation. The dynamics between hydrolysis and methanogenesis under recirculation indicated that mass transfer capacity between two-stage reactors improved. PMID:24759642

Zuo, Zhuang; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Wanqin; Dong, Renjie

2014-06-01

384

Analysis of non-adiabatic heat-recirculating combustors Paul D. Ronney  

E-print Network

empirically specified minimum reaction temperatures and prescribed heat losses. Despite its simplicity, two decreases, thus a higher reaction rate and consequently higher reaction temperature aAnalysis of non-adiabatic heat-recirculating combustors Paul D. Ronney Department of Aerospace

385

Nutrient removal from aquaculture wastewater by vegetable production in aquaponics recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient removal is essential for aquaculture wastewater treatment to protect receiving water from eutrophication and for potential reuse of the treated water. The integration of aquaculture with agriculture appears to be an excellent way of saving water, disposing aquaculture wastewater and providing fertilizer to the agricultural crop. The study was conducted to evaluate aquaponics recirculation system (ARS) performance in removing

A. Enduta; A. Jusoh; N. Ali; W. B. Wan Nik

2011-01-01

386

A study on the optimal hydraulic loading rate and plant ratios in recirculation aquaponic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growths of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were evaluated in recirculation aquaponic system (RAS). Fish production performance, plant growth and nutrient removal were measured and their dependence on hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was assessed. Fish production did not differ significantly between hydraulic loading rates. In contrast to the fish production, the water spinach yield

Azizah Endut; A. Jusoh; N. Ali; W. B. Wan Nik; A. Hassan

2010-01-01

387

Single-station integral measures of atmospheric stagnation, recirculation and ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical definitions of integral quantities used to characterize the stagnation, recirculation and ventilation potential of various airsheds are proposed. These integral quantities can be calculated from wind data collected at fixed time intervals and at fixed heights in the atmosphere, and could be calculated, for example, from data from ground-based remote wind profilers. These integral quantities, since they are calculated from data at single stations, provide useful characterizations of the flow at individual measurement points, but are true measures of the transport of a plume only under idealized homogenous wind conditions. The utility of these single-station measures for characterizing the air pollution transport potential of an airshed is illustrated using three months of hourly surface and radar profiler measurements of horizontal wind speed and direction collected at three locations in the Colorado Plateaus Basin region of Arizona during the winter of 1990. A surface station at Bullfrog Basin, located on a sheltered basin floor and exposed to diurnal wind systems, experienced stagnations 62% of the time, recirculations 34% of the time, and ventilations 8% of the time. A surface station at Desert View, located on the south rim of the Grand Canyon and exposed to synoptic-scale wind systems, experienced stagnations 8% of the time, recirculations 4% of the time, and ventilations 35% of the time. A radar profiler station at Page, Arizona, experienced stagnations about 20% of the time and recirculations about 25% of the time during the winter at heights below ˜ 400 m a.g.l.; above this height, to levels near 1100 m a.g.l. (the approximate height of surrounding plateaus), the frequency of stagnations and recirculations dropped rapidly, and the frequency of ventilations ranged from 40 to 70%.

Allwine, K. Jerry; Whiteman, C. David

388

Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintentance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessonslearned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

2014-01-01

389

Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

2014-01-01

390

Dynamics of the large-scale open solar magnetic field and its specific features in the zone of the main active longitudes in 2006-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the absolute global values (?) of the large-scale open solar magnetic field (LOSMF) fluxes at an interval of one solar rotation in 2006-2012 has been studied based on the Wilcox Solar Observatory data and using the ISOPAK original package for modeling the solar magnetic field. The reference points and the duration of the final quasi-biennial interval in cycle 23 (January 2006-May 2007; 17 months) and the phases of the cycle 24 minimum (May 2007-November 2009; 30 months), growth (November 2009-May 2012; 30 months), and the beginning of the maximum (May 2012-January 2013) have been determined. It has been indicated that the absolute values (?) decreased sharply at the beginning of the minimum, growth, and the maximum phases to ˜(2, 1.25, 0.75) × 1022 Mx, respectively. During the entire minimum phase, LOSMF corotated super-quasi-rigidly westward in the direction of solar rotation; at the beginning of the growth phase, this field started corotating mostly eastward. The LOSMF polarity reversal in the current cycle 24 started in May-June 2012 (CR 2123-2124), when fields of southern polarity rushed from the Sun's southern hemisphere toward the north. The statement that the solar cycle is a continuous series of quasi-biennial LOSMF intervals is confirmed. In particular, the minimum and growth phases are characterized by opposite LOSMF rotation directions, i.e., super-quasi-rigid corotation (twisting) and detwisting, with identical duration at least in cycle 24.

Ivanov, K. G.; Kharshiladze, A. F.

2013-11-01

391

Reconstruction of the Zone of Avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncovering of the large-scale structure that is hidden in the Zone of Avoidance is essential to our quest for the understanding of the dynamics of the nearby universe. Dedicated and sophisticated observations of the Zone of Avoidance have to be matched by equally sophisticated theoretical tools for the reconstruction of the large-scale structure from sparse, noisy and very incomplete

