Science.gov

Sample records for large sample naa

  1. Comparison of k0-NAA measurement results with calculated uncertainties for reference samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smodiš, B.; Bučar, T.

    2010-10-01

    Standard samples of well-defined geometry containing accurately known amounts of Co, Fe, Gd, Mo, Nd, Sb, Se, W, Zn and Zr were prepared and assayed using k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA). Measurement results for six independent determinations of each standard spiked sample were evaluated and compared to calculated uncertainties using the computer program ERON, which computes uncertainty propagation factors from the relevant formulae and calculates the overall uncertainty following the internationally recommended approach. The calculated relative expanded uncertainties U ( k=2), which ranged from 6 to 11% for particular nuclides/gamma-lines agreed well with the measurements results thus proving the correctness of the applied approach. One of the important measures to further reduce uncertainties in the k0-NAA measurements is to review and re-determine more accurately specific nuclear constants involved in the relevant calculations.

  2. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Yussup, Nolida; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh@Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on `Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)'. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  3. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-29

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on ‘Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)’. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  4. [Testing the identity of hashish samples with ICP-AES and NAA and data handling with neural networks. 2. Data verification with the use of artificial neural networks].

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, A; Feuring, T; Lippe, W M

    1998-01-01

    Twenty different hashish samples, which were confiscated in Irak, Iran, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Great Britain and Germany were analysed by means of NAA and ICP-AES. We used modified ANNs to identify a repeated analysed sample out of that data pool. The ANNs are described. Especially the learning rule, a modified backpropagation method, is presented. It is obvious, that neural networks can solve the described classification tasks. There is no significant difference in the power of the applied analytical methods. PMID:9476257

  5. NAA For Human Serum Analysis: Comparison With Conventional Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose A. G.; Azevedo, Maria R.

    2010-08-04

    Instrumental and Comparator methods of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) were applied to determine elements of clinical relevancy in serum samples of adult population (Sao Paulo city, Brazil). A comparison with the conventional analyses, Colorimetric for calcium, Titrymetric for chlorine and Ion Specific Electrode for sodium and potassium determination were also performed permitting a discussion about the performance of NAA methods for clinical chemistry research.

  6. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    DOEpatents

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod L.

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  7. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Castellano, G; Dias, C S B; Foerster, B; Li, L M; Covolan, R J M

    2012-11-01

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate. PMID:22892831

  8. NAA thinning of ‘W. Murcott’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine if NAA thinning may be useful for managing cropload in Florida ‘W Murcott’. Trials were conducted in two groves of ages 4 and 6 years. NAA was applied on 13 May, 2010, when fruitlets averaged 10-12 mm in diameter. A randomized complete block design was used, ...

  9. How Large Should a Statistical Sample Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menil, Violeta C.; Ye, Ruili

    2012-01-01

    This study serves as a teaching aid for teachers of introductory statistics. The aim of this study was limited to determining various sample sizes when estimating population proportion. Tables on sample sizes were generated using a C[superscript ++] program, which depends on population size, degree of precision or error level, and confidence…

  10. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration for trace explosives detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Kevin Lane

    2004-05-01

    A trace explosives detection system typically contains three subsystems: sample collection, preconcentration, and detection. Sample collection of trace explosives (vapor and particulate) through large volumes of airflow helps reduce sampling time while increasing the amount of dilute sample collected. Preconcentration of the collected sample before introduction into the detector improves the sensitivity of the detector because of the increase in sample concentration. By combining large-volume sample collection and preconcentration, an improvement in the detection of explosives is possible. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration is presented using a systems level approach. In addition, the engineering of large-volume sampling and preconcentration for the trace detection of explosives is explained.

  11. Strategies for Field Sampling When Large Sample Sizes are Required

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of prevalence or incidence of infection with a pathogen endemic in a fish population can be valuable information for development and evaluation of aquatic animal health management strategies. However, hundreds of unbiased samples may be required in order to accurately estimate these parame...

  12. LOGISTICS OF ECOLOGICAL SAMPLING ON LARGE RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this document are to provide an overview of the logistical problems associated with the ecological sampling of boatable rivers and to suggest solutions to those problems. It is intended to be used as a resource for individuals preparing to collect biological dat...

  13. Testing the applicability of the k0-NAA method at the MINT's TRIGA MARK II reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siong, Wee Boon; Dung, Ho Manh; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abd.; Elias, Md. Suhaimi

    2006-08-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at MINT is using the NAA technique since 1980s and is the only laboratory in Malaysia equipped with a research reactor, namely the TRIGA MARK II. Throughout the years the development of NAA technique has been very encouraging and was made applicable to a wide range of samples. At present, the k0 method has become the preferred standardization method of NAA ( k0-NAA) due to its multi-elemental analysis capability without using standards. Additionally, the k0 method describes NAA in physically and mathematically understandable definitions and is very suitable for computer evaluation. Eventually, the k0-NAA method has been adopted by MINT in 2003, in collaboration with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Vietnam. The reactor neutron parameters ( α and f) for the pneumatic transfer system and for the rotary rack at various locations, as well as the detector efficiencies were determined. After calibration of the reactor and the detectors, the implemented k0 method was validated by analyzing some certified reference materials (including IAEA Soil 7, NIST 1633a, NIST 1632c, NIST 1646a and IAEA 140/TM). The analysis results of the CRMs showed an average u score well below the threshold value of 2 with a precision of better than ±10% for most of the elemental concentrations obtained, validating herewith the introduction of the k0-NAA method at the MINT.

  14. SAMPLING LARGE RIVERS FOR ALGAE, BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple projects are currently underway to increase our understanding of the effects of different sampling methods and designs used for the biological assessment and monitoring of large (boatable) rivers. Studies include methods used to assess fish, benthic macroinvertebrates, ...

  15. Sensitivity of missing values in classification tree for large sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Norsida; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Mustapha, Norwati; Abu Bakar, Mohd Rizam

    2012-05-01

    Missing values either in predictor or in response variables are a very common problem in statistics and data mining. Cases with missing values are often ignored which results in loss of information and possible bias. The objectives of our research were to investigate the sensitivity of missing data in classification tree model for large sample. Data were obtained from one of the high level educational institutions in Malaysia. Students' background data were randomly eliminated and classification tree was used to predict students degree classification. The results showed that for large sample, the structure of the classification tree was sensitive to missing values especially for sample contains more than ten percent missing values.

  16. Investigation of NAA and NAAG dynamics underlying visual stimulation using MEGA-PRESS in a functional MRS experiment.

    PubMed

    Landim, Ricardo C G; Edden, Richard A E; Foerster, Bernd; Li, Li Min; Covolan, Roberto J M; Castellano, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) is responsible for the majority of the most prominent peak in (1)H-MR spectra, and has been used as diagnostic marker for several pathologies. However, ~10% of this peak can be attributed to N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide whose release may be triggered by intense neuronal activation. Separate measurement of NAA and NAAG using MRS is difficult due to large superposition of their spectra. Specifically, in functional MRS (fMRS) experiments, most work has evaluated the sum NAA+NAAG, which does not appear to change during experiments. The aim of this work was to design and perform an fMRS experiment using visual stimulation and a spectral editing sequence, MEGA-PRESS, to further evaluate the individual dynamics of NAA and NAAG during brain activation. The functional paradigm used consisted of three blocks, starting with a rest (baseline) block of 320 s, followed by a stimulus block (640 s) and a rest block (640 s). Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. On average, subjects followed a pattern of NAA decrease and NAAG increase during stimulation, with a tendency to return to basal levels at the end of the paradigm, with a peak NAA decrease of -(21±19)% and a peak NAAG increase of (64±62)% (Wilcoxon test, p<0.05). These results may relate to: 1) the only known NAAG synthesis pathway is from NAA and glutamate; 2) a relationship between NAAG and the BOLD response. PMID:26656908

  17. Rapid Determination Of Radiostrontium In Large Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Shaw, Patrick J.

    2012-05-24

    A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in large soil samples has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium in large soil samples for the measurement of strontium isotopes by gas flow proportional counting. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) or Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. The method employs a novel pre-concentration step that utilizes an iron hydroxide precipitation (enhanced with calcium phosphate) followed by a final calcium fluoride precipitation to remove silicates and other matrix components. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with a rapid Sr Resin separation using vacuum box technology, allow very large soil samples to be analyzed for {sup 89,90}Sr using gas flow proportional counting with a lower method detection limit. The calcium fluoride precipitation eliminates column flow problems typically associated with large amounts of silicates in large soil samples.

  18. Finite dose diffusion studies: III. Effects of temperature, humidity and deposit manipulation on NAA penetration through isolated tomato fruit cuticles.

    PubMed

    Knoche, M; Bukovac, M J

    2001-08-01

    Effects of temperature, humidity, rewetting and removal of deposits on penetration of NAA [2-(1-naphthyl)acetic acid] through isolated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruit cuticles were studied using a finite dose diffusion system. In this system, an aqueous 5-microliter droplet (0.1 mM NAA in 20 mM citric acid buffer) is applied to the outer surface of a cuticle, which is mounted in a glass diffusion half-cell. The cell wall surface is in contact with a receiver solution (20 mM citrate). Penetration is monitored by repeated sampling of the receiver solution. Droplets appeared dry on visual inspection within 1 h of application, but significant NAA penetration continued after droplet drying. Maximum rates of NAA penetration increased exponentially as temperature was increased (from 5 degrees to 35 degrees C), the energy of activation averaging 153 (+/- 11.6)kJ mol-1. At 35 degrees C, penetration reached a plateau within 10 h of application (at 91.1 (+/- 1.0)% of dose applied) while at 5 degrees C penetration after 800 h reached only 30.2 (+/- 7.5)%. Increasing relative humidity from 20 to 80% increased maximum rates [from 1.0 (+/- 0.21) to 2.7 (+/- 0.80)% h-1] and penetration at 120 h after application [from 36.8 (+/- 2.1) to 64.3 (+/- 3.7)%]. Rewetting deposits at 120, 240 and 360 h after application resulted in increased NAA penetration. However, amounts and rates of NAA penetration progressively decreased with each subsequent rewetting. Removal of deposits by cellulose acetate stripping at various times after droplet application resulted in a rapid decrease in NAA penetration. NAA penetration following deposit removal was always less than 6.1% of the amount of NAA applied and averaged 0.5 (+/- 0.2)% when deposits were removed immediately after droplet drying. PMID:11517728

  19. Evaluating noninvasive genetic sampling techniques to estimate large carnivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Matthew A; Zieminski, Chris; Fuller, Todd K; Mahoney, Shane P; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring large carnivores is difficult because of intrinsically low densities and can be dangerous if physical capture is required. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) is a safe and cost-effective alternative to physical capture. We evaluated the utility of two NGS methods (scat detection dogs and hair sampling) to obtain genetic samples for abundance estimation of coyotes, black bears and Canada lynx in three areas of Newfoundland, Canada. We calculated abundance estimates using program capwire, compared sampling costs, and the cost/sample for each method relative to species and study site, and performed simulations to determine the sampling intensity necessary to achieve abundance estimates with coefficients of variation (CV) of <10%. Scat sampling was effective for both coyotes and bears and hair snags effectively sampled bears in two of three study sites. Rub pads were ineffective in sampling coyotes and lynx. The precision of abundance estimates was dependent upon the number of captures/individual. Our simulations suggested that ~3.4 captures/individual will result in a < 10% CV for abundance estimates when populations are small (23-39), but fewer captures/individual may be sufficient for larger populations. We found scat sampling was more cost-effective for sampling multiple species, but suggest that hair sampling may be less expensive at study sites with limited road access for bears. Given the dependence of sampling scheme on species and study site, the optimal sampling scheme is likely to be study-specific warranting pilot studies in most circumstances. PMID:25693632

  20. Measurement, Sampling, and Equating Errors in Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale assessments, such as state-wide testing programs, national sample-based assessments, and international comparative studies, there are many steps involved in the measurement and reporting of student achievement. There are always sources of inaccuracies in each of the steps. It is of interest to identify the source and magnitude of…

  1. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahovschi, V.; Zamboni, C. B.; Lopes Silva, L. F. F.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities.

  2. ANALYSIS IN BLOOD OF GOLDEN HAMSTER BY NAA FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A.

    2009-06-03

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

  3. Analysis in Blood of Golden Hamster by Naa for Clinical Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

  4. Comparison of large networks with sub-sampling strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Waqar; Wegner, Anatol E.; Gaunt, Robert E.; Deane, Charlotte M.; Reinert, Gesine

    2016-07-01

    Networks are routinely used to represent large data sets, making the comparison of networks a tantalizing research question in many areas. Techniques for such analysis vary from simply comparing network summary statistics to sophisticated but computationally expensive alignment-based approaches. Most existing methods either do not generalize well to different types of networks or do not provide a quantitative similarity score between networks. In contrast, alignment-free topology based network similarity scores empower us to analyse large sets of networks containing different types and sizes of data. Netdis is such a score that defines network similarity through the counts of small sub-graphs in the local neighbourhood of all nodes. Here, we introduce a sub-sampling procedure based on neighbourhoods which links naturally with the framework of network comparisons through local neighbourhood comparisons. Our theoretical arguments justify basing the Netdis statistic on a sample of similar-sized neighbourhoods. Our tests on empirical and synthetic datasets indicate that often only 10% of the neighbourhoods of a network suffice for optimal performance, leading to a drastic reduction in computational requirements. The sampling procedure is applicable even when only a small sample of the network is known, and thus provides a novel tool for network comparison of very large and potentially incomplete datasets.

  5. Comparison of large networks with sub-sampling strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Waqar; Wegner, Anatol E.; Gaunt, Robert E.; Deane, Charlotte M.; Reinert, Gesine

    2016-01-01

    Networks are routinely used to represent large data sets, making the comparison of networks a tantalizing research question in many areas. Techniques for such analysis vary from simply comparing network summary statistics to sophisticated but computationally expensive alignment-based approaches. Most existing methods either do not generalize well to different types of networks or do not provide a quantitative similarity score between networks. In contrast, alignment-free topology based network similarity scores empower us to analyse large sets of networks containing different types and sizes of data. Netdis is such a score that defines network similarity through the counts of small sub-graphs in the local neighbourhood of all nodes. Here, we introduce a sub-sampling procedure based on neighbourhoods which links naturally with the framework of network comparisons through local neighbourhood comparisons. Our theoretical arguments justify basing the Netdis statistic on a sample of similar-sized neighbourhoods. Our tests on empirical and synthetic datasets indicate that often only 10% of the neighbourhoods of a network suffice for optimal performance, leading to a drastic reduction in computational requirements. The sampling procedure is applicable even when only a small sample of the network is known, and thus provides a novel tool for network comparison of very large and potentially incomplete datasets. PMID:27380992

  6. Randomized Sampling for Large Data Applications of SVM

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A

    2012-01-01

    A trend in machine learning is the application of existing algorithms to ever-larger datasets. Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been shown to be very effective, but have been difficult to scale to large-data problems. Some approaches have sought to scale SVM training by approximating and parallelizing the underlying quadratic optimization problem. This paper pursues a different approach. Our algorithm, which we call Sampled SVM, uses an existing SVM training algorithm to create a new SVM training algorithm. It uses randomized data sampling to better extend SVMs to large data applications. Experiments on several datasets show that our method is faster than and comparably accurate to both the original SVM algorithm it is based on and the Cascade SVM, the leading data organization approach for SVMs in the literature. Further, we show that our approach is more amenable to parallelization than Cascade SVM.

  7. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  8. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  9. Spatial considerations during cryopreservation of a large volume sample.

    PubMed

    Kilbride, Peter; Lamb, Stephen; Milne, Stuart; Gibbons, Stephanie; Erro, Eloy; Bundy, James; Selden, Clare; Fuller, Barry; Morris, John

    2016-08-01

    There have been relatively few studies on the implications of the physical conditions experienced by cells during large volume (litres) cryopreservation - most studies have focused on the problem of cryopreservation of smaller volumes, typically up to 2 ml. This study explores the effects of ice growth by progressive solidification, generally seen during larger scale cryopreservation, on encapsulated liver hepatocyte spheroids, and it develops a method to reliably sample different regions across the frozen cores of samples experiencing progressive solidification. These issues are examined in the context of a Bioartificial Liver Device which requires cryopreservation of a 2 L volume in a strict cylindrical geometry for optimal clinical delivery. Progressive solidification cannot be avoided in this arrangement. In such a system optimal cryoprotectant concentrations and cooling rates are known. However, applying these parameters to a large volume is challenging due to the thermal mass and subsequent thermal lag. The specific impact of this to the cryopreservation outcome is required. Under conditions of progressive solidification, the spatial location of Encapsulated Liver Spheroids had a strong impact on post-thaw recovery. Cells in areas first and last to solidify demonstrated significantly impaired post-thaw function, whereas areas solidifying through the majority of the process exhibited higher post-thaw outcome. It was also found that samples where the ice thawed more rapidly had greater post-thaw viability 24 h post-thaw (75.7 ± 3.9% and 62.0 ± 7.2% respectively). These findings have implications for the cryopreservation of large volumes with a rigid shape and for the cryopreservation of a Bioartificial Liver Device. PMID:27256662

  10. Graph animals, subgraph sampling, and motif search in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskerville, Kim; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2007-09-01

    We generalize a sampling algorithm for lattice animals (connected clusters on a regular lattice) to a Monte Carlo algorithm for “graph animals,” i.e., connected subgraphs in arbitrary networks. As with the algorithm in [N. Kashtan , Bioinformatics 20, 1746 (2004)], it provides a weighted sample, but the computation of the weights is much faster (linear in the size of subgraphs, instead of superexponential). This allows subgraphs with up to ten or more nodes to be sampled with very high statistics, from arbitrarily large networks. Using this together with a heuristic algorithm for rapidly classifying isomorphic graphs, we present results for two protein interaction networks obtained using the tandem affinity purification (TAP) method: one of Escherichia coli with 230 nodes and 695 links, and one for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with roughly ten times more nodes and links. We find in both cases that most connected subgraphs are strong motifs ( Z scores >10 ) or antimotifs ( Z scores <-10 ) when the null model is the ensemble of networks with fixed degree sequence. Strong differences appear between the two networks, with dominant motifs in E. coli being (nearly) bipartite graphs and having many pairs of nodes that connect to the same neighbors, while dominant motifs in yeast tend towards completeness or contain large cliques. We also explore a number of methods that do not rely on measurements of Z scores or comparisons with null models. For instance, we discuss the influence of specific complexes like the 26S proteasome in yeast, where a small number of complexes dominate the k cores with large k and have a decisive effect on the strongest motifs with 6-8 nodes. We also present Zipf plots of counts versus rank. They show broad distributions that are not power laws, in contrast to the case when disconnected subgraphs are included.

  11. Sampling Within k-Means Algorithm to Cluster Large Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, Jeremy; Bose, Koushiki; Brannan, Tyler; Thomas, Anita; Adragni, Kofi; Neerchal, Nagaraj; Ostrouchov, George

    2011-08-01

    Due to current data collection technology, our ability to gather data has surpassed our ability to analyze it. In particular, k-means, one of the simplest and fastest clustering algorithms, is ill-equipped to handle extremely large datasets on even the most powerful machines. Our new algorithm uses a sample from a dataset to decrease runtime by reducing the amount of data analyzed. We perform a simulation study to compare our sampling based k-means to the standard k-means algorithm by analyzing both the speed and accuracy of the two methods. Results show that our algorithm is significantly more efficient than the existing algorithm with comparable accuracy. Further work on this project might include a more comprehensive study both on more varied test datasets as well as on real weather datasets. This is especially important considering that this preliminary study was performed on rather tame datasets. Also, these datasets should analyze the performance of the algorithm on varied values of k. Lastly, this paper showed that the algorithm was accurate for relatively low sample sizes. We would like to analyze this further to see how accurate the algorithm is for even lower sample sizes. We could find the lowest sample sizes, by manipulating width and confidence level, for which the algorithm would be acceptably accurate. In order for our algorithm to be a success, it needs to meet two benchmarks: match the accuracy of the standard k-means algorithm and significantly reduce runtime. Both goals are accomplished for all six datasets analyzed. However, on datasets of three and four dimension, as the data becomes more difficult to cluster, both algorithms fail to obtain the correct classifications on some trials. Nevertheless, our algorithm consistently matches the performance of the standard algorithm while becoming remarkably more efficient with time. Therefore, we conclude that analysts can use our algorithm, expecting accurate results in considerably less time.

  12. Gene coexpression measures in large heterogeneous samples using count statistics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y X Rachel; Waterman, Michael S; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-11-18

    With the advent of high-throughput technologies making large-scale gene expression data readily available, developing appropriate computational tools to process these data and distill insights into systems biology has been an important part of the "big data" challenge. Gene coexpression is one of the earliest techniques developed that is still widely in use for functional annotation, pathway analysis, and, most importantly, the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks, based on gene expression data. However, most coexpression measures do not specifically account for local features in expression profiles. For example, it is very likely that the patterns of gene association may change or only exist in a subset of the samples, especially when the samples are pooled from a range of experiments. We propose two new gene coexpression statistics based on counting local patterns of gene expression ranks to take into account the potentially diverse nature of gene interactions. In particular, one of our statistics is designed for time-course data with local dependence structures, such as time series coupled over a subregion of the time domain. We provide asymptotic analysis of their distributions and power, and evaluate their performance against a wide range of existing coexpression measures on simulated and real data. Our new statistics are fast to compute, robust against outliers, and show comparable and often better general performance. PMID:25288767

  13. Gene coexpression measures in large heterogeneous samples using count statistics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. X. Rachel; Waterman, Michael S.; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput technologies making large-scale gene expression data readily available, developing appropriate computational tools to process these data and distill insights into systems biology has been an important part of the “big data” challenge. Gene coexpression is one of the earliest techniques developed that is still widely in use for functional annotation, pathway analysis, and, most importantly, the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks, based on gene expression data. However, most coexpression measures do not specifically account for local features in expression profiles. For example, it is very likely that the patterns of gene association may change or only exist in a subset of the samples, especially when the samples are pooled from a range of experiments. We propose two new gene coexpression statistics based on counting local patterns of gene expression ranks to take into account the potentially diverse nature of gene interactions. In particular, one of our statistics is designed for time-course data with local dependence structures, such as time series coupled over a subregion of the time domain. We provide asymptotic analysis of their distributions and power, and evaluate their performance against a wide range of existing coexpression measures on simulated and real data. Our new statistics are fast to compute, robust against outliers, and show comparable and often better general performance. PMID:25288767

  14. IRAS observations of a large sample of normal irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Gallagher, John S., III; Rice, Walter L.; Gillett, Fred C.

    1989-01-01

    IRAS 12, 25, 60, and 100 micron data are presented for a sample of Irr galaxies which span a large range in star-formation activity. It is found that the dwarf, giant, and amorphous Irr's generally have similar IR properties. The typical L(IR)/L(H-alpha) ratios of most classes of Irr's, except for many of the luminous blue galaxies, are low compared with those of spiral galaxies and are consistent with the Irr's being relatively transparent systems without large amounts of optically hidden star formation. Compared with spiral galaxies, the Irr's have similar L(IR)/L(B) ratios, warmer S(100)/S(60) ratios, cooler S(25)/S(12) ratios, and lower dust-to-H I gas mass ratios. The temperature, dust-to-H I gas mass ratios, and L(IR)/L(B) ratios do not correlate with the metallicity of the ionized gas of the Irr's. A correlation between the IR fluxes and both the H-alpha and the blue stellar fluxes is found for the Irr's.

  15. Testing Large CICC in Short Sample Configuration and Predicting Their Performance in Large Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2007-08-24

    It is well known that large Nb3Sn Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICC) do not always completely utilize current carrying capacity of the strands they are made of. The modern state of theory is not accurate enough to eliminate CICC full scale testing. Measuring properties of large CICC is not a simple task due to variety of parameters that need to be controlled, like temperature, exposure of all the strands to the peak magnetic field, mass flow and particular nonuniform current distribution. The paper presents some measurement issues of CICC testing in a short sample test facility, particularly, conditions for uniform current distribution and effect of twist pitches on the critical current.

  16. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  17. A large-scale cryoelectronic system for biological sample banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Stephen G.; Durst, Christopher H. P.; Fuchs, Christian C.; Zimmermann, Heiko; Ihmig, Frank R.

    2009-11-01

    We describe a polymorphic electronic infrastructure for managing biological samples stored over liquid nitrogen. As part of this system we have developed new cryocontainers and carrier plates attached to Flash memory chips to have a redundant and portable set of data at each sample. Our experimental investigations show that basic Flash operation and endurance is adequate for the application down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. This identification technology can provide the best sample identification, documentation and tracking that brings added value to each sample. The first application of the system is in a worldwide collaborative research towards the production of an AIDS vaccine. The functionality and versatility of the system can lead to an essential optimization of sample and data exchange for global clinical studies.

  18. Evaluation of neutron sources for ISAGE-in-situ-NAA for a future lunar mission.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Breitkreutz, H; Burfeindt, J; Bernhardt, H-G; Trieloff, M; Hopp, J; Jessberger, E K; Schwarz, W H; Hofmann, P; Hiesinger, H

    2011-11-01

    For a future Moon landing, a concept for an in-situ NAA involving age determination using the (40)Ar-(39)Ar method is developed. A neutron source (252)Cf is chosen for sample irradiation on the Moon. A special sample-in-source irradiation geometry is designed to provide a homogeneous distribution of neutron flux at the irradiation position. Using reflector, the neutron flux is likely to increase by almost 200%. Sample age of 1Ga could be determined. Elemental analysis using INAA is discussed. PMID:21680192

  19. Sampling Versus Filtering in Large-Eddy Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debliquy, O.; Knaepen, B.; Carati, D.; Wray, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    A LES formalism in which the filter operator is replaced by a sampling operator is proposed. The unknown quantities that appear in the LES equations originate only from inadequate resolution (Discretization errors). The resulting viewpoint seems to make a link between finite difference approaches and finite element methods. Sampling operators are shown to commute with nonlinearities and to be purely projective. Moreover, their use allows an unambiguous definition of the LES numerical grid. The price to pay is that sampling never commutes with spatial derivatives and the commutation errors must be modeled. It is shown that models for the discretization errors may be treated using the dynamic procedure. Preliminary results, using the Smagorinsky model, are very encouraging.

  20. Boosting association rule mining in large datasets via Gibbs sampling.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guoqi; Rao, Calyampudi Radhakrishna; Sun, Xiaoying; Wu, Yuehua

    2016-05-01

    Current algorithms for association rule mining from transaction data are mostly deterministic and enumerative. They can be computationally intractable even for mining a dataset containing just a few hundred transaction items, if no action is taken to constrain the search space. In this paper, we develop a Gibbs-sampling-induced stochastic search procedure to randomly sample association rules from the itemset space, and perform rule mining from the reduced transaction dataset generated by the sample. Also a general rule importance measure is proposed to direct the stochastic search so that, as a result of the randomly generated association rules constituting an ergodic Markov chain, the overall most important rules in the itemset space can be uncovered from the reduced dataset with probability 1 in the limit. In the simulation study and a real genomic data example, we show how to boost association rule mining by an integrated use of the stochastic search and the Apriori algorithm. PMID:27091963

  1. Efficient Coalescent Simulation and Genealogical Analysis for Large Sample Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Jerome; Etheridge, Alison M; McVean, Gilean

    2016-01-01

    A central challenge in the analysis of genetic variation is to provide realistic genome simulation across millions of samples. Present day coalescent simulations do not scale well, or use approximations that fail to capture important long-range linkage properties. Analysing the results of simulations also presents a substantial challenge, as current methods to store genealogies consume a great deal of space, are slow to parse and do not take advantage of shared structure in correlated trees. We solve these problems by introducing sparse trees and coalescence records as the key units of genealogical analysis. Using these tools, exact simulation of the coalescent with recombination for chromosome-sized regions over hundreds of thousands of samples is possible, and substantially faster than present-day approximate methods. We can also analyse the results orders of magnitude more quickly than with existing methods. PMID:27145223

  2. Neutral hydrogen observations of a large sample of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.R.; Tully, R.B.

    1981-10-01

    A sample of 1787 nearby galaxies has been observed in the 21 cm line with the NRAO 91 m and 43 m telescopes and the Bonn 100 m telescope. A total of 1171 galaxies were detected. The radio observations provide an accurate heliocentric velocity, an H I flux, and a line profile width for each detection. Literature optical magnitudes, dimensions, and morphological types are reduced to common systems and tabulated. Intrinsic luminosities, dimensions, H I masses, and total masses are determined, assuming distances derived from redshifts.

  3. Two Test Items to Explore High School Students' Beliefs of Sample Size When Sampling from Large Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill, Anthony; Henderson, Sally; Penman, John

    2010-01-01

    Two test items that examined high school students' beliefs of sample size for large populations using the context of opinion polls conducted prior to national and state elections were developed. A trial of the two items with 21 male and 33 female Year 9 students examined their naive understanding of sample size: over half of students chose a…

  4. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS): Initial application and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, initial application, and evaluation of the Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS). Grounded in Communication Accommodation Theory, this coding system provides a method for analyzing physician and patient nonverbal accommodation behaviors within medical consultations. Methods Video recordings of 45 new visit consultations at a comprehensive cancer center were coded using the NAAS. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were assessed. For validation purposes, two independent coders rated all consultations for theoretically-related constructs. Results The NAAS demonstrated high levels of reliability. Statistically significant correlations were observed across all 10 behavior categories for both inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Evidence of content and construct validity was also observed. Conclusion The current study presents the initial application and evaluation of a coding system meant for analysis of the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within medical consultations. The results of this initial trial and psychometric evaluation provide evidence of the NAAS as a valid and reliable nonverbal accommodation coding system. PMID:20851559

  5. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 420 - Sample Large Position Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sample Large Position Report B... SECTION 15C OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 LARGE POSITION REPORTING Pt. 420, App. B Appendix B to Part 420—Sample Large Position Report Formula for Determining a Reportable Position Security...

  6. Height-resolved large-sample INAA of a 1 m long, 13 cm diameter ditch-bottom sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaauw, M.; Baas, H. W.; Donze, M.

    2003-06-01

    A facility for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of large samples (up to 1 m long and 15 cm diameter) has been built. Correction methods for the simultaneous occurrence of neutron self-shielding and gamma-ray self-attenuation effects have been implemented and tested with a variety of samples. Now, the method has been extended to allow for the interpretation of scanned, collimated measurements, where results are obtained for individual voxels. As a validation and demonstration, a ditch-bottom sample of the maximum size was taken in a frozen condition. It was cut in 2 cm slices, still frozen, and put together again with each slice in a 2 cm height Petri dish divided in three sections. This allowed for verification of the results by ordinary INAA. Possible explanations for the discrepancies we observed between ordinary and large-sample INAA in the region where the concentration gradients are the steepest are discussed.

  7. Preparation of zeolite NaA for CO2 capture from nickel laterite residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tao; Liu, Li-ying; Xiao, Penny; Che, Shuai; Wang, He-ming

    2014-08-01

    Zeolite NaA was successfully prepared from nickel laterite residue for the first time via a fusion-hydrothermal procedure. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized zeolite NaA were characterized with a range of experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. It was revealed that the structures of the produced zeolites were dependent on the molar ratios of the reactants and hydrothermal reaction conditions, so the synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain pure zeolite NaA. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the prepared zeolite NaA was also measured and analyzed. The results showed that zeolite NaA could be prepared with reasonable purity, it had physicochemical properties comparable with zeolite NaA made from other methods, and it had excellent gas adsorption properties, thus demonstrating that zeolite NaA could be prepared from nickel laterite residue.

  8. Factor Structure and Correlates of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in a Large Offender Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Mark A.; Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Douglas, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties, factor structure, and construct validity of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) in a large offender sample (N = 1,515). Although the DES is widely used with community and clinical samples, minimal work has examined offender samples. Participants were administered self-report and interview…

  9. Sodium Analysis in Whole Blood of Athletes Using NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2010-08-04

    In this investigation the sodium levels in blood were analyzed in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill (LABEX and UNICAMP) by NAA. These data were compared with the rest condition (before starting the exercise program) as well as with the sodium levels of the healthy group (control group) select from Blood Banks. The results showed alterations in sodium levels of the athletes during the exercise training, mainly increase, suggesting the necessity of its evaluation during physical activities.

  10. Concentration of Ca in blood of amateur runners using NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Nunes, L. A. S.; Lourenco, T. F.; Macedo, D. V.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the Ca levels were determined in amateur runners blood at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil), using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The range established at rest (162 - 410 mgL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (51 - 439 mgL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training.

  11. Concentration of Ca in blood of amateur runners using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Nunes, L. A. S.; Lourenço, T. F.; Macedo, D. V.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the Ca levels were determined in amateur runners blood at LABEX (Laboratório de Bioquímica do Exercício - UNICAMP, Brazil), using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The range established at rest (162 - 410 mgL-1) when compared with control group (51 - 439 mgL-1) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training.

  12. Sampling benthic macroinvertebrates in a large flood-plain river: Considerations of study design, sample size, and cost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Naimo, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of benthic macroinvertebrate populations over large spatial scales is difficult due to the high variability in abundance and the cost of sample processing and taxonomic analysis. To determine a cost-effective, statistically powerful sample design, we conducted an exploratory study of the spatial variation of benthic macroinvertebrates in a 37 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River. We sampled benthos at 36 sites within each of two strata, contiguous backwater and channel border. Three standard ponar (525 cm(2)) grab samples were obtained at each site ('Original Design'). Analysis of variance and sampling cost of strata-wide estimates for abundance of Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, and total invertebrates showed that only one ponar sample per site ('Reduced Design') yielded essentially the same abundance estimates as the Original Design, while reducing the overall cost by 63%. A posteriori statistical power analysis (alpha = 0.05, beta = 0.20) on the Reduced Design estimated that at least 18 sites per stratum were needed to detect differences in mean abundance between contiguous backwater and channel border areas for Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, and total invertebrates. Statistical power was nearly identical for the three taxonomic groups. The abundances of several taxa of concern (e.g., Hexagenia mayflies and Musculium fingernail clams) were too spatially variable to estimate power with our method. Resampling simulations indicated that to achieve adequate sampling precision for Oligochaeta, at least 36 sample sites per stratum would be required, whereas a sampling precision of 0.2 would not be attained with any sample size for Hexagenia in channel border areas, or Chironomidae and Musculium in both strata given the variance structure of the original samples. Community-wide diversity indices (Brillouin and 1-Simpsons) increased as sample area per site increased. The backwater area had higher diversity than the channel border area. The number of sampling sites

  13. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-02-13

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.

  14. Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for Water/Ethanol Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Wei

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports preparation and separation testing results of water-selective zeolite membrane, such as NaA (or 4A-type), supported on a robust, porous metal sheet of 50um thickness. The thin sheet support is of large potential for development of a low-cost, inorganic membrane module of high surface area packing density. The porous Ni alloy sheet of micrometer or sub-micrometer mean pore size, which was prepared by a proprietary process, is used to evaluate different zeolite membrane deposition methods and conditions. The membranes are characterized by SEM, XRD and water/ethanol separation tests. Quality NaA zeolite membrane at thickness <2um is obtained with the secondary hydrothermal growth method. This membrane shows water/ethanol separation factor of >10,000 and water permeation flux of about 4 kg/(m2•h) at 75ºC with a feed of 10wt% water in ethanol. The membrane is also demonstrated with good stability in 66-hour continuous testing at 75ºC and 90ºC.

  15. Comment: More on Goodness of Fit between Two Large Sample Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, John G.

    1978-01-01

    The first article questions how substantial the difference is between the Current Population Sample and the NCOA-Harris, given the large size. The second article is a rebuttal of the first. (Author/HMU)

  16. Eclipsing binary stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from the MACHO project: The Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, L; Alcock, C; Cook, K; Prochter, G; Protopapas, P; Syphers, D

    2007-03-29

    We present a new sample of 4634 eclipsing binary stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), expanding on a previous sample of 611 objects and a new sample of 1509 eclipsing binary stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), that were identified in the light curve database of the MACHO project. We perform a cross correlation with the OGLE-II LMC sample, finding 1236 matches. A cross correlation with the OGLE-II SMC sample finds 698 matches. We then compare the LMC subsamples corresponding to center and the periphery of the LMC and find only minor differences between the two populations. These samples are sufficiently large and complete that statistical studies of the binary star populations are possible.

  17. A Test of Spearman's ''Law of Diminishing Returns'' in Two Large Samples of Danish Military Draftees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Peter; Teasdale, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    Spearman's ''Law of Diminishing Returns'' (SLODR) predicts that "g" saturation for cognitive tests will be lower at high ability levels than at low ability levels. This hypothesis was tested in two large samples of Danish military draftees (n=33,833 and n=25,020). The subjects were representative samples of the young adult male population and 95%…

  18. Large Sample Confidence Limits for Goodman and Kruskal's Proportional Prediction Measure TAU-b

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran Extended program which computes Goodman and Kruskal's Tau-b, its asymmetrical counterpart, Tau-a, and three sets of confidence limits for each coefficient under full multinomial and proportional stratified sampling is presented. A correction of an error in the calculation of the large sample standard error of Tau-b is discussed.…

  19. Large Sample Hydrology : Building an international sample of watersheds to improve consistency and robustness of model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathevet, Thibault; Kumar, Rohini; Gupta, Hoshin; Vaze, Jai; Andréassian, Vazken

    2015-04-01

    This poster introduces the aims of the Large Sample Hydrology working group (LSH-WG) of the new IAHS Panta Rhei decade (2013-2022). The aim of the LSH-WG is to promote large sample hydrology, as discussed by Gupta et al. (2014) and to invite the community to collaborate on building and sharing a comprehensive and representative world-wide sample of watershed datasets. By doing so, LSH will allow the community to work towards 'hydrological consistency' (Martinez and Gupta, 2011) as a basis for hydrologic model development and evaluation, thereby increasing robustness of the model evaluation process. Classical model evaluation metrics based on 'robust statistics' are needed, but clearly not sufficient: multi-criteria assessments based on multiple hydrological signatures can help to better characterize hydrological functioning. Further, large-sample data sets can greatly facilitate: (i) improved understanding through rigorous testing and comparison of competing model hypothesis and structures, (ii) improved robustness of generalizations through statistical analyses that minimize the influence of outliers and case-specific studies, (iii) classification, regionalization and model transfer across a broad diversity of hydrometeorological contexts, and (iv) estimation of predictive uncertainties at a location and across locations (Mathevet et al., 2006; Andréassian et al., 2009; Gupta et al., 2014) References Andréassian, V., Perrin, C., Berthet, L., Le Moine, N., Lerat, J., Loumagne, C., Oudin, L., Mathevet, T., Ramos, M. H., and Valéry, A.: Crash tests for a standardized evaluation of hydrological models, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 1757-1764, 2009. Gupta, H. V., Perrin, C., Blöschl, G., Montanari, A., Kumar, R., Clark, M., and Andréassian, V.: Large-sample hydrology: a need to balance depth with breadth, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 463-477, doi:10.5194/hess-18-463-2014, 2014. Martinez, G. F., and H. V.Gupta (2011), Hydrologic consistency as a basis for

  20. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Knaus, Z.C.

    1995-06-12

    This is the decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan for the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility at Hanford Reservation. This document supports the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan, DOE-RL-90-25. The 105-DR LSFF, which operated from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The LSFF was established to investigate fire fighting and safety associated with alkali metal fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor facilities. The decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan identifies the decontamination procedures, sampling locations, any special handling requirements, quality control samples, required chemical analysis, and data validation needed to meet the requirements of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  1. Analysis of Cl and Na in Hyperimmune Sera by NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, T. S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Marcelino, J. R.

    2011-08-01

    The Cl and Na concentration values in four types of hyperimmune sera (anti-Bothrops, anti-Diphtheria, anti-Rabies and anti-Tetanus) used for immunological therapy were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). These data were compatible with the specifications established by the Word Health Organization (WHO-OMS) and with the Brazilian Official Pharmacopea (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country). These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brazil), responsible for supplying the Brazilian market.

  2. A novel computational approach towards the certification of large-scale boson sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Joonsuk

    Recent proposals of boson sampling and the corresponding experiments exhibit the possible disproof of extended Church-Turning Thesis. Furthermore, the application of boson sampling to molecular computation has been suggested theoretically. Till now, however, only small-scale experiments with a few photons have been successfully performed. The boson sampling experiments of 20-30 photons are expected to reveal the computational superiority of the quantum device. A novel theoretical proposal for the large-scale boson sampling using microwave photons is highly promising due to the deterministic photon sources and the scalability. Therefore, the certification protocol of large-scale boson sampling experiments should be presented to complete the exciting story. We propose, in this presentation, a computational protocol towards the certification of large-scale boson sampling. The correlations of paired photon modes and the time-dependent characteristic functional with its Fourier component can show the fingerprint of large-scale boson sampling. This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(NRF-2015R1A6A3A04059773), the ICT R&D program of MSIP/IITP [2015-019, Fundamental Research Toward Secure Quantum Communication] and Mueunjae Institute for Chemistry (MIC) postdoctoral fellowship.