Yehuda Hoffman

2000-01-01

392

The Spontaneous Formation of a Space-Filling Lattice of Large-Amplitude Vortices throughout the "Dead Zone" of a Protoplanetary Disk and the Role of the Lattice in Star and Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annular region of a protoplanetary disk, approximately 5 - 12 AU from the protostar and within 1 or 2 pressure scale heights of the mid-plane, has too low a temperature to significantly ionize hydrogen gas and therefore to destabilize the near-Keplerian flow via the magneto-hydrodynamic instability (MRI). Because it is assumed that Keplerian flow is linearly stable and that no hydrodynamic features can arise spontaneously within this region and thereby aid in star formation by transporting angular momentum and energy radially, this region is known as the "dead zone". Here we show that the pronouncement of this region as "dead" is premature (to paraphrase Mark Twain). Baroclinic critical layers can occur in rotating, vertically-stratified, uni-directional shear flows such as that in a protoplanetary disk. They are special cases of neutrally stable eigenmodes. Baroclinic critical layers have logarithmic singularities in density and vertical velocity. They differ from barotropic critical layers associated with Kelvin's cats-eyes in constant-density, unidirectional shear flows, which form at locations where the shear flow velocity matches the eigenmode's phase speed and have singularities only in stream-wise velocities. Baroclinic critical layers are easily excited with no special tuning of parameters by perturbations from vortices or waves. Unlike barotropic critical layers the amplitudes of baroclinic layers become large by drawing energy from the background shear. In the case of protoplanetary disk, energy is extracted from the huge reservoir of kinetic energy in the near-Keplerian shear. The large vertical velocities in the critical layers, coupled with the Coriolis parameter create large-amplitude vortex layers. These layers often roll-up into large coherent vortices. The baroclinic critical layers' growth and roll-up are robust: they form in cylindrical and Cartesian geometries, in Boussinesq fluids and ideal gases, and in flows with uniform and non-uniform shear and vertical stratification. However, they do not form in numerical calculations with insufficient spatial resolution or large grid dissipation. For flows with uniform or nearly-uniform horizontal shear and for some profiles of Brunt-Vaisala frequency, the process of excitation, critical layer growth, roll-up and vortex creation can self-similarly self-replicate so that the entire 3D computational domain fills with a spatially periodic lattice of large-amplitude vortices. This self-replication occurs in flows that are linearly stable, and in particular, in near-Keplerian protoplanetary disks that are convectively and centrifugally linearly stable. Thus, a small, but finite-amplitude perturbation in the form of a wave or vortex fills the entire dead zone of the protoplanetary disk with large-amplitude coherent structures. This phenomenon was serendipitously discovered in calculations of protoplanetary disks and independently in calculations of planetary vortices in zonal flows, but the spontaneous formation of a vortex lattice also occurs in large Reynolds number laboratory flows such as circular and plane Couette flows.

Marcus, P. S.; Jiang, C.; Pei, S.; Hassanzadeh, P.

2012-12-01

393

LES of Recirculation and Vortex Breakdown in Swirling Flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study large eddy simulation (LES) technique has been applied to predict a selected swirling flame from the Sydney swirl burner experiments. The selected flame is known as the SM1 flame operated with fuel CH 4 at a swirl number of 0.5. In the numerical method used, the governing equations for continuity, momentum and mixture fraction are solved on

W. Malalasekera; K. K. J. Ranga-Dinesh; S. S. Ibrahim; A. R. Masri

2008-01-01

394

Effects of non-uniform root zone salinity on water use, Na+ recirculation, and Na+ and H+ flux in cotton  

PubMed Central

A new split-root system was established through grafting to study cotton response to non-uniform salinity. Each root half was treated with either uniform (100/100?mM) or non-uniform NaCl concentrations (0/200 and 50/150?mM). In contrast to uniform control, non-uniform salinity treatment improved plant growth and water use, with more water absorbed from the non- and low salinity side. Non-uniform treatments decreased Na+ concentrations in leaves. The [Na+] in the ‘0’ side roots of the 0/200 treatment was significantly higher than that in either side of the 0/0 control, but greatly decreased when the ‘0’ side phloem was girdled, suggesting that the increased [Na+] in the ‘0’ side roots was possibly due to transportation of foliar Na+ to roots through phloem. Plants under non-uniform salinity extruded more Na+ from the root than those under uniform salinity. Root Na+ efflux in the low salinity side was greatly enhanced by the higher salinity side. NaCl-induced Na+ efflux and H+ influx were inhibited by amiloride and sodium orthovanadate, suggesting that root Na+ extrusion was probably due to active Na+/H+ antiport across the plasma membrane. Improved plant growth under non-uniform salinity was thus attributed to increased water use, reduced leaf Na+ concentration, transport of excessive foliar Na+ to the low salinity side, and enhanced Na+ efflux from the low salinity root. PMID:22200663

Kong, Xiangqiang; Luo, Zhen; Dong, Hezhong; Eneji, A. Egrinya

2012-01-01

395

Fluid Image Velocimetry of the Flow in the Recirculation Zone of a Bluff Body Stabilized and Controlled Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion instabilities have been encountered in almost all of the propulsion system development programs. In typical liquid fueled combustors, the most dangerous oscillations are at the frequency of 80-500 Hz. This low-frequency \\

B. Golovanevsky; Y. Levy

396

Quantitative analysis of seabed mixing and intertidal zone discharge in coastal aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminant loading from an inland source zone to the nearshore marine environment is examined using a saturated-unsaturated simulation model which incorporates both the influence of the growth and the extinction of the seepage face in the intertidal zone and the inclusion of hydromechanical stress coupling due to tidal loading. The system analyzed represents a site where an unconfined aquifer extends offshore with a broad intertidal zone. The volumetric discharge of groundwater in the intertidal zone dominates the discharge occurring beyond the low-tide line. For most of the cases examined, within the intertidal zone, the recirculated saline component of the discharge is greater than the freshwater component. The majority of the contaminant mass exits through the seepage face located above the instantaneous tide line. The peak contaminant loading rate occurs around the time of the falling midtide. At low tide, the contaminant loading rate is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than the peak rates, even though groundwater discharge rates are highest as low tide is approached. Sensitivity studies indicate that the relative proportion of recirculated intertidal zone discharge to fresh intertidal zone discharge is most sensitive to the magnitude of the freshwater flux, the spatial variation of the outflow across the intertidal zone as influenced by anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, and tidal pumping as influenced by specific storage. Dilution of contaminant concentrations due to mixing with seawater beneath the sediment-water interface is represented in terms of a dilution factor, defined relative to the onshore source concentration. For our base case, the dilution factor for the contaminant concentration averaged over one tidal cycle at the high-tide, midtide, and low-tide lines was 1.3, 3.9, and 560, respectively. The key factors determining contaminant dilution at the sediment interface are location within the intertidal zone and the vertical extent of the contaminant plume as it enters the intertidal zone.

Maji, Roudrajit; Smith, Leslie

2009-11-01

397

Temperate Oceans: Light Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides an overview of the three zones into which the ocean can be divided based on the amount of light recieved: the sunlit (or euphotic) zone, the twilight (or disphotic) zone, and the midnight (or aphotic) zone. The descriptions are accompanied by diagrams and a brief listing of the organisms that live in each zone.

398

Identification and origin of plant pathogenic microorganisms in recirculating nutrient solutions.  

PubMed

Avoidance of root-infecting microorganisms was originally considered one of the advantages of cultivation of crops in a soilless, recirculating nutrient solution. However, to date, four viral, three bacterial and 21 fungal pathogens have been identified as causal agents of root disease in hydroponically-grown crops. Root-infecting fungi, particularly those which produce a motile stage known as a zoospore, have been the primary pathogens associated with extensive crop losses. Documented sources of these root pathogens in hydroponic systems include peat, surface water such as rivers and streams, and insects. The severity of disease caused by these introduced root pathogens is primarily governed by the genetic susceptibility of each crop and the temperature of the recirculating nutrient solution. PMID:11540205

Stanghellini, M E; Rasmussen, S L

1994-11-01

399

Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

Gordils-Striker, Nilda E.; Colon, Guillermo

2003-01-01

400

Manipulating flow separation: sensitivity of stagnation points, separatrix angles and recirculation area to steady actuation.  

PubMed

A variational technique is used to derive analytical expressions for the sensitivity of several geometric indicators of flow separation to steady actuation. Considering the boundary layer flow above a wall-mounted bump, the six following representative quantities are considered: the locations of the separation point and reattachment point connected by the separatrix, the separation angles at these stagnation points, the backflow area and the recirculation area. For each geometric quantity, linear sensitivity analysis allows us to identify regions which are the most sensitive to volume forcing and wall blowing/suction. Validations against full nonlinear Navier-Stokes calculations show excellent agreement for small-amplitude control for all considered indicators. With very resemblant sensitivity maps, the reattachment point, the backflow and recirculation areas are seen to be easily manipulated. By contrast, the upstream separation point and the separatrix angles are seen to remain extremely robust with respect to external steady actuation. PMID:25294968

Boujo, E; Gallaire, F

2014-10-01

401

Effect of enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation and gas extraction on greenhouse gas emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioreactor/ enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation with the addition of moisture/ leachate to the landfill, accelerate the process of landfill waste decomposition; and increase the generation of LFG over a shorter period of time. Since emissions from the landfills are directly related to the gas generation, the increase in gas generation might also increase the emission from the landfill. On the contrary, the presence of gas extraction is suggested to mitigate the fugitive emissions from the landfills. Therefore, the motivation of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ELR operation as well as the gas extraction on the greenhouse gas emissions from the landfill. The current study was conducted in the City of Denton Landfill, Texas. Methane emission was investigated using a portable FID and static flux chamber technique from the landfill surface. Emission was measured from an ELR operated cell (cell 2) as well as a conventional cell (cell 0) in the City of Denton Landfill. Methane emission for cell 2 varied from 9544.3 ppm to 0 ppm while for cell 0, it varied from 0 ppm to 47 ppm. High spatial variations were observed during monitoring from both cells 0 and cell 2 which could be recognized as the variation of gas generation below the cover soil. The comparison between emissions from the slope and surface of the landfill showed that more methane emission occurred from the slopes than the top surface. In addition, the average landfill emission showed an increasing trend with increase in temperature and decreasing trend with increasing precipitation. The effect of ELR operation near the recirculation pipes showed a lag period between the recirculation and the maximum emission near the pipe. The emission near the pipe decreased after 1 day of recirculation and after the initial decrease, the emission started to increase and continued to increase up to 7 days after the recirculation. However, approximately after 10 days of recirculation, the emission resumed its original state before the recirculation. It should be noted that the change in emission was only limited near the pipe. No overall change in emission was observed from the cell due to the recirculation. The comparison between the emissions from the conventional and ELR cell showed an overall higher emission from the ELR cell which could be attributed to the overall higher gas generation from the ELR cell as well. The gas extraction had a direct impact on emission, the emission dropped substantially right after the gas extraction from the landfill. However, the gas was extracted once in a month and comparison with the amount of gas extraction and emission showed that the emission decreased as the gas extraction increased. An attempt was made to incorporate the effect of ELR operation and the gas extraction in the estimating the methane emission from the landfills. Multiple linear regression (MLR) model was developed using the statistical tool SAS. The developed model was validated and the model showed an excellent agreement between the predicted emission and the measured emission from the landfills (average variation 9.6%).

Samir, Sonia

402

Hexachlorobenzene uptake by fathead minnows and macroinvertebrates in recirculating sediment/water systems.  