  3. RAPID FUSION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES IN LARGE RICE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-03-01

    A new rapid fusion method for the determination of plutonium in large rice samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used to determine very low levels of plutonium isotopes in rice. The recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid, reliable radiochemical analyses for radionuclides in environmental and food samples. Public concern regarding foods, particularly foods such as rice in Japan, highlights the need for analytical techniques that will allow very large sample aliquots of rice to be used for analysis so that very low levels of plutonium isotopes may be detected. The new method to determine plutonium isotopes in large rice samples utilizes a furnace ashing step, a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with TEVA Resin cartridges. The method can be applied to rice sample aliquots as large as 5 kg. Plutonium isotopes can be determined using alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory plutonium particles are effectively digested. The MDA for a 5 kg rice sample using alpha spectrometry is 7E-5 mBq g{sup -1}. The method can easily be adapted for use by ICP-MS to allow detection of plutonium isotopic ratios.

  4. The biological functions of Naa10 — From amino-terminal acetylation to human disease

    PubMed Central

    Dörfel, Max J.; Lyon, Gholson J.

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (NTA) is one of the most abundant protein modifications known, and the N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) machinery is conserved throughout all Eukarya. Over the past 50 years, the function of NTA has begun to be slowly elucidated, and this includes the modulation of protein–protein interaction, protein-stability, protein function, and protein targeting to specific cellular compartments. Many of these functions have been studied in the context of Naa10/NatA; however, we are only starting to really understand the full complexity of this picture. Roughly, about 40% of all human proteins are substrates of Naa10 and the impact of this modification has only been studied for a few of them. Besides acting as a NAT in the NatA complex, recently other functions have been linked to Naa10, including post-translational NTA, lysine acetylation, and NAT/KAT-independent functions. Also, recent publications have linked mutations in Naa10 to various diseases, emphasizing the importance of Naa10 research in humans. The recent design and synthesis of the first bisubstrate inhibitors that potently and selectively inhibit the NatA/Naa10 complex, monomeric Naa10, and hNaa50 further increases the toolset to analyze Naa10 function. PMID:25987439

  5. Influence of NaA Zeolite Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Gibbons, Will T; Soydas, Belma; Kita, Hidetoshi; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ powder XRD measurements showed that the NaA zeolite unit cell contracts and expands upon adsorption, and these changes in zeolite crystal size correlate with permeation changes through NaA zeolite membranes. These membranes had high pervaporation selectivities, even though gas permeation was mainly through defects, as indicated by Knudsen selectivities for gases. At 300 K and a thermodynamic activity of 0.03, water contracted the NaA crystals by 0.22 vol%, and this contraction increased the helium flux through two NaA membranes by approximately 80%. Crystal contraction also increased the fluxes of i-butane during vapor permeation and i-propanol (IPA) during pervaporation (~ 0.03 wt% water). At activities above 0.07, water expanded NaA crystals and correspondingly decreased the membrane fluxes of helium, i-butane, and IPA. Similarly, methanol contracted NaA crystals by 0.05 vol% at an activity of 0.02, and this contraction slightly increased the helium and i-butane fluxes through a NaA membrane. Above an activity of 0.06, methanol expanded the crystals, and the fluxes of helium and i-butane through a NaA membrane decreased. The adsorbate-induced changes explain some pervaporation behavior reported by others, and they indicate that crystal expansion and contraction may increase or decrease zeolite NaA membrane selectivity by changing the defect sizes.

  6. Soil Property Mapping Over Large Areas Using Sparse Ad-hoc Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, A.; Liu, J.

    2011-12-01

    Information on spatial variation of soil properties over large areas is a critical input for environmental modeling at large scales. Yet, quality information on soil spatial variation over large areas is difficult to obtain due to the large number of field samples required. Existing samples are often sparse and ad-hoc. The soil property maps created from these samples using existing techniques are not only at low quality but also lack the uncertainty information. This paper presents a new approach to map soil properties and quantify uncertainty in the derived soil property maps over large areas using sparse and ad-hoc samples. The underlying assumption of this new approach is the soil-landscape concept which stipulates that the more similar the environment conditions between two locations the more similar the soil property values are between the two sites. Under this assumption each sample can be considered as a representative over areas of similar environmental conditions. The level of representation of an individual sample for an unsampled location can be approximated by the similarity between their respective environment conditions. Based on this "individual representation" concept and with a Case-based Reasoning (CBR) approach soil property values at unsampled locations can be predicted and the uncertainty associated with each prediction can also be quantified based on their environmental similarity to individual samples. A case study over the Illy Region, a 50,000 km2 area in Xinjiang, Northwest China, has demonstrated that the approach can be an effective alternative for mapping soil property and quantifying uncertainty over large areas with sparse and ad-hoc samples.

  7. Modern sampled-data control theory: Design of the Large Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of varying the sampling period on the dynamic response of the sampled-data Large Space Telescope (LST) system. A range of sampling periods was recommended based on the criterion that self-sustained oscillations are to be avoided in the LST system. The step responses of the LST system were then investigated when various sampling periods are used. For small sampling periods, the dynamic behavior of the sampled-data system is very similar to that of the continuous-data system. When T is large (but less than 0.25 sec) the overshoot of the step response of the sampled-data becomes greater. However, the dynamic behavior of the sampled-data system may be improved by redesigning the controller. It appears that a sampling period as high as 0.1 second is feasible for the LST system. However, it should be noted that the conclusions are obtained with the existing system model. Other practical considerations such as noise, coupling effects and quantization errors, may restrict the sampling period to a lower value.

  8. Smart sampling and incremental function learning for very large high dimensional data.

    PubMed

    Loyola R, Diego G; Pedergnana, Mattia; Gimeno García, Sebastián

    2016-06-01

    Very large high dimensional data are common nowadays and they impose new challenges to data-driven and data-intensive algorithms. Computational Intelligence techniques have the potential to provide powerful tools for addressing these challenges, but the current literature focuses mainly on handling scalability issues related to data volume in terms of sample size for classification tasks. This work presents a systematic and comprehensive approach for optimally handling regression tasks with very large high dimensional data. The proposed approach is based on smart sampling techniques for minimizing the number of samples to be generated by using an iterative approach that creates new sample sets until the input and output space of the function to be approximated are optimally covered. Incremental function learning takes place in each sampling iteration, the new samples are used to fine tune the regression results of the function learning algorithm. The accuracy and confidence levels of the resulting approximation function are assessed using the probably approximately correct computation framework. The smart sampling and incremental function learning techniques can be easily used in practical applications and scale well in the case of extremely large data. The feasibility and good results of the proposed techniques are demonstrated using benchmark functions as well as functions from real-world problems. PMID:26476936

  9. Composition analysis of large samples with PGNAA using a fixed point iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, Hatice

    2002-09-01

    The composition problem in large sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a nonlinear inverse problem. The basic form of the nonlinear inverse composition problem is presented. This problem is then formulated in a general way, as a fixed point problem, without addressing any specific application or sample type or linearization approach. This approach of formulating the problem as a fixed point problem suggested a natural fixed point iteration. The algorithm of the fixed point iteration solves the nonlinear composition problem using a combination of measured and computed data. The effectiveness of the fixed point iteration for composition analysis is demonstrated using purely numerical experiments. These numerical experiments showed that the fixed point iteration can be successfully applied to find the bulk composition of large samples, with excellent agreement between the estimated and true composition of the samples, in a few iterations, independent of the initial guess. In order to test the fixed point iteration using real experimental data, a series of large sample PGNAA measurements were performed at ANL-W. These experiments are described and the measured spectra for the samples are presented. Then, the fixed point iteration is applied for these real experiments to find the composition of the samples. In all of the cases, except borated polyethylene, the composition of the large samples are found in a few iterations with errors less than +/-1.3%. The effectiveness of the fixed point iteration is thus demonstrated with many proof-of-principle measurements. While testing the fixed point iteration algorithm, published values of the source spectrum and relative detector efficiencies are used. The sensitivity of the fixed point iteration to source spectrum is investigated and it is shown that the estimated composition results are not very sensitive to the change in the source spectrum. The reason behind the slow convergence for the borated

  10. Large loop conformation sampling using the activation relaxation technique, ART-nouveau method.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2012-07-01

    We present an adaptation of the ART-nouveau energy surface sampling method to the problem of loop structure prediction. This method, previously used to study protein folding pathways and peptide aggregation, is well suited to the problem of sampling the conformation space of large loops by targeting probable folding pathways instead of sampling exhaustively that space. The number of sampled conformations needed by ART nouveau to find the global energy minimum for a loop was found to scale linearly with the sequence length of the loop for loops between 8 and about 20 amino acids. Considering the linear scaling dependence of the computation cost on the loop sequence length for sampling new conformations, we estimate the total computational cost of sampling larger loops to scale quadratically compared to the exponential scaling of exhaustive search methods. PMID:22488731

  11. Analysis of ZDDP Content and Thermal Decomposition in Motor Oils Using NAA and NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, S.; Johnson, J.; Gonzales, D.; Hobbs, C.; Allen, C.; Williams, S.

    Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPs) are one of the most common anti-wear additives present in commercially-available motor oils. The ZDDP concentrations of motor oils are most commonly determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). As part of an undergraduate research project, we have determined the Zn concentrations of eight commercially-available motor oils and one oil additive using neutron activation analysis (NAA), which has potential for greater accuracy and less sensitivity to matrix effects as compared to ICP-AES. The 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectra were also obtained for several oil additive samples which have been heated to various temperatures in order to study the thermal decomposition of ZDDPs.

  12. Reversible emission evolution from Ag activated zeolite Na-A upon dehydration/hydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp; Imakita, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2014-11-24

    Reversible emission evolution of thermally treated Ag activated zeolite Na-A upon dehydration/hydration in vacuum/water vapor was observed. The phenomenon was observed even for the sample with low Ag{sup +}-Na{sup +} exchanging (8.3%), indicating that the emission from Ag activated zeolites may not come from Ag clusters while from the surrounding coordinated Ag{sup +} ions or Ag{sup 0} atoms. It was disclosed that the characteristic yellow-green emission at ∼560 ± 15 nm is strongly associated with the coordinating water molecules to the Ag{sup +} ions or Ag{sup 0} atoms, which is clear evidence for that the efficient emission from Ag activated zeolites may not originate from the quantum confinement effect.

  13. Evaluation of three gears for sampling spawning populations of rainbow trout in a large Alaskan river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwanke, C.J.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Alternatives to electrofishing are needed for sampling sexually mature rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during the spawning season in large Alaskan rivers. We compared hook and line, beach seining, and actively fished gill nets as sampling tools. Beach seining and active gill netting yielded similar catch rates, length frequencies, and sex ratios of sexually mature fish. Hook-and-line sampling was less effective, with a lower catch rate and selectivity for immature fish and sexually mature females. We conclude that both beach seining and active gill netting can serve as alternatives to electrofishing for sampling sexually mature rainbow trout stocks during the spawning season in large rivers with stable spring flows and spawning areas with few snags.

  14. Infrared and Raman screening of seized novel psychoactive substances: a large scale study of >200 samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, L E; Stewart, A; Peters, K L; McNaul, M; Speers, S J; Fletcher, N C; Bell, S E J

    2016-02-01

    The potential of IR absorption and Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been tested using a set of 221 unsorted seized samples suspected of containing NPS. Both IR and Raman spectra showed large variation between the different sub-classifications of NPS and smaller, but still distinguishable, differences between closely related compounds within the same class. In initial tests, screening the samples using spectral searching against a limited reference library allowed only 41% of the samples to be fully identified. The limiting factor in the identification was the large number of active compounds in the seized samples for which no reference vibrational data were available in the libraries rather than poor spectral quality. Therefore, when 33 of these compounds were independently identified by NMR and mass spectrometry and their spectra used to extend the libraries, the percentage of samples identified by IR and Raman screening alone increased to 76%, with only 7% of samples having no identifiable constituents. This study, which is the largest of its type ever carried out, therefore demonstrates that this approach of detecting non-matching samples and then identifying them using standard analytical methods has considerable potential in NPS screening since it allows rapid identification of the constituents of the majority of street quality samples. Only one complete feedback cycle was carried out in this study but there is clearly the potential to carry out continuous identification/updating when this system is used in operational settings. PMID:26779571

  15. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2010-07-26

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  16. Two phase sampling for wheat acreage estimation. [large area crop inventory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. W.; Hay, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    A two phase LANDSAT-based sample allocation and wheat proportion estimation method was developed. This technique employs manual, LANDSAT full frame-based wheat or cultivated land proportion estimates from a large number of segments comprising a first sample phase to optimally allocate a smaller phase two sample of computer or manually processed segments. Application to the Kansas Southwest CRD for 1974 produced a wheat acreage estimate for that CRD within 2.42 percent of the USDA SRS-based estimate using a lower CRD inventory budget than for a simulated reference LACIE system. Factor of 2 or greater cost or precision improvements relative to the reference system were obtained.

  17. Novel Technique for Sampling of Breast Implant–associated Seroma in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    T’Kindt, Johan; Mertens, Marianne; Colpaert, Steven D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We describe a novel technique for the sampling of breast implant–associated seroma. Using a blunt-tip lipofilling cannula, we have the freedom of movement to sample all fluid collections and prevent the misfortunes of damaging the implant. Also, we have demonstrated the inability of the Coleman style I lipofilling cannula to perforate a silicone breast implant. This practical and reliable technique will prove to be useful in managing the breast implant–associated seroma, especially with the rising incidence of the anaplastic large cell lymphoma, where the sampling of seroma is mandatory. PMID:27200250

  18. TRUNK SPROUTING AND GROWTH OF CITRUS AS AFFECTED BY NAA, ALUMINUM FOIL, AND PLASTIC TRUNK WRAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spring 1999, a commercial NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) preparation for trunk sprout inhibition was compared to a corrugated plastic trunk wrap, aluminum foil wrap, bimonthly hand-removal of sprouts, use of NAA preparation plus bimonthly hand-removal when sprouts appeared, and a non-treated cont...

  19. Dynamic dialysis: an efficient technique for large-volume sample desalting.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Le, Zhen; Zhong, Lipeng; Huang, Chunhong

    2015-08-18

    Dialysis is a well-known technique for laboratory separation. However, its efficiency is commonly restricted by the dialyzer volume and its passive diffusion manner. In addition, the sample is likely to be precipitated and inactive during a long dialysis process. To overcome these drawbacks, a dynamic dialysis method was described and evaluated. The dynamic dialysis was performed by two peristaltic pumps working in reverse directions, in order to drive countercurrent parallel flow of sample and buffer, respectively. The efficiency and capacity of this dynamic dialysis method was evaluated by recording and statistically comparing the variation of conductance from retentate under different conditions. The dynamic method was proven to be effective in dialyzing a large-volume sample, and its efficiency changes proportionally to the flow rate of sample. To sum up, circulating the sample and the buffer creates the highest possible concentration gradient to significantly improve dialysis capacity and shorten dialysis time. PMID:25036273

  20. Imitation of Tongue Protrusion in Human Neonates: Specificity of the Response in a Large Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Pilling, Karen; Orvos, Hajnalka; Molnar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although a large body of evidence has accumulated on the young human infant's ability to imitate, the phenomenon has failed to gain unanimous acceptance. Imitation of tongue protrusion, the most tested gesture to date, was examined in a sample of 115 newborns in the first 5 days of life in 3 seating positions. An ethologically based…

  1. A COMPARISON OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE SAMPLING METHODS ON SELECTED LARGE RIVER TRIBUTARIES TO THE MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared three benthic macroinvertebrate sampling methods on the St. Croix, Wisconsin and Scioto Rivers in summer 2004 and 2005. EPA's newly developed, multi-habitat Large River Bioassessment Protocol (LR-BP) was compared to the multi-habitat method of the Minnesota Pollution...

  2. Fruity Fermented Off-flavor Distribution in Samples from Large Peanut Lots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruity fermented (FF) off-flavor develops when immature peanuts are cured at excessive temperatures (>35ºC). The objective of this study was to characterize FF distributions and determine the variability among samples from large peanut lots. Twenty peanut lots identified as having a range of FF of...

  3. Software engineering the mixed model for genome-wide association studies on large samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixed models improve the ability to detect phenotype-genotype associations in the presence of population stratification and multiple levels of relatedness in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but for large data sets the resource consumption becomes impractical. At the same time, the sample siz...

  4. In-situ sampling of a large-scale particle simulation for interactive visualization and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Jonathan L; Ahrens, James P; Heitmann, Katrin

    2010-12-09

    We propose storing a random sampling of data from large scale particle simulations, such as the Roadrunner Universe MC{sup 3} cosmological simulation, to be used for interactive post-analysis and visualization. Simulation data generation rates will continue to be far greater than storage bandwidth rates and other limiting technologies by many orders of magnitude. This implies that only a very small fraction of data generated by the simulation can ever be stored and subsequently post-analyzed. The limiting technology in this situation is analogous to the problem in many population surveys: there aren't enough human resources to query a large population. To cope with the lack of resources, statistical sampling techniques are used to create a representative data set of a large population. Mirroring that situation, we propose to store a simulation-time random sampling of the particle data to cope with the bOlllenecks and support interactive, exploratory post-analysis. The particle samples are immediately stored in a level-ol-detail format for post-visualization and analysis, which amortizes the cost of post-processing for interactive visualization. Additionally, we incorporate a system for recording and visualizing sample approximation error information for confidence and importance highlighting.

  5. A flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors.

    PubMed

    Egan, R; Philippe, M; Wera, L; Fagnard, J F; Vanderheyden, B; Dennis, A; Shi, Y; Cardwell, D A; Vanderbemden, P

    2015-02-01

    We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm(3)) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 A m(2) (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). PMID:25725888

  6. A flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, R.; Philippe, M.; Wera, L.; Fagnard, J. F.; Vanderheyden, B.; Dennis, A.; Shi, Y.; Cardwell, D. A.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2015-02-01

    We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm3) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 A m2 (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K).

  7. Estimating parameters of neutral communities: from one single large to several small samples.

    PubMed

    Munoz, François; Couteron, Pierre; Ramesh, B R; Etienne, Rampal S

    2007-10-01

    The neutral theory of S. P. Hubbell postulates a two-scale hierarchical framework consisting of a metacommunity following the speciation-drift equilibrium characterized by the "biodiversity number" theta, and local communities following the migration-drift equilibrium characterized by the "migration rate" m (or the "fundamental dispersal number" I). While Etienne's sampling formula allows simultaneous estimation of theta and m from a single sample of a local community, its applicability to a network of (rather small) samples is questionable. We define here an alternative two-stage approach estimating theta from an adequate subset of the individuals sampled in the field (using Ewens' sampling formula) and m from community samples (using Etienne's sampling formula). We compare its results with the simultaneous estimation of theta and m (one-stage estimation), for simulated neutral samples and for 50 1-ha plots of evergreen forest in South India. The one-stage approach exhibits problems of bias and of poor differentiability between high-theta, low-m and low-theta, high-m solution domains. Conversely, the two-stage approach yielded reasonable estimates and is to be preferred when several small, scattered plots are available instead of a single large one. PMID:18027751

  8. A sparse-sampling strategy for the estimation of large-scale clustering from redshift surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, N.

    1986-04-01

    It is shown that a fractional faint-magnitude limited redshift survey can significantly reduce the uncertainty in the two-point function for a given telescope time investment, in the estimation of large scale clustering. The signal-to-noise ratio for a 1-in-20 bright galaxy sample is roughly twice that provided by a same-cost complete survey, and this performance is the same as for a larger complete survey of about seven times the cost. A similar performance increase is achieved with a wide-field telescope multiple redshift collection from a close to full sky coverage survey. Little performance improvement is seen for smaller multiply collected surveys ideally sampled at a 1-in-10 bright galaxy rate. The optimum sampling fraction for Abell's rich clusters is found to be close to unity, with little sparse sampling performance improvement.

  9. The x ray properties of a large, uniform QSO sample: Einstein observations of the LBQS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Anderson, S. F.; Xu, X.; Green, P. J.; Foltz, C. B.

    1992-01-01

    Although there are large numbers of Quasi Stellar Objects (QSO's) now observed in X rays, extensive X-ray observations of uniformly selected, 'complete' QSO samples are more rare. The Large Bright QSO Survey (LBQS) consists of about 1000 objects with well understood properties, most brighter than B = 18.8 and thus amenable to X-ray detections in relatively brief exposures. The sample is thought to be highly complete in the range 0.2 less than z less than 3.3, a significantly broader interval than many other surveys. The Einstein IPC observed 150 of these objects, mostly serendipitously, during its lifetime. We report the results of an analysis of these IPC data, considering not only the 20 percent of the objects we find to have positive X-ray detections, but also the ensemble X-ray properties derived by 'image stacking'.

  10. The N-terminal acetyltransferase Naa10 is essential for zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Ree, Rasmus; Myklebust, Line M.; Thiel, Puja; Foyn, Håvard; Fladmark, Kari E.; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation, catalysed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes and involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the α-amino group of the first amino acid. Functions of N-terminal acetylation include protein degradation and sub-cellular targeting. Recent findings in humans indicate that a dysfunctional Nα-acetyltransferase (Naa) 10, the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major NAT, is associated with lethality during infancy. In the present study, we identified the Danio rerio orthologue zebrafish Naa 10 (zNaa10). In vitro N-terminal acetylation assays revealed that zNaa10 has NAT activity with substrate specificity highly similar to that of human Naa10. Spatiotemporal expression pattern was determined by in situ hybridization, showing ubiquitous expression with especially strong staining in brain and eye. By morpholino-mediated knockdown, we demonstrated that naa10 morphants displayed increased lethality, growth retardation and developmental abnormalities like bent axis, abnormal eyes and bent tails. In conclusion, we identified the zebrafish Naa10 orthologue and revealed that it is essential for normal development and viability of zebrafish. PMID:26251455

  11. RAPID METHOD FOR PLUTONIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM IN VERY LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S

    2007-01-08

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in very large soil samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multistage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines an acid leach step and innovative matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. This method is unique in that it provides high tracer recoveries and effective removal of interferences with small extraction chromatography columns instead of large ion exchange resin columns that generate large amounts of acid waste. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  12. An atomic-absorption method for the determination of gold in large samples of geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanSickle, Gordon H.; Lakin, Hubert William

    1968-01-01

    A laboratory method for the determination of gold in large (100-gram) samples has been developed for use in the study of the gold content of placer deposits and of trace amounts of gold in other geologic materials. In this method the sample is digested with bromine and ethyl ether, the gold is extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone, and the determination is made by atomicabsorption spectrophotometry. The lower limit of detection is 0.005 part per million in the sample. The few data obtained so far by this method agree favorably with those obtained by assay and by other atomic-absorption methods. About 25 determinations can be made per man-day.

  13. Statistical characterization of a large geochemical database and effect of sample size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, C.; Manheim, F. T.; Hinde, J.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated statistical distributions for concentrations of chemical elements from the National Geochemical Survey (NGS) database of the U.S. Geological Survey. At the time of this study, the NGS data set encompasses 48,544 stream sediment and soil samples from the conterminous United States analyzed by ICP-AES following a 4-acid near-total digestion. This report includes 27 elements: Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Ti, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, La, Li, Mn, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Sc, Sr, Th, V, Y and Zn. The goal and challenge for the statistical overview was to delineate chemical distributions in a complex, heterogeneous data set spanning a large geographic range (the conterminous United States), and many different geological provinces and rock types. After declustering to create a uniform spatial sample distribution with 16,511 samples, histograms and quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots were employed to delineate subpopulations that have coherent chemical and mineral affinities. Probability groupings are discerned by changes in slope (kinks) on the plots. Major rock-forming elements, e.g., Al, Ca, K and Na, tend to display linear segments on normal Q-Q plots. These segments can commonly be linked to petrologic or mineralogical associations. For example, linear segments on K and Na plots reflect dilution of clay minerals by quartz sand (low in K and Na). Minor and trace element relationships are best displayed on lognormal Q-Q plots. These sensitively reflect discrete relationships in subpopulations within the wide range of the data. For example, small but distinctly log-linear subpopulations for Pb, Cu, Zn and Ag are interpreted to represent ore-grade enrichment of naturally occurring minerals such as sulfides. None of the 27 chemical elements could pass the test for either normal or lognormal distribution on the declustered data set. Part of the reasons relate to the presence of mixtures of subpopulations and outliers. Random samples of the data set with successively

  14. From large-eddy simulation to multi-UAVs sampling of shallow cumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamraoui, Fayçal; Roberts, Greg; Burnet, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    In-situ sampling of clouds that can provide simultaneous measurements at satisfying spatio-temporal resolutions to capture 3D small scale physical processes continues to present challenges. This project (SKYSCANNER) aims at bringing together cloud sampling strategies using a swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based on Large-eddy simulation (LES). The multi-UAV-based field campaigns with a personalized sampling strategy for individual clouds and cloud fields will significantly improve the understanding of the unresolved cloud physical processes. An extensive set of LES experiments for case studies from ARM-SGP site have been performed using MesoNH model at high resolutions down to 10 m. The carried out simulations led to establishing a macroscopic model that quantifies the interrelationship between micro- and macrophysical properties of shallow convective clouds. Both the geometry and evolution of individual clouds are critical to multi-UAV cloud sampling and path planning. The preliminary findings of the current project reveal several linear relationships that associate many cloud geometric parameters to cloud related meteorological variables. In addition, the horizontal wind speed indicates a proportional impact on cloud number concentration as well as triggering and prolonging the occurrence of cumulus clouds. In the framework of the joint collaboration that involves a Multidisciplinary Team (including institutes specializing in aviation, robotics and atmospheric science), this model will be a reference point for multi-UAVs sampling strategies and path planning.

  15. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S.; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18–65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  16. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  17. Software engineering the mixed model for genome-wide association studies on large samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiwu; Buckler, Edward S; Casstevens, Terry M; Bradbury, Peter J

    2009-11-01

    Mixed models improve the ability to detect phenotype-genotype associations in the presence of population stratification and multiple levels of relatedness in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but for large data sets the resource consumption becomes impractical. At the same time, the sample size and number of markers used for GWAS is increasing dramatically, resulting in greater statistical power to detect those associations. The use of mixed models with increasingly large data sets depends on the availability of software for analyzing those models. While multiple software packages implement the mixed model method, no single package provides the best combination of fast computation, ability to handle large samples, flexible modeling and ease of use. Key elements of association analysis with mixed models are reviewed, including modeling phenotype-genotype associations using mixed models, population stratification, kinship and its estimation, variance component estimation, use of best linear unbiased predictors or residuals in place of raw phenotype, improving efficiency and software-user interaction. The available software packages are evaluated, and suggestions made for future software development. PMID:19933212

  18. Trace analysis of semivolatile organic compounds in large volume samples of snow, lake water, and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Usenko, Sascha; Hageman, Kimberly J; Schmedding, Dave W; Wilson, Glenn R; Simonich, Staci L

    2005-08-15

    An analytical method was developed for the trace analysis of a wide range of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) in 50-L high-elevation snow and lake water samples. The method was validated for 75 SOCs from seven different chemical classes (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, amides, triazines, polychlorinated biphenyls, thiocarbamates, and phosphorothioates) that covered a wide range of physical-chemical properties including 7 orders of magnitude of octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(ow) = 1.4-8.3). The SOCs were extracted using a hydrophobically and hydrophilically modified divinylbenzene solid-phase extraction device (modified Speedisk). The average analyte recovery from 50 L of reverse osmosis water, using the modified Speedisk, was 99% with an average relative standard deviation of 4.8%. Snow samples were collected from the field, melted, and extracted using the modified Speedisk and a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) remote sample adapter in the laboratory. Lake water was sampled, filtered, and extracted in situ using an Infiltrex 100 fitted with a 1-microm glass fiber filter to trap particulate matter and the modified Speedisk to trap dissolved SOCs. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization and electron capture negative ionization using isotope dilution and selective ion monitoring. Estimated method detection limits for snow and lake water ranged from 0.2 to 125 pg/L and 0.5-400 pg/L, respectively. U.S. historic and current-use pesticides were identified and quantified in snow and lake water samples collected from Rocky Mountain National Park, CO. The application of the analytical method to the analysis of SOCs in large-volume groundwater samples is also shown. PMID:16173557

  19. Large-Scale Depletion of CD25+ Regulatory T Cells from Patient Leukapheresis Samples

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Daniel J.; Parker, Linda L.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The ability to selectively enrich or deplete T lymphocytes of specific phenotype and function holds significant promise for application in adoptive immunotherapy protocols. Although CD4+ T cells can have an impact on CD8+ T-cell effector function, memory, and maintenance, a subset of CD4+ T cells, CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg), can regulate peripheral self tolerance and possess the ability to suppress antitumor responses. The authors report the ability to selectively deplete CD25+ Treg cells from patient leukapheresis samples using a clinical-grade, large-scale immunomagnetic system. Using leukapheresis samples containing up to 1.3 × 1010 white blood cells, efficient depletion of Treg cells was measured by flow cytometric analysis of CD25 expression and FOXP3 expression on post-depletion products. Remnant CD25+ cells could not be detected in CD25-depleted products after short-term culture in IL-2 or enriched following secondary immunomagnetic selection for CD25+ cells, confirming that efficient depletion had occurred. In parallel to efficient enrichment of CD25− cells, immunomagnetic selection resulted in the recovery of Treg cells, since CD25+ lymphocytes removed during depletion were primarily composed of CD4+ T cells that expressed high levels of FOXP3 and possessed suppressive activity against autologous TCR-stimulated CD4+ CD25− T cells in vitro. These results show that selective separation of functional CD25+ Treg cells from large-scale samples can be performed in large scale under clinical-grade conditions with sufficient selection, recovery, viability, ability to expand, and function for potential use in adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:16000960

  20. Large sample inference for a win ratio analysis of a composite outcome based on prioritized components.

    PubMed

    Bebu, Ionut; Lachin, John M

    2016-01-01

    Composite outcomes are common in clinical trials, especially for multiple time-to-event outcomes (endpoints). The standard approach that uses the time to the first outcome event has important limitations. Several alternative approaches have been proposed to compare treatment versus control, including the proportion in favor of treatment and the win ratio. Herein, we construct tests of significance and confidence intervals in the context of composite outcomes based on prioritized components using the large sample distribution of certain multivariate multi-sample U-statistics. This non-parametric approach provides a general inference for both the proportion in favor of treatment and the win ratio, and can be extended to stratified analyses and the comparison of more than two groups. The proposed methods are illustrated with time-to-event outcomes data from a clinical trial. PMID:26353896

  1. Monte Carlo calculations of the HPGe detector efficiency for radioactivity measurement of large volume environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Azbouche, Ahmed; Belgaid, Mohamed; Mazrou, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    A fully detailed Monte Carlo geometrical model of a High Purity Germanium detector with a (152)Eu source, packed in Marinelli beaker, was developed for routine analysis of large volume environmental samples. Then, the model parameters, in particular, the dead layer thickness were adjusted thanks to a specific irradiation configuration together with a fine-tuning procedure. Thereafter, the calculated efficiencies were compared to the measured ones for standard samples containing (152)Eu source filled in both grass and resin matrices packed in Marinelli beaker. From this comparison, a good agreement between experiment and Monte Carlo calculation results was obtained highlighting thereby the consistency of the geometrical computational model proposed in this work. Finally, the computational model was applied successfully to determine the (137)Cs distribution in soil matrix. From this application, instructive results were achieved highlighting, in particular, the erosion and accumulation zone of the studied site. PMID:25982445

  2. Protistan community analysis: key findings of a large-scale molecular sampling.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Lars; Jensen, Manfred; Heider, Dominik; Jost, Steffen; Glücksman, Edvard; Hartikainen, Hanna; Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Gardner, Michelle; Hoffmann, Daniel; Bass, David; Boenigk, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Protists are perhaps the most lineage-rich of microbial lifeforms, but remain largely unknown. High-throughput sequencing technologies provide opportunities to screen whole habitats in depth and enable detailed comparisons of different habitats to measure, compare and map protistan diversity. Such comparisons are often limited by low sample numbers within single studies and a lack of standardisation between studies. Here, we analysed 232 samples from 10 sampling campaigns using a standardised PCR protocol and bioinformatics pipeline. We show that protistan community patterns are highly consistent within habitat types and geographic regions, provided that sample processing is standardised. Community profiles are only weakly affected by fluctuations of the abundances of the most abundant taxa and, therefore, provide a sound basis for habitat comparison beyond random short-term fluctuations in the community composition. Further, we provide evidence that distribution patterns are not solely resulting from random processes. Distinct habitat types and distinct taxonomic groups are dominated by taxa with distinct distribution patterns that reflect their ecology with respect to dispersal and habitat colonisation. However, there is no systematic shift of the distribution pattern with taxon abundance. PMID:26859769

  3. Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX): Unrestricted structural analysis in large clinical and non-clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Ruiz-Sánchez-de-León, José M; Winpenny-Tejedor, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The factorial structure of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) is an unresolved issue in scientific literature. One-to-five-factor solutions have been found in several studies by applying different research methods. Only a few of these studies used appropriate analysis procedures to suit a Likert scale-type of answer or investigated large enough samples to ensure the stability of factorial solutions. The present study examines a sample of 2151 subjects, 1482 from the general population and 669 from a clinical population. An unrestricted factorial analysis was carried out on both samples. The results unequivocally point to a single-factor solution in both samples. This means that only one latent variable is displayed in the DEX, which accounts for symptoms of oversight malfunction in activities of daily living. It is concluded that the diversity of results previously obtained in other studies may be due to using research methods that depict Likert-type scales on a continuum when they are actually ordinal categorical measures. In conclusion, the DEX should be considered a screening test that reports symptoms of prefrontal malfunction, although it is unable to specify what areas or functions have been affected, as previous studies have claimed. PMID:25517980

  4. Protistan community analysis: key findings of a large-scale molecular sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Lars; Jensen, Manfred; Heider, Dominik; Jost, Steffen; Glücksman, Edvard; Hartikainen, Hanna; Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Gardner, Michelle; Hoffmann, Daniel; Bass, David; Boenigk, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Protists are perhaps the most lineage-rich of microbial lifeforms, but remain largely unknown. High-throughput sequencing technologies provide opportunities to screen whole habitats in depth and enable detailed comparisons of different habitats to measure, compare and map protistan diversity. Such comparisons are often limited by low sample numbers within single studies and a lack of standardisation between studies. Here, we analysed 232 samples from 10 sampling campaigns using a standardised PCR protocol and bioinformatics pipeline. We show that protistan community patterns are highly consistent within habitat types and geographic regions, provided that sample processing is standardised. Community profiles are only weakly affected by fluctuations of the abundances of the most abundant taxa and, therefore, provide a sound basis for habitat comparison beyond random short-term fluctuations in the community composition. Further, we provide evidence that distribution patterns are not solely resulting from random processes. Distinct habitat types and distinct taxonomic groups are dominated by taxa with distinct distribution patterns that reflect their ecology with respect to dispersal and habitat colonisation. However, there is no systematic shift of the distribution pattern with taxon abundance. PMID:26859769

  5. Sampling small-scale and large-scale conformational changes in proteins and molecular complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Mi-Ran; Mousseau, N.; Derreumaux, P.

    2007-03-01

    Sampling of small-scale and large-scale motions is important in various computational tasks, such as protein-protein docking and ligand binding. Here, we report further development and applications of the activation-relaxation technique for internal coordinate space trajectories (ARTIST). This method generates conformational moves of any complexity and size by identifying and crossing well-defined saddle points connecting energy minima. Simulations on two all-atom proteins and three protein complexes containing between 70 and 300 amino acids indicate that ARTIST opens the door to the full treatment of all degrees of freedom in dense systems such as protein-protein complexes.

  6. The metacognitive model of depression: An empirical test in a large Norwegian sample.

    PubMed

    Solem, Stian; Hagen, Roger; Hoksnes, Jonas J; Hjemdal, Odin

    2016-08-30

    The aim of the current study was to test the metacognitive model of depression in a large Norwegian sample. We hypothesized that metacognitions and rumination would explain variance in depressive symptoms as suggested by the metacognitive model. A total of 1433 participants were included using a cross-sectional study design. Participants answered scales assessing positive beliefs about rumination, rumination, negative beliefs about rumination, and symptoms of depression. Metacognitive beliefs and rumination in their hypothesized order explained significant variance in depressive symptoms. The results replicate previous studies and provide further support for a metacognitive model of depression. PMID:27285952

  7. Radar Based Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Estimation: First Results of Large Sample Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciach, G. J.; Krajewski, W. F.; Villarini, G.

    2005-05-01

    Large uncertainties in the operational precipitation estimates produced by the U.S. national network of WSR-88D radars are well-acknowledged. However, quantitative information about these uncertainties is not operationally available. In an effort to fill this gap, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) is supporting the development of a probabilistic approach to the radar precipitation estimation. The probabilistic quantitative precipitation estimation (PQPE) methodology that was selected for this development is based on the empirically-based modeling of the functional-statistical error structure in the operational WSR-88D precipitation products under different conditions. Our first goal is to deliver a realistic parameterization of the probabilistic error model describing its dependences on the radar-estimated precipitation value, distance from the radar, season, spatiotemporal averaging scale, and the setup of the precipitation processing system (PPS). In the long-term perspective, when large samples of relevant data are available, we will extend the model to include the dependences on different types of precipitation estimates (e.g. polarimeteric and multi-sensor), geographic locations and climatic regimes. At this stage of the PQPE project, we organized a 6-year-long sample of the Level II data from the Oklahoma City radar station (KTLX), and processed it with the Built 4 of the PPS that is currently used in the NWS operations. This first set of operational products was generated with the standard setup of the PPS parameters. The radar estimates are completed with the corresponding raingauge data from the Oklahoma Mesonet, the ARS Little Washita Micronet and the EVAC PicoNet covering different spatial scales. The raingauge data are used as a ground reference (GR) to estimate the required uncertainty characteristics in the radar precipitation products. In this presentation, we describe the first results of the large-sample uncertainty analysis of the products

  8. Synthesis of Na-A and faujasitic zeolites from high silicon fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Fotovat, F.; Kazemian, H.; Kazemeini, M.

    2009-04-02

    High silicon fly ash (HSFA) utilized as a source of silicon in synthesizing of Na-A, -X and -Y zeolites through alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment at 100 deg. C for 12 h. Various types of zeolites with different degrees of purity were prepared by changing Si/Al ratio of the reaction mixture from 1.6 to 3.0. In addition, exact boundaries of this ratio for synthesis of each zeolite type were determined. Furthermore, the effect of NaOH amount utilized in alkaline fusion step on crystalinity of samples investigated. The synthesized zeolites were characterized using various techniques including; XRD, TGA, FTIR, SEM and BET. The ion-exchange behaviors of zeolitic samples tested with Co{sup 2+}. The obtained Na-X zeolite was crystaline, had a very high cation-exchange capability of 4.9 mequiv. g{sup -1} and possessed relatively high specific surface area of about 434 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}.

  9. Use of NAA to determine nutritive elements in immature and mature soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1986-01-01

    During the maturation of soybeans, several changes in the chemical composition take place. However, data available relating mineral and vitamin content to maturation stage are limited and show a wide range of values. There are several factors that affect the mineral content of soybeans. These factors include, but are not limited to, soil composition, application of fertilizers, environmental conditions, and genetic factors. For the samples examined in this study all the aforementioned factors, except genetic, were kept unchanged. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was employed to measure calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in three soybean varieties at three maturation stages. Samples from three soybean varieties were investigated. The three maturation stages were defined as immature, green mature, and dry mature. The concentration of calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in the three soybean varieties at different maturation stages are shown. The concentration of some nutritive elements (for example, calcium, iron, manganese, and zinc) in soybeans are much higher than in other grain cereals such as wheat and corn. However, it is questionable whether too much nutritional importance be given to these elements in soybeans since phytate content in soybeans is much higher than that of wheat or corn, and it has been postulated that low bioavailability of the aforementioned elements are related to phytate content.

  10. Large-volume sample stacking for analysis of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lifeng; Marimuthu, Arun; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2002-09-01

    A simple, quick, and sensitive capillary electrophoretic technique-large volume stacking using the electroosmotic flow (EOF) pump (LVSEP) - has been developed for determining ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in drinking water for the first time. It is based on a precapillary complexation of EDTA with Fe(III) ions, followed by large-volume sample stacking and direct UV detection at 258 nm. The curve of peak response versus concentration was linear from 5.0 to 600.0 microg/L, and 0.7 to 30.0 mg/L. The regression coefficients were 0.9988 and 0.9990, respectively. The detection limit of the current technique for EDTA analysis was 0.2 microg/L with an additional 10-fold preconcentration procedure, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3. As opposed to the classical capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) method, the detection limit was improved about 1000-fold by using this LVSEP method. To the best of our knowledge, it represents the highest sensitivity for EDTA analysis via CE. Several drinking water samples were tested by this novel method with satisfactory results. PMID:12207295

  11. A study of diabetes mellitus within a large sample of Australian twins.

    PubMed

    Condon, Julianne; Shaw, Joanne E; Luciano, Michelle; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Martin, Nicholas G; Duffy, David L

    2008-02-01

    Twin studies of diabetes mellitus can help elucidate genetic and environmental factors in etiology and can provide valuable biological samples for testing functional hypotheses, for example using expression and methylation studies of discordant pairs. We searched the volunteer Australian Twin Registry (19,387 pairs) for twins with diabetes using disease checklists from nine different surveys conducted from 1980-2000. After follow-up questionnaires to the twins and their doctors to confirm diagnoses, we eventually identified 46 pairs where one or both had type 1 diabetes (T1D), 113 pairs with type 2 diabetes (T2D), 41 female pairs with gestational diabetes (GD), 5 pairs with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and one pair with MODY. Heritabilities of T1D, T2D and GD were all high, but our samples did not have the power to detect effects of shared environment unless they were very large. Weight differences between affected and unaffected cotwins from monozygotic (MZ) discordant pairs were large for T2D and GD, but much larger again for discordant dizygotic (DZ) pairs. The bivariate genetic analysis (under the multifactorial threshold model) estimated the genetic correlation between body mass index (BMI) and T2D to be 0.46, and the environmental correlation at only 0.06. PMID:18251672

  12. Tracing the trajectory of skill learning with a very large sample of online game players.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Tom; Dewar, Michael

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we analyzed data from a very large sample (N = 854,064) of players of an online game involving rapid perception, decision making, and motor responding. Use of game data allowed us to connect, for the first time, rich details of training history with measures of performance from participants engaged for a sustained amount of time in effortful practice. We showed that lawful relations exist between practice amount and subsequent performance, and between practice spacing and subsequent performance. Our methodology allowed an in situ confirmation of results long established in the experimental literature on skill acquisition. Additionally, we showed that greater initial variation in performance is linked to higher subsequent performance, a result we link to the exploration/exploitation trade-off from the computational framework of reinforcement learning. We discuss the benefits and opportunities of behavioral data sets with very large sample sizes and suggest that this approach could be particularly fecund for studies of skill acquisition. PMID:24379154

  13. Characterising resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Shumskaya, Elena; Mennes, Maarten; Onnink, A Marten H; Hoogman, Martine; Kan, Cornelis C; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Norris, David G

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder that often persists into adulthood. While several studies have identified altered functional connectivity in brain networks during rest in children with ADHD, few studies have been performed on adults with ADHD. Existing studies have generally investigated small samples. We therefore investigated aberrant functional connectivity in a large sample of adult patients with childhood-onset ADHD, using a data-driven, whole-brain approach. Adults with a clinical ADHD diagnosis (N=99) and healthy, adult comparison subjects (N=113) underwent a 9-minute resting-state fMRI session in a 1.5T MRI scanner. After elaborate preprocessing including a thorough head-motion correction procedure, group independent component analysis (ICA) was applied from which we identified six networks of interest: cerebellum, executive control, left and right frontoparietal and two default-mode networks. Participant-level network maps were obtained using dual-regression and tested for differences between patients with ADHD and controls using permutation testing. Patients showed significantly stronger connectivity in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the executive control network. Trends were also observed for stronger connectivity in the cerebellum network in ADHD patients compared to controls. However, there was considerable overlap in connectivity values between patients and controls, leading to relatively low effect sizes despite the large sample size. These effect sizes were slightly larger when testing for correlations between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and connectivity strength in the executive control and cerebellum networks. This study provides important insights for studies on the neurobiology of adult ADHD; it shows that resting-state functional connectivity differences between adult patients and controls exist, but have smaller effect sizes than existing literature suggested. PMID:26825495

  14. Factorial structure of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in a large sample of somatoform patients.

    PubMed

    Koch, Anne Sarah; Kleiman, Alexandra; Wegener, Ingo; Zur, Berndt; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Geiser, Franziska; Conrad, Rupert

    2015-02-28

    Although a strong association between alexithymia and somatization has been postulated in numerous studies, no systematic study has investigated the psychometric properties of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) in a sample of patients with somatoform disorder yet. The purpose of this study was to ensure a valid assessment by the German version of the TAS-20 in somatoform samples. We investigated whether the original three-factor model proposed by Bagby et al. (1994a), which is widely used in clinical research and practice, is replicable in a large sample of somatoform patients (n=806). Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) the goodness-of-fit of the originally proposed factor structure was compared to three factor models generated with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and other factorial solutions derived from the literature. Our results demonstrate that the original three-factor model is not replicable in somatoform patients. Instead, the four-factor model by Franz et al. (2001b) described the data best. However, none of the models met all criteria of confirmatory factor analysis. Our results indicate that the three-factor model is not robust in the German version of the TAS-20. At this state of research we recommend to use the TAS-20 sum-score as a measure of alexithymia in somatoform patients in clinical practice. PMID:25613660

  15. Comparing two fish sampling standards over time: largely congruent results but with caveats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cachera, Sébastien; Colon, Michel; Guillard, Jean

    2013-01-01

    1. We sampled Lake Bourget (surface area = 44 km2) using CEN standard gillnet and provisional standard acoustic survey methods over 3 years (2005, 2010 and 2011) as the fish community responded to re-oligotrophication. A total of 16 species were caught in benthic gillnets and three species in pelagic gillnets. 2. Lake Bourget results were consistent with a recent study (Emmrich et al., Freshwater Biology, 57, 2012, 2436) showing strong correspondence between average biomass-per-unit-effort (BPUE) in standard benthic gillnets and average acoustic volume backscattering when smaller lakes (0.25–5.45 km2) were treated as sample units. 3. The BPUE of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) measured by benthic gillnets all declined significantly with increasing bathymetric depth; 93% of nets set at depths >50 m caught zero fish. 4. Pelagic gillnetting indicated that small (20 m) increased significantly after 2005. 5. Both surveys showed whitefish biomass increased significantly during the study, but whitefish ≥25 cm were poorly represented in benthic gillnet catches. Contrary to the acoustic findings, the BPUE of perch and roach in benthic gillnets did not vary significantly over time. This metric is insensitive to changes in size structure in that a high catch of small fish and a low catch of large fish in different years can provide similar average BPUE estimates. 6. We examined correlations between BPUE in benthic gillnets and acoustic methods at fine spatial scales by averaging acoustic backscattering measurements encompassed by buffers of varying size (250–2000 m) around individual gillnets and by averaging samples collected from lake quadrants. Correlations at fines scales were generally poor, and only in 1 year was the quadrant correlation significant. The lack of correlation can be explained, in part, by the two gears sampling different components of the fish community. Conversely, in pelagic habitat, where the

  16. The fixed point formulation for large sample PGNAA—Part 1: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, J. P.; Akkurt, H.

    2004-04-01

    The determination of large sample composition via prompt gamma measurements is examined as a non-linear inverse problem. We show that this non-linear problem can be formulated as a fixed point problem that always has a physically meaningful solution, even in the presence of significant contributions to photopeak area from gammas emitted by the surroundings. The formulation involves only ratios of measured photopeak areas, and, separately, ratios of modeled photopeak areas. It therefore does not require the absolute comparison of measured or modeled quantities. The proof of the existence of meaningful solutions relies on very simple and natural hypotheses of positivity and continuity. The natural fixed point iteration is examined, and certain physical limits where its global convergence can be guaranteed are examined. Several computational examples are presented.

  17. Ultrasensitive multiplex optical quantification of bacteria in large samples of biofluids

    PubMed Central

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Pazos, Elena; Catala, Carme; Mir-Simon, Bernat; Gómez-de Pedro, Sara; Sagales, Juan; Villanueva, Carlos; Vila, Jordi; Soriano, Alex; García de Abajo, F. Javier; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient treatments in bacterial infections require the fast and accurate recognition of pathogens, with concentrations as low as one per milliliter in the case of septicemia. Detecting and quantifying bacteria in such low concentrations is challenging and typically demands cultures of large samples of blood (~1 milliliter) extending over 24–72 hours. This delay seriously compromises the health of patients. Here we demonstrate a fast microorganism optical detection system for the exhaustive identification and quantification of pathogens in volumes of biofluids with clinical relevance (~1 milliliter) in minutes. We drive each type of bacteria to accumulate antibody functionalized SERS-labelled silver nanoparticles. Particle aggregation on the bacteria membranes renders dense arrays of inter-particle gaps in which the Raman signal is exponentially amplified by several orders of magnitude relative to the dispersed particles. This enables a multiplex identification of the microorganisms through the molecule-specific spectral fingerprints. PMID:27364357

  18. Activity sampling of nurses of a sub-acute ward of a large hospital.

    PubMed

    Bobdey, C S; Sandhu, M S; Urmil, A C; Dayakar, T

    1992-07-01

    A study was conducted in a 43 bedded subacute family ward of a large hospital to find out the adequacy and efficiency of its nursing service. Activity analysis in respect of nurses was carried out by Activity Sampling Technique. The study revealed that out of 334 activities, observed, 78 (23.3%) were non-productive, whereas 256 (76.7%) were productive. Out of the productive activities, 148 (44.3%) were for direct patient care mainly comprising of 46 (31.1% for carrying out technical procedures, 36 (24.32%) for determining patients' needs, 20 (13.15%) for preparing patients for various procedures and 15 (10.14%) for assisting in technical procedures. Number wise the nurses were found to be adequate. PMID:10130935

  19. Characterizing Large Text Corpora Using a Maximum Variation Sampling Genetic Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    An enormous amount of information available via the Internet exists. Much of this data is in the form of text-based documents. These documents cover a variety of topics that are vitally important to the scientific, business, and defense/security communities. Currently, there are a many techniques for processing and analyzing such data. However, the ability to quickly characterize a large set of documents still proves challenging. Previous work has successfully demonstrated the use of a genetic algorithm for providing a representative subset for text documents via adaptive sampling. In this work, we further expand and explore this approach on much larger data sets using a parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA) with adaptive parameter control. Experimental results are presented and discussed.

  20. Consistent estimation of complete neuronal connectivity in large neuronal populations using sparse "shotgun" neuronal activity sampling.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the properties of recently proposed "shotgun" sampling approach for the common inputs problem in the functional estimation of neuronal connectivity. We study the asymptotic correctness, the speed of convergence, and the data size requirements of such an approach. We show that the shotgun approach can be expected to allow the inference of complete connectivity matrix in large neuronal populations under some rather general conditions. However, we find that the posterior error of the shotgun connectivity estimator grows quickly with the size of unobserved neuronal populations, the square of average connectivity strength, and the square of observation sparseness. This implies that the shotgun connectivity estimation will require significantly larger amounts of neuronal activity data whenever the number of neurons in observed neuronal populations remains small. We present a numerical approach for solving the shotgun estimation problem in general settings and use it to demonstrate the shotgun connectivity inference in the examples of simulated synfire and weakly coupled cortical neuronal networks. PMID:27515518

  1. Ultrasensitive multiplex optical quantification of bacteria in large samples of biofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Pazos, Elena; Catala, Carme; Mir-Simon, Bernat; Gómez-de Pedro, Sara; Sagales, Juan; Villanueva, Carlos; Vila, Jordi; Soriano, Alex; García de Abajo, F. Javier; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A.

    2016-07-01

    Efficient treatments in bacterial infections require the fast and accurate recognition of pathogens, with concentrations as low as one per milliliter in the case of septicemia. Detecting and quantifying bacteria in such low concentrations is challenging and typically demands cultures of large samples of blood (~1 milliliter) extending over 24–72 hours. This delay seriously compromises the health of patients. Here we demonstrate a fast microorganism optical detection system for the exhaustive identification and quantification of pathogens in volumes of biofluids with clinical relevance (~1 milliliter) in minutes. We drive each type of bacteria to accumulate antibody functionalized SERS-labelled silver nanoparticles. Particle aggregation on the bacteria membranes renders dense arrays of inter-particle gaps in which the Raman signal is exponentially amplified by several orders of magnitude relative to the dispersed particles. This enables a multiplex identification of the microorganisms through the molecule-specific spectral fingerprints.

  2. NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND FACIAL ATTRACTIVENESS IN A LARGE, GENETICALLY INFORMATIVE SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Mitchem, Dorian G.; Zietsch, Brendan P.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hewitt, John K.; Keller, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Theories in both evolutionary and social psychology suggest that a positive correlation should exist between facial attractiveness and general intelligence, and several empirical observations appear to corroborate this expectation. Using highly reliable measures of facial attractiveness and IQ in a large sample of identical and fraternal twins and their siblings, we found no evidence for a phenotypic correlation between these traits. Likewise, neither the genetic nor the environmental latent factor correlations were statistically significant. We supplemented our analyses of new data with a simple meta-analysis that found evidence of publication bias among past studies of the relationship between facial attractiveness and intelligence. In view of these results, we suggest that previously published reports may have overestimated the strength of the relationship and that the theoretical bases for the predicted attractiveness-intelligence correlation may need to be reconsidered. PMID:25937789

  3. Correlation Analysis of Optical and Radio Light Curves for a Large Sample of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Smith, A. G.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.

    1995-08-01

    The Rosemary Hill Observatory has accumulated internally consistent light curves extending over as much as 26 years for a large sample of active galactic nuclei. Forty-six of these optical records have been compared with similar radio records from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Algonquin Radio Observatory. For 18 objects, pairs of records were sufficiently long and unconfused to allow reliable application of the Discrete Correlation Function analysis; this group included 8 BL Lacertids, 8 quasars, and 2 Seyfert galaxies. Nine of the 18 sources showed positive radio-optical correlations, with the radio events lagging the optical by intervals ranging from 0 to 14 months. Consistent with the relativistic beaming model of the BL Lacertids, the group displaying correlations was dominated by this type of object.

  4. Gender differences in schizotypic features in a large sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, L S; Burns, S A

    1995-10-01

    Research with self-report measures of schizotypic or psychosis-prone features in nonclinical populations suggests that, similarly to schizophrenic populations, males score higher on more "negative" schizotypic features and females score higher on more "positive" schizotypic features. We administered the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Chapman Scales of Psychosis Proneness--impulsivity/nonconformity, magical ideation, perceptual aberration, physical anhedonia, and social anhedonia--to a large, nonclinical, young adult sample (N = 1179: 453 males and 726 females). Results indicated increased negative symptomatology in males compared with females, but not increased positive symptomatology in females compared with males. Findings on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire factors suggested that interpersonal deficits differed by gender as well. Finally, a measure of impulsive behavior and nonconformity not typically associated with negative symptomatology indicated gender differences not predicted by a negative/positive dichotomy. PMID:7561812

  5. The Association between Anhedonia, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicide Attempts in a Large Student Sample.

    PubMed

    Winer, E Samuel; Drapeau, Christopher W; Veilleux, Jennifer C; Nadorff, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a significant risk factor for suicide. Evidence suggests that anhedonia may be a symptom of depression that is uniquely associated with suicidality. However, exactly how anhedonia is related to suicide is unclear. To provide more specific evidence regarding this association, we investigated relationships between anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. A large combined undergraduate sample completed the novel Specific Loss of Interest and Pleasure Scale (SLIPS), the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Anhedonia was associated with suicidal ideation, even when accounting for depressive symptoms. Additionally, anhedonia was not associated with suicide attempts when symptoms of depression were held constant. The current study provides novel evidence regarding the relationship between anhedonia and risk of attempting suicide. Future research can examine the role anhedonia plays in the unfolding of suicidal behavior over time. PMID:26214573

  6. Pliocene large-mammal assemblages from northern Chad: sampling and ecological structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fara, Emmanuel; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane T.; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2005-11-01

    Numerous Pliocene large-mammal assemblages have been discovered in Chad over the last decade. They offer a unique opportunity to understand the settings in which important chapters of Hominid evolution took place in Central Africa. However, it is crucial to first investigate both sampling and taxonomic homogeneity for these Chadian assemblages because they occur over large sectors in a sandy desert that offers virtually no stratigraphic section. Using cluster analysis and ordination techniques, we show that the three Pliocene sectors from Chad are homogeneous and adequate sampling units. Previous stable isotope analyses on these assemblages have indicated that the environment became richer in C4 plants between approximately 5.3 and 3.5 3 Ma. To test whether this environmental change has affected the structure of palaeo-communities, we assigned body mass, trophic and locomotor eco-variables to mammal species from the three sectors. Statistical analysis shows that the overall ecological structure of the assemblages is not linked with the opening of the plant cover, and eco-variables show no temporal trend from the oldest sector to the youngest. For example, there is no significant change in the relative diversity of grazing and browsing taxa, although mixed feeders are less diversified in the youngest sector than in the preceding one. This pattern apparently does not result from potential biases such as methodological artefacts or taphonomic imprint. Instead, it seems that local heterogeneous environmental factors have played a major role in shaping the ecological spectrum of Chadian mammal palaeo-communities during the Pliocene.

  7. Consistent associations between measures of psychological stress and CMV antibody levels in a large occupational sample.

    PubMed

    Rector, Jerrald L; Dowd, Jennifer B; Loerbroks, Adrian; Burns, Victoria E; Moss, Paul A; Jarczok, Marc N; Stalder, Tobias; Hoffman, Kristina; Fischer, Joachim E; Bosch, Jos A

    2014-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes virus that has been implicated in biological aging and impaired health. Evidence, largely accrued from small-scale studies involving select populations, suggests that stress may promote non-clinical reactivation of this virus. However, absent is evidence from larger studies, which allow better statistical adjustment for confounding and mediating factors, in more representative samples. The present study involved a large occupational cohort (N=887, mean age=44, 88% male). Questionnaires assessed psychological (i.e., depression, anxiety, vital exhaustion, SF-12 mental health), demographic, socioeconomic (SES), and lifestyle variables. Plasma samples were analyzed for both the presence and level of CMV-specific IgG antibodies (CMV-IgG), used as markers for infection status and viral reactivation, respectively. Also assessed were potential biological mediators of stress-induced reactivation, such as inflammation (C-reactive protein) and HPA function (awakening and diurnal cortisol). Predictors of CMV infection and CMV-IgG among the infected individuals were analyzed using logistic and linear regression analyses, respectively. Confirming prior reports, lower SES (education and job status) was positively associated with infection status. Among those infected (N=329), higher CMV-IgG were associated with increased anxiety (β=.14, p<.05), depression (β=.11, p=.06), vital exhaustion (β=.14, p<.05), and decreased SF-12 mental health (β=-.14, p<.05), adjusting for a range of potential confounders. Exploratory analyses showed that these associations were generally stronger in low SES individuals. We found no evidence that elevated inflammation or HPA-function mediated any of the associations. In the largest study to date, we established associations between CMV-IgG levels and multiple indicators of psychological stress. These results demonstrate the robustness of prior findings, and extend these to a general working population. We propose

  8. Calcium Isolation from Large-Volume Human Urine Samples for 41Ca Analysis by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Miller, James J; Hui, Susanta K; Jackson, George S; Clark, Sara P; Einstein, Jane; Weaver, Connie M; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxalate precipitation is the first step in preparation of biological samples for 41Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. A simplified protocol for large-volume human urine samples was characterized, with statistically significant increases in ion current and decreases in interference. This large-volume assay minimizes cost and effort and maximizes time after 41Ca administration during which human samples, collected over a lifetime, provide 41Ca:Ca ratios that are significantly above background. PMID:23672965

  9. Prevalence of Learned Grapheme-Color Pairings in a Large Online Sample of Synesthetes

    PubMed Central

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan; Eagleman, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the minimum prevalence of grapheme-color synesthetes with letter-color matches learned from an external stimulus, by analyzing a large sample of English-speaking grapheme-color synesthetes. We find that at least 6% (400/6588 participants) of the total sample learned many of their matches from a widely available colored letter toy. Among those born in the decade after the toy began to be manufactured, the proportion of synesthetes with learned letter-color pairings approaches 15% for some 5-year periods. Among those born 5 years or more before it was manufactured, none have colors learned from the toy. Analysis of the letter-color matching data suggests the only difference between synesthetes with matches to the toy and those without is exposure to the stimulus. These data indicate learning of letter-color pairings from external contingencies can occur in a substantial fraction of synesthetes, and are consistent with the hypothesis that grapheme-color synesthesia is a kind of conditioned mental imagery. PMID:25739095

  10. Prevalence of learned grapheme-color pairings in a large online sample of synesthetes.

    PubMed

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan; Eagleman, David M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the minimum prevalence of grapheme-color synesthetes with letter-color matches learned from an external stimulus, by analyzing a large sample of English-speaking grapheme-color synesthetes. We find that at least 6% (400/6588 participants) of the total sample learned many of their matches from a widely available colored letter toy. Among those born in the decade after the toy began to be manufactured, the proportion of synesthetes with learned letter-color pairings approaches 15% for some 5-year periods. Among those born 5 years or more before it was manufactured, none have colors learned from the toy. Analysis of the letter-color matching data suggests the only difference between synesthetes with matches to the toy and those without is exposure to the stimulus. These data indicate learning of letter-color pairings from external contingencies can occur in a substantial fraction of synesthetes, and are consistent with the hypothesis that grapheme-color synesthesia is a kind of conditioned mental imagery. PMID:25739095

  11. Facial width-to-height ratio in a large sample of Commonwealth Games athletes.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Robin S S

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) is a sexually dimorphic morphological measure is mixed. Research has also linked FWHR with aggression and other behavioral tendencies, at least in men. Again, other research has found no such relationship. Here, I tested for both possible relationships using a sample of 2,075 male and 1,406 female athletes from the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games. Men showed significantly greater FWHRs than women, but this difference could be attributed to differences in body size. In addition, I found greater FWHRs in men who competed in sports involving physical contact and those stereotyped as more masculine. Again, these results could be attributed to differences in body size between categories. For women, no differences in FWHR were found regarding the amount of contact involved in a sport and how that sport was stereotyped. Finally, the FWHRs of athletes showed no relationship with the amount of aggression and related traits that were judged as required for success in those sports, although FWHRs did correlate with perceived endurance demands in women. Therefore, in a large sample of athletes, the sex difference in FWHR could be attributed to body size, and little support was found for the predicted links between this facial measure and behavior. PMID:25714799

  12. Identifying Microlenses In Large, Non-uniformly Sampled Surveys: The Case Of PTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agúeros, M.; Fournier, A.; Ofek, E.; Street, R.

    2012-05-01

    Many current photometric, time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as supernova searches, transiting exoplanet discoveries, or stellar variability studies, which set the cadence with which individual fields get re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several such sub-surveys are being conducted in parallel, leading to an extremely non-uniform sampling gradient over the survey footprint of nearly 20,000 deg^2: while the typical 7.26 deg^2 PTF field has been imaged 15 times, 1000 deg^2 of the survey has been observed more than 150 times. We use the existing PTF data to study the trade-off between a large survey footprint and irregular sampling when searching for microlensing events, and to examine the probability that such events can be recovered in these data. We conduct Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate our detection efficiency in a hypothetical survey field as a function of both the baseline and number of observations. We also apply variability statistics to systematically differentiate between periodic, transient, and flat light curves. Preliminary results suggest that both recovery and discovery of microlensing events are possible with a careful consideration of photometric systematics. This work can help inform predictions about the observability of microlensing signals in future wide-field time-domain surveys such as that of LSST.

  13. [Evaluation on quality of large sample clinical trials of acupuncture in foreign countries].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mai-lan; Chang, Xiao-rong; Yuan, Yi-qin

    2014-10-01

    Following retrieving articles about foreign large sample clinical trials of acupuncture (more than 500 cases) from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1996-2012) by using keywords of "acupuncture" and "clinical trial", a quality analysis was carried out independently by two researchers. A total of 1373 papers were collected and 37 were considered to meet our preformulated standards in accordance with the principles and methods of evidence-based medicine. Majority of these 37 articles were from some advanced countries including Germany, USA, Japan, Demark, Australia, et al. Their paper quality and research quality are varied including the methodology, standards for diagnosis, inclusive and exclusive criteria, follow-up survey, economic effectiveness, adverse effects, acupoint application and syndrome differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. Of the 37 papers, 17 are multiple center clinical trials, 18 are one center clinical trials, and 2 are not clear. Our Chinese researchers should pay more attention to foreign well-designed, large example, randomized controlled clinical trials and draw their matured experience and strong points to compensate our weak points and to improve our levels in clinical study on acupuncture treatment of clinical disorders. PMID:25518121

  14. Minimizing uncertainty of daily rainfall interpolation over large catchments through realistic sampling of anisotropic correlogram parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah

    2016-04-01

    It has been established that daily rainfall gauged network density is not adequate for the level of hydrological modelling required of large catchments involving pollutant and sediment transport, such as the catchments draining the coastal regions of Queensland, Australia, to the sensitive Great Barrier Reef. This paper seeks to establish a link between the spatial structure of radar and gauge rainfall for improved interpolation of the limited gauged data over a grid or functional units of catchments in regions with or without radar records. The study area is within Mt. Stapylton weather radar station range, a 128 km square region for calibration and validation, and the Brisbane river catchment for validation only. Two time periods (2000-01-01 to 2008-12-31 and 2009-01-01 to 2015-06-30) were considered, the later period for calibration when radar records were available and both time periods for validation without regard to radar information. Anisotropic correlograms of both the gauged and radar data were developed and used to establish the linkage required for areas without radar records. The maximum daily temperature significantly influenced the distributional parameters of the linkage. While the gauged, radar and sampled correlogram parameters reproduced the mean estimates similarly using leave-one-out cross-validation of Ordinary Kriging, the gauged parameters overestimated the standard deviation (SD) which reflects uncertainty by over 91% of cases compared with the radar or the sampled parameter sets. However, the distribution of the SD generated by the radar and the sampled correlogram parameters could not be distinguished, with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value of 0.52. For the validation case with the catchment, the percentage overestimation of SD by the gauged parameter sets decreased to 81.2% and 87.1% for the earlier and later time periods, respectively. It is observed that the extreme wet days' parameters and statistics were fairly widely distributed

  15. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  16. Macular Pigment Optical Density in the Elderly: Findings in a Large Biracial Midsouth Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Iannaccone, Alessandro; Mura, Marco; Gallaher, Kevin T.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Todd, William Andrew; Kenyon, Emily; Harris, Tarsha L.; Harris, Tamara; Satterfield, Suzanne; Johnson, Karen C.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To report the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) findings at 0.5° of eccentricity from the fovea in elderly subjects participating in ARMA, a study of aging and age-related maculopathy (ARM) ancillary to the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. Methods MPOD was estimated with a heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) method in a large biracial population sample of normal 79.1 ± 3.2-year-old adults living in the Midsouth (n = 222; 52% female; 23% black, 34% users of lutein-containing supplements). Within a modified testing protocol, subjects identified the lowest and the highest target intensity at which the flicker sensation disappeared, and the exact middle of this “no-flicker zone” was interpolated by the examiner. Results An MPOD estimate was obtained successfully in 82% of the participants. The mean MPOD in our sample was 0.34 ± 0.21 (SD). The interocular correlation was high (Pearson’s r = 0.82). Compared with lutein supplement users, mean MPOD was 21% lower in nonusers (P = 0.013). MPOD was also 41% lower in blacks than in whites (P = 0.0002), even after adjustment for lutein supplement use. There were no differences in MPOD by gender, iris color, or history of smoking. Conclusions Older adults in the Midsouth appear to have average MPOD and interocular correlation comparable to those in previous studies. Lutein supplement use and white race correlated with higher MPOD. No evidence of an age-related decline in MPOD was seen in the sample. The HFP method for the measurement of MPOD is feasible in epidemiologic investigations of the elderly, the group at highest risk of ARM. PMID:17389471

  17. Evaluation of the Goulden Large-Sample Extractor for acidic compounds in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, J.V.; Dickson, L.C.; Swyngedouw, C.; Crosley, B.; Whitley, G.

    1996-11-01

    The Goulden Large-Sample Extractor has received extensive use for monitoring and surveillance surveys of natural waters impacted by pulp and paper mills and agricultural runoff water. However, there are concerns about whether this sampler, which was originally developed for extractions of hydrophobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other organochlorines, is suitable for sampling polar acidic compounds. The sampler was evaluated for recovery of surrogates for resin acids, fatty acids, herbicide acids, and chlorophenols from natural waters. Performance tests conducted in this work indicated that three surrogate compounds with K{sub p} (C{sub DCM}/C{sub water pH 2}) values from 16,700 to 1,260 were extracted from pH 2-adjusted 20-L water samples with an average recovery of 83.6%. The surrogate compounds with K{sub p} values less than 1,000 were extracted with significantly lower recoveries. The variability ranged from 10 to 36% relative standard deviation. Specific performance criteria (percent recoveries {+-} standard deviation, number of determinations in parentheses) observed for the surrogates 2,4,6-tribromophenol, heptadecanoic acid, O-methylpodocarpic acid, dichlorophenylacetic acid, and 4-bromophenol were 89.5 {+-} 24.0 (17), 82.8 {+-} 21.7 (18), 78.4 {+-} 14.8 (18), 41.9 {+-} 8.5 (16), and 22.1 {+-} 8.1 (19), respectively. Low recoveries of the 4-bromophenol surrogate may be due in part to side reactions with diazomethane. As a result, 4-bromophenol is not recommended as a surrogate. These values can be used to provide guidelines for acceptable surrogate recoveries and validation of extractions of polar acidic compounds.

  18. The Soft X-Ray Emission in a Large Sample of Galaxy Clusters with ROSAT PSPC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonamente, Massimiliano; Lieu, Richard; Joy, Marshall K.; Nevalainen, Jukka H.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The study of soft X-ray emission of 38 X-ray selected galaxy clusters observed by ROSAT PSPC indicates that the soft excess phenomenon may be a common occurrence in galaxy clusters. Excess soft X-ray radiation, above the contribution from the hot intra-cluster medium, is evident in a large fraction of sources, and is clearly detected with large statistical significance in the deepest observations. The investigation relies on new, high resolution 21 cm HI observations. The sample selection also features analysis of infrared images, to further ensure reliability of results with respect to the characteristics of Galactic absorption. The possibility of background or calibration effects as cause of the excess emission is likewise investigated; a detailed analysis of the distribution of the excess emission with respect to detector position and Galactic HI column density shows that the excess emission is a genuine celestial phenomenon. We find evidence for a preferential distribution of the soft excess emission at distances larger than approx. 150-200 kpc from the centers of clusters; this behavior may be naturally explained in the context of a non-thermal Inverse-Compton scenario. Alternatively, we propose that the phenomenon maybe caused by thermal emission of very large-scale 'warm' filaments seen in recent hydrodynamic simulations. This new interpretation relieves the very demanding requirements of either the traditional intra-cluster 'warm' gas and the non-thermal scenarios. We also investigate the possibility of the soft excess originating from unresolved, X-ray faint cluster galaxies.

  19. THE X-RAY VARIABILITY OF A LARGE, SERENDIPITOUS SAMPLE OF SPECTROSCOPIC QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Robert R.; Brandt, W. N.

    2012-02-10

    We analyze the X-ray variability of 264 Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic quasars using the Chandra public archive. This data set consists of quasars with spectroscopic redshifts out to z Almost-Equal-To 5 and covers rest-frame timescales up to {Delta}t{sub sys} Almost-Equal-To 2000 days, with three or more X-ray observations available for 82 quasars. It therefore samples longer timescales and higher luminosities than previous large-scale analyses of active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability. We find significant ({approx}>3{sigma}) variation in Almost-Equal-To 30% of the quasars overall; the fraction of sources with detected variability increases strongly with the number of available source counts up to Almost-Equal-To 70% for sources with {>=}1000 counts per epoch. Assuming that the distribution of fractional variation is Gaussian, its standard deviation is Almost-Equal-To 16% on {approx}>1 week timescales, which is not enough to explain the observed scatter in quasar X-ray-to-optical flux ratios as being due to variability alone. We find no evidence in our sample that quasars are more variable at higher redshifts (z > 2), as has been suggested in previous studies. Quasar X-ray spectra vary similarly to some local Seyfert AGNs in that they steepen as they brighten, with evidence for a constant, hard spectral component that is more prominent in fainter stages. We identify one highly variable Narrow Line Seyfert 1-type spectroscopic quasar in the Chandra Deep Field-North. We constrain the rate of kilosecond-timescale flares in the quasar population using Almost-Equal-To 8 months of total exposure and also constrain the distribution of variation amplitudes between exposures; extreme changes (>100%) are quite rare, while variation at the 25% level occurs in <25% of observations. [O III] {lambda}5007 A emission may be stronger in sources with lower levels of X-ray variability; if confirmed, this would represent an additional link between small-scale (corona) and

  20. ALPHA ELEMENT ABUNDANCES IN A LARGE SAMPLE OF GALACTIC PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Milingo, J. B.; Kwitter, K. B.; Souza, S. P.; Henry, R. B. C. E-mail: kkwitter@williams.ed E-mail: henry@mail.nhn.ou.ed

    2010-03-10

    In this paper, we present emission line strengths, abundances, and element ratios (X/O for Ne, S, Cl, and Ar) for a sample of 38 Galactic disk planetary nebulae (PNe) consisting primarily of Peimbert classification Type I. Spectrophotometry for these PNe incorporates an extended optical/near-IR range of lambdalambda3600-9600 A including the [S III] lines at 9069 A and 9532 A, setting this relatively large sample apart from typical spectral coverage. We have utilized Emission Line Spectrum Analyzer, a five-level atom abundance routine, to determine T{sub e} , N{sub e} , ionization correction factors, and total element abundances, thereby continuing our work toward a uniformly processed set of data. With a compilation of data from >120 Milky Way PNe, we present results from our most recent analysis of abundance patterns in Galactic disk PNe. With a wide range of metallicities, galactocentric distances, and both Type I and non-Type I objects, we have examined the alpha elements against H II regions and blue compact galaxies (H2BCGs) to discern signatures of depletion or enhancement in PNe progenitor stars, particularly the destruction or production of O and Ne. We present evidence that many PNe have higher Ne/O and lower Ar/Ne ratios compared to H2BCGs within the range of 8.5-9.0 for 12 + log(O/H). This suggests that Ne is being synthesized in the low- and intermediate-mass progenitors. Sulfur abundances in PNe continue to show great scatter and are systematically lower than those found in H2BCG at a given metallicity. Although we find that PNe do show some distinction in alpha elements when compared to H2BCG, within the Peimbert classification types studied, PNe do not show significant differences in alpha elements amongst themselves, at least to an extent that would distinguish in situ nucleosynthesis from the observed dispersion in abundance ratios.

  1. Proposed production of a large (approx. 40. mu. g) sample of /sup 254/Es

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, J.E.; Alexander, C.W.; King, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by the National Research Council has made it clear that the key to further substantial progress in heavy element research is the expanded use of 276-day /sup 254/Es as target material. Einsteinium-254 has the greatest mass and charge of any nuclide that can be produced in the required multimicrogram quantities in the foreseeable future. Four major laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)) active in transplutonium research have collaborated to propose a major new thrust in transplutonium research that will require an order of magnitude more /sup 254/Es than is normally available. This project, called LEAP (an acronym for Large Einsteinium Activation Program) has goals of determining the inorganic chemistry and nuclear chemistry and physics of the transeinsteinium elements through atomic number 109, plus a search for superheavy elements. LEAP is based on using approx.40-..mu..g of /sup 254/Es as a target for heavy-ion accelerators. The Tranuranium Processing Plant (TRU) of the Chemical Technology Division of ORNL has been given the task of determining the feasibility of producing a 40 ..mu..g sample of /sup 254/Es and, if later requested, of actually producing the sample. This task, which has been under way for several years, is directed toward three areas of investigation: (1) experimental determination of the neutron cross sections of certain transplutonium isotopes important to the production of /sup 254/Es; (2) selection of a /sup 254/Es production scheme; and (3) development of the necessary hardware, followed by an actual test irradiation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Horvitz-Thompson survey sample methods for estimating large-scale animal abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Garton, E.O.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale surveys to estimate animal abundance can be useful for monitoring population status and trends, for measuring responses to management or environmental alterations, and for testing ecological hypotheses about abundance. However, large-scale surveys may be expensive and logistically complex. To ensure resources are not wasted on unattainable targets, the goals and uses of each survey should be specified carefully and alternative methods for addressing these objectives always should be considered. During survey design, the impoflance of each survey error component (spatial design, propofiion of detected animals, precision in detection) should be considered carefully to produce a complete statistically based survey. Failure to address these three survey components may produce population estimates that are inaccurate (biased low), have unrealistic precision (too precise) and do not satisfactorily meet the survey objectives. Optimum survey design requires trade-offs in these sources of error relative to the costs of sampling plots and detecting animals on plots, considerations that are specific to the spatial logistics and survey methods. The Horvitz-Thompson estimators provide a comprehensive framework for considering all three survey components during the design and analysis of large-scale wildlife surveys. Problems of spatial and temporal (especially survey to survey) heterogeneity in detection probabilities have received little consideration, but failure to account for heterogeneity produces biased population estimates. The goal of producing unbiased population estimates is in conflict with the increased variation from heterogeneous detection in the population estimate. One solution to this conflict is to use an MSE-based approach to achieve a balance between bias reduction and increased variation. Further research is needed to develop methods that address spatial heterogeneity in detection, evaluate the effects of temporal heterogeneity on survey

  3. Using Co-Occurrence to Evaluate Belief Coherence in a Large Non Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Halligan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions) has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow “cohere” with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs). The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural). Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian’s coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance. PMID:23155383

  4. Prevalence and correlates of cognitive asymmetry in a large sample of Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Alverson, W Alexander; Massman, Paul J; Doody, Rachelle S

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that a significant minority of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit asymmetric cognitive profiles (greater verbal than visuospatial impairment or vice versa) and that these patient subgroups may differ in demographic and other characteristics. Prior studies have been relatively small, and this investigation sought to examine correlates of asymmetry in a large patient sample (N = 438). Patients were classified into the following cognitive profile groups: low verbal, symmetric, and low visuospatial. Consistent with past research, 28.3% of participants were classified as having asymmetric cognitive profiles, with more participants in the low visuospatial subgroup. Low visuospatial participants were younger than members of the other subgroups, and low verbal participants performed worse on a measure estimating premorbid verbal intelligence. Findings regarding apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 genotype were equivocal, although results provided some evidence for an effect of the ɛ4 allele on cognitive asymmetry. These results suggest systematic differences between neuropsychological asymmetry profiles that support the possibility of distinct subgroups of the disease. PMID:26757777

  5. Timeless: A Large Sample Study on the Temporal Robustness of Affective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Postzich, Christopher; Blask, Katarina; Frings, Christian; Walther, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Emotion and its effects on other psychological phenomena are frequently studied by presenting emotional pictures for a short amount of time. However, the duration of exposure strongly differs across paradigms. In order to ensure the comparability of affective response elicitation across those paradigms, it is crucial to empirically validate emotional material not only with regard to the affective dimensions valence and arousal, but also with regard to varying presentation times. Despite this operational necessity for the temporal robustness of emotional material, there is only tentative empirical evidence on this issue. To close this gap, we conducted a large sample study testing for the influence of presentation time on affective response elicitation. Two hundred and forty emotional pictures were presented for either 200 or 1000 ms and were rated by 302 participants on the core affect dimensions valence and arousal. The most important finding was that affective response elicitation was comparable for 200 and 1000 ms presentation times, indicating reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation within the supra-liminal spectrum. Yet, a more detailed look on the data showed that presentation time impacted particularly on high arousing negative stimuli. However, because these interaction effects were exceedingly small, they must be interpreted with caution and do not endanger the main finding, namely the quite reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation. Results are discussed with regard to the comparability of affective response elicitation across varying paradigms. PMID:27313561

  6. Patterns of intimate partner violence in a large, epidemiological sample of divorcing couples.

    PubMed

    Beck, Connie J A; Anderson, Edward R; O'Hara, Karey L; Benjamin, G Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    In many jurisdictions divorcing couples are court-ordered to participate in divorce mediation to resolve parenting plan disputes prior to a court allowing a case to proceed to trial. Historically, a significant number (40-80%) of these divorcing couples enter this highly stressful legal process having experienced violence and abuse within the relationship (Pearson, 1997). Several researchers have developed typologies that describe couple-level patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse (IPV/A) behaviors; one research team suggested their typology could apply specifically to such divorcing people (Kelly & Johnson, 2008). In this context, identification and accurate classification of IPV/A can lead to better decisions as long-term, difficult to modify custody orders concerning the children are made during divorce mediation. Accurate identification and classification of IPV/A can also assist clinical researchers designing specialized interventions for couples and individuals experiencing IPV/A, mental health practitioners who may treat these families, and custody evaluators who may make recommendations to the courts. The current study includes a large epidemiological sample of divorcing couples and provides a robust statistical solution with five distinct categories of IPV/A. Two of the five categories were similar to those proposed by Johnson (2006c). The current study also provides descriptions and frequencies of each type of IPV/A, and discusses implications for court personnel, researchers and practitioners. PMID:24098962

  7. Large sample randomization inference of causal effects in the presence of interference

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lan; Hudgens, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, increasing attention has focused on making causal inference when interference is possible. In the presence of interference, treatment may have several types of effects. In this paper, we consider inference about such effects when the population consists of groups of individuals where interference is possible within groups but not between groups. A two stage randomization design is assumed where in the first stage groups are randomized to different treatment allocation strategies and in the second stage individuals are randomized to treatment or control conditional on the strategy assigned to their group in the first stage. For this design, the asymptotic distributions of estimators of the causal effects are derived when either the number of individuals per group or the number of groups grows large. Under certain homogeneity assumptions, the asymptotic distributions provide justification for Wald-type confidence intervals (CIs) and tests. Empirical results demonstrate the Wald CIs have good coverage in finite samples and are narrower than CIs based on either the Chebyshev or Hoeffding inequalities provided the number of groups is not too small. The methods are illustrated by two examples which consider the effects of cholera vaccination and an intervention to encourage voting. PMID:24659836

  8. ORBITAL MONITORING OF THE ASTRALUX LARGE M-DWARF MULTIPLICITY SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, Markus; Bergfors, Carolina; Brandner, Wolfgang; Schlieder, Joshua; Köhler, Rainer; Hormuth, Felix; Henning, Thomas; Hippler, Stefan; Bonnefoy, Mickaël

    2014-10-01

    Orbital monitoring of M-type binaries is essential for constraining their fundamental properties. This is particularly useful in young systems, where the extended pre-main-sequence evolution can allow for precise isochronal dating. Here, we present the continued astrometric monitoring of the more than 200 binaries of the AstraLux Large Multiplicity Survey, building both on our previous work, archival data, and new astrometric data spanning the range of 2010-2012. The sample is very young overall—all included stars have known X-ray emission, and a significant fraction (18%) of them have recently also been identified as members of young moving groups in the solar neighborhood. We identify ∼30 targets that both have indications of being young and for which an orbit either has been closed or appears possible to close in a reasonable time frame (a few years to a few decades). One of these cases, GJ 4326, is, however, identified as probably being substantially older than has been implied from its apparent moving group membership, based on astrometric and isochronal arguments. With further astrometric monitoring, these targets will provide a set of empirical isochrones, against which theoretical isochrones can be calibrated, and which can be used to evaluate the precise ages of nearby young moving groups.