PubMed

Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), the worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, and the amphipods Hyalella azteca and Gammarus lacustris were exposed to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in water with and without a bed of HCB-spiked sediment. Water HCB concentrations were maintained by recirculation through HCB-packed columns. Recirculating HCB-bound particulates and possibly eroded HCB particulates were an added source of HCB in addition to the sediment bed. Significant bioaccumulation of HCB in animal tissues was observed in water-only and water-sediment exposures. The presence of the HCB-spiked sediment did not result in a significant increase in the uptake of HCB by the organisms, but there was a substantial increase in sediment HCB levels over time. Higher tissue HCB levels in aquaria without sediment suggest that the sediment was a more efficient sink for HCB than the organisms. PMID:2331142

Schuytema, G S; Krawczyk, D F; Griffis, W L; Nebeker, A V; Robideaux, M L

1990-01-01

403

Thermal characterization of an AMTEC recirculating test cell. [Alkali Metal ThermoElectric Converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) recirculating test cell has been operated in order to determine the magnitudes of the primary heat losses of the cell and the value of the emissivity of the condenser surface. The energy balance included radiation losses, conductive losses, and losses due to the flow of sodium into the cell. The radiative heat flux dominated the heat loss mechanism of the cell at open circuit, and the condenser emissivity was calculated to be about 0.1. It is shown that, if this emissivity can be reduced to 0.02, then parasitic losses in an AMTEC recirculating test cell operating near peak power would be less than 40 percent of the heat required by the cell. The condenser emissivity decreases with elapsed time, resulting in improved thermal performance of the cell.

Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Bankston, C. P.

1990-01-01

404

Hexachlorobenzene uptake by fathead minnows and macroinvertebrates in recirculating sediment/water systems  

SciTech Connect

Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), the worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, and the amphipods Hyalella azteca and Gammarus lacustris were exposed to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in water with and without a bed of HCB-spiked sediment. Water HCB concentrations were maintained by recirculation through HCB-packed columns. Recirculating HCB-bound particulates and possibly eroded HCB particulates were an added source of HCB in addition to the sediment bed. Significant bioaccumulation of HCB in animal tissues was observed in water-only and water-sediment exposures. The presence of the HCB-spiked sediment did not result in a significant increase in the uptake of HCB by the organisms, but there was a substantial increase in sediment HCB levels over time. Higher tissue HCB levels in aquaria without sediment suggest that the sediment was a more efficient sink for HCB than the organisms.

Schuytema, G.S.; Krawczyk, D.F.; Griffis, W.L.; Nebeker, A.V.; Robideaux, M.L.

1990-01-01

405

Manipulating flow separation: sensitivity of stagnation points, separatrix angles and recirculation area to steady actuation  

E-print Network

A variational technique is used to derive analytical expressions for the sensitivity of several geometric indicators of flow separation to steady actuation. Considering the boundary layer flow above a wall-mounted bump, the six following representative quantities are considered: the locations of the separation point and reattachment point connected by the separatrix, the separation angles at these stagnation points, the backflow area and the recirculation area. For each geometric quantity, linear sensitivity analysis allows us to identify regions which are the most sensitive to volume forcing and wall blowing/suction. Validations against full non-linear Navier-Stokes calculations show excellent agreement for small-amplitude control for all considered indicators. With very resemblant sensitivity maps, the reattachment point, the backflow and recirculation areas are seen to be easily manipulated. In contrast, the upstream separation point and the separatrix angles are seen to remain extremely robust with respec...

Boujo, Edouard

2014-01-01

406

Investigations into the reproductive performance and larval rearing of the Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, using closed recirculating systems  

E-print Network

The effects of unilateral eyestalk ablation, diets and sex ratios were evaluated on two wild populations of Farfantepenaeus aztecus in a closed recirculating maturation system. Ovarian development and spawning frequencies of ablated females in both...

Gandy, Ryan Leighton

2005-02-17

407

The design and construction of an open channel recirculating water tank for the study of biological hydrocarbons  

E-print Network

This project chronicles the design and construction of a small scale recirculating water tank for the purpose of studying biological hydrodynamics. Currently available systems were analyzed and studied prior to developing ...

Hennessey, Thomas V. (Thomas Vincent), III

2005-01-01

408

Design and performance characteristics of a low-head recirculating aquaculture tank system for low salinity finfish production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water treatment components of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) consist mainly of: solid removal devices, biofiltration, aeration, degassing units, and water distribution. For each component, multiple options are available and the selection is based on system volume, system hydrodynamics, fis...

409

Evaluation of submerged surface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands for recirculating tilapia production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) treating tilapia production wastewaters used a two-step process combining a simple clarifier and a submerged surface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands for suspended solids removal and removal of nitrogenous compounds. This system successfully supported a commercial scale level of production (>35kg\\/m3) for over 36 months of operation. The innovative SSF wetland design incorporated a high hydraulic

W ZACHRITZII; A. T. Hanson; J. A. Sauceda; K. M. Fitzsimmons

2008-01-01

410

Performance and operation of a rotating biological contactor in a tilapia recirculating aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the performance characteristics of an industrial-scale air-driven rotating biological contactor (RBC) installed in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) rearing tilapia at 28°C. This three-staged RBC system was configured with stages 1 and 2 possessing approximately the same total surface area and stage 3 having approximately 25% smaller. The total surface area provided by the RBC equaled 13,380m2.

Brian L. Brazil

2006-01-01

411

A bioeconomic evaluation of a commercial scale recirculating finfish growout system — An Australian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, based on 3 years of commercial data, presents the results of an economic analysis of a 20-tonne per annum (TPA) commercial recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) facility located in Warrnambool, Victoria, Australia. Based on the assumptions of the analysis, results highlight the non-viability of the facility, with a 10-year projected negative cumulative cash flow of ?$648,038, and negative net present

Paul N. De Ionno; Graeme L. Wines; Paul L. Jones; Robert O. Collins

2006-01-01

412

Low-Dose Hydrogen Peroxide Application in Closed Recirculating Aquaculture Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to simulate water treatment practices with hydrogen peroxide (HP) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Six identical 1,700-L pilot-scale RAS were divided into two experimental groups based on daily feed allocation and operated under constant conditions for a period of 3 months. The organic and nitrogenous loadings of the systems differed fourfold between the

Lars-Flemming Pedersen; Christopher M. Good; Per B. Pedersen

2012-01-01

413

Recirculating accelerator driver for a high-power free-electron laser: a design overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jefferson Lab is building a free-electron laser (FEL) to produce continuous-wave (cw), kW-level light at 3-6 ?m wavelength. A superconducting linac will drive the laser, generating a 5 mA average current, 42 MeV energy electron beam. A transport lattice will recirculate the beam back to the linac for deceleration and conversion of about 75% of its power into rf power.

Courtlandt L. Bohn

1997-01-01

414

Statistical analysis of the influence of forces on particles in EM driven recirculated turbulent flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper contains an analysis of the statistical distribution of forces affecting non-conducting particles dispersed in an EM induced recirculated flow in induction furnaces. The simulation is conducted adopting the LES-based Euler-Lagrange approach in the limit of dilute conditions (one-way coupling). It is done by means of a development of OpenFOAM software code. The used Lagrange equation for particle

M Š?epanskis; A Jakovi?s; E Baake

2011-01-01

415

Characterization of a biofilm bacterium from a recirculation system for European lobster ( Homarus gammarus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European lobster (Homarus gammarus) is often stored live in re-circulation systems. Previously bio-films and fouling has been reported to occur during storage of live aquatic animals. This investigation profiled a bacterium isolated from a bio-film observed on the carapace of live lobster and on the sub-water surfaces of the holding facility. Molecular analysis using a universal 16s rRNA primer

Jennifer E. Welsh; Pauline A. King; Eugene MacCarthy

2011-01-01

416

Growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in land-based recirculation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of feeding regime and photoperiod on the growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in land-based recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was examined using three different commercial diets. Fish of 8–10 g were reared in 1 m3 tanks at an initial density of 10 kg m?3 for 78 d. Three RAS units were used to simultaneously test three feed\\/photoperiod regimes that might

M. Fülberth; D. Moran; H. Jarlbæk; J. G. Støttrup

2009-01-01

417

Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema induced by a molecular adsorbent recirculating system: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is a well-recognized manifestation of acute lung injury which has been related, among others, to blood or blood-product transfusion, intravenous contrast injection, air embolism, and drug ingestion. We describe two cases of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema after use of a molecular adsorbent recirculating system, a cell-free dialysis technique. Patients in this series presented at our institution to be

Cataldo Doria; Lucio MandalÀ; Victor L. Scott; Ignazio R. Marino; Salvatore Gruttadauria; Roberto Miraglia; Claudio H. Vitale; Jan Smith

2003-01-01

418

High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

1980-01-01

419

Leachate recirculation at the Nanticoke sanitary landfill using a bioreactor trench. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-year landfill leachate recirculation demonstration project was conducted in a 20-acre cell at the Broome County, NY, Nanticoke Landfill using a retrofit bioreactor trench design concept to introduce landfill leachate to the surrounding refuse mass. Over the course of the project, 1.1 million gallons of landfill leachate were distributed through the bioreactor trench, substantially increasing the moisture content (approaching

J. J. Pagano; R. J. Scrudato; G. M. Sumner

1998-01-01

420

Powdered activated carbon for fouling reduction of a membrane in a pilot-scale recirculating aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are essential for the reduction in fresh water usage as well as the discharge of nutrients along with aquaculture effluents. A RAS consisting of an anoxic reactor, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a UV-disinfection unit was used to process 10,000 L\\/d of aquaculture effluent providing high-quality treated water for recirculation to a Barramundi fish culture. The

V. Jegatheesan; N. Senaratne; C. Steicke; Seung-Hyun Kim

2009-01-01

421

The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may impair the growth and welfare of fish. To test the severity of contaminants accumulated in RAS, early-life stages of fish were used. Ultrafiltered water from two Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), one RAS with a high accumulation of substances (water exchange rate 30 L\\/kg feed\\/day) and one RAS with a low accumulation

Catarina I. M. Martins; Marco G. Pistrin; Stephan S. W. Ende; Ep H. Eding; Johan A. J. Verreth

2009-01-01

422

Generation of Flat Optical Frequency Comb based on Mach-Zehnder Modulator and Recirculating Frequency Shifter Loop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel scheme to generate optical frequency comb by using Mach-Zehnder modulator and recirculating frequency shifter loop based on IQ modulator driven by radio frequency clock signals. A system of 4 flat and stable comb lines generation based on Mach-Zehnder modulator is set as the seed light source of the recirculating loop. Through theorical analysis and simulation it is shown that the proposed theoretical model is proved in good agreement with simulation results.

Wu, Shibao; Li, Yulong; Fei, Yue; Hu, Faze

2014-06-01

423

Human skin is protected by four functionally and phenotypically discrete populations of resident and recirculating memory T cells.  

PubMed

The skin of an adult human contains about 20 billion memory T cells. Epithelial barrier tissues are infiltrated by a combination of resident and recirculating T cells in mice, but the relative proportions and functional activities of resident versus recirculating T cells have not been evaluated in human skin. We discriminated resident from recirculating T cells in human-engrafted mice and lymphoma patients using alemtuzumab, a medication that depletes recirculating T cells from skin, and then analyzed these T cell populations in healthy human skin. All nonrecirculating resident memory T cells (TRM) expressed CD69, but most were CD4(+), CD103(-), and located in the dermis, in contrast to studies in mice. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD103(+) TRM were enriched in the epidermis, had potent effector functions, and had a limited proliferative capacity compared to CD103(-) TRM. TRM of both types had more potent effector functions than recirculating T cells. We observed two distinct populations of recirculating T cells, CCR7(+)/L-selectin(+) central memory T cells (TCM) and CCR7(+)/L-selectin(-) T cells, which we term migratory memory T cells (TMM). Circulating skin-tropic TMM were intermediate in cytokine production between TCM and effector memory T cells. In patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma, malignant TCM and TMM induced distinct inflammatory skin lesions, and TMM were depleted more slowly from skin after alemtuzumab, suggesting that TMM may recirculate more slowly. In summary, human skin is protected by four functionally distinct populations of T cells, two resident and two recirculating, with differing territories of migration and distinct functional activities. PMID:25787765