  9. A test of the interpersonal theory of suicide in a large sample of current firefighters.

    PubMed

    Chu, Carol; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-06-30

    Recent research suggests that firefighters experience elevated rates of suicidal ideation and behaviors. The interpersonal theory of suicide may shed light on this finding. This theory postulates that suicidal desire is strongest among individuals experiencing perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and that the combination of suicide desire and acquired capability for suicide is necessary for the development of suicidal behaviors. We tested the propositions of the interpersonal theory in a large sample of current United States firefighters (N=863). Participants completed self-report measures of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, fearlessness about death (FAD; a component of acquired capability), and career suicidal ideation and suicide attempt history. Regression models were used to examine the association between interpersonal theory constructs, career suicidal ideation severity, and the presence of career suicide attempts. In line with theory predictions, the three-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and FAD was significantly associated with career suicide attempts, beyond participant sex. However, findings were no longer significant after accounting for years of firefighter service or age. Contrary to predictions, the two-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was not significantly related to career suicidal ideation severity. Applications of the theory to firefighters and future research are discussed. PMID:27078756

  10. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Gibson, R. R.; Lundgren, B. F.; Myers, A. D.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen Yue; York, D. G.; Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Malanushenko, E.; Oravetz, D. J.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A. E.; Weaver, B. A.

    2012-10-01

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 < z < 4.5) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) and SDSS-III. The observations span 1.1-3.9 yr rest-frame timescales, longer than have been sampled in many previous BAL variability studies. On these timescales, Almost-Equal-To 2.3% of C IV BAL troughs disappear and Almost-Equal-To 3.3% of BAL quasars show a disappearing trough. These observed frequencies suggest that many C IV BAL absorbers spend on average at most a century along our line of sight to their quasar. Ten of the 19 BAL quasars showing C IV BAL disappearance have apparently transformed from BAL to non-BAL quasars; these are the first reported examples of such transformations. The BAL troughs that disappear tend to be those with small-to-moderate equivalent widths, relatively shallow depths, and high outflow velocities. Other non-disappearing C IV BALs in those nine objects having multiple troughs tend to weaken when one of them disappears, indicating a connection between the disappearing and non-disappearing troughs, even for velocity separations as large as 10,000-15,000 km s{sup -1}. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  11. ASCA observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant sample: Typing supernovae from their remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John P.; Hayashi, Ichizo; Helfand, David; Hwang, Una; Itoh, Masayuki; Kirshner, Robert; Koyama, Katsuji; Markert, Thomas; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Woo, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    We present our first results from a study of the supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from ASCA. The three remnants we have analyzed to date, 0509-67.5, 0519-69.0, and N103B, are among the smallest, and presumably also the youngest, in the Cloud. The X-ray spectra of these SNRs show strong K alpha emission lines of silicon, sulfur, argon, and calcium with no evidence for corresponding lines of oxygen, neon, or magnesium. The dominant feature in the spectra is a broad blend of emission lines around 1 keV which we attribute to L-shell emission lines of iron. Model calculations (Nomoto, Thielemann, & Yokoi 1984) show that the major products of nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernovae (SNs) are the elements from silicon to iron, as observed here. The calculated nucleosynthetic yields from Type Ib and II SNs are shown to be qualitatively inconsistent with the data. We conclude that the SNs which produced these remnants were of Type Ia. This finding also confirms earlier suggestions that the class of Balmer-dominated remnants arise from Type Ia SN explosions. Based on these early results from the LMC SNR sample, we find that roughly one-half of the SNRs produced in the LMC within the last approximately 1500 yr came from Type Ia SNs.

  12. Building blocks for developing spatial skills: evidence from a large, representative U.S. sample.

    PubMed

    Jirout, Jamie J; Newcombe, Nora S

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence suggesting that children's play with spatial toys (e.g., puzzles and blocks) correlates with spatial development. Females play less with spatial toys than do males, which arguably accounts for males' spatial advantages; children with high socioeconomic status (SES) also show an advantage, though SES-related differences in spatial play have been less studied than gender-related differences. Using a large, nationally representative sample from the standardization study of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition, and controlling for other cognitive abilities, we observed a specific relation between parent-reported frequency of spatial play and Block Design scores that was invariant across gender and SES. Reported spatial play was higher for boys than for girls, but controlling for spatial play did not eliminate boys' relative advantage on this subtest. SES groups did not differ in reported frequency of spatial play. Future research should consider quality as well as quantity of play, and should explore underlying mechanisms to evaluate causality. PMID:25626442

  13. Efficacy of a benthic trawl for sampling small-bodied fishes in large river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.P.; Barko, V.A.; Scheibe, J.S.; Hrabik, R.A.; Ostendorf, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study from 1998 to 2001 to determine the efficacy of a benthic trawl designed to increase species detection and reduce the incidence of zero catches of small-bodied fishes. We modified a standard two-seam slingshot balloon trawl by covering the entire trawl with a small-mesh cover. After completing 281 hauls with the modified (Missouri) trawl, we discovered that most fish passed through the body of the standard trawl and were captured in the cover. Logistic regression indicated no noticeable effect of the cover on the catch entering the standard portion of the modified trawl. However, some fishes (e.g., larval sturgeons Scaphirhynchus spp. and pallid sturgeon S. albus) were exclusively captured in the small-mesh cover, while the catch of small-bodied adult fish (e.g., chubs Macrhybopsis spp.) was significantly improved by use of the small-mesh cover design. The Missouri trawl significantly increased the number and species of small-bodied fishes captured over previously used designs and is a useful method for sampling the benthic fish community in moderate- to large-size river systems.

  14. Analyzing large-scale samples confirms the association between rs16892766 polymorphism and colorectal cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Mingzhi; Wang, Guangyu; Quan, Baoku; Qi, Xingsi; Yu, Zhihui; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Yanqiao; Liu, Guiyou

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common complex disease caused by the combination of genetic variants and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed and reported some novel CRC susceptibility variants. The rs16892766 (8q23.3) polymorphism was first identified to be significantly associated with CRC in European ancestry. The following studies investigated this association in Chinese, Japanese, Romanian, Swedish, African American, European American, and Croatian populations. These studies reported consistent and inconsistent results. Here, we reevaluated this association using the relatively large-scale samples from 13 studies (N = 59737, 26237 cases and 33500 controls) using a meta-analysis by searching the PubMed, Google Scholar and CRCgene databases. We observed no significant heterogeneity among the included studies. Our results showed significant association between rs16892766 polymorphism and CRC (P = 1.33E-35, OR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.20-1.27). Collectively, our analysis further supports previous findings that the rs16892766 polymorphism is significantly associated with CRC susceptibility. We believe that our findings will be very useful for future genetic studies on CRC. PMID:25609216

  15. Use of field-applied quality control samples to monitor performance of a Goulden large-sample extractor/GC-MS method for pesticides in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, W.T.; Gates, Paul M.; Foster, G.D.; Rinella, F.A.; McKenzie, S.W.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1985, the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) has been used to isolate a broad array of trace-organic contaminants from large volumes of water. In this study, field-applied quality control measures, including matrix and surrogate spikes and blanks, were used to monitor method performance from GLSE extraction through GC-MS analysis. The method was applied to the determination of multiple classes of pesticides isolated from 4- to 112-L filtered surface-water samples. Average recoveries of six surrogate compounds ranged from 84 ?? 18% for [2H10]diazinon to 15 ?? 13% for 4,4'-[2H8]DDT, the low recoveries for which were largely a result of unmonitored breakdown of this surrogate by the GC injection system. Field-matrix-spike samples were prepared by fortifying 10-L, 35-L, and 110-L filtered surface-water samples with 68 pesticides to amended concentrations of 11- to 50-ng/L each. Recoveries ranged from not detected to greater than 100%. Variability in pesticide recoveries from triplicate 10-L water samples collected at one site averaged 5.7% relative standard deviation and did not exceed 19%.Since 1985, the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) has been used to isolate a broad array of trace-organic contaminants from large volumes of water. In this study, field-applied quality control measures, including matrix and surrogate spikes and blanks, were used to monitor method performance from GLSE extraction through GC-MS analysis. The method was applied to the determination of multiple classes of pesticides isolated from 4- to 112-L filtered surface-water samples. Average recoveries of six surrogate compounds ranged from 84 ?? 18% for [2H10]diazinon to 15 ?? 13% for 4,4???-[2H8]DDT, the low recoveries for which were largely a result of unmonitored breakdown of this surrogate by the GC injection system. Field-matrix-spike samples were prepared by fortifying 10-L, 35-L, and 110-L filtered surface-water samples with 68 pesticides to amended concentrations of 11- to 50

  16. Effects of ultrasonic treatment on zeolite NaA synthesized from by-product silica.

    PubMed

    Vaičiukynienė, Danutė; Kantautas, Aras; Vaitkevičius, Vitoldas; Jakevičius, Leonas; Rudžionis, Žymantas; Paškevičius, Mantas

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of zeolite NaA from silica by-product was carried out in the presence of 20 kHz ultrasound at room temperature. Zeolites obtained in this type of synthesis were compared to zeolites obtained by performing conventional static syntheses under similar conditions. The sonication effects on zeolite NaA synthesis were characterized by phase identification, crystallinity etc. The effects of different parameters such as crystallization time and initial materials preparation methods on the crystallinity and morphology of the synthesized zeolites were investigated. The final products were characterized by XRD and FT-IR. It was possible to obtain crystalline zeolite NaA from by-product silica in the presence of ultrasound. PMID:26186874

  17. Synthesis of zeolite NaA membrane from fused fly ash extract.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Alechine E; Musyoka, Nicholas M; Fatoba, Ojo O; Syrtsova, Daria A; Teplyakov, Vladimir V; Petrik, Leslie F

    2016-01-01

    Zeolite-NaA membranes were synthesized from an extract of fused South African fly ash on a porous titanium support by a secondary growth method. The influence of the synthesis molar regime on the formation of zeolite NaA membrane layer was investigated. Two synthesis mixtures were generated by adding either aluminium hydroxide or sodium aluminate to the fused fly ash extract. The feedstock material and the synthesized membranes were characterized by X-diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). It was found by XRD and SEM that the cubic crystals of a typical zeolite NaA with a dense intergrown layer was formed on the porous Ti support. The study shows that the source of Al used had an effect on the membrane integrity as sodium aluminate provided the appropriate amount of Na(+) to form a coherent membrane of zeolite NaA, whereas aluminium hydroxide did not. Morphological, the single hydrothermal stage seeded support formed an interlocked array of zeolite NaA particles with neighbouring crystals. Also, a robust, continuous and well-intergrown zeolite NaA membrane was formed with neighbouring crystals of zeolite fused to each other after the multiple stage synthesis. The synthesized membrane was permeable to He (6.0 × 10(6) L m(-2)h(-1) atm(-1)) and CO2 (5.6 × 10(6) L m(-2)h(-1) atm(-1)), which indicate that the layer of the membrane was firmly attached to the porous Ti support. Membrane selectivity was maintained showing membrane integrity with permselectivity of 1.1, showing that a waste feedstock, fly ash, could be utilized for preparing robust zeolite NaA membranes on Ti support. PMID:26761276

  18. Analysis of medieval limestone sculpture from southwestern France and the Paris Basin by NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1994-12-31

    Compositional characterization of limestone from sources known to medieval craftsmen and from the monuments they built can be used in conjunction with stylistic and iconographic criteria to infer geographic origin of sculptures that have lost their histories. Limestone from 47 quarrying locations in France and from numerous medieval monuments have been subjected to neutron activation analysis (NAA) to form the nucleus of the Brookhaven Limestone Database. Even though the method and techniques of NAA are well established, this paper briefly summarizes the parameters and experimental conditions useful for determining those concentration variables for which limestone from different sources exhibits significant and reproducible differences.

  19. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-07-15

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  20. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-07-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  1. Relations between Executive Function and Academic Achievement from Ages 5 to 17 in a Large, Representative National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, John R.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in complex executive function (EF) in a large, representative sample (N=2036) aged 5 to 17 using the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Das, 1997a). Relations between complex EF and academic achievement were examined on a sub-sample (N = 1395) given the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revised…

  2. Alternative Factor Models and Factorial Invariance of the GHQ-12: A Large Sample Analysis Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This study tested alternative factor models of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), based on previous research findings, with a large sample using confirmatory factor analysis. An alternative models framework was used to test 6 factor analytic models. A 3-factor model was the best explanation of the sample data. The 3 factors were labeled…

  3. Best Practices in Using Large, Complex Samples: The Importance of Using Appropriate Weights and Design Effect Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2011-01-01

    Large surveys often use probability sampling in order to obtain representative samples, and these data sets are valuable tools for researchers in all areas of science. Yet many researchers are not formally prepared to appropriately utilize these resources. Indeed, users of one popular dataset were generally found "not" to have modeled the analyses…

  4. Adapting hydrological model structure to catchment characteristics: A large-sample experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addor, Nans; Clark, Martyn P.; Nijssen, Bart

    2016-04-01

    Current hydrological modeling frameworks do not offer a clear way to systematically investigate the relationship between model complexity and model fidelity. The characterization of this relationship has so far relied on comparisons of different modules within the same model or comparisons of entirely different models. This lack of granularity in the differences between the model constructs makes it difficult to pinpoint model features that contribute to good simulations and means that the number of models or modeling hypotheses evaluated is usually small. Here we use flexible modeling frameworks to comprehensively and systematically compare modeling alternatives across the continuum of model complexity. A key goal is to explore which model structures are most adequate for catchments in different hydroclimatic conditions. Starting from conceptual models based on the Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE), we progressively increase model complexity by replacing conceptual formulations by physically explicit ones (process complexity) and by refining model spatial resolution (spatial complexity) using the newly developed Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA). To investigate how to best reflect catchment characteristics using model structure, we rely on a recently released data set of 671 catchments in the continuous United States. Instead of running hydrological simulations in every catchment, we use clustering techniques to define catchment clusters, run hydrological simulations for representative members of each cluster, develop hypotheses (e.g., when specific process representations have useful explanatory power) and test these hypotheses using other members of the cluster. We thus refine our catchment clustering based on insights into dominant hydrological processes gained from our modeling approach. With this large-sample experiment, we seek to uncover trade-offs between realism and practicality, and formulate general

  5. Religion and the Unmaking of Prejudice toward Muslims: Evidence from a Large National Sample.

    PubMed

    Shaver, John H; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G; Bulbulia, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion's power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice. PMID:26959976

  6. Religion and the Unmaking of Prejudice toward Muslims: Evidence from a Large National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Shaver, John H.; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G.; Bulbulia, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion’s power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice. PMID:26959976

  7. The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery: Results from a Large Normative Developmental Sample (PING)

    PubMed Central

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Newman, Erik; Thompson, Wesley K.; McCabe, Connor; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Chang, Linda; Amaral, David G.; Casey, B. J.; Ernst, Thomas M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Kenet, Tal; Kennedy, David N.; Libiger, Ondrej; Mostofsky, Stewart; Murray, Sarah S.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Schork, Nicholas; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NTCB) was designed to provide a brief, efficient computerized test of key neuropsychological functions appropriate for use in children as young as 3 years of age. This report describes the performance of a large group of typically developing children and adolescents and examines the impact of age and sociocultural variables on test performance. Method The NTCB was administered to a sample of 1020 typically developing males and females ranging in age from 3 to 20 years, diverse in terms of socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity, as part of the new publicly accessible Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) data resource, at 9 sites across the United States. Results General additive models of nonlinear age-functions were estimated from age-differences in test performance on the 8 NTCB subtests while controlling for family SES and genetic ancestry factors (GAFs). Age accounted for the majority of the variance across all NTCB scores, with additional significant contributions of gender on some measures, and of SES and race/ethnicity (GAFs) on all. After adjusting for age and gender, SES and GAFs explained a substantial proportion of the remaining unexplained variance in Picture Vocabulary scores. Conclusions The results highlight the sensitivity to developmental effects and efficiency of this new computerized assessment battery for neurodevelopmental research. Limitations are observed in the form of some ceiling effects in older children, some floor effects, particularly on executive function tests in the youngest participants, and evidence for variable measurement sensitivity to cultural/socioeconomic factors. PMID:24219608

  8. Characterization of mitochondrial haplogroups in a large population-based sample from the United States.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sabrina L; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Murdock, Deborah G; Crawford, Dana C

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are valuable for investigations in forensic science, molecular anthropology, and human genetics. In this study, we developed a custom panel of 61 mtDNA markers for high-throughput classification of European, African, and Native American/Asian mitochondrial haplogroup lineages. Using these mtDNA markers, we constructed a mitochondrial haplogroup classification tree and classified 18,832 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date characterizing mitochondrial haplogroups in a population-based sample from the United States, and the first study characterizing mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in self-identified Mexican Americans separately from Hispanic Americans of other descent. We observed clear differences in the distribution of maternal genetic ancestry consistent with proposed admixture models for these subpopulations, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity of the United States Hispanic population. The mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in the other self-identified racial/ethnic groups within NHANES were largely comparable to previous studies. Mitochondrial haplogroup classification was highly concordant with self-identified race/ethnicity (SIRE) in non-Hispanic whites (94.8 %), but was considerably lower in admixed populations including non-Hispanic blacks (88.3 %), Mexican Americans (81.8 %), and other Hispanics (61.6 %), suggesting SIRE does not accurately reflect maternal genetic ancestry, particularly in populations with greater proportions of admixture. Thus, it is important to consider inconsistencies between SIRE and genetic ancestry when performing genetic association studies. The mitochondrial haplogroup data that we have generated, coupled with the epidemiologic variables in NHANES, is a valuable resource for future studies investigating the contribution of mtDNA variation to human health and disease. PMID:24488180

  9. Orbital Monitoring of the AstraLux Large M-dwarf Multiplicity Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, Markus; Bergfors, Carolina; Brandner, Wolfgang; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Schlieder, Joshua; Köhler, Rainer; Hormuth, Felix; Henning, Thomas; Hippler, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Orbital monitoring of M-type binaries is essential for constraining their fundamental properties. This is particularly useful in young systems, where the extended pre-main-sequence evolution can allow for precise isochronal dating. Here, we present the continued astrometric monitoring of the more than 200 binaries of the AstraLux Large Multiplicity Survey, building both on our previous work, archival data, and new astrometric data spanning the range of 2010-2012. The sample is very young overall—all included stars have known X-ray emission, and a significant fraction (18%) of them have recently also been identified as members of young moving groups in the solar neighborhood. We identify ~30 targets that both have indications of being young and for which an orbit either has been closed or appears possible to close in a reasonable time frame (a few years to a few decades). One of these cases, GJ 4326, is, however, identified as probably being substantially older than has been implied from its apparent moving group membership, based on astrometric and isochronal arguments. With further astrometric monitoring, these targets will provide a set of empirical isochrones, against which theoretical isochrones can be calibrated, and which can be used to evaluate the precise ages of nearby young moving groups. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under observing programs 081.C-0314(A), 082.C-0053(A), and 084.C-0812(A), and on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  10. Employment and Income of People Who Experience Mental Illness and Homelessness in a Large Canadian Sample

    PubMed Central

    Poremski, Daniel; Distasio, Jino; Hwang, Stephen W; Latimer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Research suggests that homeless people with mental illness may have difficulty obtaining employment and disability benefits. Our study provides a comprehensive description of sources of income and employment rates in a large Canadian sample. Methods: Participants (n = 2085) from the 5 sites of the At Home/Chez Soi study were asked about their income, employment, and desire for work during the pre-baseline period. The proportion of participants employed, receiving government support, and relying on income from other activities were compared across sites, as were total income and income from different sources. Generalized linear models were used to identify participant characteristics associated with total income. Results: Unemployment ranged from 93% to 98% across 5 sites. The per cent of participants who wanted to work ranged from 61% to 83%. Participants relied predominantly on government assistance, with 29.5% relying exclusively on welfare, and 46.2% receiving disability benefits. Twenty-eight per cent of participants received neither social assistance nor disability income. Among the 2085 participants, 6.8% reported income from panhandling, 2.1% from sex trade, and 1.2% from selling drugs. Regression models showed that income differed significantly among sites and age groups, and was significantly lower for people with psychotic illnesses. Conclusion: These results suggest that homeless people with mental illness are predominantly unemployed, despite expressing a desire to work. In Canada, this group relies predominantly on welfare, but has access to disability benefits and employment insurance. These findings highlight the importance of developing effective interventions to support employment goals and facilitate access to benefits. PMID:26454725

  11. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine Nε-acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity. PMID:27550639

  12. Structure and function of human Naa60 (NatF), a Golgi-localized bi-functional acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Yun; Liu, Liang; Cao, Chun-Ling; Li, Mei-Jun; Tan, Kemin; Yang, Xiaohan; Yun, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation), carried out by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is a conserved and primary modification of nascent peptide chains. Naa60 (also named NatF) is a recently identified NAT found only in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein was shown to locate on the Golgi apparatus and mainly catalyze the Nt-acetylation of transmembrane proteins, and it also harbors lysine N(ε)-acetyltransferase (KAT) activity to catalyze the acetylation of lysine ε-amine. Here, we report the crystal structures of human Naa60 (hNaa60) in complex with Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) or Coenzyme A (CoA). The hNaa60 protein contains an amphipathic helix following its GNAT domain that may contribute to Golgi localization of hNaa60, and the β7-β8 hairpin adopted different conformations in the hNaa60(1-242) and hNaa60(1-199) crystal structures. Remarkably, we found that the side-chain of Phe 34 can influence the position of the coenzyme, indicating a new regulatory mechanism involving enzyme, co-factor and substrates interactions. Moreover, structural comparison and biochemical studies indicated that Tyr 97 and His 138 are key residues for catalytic reaction and that a non-conserved β3-β4 long loop participates in the regulation of hNaa60 activity. PMID:27550639

  13. Size and shape characteristics of drumlins, derived from a large sample, and associated scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris D.; Hughes, Anna L. C.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Ng, Felix S. L.

    2009-04-01

    Ice sheets flowing across a sedimentary bed usually produce a landscape of blister-like landforms streamlined in the direction of the ice flow and with each bump of the order of 10 2 to 10 3 m in length and 10 1 m in relief. Such landforms, known as drumlins, have mystified investigators for over a hundred years. A satisfactory explanation for their formation, and thus an appreciation of their glaciological significance, has remained elusive. A recent advance has been in numerical modelling of the land-forming process. In anticipation of future modelling endeavours, this paper is motivated by the requirement for robust data on drumlin size and shape for model testing. From a systematic programme of drumlin mapping from digital elevation models and satellite images of Britain and Ireland, we used a geographic information system to compile a range of statistics on length L, width W, and elongation ratio E (where E = L/ W) for a large sample. Mean L, is found to be 629 m ( n = 58,983), mean W is 209 m and mean E is 2.9 ( n = 37,043). Most drumlins are between 250 and 1000 metres in length; between 120 and 300 metres in width; and between 1.7 and 4.1 times as long as they are wide. Analysis of such data and plots of drumlin width against length reveals some new insights. All frequency distributions are unimodal from which we infer that the geomorphological label of 'drumlin' is fair in that this is a true single population of landforms, rather than an amalgam of different landform types. Drumlin size shows a clear minimum bound of around 100 m (horizontal). Maybe drumlins are generated at many scales and this is the minimum, or this value may be an indication of the fundamental scale of bump generation ('proto-drumlins') prior to them growing and elongating. A relationship between drumlin width and length is found (with r2 = 0.48) and that is approximately W = 7 L 1/2 when measured in metres. A surprising and sharply-defined line bounds the data cloud plotted in E- W

  14. Group sequential large sample T2-like chi2 tests for multivariate observations.

    PubMed

    Lachin, John M; Greenhouse, Samuel W; Bautista, Oliver M

    2003-11-15

    In many studies, a K degree of freedom large sample chi2 test is used to assess the effect of treatment on a multivariate response, such as an omnibus T2-like test of a difference between two treatment groups in any of K repeated measures. Alternately, a K df chi2 test may be used to test the equality of K+1 groups in a single outcome measure. Jennison and Turnbull (Biometrika 1991; 78: 133-141) describe group sequential chi2 and F-tests for normal errors linear models, and Proschan, Follmann and Geller (Statist. Med. 1994; 13: 1441-1452) describe group sequential tests for K+1 group comparisons. These methods apply to sequences of statistics that can be characterized as having an independent increments variance-covariance structure, thus simplifying the computation of the sequential variance-covariance matrix and the resulting sequential test boundaries. However, many commonly used statistics do not share this structure, including a Liang-Zeger (Biometrika 1986; 73: 13-22) GEE longitudinal analysis with an independence working correlation structure and a Wei-Lachin (J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 1984; 79: 653-661) multivariate Wilcoxon rank test, among others. For such analyses, this paper describes the computation of group sequential boundaries for the interim analysis of emerging results using K df tests that are expressed as quadratic forms in a statistics vector that is distributed as multivariate normal, at least asymptotically. We derive the elements of the covariance matrix of multiple successive K df chi2 statistics based on established theorems on the distribution of quadratic forms. This covariance matrix is estimated by augmenting the data from the successive interim analyses into a single analysis from which the component sequential tests and their variance-covariance matrix can then be extracted. Boundary values for the sequential statistics can then be computed using the method of Slud and Wei (J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 1982; 77: 862-868) or using the

  15. A comparison of two sampling designs for fish assemblage assessment in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiraly, Ian A.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Hayes, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We compared the efficiency of stratified random and fixed-station sampling designs to characterize fish assemblages in anticipation of dam removal on the Penobscot River, the largest river in Maine. We used boat electrofishing methods in both sampling designs. Multiple 500-m transects were selected randomly and electrofished in each of nine strata within the stratified random sampling design. Within the fixed-station design, up to 11 transects (1,000 m) were electrofished, all of which had been sampled previously. In total, 88 km of shoreline were electrofished during summer and fall in 2010 and 2011, and 45,874 individuals of 34 fish species were captured. Species-accumulation and dissimilarity curve analyses indicated that all sampling effort, other than fall 2011 under the fixed-station design, provided repeatable estimates of total species richness and proportional abundances. Overall, our sampling designs were similar in precision and efficiency for sampling fish assemblages. The fixed-station design was negatively biased for estimating the abundance of species such as Common Shiner Luxilus cornutus and Fallfish Semotilus corporalis and was positively biased for estimating biomass for species such as White Sucker Catostomus commersonii and Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. However, we found no significant differences between the designs for proportional catch and biomass per unit effort, except in fall 2011. The difference observed in fall 2011 was due to limitations on the number and location of fixed sites that could be sampled, rather than an inherent bias within the design. Given the results from sampling in the Penobscot River, application of the stratified random design is preferable to the fixed-station design due to less potential for bias caused by varying sampling effort, such as what occurred in the fall 2011 fixed-station sample or due to purposeful site selection.

  16. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, V; Subramanian, V; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2015-07-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging. PMID:26233420

  17. Irritability without Elation in a Large Bipolar Youth Sample: Frequency and Clinical Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Birmaher, Boris; Leonard, Henrietta; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal; Yang, Mei; Gill, Marykay; Dyl, Jennifer; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Swenson, Lance; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Stout, Robert; Keller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of 361 youths with bipolar disorder reveal that irritable-only subgroups constitute 10 percent of this sample while elated-only subgroups constitute 15 percent of the sample. These findings support continued consideration for episodic irritability in the diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL FACTORS ON COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF SAMPLING METHODS IN LARGE RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999, we compared five existing benthic macroinvertebrate sampling methods used in boatable rivers. Each sampling protocol was performed at each of 60 sites distributed among four rivers in the Ohio River drainage basin. Initial comparison of methods using key macroinvertebr...

  19. Psychopathic Traits in a Large Community Sample: Links to Violence, Alcohol Use, and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Craig S.; Hare, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted with offender or forensic psychiatric samples have revealed that individuals with psychopathic traits are at risk for violence and other externalizing psychopathology. These traits appear to be continuously distributed in these samples, leading investigators to speculate on the presence of such traits in the general…

  20. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established. PMID:25509282

  1. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  2. NAA TECHNIQUE FOR CLINICAL INVESTIGATION OF MICE IMMUNIZED WITH BOTHROP VENOM

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C. B.; Aguiar, R. O.; Kovacs, L.; Suzuki, M.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2009-06-03

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique was used to determine sodium concentration in whole blood of mice immunized with Bothrops venom. With this value it was possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood.

  3. Expanding the Phenotype Associated with NAA10-Related N-Terminal Acetylation Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saunier, Chloé; Støve, Svein Isungset; Popp, Bernt; Gérard, Bénédicte; Blenski, Marina; AhMew, Nicholas; de Bie, Charlotte; Goldenberg, Paula; Isidor, Bertrand; Keren, Boris; Leheup, Bruno; Lampert, Laetitia; Mignot, Cyril; Tezcan, Kamer; Mancini, Grazia M S; Nava, Caroline; Wasserstein, Melissa; Bruel, Ange-Line; Thevenon, Julien; Masurel, Alice; Duffourd, Yannis; Kuentz, Paul; Huet, Frédéric; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon; Faivre, Laurence; Piton, Amélie; Reis, André; Arnesen, Thomas; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Zweier, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in eukaryotes associated with numerous cellular processes. Inherited mutations in NAA10, encoding the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetylation complex NatA have been associated with diverse, syndromic X-linked recessive disorders, whereas de novo missense mutations have been reported in one male and one female individual with severe intellectual disability but otherwise unspecific phenotypes. Thus, the full genetic and clinical spectrum of NAA10 deficiency is yet to be delineated. We identified three different novel and one known missense mutation in NAA10, de novo in 11 females, and due to maternal germ line mosaicism in another girl and her more severely affected and deceased brother. In vitro enzymatic assays for the novel, recurrent mutations p.(Arg83Cys) and p.(Phe128Leu) revealed reduced catalytic activity. X-inactivation was random in five females. The core phenotype of X-linked NAA10-related N-terminal-acetyltransferase deficiency in both males and females includes developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, postnatal growth failure with severe microcephaly, and skeletal or cardiac anomalies. Genotype-phenotype correlations within and between both genders are complex and may include various factors such as location and nature of mutations, enzymatic stability and activity, and X-inactivation in females. PMID:27094817

  4. Active tracking of rejected dried blood samples in a large program in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Inalegwu, Auchi; Phillips, Sunny; Datir, Rawlings; Chime, Christopher; Ozumba, Petronilla; Peters, Samuel; Ogbanufe, Obinna; Mensah, Charles; Abimiku, Alash’Le; Dakum, Patrick; Ndembi, Nicaise

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the impact of rejection at different levels of health care by retrospectively reviewing records of dried blood spot samples received at the molecular laboratory for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) early infant diagnosis (EID) between January 2008 and December 2012. METHODS: The specimen rejection rate, reasons for rejection and the impact of rejection at different levels of health care was examined. The extracted data were cleaned and checked for consistency and then de-duplicated using the unique patient and clinic identifiers. The cleaned data were ciphered and exported to SPSS version 19 (SPSS 2010 IBM Corp, New York, United States) for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Sample rejection rate of 2.4% (n = 786/32552) and repeat rate of 8.8% (n = 69/786) were established. The mean age of infants presenting for first HIV molecular test among accepted valid samples was 17.83 wk (95%CI: 17.65-18.01) vs 20.30 wk (95%CI: 16.53-24.06) for repeated samples. HIV infection rate was 9.8% vs 15.9% for accepted and repeated samples. Compared to tertiary healthcare clinics, secondary and primary clinics had two-fold and three-fold higher likelihood of sample rejection, respectively (P < 0.05). We observed a significant increase in sample rejection rate with increasing number of EID clinics (r = 0.893, P = 0.041). The major reasons for rejection were improper sample collection (26.3%), improper labeling (16.4%) and insufficient blood (14.8%). CONCLUSION: Programs should monitor pre-analytical variables and incorporate continuous quality improvement interventions to reduce errors associated with sample rejection and improve patient retention. PMID:27175352

  5. Comparative study of inorganic elements determined in whole blood from Dmd(mdx)/J mice strain by EDXRF and NAA analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Redígolo, M M; Sato, I M; Metairon, S; Zamboni, C B

    2016-04-01

    Several diseases can be diagnosed observing the variation of specific elements concentration in body fluids. In this study the concentration of inorganic elements in blood samples of dystrophic (Dmd(mdx)/J) and C57BL/6J (control group) mice strain were determined. The results obtained from Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were compared with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. Both analytical techniques showed to be appropriate and complementary offering a new contribution for veterinary medicine as well as detailed knowledge of this pathology. PMID:26826356

  6. Performance of the goulden large-sample extractor in multiclass pesticide isolation and preconcentration from stream water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, G.D.; Foreman, W.T.; Gates, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    The reliability of the Goulden large-sample extractor in preconcentrating pesticides from water was evaluated from the recoveries of 35 pesticides amended to filtered stream waters. Recoveries greater than 90% were observed for many of the pesticides in each major chemical class, but recoveries for some of the individual pesticides varied in seemingly unpredictable ways. Corrections cannot yet be factored into liquid-liquid extraction theory to account for matrix effects, which were apparent between the two stream waters tested. The Goulden large-sample extractor appears to be well suited for rapid chemical screening applications, with quantitative analysis requiring special quality control considerations. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  7. Wood dust sampling: field evaluation of personal samplers when large particles are present.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Slaven, James E; Lee, Kiyoung; Rando, Roy J; Maples, Elizabeth H

    2011-03-01

    Recent recommendations for wood dust sampling include sampling according to the inhalable convention of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7708 (1995) Air quality--particle size fraction definitions for health-related sampling. However, a specific sampling device is not mandated, and while several samplers have laboratory performance approaching theoretical for an 'inhalable' sampler, the best choice of sampler for wood dust is not clear. A side-by-side field study was considered the most practical test of samplers as laboratory performance tests consider overall performance based on a wider range of particle sizes than are commonly encountered in the wood products industry. Seven companies in the wood products industry of the Southeast USA (MS, KY, AL, and WV) participated in this study. The products included hardwood flooring, engineered hardwood flooring, door skins, shutter blinds, kitchen cabinets, plywood, and veneer. The samplers selected were 37-mm closed-face cassette with ACCU-CAP™, Button, CIP10-I, GSP, and Institute of Occupational Medicine. Approximately 30 of each possible pairwise combination of samplers were collected as personal sample sets. Paired samplers of the same type were used to calculate environmental variance that was then used to determine the number of pairs of samples necessary to detect any difference at a specified level of confidence. Total valid sample number was 888 (444 valid pairs). The mass concentration of wood dust ranged from 0.02 to 195 mg m(-3). Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) and arithmetic mean (standard deviation) of wood dust were 0.98 mg m(-3) (3.06) and 2.12 mg m(-3) (7.74), respectively. One percent of the samples exceeded 15 mg m(-3), 6% exceeded 5 mg m(-3), and 48% exceeded 1 mg m(-3). The number of collected pairs is generally appropriate to detect a 35% difference when outliers (negative mass loadings) are removed. Statistical evaluation of the nonsimilar sampler pair results

  8. Wood Dust Sampling: Field Evaluation of Personal Samplers When Large Particles Are Present

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Slaven, James E.; Lee, Kiyoung; Rando, Roy J.; Maples, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent recommendations for wood dust sampling include sampling according to the inhalable convention of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7708 (1995) Air quality—particle size fraction definitions for health-related sampling. However, a specific sampling device is not mandated, and while several samplers have laboratory performance approaching theoretical for an ‘inhalable’ sampler, the best choice of sampler for wood dust is not clear. A side-by-side field study was considered the most practical test of samplers as laboratory performance tests consider overall performance based on a wider range of particle sizes than are commonly encountered in the wood products industry. Seven companies in the wood products industry of the Southeast USA (MS, KY, AL, and WV) participated in this study. The products included hardwood flooring, engineered hardwood flooring, door skins, shutter blinds, kitchen cabinets, plywood, and veneer. The samplers selected were 37-mm closed-face cassette with ACCU-CAP™, Button, CIP10-I, GSP, and Institute of Occupational Medicine. Approximately 30 of each possible pairwise combination of samplers were collected as personal sample sets. Paired samplers of the same type were used to calculate environmental variance that was then used to determine the number of pairs of samples necessary to detect any difference at a specified level of confidence. Total valid sample number was 888 (444 valid pairs). The mass concentration of wood dust ranged from 0.02 to 195 mg m−3. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) and arithmetic mean (standard deviation) of wood dust were 0.98 mg m−3 (3.06) and 2.12 mg m−3 (7.74), respectively. One percent of the samples exceeded 15 mg m−3, 6% exceeded 5 mg m−3, and 48% exceeded 1 mg m−3. The number of collected pairs is generally appropriate to detect a 35% difference when outliers (negative mass loadings) are removed. Statistical evaluation of the nonsimilar sampler pair

  9. Rapid fusion method for the determination of Pu, Np, and Am in large soil samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    A new rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for the preparation of 10-20 g soil samples has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The method enables lower detection limits for plutonium, neptunium, and americium in environmental soil samples. The method also significantly reduces sample processing time and acid fume generation compared to traditional soil digestion techniques using hydrofluoric acid. Ten gram soil aliquots can be ashed and fused using the new method in 1-2 hours, completely dissolving samples, including refractory particles. Pu, Np and Am are separated using stacked 2mL cartridges of TEVA and DGA Resin and measuredmore » using alpha spectrometry. The method can be adapted for measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two 10 g soil aliquots of fused soil may be combined prior to chromatographic separations to further improve detection limits. Total sample preparation time, including chromatographic separations and alpha spectrometry source preparation, is less than 8 hours.« less

  10. Rapid fusion method for the determination of Pu, Np, and Am in large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    A new rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for the preparation of 10-20 g soil samples has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The method enables lower detection limits for plutonium, neptunium, and americium in environmental soil samples. The method also significantly reduces sample processing time and acid fume generation compared to traditional soil digestion techniques using hydrofluoric acid. Ten gram soil aliquots can be ashed and fused using the new method in 1-2 hours, completely dissolving samples, including refractory particles. Pu, Np and Am are separated using stacked 2mL cartridges of TEVA and DGA Resin and measured using alpha spectrometry. The method can be adapted for measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two 10 g soil aliquots of fused soil may be combined prior to chromatographic separations to further improve detection limits. Total sample preparation time, including chromatographic separations and alpha spectrometry source preparation, is less than 8 hours.

  11. Clustering on very small scales from a large, complete sample of confirmed quasar pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D.; Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Graham, Matthew J.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-06-01

    We present by far the largest sample of spectroscopically confirmed binaryquasars with proper transverse separations of 17.0 ≤ Rprop ≤ 36.6 h-1 kpc. Our sample, whichis an order-of-magnitude larger than previous samples, is selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging over an area corresponding to the SDSS 6th data release (DR6). Our quasars are targeted using a Kernel Density Estimation technique (KDE), and confirmed using long-slit spectroscopy on a range of facilities.Our most complete sub-sample of 44 binary quasars with g<20.85, extends across angular scales of 2.9" < Δθ < 6.3", and is targeted from a parent sample that would be equivalent to a full spectroscopic survey of nearly 300,000 quasars.We determine the projected correlation function of quasars (\\bar Wp) over proper transverse scales of 17.0 ≤ Rprop ≤ 36.6 h-1 kpc, and also in 4 bins of scale within this complete range.To investigate the redshift evolution of quasar clustering on small scales, we make the first self-consistent measurement of the projected quasar correlation function in 4 bins of redshift over 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.3.

  12. The fixed point formulation for large sample PGNAA—Part 2: experimental demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, H.; Holloway, J. P.; Smith, L. E.

    2004-04-01

    We present composition estimation results using fixed point iteration compared to the true composition of sample for prompt gamma measurements. The analysis showed that the fixed point iteration algorithm converges very rapidly to true composition of the sample independent of the initial guess when there is no significant background contribution. Even in the presence of significant background contribution, the true composition of the sample was estimated with high precision but with slower convergence. Although approximate data for neutron source spectrum and relative efficiency of the detector was used for analysis, the results showed that the method is not very sensitive to the details of the model since it is based on ratios. Despite the approximate data used for computations, the composition estimation results are in excellent agreement with chemical analysis.

  13. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved. PMID:27375816

  14. NAA-modified DNA oligonucleotides with zwitterionic backbones: stereoselective synthesis of A–T phosphoramidite building blocks

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtgall, Boris; Höbartner, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Modifications of the nucleic acid backbone are essential for the development of oligonucleotide-derived bioactive agents. The NAA-modification represents a novel artificial internucleotide linkage which enables the site-specific introduction of positive charges into the otherwise polyanionic backbone of DNA oligonucleotides. Following initial studies with the introduction of the NAA-linkage at T–T sites, it is now envisioned to prepare NAA-modified oligonucleotides bearing the modification at X–T motifs (X = A, C, G). We have therefore developed the efficient and stereoselective synthesis of NAA-linked 'dimeric' A–T phosphoramidite building blocks for automated DNA synthesis. Both the (S)- and the (R)-configured NAA-motifs were constructed with high diastereoselectivities to furnish two different phosphoramidite reagents, which were employed for the solid phase-supported automated synthesis of two NAA-modified DNA oligonucleotides. This represents a significant step to further establish the NAA-linkage as a useful addition to the existing 'toolbox' of backbone modifications for the design of bioactive oligonucleotide analogues. PMID:25670992

  15. NAA-modified DNA oligonucleotides with zwitterionic backbones: stereoselective synthesis of A-T phosphoramidite building blocks.

    PubMed

    Schmidtgall, Boris; Höbartner, Claudia; Ducho, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Modifications of the nucleic acid backbone are essential for the development of oligonucleotide-derived bioactive agents. The NAA-modification represents a novel artificial internucleotide linkage which enables the site-specific introduction of positive charges into the otherwise polyanionic backbone of DNA oligonucleotides. Following initial studies with the introduction of the NAA-linkage at T-T sites, it is now envisioned to prepare NAA-modified oligonucleotides bearing the modification at X-T motifs (X = A, C, G). We have therefore developed the efficient and stereoselective synthesis of NAA-linked 'dimeric' A-T phosphoramidite building blocks for automated DNA synthesis. Both the (S)- and the (R)-configured NAA-motifs were constructed with high diastereoselectivities to furnish two different phosphoramidite reagents, which were employed for the solid phase-supported automated synthesis of two NAA-modified DNA oligonucleotides. This represents a significant step to further establish the NAA-linkage as a useful addition to the existing 'toolbox' of backbone modifications for the design of bioactive oligonucleotide analogues. PMID:25670992

  16. Decreased NAA in Gray Matter is Correlated with Decreased Availability of Acetate in White Matter in Postmortem Multiple Sclerosis Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Li, S.; Clements, R.; Sulak, M.; Gregory, R.; Freeman, E.; McDonough, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which leads to progressive neurological disability. Our previous studies have demonstrated mitochondrial involvement in MS cortical pathology and others have documented decreased levels of the neuronal mitochondrial metabolite N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in the MS brain. While NAA is synthesized in neurons, it is broken down in oligodendrocytes into aspartate and acetate. The resulting acetate is incorporated into myelin lipids, linking neuronal mitochondrial function to oligodendrocyte-mediated elaboration of myelin lipids in the CNS. In the present study we show that treating human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with the electron transport chain inhibitor antimycin A decreased levels of NAA as measured by HPLC. To better understand the significance of the relationship between mitochondrial function and levels of NAA and its breakdown product acetate on MS pathology we then quantitated the levels of NAA and acetate in MS and control postmortem tissue blocks. Regardless of lesion status, we observed that levels of NAA were decreased 25 and 32 % in gray matter from parietal and motor cortex in MS, respectively, compared to controls. Acetate levels in adjacent white matter mirrored these decreases as evidenced by the 36 and 45 % reduction in acetate obtained from parietal and motor cortices. These data suggest a novel mechanism whereby mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced NAA levels in neurons may result in compromised myelination by oligodendrocytes due to decreased availability of acetate necessary for the synthesis of myelin lipids. PMID:24078261

  17. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples.

    PubMed

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375. PMID:27054153

  18. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples

    PubMed Central

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375. PMID:27054153

  19. Gender Differences in Achievement in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Caroline; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hajovsky, Daniel B.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental gender differences in academic achievement areas, with the primary focus on writing, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-21 years) of the "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition, Brief Form," norming sample (N = 1,574). Path analytic models with gender,…

  20. Rapid method to determine 89Sr/90Sr in large concrete samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; Sudowe, Ralf; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2016-03-24

    Here, a new rapid method has been developed that provides high quality low-level measurements of 89,90Sr in concrete samples with an MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity) of <1 mBq g-1. The new method is fast, meets new decommissioning regulatory limits and is robust even if refractory particles are present. The method utilizes a rapid fusion to ensure total dissolution of samples and rapid preconcentration and separation of 89,90Sr from 5-10 g concrete samples. When, the 89Sr/90Sr ratio is high, Sr can be isolated from up to 5g concrete samples, total 89/90Sr measured, and then 90Sr determined via 90Y separated after amore » period of ingrowth. Another approach allows the immediate determination of 90Sr in 10 g concrete aliquots without waiting for 90Y ingrowth, in instances where the shorter lived 89Sr is unlikely to be encountered.« less

  1. A large spectrum of alpha and beta papillomaviruses are detected in human stool samples.

    PubMed

    Di Bonito, Paola; Della Libera, Simonetta; Petricca, Sabrina; Iaconelli, Marcello; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Graffeo, Rosalia; Accardi, Luisa; La Rosa, Giuseppina

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been detected in urban wastewaters, demonstrating that epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage through the washing of skin and mucous membranes. Papillomavirus shedding through faeces is still an unexplored issue. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of HPVs in stool samples. We analysed 103 faecal specimens collected from hospitalized patients with diarrhoea using validated primers able to detect α, β and γ HPVs. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. A total of 15 sequences were characterized from the faecal samples. Thirteen samples (12.6 %) were positive for nine genotypes belonging to the α and β genera: HPV32 (LR, α1), HPV39 (HR, α7), HPV44 (LR, α10), HPV8 (β1), HPV9, HPV23, HPV37, HPV38 and HPV120 (β2). Two putative novel genotypes of the β genus, species 1 and 2, were also detected. The tissue(s) of origin is unknown, since faeces can collect HPVs originating from or passing through the entire digestive system. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the occurrence and diversity of HPVs in faecal samples. Results from this study demonstrate that HPVs can find their way into sewage as a consequence of shedding in the faeces. This highlights the need for further studies aimed at understanding the prevalence of HPV in different water environments and the potential for waterborne transmission. PMID:25398789

  2. Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI): Findings from a Large Incarcerated Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Craig S.; Malterer, Melanie B.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; S. O. Lilienfeld, 1990; S. O. Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996) with a community sample has suggested that the PPI subscales may comprise 2 higher order factors (S. D. Benning, C. J. Patrick, B. M. Hicks, D. M. Blonigen, & R. F. Krueger, 2003). However, substantive…

  3. Homogenization of sample absorption for the imaging of large and dense fossils with synchrotron microtomography.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Sophie; Fernandez, Vincent; Pierce, Stephanie E; Tafforeau, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Propagation phase-contrast synchrotron radiation microtomography (PPC-SRμCT) has proved to be very successful for examining fossils. Because fossils range widely in taphonomic preservation, size, shape and density, X-ray computed tomography protocols are constantly being developed and refined. Here we present a 1-h procedure that combines a filtered high-energy polychromatic beam with long-distance PPC-SRμCT (sample to detector: 4-16 m) and an attenuation protocol normalizing the absorption profile (tested on 13-cm-thick and 5.242 g cm(-3) locally dense samples but applicable to 20-cm-thick samples). This approach provides high-quality imaging results, which show marked improvement relative to results from images obtained without the attenuation protocol in apparent transmission, contrast and signal-to-noise ratio. The attenuation protocol involves immersing samples in a tube filled with aluminum or glass balls in association with a U-shaped aluminum profiler. This technique therefore provides access to a larger dynamic range of the detector used for tomographic reconstruction. This protocol homogenizes beam-hardening artifacts, thereby rendering it effective for use with conventional μCT scanners. PMID:23928503

  4. Intellectual Abilities in a Large Sample of Children with Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Devriendt, K.; Fryns, J. -P.; Vogels, A.; Gewillig, M.; Swillen, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Learning disabilities are one of the most consistently reported features in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (VCFS). Earlier reports on IQ in children with VCFS were, however, limited by small sample sizes and ascertainment biases. The aim of the present study was therefore to replicate these earlier findings and to investigate intellectual…

  5. Effect of Comorbidity on Treatment of Anxious Children and Adolescents: Results from a Large, Combined Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Kangas, Maria; Wuthrich, Viviana M.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of comorbid disorders on the degree of change and the endpoint of cognitive-behavioral treatment in anxious young people. Method: Data on 750 children 6 to 18 years old were compiled from different samples within one clinic. All children had a primary anxiety disorder and…

  6. Moderators of implicit and explicit drinking identity in a large US adult sample.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Gasser, Melissa L; Werntz, Alexandra; Namaky, Nauder; Baldwin, Scott A; Teachman, Bethany A

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity (viewing oneself as a drinker) is a potential risk factor for problematic drinking in US undergraduate samples. Whether that risk extends to a broader, more general US sample is unknown. Additionally, there are critical, unanswered questions with respect to moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship; an important issue for designing prevention efforts. Study aims were to assess the unique associations and interactive effects of implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity on problematic drinking, and to evaluate age and sex as potential moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship. A sample of 11,320 adults aged 18-98 completed measures of implicit and explicit drinking identity and problematic drinking (the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; AUDIT). Implicit and explicit drinking identity had positive, significant associations with AUDIT scores, as expected. Moderation analyses indicated small, but significant, interactions. There was an implicit by explicit identity interaction consistent with a synergistic effect: lower implicit and explicit identity was linked to a greater probability of being a non-drinker. Age moderated explicit but not implicit identity: lower drinking identity appeared to be more protective for younger individuals. Sex moderated implicit but not explicit identity: a weaker positive association with implicit identity and AUDIT scores was observed among men, potentially reflecting stigma against women's drinking. Findings suggest that drinking identity's potential as a risk factor for problematic drinking extends to a more general US sample and that both implicit and explicit identity should be targeted in prevention efforts. PMID:27156218

  7. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-Acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) Promote Growth and Inhibit Differentiation of Glioma Stem-like Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Long, Patrick M.; Moffett, John R.; Namboodiri, Aryan M. A.; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lawler, Sean E.; Jaworski, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a pathological feature of cancer and a driver of tumor cell transformation. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) is one of the most abundant amino acid derivatives in the brain and serves as a source of metabolic acetate for oligodendrocyte myelination and protein/histone acetylation or a precursor for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG). NAA and NAAG as well as aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA degradation, are significantly reduced in glioma tumors, suggesting a possible role for decreased acetate metabolism in tumorigenesis. This study sought to examine the effects of NAA and NAAG on primary tumor-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) from oligodendroglioma as well as proneural and mesenchymal glioblastoma, relative to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (Oli-Neu). Although the NAA dicarboxylate transporter NaDC3 is primarily thought to be expressed by astrocytes, all cell lines expressed NaDC3 and, thus, are capable of NAA up-take. Treatment with NAA or NAAG significantly increased GSC growth and suppressed differentiation of Oli-Neu cells and proneural GSCs. Interestingly, ASPA was expressed in both the cytosol and nuclei of GSCs and exhibited greatest nuclear immunoreactivity in differentiation-resistant GSCs. Both NAA and NAAG elicited the expression of a novel immunoreactive ASPA species in select GSC nuclei, suggesting differential ASPA regulation in response to these metabolites. Therefore, this study highlights a potential role for nuclear ASPA expression in GSC malignancy and suggests that the use of NAA or NAAG is not an appropriate therapeutic approach to increase acetate bioavailability in glioma. Thus, an alternative acetate source is required. PMID:23884408

  8. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) promote growth and inhibit differentiation of glioma stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Long, Patrick M; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Viapiano, Mariano S; Lawler, Sean E; Jaworski, Diane M

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a pathological feature of cancer and a driver of tumor cell transformation. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) is one of the most abundant amino acid derivatives in the brain and serves as a source of metabolic acetate for oligodendrocyte myelination and protein/histone acetylation or a precursor for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG). NAA and NAAG as well as aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA degradation, are significantly reduced in glioma tumors, suggesting a possible role for decreased acetate metabolism in tumorigenesis. This study sought to examine the effects of NAA and NAAG on primary tumor-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) from oligodendroglioma as well as proneural and mesenchymal glioblastoma, relative to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (Oli-Neu). Although the NAA dicarboxylate transporter NaDC3 is primarily thought to be expressed by astrocytes, all cell lines expressed NaDC3 and, thus, are capable of NAA up-take. Treatment with NAA or NAAG significantly increased GSC growth and suppressed differentiation of Oli-Neu cells and proneural GSCs. Interestingly, ASPA was expressed in both the cytosol and nuclei of GSCs and exhibited greatest nuclear immunoreactivity in differentiation-resistant GSCs. Both NAA and NAAG elicited the expression of a novel immunoreactive ASPA species in select GSC nuclei, suggesting differential ASPA regulation in response to these metabolites. Therefore, this study highlights a potential role for nuclear ASPA expression in GSC malignancy and suggests that the use of NAA or NAAG is not an appropriate therapeutic approach to increase acetate bioavailability in glioma. Thus, an alternative acetate source is required. PMID:23884408

  9. EVALUATION OF SAMPLING FREQUENCIES REQUIRED TO ESTIMATE NUTRIENT AND SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LOADS IN LARGE RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrients and suspended sediments in streams and large rivers are two major issues facing state and federal agencies. Accurate estimates of nutrient and sediment loads are needed to assess a variety of important water-quality issues including total maximum daily loads, aquatic ec...

  10. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...

  11. Self-sampling for analysis of respiratory viruses in a large-scale epidemiological study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Plymoth, A; Rotzen-Ostlund, M; Zweygberg-Wirgart, B; Sundin, C G; Ploner, A; Nyren, O; Linde, A

    2015-01-01

    Viral diagnosis of respiratory tract infections has so far required sampling by health professionals,hampering large-scale epidemiological studies of virus-specific disease outcomes. As part of a population-based, prospective study of work-related risk factors for transmission of viral infections (SWEDE-I), we developed a scheme for self-sampling with nasal swabs. Random selection from the gainfully employed population of a medium-sized town in central Sweden resulted in a study cohort of 2,237 men and women aged 25 to 63 years. From September 2011 through May 2012, the cohort reported all instances of respiratory tract infection or gastroenteritis and participants concomitantly sent self-sampled nasal swabs for analysis using regular mail. Diagnosis of 14 viruses was performed. A total of 1,843 samples were received. The week-wise average delay between disease on set and arrival of the specimens at the laboratory varied between four and six days, and the corresponding median delay was between 3.5 and six days. In line with previous community-based studies, picorna- and coronaviruses dominated in specimens obtained from the self-sampling scheme. The results of self-sampling were contrasted to those from contemporaneous routine clinical sampling, on the same age group, in the adjacent Stockholm county. Although higher proportions of positive samples for respiratory syncytial virus and influenza were observed in the clinical sampling scheme, estimations of seasonality for influenza A and picornaviruses derived from both schemes were similar. Our findings show that nasal self-sampling is feasible in large-scale surveillance of respiratory infections and opens new prospects for population based,virologically verified research on virus spread,burden of disease, and effects of environmental factors or interventions. PMID:25811646

  12. Multi-stage sampling for large scale natural resources surveys: A case study of rice and waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, J.D.; Reinecke, K.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Gerard, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale sample surveys to estimate abundance and distribution of organisms and their habitats are increasingly important in ecological studies. Multi-stage sampling (MSS) is especially suited to large-scale surveys because of the natural clustering of resources. To illustrate an application, we: (1) designed a stratified MSS to estimate late autumn abundance (kg/ha) of rice seeds in harvested fields as food for waterfowl wintering in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV); (2) investigated options for improving the MSS design; and (3) compared statistical and cost efficiency of MSS to simulated simple random sampling (SRS). During 2000?2002, we sampled 25?35 landowners per year, 1 or 2 fields per landowner per year, and measured seed mass in 10 soil cores collected within each field. Analysis of variance components and costs for each stage of the survey design indicated that collecting 10 soil cores per field was near the optimum of 11?15, whereas sampling >1 field per landowner provided few benefits because data from fields within landowners were highly correlated. Coefficients of variation (CV) of annual estimates of rice abundance ranged from 0.23 to 0.31 and were limited by variation among landowners and the number of landowners sampled. Design effects representing the statistical efficiency of MSS relative to SRS ranged from 3.2 to 9.0, and simulations indicated SRS would cost, on average, 1.4 times more than MSS because clustering of sample units in MSS decreased travel costs. We recommend MSS as a potential sampling strategy for large-scale natural resource surveys and specifically for future surveys of the availability of rice as food for waterfowl in the MAV and similar areas.

  13. Early Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (EL-IGDIs): Growth Trajectories Using a Large, Internet-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary J.; Missall, Kristen N.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs) assess preschoolers' expressive vocabulary development and phonological awareness. This study investigated longitudinal change in EL-IGDIs using a large (N=7355), internet-based sample of 36- to 60-month-old United States preschoolers without identified risks for later…

  14. The Relationship between Intelligence and Multiple Domains of Religious Belief: Evidence from a Large Adult US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gary J.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of religiosity have been linked to lower levels of intelligence in a number of recent studies. These results have generated both controversy and theoretical interest. Here in a large sample of US adults we address several issues that restricted the generalizability of these previous results. We measured six dimensions of religiosity…

  15. Psychometric Support of the School Climate Measure in a Large, Diverse Sample of Adolescents: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M.; Huebner, E. Scott; Ajamie, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Methods: Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships,…

  16. A Protocol for mtGenome Analysis on Large Sample Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Hamoy, Igor G; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, André M; Alvarez, Luiz; Barbosa, Silvanira; Silva, Artur; Santos, Sidney; Gusmão, Leonor; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome is widely studied in a variety of fields, such as population, forensic, and human and medical genetics. Most studies have been limited to a small portion of the sequence that, although highly diverse, does not describe the total variability. The arrival of modern high-throughput sequencing technologies has made it possible to investigate larger sequences in a shorter amount of time as well as in a more affordable fashion. This work aims to describe a protocol for sequencing and analyzing the complete mitochondrial genome with the Ion PGM™ platform. To evaluate the protocol, the mitochondrial genome was sequenced to approximately 210 Mbp, with high-quality sequences distributed between 12 samples that had an average coverage of 1023× per sample. Several variant callers were compared to improve the protocol outcome. The results suggest that it is possible to run up to 120 samples per run without any loss of any significant quality. Therefore, this protocol is an efficient and accurate tool for full mitochondrial genome analysis. PMID:25002812

  17. A pyrosequencing-tailored nucleotide barcode design unveils opportunities for large-scale sample multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Poornima; Jalili, Roxana; Tao, Li; Shokralla, Shadi; Gharizadeh, Baback; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Fire, Andrew Z

    2007-01-01

    Multiplexed high-throughput pyrosequencing is currently limited in complexity (number of samples sequenced in parallel), and in capacity (number of sequences obtained per sample). Physical-space segregation of the sequencing platform into a fixed number of channels allows limited multiplexing, but obscures available sequencing space. To overcome these limitations, we have devised a novel barcoding approach to allow for pooling and sequencing of DNA from independent samples, and to facilitate subsequent segregation of sequencing capacity. Forty-eight forward-reverse barcode pairs are described: each forward and each reverse barcode unique with respect to at least 4 nt positions. With improved read lengths of pyrosequencers, combinations of forward and reverse barcodes may be used to sequence from as many as n(2) independent libraries for each set of 'n' forward and 'n' reverse barcodes, for each defined set of cloning-linkers. In two pilot series of barcoded sequencing using the GS20 Sequencer (454/Roche), we found that over 99.8% of obtained sequences could be assigned to 25 independent, uniquely barcoded libraries based on the presence of either a perfect forward or a perfect reverse barcode. The false-discovery rate, as measured by the percentage of sequences with unexpected perfect pairings of unmatched forward and reverse barcodes, was estimated to be <0.005%. PMID:17932070

  18. Using Retrospective Sampling to Estimate Models of Relationship Status in Large Longitudinal Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, A. James; Paul, Sudeshna

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of longitudinal models of relationship status between all pairs of individuals (dyads) in social networks is challenging due to the complex inter-dependencies among observations and lengthy computation times. To reduce the computational burden of model estimation, a method is developed that subsamples the “always-null” dyads in which no relationships develop throughout the period of observation. The informative sampling process is accounted for by weighting the likelihood contributions of the observations by the inverses of the sampling probabilities. This weighted-likelihood estimation method is implemented using Bayesian computation and evaluated in terms of its bias, efficiency, and speed of computation under various settings. Comparisons are also made to a full information likelihood-based procedure that is only feasible to compute when limited follow-up observations are available. Calculations are performed on two real social networks of very different sizes. The easily computed weighted-likelihood procedure closely approximates the corresponding estimates for the full network, even when using low sub-sampling fractions. The fast computation times make the weighted-likelihood approach practical and able to be applied to networks of any size. PMID:26692600

  19. Strategies and equipment for sampling suspended sediment and associated toxic chemicals in large rivers - with emphasis on the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Stevens, H.H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A Lagrangian strategy for sampling large rivers, which was developed and tested in the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers of South America during the early 1980s, is now being applied to the study of toxic chemicals in the Mississippi River. A series of 15-20 cross-sections of the Mississippi mainstem and its principal tributaries is sampled by boat in downstream sequence, beginning upriver of St. Louis and concluding downriver of New Orleans 3 weeks later. The timing of the downstream sampling sequence approximates the travel time of the river water. Samples at each cross-section are discharge-weighted to provide concentrations of dissolved and suspended constituents that are converted to fluxes. Water-sediment mixtures are collected from 10-40 equally spaced points across the river width by sequential depth integration at a uniform vertical transit rate. Essential equipment includes (i) a hydraulic winch, for sensitive control of vertical transit rates, and (ii) a collapsible-bag sampler, which allows integrated samples to be collected at all depths in the river. A section is usually sampled in 4-8 h, for a total sample recovery of 100-120 l. Sampled concentrations of suspended silt and clay are reproducible within 3%.

  20. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  1. One plate, two plates, a thousand plates. How crystallisation changes with large numbers of samples.

    PubMed

    Newman, Janet

    2011-09-01

    Turning commercial lab automation into a high-throughput centre requires an underlying process, and implementing checks to ensure that the process is working as it should. At the Collaborative Crystallisation Centre (C3), protein samples from local, national and international groups are set up in crystallisation screening and optimisation experiments with two thousand 96 well plates being set up each year. During its five years of operation, the C3 has implemented a series of enabling protocols - from simple 'reality checks' to determine if a screen has evaporated during storage to more sophisticated systems such as a sample labelling and tracking system. The most important - and perhaps surprising - lesson has been how much effort is required to effectively communicate between the centre and its clients, as well as between the centre's staff members. It is easy to confuse the concept of 'high throughput' in any field with the idea of setting up an experiment quickly. Although automation can be used to set up a single experiment more rapidly than can be done by hand, the distinguishing feature of a high throughput technology is the sustainability of the increased rate. PMID:21571072

  2. Recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from small and large volume water samples using a compressed foam filter system.

    PubMed

    Sartory, D P; Parton, A; Parton, A C; Roberts, J; Bergmann, K

    1998-12-01

    A novel filter system comprising open cell reticulated foam rings compressed between retaining plates and fitted into a filtration housing was evaluated for the recovery of oocysts of Cryptosporidium from water. Mean recoveries of 90.2% from seeded small and large volume (100-2000 l) tap water samples, and 88.8% from 10-20 l river water samples, were achieved. Following a simple potassium citrate flotation concentrate clean-up procedure, mean recoveries were 56.7% for the tap water samples and 60.9% for river water samples. This represents a marked improvement in capture and recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water compared with conventional polypropylene wound cartridge filters and membrane filters. PMID:9871348

  3. GENERATING ON-THE-FLY LARGE SAMPLES OF THEORETICAL SPECTRA THROUGH AN N-DIMENSIONAL GRID

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, C.-W.

    2010-02-15

    Many analyses and parameter estimations undertaken in astronomy require a large set ({approx}>10{sup 5}) of non-analytical, theoretical spectra, each of these defined by multiple parameters. We describe the construction of an N-dimensional grid which is suitable for generating such spectra. The theoretical spectra are designed to correspond to a targeted parameter grid but otherwise to random positions in the parameter space, and they are interpolated on the fly through a pre-calculated grid of spectra. The initial grid is designed to be relatively low in parameter resolution and small in occupied hard disk space and therefore can be updated efficiently when a new model is desired. In a pilot study of stellar population synthesis of galaxies, the mean square errors on the estimated parameters are found to decrease with the targeted grid resolution. This scheme of generating a large model grid is general for other areas of studies, particularly if they are based on multi-dimensional parameter space and are focused on contrasting model differences.

  4. Assessment of the intrinsic uncertainty of the k0-based NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bučar, Tinkara; Smodiš, Borut

    2006-08-01

    This paper addresses the intrinsic uncertainty of k0 neutron activation analysis (NAA) by evaluating the partial uncertainties of the nuclear parameters and parameters given by the irradiation conditions. Uncertainty propagation factors are determined from the basic equations of the k0-NAA and the combined uncertainties are calculated using a software package specially developed for this purpose. The nuclear parameter values and respective uncertainties are taken from an IUPAC database. The uncertainties are calculated for specific conditions given at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Jožef Stefan Institute, for all reactions where data is available. On average, neutron reaction-specific values in the range of 1-2% were obtained for 44 elements. For 23 elements, some data are missing in the database, so the values should be obtained elsewhere. The developed approach is generally applicable to other neutron flux conditions.

  5. Insights into a spatially embedded social network from a large-scale snowball sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illenberger, J.; Kowald, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Nagel, K.

    2011-12-01

    Much research has been conducted to obtain insights into the basic laws governing human travel behaviour. While the traditional travel survey has been for a long time the main source of travel data, recent approaches to use GPS data, mobile phone data, or the circulation of bank notes as a proxy for human travel behaviour are promising. The present study proposes a further source of such proxy-data: the social network. We collect data using an innovative snowball sampling technique to obtain details on the structure of a leisure-contacts network. We analyse the network with respect to its topology, the individuals' characteristics, and its spatial structure. We further show that a multiplication of the functions describing the spatial distribution of leisure contacts and the frequency of physical contacts results in a trip distribution that is consistent with data from the Swiss travel survey.

  6. Functional relation among subpixel canopy cover, ground shadow, and illuminated ground at large sampling scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.

    1990-01-01

    The functional relation among subpixel canopy cover, illuminated soil, and shadowed soil, which progressively develops with increasing pixel size, is investigated for Poisson distributed plants using a geometric canopy simulation model. An analytical relation among cover components is shown to be applicable when the scale of the pixel is much larger than the scale of the plant and ground shadow. The analysis is facilitated through the use of a nondimensional solar-geometric similarity parameter, eta, equal to the ratio of the area of one plant canopy to its associated ground shadow area, as viewed from nadir. A sampling scale ratio, defined as the ratio of the area of the pixel to the mean area of a single plant shadow, is tested as a quantitative criterion to evaluate when the functional relation among subpixel components occurs. The results of a remote sensing experiment over a natural conifer landscape provide preliminary confirmation of the theoretical analysis.

  7. Wedge sampling for computing clustering coefficients and triangle counts on large graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadhri, C.; Pinar, Ali; Kolda, Tamara G.

    2014-05-08

    Graphs are used to model interactions in a variety of contexts, and there is a growing need to quickly assess the structure of such graphs. Some of the most useful graph metrics are based on triangles, such as those measuring social cohesion. Despite the importance of these triadic measures, algorithms to compute them can be extremely expensive. We discuss the method of wedge sampling. This versatile technique allows for the fast and accurate approximation of various types of clustering coefficients and triangle counts. Furthermore, these techniques are extensible to counting directed triangles in digraphs. Our methods come with provable and practical time-approximation tradeoffs for all computations. We provide extensive results that show our methods are orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art, while providing nearly the accuracy of full enumeration.

  8. Observations on the curative effect of lactulose for postpartum constipation based on a large sample study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Yang, Xinghua; Fan, Ling; Zhu, Yuanfang; Jiang, Yurong; Li, Zhen; Xiong, Guoping; Shen, Jingxin; Su, Zhihong; Wu, Ping; Wang, Danrui; Wang, Xietong

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lactulose in the intervention treatment of postpartum women with constipation. Methods: The study adopted the multicenter clinical survey with a big sample which enrolled 4781 valid questionnaires from postpartum women in 18 different districts. All of them were treated with lactulose oral solution. Their constipation-related symptoms and routine examination on blood, urine and stool were monitored before and after lactulose intervention. The treatment duration lasted 2 weeks and all the patients were followed for 4 weeks. Result: Their stool consistency, daily defecation frequencies, defecating time and dyschezia were improved significantly after lactulose intervention, and the good therapeutic effect was remained at the off-medication session. Furthermore, abnormal rate of each index in blood, urine and stool examination showed a decreased trend. Conclusion: Lactulose offered good therapeutic benefit and could be developed as an effective intervention to postpartum women with constipation. PMID:26770550

  9. Wedge sampling for computing clustering coefficients and triangle counts on large graphs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seshadhri, C.; Pinar, Ali; Kolda, Tamara G.

    2014-05-08

    Graphs are used to model interactions in a variety of contexts, and there is a growing need to quickly assess the structure of such graphs. Some of the most useful graph metrics are based on triangles, such as those measuring social cohesion. Despite the importance of these triadic measures, algorithms to compute them can be extremely expensive. We discuss the method of wedge sampling. This versatile technique allows for the fast and accurate approximation of various types of clustering coefficients and triangle counts. Furthermore, these techniques are extensible to counting directed triangles in digraphs. Our methods come with provable andmore » practical time-approximation tradeoffs for all computations. We provide extensive results that show our methods are orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art, while providing nearly the accuracy of full enumeration.« less

  10. Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for large biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2003-07-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence imaging system developed to capture multispectral fluorescence emission images simultaneously from a relatively large target object is described. With an expanded, 355-nm Nd:YAG laser as the excitation source, the system captures fluorescence emission images in the blue, green, red, and far-red regions of the spectrum centered at 450, 550, 678, and 730 nm, respectively, from a 30-cm-diameter target area in ambient light. Images of apples and of pork meat artificially contaminated with diluted animal feces have demonstrated the versatility of fluorescence imaging techniques for potential applications in food safety inspection. Regions of contamination, including sites that were not readily visible to the human eye, could easily be identified from the images.

  11. Investigation of Fe and Ca in non-stimulated human saliva using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, J. A. G.; Zamboni, C. B.; Kovacs, L.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigated non-stimulated human whole saliva of healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). The measurements were performed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. We found considerable metabolic changes mainly in Fe and Ca concentration in whole saliva of periodontal patients. These data are useful for identifying or preventing this oral disease in the Brazilian population.

  12. Study of Mn Phytoavailability in Soil Treated with Biosolids Using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Mateus, Natalina; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2011-08-01

    This work evaluated the behavior of Mn absorption by Eucalyptus grandis that was cultivated in soil treated with biosolid. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by gamma ray spectrometry was the analytical method used to determine the Mn content. Manganese is an important micronutrient because it is an activator of enzymes, controller of oxyreduction reactions, essential to the photosynthesis and synthesis of chlorophyll and protein. The results showed that the phytoavailability of Mn was reduced increasing the doses of biosolid applied.

  13. Wind tunnel study of twelve dust samples by large particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannak, B.; Corsmeier, U.; Kottmeier, Ch.; Al-azab, T.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the lack of data by large dust and sand particle, the fluid dynamics characteristics, hence the collection efficiencies of different twelve dust samplers have been experimentally investigated. Wind tunnel tests were carried out at wind velocities ranging from 1 up to 5.5 ms-1. As a large solid particle of 0.5 and 1 mm in diameter, Polystyrene pellets called STYRO Beads or polystyrene sphere were used instead of sand or dust. The results demonstrate that the collection efficiency is relatively acceptable only of eight tested sampler and lie between 60 and 80% depending on the wind velocity and particle size. These samplers are: the Cox Sand Catcher (CSC), the British Standard Directional Dust Gauge (BSD), the Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE), the Suspended Sediment Trap (SUSTRA), the Modified Wilson and Cooke (MWAC), the Wedge Dust Flux Gauge (WDFG), the Model Series Number 680 (SIERRA) and the Pollet Catcher (POLCA). Generally they can be slightly recommended as suitable dust samplers but with collecting error of 20 up to 40%. However the BSNE verify the best performance with a catching error of about 20% and can be with caution selected as a suitable dust sampler. Quite the contrary, the other four tested samplers which are the Marble Dust Collector (MDCO), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Inverted Frisbee Sampler (IFS) and the Inverted Frisbee Shaped Collecting Bowl (IFSCB) cannot be recommended due to their very low collection efficiency of 5 up to 40%. In total the efficiency of sampler may be below 0.5, depending on the frictional losses (caused by the sampler geometry) in the fluid and the particle's motion, and on the intensity of airflow acceleration near the sampler inlet. Therefore, the literature data of dust are defective and insufficient. To avoid false collecting data and hence inaccurate mass flux modeling, the geometry of the dust sampler should be considered and furthermore improved.

  14. Efficient inference of population size histories and locus-specific mutation rates from large-sample genomic variation data

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Anand; Wang, Y.X. Rachel; Song, Yun S.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent increase in study sample sizes in human genetics, there has been growing interest in inferring historical population demography from genomic variation data. Here, we present an efficient inference method that can scale up to very large samples, with tens or hundreds of thousands of individuals. Specifically, by utilizing analytic results on the expected frequency spectrum under the coalescent and by leveraging the technique of automatic differentiation, which allows us to compute gradients exactly, we develop a very efficient algorithm to infer piecewise-exponential models of the historical effective population size from the distribution of sample allele frequencies. Our method is orders of magnitude faster than previous demographic inference methods based on the frequency spectrum. In addition to inferring demography, our method can also accurately estimate locus-specific mutation rates. We perform extensive validation of our method on simulated data and show that it can accurately infer multiple recent epochs of rapid exponential growth, a signal that is difficult to pick up with small sample sizes. Lastly, we use our method to analyze data from recent sequencing studies, including a large-sample exome-sequencing data set of tens of thousands of individuals assayed at a few hundred genic regions. PMID:25564017

  15. A large depth of field LIBS measuring system for elemental analysis of moving samples of raw coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redoglio, D.; Golinelli, E.; Musazzi, S.; Perini, U.; Barberis, F.

    2016-02-01

    We present preliminary results of laboratory tests carried out on moving samples of coal by means of an innovative LIBS system with a large depth of field. The measuring system has been conceived to operate on line in a coal fired power plant. To duplicate at laboratory level the real situation, the coal samples are sequentially positioned under the measuring head by means of a translation/rotation unit that allows reproducing the behavior of the raw coal transported by a conveyor belt. Experimental results show that both carbon and hydrogen concentration as well as the content of some inorganic components (Al, Ca, Fe, Si) can be evaluated with good accuracy.

  16. Conventional hydrothermal synthesis of Na-A zeolite from cupola slag and aluminum sludge.

    PubMed

    Anuwattana, Rewadee; Khummongkol, Pojanie

    2009-07-15

    Na-A type zeolites were prepared from two industrial wastes: the solid by-product of cupola slag and aluminum sludge from an aluminum plating plant. Two preparation methods using the same starting material compositions were carried out. In the first method, alkaline fusion was introduced, followed by the hydrothermal treatment to obtain sodium aluminosilicate which was then crystallized in NaOH solution under the condition of 90+/-3 degrees C for 1-9h with different H(2)O/SiO2 ratios. The result shows that higher H(2)O/SiO2 ratio increases the rate of crystallization. The largest amount of crystallinity for Na-A was found at 3h. In the second method, alkaline hydrothermal treatment without fusion was carried out in the same condition as the first method. No Na-A zeolite was obtained by this method. The changes of the dissolved amounts of Si(4+) and Al(3+) in 3M NaOH were investigated during the hydrothermal reaction. PMID:19111982

  17. Examining compound-specific nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids (δ15NAA) as a new proxy for sedimentary organic N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, F.; Ravelo, A. C.; Mccarthy, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The stable nitrogen (N) isotopic (δ15N) signature of marine sedimentary N (δ15Nbulk) is commonly applied as a proxy for the δ15N of sinking particulate organic matter (δ15NPOMsink), and by extension the δ15N of marine primary production. Although a general correspondence between the δ15Nbulk and δ15NPOMsink exists in shallow water, diagenesis or mixtures of N sources can affect this relationship. For instance, diagenesis δ15Nbulk enrichment as a function of water depth (Robinson et al., 2012), and terrestrial N sources can constitute a large portion of total sedimentary N near continental margins (Schubert & Calvert, 2001). Compound-specific amino acid analysis (δ15NAA) represents a new approach to address these issues. Proteins and peptides comprise the majority of N-containing molecules in living organisms; hence δ15NAA may be a direct proxy for organic N-δ15N (δ15NON). However, the relationship between δ15NAA data and major sedimentary N fractions has not been evaluated. We analyzed δ15NAA and the δ15N composition of major operationally defined N fractions and their relative contribution to total N from marine POM and shallow sediments collected in Santa Barbara Basin (SBB). Fractions analyzed include bulk, acid-soluble (AS), acid-insoluble (AI), and total hydrolysable amino acid (THAA). Average sedimentary δ15NTHAA and δ15NAS are enriched relative to δ15Nbulk by 2.9‰ and 1.0‰, respectively and δ15NAI is depleted relative to δ15Nbulk by ~1.5‰. The δ15NAS and δ15NTHAA are closest to subsurface nitrate δ15N (~8‰) in SBB, consistent with a primary N source, while depleted δ15NAI values are consistent with a dominant terrestrial N source. Together, these findings help to characterize the mixture of ON compounds, including hydrolysable AA, found in fresh biomass and suggest that δ15NTHAA represents a valuable new molecular level proxy for sedimentary proteinaceous material, but requires calibration to reconstruct δ15N of source N.