Watanabe, Rei; Gehad, Ahmed; Yang, Chao; Scott, Laura L; Teague, Jessica E; Schlapbach, Christoph; Elco, Christopher P; Huang, Victor; Matos, Tiago R; Kupper, Thomas S; Clark, Rachael A

2015-03-18

424

Using elastic joint to reduce the impact between ball and re-circulating mechanism in ball screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ball screw driven mechanism is a major component in high-speed\\/high-precision transmitting systems. In such a mechanism, the re-circulating mechanism has been designed to provide the path for steel balls rolling in screw grooves. As the driven shaft in the mechanism operates at high rotating speed, forces caused by the impact activity between the steel ball and re-circulating mechanism may

Zuoying Zhang

2008-01-01

425

A novel design method to reduce the impact between ball and re-circulating mechanism in ball screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high-speed\\/high-precision ball screw transmitting systems, the re-circulating mechanism of ball screws is used for providing the path for steel balls rolling in screw grooves generally. Because the rotating speed of the driven shaft in the mechanism has become higher and higher, forces caused by the impact activity between the steel ball and re-circulating mechanism has resulted in a series

Xiangrong Xu; Xianchun Song; Zuoying Zhang; Hongkui Jiang

2009-01-01

426

A study on effects of recirculated exhaust gas upon wear of cylinder liner and piston in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of recirculated exhaust gas on the wear of cylinder liner and piston were experimentally investigated by a two-cylinder,\\u000a four cycle, indirect injection diesel engine operating at 75% load and 1600 rpm. For the purpose of comparison between the\\u000a wear rates of the two cylinders with and without EGR, the recirculated exhaust gas was sucked into one of two

Myung-whan Bae; Kazuo Tsuchiya

2001-01-01

427

Biofouling reduction in recirculating cooling systems through biofiltration of process water.  

PubMed

Biofouling is a serious problem in industrial recirculating cooling systems. It damages equipment, through biocorrosion, and causes clogging and increased energy consumption, through decreased heat transfer. In this research a fixed-bed biofilter was developed which removed assimilable organic carbon (AOC) from process water, thus limiting the major substrate for the growth of biofouling. The biofilter was tested in a laboratory model recirculating cooling water system, including a heat exchanger and a cooling tower. A second identical model system without a biofilter served as a reference. Both installations were challenged with organic carbon (sucrose and yeast extract) to provoke biofouling. The biofilter improved the quality of the recirculating cooling water by reducing the AOC content, the ATP concentration, bacterial numbers (30-40 fold) and the turbidity (OD660). The process of biofouling in the heat exchangers, the process water pipelines and the cooling towers, was monitored by protein increase, heat transfer resistance, and chlorine demanded for maintenance. This revealed that biofouling was lower in the system with the biofilter compared to the reference installation. It was concluded that AOC removal through biofiltration provides an attractive, environmental-friendly means to reduce biofouling in industrial cooling systems. PMID:12688686

Meesters, K P H; Van Groenestijn, J W; Gerritse, J

2003-02-01

428

Microfluidic device capable of medium recirculation for non-adherent cell culture.  

PubMed

We present a microfluidic device designed for maintenance and culture of non-adherent mammalian cells, which enables both recirculation and refreshing of medium, as well as easy harvesting of cells from the device. We demonstrate fabrication of a novel microfluidic device utilizing Braille perfusion for peristaltic fluid flow to enable switching between recirculation and refresh flow modes. Utilizing fluid flow simulations and the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60, non-adherent cells, we demonstrate the utility of this RECIR-REFRESH device. With computer simulations, we profiled fluid flow and concentration gradients of autocrine factors and found that the geometry of the cell culture well plays a key role in cell entrapping and retaining autocrine and soluble factors. We subjected HL-60 cells, in the device, to a treatment regimen of 1.25% dimethylsulfoxide, every other day, to provoke differentiation and measured subsequent expression of CD11b on day 2 and day 4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) on day 4. Our findings display perfusion sensitive CD11b expression, but not TNF-? build-up, by day 4 of culture, with a 1:1 ratio of recirculation to refresh flow yielding the greatest increase in CD11b levels. RECIR-REFRESH facilitates programmable levels of cell differentiation in a HL-60 non-adherent cell population and can be expanded to other types of non-adherent cells such as hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:24753733

Dixon, Angela R; Rajan, Shrinidhi; Kuo, Chuan-Hsien; Bersano, Tom; Wold, Rachel; Futai, Nobuyuki; Takayama, Shuichi; Mehta, Geeta

2014-01-01

429

Microfluidic device capable of medium recirculation for non-adherent cell culture  

PubMed Central

We present a microfluidic device designed for maintenance and culture of non-adherent mammalian cells, which enables both recirculation and refreshing of medium, as well as easy harvesting of cells from the device. We demonstrate fabrication of a novel microfluidic device utilizing Braille perfusion for peristaltic fluid flow to enable switching between recirculation and refresh flow modes. Utilizing fluid flow simulations and the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60, non-adherent cells, we demonstrate the utility of this RECIR-REFRESH device. With computer simulations, we profiled fluid flow and concentration gradients of autocrine factors and found that the geometry of the cell culture well plays a key role in cell entrapping and retaining autocrine and soluble factors. We subjected HL-60 cells, in the device, to a treatment regimen of 1.25% dimethylsulfoxide, every other day, to provoke differentiation and measured subsequent expression of CD11b on day 2 and day 4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) on day 4. Our findings display perfusion sensitive CD11b expression, but not TNF-? build-up, by day 4 of culture, with a 1:1 ratio of recirculation to refresh flow yielding the greatest increase in CD11b levels. RECIR-REFRESH facilitates programmable levels of cell differentiation in a HL-60 non-adherent cell population and can be expanded to other types of non-adherent cells such as hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:24753733