  18. Executive dysfunction and cognitive subgroups in a large sample of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bora, Emre; Hıdıroğlu, Ceren; Özerdem, Ayşegül; Kaçar, Ömer Faruk; Sarısoy, Gökhan; Civil Arslan, Filiz; Aydemir, Ömer; Cubukcuoglu Tas, Zeynep; Vahip, Simavi; Atalay, Adnan; Atasoy, Nuray; Ateşci, Figen; Tümkaya, Selim

    2016-08-01

    Bipolar disorder (BP), at the group level, is associated with significant but modest cognitive deficits, including executive dysfunction. Among executive functions, response inhibition deficits have been suggested to be particularly relevant to BP. However, BP is associated with significant heterogeneity in neurocognitive performance and level of functioning. Very few studies have investigated neurocognitive subgroups in BP with data-driven methods rather than arbitrarily defined criteria. Other than having relatively small sample sizes, previous studies have not taken into consideration the neurocognitive variability in healthy subjects. Five-hundred-fifty-six euthymic patients with BP and 416 healthy controls were assessed using a battery of cognitive tests and clinical measures. Neurocognitive subgroups were investigated using latent class analysis, based on executive functions. Four neurocognitive subgroups, including a good performance cluster, two moderately low-performance groups, which differ in response inhibition and reasoning abilities, and a severe impairment cluster were found. In comparison to healthy controls, BP patients were overrepresented in severe impairment cluster (27% vs 5.3%) and underrepresented in good performance cluster. BP patients with lower educational attainment and older age were significantly more likely to be members of cognitively impaired subgroups. Antipsychotic use was less common in good performance cluster. These results suggest that there is a considerable overlap of cognitive functions between BP and healthy controls. Neurocognitive differences between BP and healthy controls are driven by a subgroup of patients who have severe and global, rather than selective, cognitive deficits. PMID:27139077

  19. QUANTITATIVE EXAMINATION OF A LARGE SAMPLE OF SUPRA-ARCADE DOWNFLOWS IN ERUPTIVE SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, Sabrina L.

    2011-04-01

    Sunward-flowing voids above post-coronal mass ejection flare arcades were first discovered using the soft X-ray telescope aboard Yohkoh and have since been observed with TRACE (extreme ultraviolet (EUV)), SOHO/LASCO (white light), SOHO/SUMER (EUV spectra), and Hinode/XRT (soft X-rays). Supra-arcade downflow (SAD) observations suggest that they are the cross-sections of thin flux tubes retracting from a reconnection site high in the corona. Supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs) have also been observed under similar circumstances and are theorized to be SADs viewed from a perpendicular angle. Although previous studies have focused on dark flows because they are easier to detect and complementary spectral data analysis reveals their magnetic nature, the signal intensity of the flows actually ranges from dark to bright. This implies that newly reconnected coronal loops can contain a range of hot plasma density. Previous studies have presented detailed SAD observations for a small number of flares. In this paper, we present a substantial SADs and SADLs flare catalog. We have applied semi-automatic detection software to several of these events to detect and track individual downflows thereby providing statistically significant samples of parameters such as velocity, acceleration, area, magnetic flux, shrinkage energy, and reconnection rate. We discuss these measurements (particularly the unexpected result of the speeds being an order of magnitude slower than the assumed Alfven speed), how they were obtained, and potential impact on reconnection models.

  20. A Principle Component Analysis of Galaxy Properties from a Large, Gas-Selected Sample

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Chao, Rikon; Wang, Wei-Hao; Chen, Pisin

    2012-01-01

    Disney emore » t al. (2008) have found a striking correlation among global parameters of H i -selected galaxies and concluded that this is in conflict with the CDM model. Considering the importance of the issue, we reinvestigate the problem using the principal component analysis on a fivefold larger sample and additional near-infrared data. We use databases from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L -band Feed Array Survey for the gas properties, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for the optical properties, and the Two Micron All Sky Survey for the near-infrared properties. We confirm that the parameters are indeed correlated where a single physical parameter can explain 83% of the variations. When color ( g - i ) is included, the first component still dominates but it develops a second principal component. In addition, the near-infrared color ( i - J ) shows an obvious second principal component that might provide evidence of the complex old star formation. Based on our data, we suggest that it is premature to pronounce the failure of the CDM model and it motivates more theoretical work.« less

  1. Genomewide linkage scan of schizophrenia in a large multicenter pedigree sample using single nucleotide polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Holmans, PA; Riley, B; Pulver, AE; Owen, MJ; Wildenauer, DB; Gejman, PV; Mowry, BJ; Laurent, C; Kendler, KS; Nestadt, G; Williams, NM; Schwab, SG; Sanders, AR; Nertney, D; Mallet, J; Wormley, B; Lasseter, VK; O’Donovan, MC; Duan, J; Albus, M; Alexander, M; Godard, S; Ribble, R; Liang, KY; Norton, N; Maier, W; Papadimitriou, G; Walsh, D; Jay, M; O’Neill, A; Lerer, FB; Dikeos, D; Crowe, RR; Silverman, JM; Levinson, DF

    2008-01-01

    A genomewide linkage scan was carried out in eight clinical samples of informative schizophrenia families. After all quality control checks, the analysis of 707 European-ancestry families included 1,615 affected and 1,602 unaffected genotyped individuals, and the analysis of all 807 families included 1900 affected and 1839 unaffected individuals. Multipoint linkage analysis with correction for marker-marker linkage disequilibrium was carried out with 5,861 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; Illumina 4.0 linkage map). Suggestive evidence for linkage (European families) was observed on chromosomes 8p21, 8q24.1, 9q34 and 12q24.1 in non-parametric and/or parametric analyses. In a logistic regression allele-sharing analysis of linkage allowing for intersite heterogeneity, genomewide significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosome 10p12. Significant heterogeneity was also observed on chromosome 22q11.1. Evidence for linkage across family sets and analyses was most consistent on chromosome 8p21, with a one-lod support interval that does not include the candidate gene NRG1, suggesting that one or more other susceptibility loci might exist in the region. In this era of genomewide association and deep resequencing studies, consensus linkage regions deserve continued attention, given that linkage signals can be produced by many types of genomic variation, including any combination of multiple common or rare SNPs or copy number variants in a region. PMID:19223858

  2. Does the Over-Claiming Questionnaire measure overclaiming? Absent convergent validity in a large community sample.

    PubMed

    Ludeke, Steven G; Makransky, Guido

    2016-06-01

    The Over-Claiming Questionnaire (OCQ) aims to provide a practical and cost-effective method of assessing individual differences in the tendency to misrepresent oneself in self-reports. OCQ bias measures have strong theoretical appeal but limited empirical demonstrations of validity. Using a sample of 704 adult community members, we found minimal support for the OCQ as an assessment of misrepresentation. We assessed misrepresentation by comparing self-reports of personality and cognitive ability against other criterion indicators of these trait levels (peer reports of personality and performance on a cognitive ability measure). OCQ bias measures bore no relationship with either of these self-criterion discrepancy measures, and were also unassociated with self-deceptive enhancement scores. One OCQ index bore a modest relationship to narcissism. OCQ bias measures were instead consistently and sometimes even highly related to measures of careless responding. However, statistically controlling for careless responding only minimally improved the convergent validity of OCQ bias indices. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372263

  3. Quantitative Examination of a Large Sample of Supra-arcade Downflows in Eruptive Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Sabrina L.; McKenzie, David E.

    2011-04-01

    Sunward-flowing voids above post-coronal mass ejection flare arcades were first discovered using the soft X-ray telescope aboard Yohkoh and have since been observed with TRACE (extreme ultraviolet (EUV)), SOHO/LASCO (white light), SOHO/SUMER (EUV spectra), and Hinode/XRT (soft X-rays). Supra-arcade downflow (SAD) observations suggest that they are the cross-sections of thin flux tubes retracting from a reconnection site high in the corona. Supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs) have also been observed under similar circumstances and are theorized to be SADs viewed from a perpendicular angle. Although previous studies have focused on dark flows because they are easier to detect and complementary spectral data analysis reveals their magnetic nature, the signal intensity of the flows actually ranges from dark to bright. This implies that newly reconnected coronal loops can contain a range of hot plasma density. Previous studies have presented detailed SAD observations for a small number of flares. In this paper, we present a substantial SADs and SADLs flare catalog. We have applied semi-automatic detection software to several of these events to detect and track individual downflows thereby providing statistically significant samples of parameters such as velocity, acceleration, area, magnetic flux, shrinkage energy, and reconnection rate. We discuss these measurements (particularly the unexpected result of the speeds being an order of magnitude slower than the assumed Alfvén speed), how they were obtained, and potential impact on reconnection models.

  4. Quantitative Examination of a Large Sample of Supra-Arcade Downflows in Eruptive Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina L.; McKenzie, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Sunward-flowing voids above post-coronal mass ejection flare arcades were first discovered using the soft X-ray telescope aboard Yohkoh and have since been observed with TRACE (extreme ultraviolet (EUV)), SOHO/LASCO (white light), SOHO/SUMER (EUV spectra), and Hinode/XRT (soft X-rays). Supra-arcade downflow (SAD) observations suggest that they are the cross-sections of thin flux tubes retracting from a reconnection site high in the corona. Supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs) have also been observed under similar circumstances and are theorized to be SADs viewed from a perpendicular angle. Although previous studies have focused on dark flows because they are easier to detect and complementary spectral data analysis reveals their magnetic nature, the signal intensity of the flows actually ranges from dark to bright. This implies that newly reconnected coronal loops can contain a range of hot plasma density. Previous studies have presented detailed SAD observations for a small number of flares. In this paper, we present a substantial SADs and SADLs flare catalog. We have applied semiautomatic detection software to several of these events to detect and track individual downflows thereby providing statistically significant samples of parameters such as velocity, acceleration, area, magnetic flux, shrinkage energy, and reconnection rate. We discuss these measurements (particularly the unexpected result of the speeds being an order of magnitude slower than the assumed Alfven speed), how they were obtained, and potential impact on reconnection models.

  5. The Implications of Detrital Zircon Maximum Depositional Age (MDA) from Large Sample Datasets (n>500)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, D. S.; Matthews, W.; Guest, B.; Hubbard, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The youngest sub-population of a detrital zircon geochronological dataset is routinely used to approximate the age of deposition for a sample. The ages represent a maximum depositional age (MDA) because the detrital zircons analyzed crystallized at depth, in a magma chamber prior to being exposed at the surface through erosion or volcanic eruption. Dickinson and Gehrels (2009) demonstrate four methods of calculating the MDA of a zircon population using U-Pb ages, which are assessed in this study. Previous MDA studies used relatively small datasets (n<100), reducing the likelihood of finding the youngest population in a sample. We consider large-n datasets (n>500), which have a greater likelihood of capturing a significant proportion of the youngest population and therefore have the potential to improve the accuracy of a calculated MDA. We assess the effects of sample size and MDA calculation methods using a numerical model consisting of a simulated population of detrital zircon grains with known ages. Using our population of 25048 simulated grains, we ran repeated trials of varying sample sizes (n=50, 100, 300, 500, 700, 1000, 1500) to compare the output of MDA calculation techniques. As sample size increases the youngest sub-population of zircons is better defined, and the MDA decreases and becomes more precise. As a further test, model results are compared to U-Pb data (n=695) from a sample of the Maasrichtian-Paleocene Gabriola Formation (Nanaimo Group, B.C., Canada). Similar trials of varying sample sizes show the same decrease in MDA. Biostratigraphic analysis assigned the formation to the Maastrichtian (72.1 - 66.0 Ma), however, our results indicate that deposition took place in the Danian (66.0 - 61.6 Ma). This result has implications for the timing of forearc basin fill, and more broadly, the evolution of the Western North American Cordillera. MDA methods on large-n datasets can be used to hone stratigraphic correlations and calculate sediment accumulation

  6. Susceptibility to Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: a Cluster Analysis with a Large Sample.

    PubMed

    Damas, F; Nosaka, K; Libardi, C A; Chen, T C; Ugrinowitsch, C

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the responses of indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) among a large number of young men (N=286) stratified in clusters based on the largest decrease in maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVC) after an unaccustomed maximal eccentric exercise bout of the elbow flexors. Changes in MVC, muscle soreness (SOR), creatine kinase (CK) activity, range of motion (ROM) and upper-arm circumference (CIR) before and for several days after exercise were compared between 3 clusters established based on MVC decrease (low, moderate, and high responders; LR, MR and HR). Participants were allocated to LR (n=61), MR (n=152) and HR (n=73) clusters, which depicted significantly different cluster centers of 82%, 61% and 42% of baseline MVC, respectively. Once stratified by MVC decrease, all muscle damage markers were significantly different between clusters following the same pattern: small changes for LR, larger changes for MR, and the largest changes for HR. Stratification of individuals based on the magnitude of MVC decrease post-exercise greatly increases the precision in estimating changes in EIMD by proxy markers such as SOR, CK activity, ROM and CIR. This indicates that the most commonly used markers are valid and MVC orchestrates their responses, consolidating the role of MVC as the best EIMD indirect marker. PMID:27116346

  7. Associations between motor timing, music practice, and intelligence studied in a large sample of twins.

    PubMed

    Ullén, Fredrik; Mosing, Miriam A; Madison, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Music performance depends critically on precise processing of time. A common model behavior in studies of motor timing is isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), that is, hand/finger movements with a regular beat. ISIP accuracy is related to both music practice and intelligence. Here we present a study of these associations in a large twin cohort, demonstrating that the effects of music practice and intelligence on motor timing are additive, with no significant multiplicative (interaction) effect. Furthermore, the association between music practice and motor timing was analyzed with the use of a co-twin control design using intrapair differences. These analyses revealed that the phenotypic association disappeared when all genetic and common environmental factors were controlled. This suggests that the observed association may not reflect a causal effect of music practice on ISIP performance but rather reflect common influences (e.g., genetic effects) on both outcomes. The relevance of these findings for models of practice and expert performance is discussed. PMID:25773626

  8. Genetic signals of origin, spread, and introgression in a large sample of maize landraces.

    PubMed

    van Heerwaarden, Joost; Doebley, John; Briggs, William H; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Goodman, Major M; de Jesus Sanchez Gonzalez, Jose; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2011-01-18

    The last two decades have seen important advances in our knowledge of maize domestication, thanks in part to the contributions of genetic data. Genetic studies have provided firm evidence that maize was domesticated from Balsas teosinte (Zea mays subspecies parviglumis), a wild relative that is endemic to the mid- to lowland regions of southwestern Mexico. An interesting paradox remains, however: Maize cultivars that are most closely related to Balsas teosinte are found mainly in the Mexican highlands where subspecies parviglumis does not grow. Genetic data thus point to primary diffusion of domesticated maize from the highlands rather than from the region of initial domestication. Recent archeological evidence for early lowland cultivation has been consistent with the genetics of domestication, leaving the issue of the ancestral position of highland maize unresolved. We used a new SNP dataset scored in a large number of accessions of both teosinte and maize to take a second look at the geography of the earliest cultivated maize. We found that gene flow between maize and its wild relatives meaningfully impacts our inference of geographic origins. By analyzing differentiation from inferred ancestral gene frequencies, we obtained results that are fully consistent with current ecological, archeological, and genetic data concerning the geography of early maize cultivation. PMID:21189301

  9. Genetic signals of origin, spread, and introgression in a large sample of maize landraces

    PubMed Central

    van Heerwaarden, Joost; Doebley, John; Briggs, William H.; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Major M.; de Jesus Sanchez Gonzalez, Jose; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades have seen important advances in our knowledge of maize domestication, thanks in part to the contributions of genetic data. Genetic studies have provided firm evidence that maize was domesticated from Balsas teosinte (Zea mays subspecies parviglumis), a wild relative that is endemic to the mid- to lowland regions of southwestern Mexico. An interesting paradox remains, however: Maize cultivars that are most closely related to Balsas teosinte are found mainly in the Mexican highlands where subspecies parviglumis does not grow. Genetic data thus point to primary diffusion of domesticated maize from the highlands rather than from the region of initial domestication. Recent archeological evidence for early lowland cultivation has been consistent with the genetics of domestication, leaving the issue of the ancestral position of highland maize unresolved. We used a new SNP dataset scored in a large number of accessions of both teosinte and maize to take a second look at the geography of the earliest cultivated maize. We found that gene flow between maize and its wild relatives meaningfully impacts our inference of geographic origins. By analyzing differentiation from inferred ancestral gene frequencies, we obtained results that are fully consistent with current ecological, archeological, and genetic data concerning the geography of early maize cultivation. PMID:21189301

  10. Expedited characterization of ground water contamination at a large industrial site through field sampling and on-site analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fusillo, T.V.; Potts, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    Ground water contamination by chlorinated solvents was detected at a former manufacturing facility in central New Jersey. The site, which occupies approximately 30 acres and is located in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, is underlain by a thin layer of fine sand that extends to approximately 4 to 15 feet below ground surface (bgs) and a dense clay to silty clay that underlies the sand to a depth of at least 30 feet bgs, with ground water at a depth of 4 to 10 feet bgs. To expedite the ground water investigation, ENVIRON utilized a Geoprobe{reg_sign} sampling system together with an onsite mobile laboratory to perform site-wide ground water delineation sampling. Ground water samples were collected from the upper 5 feet of the water table using disposable tubing for on-site analysis of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a Photovac 10S Plus GC/PID. Sampling and analysis were conducted by On-Site Services of Newark, Delaware. Duplicate samples were also collected from all locations for analysis of VOCs by US EPA method 8240 at a commercial laboratory. Sampling began in the vicinity of the most highly contaminated monitoring well and proceeded in all directions until low or nondetectable concentrations were measured using the on-site GC or until the property boundaries were reached. Over the three-day sampling period, 33 ground water samples were collected. The sampling results provided a detailed picture of ground water quality across the large site, and contaminant distribution patterns confirmed the likely variability in ground water flow directions.

  11. The Energy Budget of GRBs Based on a Large Sample of Prompt and Afterglow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygoda, N.; Guetta, D.; Mandich, M. A.; Waxman, E.

    2016-06-01

    We compare the isotropic equivalent 15–2000 keV γ-ray energy, E γ , emitted by a sample of 91 swift Gamma-Ray Bursts with known redshifts, with the isotropic equivalent fireball energy, E fb, as estimated within the fireball model framework from X-ray afterglow observations of these bursts. The uncertainty in E γ , which spans the range of ˜1051 to ˜1053.5 erg, is ≈25% on average, due mainly to the extrapolation from the BAT detector band to the 15–2000 keV band. The uncertainty in E fb is approximately a factor of 2, due mainly to the X-ray measurements’ scatter. We find E γ and E fb to be tightly correlated. The average(std) of {η }γ 11 {hr}\\equiv {{log}}10({E}γ /(3{\\varepsilon }{{e}}{E}{{fb}}11 {hr})) are ‑0.34(0.60), and the upper limit on the intrinsic spread of η γ is approximately 0.5 ({\\varepsilon }{{e}} is the fraction of energy carried by electrons and {E}{{fb}}x {hr} is inferred from the X-ray flux at x hours). {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} are similar, with an average(std) of {{log}}10({E}{{fb}}3 {hr}/{E}{{fb}}11 {hr}) of 0.04(0.28). The small variance of η γ implies that burst-to-burst variations in {\\varepsilon }{{e}} and in the efficiency of fireball energy conversion to γ-rays are small, and suggests that both are of order unity. The small variance of η γ and the similarity of {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} further imply that deviations from a simple fireball model description, if present, are small. This puts stringent constraints on models incorporating such modifications (due e.g., to radiative losses, energy injection, off-axis viewing).

  12. The Energy Budget of GRBs Based on a Large Sample of Prompt and Afterglow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygoda, N.; Guetta, D.; Mandich, M. A.; Waxman, E.

    2016-06-01

    We compare the isotropic equivalent 15–2000 keV γ-ray energy, E γ , emitted by a sample of 91 swift Gamma-Ray Bursts with known redshifts, with the isotropic equivalent fireball energy, E fb, as estimated within the fireball model framework from X-ray afterglow observations of these bursts. The uncertainty in E γ , which spans the range of ∼1051 to ∼1053.5 erg, is ≈25% on average, due mainly to the extrapolation from the BAT detector band to the 15–2000 keV band. The uncertainty in E fb is approximately a factor of 2, due mainly to the X-ray measurements’ scatter. We find E γ and E fb to be tightly correlated. The average(std) of {η }γ 11 {hr}\\equiv {{log}}10({E}γ /(3{\\varepsilon }{{e}}{E}{{fb}}11 {hr})) are ‑0.34(0.60), and the upper limit on the intrinsic spread of η γ is approximately 0.5 ({\\varepsilon }{{e}} is the fraction of energy carried by electrons and {E}{{fb}}x {hr} is inferred from the X-ray flux at x hours). {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} are similar, with an average(std) of {{log}}10({E}{{fb}}3 {hr}/{E}{{fb}}11 {hr}) of 0.04(0.28). The small variance of η γ implies that burst-to-burst variations in {\\varepsilon }{{e}} and in the efficiency of fireball energy conversion to γ-rays are small, and suggests that both are of order unity. The small variance of η γ and the similarity of {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} further imply that deviations from a simple fireball model description, if present, are small. This puts stringent constraints on models incorporating such modifications (due e.g., to radiative losses, energy injection, off-axis viewing).

  13. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Lundgren, B. F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2013-11-10

    We present a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV broad absorption line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3.7 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening versus weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in 'shielding gas' may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability.

  14. Statistical techniques for detecting the intergalactic magnetic field from large samples of extragalactic Faraday rotation data

    SciTech Connect

    Akahori, Takuya; Gaensler, B. M.; Ryu, Dongsu E-mail: bryan.gaensler@sydney.edu.au

    2014-08-01

    Rotation measure (RM) grids of extragalactic radio sources have been widely used for studying cosmic magnetism. However, their potential for exploring the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in filaments of galaxies is unclear, since other Faraday-rotation media such as the radio source itself, intervening galaxies, and the interstellar medium of our Galaxy are all significant contributors. We study statistical techniques for discriminating the Faraday rotation of filaments from other sources of Faraday rotation in future large-scale surveys of radio polarization. We consider a 30° × 30° field of view toward the south Galactic pole, while varying the number of sources detected in both present and future observations. We select sources located at high redshifts and toward which depolarization and optical absorption systems are not observed so as to reduce the RM contributions from the sources and intervening galaxies. It is found that a high-pass filter can satisfactorily reduce the RM contribution from the Galaxy since the angular scale of this component toward high Galactic latitudes would be much larger than that expected for the IGMF. Present observations do not yet provide a sufficient source density to be able to estimate the RM of filaments. However, from the proposed approach with forthcoming surveys, we predict significant residuals of RM that should be ascribable to filaments. The predicted structure of the IGMF down to scales of 0.°1 should be observable with data from the Square Kilometre Array, if we achieve selections of sources toward which sightlines do not contain intervening galaxies and RM errors are less than a few rad m{sup –2}.

  15. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767.

    PubMed

    Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Koeppel, C; Röckmann, T

    2009-03-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and isotopic composition. In the laboratory, an ultra-pure and high efficiency extraction system and high-quality isotope ratio mass spectrometry were used. Because direct comparison with other laboratories was practically impossible, the extraction and measurement procedures were tested in considerable detail. Extracted CO2 was measured twice vs. two different working reference CO2 gases of different isotopic composition. The two data sets agree well and their distributions can be used to evaluate analytical errors due to isotope measurement, ion corrections, internal calibration consistency, etc. The calibration itself is based on NBS-19 and also verified using isotope analyses on pure CO2 gases (NIST Reference Materials (RMs) and NARCIS CO2 gases). The major problem encountered could be attributed to CO2-water exchange in the air sampling cylinders. This exchange decreased over the years. To exclude artefacts due to such isotopic exchange, the data were filtered to reject negative delta18O(CO2) values. Examples of the results are given. PMID:19219897

  16. RF Surface Impedance Measurement of Polycrystalline and Large Grain Nb Disk Sample at 7.5 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Binping; Geng, Rongli; Kelley, Michael J.; Marhauser, Frank; Phillips, H. Larry; Reece, Charles E.; Wang, Haipeng

    2009-11-01

    A Surface Impedance Characterization (SIC) system has been proposed at the 2005 SRF workshop and recently updated as detailed at the 2009 PAC conference. Currently the SIC system can measure samples in a temperature range from 2K to 20K exposed to an RF magnetic flux density of less than 3mT. We report on new results of a BCP etched large grain Nb sample measured with this system as compared with previous results of a BCP etched polycrystalline Nb sample. The design of an upgraded SIC system for use at higher magnetic flux densities is on the way to more efficiently investigate correlations between local material characteristics and associated SRF properties, both for preparation studies of bulk niobium and also new thin film SRF developments.

  17. A topological analysis of large-scale structure, studied using the CMASS sample of SDSS-III

    SciTech Connect

    Parihar, Prachi; Gott, J. Richard III; Vogeley, Michael S.; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Speare, Robert; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brinkmann, J. E-mail: yy.choi@khu.ac.kr

    2014-12-01

    We study the three-dimensional genus topology of large-scale structure using the northern region of the CMASS Data Release 10 (DR10) sample of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We select galaxies with redshift 0.452 < z < 0.625 and with a stellar mass M {sub stellar} > 10{sup 11.56} M {sub ☉}. We study the topology at two smoothing lengths: R {sub G} = 21 h {sup –1} Mpc and R {sub G} = 34 h {sup –1} Mpc. The genus topology studied at the R {sub G} = 21 h {sup –1} Mpc scale results in the highest genus amplitude observed to date. The CMASS sample yields a genus curve that is characteristic of one produced by Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The data thus support the standard model of inflation where random quantum fluctuations in the early universe produced Gaussian random phase initial conditions. Modest deviations in the observed genus from random phase are as expected from shot noise effects and the nonlinear evolution of structure. We suggest the use of a fitting formula motivated by perturbation theory to characterize the shift and asymmetries in the observed genus curve with a single parameter. We construct 54 mock SDSS CMASS surveys along the past light cone from the Horizon Run 3 (HR3) N-body simulations, where gravitationally bound dark matter subhalos are identified as the sites of galaxy formation. We study the genus topology of the HR3 mock surveys with the same geometry and sampling density as the observational sample and find the observed genus topology to be consistent with ΛCDM as simulated by the HR3 mock samples. We conclude that the topology of the large-scale structure in the SDSS CMASS sample is consistent with cosmological models having primordial Gaussian density fluctuations growing in accordance with general relativity to form galaxies in massive dark matter halos.

  18. Sleep Habits, Insomnia, and Daytime Sleepiness in a Large and Healthy Community-Based Sample of New Zealanders

    PubMed Central

    Wilsmore, Bradley R.; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Fransen, Marlene; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the relationship between sleep complaints, primary insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and lifestyle factors in a large community-based sample. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Blood donor sites in New Zealand. Patients or Participants: 22,389 individuals aged 16-84 years volunteering to donate blood. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: A comprehensive self-administered questionnaire including personal demographics and validated questions assessing sleep disorders (snoring, apnea), sleep complaints (sleep quantity, sleep dissatisfaction), insomnia symptoms, excessive daytime sleepiness, mood, and lifestyle factors such as work patterns, smoking, alcohol, and illicit substance use. Additionally, direct measurements of height and weight were obtained. Results: One in three participants report < 7-8 h sleep, 5 or more nights per week, and 60% would like more sleep. Almost half the participants (45%) report suffering the symptoms of insomnia at least once per week, with one in 5 meeting more stringent criteria for primary insomnia. Excessive daytime sleepiness (evident in 9% of this large, predominantly healthy sample) was associated with insomnia (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50 to 2.05), depression (OR 2.01, CI 1.74 to 2.32), and sleep disordered breathing (OR 1.92, CI 1.59 to 2.32). Long work hours, alcohol dependence, and rotating work shifts also increase the risk of daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: Even in this relatively young, healthy, non-clinical sample, sleep complaints and primary insomnia with subsequent excess daytime sleepiness were common. There were clear associations between many personal and lifestyle factors—such as depression, long work hours, alcohol dependence, and rotating shift work—and sleep problems or excessive daytime sleepiness. Citation: Wilsmore BR; Grunstein RR; Fransen M; Woodward M; Norton R; Ameratunga S. Sleep habits, insomnia, and daytime sleepiness in a large and

  19. A priori evaluation of two-stage cluster sampling for accuracy assessment of large-area land-cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, J.D.; Stehman, S.V.; Smith, J.H.; Wade, T.G.; Yang, L.

    2004-01-01

    Two-stage cluster sampling reduces the cost of collecting accuracy assessment reference data by constraining sample elements to fall within a limited number of geographic domains (clusters). However, because classification error is typically positively spatially correlated, within-cluster correlation may reduce the precision of the accuracy estimates. The detailed population information to quantify a priori the effect of within-cluster correlation on precision is typically unavailable. Consequently, a convenient, practical approach to evaluate the likely performance of a two-stage cluster sample is needed. We describe such an a priori evaluation protocol focusing on the spatial distribution of the sample by land-cover class across different cluster sizes and costs of different sampling options, including options not imposing clustering. This protocol also assesses the two-stage design's adequacy for estimating the precision of accuracy estimates for rare land-cover classes. We illustrate the approach using two large-area, regional accuracy assessments from the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD), and describe how the a priorievaluation was used as a decision-making tool when implementing the NLCD design.

  20. The gamma rays associated with the inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in large samples of iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shalabi, B.; Cox, A. J.

    1983-02-01

    Iron is likely to be a common construction material in the first generation of fusion reactors and a knowledge of the effect of multiple scattering processes in large samples of this material is important for reactor design. In the present work, the angular distributions of gamma rays produced after the inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in increasing thicknesses of iron samples have been measured. The measurements were performed using an associated particle time of flight system to gate the gamma-ray signals and reduce the background to an acceptable level. The 14 MeV neutrons were produced by the T(d, n) 4He reaction with the deuterons being accelerated in a 150 KV SAMES type J accelerator at Aston and in the 3 MeV dynamitron at the Joint Radiation Centre, Birmingham. The incident neutron flux was monitored by counting the alpha particles associated with the neutrons passing through the sample. The gamma rays were detected by a NaI(Tl) scintillator mounted on a 56 AVP photo-multiplier tube. The samples of iron varied in thickness from 2 to 10.5 cm. In each case, the differential cross sections for gamma ray production at angles varying between 20° and 90° to the incident neutron beam were measured. The results were fitted to an even order Legendre polynomial. The increase in effective cross section σ due to multiple scattering effects as the sample thickness increased was found to obey the law σ = σ0 exp αx in the region considered for each sample where x is the sample thickness in mean free paths and α has an average value of 0.17 ± 1 (mean free paths) -1. The results have been analysed on a semi-empirical model based on the assumption of continuous slowing down.

  1. A novel stacking method of repetitive large volume sample injection and sweeping MEKC for determination of androgenic steroids in urine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Chi; Chen, Jia-Ling; Chen, Yen-Ling; Cheng, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2012-09-26

    In this research, a novel stacking capillary electrophoresis method, repetitive large volume sample injection and sweeping MEKC (rLVSI-sweeping MEKC) were developed to analyze the presence of three androgenic steroids considered as sport doping drugs, testosterone (T), epitestosterone (E) and epitestosterone glucuronide (EG) in urine. This method provides better sensitivity enhancement than the traditional large volume sample stacking-sweeping strategies due to sensitivity enhancement by repetitive injections. This multiple sampling method enhances sensitivity of monitoring of urine samples by UV detection (254 nm). Firstly, the phosphate buffer was filled into an uncoated fused silica capillary and the samples were injected into the capillary at 10 psi for 20s, and then stacked at -10 kV for 1 min using phosphate buffer containing SDS. The above injecting and stacking steps were repeated five times. Finally, separation was performed at -20 kV, using phosphate buffer containing methanol, SDS and (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin. Method validation showed that calibration plots were linear (r≥0.997) over a range of 5-200 ng mL(-1) for T, 20-200 ng mL(-1) for E and 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) for EG. The limits of detection were 1.0 ng mL(-1) for T, 5.0 ng mL(-1) for E and 200.0 pg mL(-1) for EG. When evaluating precision and accuracy, values of RSD and RE in intra-day (n=3) and inter-day (n=5) analysis were found to be less than 10.0%. Compared with the simple LVSS-sweeping, which is also a stacking strategy, this method further improves sensitivity up to 25 folds (~2500 folds with MEKC without preconcentration). This method was applied to monitor 10 athletes' urine, and did not detect any analyte. The novel stacking method was feasible for monitoring of doping by sportsmen. PMID:22935380

  2. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in a Large Insured Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Owen-Smith, Ashli A.; Bent, Stephen; Lynch, Frances L.; Coleman, Karen J.; Yau, Vincent M.; Pearson, Kathryn A.; Massolo, Maria L.; Quinn, Virginia; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use as well as parental perceptions of CAM efficacy in a large, geographically diverse sample of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Methodology Data were obtained from a web-based survey administered to parents of children with ASD at four sites participating in the Mental Health Research Network (MHRN). The web survey obtained information about services and treatments received by children with ASD as well as the caregivers’ experiences with having a child with ASD. Results Approximately 88% of the sample had either used CAM in the past or had recently used some type of CAM. The following characteristics were associated with CAM use: greater parental education, younger child age, a mix of regular and special classroom settings and prescription drug use in the past three months. Conclusions The use of CAM was very prevalent in this large, geographically diverse sample of children with ASD. It is critical that providers be prepared to discuss the advantages and potential side effects with families to help them make well-informed health care decisions and prevent possible CAM-drug interactions. PMID:26366192

  3. Expansion of Cultured Bacterial Diversity by Large-Scale Dilution-to-Extinction Culturing from a Single Seawater Sample.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Jo; Kang, Ilnam; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cultivation (HTC) based on a dilution-to-extinction method has been applied broadly to the cultivation of marine bacterial groups, which has often led to the repeated isolation of abundant lineages such as SAR11 and oligotrophic marine gammaproteobacteria (OMG). In this study, to expand the phylogenetic diversity of HTC isolates, we performed a large-scale HTC with a single surface seawater sample collected from the East Sea, the Western Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from 847 putative pure cultures demonstrated that some isolates were affiliated with not-yet-cultured clades, including the OPB35 and Puniceicoccaceae marine group of Verrucomicrobia and PS1 of Alphaproteobacteria. In addition, numerous strains were obtained from abundant clades, such as SAR11, marine Roseobacter clade, OMG (e.g., SAR92 and OM60), OM43, and SAR116, thereby increasing the size of available culture resources for representative marine bacterial groups. Comparison between the composition of HTC isolates and the bacterial community structure of the seawater sample used for HTC showed that diverse marine bacterial groups exhibited various growth capabilities under our HTC conditions. The growth response of many bacterial groups, however, was clearly different from that observed with conventional plating methods, as exemplified by numerous isolates of the SAR11 clade and Verrucomicrobia. This study showed that a large number of novel bacterial strains could be obtained by an extensive HTC from even a small number of samples. PMID:26573832

  4. [A Large Number of Circulating Tumor Cells(CTCs)Can Be Isolated from Samples Obtained by Using Leukapheresis Procedures].

    PubMed

    Soya, Ryoko; Taguchi, Jyunichi; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Takahashi, Osamu; Sandoh, Norimasa; Hosokawa, Yuichi; Kasuya, Kazuhiko; Umeda, Naoki; Okamoto, Masato; Tsujitani, Shunichi; Tsuchida, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that a large number of circulating tumor cells(CTCs)may be isolated from samples obtained by using the leukapheresis procedures that are utilized to collect peripheral blood mononuclear cells for dendritic cell vaccine therapy. We utilized the CellSearch System to determine the number of CTCs in samples obtained by using leukapheresis in 7 patients with colorectal cancer, 5 patients with breast cancer, and 3 patients with gastric cancer. In all patients, a large number of CTCs were isolated. The mean number of CTCs per tumor was 17.1(range 10-34)in colorectal cancer, 10.0(range 2-27)in breast cancer, and 24.0(range 2-42)in gastric cancer. We succeeded in culturing the isolated CTCs from 7 patients with colorectal cancer, 5 patients with breast cancer, and 3 patients with gastric cancer. In conclusion, compared to conventional methods, a large number of CTCs can be obtained by using leukapheresis procedures. The molecular analyses of the CTCs isolated by using this method should be promising in the development of personalized cancer treatments. PMID:26469161

  5. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a study in a large clinical sample of patients using a novel automated method

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rashmi; Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Broadbent, Matthew; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Foskett, Nadia; Gorrell, Genevieve; Hayes, Richard D; Jackson, Richard; Johnston, Caroline; Shetty, Hitesh; Roberts, Angus; McGuire, Philip; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify negative symptoms in the clinical records of a large sample of patients with schizophrenia using natural language processing and assess their relationship with clinical outcomes. Design Observational study using an anonymised electronic health record case register. Setting South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM), a large provider of inpatient and community mental healthcare in the UK. Participants 7678 patients with schizophrenia receiving care during 2011. Main outcome measures Hospital admission, readmission and duration of admission. Results 10 different negative symptoms were ascertained with precision statistics above 0.80. 41% of patients had 2 or more negative symptoms. Negative symptoms were associated with younger age, male gender and single marital status, and with increased likelihood of hospital admission (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.39), longer duration of admission (β-coefficient 20.5 days, 7.6–33.5), and increased likelihood of readmission following discharge (OR 1.58, 1.28 to 1.95). Conclusions Negative symptoms were common and associated with adverse clinical outcomes, consistent with evidence that these symptoms account for much of the disability associated with schizophrenia. Natural language processing provides a means of conducting research in large representative samples of patients, using data recorded during routine clinical practice. PMID:26346872

  6. Large and kinematically unbiased samples of G- and K-type stars. II - Observations of evolved stars in the Bright Star sample. III - Evolved young disk stars in the Bright Star sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggen, Olin J.

    1989-01-01

    Four color and RI observations were obtained for a large sample of G-type and K-type stars in the Bright Star Catalogue. Data are first presented for 110 evolved stars. Photometry of evolved young disk population stars have then been calibrated for luminosity, reddening, and metallicity on the basis of results for members of the Hyades and Sirius superclusters. New DDO results are given for 120 stars.

  7. Adsorption of Zn2+ ions onto NaA and NaX zeolites: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Nibou, D; Mekatel, H; Amokrane, S; Barkat, M; Trari, M

    2010-01-15

    The adsorption of Zn(2+) onto NaA and NaX zeolites was investigated. The samples were synthesized according to a hydrothermal crystallization using aluminium isopropoxide (Al[OCH(CH(3))(2)](3)) as a new alumina source. The effects of pH, initial concentration, solid/liquid ratio and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The Freundlich and the Langmuir models were applied and the adsorption equilibrium followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The uptake distribution coefficient (K(d)) indicated that the Zn(2+) removal was the highest at minimum concentration. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The negative values of standard enthalpy of adsorption revealed the exothermic nature of the adsorption process whereas the negative activation entropies reflected that no significant change occurs in the internal structure of the zeolites solid matrix during the sorption of Zn(2+). The negative values of Gibbs free energy were indicative of the spontaneity of the adsorption process. Analysis of the kinetic and rate data revealed that the pseudo second-order sorption mechanism is predominant and the intra particle diffusion was the determining step for the sorption of zinc ions. The obtained optimal parameters have been applied to wastewater from the industrial zone (Algeria) in order to remove the contained zinc effluents. PMID:19773115

  8. Similar frequency of the McGurk effect in large samples of native Mandarin Chinese and American English speakers.

    PubMed

    Magnotti, John F; Basu Mallick, Debshila; Feng, Guo; Zhou, Bin; Zhou, Wen; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2015-09-01

    Humans combine visual information from mouth movements with auditory information from the voice to recognize speech. A common method for assessing multisensory speech perception is the McGurk effect: When presented with particular pairings of incongruent auditory and visual speech syllables (e.g., the auditory speech sounds for "ba" dubbed onto the visual mouth movements for "ga"), individuals perceive a third syllable, distinct from the auditory and visual components. Chinese and American cultures differ in the prevalence of direct facial gaze and in the auditory structure of their languages, raising the possibility of cultural- and language-related group differences in the McGurk effect. There is no consensus in the literature about the existence of these group differences, with some studies reporting less McGurk effect in native Mandarin Chinese speakers than in English speakers and others reporting no difference. However, these studies sampled small numbers of participants tested with a small number of stimuli. Therefore, we collected data on the McGurk effect from large samples of Mandarin-speaking individuals from China and English-speaking individuals from the USA (total n = 307) viewing nine different stimuli. Averaged across participants and stimuli, we found similar frequencies of the McGurk effect between Chinese and American participants (48 vs. 44 %). In both groups, we observed a large range of frequencies both across participants (range from 0 to 100 %) and stimuli (15 to 83 %) with the main effect of culture and language accounting for only 0.3 % of the variance in the data. High individual variability in perception of the McGurk effect necessitates the use of large sample sizes to accurately estimate group differences. PMID:26041554

  9. Detection of triazole deicing additives in soil samples from airports with low, mid, and large volume aircraft deicing activities.