Dixon, Angela R.; Rajan, Shrinidhi; Kuo, Chuan-Hsien; Bersano, Tom; Wold, Rachel; Futai, Nobuyuki; Takayama, Shuichi; Mehta, Geeta

2014-01-01

430

Twin Convergence Zones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the entire Atlantic Ocean and the eastern Pacific. 'QuikSCAT's wind data confirms there is a double ITCZ, and that they exist all year long,' Liu said. This is a major find for the science community, as the existence, location, and seasonality of the double ITCZ had remained controversial since 1969. full text: Satellite Sees Double Zones of Converging Tropical Winds around The World For more about convergence zones, read: The Intertropical Convergence Zone and Convergence Zones: Where the Action Is Image courtesy Liu and Xie, NASA JPL

2002-01-01

431

Two- and three-dimensional simulations of aerosol transport and deposition in alveolar zone of human lung  

SciTech Connect

We simulate two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) aerosol transport for different particle diameters within alveolated ducts. In agreement with previous studies, the 2D-computed velocity field shows that the flow inside the alveoli is negligible compared with that in the central channel of the ducts and that a recirculation zone is set up in each alveolus. The calculated particle trajectories indicate that in the 2D and 3D simulations the particles do not deposit uniformly on the alveolar walls. For <0.5-{mu}m-diameter particles, simulations show that particles are mainly located near the entrance of the alveoli. This suggests that local and mean aerosol concentrations may be substantially different. For large particles we show that the gravity field significantly affects deposition. Aerosol dispersion is also computed, and the simulations are compared with the classical one-dimensional (1D) approach with use of the trumpet model, with additional terms for deposition. The 3D model simulates total deposition that is intermediate between 1D and 2D models. The differences between 2D and 3D data are attributed to the inclusion of azimuthal alveolar walls in the 3D duct and the change from 2D- to 3D-particle motions. Finally, our work suggests that the 1D model may introduce large errors in the location of deposited particles. 16 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Darquenne, C.; Paiva, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

1996-04-01

432

The bottom intertidal zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bottom intertidal area remains under water except during low tides. This zone is most abundant of the intertidal zones and contains seaweeds and other plants, invertebrates, and fishes. The bottom zone is subject to the most intense wave action.

Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

2007-06-08

433

The bottom intertidal zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bottom intertidal area remains under water except during low tides. This zone is most abundant of the intertidal zones and contains seaweeds and other plants, invertebrates, and fishes. The bottom zone is subject to the most intense wave action.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-04

434

Zone separator for multiple zone vessels  

DOEpatents

A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

Jones, John B. (Grand Junction, CO)

1983-02-01

435

Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone  

PubMed Central

Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

2013-01-01

436

Zoning, equity, and public health.  

PubMed Central

Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

Maantay, J

2001-01-01

437

Investigations of Near-Zone Doppler Effects.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Far away from an electromagnetic source the normal Doppler shifts in frequency occur--a red shift for receding and a blue shift for approaching. As indicated by previous work with an infinitesimal dipole, different frequency shifts occur when the source and observer move closer together, into the near-zone. These "near-zone Doppler effects" are investigated for general sources and subsequently two specific examples are presented. The general results show that near-zone shifts are similar to far-zone shifts, but the local phase velocity must be used, i.e. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). In the far zone the phase velocity is the speed of light; in the near zone it differs. Fundamentally, the distance between surfaces of constant phase in the near zone is changed. The surfaces of constant phase for the waves are no longer spherical, but more ellipsoidal or spheroidal, so that a moving observer sees a different frequency shift. Two specific examples are presented to indicate the actual magnitude of near-zone effects. The examples include a prolate spheroidal antenna and a circular aperture. Once the magnitude of the effects is determined, the measurability of near-zone Doppler effects is discussed. The investigation concentrates on Fresnel zone effects due to the measurement problem. Finally, it is shown that for an electrically large wire antenna (the spheroidal example) near-zone Doppler effects are measurable.

Prouty, Dale Austen

438

Future float zone development in industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present industrial requirements for float zone silicon are summarized. Developments desired by the industry in the future are reported. The five most significant problems faced today by the float zone crystal growth method in industry are discussed. They are economic, large diameter, resistivity uniformity, control of carbon, and swirl defects.

Sandfort, R. M.

1980-01-01

439

Gas-particle flow and combustion in the near-burner zone of the swirl-stabilized pulverized coal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an air-particle test facility, a three-dimensional particle-dynamics anemometer was used to measure air particle flows in the near-burner region of the radial bias combustion burner. With the increase of nonswirling secondary air (SA) ratio, the air and the particle divergent angles greatly decrease. Both the diameter and the length of the central recirculation zone decrease and the peak value

Zheng Qi Li; Rui Sun; Zhi Xin Wan; Shao Zeng Sun; Shao Hua Wu; Li Zhe Chen

2003-01-01

440

The effect of sludge recirculation rate on a UASB-digester treating domestic sewage at 15 °C.  