    PubMed

    McNeill, K S; Cancilla, D A

    2009-03-01

    Soil samples from three USA airports representing low, mid, and large volume users of aircraft deicing fluids (ADAFs) were analyzed by LC/MS/MS for the presence of triazoles, a class of corrosion inhibitors historically used in ADAFs. Triazoles, specifically the 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole and the 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, were detected in a majority of samples and ranged from 2.35 to 424.19 microg/kg. Previous studies have focused primarily on ground and surface water impacts of larger volume ADAF users. The detection of triazoles in soils at low volume ADAF use airports suggests that deicing activities may have a broader environmental impact than previously considered. PMID:19082516

  10. The Mass of the Galaxy from Large Samples of Field Horizontal-Branch Stars in the SDSS Early Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T. C.; Chiba, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Wilhelm, R.; Allende Prieto, C.; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Newberg, H. J.; Yanny, B.; Marsteller, B.; Pier, J. R.

    2004-07-01

    We present a new estimate of the mass of the Milky Way, making use of a large sample of 955 field horizontal-branch (FHB) stars from the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This sample of stars has been classified on the basis of an automated analysis approach, in combination with other methods, in order to obtain estimates of the physical parameters of the stars, i.e., T_eff, log g, [Fe/H], and should be relatively free of contamination from halo blue stragglers. The stars all have measured radial velocities and photometric distance estimates, and the sample includes objects as distant as ˜ 75 kpc from the Galactic center. Application of a Bayesian likelihood method, for a specific model of the Galaxy, indicates that the total mass of the Galaxy lies in the range 1.5-4.0 x 1012 M⊙. Our sample appears to reveal a clear signature of a dual halo population of FHB stars, with the boundary between the inner and outer halo around 20 kpc, and the possibility of rather striking differences in the rotational properties of the Galaxy at low metallicity.

  11. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: Addressing design and sampling issues

    PubMed Central

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-01-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO. PMID:24908173

  12. Statistical Analysis of a Large Sample Size Pyroshock Test Data Set Including Post Flight Data Assessment. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft was launched on an Atlas IIAS launch vehicle on its mission to observe planet Earth in late 1999. Prior to launch, the new design of the spacecraft's pyroshock separation system was characterized by a series of 13 separation ground tests. The analysis methods used to evaluate this unusually large amount of shock data will be discussed in this paper, with particular emphasis on population distributions and finding statistically significant families of data, leading to an overall shock separation interface level. The wealth of ground test data also allowed a derivation of a Mission Assurance level for the flight. All of the flight shock measurements were below the EOS Terra Mission Assurance level thus contributing to the overall success of the EOS Terra mission. The effectiveness of the statistical methodology for characterizing the shock interface level and for developing a flight Mission Assurance level from a large sample size of shock data is demonstrated in this paper.

  13. Dynamic relationship between neurostimulation and N-acetylaspartate metabolism in the human visual cortex: evidence that NAA functions as a molecular water pump during visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Baslow, Morris H; Hrabe, Jan; Guilfoyle, David N

    2007-01-01

    N-acetyl-l-aspartic acid (NAA), an amino acid synthesized and stored primarily in neurons in the brain, has been proposed to be a molecular water pump (MWP) whose function is to rapidly remove water from neurons against a water gradient. In this communication, we describe the results of a functional (1)H proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) study, and provide evidence that in the human visual cortex, over a 10-min period of visual stimulation, there are stimulation-induced graded changes in the NAA MRS signal from that of a preceding 10-min baseline period with a decline in the NAA signal of 13.1% by the end of the 10-min stimulation period. Upon cessation of visual stimulation, the NAA signal gradually increases during a 10-min recovery period and once again approaches the baseline level. Because the NAA MRS signal reflects the NAA concentration, these changes indicate rapid focal changes in its concentration, and transient changes in its intercompartmental metabolism. These include its rates of synthesis and efflux from neurons and its hydrolysis by oligodendrocytes. During stimulation, the apparent rate of NAA efflux and hydrolysis increased 14.2 times, from 0.55 to 7.8 micromol g(-1) h(-1). During recovery, the apparent rate of synthesis increased 13.3 times, from 0.55 to 7.3 micromol g(-1) h(-1). The decline in the NAA signal during stimulation suggests that a rapid increase in the rate of NAA-obligated water release to extracellular fluid (ECF) is the initial and seminal event in response to neurostimulation. It is concluded that the NAA metabolic cycle in the visual cortex is intimately linked to rates of neuronal signaling, and that the functional cycle of NAA is associated with its release to ECF, thus supporting the hypothesis that an important function of the NAA metabolic cycle is that of an efflux MWP. PMID:17873369

  14. Measurement of xenon distribution statistics in Na-A zeolite cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Chmelka, B.F.; Raftery, D.; McCormick, A.V.; de Menorval, L.C.; Levine, R.D.; Pines, A. . Materials Sciences Division University of California, Berkeley, CA . Department of Chemistry)

    1991-02-04

    {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy has been used to probe directly the distribution of xenon atoms confined in atomic-size Na-A zeolite cavities. For mean xenon occupancies less than about three Xe atoms per {alpha}-cage, the guest populations are well described by binomial statistics. At higher guest loadings the finite volumes of the xenon atoms become significant, as reflected by a fit of the experimental populations with a hypergeometric distribution. The data and hypergeometric analysis indicate a maximum occupancy of seven Xe atoms/cage. At the highest xenon loadings the experimental distribution is narrower than hypergeometric.

  15. Inferring Population Size History from Large Samples of Genome-Wide Molecular Data - An Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach.

    PubMed

    Boitard, Simon; Rodríguez, Willy; Jay, Flora; Mona, Stefano; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey), PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles. PMID:26943927

  16. Inferring Population Size History from Large Samples of Genome-Wide Molecular Data - An Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Boitard, Simon; Rodríguez, Willy; Jay, Flora; Mona, Stefano; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey), PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles. PMID:26943927

  17. Determination of 237Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Jones, Vernon D; Nichols, Sheldon T; Bernard, Maureen A; Noyes, Gary W

    2010-12-01

    A new method for the determination of (237)Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples has been developed that provides enhanced uranium removal to facilitate assay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in large soil samples for the measurement of (237)Np and Pu isotopes by ICP-MS. (238)U can interfere with (239)Pu measurement by ICP-MS as (238)UH(+) mass overlap and (237)Np via (238)U peak tailing. The method provides enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then transferring Pu to DGA resin for additional purification. The decontamination factor for removal of uranium from plutonium for this method is greater than 1×10(6). Alpha spectrometry can also be applied so that the shorter-lived (238)Pu isotope can be measured successfully. (239) Pu, (242)Pu and (237)Np were measured by ICP-MS, while (236)Pu and (238)Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry. PMID:21056724

  18. DETERMINATION OF 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-07-26

    A new method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples has been developed that provides enhanced uranium removal to facilitate assay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in large soil samples for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by ICP-MS. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via {sup 238}U peak tailing. The method provides enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then transferring Pu to DGA resin for additional purification. The decontamination factor for removal of uranium from plutonium for this method is greater than 1 x 10{sup 6}. Alpha spectrometry can also be applied so that the shorter-lived {sup 238}Pu isotope can be measured successfully. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu and {sup 238}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  19. microRNA-342-5p and miR-608 inhibit colon cancer tumorigenesis by targeting NAA10.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongju; Li, Qian; Niu, Jie; Li, Bai; Jiang, Dejun; Wan, Zhihua; Yang, Qingmei; Jiang, Fei; Wei, Ping; Bai, Song

    2016-01-19

    miRNAs have been shown to play pivotal roles in the establishment and progression of colon cancer, but their underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. N-acetyltransferase NAA10 participates in many cellular processes, including tumorigenesis. Here we showed that miR-342-5p and miR-608 suppressed the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by targeting NAA10 mRNA for degradation. Overexpression of miR-342-5p or miR-608 decreased NAA10 mRNA and protein levels and thereby suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and cell-cycle progression, as well as promoted apoptosis in SW480 and SW620 cells. More importantly, miR-342-5p and miR-608 significantly decreased the tumorigenic capacity of SW480 and SW620 cells in a mouse xenograft model. We also observed an inverse correlation between the expression of NAA10 and that of both miRNAs. Our results implicate miR-342-5p and miR-608 in colon cancer development and unveil the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon, which involves NAA10. PMID:26646451

  20. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-01

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO 2 and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 °C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO 2/Al 2O 3, H 2O/Na 2O and Na 2O/SiO 2 molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH 4+-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m 2/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m 2/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of ˜3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously.

  1. A magnetic sorbent for the efficient and rapid extraction of organic micropollutants from large-volume environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Mengqiao

    2013-11-01

    A magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method based on a novel magnetic sorbent was proposed for the extraction of target compounds from large-volume water samples. First, magnetic hypercrosslinked microspheres (NAND-1) were prepared via membrane emulsification-suspension polymerization and post crosslinking reaction. To ensure that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles could completely pass through the membrane without blocking the pores, oleic acid was used to modify the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which enhanced lipophilicity and monodispersity of the magnetite nanoparticles. The obtained NAND-1 microspheres exhibited super paramagnetic characteristics and excellent magnetic responsiveness with a saturation magnetization of 2.53 emu/g. In addition, a uniform particle size (~8 μm) and a large average surface area (1303.59 m(2)/g) were also observed, which were both beneficial for the extraction of the target compounds. Thus, NAND-1 has the potential to simultaneously exhibit good extraction efficiencies toward different types of organic micropollutants (OMPs), including triazines, carbamazepine and diethyl phthalate. The conditions of the MSPE based on NAND-1 were optimized by single factor and orthogonal design experiments. This MSPE method needed only a small amount of sorbent (50mg/L) for the extraction of OMPs from a large-volume aquatic sample (5L) and reached equilibrium in a short amount of time (30 min). Moreover, the solution volume, the pH, and the salinity had insignificant influences on the extraction of the eight target OMPs. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of the eight OMPs calculated by analyzing the spiked samples were from 91.7% to 99.4%. The NAND-1 could be recycled ten times and still achieve recoveries of the eight OMPs higher than 86%. The limits of detection of the eight OMPs ranged from 1.76 to 27.56 ng/L, and the limits of quantification were from 5.71 to 92.05 ng/L. These results indicated that the proposed method, based on the use of NAND-1

  2. A large spectroscopic sample of L and T dwarfs from UKIDSS LAS: peculiar objects, binaries, and space density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, F.; Jones, H. R. A.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Pinfield, D. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Burningham, B.; Zhang, Z. H.; Smart, R. L.; Gomes, J. I.; Smith, L.

    2015-06-01

    We present the spectroscopic analysis of a large sample of late-M, L, and T dwarfs from the United Kingdom Deep Infrared Sky Survey. Using the YJHK photometry from the Large Area Survey and the red-optical photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we selected a sample of 262 brown dwarf candidates and we have followed-up 196 of them using the echelle spectrograph X-shooter on the Very Large Telescope. The large wavelength coverage (0.30-2.48 μm) and moderate resolution (R ˜ 5000-9000) of X-shooter allowed us to identify peculiar objects including 22 blue L dwarfs, 2 blue T dwarfs, and 2 low-gravity M dwarfs. Using a spectral indices-based technique, we identified 27 unresolved binary candidates, for which we have determined the spectral type of the potential components via spectral deconvolution. The spectra allowed us to measure the equivalent width of the prominent absorption features and to compare them to atmospheric models. Cross-correlating the spectra with a radial velocity standard, we measured the radial velocity of our targets, and we determined the distribution of the sample, which is centred at -1.7 ± 1.2 km s-1 with a dispersion of 31.5 km s-1. Using our results, we estimated the space density of field brown dwarfs and compared it with the results of numerical simulations. Depending on the binary fraction, we found that there are (0.85 ± 0.55) × 10-3 to (1.00 ± 0.64) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the L4-L6.5 range, (0.73 ± 0.47) × 10-3 to (0.85 ± 0.55) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the L7-T0.5 range, and (0.74 ± 0.48) × 10-3 to (0.88 ± 0.56) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the T1-T4.5 range. We notice that there seems to be an excess of objects in the L-T transition with respect to the late-T dwarfs, a discrepancy that could be explained assuming a higher binary fraction than expected for the L-T transition, or that objects in the high-mass end and low-mass end of this regime form in different environments, i.e. following

  3. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, M.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-12-01

    Context: Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims: We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results: To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for all the sources are given in electronic form the appendix. A discussion of the main properties of the H2O variability in our sample will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Based on observations with the Medicina radiotelescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia.

  4. High-throughput genotyping assay for the large-scale genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium parasites from human and bovine samples.

    PubMed

    Abal-Fabeiro, J L; Maside, X; Llovo, J; Bello, X; Torres, M; Treviño, M; Moldes, L; Muñoz, A; Carracedo, A; Bartolomé, C

    2014-04-01

    The epidemiological study of human cryptosporidiosis requires the characterization of species and subtypes involved in human disease in large sample collections. Molecular genotyping is costly and time-consuming, making the implementation of low-cost, highly efficient technologies increasingly necessary. Here, we designed a protocol based on MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the high-throughput genotyping of a panel of 55 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) selected as markers for the identification of common gp60 subtypes of four Cryptosporidium species that infect humans. The method was applied to a panel of 608 human and 63 bovine isolates and the results were compared with control samples typed by Sanger sequencing. The method allowed the identification of species in 610 specimens (90·9%) and gp60 subtype in 605 (90·2%). It displayed excellent performance, with sensitivity and specificity values of 87·3 and 98·0%, respectively. Up to nine genotypes from four different Cryptosporidium species (C. hominis, C. parvum, C. meleagridis and C. felis) were detected in humans; the most common ones were C. hominis subtype Ib, and C. parvum IIa (61·3 and 28·3%, respectively). 96·5% of the bovine samples were typed as IIa. The method performs as well as the widely used Sanger sequencing and is more cost-effective and less time consuming. PMID:24238396

  5. Structural Validity of the Tonic Immobility Scale in a Population Exposed to Trauma: Evidence from Two Large Brazilian Samples

    PubMed Central

    Reichenheim, Michael; Souza, Wanderson; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Quintana, Maria Inês; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter

    2014-01-01

    Background Tonic Immobility is a temporary state of motor inhibition in situations involving extreme fear. The first scale developed for its assessment was the 10-item Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS). However, there are still few studies on its structural (dimensional) validity. The objective of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the TIS applied to representative samples exposed to general trauma of two Brazilian mega-cities. Methods The sample comprised 3,223 participants reporting at least one traumatic experience. In São Paulo (n = 2,148), a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) first tested the originally proposed two-dimensional structure. This was followed by sequential Exploratory Structural Equation Models to identify the best fitting model, and subsequently tested in Rio de Janeiro (n = 1,075) via CFA. Alternative reduced versions were further explored using the aggregate sample. Model-based Item Response Theory (IRT) location parameters were also investigated. Results An absence of factor-based convergent and discriminant validity rejected the original proposition. However, the one-dimensional structure still held several residual correlations. Further exploration indicated the sustainability of reduced versions with seven (alternative A) and six (alternative B) items. Both presented excellent fit and no relevant residual item correlation. According to the IRT location parameters, items in alternative B covered a wider range of the latent trait. The Loevinger's H scalability coefficients underscored this pattern. Conclusions The original model did not hold. A one-factor solution was the most tenable in both large samples, but with significant item residual correlations, indicating that content redundancies persisted. Further reduced and simplified versions of the TIS proved promising. Although studies are yet to be carried out in other settings, it is the authors' impression that the restricted versions of the TIS are already apt for

  6. Extracting samples of high diversity from thematic collections of large gene banks using a genetic-distance based approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breeding programs are usually reluctant to evaluate and use germplasm accessions other than the elite materials belonging to their advanced populations. The concept of core collections has been proposed to facilitate the access of potential users to samples of small sizes, representative of the genetic variability contained within the gene pool of a specific crop. The eventual large size of a core collection perpetuates the problem it was originally proposed to solve. The present study suggests that, in addition to the classic core collection concept, thematic core collections should be also developed for a specific crop, composed of a limited number of accessions, with a manageable size. Results The thematic core collection obtained meets the minimum requirements for a core sample - maintenance of at least 80% of the allelic richness of the thematic collection, with, approximately, 15% of its size. The method was compared with other methodologies based on the M strategy, and also with a core collection generated by random sampling. Higher proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of equal size) or similar proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of smaller size) were detected in the two methods based on the M strategy compared to the proposed methodology. Core sub-collections constructed by different methods were compared regarding the increase or maintenance of phenotypic diversity. No change on phenotypic diversity was detected by measuring the trait "Weight of 100 Seeds", for the tested sampling methods. Effects on linkage disequilibrium between unlinked microsatellite loci, due to sampling, are discussed. Conclusions Building of a thematic core collection was here defined by prior selection of accessions which are diverse for the trait of interest, and then by pairwise genetic distances, estimated by DNA polymorphism analysis at molecular marker loci. The resulting thematic core collection potentially reflects the maximum

  7. Bayesian Statistical Analysis Applied to NAA Data for Neutron Flux Spectrum Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiesa, D.; Previtali, E.; Sisti, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical method, based on Bayesian statistics, to evaluate the neutron flux spectrum from the activation data of different isotopes. The experimental data were acquired during a neutron activation analysis (NAA) experiment [A. Borio di Tigliole et al., Absolute flux measurement by NAA at the Pavia University TRIGA Mark II reactor facilities, ENC 2012 - Transactions Research Reactors, ISBN 978-92-95064-14-0, 22 (2012)] performed at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of Pavia University (Italy). In order to evaluate the neutron flux spectrum, subdivided in energy groups, we must solve a system of linear equations containing the grouped cross sections and the activation rate data. We solve this problem with Bayesian statistical analysis, including the uncertainties of the coefficients and the a priori information about the neutron flux. A program for the analysis of Bayesian hierarchical models, based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations, is used to define the problem statistical model and solve it. The energy group fluxes and their uncertainties are then determined with great accuracy and the correlations between the groups are analyzed. Finally, the dependence of the results on the prior distribution choice and on the group cross section data is investigated to confirm the reliability of the analysis.

  8. The calibration of XRF polyethylene reference materials with k0-NAA and ICP-AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swagten, Josefien; Bossus, Daniël; Vanwersch, Hanny

    2006-08-01

    Due to the lack of commercially available polyethylene reference materials for the calibration of X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRF), DSM Resolve, in cooperation with PANalytical, prepared and calibrated such a set of standards in 2005. The reference materials were prepared based on the addition of additives to virgin polyethylene. The mentioned additives are added to improve the performance of the polymers. The elements present in additives are tracers for the used additives. The reference materials contain the following elements: F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti and Zn in the concentration range of 5 mg/kg for Ti, up to 600 mg/kg for Mg. The calibration of the reference materials, including a blank, was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Neutron Activation Analysis ( k0-NAA). ICP-AES was used to determine the elements Na, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti and Zn whereas k0-NAA was used for F, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti and Zn. Over the complete concentration range, a good agreement of the results was found between the both techniques. This project has shown that within DSM Resolve, it is possible to develop and to calibrate homogenous reference materials for XRF.

  9. The influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp.: modeling of production kinetic profiles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Li, Le; Peterson, Eric Charles; Ruan, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of improving the fungal production of flavonoids, the influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp. P0988 was investigated by developing the corresponding kinetics of flavonoid production in a 7-L bioreactor. Phellinus sp. was confirmed to form flavonoids in pellets and broth when cultivated in basic medium, and the optimum concentration of NAA and coumarin in medium for flavonoid production were determined to be 0.03 and 0.02 g/L, respectively. The developed unstructured mathematical models were in good agreement with the experimental results with respect to flavonoid production kinetic profiles with NAA and coumarin supplementation at optimum levels and revealed significant accuracy in terms of statistical consistency and robustness. Analysis of these kinetic processes indicated that NAA and coumarin supplementations imposed a stronger positive influence on flavonoid production and substrate consumption compared to their effects on cell growth. The separate addition of NAA and coumarin resulted in enhancements in final product accumulation and productivity, achieving final flavonoid concentrations of 3.60 and 2.75 g/L, respectively, and glucose consumption showed a significant decrease compared to the non-supplemented control as well. Also, the separate presence of NAA and coumarin respectively decreased maintenance coefficients (M s) from 2.48 in the control to 1.39 and 0.22, representing decreases of 43.9 and 91.1 %, respectively. The current study is the first known application of mathematical kinetic models to explore the influence of medium components adding on flavonoid production by fungi. PMID:26231135

  10. Proportional differences in emergency room adult patients with PTSD, mood disorders, and anxiety for a large ethnically diverse geographic sample.

    PubMed

    Onoye, Jane; Helm, Susana; Koyanagi, Chad; Fukuda, Michael; Hishinuma, Earl; Takeshita, Junji; Ona, Celia

    2013-05-01

    Underserved populations often utilize the emergency room in place of primary care, particularly for short term behavioral health services. This study examined emergency department (ED) utilization rates for rurality, insurance, sex, and ethnicity in a large sample of adult patients in Hawai'i hospitals from 2000-2010 with a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mood disorder, or other anxiety disorder. Findings showed a higher rate of use by rural and suburban residents with a diagnosis of PTSD or other anxiety than by urban residents. Utilization of EDs by African Americans and Other Pacific Islanders with PTSD was proportionally higher than for those with mood disorders or other anxiety disorders. Military ED visits were also proportionally higher for individuals with PTSD than for those with mood or other anxiety disorders. Limited economic resources and increasingly costly mental health disorders such as PTSD highlight the importance of better understanding the needs for behavioral health services for underserved populations. PMID:23728057

  11. Brief Report: The Go/No-Go Task Online: Inhibitory Control Deficits in Autism in a Large Sample.

    PubMed

    Uzefovsky, F; Allison, C; Smith, P; Baron-Cohen, S

    2016-08-01

    Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC, also referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders) entail difficulties with inhibition: inhibiting action, inhibiting one's own point of view, and inhibiting distractions that may interfere with a response set. However, the association between inhibitory control (IC) and ASC, especially in adulthood, is unclear. The current study measured IC, using the Go/No-Go task online, in a large adult sample of 201 people with ASC and 240 controls. Number of both False Alarm and False Positive responses were significantly associated with autistic traits and diagnostic status, separately, but not jointly. These findings suggest that deficits in inhibition are associated with ASC. Future studies need to investigate the role of inhibition in ASC in everyday difficulties. PMID:27103120

  12. Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs): growth trajectories using a large, internet-based sample.

    PubMed

    Roseth, Cary J; Missall, Kristen N; McConnell, Scott R

    2012-08-01

    Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs) assess preschoolers' expressive vocabulary development and phonological awareness. This study investigated longitudinal change in EL-IGDIs using a large (N=7355), internet-based sample of 36- to 60-month-old United States preschoolers without identified risks for later achievement delays. There were three major findings. First, results identified sensitivity to longitudinal change for all three EL-IGDIs (i.e., Picture naming, Rhyming, and Alliteration). Second, results demonstrated age-related differences in growth rates between 3- and 4-year-olds, especially for Rhyming and Alliteration. Third, preliminary national norms were reported. Discussion highlights the need for research examining the sensitivity of EL-IGDIs for younger preschoolers. PMID:22710017

  13. Measuring and mitigating inhibition during real-time, quantitative PCR analysis of viral nucleic acid extracts from large-volume environmental water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally-occurring inhibitory compounds are a major concern during qPCR and RT-qPCR analysis of environmental samples, particularly large volume water samples. Here, a standardized method for measuring and mitigating sample inhibition in environmental water concentrates is described. Specifically, ...

  14. Psychometric properties of the mini-social phobia inventory (Mini-SPIN) in a large online treatment-seeking sample.

    PubMed

    Fogliati, Vincent J; Terides, Matthew D; Gandy, Milena; Staples, Lauren G; Johnston, Luke; Karin, Eyal; Rapee, Ronald M; Titov, Nickolai; Dear, Blake F

    2016-04-01

    The Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN) is a brief, three-item measure designed as a screening tool for social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study investigated the Mini-SPIN's psychometric properties in a series of trials of Internet-delivered treatment. Participants were 993 people seeking Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for a range of anxiety and mood disorders. Participants completed the Mini-SPIN, and were diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Version 5.0.0 (MINI). They also completed measures of depression, general anxiety, panic, neuroticism and general impairment. The Mini-SPIN's ability to discriminate between people with and without SAD, within a large sample of people seeking treatment for a range of psychological disorders, was assessed at initial assessment and three-month follow-up. The Mini-SPIN's criterion group validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness to treatment were also examined. Results demonstrated that the Mini-SPIN has an excellent ability to discriminate between those with and without SAD in a highly comorbid clinical sample, and also has good criterion group validity. The Mini-SPIN also exhibited excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, and was responsive to treatment. These results highlight the Mini-SPIN's potential as an efficient and reliable measure of SAD in heterogenous populations. PMID:27046641

  15. High-resolution copy number analysis of paired normal-tumor samples from diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Elena; Alcoceba, Miguel; Martín-García, David; Blanco, Óscar; Sanchez-Barba, Mercedes; Balanzategui, Ana; Marín, Luis; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; González-Barca, Eva; Pardal, Emilia; Jiménez, Cristina; García-Álvarez, María; Clot, Guillem; Carracedo, Ángel; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Sarasquete, M Eugenia; Chillón, Carmen; Corral, Rocío; Prieto-Conde, M Isabel; Caballero, M Dolores; Salaverria, Itziar; García-Sanz, Ramón; González, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Copy number analysis can be useful for assessing prognosis in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We analyzed copy number data from tumor samples of 60 patients diagnosed with DLBCL de novo and their matched normal samples. We detected 63 recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs), including 33 gains, 30 losses, and nine recurrent acquired copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (CNN-LOH). Interestingly, 20 % of cases acquired CNN-LOH of 6p21 locus, which involves the HLA region. In normal cells, there were no CNAs but we observed CNN-LOH involving some key lymphoma regions such as 6p21 and 9p24.1 (5 %) and 17p13.1 (2.5 %) in DLBCL patients. Furthermore, a model with some specific CNA was able to predict the subtype of DLBCL, 1p36.32 and 10q23.31 losses being restricted to germinal center B cell-like (GCB) DLBCL. In contrast, 8p23.3 losses and 11q24.3 gains were strongly associated with the non-GCB subtype. A poor prognosis was associated with biallelic inactivation of TP53 or 18p11.32 losses, while prognosis was better in cases carrying 11q24.3 gains. In summary, CNA abnormalities identify specific DLBCL groups, and we describe CNN-LOH in germline cells from DLBCL patients that are associated with genes that probably play a key role in DLBCL development. PMID:26573278

  16. Large separations or regular technical patterns? Could data sampling mimic the frequency range of pulsating Delta Scuti stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparo, Margit; Benko, Jozsef M.; Hareter, Markus; Guzik, Joyce A.

    2015-08-01

    Asteroseismology allows unique information on the inner structure of stars. The large separation between the consecutive radial orders and the small separation of the modes with different l values are well-known and useful parameters characterizing solar-type oscillations. The large separation was derived only for a few Delta Scuti stars which are pulsating in the non-asymptotic regime. Theoretical investigations do not predict a high level of regularity of the excited modes. We carried out a search for regularity in a sample of Delta Scuti stars observed by CoRoT (91 stars). Usually the Fourier Transform or the histogram of frequency differences were used. The echelle diagrams represent the regularity when it was found. As a preliminary step we isolated set(s) of frequencies with quasi-equal spacing. Surprisingly not only a single pattern but up to six patterns were found in most of the stars. The patterns are regularly shifted with respect to each other. The echelle diagrams helped to reduce the scatter of the spacing. The derived spacing supported the better interpretation of the FT diagrams. There is no doubt of the existence of regular patterns. The interpretation is questionable: do the Delta Scuti stars behave so regularly, or we are faced with a technical pattern that obscures the real frequency pattern of the low amplitude Delta Scuti pulsation?

  17. Statistical process control charts for attribute data involving very large sample sizes: a review of problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Panesar, Jagdeep S; Laney, David B; Wilson, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The use of statistical process control (SPC) charts in healthcare is increasing. The primary purpose of SPC is to distinguish between common-cause variation which is attributable to the underlying process, and special-cause variation which is extrinsic to the underlying process. This is important because improvement under common-cause variation requires action on the process, whereas special-cause variation merits an investigation to first find the cause. Nonetheless, when dealing with attribute or count data (eg, number of emergency admissions) involving very large sample sizes, traditional SPC charts often produce tight control limits with most of the data points appearing outside the control limits. This can give a false impression of common and special-cause variation, and potentially misguide the user into taking the wrong actions. Given the growing availability of large datasets from routinely collected databases in healthcare, there is a need to present a review of this problem (which arises because traditional attribute charts only consider within-subgroup variation) and its solutions (which consider within and between-subgroup variation), which involve the use of the well-established measurements chart and the more recently developed attribute charts based on Laney's innovative approach. We close by making some suggestions for practice. PMID:23365140

  18. Comparing within-subject classification and regularization methods in fMRI for large and small sample sizes.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Nathan W; Yourganov, Grigori; Strother, Stephen C

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, a variety of multivariate classifier models have been applied to fMRI, with different modeling assumptions. When classifying high-dimensional fMRI data, we must also regularize to improve model stability, and the interactions between classifier and regularization techniques are still being investigated. Classifiers are usually compared on large, multisubject fMRI datasets. However, it is unclear how classifier/regularizer models perform for within-subject analyses, as a function of signal strength and sample size. We compare four standard classifiers: Linear and Quadratic Discriminants, Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines. Classification was performed on data in the linear kernel (covariance) feature space, and classifiers are tuned with four commonly-used regularizers: Principal Component and Independent Component Analysis, and penalization of kernel features using L₁ and L₂ norms. We evaluated prediction accuracy (P) and spatial reproducibility (R) of all classifier/regularizer combinations on single-subject analyses, over a range of three different block task contrasts and sample sizes for a BOLD fMRI experiment. We show that the classifier model has a small impact on signal detection, compared to the choice of regularizer. PCA maximizes reproducibility and global SNR, whereas Lp -norms tend to maximize prediction. ICA produces low reproducibility, and prediction accuracy is classifier-dependent. However, trade-offs in (P,R) depend partly on the optimization criterion, and PCA-based models are able to explore the widest range of (P,R) values. These trends are consistent across task contrasts and data sizes (training samples range from 6 to 96 scans). In addition, the trends in classifier performance are consistent for ROI-based classifier analyses. PMID:24639383

  19. Variables influencing the origins of diverse abnormal behaviors in a large sample of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Nash, L T; Fritz, J; Alford, P A; Brent, L

    1999-01-01

    The developmental origin of abnormal behaviors is generally associated with early rearing environments that lack sufficient physical and sensory stimulation. However, other factors should also be considered. A large sample of captive chimpanzees (128 males and 140 females) was surveyed for the presence or absence of 18 abnormal behaviors. Origin variables included the subject's source (zoo, pet, performer, or laboratory), rearing (mother- or hand-reared), and sex. Animals were assessed while held at the Primate Foundation of Arizona, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, or White Sands Research Center. There was a confound among origin variables; more hand-reared animals than expected were from laboratories. Logistic regression tested the relationship of rearing and source, with sex as a secondary predictor variable, to each of the abnormal behaviors. There was no clear association between any abnormal behavior and source. However, for coprophagy, relative to animals from the laboratory, zoo animals tended to show a higher prevalence, while performers tended to show a lower prevalence (when rearing and sex were controlled). Rocking and self-sucking were significantly more likely in hand-reared animals. Coprophagy and depilation of self were significantly more likely in mother-reared animals. When rearing and source were statistically controlled, the only significant sex difference was a higher prevalence of coprophagy in females and a higher prevalence of rocking in males. In a second, smaller sample of 25 males and 33 females from Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, no significant sex association was found for coprophagy, urophagy, rocking, or self-depilation. In this second sample, coprophagy was also significantly more likely in mother-reared than hand-reared subjects. The association of some abnormal behaviors with mother-rearing suggests that some form of social learning may be involved in the origin of some of these behavior patterns

  20. Technologies for pre-screening IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Steeb, Jennifer L.; Lee, Denise L.; Huckabay, Heath A.; Ticknor, Brian W.

    2015-11-09

    During the course of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, many samples are taken for the purpose of verifying the declared facility activities and identifying any possible undeclared activities. One of these sampling techniques is the environmental swipe sample. Due to the large number of samples collected, and the amount of time that is required to analyze them, prioritizing these swipes in the field or upon receipt at the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) will allow sensitive or mission-critical analyses to be performed sooner. As a result of this study, technologies were placed into one of three categories: recommended, promising, or not recommended. Both neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are recommended for further study and possible field deployment. These techniques performed the best in initial trials for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. We learned that for NAA more characterization of cold elements (such as calcium and magnesium) would need to be emphasized, and for XRF it may be appropriate to move towards a benchtop XRF versus a handheld XRF due to the increased range of elements available on benchtop equipment. Promising techniques that will require additional research and development include confocal Raman microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and infrared (IR) microscopy. These techniques showed substantive responses to uranium compounds, but expensive instrumentation upgrades (confocal Raman) or university engagement (fluorescence microscopy) may be necessary to investigate the utility of the techniques completely. Point-and-shoot (handheld) Raman and attenuated total reflectance–infrared (ATR-IR) measurements are not recommended, as they have not shown enough promise to continue investigations.

  1. Depletion of histone N-terminal-acetyltransferase Naa40 induces p53-independent apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Pavlou, Demetria; Kirmizis, Antonis

    2016-03-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation is an abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes implicated in various fundamental cellular and biochemical processes. This modification is catalysed by evolutionarily conserved N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) whose deregulation has been linked to cancer development and thus, are emerging as useful diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Naa40 is a highly selective NAT that acetylates the amino-termini of histones H4 and H2A and acts as a sensor of cell growth in yeast. In the present study, we examine the role of Naa40 in cancer cell survival. We demonstrate that depletion of Naa40 in HCT116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells decreases cell survival by enhancing apoptosis, whereas Naa40 reduction in non-cancerous mouse embryonic fibroblasts has no effect on cell viability. Specifically, Naa40 knockdown in colon cancer cells activates the mitochondrial caspase-9-mediated apoptotic cascade. Consistent with this, we show that caspase-9 activation is required for the induced apoptosis because treatment of cells with an irreversible caspase-9 inhibitor impedes apoptosis when Naa40 is depleted. Furthermore, the effect of Naa40-depletion on cell-death is mediated through a p53-independent mechanism since p53-null HCT116 cells still undergo apoptosis upon reduction of the acetyltransferase. Altogether, these findings reveal an anti-apoptotic role for Naa40 and exhibit its potential as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancers. PMID:26666750

  2. The Role of Family Environment in Depressive Symptoms among University Students: A Large Sample Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Lu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Zhou, Jiawei; Pan, Hui; Ban, Bo; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Ding, Yongqing; Bai, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between family environment and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the influence of hard and soft family environmental factors on depression levels in a large sample of university students in China. Methods A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select 6,000 participants. The response rate was 88.8%, with 5,329 students completing the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Family Environment Scale Chinese Version (FES-CV), which was adapted for the Chinese population. Differences between the groups were tested for significance by the Student’s t-test; ANOVA was used to test continuous variables. The relationship between soft family environmental factors and BDI were tested by Pearson correlation analysis. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to model the effects of hard environmental factors and soft environmental factors on depression in university students. Results A total of 11.8% of students scored above the threshold of moderate depression(BDI≧14). Hard family environmental factors such as parent relationship, family economic status, level of parental literacy and non-intact family structure were associated with depressive symptoms. The soft family environmental factors—conflict and control—were positively associated with depression, while cohesion was negatively related to depressive symptom after controlling for other important associates of depression. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the soft family environment correlates more strongly with depression than the hard family environment. Conclusions Soft family environmental factors—especially cohesion, conflict and control—appeared to play an important role in the occurrence of depressive symptoms. These findings underline the significance of the family environment as a source of risk factors for depression among university students in China and suggest that family-based interventions and improvement are very

  3. Using Genetic Algorithms in a Large Nationally Representative American Sample to Abbreviate the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Sahdra, Baljinder K.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Scrucca, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are robust machine learning approaches for abbreviating a large set of variables into a shorter subset that maximally captures the variance in the original data. We employed a GA-based method to shorten the 62-item Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) by half without much loss of information. Experiential avoidance or the tendency to avoid negative internal experiences is a key target of many psychological interventions and its measurement is an important issue in psychology. The 62-item MEAQ has been shown to have good psychometric properties, but its length may limit its use in most practical settings. The recently validated 15-item brief version (BEAQ) is one short alternative, but it reduces the multidimensional scale to a single dimension. We sought to shorten the 62-item MEAQ by half while maintaining fidelity to its six dimensions. In a large nationally representative sample of Americans (N = 7884; 52% female; Age: M = 47.9, SD = 16), we employed a GA method of scale abbreviation implemented in the R package, GAabbreviate. The GA-derived short form, MEAQ-30 with five items per subscale, performed virtually identically to the original 62-item MEAQ in terms of inter-subscales correlations, factor structure, factor correlations, and zero-order correlations and unique latent associations of the six subscales with other measures of mental distress, wellbeing and personal strivings. The two measures also showed similar distributions of means across American census regions. The MEAQ-30 provides a multidimensional assessment of experiential avoidance whilst minimizing participant burden. The study adds to the emerging literature on the utility of machine learning methods in psychometrics. PMID:26941672

  4. The frequency of stellar X-ray flares from a large-scale XMM-Newton sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, John P.; Rosen, Simon

    2015-08-01

    We present a uniform, large-scale survey of X-ray flare emission, with emphasis on the corrections needed to arrive at estimates of flare occurrence rates. The XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue has been used as the basis for a survey of X-ray flares from late-type (i.e. spectral type F-M) stars in the Hipparcos Tycho catalogue. The XMM catalogue and its associated data products provide an excellent basis for a comprehensive and sensitive survey of stellar flares - both from targeted active stars and from those observed serendipitously in the half-degree diameter field-of-view of each observation. Our sample contains ~130 flares with well-observed profiles; they range in duration from ~103 to ~104s, have peak X-ray fluxes from ~10-13 to ~10-11 erg cm-2 s-1, peak X-ray luminosities from ~1029 to ~1032 erg s-1 and X-ray energy output from ~1032 to ~1035 erg. Most of the serendipitously-observed stars have little previously reported information. We present flare frequency distributions from both target and serendipitous observations. The latter provide an unbiased (with respect to stellar activity) study of flare energetics. The serendipitous sample demonstrates the need for care when calculating flaring rates, especially when normalising the number of flares to a total exposure time, where it is important to consider both the stars seen to flare and those measured as non-variable, since in our survey, the latter outnumber the former by more than a factor ten. The serendipitous variable and non-variable stars appear very similar in terms of the distributions of general properties such as quiescent X-ray luminosity; from the available data, it is unclear whether the distinction by flaring is due to an additional, intrinsic property such as intra-system interactions in a close binary system, or is simply the result of limited observations of a random flaring process, with no real difference between the two samples. We discuss future observations and analyses

  5. k0-NAA, a valuable tool for reference-material producers.

    PubMed

    Robouch, P; Eguskiza, M; Maguregui, M I; Pommé, S; Pauwels, J

    2001-06-01

    The main concern of producers of certified reference materials (CRM) is the preparation of high-quality products with demonstrated homogeneity and stability, combined with a well established set of certified characteristics. CRM producers must, furthermore, comply with other constraints imposed by the ISO Guide 34: production processes, production control, and certification analyses should be performed by expert laboratories, using validated protocols documented in their respective quality assurance manuals; laboratory mean values and the corresponding "expanded" uncertainties, must be used for the determination of the certified values, as recommended by the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainties in Measurements (GUM); and when possible, traceability of the certified value to the SI units, using appropriately validated and/or primary methods, must be ensured. k0-NAA, i.e. neutron activation analysis with k0 standardization, is one of the analytical techniques implemented at the Reference Material Unit of IRMM; it meets the first two requirements. PMID:11451247

  6. Experimental and theoretical study of the electronic states and spectra of NaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setzer, K. D.; Fink, E. H.; Alekseyev, A. B.; Liebermann, H.-P.; Buenker, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    Gas-phase emission spectra of the hitherto unknown free radical NaAs were measured in the NIR region with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. The emissions were observed from a fast-flow system in which arsenic vapor in argon carrier gas was passed through a microwave discharge and mixed with sodium vapor in an observation tube. Seven transitions from all five Ω components of the low-lying A3Π and a1Δ excited states (A12, A21, A30+, A40-, a2) to the X10+ and/or X21 components of the X3Σ- ground state have been observed and analysed. With the help of parallel relativistic configuration interaction calculations all observed spectral features could be assigned and analyzed.