PubMed

The anaerobic treatment of low strength domestic sewage at low temperature is an attractive and important topic at present. The upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-digester system is one of the anaerobic systems to challenge low temperature and concentrations. The effect of sludge recirculation rate on a UASB-digester system treating domestic sewage at 15 °C was studied in this research. A sludge recirculation rate of 0.9, 2.6 and 12.5% of the influent flow rate was investigated. The results showed that the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency rose with increasing sludge recirculation rate. A sludge recirculation rate of 0.9% of the influent flow rate led to organic solids accumulation in the UASB reactor. After the sludge recirculation rate increased from 0.9 to 2.6%, the stability of the UASB sludge was substantially improved from 0.37 to 0.15 g CH?-COD/g COD, and the bio-gas production in the digester went up from 2.9 to 7.4 L/d. The stability of the UASB sludge and bio-gas production in the digester were not significantly further improved by increasing sludge recirculation rate to 12.5% of the influent flow rate, but the biogas production in the UASB increased from 0.37 to 1.2 L/d. It is recommended to apply a maximum sludge recirculation rate of 2-2.5% of the influent flow rate in a UASB-digester system, as this still allows energy self-sufficiency of the system. PMID:23109575

Zhang, Lei; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Kampman, Christel; Zeeman, Grietje; Temmink, Hardy; Li, Weiguang; Buisman, Cees J N

2012-01-01

441

Large Eddy Simulations of Volume Restriction Effects on Canopy-Induced Increased-Uplift Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT Previous modeling and empirical work have shown the development of important areas of increased uplift past forward-facing steps, and recirculation zones past backward-facing steps. Forests edges represent a special kind of step - a semi-porous one. Current models of the effects of forest edges on the flow represent the forest with a prescribed drag term and does not account for the effects of the solid volume in the forest that restrict the airflow. The RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) resolves flows inside and above forested canopies. RAFLES is spatially explicit, and uses the finite volume method to solve a descretized set of Navier-Stokes equations. It accounts for vegetation drag effects on the flow and on the flux exchange between the canopy and the canopy air, proportional to the local leaf density. For a better representation of the vegetation structure in the numerical grid within the canopy sub-domain, the model uses a modified version of the cut cell coordinate system. The hard volume of vegetation elements, in forests, or buildings, in urban environments, within each numerical grid cell is represented via a sub-grid-scale process that shrinks the open apertures between grid cells and reduces the open cell volume. We used RAFLES to simulate the effects of a canopy of varying foliage and stem densities on flow over virtual qube-shaped barriers under neutrally buoyant conditions. We explicitly tested the effects of the numerical representation of volume restriction, independent of the effects of the leaf drag by comparing drag-only simulations, where we prescribed no volume or aperture restriction to the flow, restriction-only simulations, where we prescribed no drag, and control simulations, where both drag and volume plus aperture restriction were included. Our simulations show that representation of the effects of the volume and aperture restriction due to obstacles to flow is important (figure 1) and leads to differences in the strengths and locations of increased-updraft and recirculation zones. Particularly, introduction of volume restriction shifted the location of the uplift zone and anchored it to the downwind edge of the barrier. In addition. We propose that volume restriction due to the presence of the stems and branches is an important improvement to LES that should be considered. Figure 1: Horizontal and vertical wind components (arrows) illustrated across a vertical cross section through the simulation domain. The colors illustrate the variation of the vertical wind component. The canopy location is marked by a thick continuous line. A. Drag-only simulation (Drag = 0.04?, Volume blockage = 0%), B. Control simulation (Drag = 0.04?, Volume blockage = 40%).

Chatziefstratiou, E.; Bohrer, G.; Velissariou, V.

2012-12-01

442

Vadose zone microbiology  

SciTech Connect

The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

2001-01-17

443

The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (Precirculating system. PMID:12663210

Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan

2003-01-01

444

Argon purification studies and a novel liquid argon re-circulation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future giant liquid argon (LAr) time projection chambers (TPCs) require a purity of better than 0.1 parts per billion (ppb) to allow the ionised electrons to drift without significant capture by any electronegative impurities. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of electronegative impurity on gaseous and liquid argon scintillation light, an analysis of the efficiency of various purification chemicals, as well as the Liverpool LAr setup, which utilises a novel re-circulation purification system. Of the impurities tested - Air, O2, H2O, N2 and CO2 in the range of between 0.01 ppm to 1000 ppm - H2O was found to have the most profound effect on gaseous argon scintillation light, and N2 was found to have the least. Additionally, a correlation between the slow component decay time and the total energy deposited with 0.01 ppm - 100 ppm O2 contamination levels in liquid argon has been established. The superiority of molecular sieves over anhydrous complexes at absorbing Ar gas, N2 gas and H2O vapour has been quantified using BET isotherm analysis. The efficiency of Cu and P2O5 at removing O2 and H2O impurities from 1 bar N6 argon gas at both room temperature and -130 °C was investigated and found to be high. A novel, highly scalable LAr re-circulation system has been developed. The complete system, consisting of a motorised bellows pump operating in liquid and a purification cartridge, were designed and built in-house. The system was operated successfully over many days and achieved a re-circulation rate of 27 litres/hour and high purity.

Mavrokoridis, K.; Calland, R. G.; Coleman, J.; Lightfoot, P. K.; McCauley, N.; McCormick, K. J.; Touramanis, C.

2011-08-01

445

Jovian electron transport to the polar heliosphere - An analogy to magnetospheric recirculation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of magnetospheric recirculation for cyclic electron energization and transport may apply in part to heliospheric transport of Jovian electrons if enhanced cross-IMF propagation occurs at heliospheric altitudes near and below the solar wind transition region. Low altitude, ecliptic-to-polar transport would short-circuit conventional interplanetary diffusion, facilitate rapid access to the polar heliosphere with minimal adiabatic energy losses, and provide a seed population for acceleration to 100-1000 MeV energies at the solar wind termination shock and in the heliomagnetotail.

Cooper, J. F.; Baker, D. N.

1992-01-01

446