  7. Calibration of the reactor neutron spectrum for the ko-NAA standardization using several approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kučera, J.; Frána, J.; Horák, Z.; Marek, M.; Tomášek, F.; Viereibl, L.

    1999-01-01

    The parameters f and α ( f-thermal/epithermal neutron fluence rate, α—a parameter accounting for the non-ideality of the 1/E epithermal neutron fluence rate distribution) were determined using the following approaches: “Cd-covered multi-monitor” and “Cd-ratio for multimonitor” methods, two versions of the “bare multi-monitor” method, and two neutron dosimetry approaches, namely two-group formalism and reactor spectrum unfolding using the SAND II computer code. It has been found that the determination of α values close to zero is associated with a relatively high uncertainty. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that under these circumstances the uncertainty of α has only a little effect on the accuracy of results obtained by k0-NAA, especially for elements whose nuclides have a low resonance integral to thermal neutron cross section ratio.

  8. Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Different Stages of Psychotic Disorders: a 3T 1H-MRS Study.

    PubMed

    Liemburg, Edith; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Bais, Leonie; Pijnenborg, Gerdina; Knegtering, Henderikus; van der Velde, Jorien; Opmeer, Esther; de Vos, Annerieke; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni; Wunderink, Lex; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can offer insights in various neuropathologies by measuring metabolite levels in the brain. In the current study we investigated the levels of glutamate + glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate + glutamic acid (NAA + NAAG; neuronal viability) in the prefrontal cortex of patients with a psychotic disorder and people at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis. A (1)H-MRS spectrum was acquired in 31 patients with a recent onset psychotic disorder and 60 with a chronic state, 16 UHR patients and 36 healthy controls. Absolute metabolite levels were calculated using LCModel with a reference water peak. Groups were compared while taking into account age and partial volume effects. Moreover, we investigated associations with positive and negative symptoms, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment in patients. The most notable finding is that chronicity of schizophrenia was related to decreased levels of Glx and NAA. On the other hand, although on an exploratory note, UHR showed increased levels of prefrontal Glx and NAA levels with increasing age. Our results may indicate an initial Glx and NAA increase and subsequent decrease during illness progression that may be related to the neurotoxic effects of glutamate. PMID:26903078

  9. Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Different Stages of Psychotic Disorders: a 3T 1H-MRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Liemburg, Edith; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Bais, Leonie; Pijnenborg, Gerdina; Knegtering, Henderikus; van der Velde, Jorien; Opmeer, Esther; de Vos, Annerieke; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni; Wunderink, Lex; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can offer insights in various neuropathologies by measuring metabolite levels in the brain. In the current study we investigated the levels of glutamate + glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate + glutamic acid (NAA + NAAG; neuronal viability) in the prefrontal cortex of patients with a psychotic disorder and people at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis. A 1H-MRS spectrum was acquired in 31 patients with a recent onset psychotic disorder and 60 with a chronic state, 16 UHR patients and 36 healthy controls. Absolute metabolite levels were calculated using LCModel with a reference water peak. Groups were compared while taking into account age and partial volume effects. Moreover, we investigated associations with positive and negative symptoms, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment in patients. The most notable finding is that chronicity of schizophrenia was related to decreased levels of Glx and NAA. On the other hand, although on an exploratory note, UHR showed increased levels of prefrontal Glx and NAA levels with increasing age. Our results may indicate an initial Glx and NAA increase and subsequent decrease during illness progression that may be related to the neurotoxic effects of glutamate. PMID:26903078

  10. Evaluation of single and two-stage adaptive sampling designs for estimation of density and abundance of freshwater mussels in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Rogala, J.T.; Gray, B.R.; Zigler, S.J.; Newton, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of abundance are needed to assess consequences of proposed habitat restoration and enhancement projects on freshwater mussels in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Although there is general guidance on sampling techniques for population assessment of freshwater mussels, the actual performance of sampling designs can depend critically on the population density and spatial distribution at the project site. To evaluate various sampling designs, we simulated sampling of populations, which varied in density and degree of spatial clustering. Because of logistics and costs of large river sampling and spatial clustering of freshwater mussels, we focused on adaptive and non-adaptive versions of single and two-stage sampling. The candidate designs performed similarly in terms of precision (CV) and probability of species detection for fixed sample size. Both CV and species detection were determined largely by density, spatial distribution and sample size. However, designs did differ in the rate that occupied quadrats were encountered. Occupied units had a higher probability of selection using adaptive designs than conventional designs. We used two measures of cost: sample size (i.e. number of quadrats) and distance travelled between the quadrats. Adaptive and two-stage designs tended to reduce distance between sampling units, and thus performed better when distance travelled was considered. Based on the comparisons, we provide general recommendations on the sampling designs for the freshwater mussels in the UMR, and presumably other large rivers.

  11. Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity: Combined Associations with Risky Sexual Behavior in a Large Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Charnigo, Richard; Noar, Seth M.; Garnett, Christopher; Crosby, Richard; Palmgreen, Philip; Zimmerman, Rick S.

    2015-01-01

    Although prior studies have shown that sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making are related to sexual risk-taking, it is still unclear whether these personality traits operate independently or synergistically. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the joint contribution of these personality traits to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors using data from a large sample of sexually active young adults (N = 2,386). Regression modeling indicated that both sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making were consistently associated with sexual risk behaviors across 11 risk-related outcomes. Results further indicated that sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making operated synergistically with respect to the outcome variables of sex acts using drugs, acts with a partner using alcohol, and acts with a partner using drugs. In contrast to this, sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making operated independently with respect to the other sexual risk outcomes. Theoretical implications, as well as implications for HIV/STD prevention among high sensation seekers and impulsive decision-makers, are discussed. PMID:22456443

  12. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2015-07-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual's general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals' life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual's life satisfaction. PMID:25406366

  13. NES test performance in a large US Army veteran sample: relationships with both demographic factors and traditional neuropsychological measures.

    PubMed

    Letz, R; Pieper, W A; Morris, R D

    1996-01-01

    A large sample of Vietnam-era US Army veterans completed a set of 16 neuropsychological tests, including six computer-based tests from the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES), during medical examinations supervised by the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Data for 881 participants of the Agent Orange Validation Study (AOV) and Vietnam Experience Study (VES) were available for analysis from public access data tapes provided by CDC. Information was available for several potential covariates from demographic questionnaires, a medical examination, and a medical history. Explorator, principal components factor analysis of 16 test variables yielded four factors, including one on which most of the NES tests loaded. The single best predictor of most neuropsychological performance variables was an index of general intellectual level as measured at entry into the Army almost 20 years before the neuropsychological examinations. Alcohol drinking variables were not related to neuropsychological performance. Several measures of general intelligence were compared for use as covariates of neuropsychological test performance. All were superior to years of education in statistically controlling for general intellectual level. PMID:8866528

  14. The Contribution of the Left Mid-fusiform Cortical Thickness to Chinese and English Reading in a Large Chinese Sample

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Jin; Chen, Chuansheng; Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the left mid-fusiform cortex plays a critical role in reading. However, there is very limited research relating this region’s anatomical structure to reading performance either in native or second language. Using structural MRI and three reading tasks (Chinese characters, English words, and alphabetic pseudowords) and a non-reading task (visual-auditory learning), this study investigated the contributions of the left mid-fusiform cortical thickness to reading in a large sample of 226 Chinese subjects. Results showed that cortical thickness in the left mid-fusiform gyrus was positively correlated with performance on all three reading tasks but not with the performance on the non-reading task. Our findings provide structural evidence for the left mid-fusiform cortex as the “gateway” region for reading Chinese and English. The absence of the association between the left mid-fusiform cortical thickness and non-reading performance implied the specific role of this area in reading skills, not in general language skills. PMID:23022094

  15. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying

    2015-01-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual’s general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals’ life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual’s life satisfaction. PMID:25406366

  16. Associations Between IQ, Total and Regional Brain Volumes and Demography in a Large Normative Sample of Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of efforts to establish quantitative MRI-based norms for healthy brain development (Brain Development Cooperative Group, 2006), previously unreported associations of parental education and temporal and frontal lobe volumes with full scale IQ and its verbal and performance subscales were discovered. Our findings were derived from the largest, most representative MRI sample to date of healthy children and adolescents, ages 4 years 10 months to 18 years 4 months. We first find that parental education has a strong association with IQ in children that is not mediated by total or regional brain volumes. Second, we find that our observed associations between temporal gray matter, temporal white matter and frontal white matter volumes with full scale IQ, between 0.14 to 0.27 in children and adolescents, are due in large part to their correlations with performance IQ and not verbal IQ. The volumes of other lobar gray and white matter, subcortical gray matter (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus), cerebellum and brainstem do not contribute significantly to IQ variation. Third, we find that head circumference is an insufficient index of cerebral volume in typically developing older children and adolescents. The relations between total and regional brain volumes and IQ can best be discerned when additional variables known to be associated with IQ, especially parental education and other demographic measures, are considered concurrently. PMID:20446134

  17. Replication of the association between CHRNA4 rs1044396 and harm avoidance in a large population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Bey, Katharina; Lennertz, Leonhard; Markett, Sebastian; Petrovsky, Nadine; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gründer, Gerhard; Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Wienker, Thomas F; Mobascher, Arian; Dahmen, Norbert; Thuerauf, Norbert; Kornhuber, Johannes; Kiefer, Falk; Toliat, Mohammad R; Nürnberg, Peter; Winterer, Georg; Wagner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Harm avoidance is a personality trait characterized by excessive worrying and fear of uncertainty, which has repeatedly been related to anxiety disorders. Converging lines of research in rodents and humans point towards an involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in the modulation of anxiety. Most notably, the rs1044396 polymorphism in the CHRNA4 gene, which codes for the α4 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, has been linked to negative emotionality traits including harm avoidance in a recent study. Against this background, we investigated the association between harm avoidance and the rs1044396 polymorphism using data from N=1673 healthy subjects, which were collected in the context of the German multi-centre study ׳Genetics of Nicotine Dependence and Neurobiological Phenotypes׳. Homozygous carriers of the C-allele showed significantly higher levels of harm avoidance than homozygous T-allele carriers, with heterozygous subjects exhibiting intermediate scores. The effect was neither modulated by age or gender nor by smoking status. By replicating previous findings in a large population-based sample for the first time, the present study adds to the growing evidence suggesting an involvement of nicotinic cholinergic mechanism in anxiety and negative emotionality, which may pose an effective target for medical treatment. PMID:26612384

  18. Sensation seeking and impulsivity: combined associations with risky sexual behavior in a large sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Charnigo, Richard; Noar, Seth M; Garnett, Christopher; Crosby, Richard; Palmgreen, Philip; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2013-01-01

    Although prior studies have shown that sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making are related to sexual risk-taking, it is still unclear whether these personality traits operate independently or synergistically. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the joint contribution of these personality traits to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors using data from a large sample of sexually active young adults (N = 2,386). Regression modeling indicated that both sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making were consistently associated with sexual risk behaviors across 11 risk-related outcomes. Results further indicated that sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making operated synergistically with respect to the outcome variables of sex acts using drugs, acts with a partner using alcohol, and acts with a partner using drugs. In contrast to this, sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making operated independently with respect to the other sexual risk outcomes. Theoretical implications, as well as implications for HIV/STD prevention among high sensation seekers and impulsive decision-makers, are discussed. PMID:22456443

  19. Pristine moon rocks - A 'large' felsite and a metal-rich ferroan anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Jerde, Eric A.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.

    1987-01-01

    Results of elemental analyses, performed either by instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) or radiochemical NAA, of 19 lunar rock samples obtained by the Apollo 15, 17, and 12 missions are presented. Two of the samples are most extraordinary: 'large' (1 g) felsite from Apollo 12 and a pristine ferroan anorthosite from Apollo 15. The felsite is mainly a graphic intergrowth of K-feldspar and a silica phase, with about 6 pct plagioclase and 1 pct each of ferroaugite, ilmenite, and fayalitic olivine. The Fe-metal content of ferroan anorthosite is 1.2 wt pct in the thin section studied (but, based on mass balance for Co and Ni, must have been lower in the chip used for bulk-rock analysis); the measured bulk-rock concentrations of siderophile elements Re, Os, and Ir are far higher than previously observed among pristine lunar anorthosites. These results underscore the uncertainty associated with any attempt to estimate the overall siderophile element contents of the moon's crust.

  20. The Precision of Data Obtained in Large-Scale Science Assessments: An Investigation of Bootstrapping and Half-Sample Replication Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Wayne W.; Huffman, Douglas; Lawrenz, Frances

    1998-01-01

    Argues that science educators often face the problem of abnormal distributions when conducting large-scale assessments or evaluating national curriculum projects that require complex sampling plans. Examines the precision of science test scores. (DDR)

  1. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-15

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO{sub 2} and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 deg. C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m{sup 2}/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m{sup 2}/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of {approx}3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously. - Graphical Abstract: Novel Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composite.

  2. Determination of dissolved-phase pesticides in surface water from the Yakima River basin, Washington, using the Goulden large-sample extractor and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, G.D.; Gates, Paul M.; Foreman, W.T.; McKenzie, S.W.; Rinella, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides in the dissolved phase of surface water samples from the Yakima River basin, WA, were determined using preconcentration in the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Sample volumes ranging from 10 to 120 L were processed with the GLSE, and the results from the large-sample analyses were compared to those derived from 1-L continuous liquid-liquid extractions. Few of the 40 target pesticides were detected in 1-L samples, whereas large-sample preconcentration in the GLSE provided detectable levels for many of the target pesticides. The number of pesticides detected in GLSE processed samples was usually directly proportional to sample volume, although the measured concentrations of the pesticides were generally lower at the larger sample volumes for the same water source. The GLSE can be used to provide lower detection levels relative to conventional liquid-liquid extraction in GC/MS analysis of pesticides in samples of surface water. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  3. Determination of dissolved-phase pesticides in surface water from the Yakima River basin, Washington, using the Goulden large-sample extractor and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Gregory D.; Gates, Paul M.; Foreman, William T.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Rinella, Frank A.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides in the dissolved phase of surface water samples from the Yakima River basin, WA, were determined using preconcentration in the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Sample volumes ranging from 10 to 120 L were processed with the GLSE, and the results from the large-sample analyses were compared to those derived from 1-L continuous liquid-liquid extractions Few of the 40 target pesticides were detected in 1-L samples, whereas large-sample preconcentration in the GLSE provided detectable levels for many of the target pesticides. The number of pesticides detected in GLSE processed samples was usually directly proportional to sample volume, although the measured concentrations of the pesticides were generally lower at the larger sample volumes for the same water source. The GLSE can be used to provide lower detection levels relative to conventional liquid-liquid extraction in GC/MS analysis of pesticides in samples of surface water.

  4. Clinical Characteristics and Surgical Outcomes in Patients With Intermittent Exotropia: A Large Sample Study in South China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Chen, Jingchang; Shen, Tao; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Lin, Xiaoming; Wu, Heping; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian; Li, Jianqun; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    The clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes in a large sample of patients with intermittent exotropia (IXT) as well as an analysis of risk factors associated with surgical failures are presented in this article. Data from IXT patients who received surgical management at the Eye Hospital, in the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, of Sun Yat-Sen University, China from January 2009 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Included within this analysis were data from pre- and postoperative ocular motility, primary alignment, and binocular vision.A total of 1228 patients with IXT were reviewed. Males (50.4%) and females (49.6%) were nearly equally represented in this sample. Thirty-two patients (2.6%) had a family history of strabismus. The mean age at onset was 6.77  ±  6.43 years (range 7 months -48.5 years), mean duration at presentation was 7.35  ±  6.68 years (range 6 months-47 years), and mean age at surgery was 13.7  ±  8.8 years (range 3-49 years). The mean refractive error was -0.84  ±  2.69 diopter in the right eye and -0.72  ±  2.58 diopter in the left eye. Amblyopia (4.2%), oblique muscle dysfunction (7.0%), and dissociated vertical deviation (4.7%) were also present in these patients. The most common subtype of IXT was the basic type (88.1%). Orthophoria was observed in 80.5% of patients and the ratios of surgical undercorrection and overcorrection were 14.7% and 4.8%, respectively, as determined with a mean follow-up time of 7.8  ±  3.7 months. When combining ocular alignment with binocular vision as the success criteria, the success rate decreased to 35.6%. Multivariate risk factor analysis showed that only the loss of stereoacuity (P = 0.002) was associated with a poor outcome. There were no differences in the long-term results between bilateral lateral rectus recession and unilateral lateral rectus recession with medial rectus resection.Most IXT patients displayed normal vision, with few having positive family

  5. A PRIOR EVALUATION OF TWO-STAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING FOR ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF LARGE-AREA LAND-COVER MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two-stage cluster sampling reduces the cost of collecting accuracy assessment reference data by constraining sample elements to fall within a limited number of geographic domains (clusters). However, because classification error is typically positively spatially correlated, withi...

  6. The Genetic-Environmental Etiology of Parents' Perceptions and Self-Assessed Behaviours toward Their 5-Month-Old Infants in a Large Twin and Singleton Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin, Michel; Perusse, Daniel; Dionne, Ginette; Saysset, Valerie; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tarabulsy, George M.; Tremblay, Nathalie; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Given the importance of parenting for the child's early socio-emotional development, parenting perceptions and behaviours, and their correlates, should be assessed as early as possible in the child's life. The goals of the present study were 1) to confirm, in two parallel population-based samples, including a large sample of twins, the…

  7. Detailed abundances for a large sample of giant stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)

    SciTech Connect

    Cordero, M. J.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Simmerer, J. E-mail: catyp@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: mcdonald@jb.man.ac.uk E-mail: jennifer@physics.utah.edu

    2014-01-01

    47 Tuc is an ideal target to study chemical evolution and globular cluster (GC) formation in massive more metal-rich GCs, as it is the closest massive GC. We present chemical abundances for O, Na, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, La, and Eu in 164 red giant branch stars in the massive GC 47 Tuc using spectra obtained with both the Hydra multifiber spectrograph at the Blanco 4 m telescope and the FLAMES multiobject spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We find an average [Fe/H] = –0.79 ± 0.09 dex, consistent with literature values, as well as overabundances of alpha-elements ([α/Fe] ∼ 0.3 dex). The n-capture process elements indicate that 47 Tuc is r process-dominated ([Eu/La] = +0.24), and the light elements O, Na, and Al exhibit star-to-star variations. The Na-O anticorrelation, a signature typically seen in Galactic GCs, is present in 47 Tuc, and extends to include a small number of stars with [O/Fe] ∼ –0.5. Additionally, the [O/Na] ratios of our sample reveal that the cluster stars can be separated into three distinct populations. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test demonstrates that the O-poor/Na-rich stars are more centrally concentrated than the O-rich/Na-poor stars. The observed number and radial distribution of 47 Tuc's stellar populations, as distinguished by their light element composition, agrees closely with the results obtained from photometric data. We do not find evidence supporting a strong Na-Al correlation in 47 Tuc, which is consistent with current models of asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis yields.

  8. Identifying the Irritability Dimension of ODD: Application of a Modified Bifactor Model Across Five Large Community Samples of Children

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Boylan, Khrista; Rowe, Richard; Duku, Eric; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of irritability as measured among the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has dramatically come to the fore in recent years. New diagnostic categories rely on the distinct clinical utility of irritability, and models of psychopathology suggest it plays a key role in explaining developmental pathways within and between disorders into adulthood. However, only a few studies have tested multidimensional models of ODD, and the results have been conflicting. Further, consensus has not been reached regarding which symptoms best identify irritability. The present analyses use data from five large community data sets with five different measures of parent-reported ODD, comprising 16,280 youth in total, to help resolve these questions. Across the samples, ages ranged from 5 to 18, and included both boys and girls. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a modified bifactor model showed the best fit in each of the five data sets. The structure of the model included two correlated specific factors (irritability and oppositional behavior) in addition to a general ODD factor. In four of the five models, the best fit was obtained using the items of being touchy, angry and often losing temper as indicators of irritability. Given the structure of the models and the generally high correlation between the specific dimensions, the results suggest that irritability may not be sufficiently distinct from oppositional behavior to support an entirely independent diagnosis. Rather, irritability may be better understood as a dimension of psychopathology that can be distinguished within ODD, and which may be related to particular forms of psychopathology apart from ODD. PMID:25314267

  9. Clinical effectiveness of a residential pain management programme – comparing a large recent sample with previously published outcome data

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jared G; Knight, Lucie; Stewart, Amy; Smith, Emma L; McCracken, Lance M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Observational studies using routinely collected data indicate that pain management programmes (PMPs) based on cognitive-behavioural principles are associated with clinically meaningful improvements for individuals with chronic pain. This study evaluated change across functional measures in a sample of chronic pain patients attending a 4-week residential PMP between 2006 and 2010. The findings were directly compared with published outcomes from an earlier period (1989–1998) at the same service. Methods: Participants included 760 consecutive completers of a multidisciplinary PMP. Data were collected at pre-PMP, post-PMP (1-month post-discharge) and at a 9-month follow-up session. Group-based treatment effects and the reliability and clinical significance of change across functional measures were calculated and compared across cohorts. Results: Effect sizes for the recent cohort ranged from small to medium (.43–.67) for pain and physical functioning outcomes to large (.90–1.12) for psychological outcomes at post-treatment (n = 654), and from small (.30–.51) to medium (.58–.71) at 9-month follow-up (n = 493). Clinically significant gains on pain and psychological measures were achieved by 19–55% of patients at post-treatment and 17–44% at follow-up. Comparisons with the earlier cohort showed significantly stronger post-treatment outcomes but differences at follow-up were less marked. Discussion: These results add to the evidence base supporting the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT)-based pain management interventions. There were significantly larger gains in patient functioning in the recent dataset, suggesting improved programme delivery. But effects were less marked in the longer term, indicating a need for improvements in therapeutic models and related methods to promote meaningful and lasting changes. PMID:27551411

  10. The galatic and LMC extreme line supergiants compared: IUE observations of the Henize-Carlson and Zoo star samples of massive supergiants. [Large Magellanic cloud (LMC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.; Brown, D. N.; Sonneborn, G.; Bopp, B. W.; Robinson, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Henize-Carlson sample of galactic massive supergiants, and a comparison between the Galactic and LMC samples are discussed. Several of the stars, notably He3-395 and S 127/LMC, have very similar shell characteristics. There appears to be little difference, other than luminosity, between the LMC and Galactic samples. One star, He3-1482, was detected with the Very Large Array at 6 cm. The UV data is combined with IRAS and optical information.

  11. Evidence that the tri-cellular metabolism of N-acetylaspartate functions as the brain's "operating system": how NAA metabolism supports meaningful intercellular frequency-encoded communications.

    PubMed

    Baslow, Morris H

    2010-11-01

    N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an acetylated derivative of L-aspartate (Asp), and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a derivative of NAA and L-glutamate (Glu), are synthesized by neurons in brain. However, neurons cannot catabolize either of these substances, and so their metabolism requires the participation of two other cell types. Neurons release both NAA and NAAG to extra-cellular fluid (ECF) upon stimulation, where astrocytes, the target cells for NAAG, hydrolyze it releasing NAA back into ECF, and oligodendrocytes, the target cells for NAA, hydrolyze it releasing Asp to ECF for recycling to neurons. This sequence is unique as it is the only known amino acid metabolic cycle in brain that requires three cell types for its completion. The results of this cycling are two-fold. First, neuronal metabolic water is transported to ECF for its removal from brain. Second, the rate of neuronal activity is coupled with focal hyperemia, providing stimulated neurons with the energy required for transmission of meaningful frequency-encoded messages. In this paper, it is proposed that the tri-cellular metabolism of NAA functions as the "operating system" of the brain, and is essential for normal cognitive and motor activities. Evidence in support of this hypothesis is provided by the outcomes of two human inborn errors in NAA metabolism. PMID:20563610

  12. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors for Depressive Status in Chinese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: A Large-Sample Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yaozhang; Li, Xuewu; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Sihua; Sang, Jianzhong; Tian, Xiufen; Cao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Recently, there are few studies reporting on depressive status and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in China. A large-sample survey was to be performed to explore the prevalence of depressive status and related factors in Chinese patients with OSA. Methods From among a randomly-selected group of OSA patients, 1,327 met inclusion criteria. After screening with the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), patients were assigned to OSA without depressive status (control group, n = 698) and OSA with depressive status (n = 629) groups. Using chi-squared testing, the correlation analyses between the depressive status and OSA patient demographic and clinical variables were tested. Then depression-related risk factors in OSA patients were analysed using stepwise linear regression analysis. The effects of family and social factors on depressive status in OSA patients were investigated using Mann-Whitney U (one of nonparametric test). Results The prevalence of depressive status was 47.4% in OSA patients. Depressive status was significantly associated with female gender, single status, Family Burden Scale of Disease (FBS), Family APGAR Index (APGAR), apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI), and Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS). Stepwise linear regression analysis further indicated that single status, hypoxemia, APGAR, AHI, PSSS, AHI, and FBS were all risk factors for depressive status in OSA patients. The total of the FBS score and three of its sub-factors scores (family daily activities, family relationships and mental health of family members) were higher, and the total of the APGAR score and two of its sub-factors scores (adaptability and affection) were lower in OSA with depressive status compared with the control group. Besides, the total score for the PSSS and scores for its two sub-factors (family support and social support) were all lower in OSA patients with depressive status than those of the control group. Conclusions

  13. Research study on stabilization and control modern sampled-data control theory. Design of the Large Space Telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.

    1974-01-01

    The numerical technique is applied to the prediction of self-sustained oscillations in a two-axis model of the nonlinear system with sampled data. The sampled-data two-axis LST system model, and its stability equation are analyzed along with the exact solution of the stability equation by numerical-iterative techniques.

  14. Overweight and Obesity: Prevalence and Correlates in a Large Clinical Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Hill, Alison P.; Guion, Kimberly; Voltolina, Lisa; Fombonne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and childhood obesity (OBY) are rising public health concerns. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overweight (OWT) and OBY in a sample of 376 Oregon children with ASD, and to assess correlates of OWT and OBY in this sample. We used descriptive statistics, bivariate, and focused multivariate analyses to…

  15. Remote Sensing Data with the Conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling and Geostatistical Approach to Delineate Landscape Changes Induced by Large Chronological Physical Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chu, Hone-Jay; Wang, Cheng-Long; Yu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    This study applies variogram analyses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images derived from SPOT HRV images obtained before and after the ChiChi earthquake in the Chenyulan watershed, Taiwan, as well as images after four large typhoons, to delineate the spatial patterns, spatial structures and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach was applied to select samples from multiple NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with sufficient samples were then used to generate maps of NDVI images. The variography of NDVI image results demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by variogram analysis in study areas. The high-magnitude Chi-Chi earthquake created spatial landscape variations in the study area. After the earthquake, the cumulative impacts of typhoons on landscape patterns depended on the magnitudes and paths of typhoons, but were not always evident in the spatiotemporal variability of landscapes in the study area. The statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images were captured by 3,000 samples from 62,500 grids in the NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with the 3,000 samples effectively reproduced spatial patterns of NDVI images. However, the proposed approach, which integrates the conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach, variogram, kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation in remotely sensed images, efficiently monitors, samples and maps the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial variability and heterogeneity. PMID:22389593

  16. Remote sensing data with the conditional latin hypercube sampling and geostatistical approach to delineate landscape changes induced by large chronological physical disturbances.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chu, Hone-Jay; Wang, Cheng-Long; Yu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    This study applies variogram analyses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images derived from SPOT HRV images obtained before and after the ChiChi earthquake in the Chenyulan watershed, Taiwan, as well as images after four large typhoons, to delineate the spatial patterns, spatial structures and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach was applied to select samples from multiple NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with sufficient samples were then used to generate maps of NDVI images. The variography of NDVI image results demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by variogram analysis in study areas. The high-magnitude Chi-Chi earthquake created spatial landscape variations in the study area. After the earthquake, the cumulative impacts of typhoons on landscape patterns depended on the magnitudes and paths of typhoons, but were not always evident in the spatiotemporal variability of landscapes in the study area. The statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images were captured by 3,000 samples from 62,500 grids in the NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with the 3,000 samples effectively reproduced spatial patterns of NDVI images. However, the proposed approach, which integrates the conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach, variogram, kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation in remotely sensed images, efficiently monitors, samples and maps the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial variability and heterogeneity. PMID:22389593

  17. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  18. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  19. Arctic-HYCOS: a Large Sample observing system for estimating freshwater fluxes in the drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroniro, Al; Korhonen, Johanna; Looser, Ulrich; Hardardóttir, Jórunn; Johnsrud, Morten; Vuglinsky, Valery; Gustafsson, David; Lins, Harry F.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Lammers, Richard; Stewart, Bruce; Abrate, Tommaso; Pilon, Paul; Sighomnou, Daniel; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic region is an important regulating component of the global climate system, and is also experiencing a considerable change during recent decades. More than 10% of world's river-runoff flows to the Arctic Ocean and there is evidence of changes in its fresh-water balance. However, about 30% of the Arctic basin is still ungauged, with differing monitoring practices and data availability from the countries in the region. A consistent system for monitoring and sharing of hydrological information throughout the Arctic region is thus of highest interest for further studies and monitoring of the freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean. The purpose of the Arctic-HYCOS project is to allow for collection and sharing of hydrological data. Preliminary 616 stations were identified with long-term daily discharge data available, and around 250 of these already provide online available data in near real time. This large sample will be used in the following scientific analysis: 1) to evaluate freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean and Seas, 2) to monitor changes and enhance understanding of the hydrological regime and 3) to estimate flows in ungauged regions and develop models for enhanced hydrological prediction in the Arctic region. The project is intended as a component of the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) WHYCOS (World Hydrological Cycle Observing System) initiative, covering the area of the expansive transnational Arctic basin with participation from Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden and United States of America. The overall objective is to regularly collect, manage and share high quality data from a defined basic network of hydrological stations in the Arctic basin. The project focus on collecting data on discharge and possibly sediment transport and temperature. Data should be provisional in near-real time if available, whereas time-series of historical data should be provided once quality assurance has been completed. The

  20. Ca II Triplet Spectroscopy of Small Magellanic Cloud Red Giants. IV. Abundances for a Large Sample of Field Stars and Comparison with the Cluster Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Geisler, D.; Carraro, G.; Clariá, J. J.; Villanova, S.; Gramajo, L. V.; Sarajedini, A.; Grocholski, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper represents a major step forward in the systematic and homogeneous study of Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) star clusters and field stars carried out by applying the calcium triplet technique. We present in this work the radial velocity and metallicity of approximately 400 red giant stars in 15 SMC fields, with typical errors of about 7 km s‑1 and 0.16 dex, respectively. We added to this information our previously determined metallicity values for 29 clusters and approximately 350 field stars using the identical techniques. Using this enlarged sample, we analyze the metallicity distribution and gradient in this galaxy. We also compare the chemical properties of the clusters and of their surrounding fields. We find a number of surprising results. While the clusters, taken as a whole, show no strong evidence for a metallicity gradient (MG), the field stars exhibit a clear negative gradient in the inner region of the SMC, consistent with the recent results of Dobbie et al. For distances to the center of the galaxy less than 4°, field stars show a considerably smaller metallicity dispersion than that of the clusters. However, in the external SMC regions, clusters and field stars exhibit similar metallicity dispersions. Moreover, in the inner region of the SMC, clusters appear to be concentrated in two groups: one more metal-poor and another more metal-rich than field stars. Individually considered, neither cluster group presents an MG. Most surprisingly, the MG for both stellar populations (clusters and field stars) appears to reverse sign in the outer regions of the SMC. The difference between the cluster metallicity and the mean metallicity of the surrounding field stars turns out to be a strong function of the cluster metallicity. These results could be indicating different chemical evolution histories for these two SMC stellar populations. They could also indicate variations in the chemical behavior of the SMC in its internal and external regions.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of xenon clusters in zeolite NaA

    SciTech Connect

    Jameson, C. J.; Jameson, A. K.; Gerald, R. E., II; de Dios, A. C.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Loyola Univ.

    1992-02-01

    We have observed the equilibrium distribution of Xe atoms trapped in the alpha cages of zeolite NaA at 300 and at 360 K for low to high xenon loadings. The experimental distributions obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy differ from two previously proposed statistical distributions. The experimental deviations from these statistical models can be explained by the attractive Xe-Xe interactions which favor clustering at low to medium loading, and the higher energies associated with the overcrowded cage disfavoring clusters of eight Xe atoms at high loadings. The temperature dependence of the {sup 129}Xe NMR chemical shift of each cluster has been measured in the range 188-421 K, except that for Xe{sub 8}, which was determined only up to 300 K. The observed shifts and their temperature dependence are interpreted by using the results of ab initio calculations of the intermolecular shielding function in the {sup 39}Ar system as a model for the {sup 129}Xe system.

  2. Applications of XRF, NAA and low-kV radiographic techniques in the study of body composition and diseased tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. A.; Ng, K. H.; Green, S.; Mountford, P. J.; Shukri, A.; Evans, J.

    1996-05-01

    Members of this group have responded to a number of challenging health issues by attempting to devise sensitive XRF, NAA and low-kV radiographic measurement systems foboth in vivo and in vitro applications. These studies are generally either of toxicological importance, examine potential for diagnosing the presence of disease, or offer effective means for monitoring potentially harmful side-effects of therapy. Particular examples include the in vivo XRF investigation of human skeletal uptake of Pb in working and living environments, in vivo XRF monitoring of elevated levels of Fe in skin (indicating the presence of an undesirable side-effect of the treatment of thalassaemia), in vivo NAA monitoring of elevated levels of Al in bone (indicating an undesirable side-effect of the treatment of chronic renal failure) and in vitro characterization, by means of low-kV imaging, of a range of calcification parameters in healthy and diseased breast tissue. The latter investigation has been conducted in association with an in vitro NAA study of concentrations of trace elements in the same types of tissue. Figures of merit for the various measurement systems have been obtained in terms of minimum detectable levels and concentrations (MDL's and MDC's) and where applicable, image related parameters.

  3. Large-Scale Multiplexed Quantitative Discovery Proteomics Enabled by the Use of an 18O-Labeled “Universal” Reference Sample

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Tao; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Kaushal, Amit; Xiao, Wenzhong; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Davis, Ronald W.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative comparison of protein abundances across a large number of biological or patient samples represents an important proteomics challenge that needs to be addressed for proteomics discovery applications. Herein, we describe a strategy that incorporates a stable isotope 18O-labeled ″universal″ reference sample as a comprehensive set of internal standards for analyzing large sample sets quantitatively. As a pooled sample, the 18O-labeled ″universal″ reference sample is spiked into each individually processed unlabeled biological sample and the peptide/protein abundances are quantified based on 16O/18O isotopic peptide pair abundance ratios that compare each unlabeled sample to the identical reference sample. This approach also allows for the direct application of label-free quantitation across the sample set simultaneously along with the labeling-approach (i.e., dual-quantitation) since each biological sample is unlabeled except for the labeled reference sample that is used as internal standards. The effectiveness of this approach for large-scale quantitative proteomics is demonstrated by its application to a set of 18 plasma samples from severe burn patients. When immunoaffinity depletion and cysteinyl-peptide enrichment-based fractionation with high resolution LC-MS measurements were combined, a total of 312 plasma proteins were confidently identified and quantified with a minimum of two unique peptides per protein. The isotope labeling data was directly compared with the label-free 16O-MS intensity data extracted from the same data sets. The results showed that the 18O reference-based labeling approach had significantly better quantitative precision compared to the label-free approach. The relative abundance differences determined by the two approaches also displayed strong correlation, illustrating the complementary nature of the two quantitative methods. The simplicity of including the 18O-reference for accurate quantitation makes this

  4. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) induces neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and sensitizes it to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Fratello, Angelo; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most commonly extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood frequently diagnosed. The nervous system-specific metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is synthesized from aspartate and acetyl-CoA in neurons, it is among the most abundant metabolites present in the central nervous system (CNS) and appears to be involved in many CNS disorders. The functional significance of the high NAA concentration in the brain remains uncertain, but it confers to NAA a unique clinical significance exploited in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the current study, we show that treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma-derived cell line with sub-cytotoxic physiological concentrations of NAA inhibits cell growth. This effect is partly due to enhanced apoptosis, shown by decrease of the anti-apoptotic factors survivin and Bcl-xL, and partly to arrest of the cell-cycle progression, linked to enhanced expression of the cyclin-inhibitors p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Moreover, NAA-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited morphological changes accompanied with increase of the neurogenic markers TH and MAP2 and down-regulation of the pluripotency markers OCT4 and CXCR4/CD184. Finally, NAA-pre-treated SH-SY5Y cells resulted more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutic drugs Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil.To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the neuronal differentiating effects of NAA in neuroblastoma cells. NAA may be a potential preconditioning or adjuvant compound in chemotherapeutic treatment. PMID:27036033

  5. Large-Scale Prospective T Cell Function Assays in Shipped, Unfrozen Blood Samples: Experiences from the Multicenter TRIGR Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Roy K.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Girgis, Rose; Palmer, Jerry P.; Cuthbertson, David; Krischer, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Broad consensus assigns T lymphocytes fundamental roles in inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune diseases. However, clinical investigations have lacked fully characterized and validated procedures, equivalent to those of widely practiced biochemical tests with established clinical roles, for measuring core T cell functions. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) type 1 diabetes prevention trial used consecutive measurements of T cell proliferative responses in prospectively collected fresh heparinized blood samples shipped by courier within North America. In this article, we report on the quality control implications of this simple and pragmatic shipping practice and the interpretation of positive- and negative-control analytes in our assay. We used polyclonal and postvaccination responses in 4,919 samples to analyze the development of T cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities of the samples and the unstimulated cell counts in the viable samples. Also, subject age was significantly associated with the number of unstimulated cells and T cell proliferation to positive activators. Finally, we observed a pattern of statistically significant increases in T cell responses to tetanus toxin around the timing of infant vaccinations. This assay platform and shipping protocol satisfy the criteria for robust and reproducible long-term measurements of human T cell function, comparable to those of established blood biochemical tests. We present a stable technology for prospective disease-relevant T cell analysis in immunological diseases, vaccination medicine, and measurement of herd immunity. PMID:24334687

  6. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: a study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, K S; Young, M K; Knotek, W L; Carim, K J; Wilcox, T M; Padgett-Stewart, T M; Schwartz, M K

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8 days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing, but, in a basin where S. confluentus were known to be scarce, eDNA samples indicated that S. confluentus were more broadly distributed than previously thought. PMID:26762274

  7. Construct Validity Evidence for Single-Response Items to Estimate Physical Activity Levels in Large Sample Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Bowles, Heather R.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2007-01-01

    Valid measurement of physical activity is important for studying the risks for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine evidence of construct validity of two similar single-response items assessing physical activity via self-report. Both items are based on the stages of change model. The sample was 687 participants (men =…

  8. Characteristics of Internet Gamblers among a Sample of Students at a Large, Public University in Southwestern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina

    2012-01-01

    There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online…

  9. Self-Esteem Development across the Life Span: A Longitudinal Study with a Large Sample from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated…

  10. Statistical assessment of the relation between the inferred morphological type and the emission-line activity type of a large sample of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Minakata, R. A.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Andernach, H.; Islas-Islas, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    We quantify the statistical evidence of the relation between the inferred morphology and the emission-line activity type of galaxies for a large sample of galaxies. We compare the distribution of the inferred morphologies of galaxies of different dominant activity types, showing that the difference in the median morphological type between the samples of different activity types is significant. We also test the significance of the difference in the mean morphological type between all the activity-type samples using an ANOVA model with a modified Tukey test that takes into account heteroscedasticity and the unequal sample sizes. We show this test in the form of simultaneous confidence intervals for all pairwise comparisons of the mean morphological types of the samples. Using this test, scarcely applied in astronomy, we conclude that there are statistically significant differences in the inferred morphologies of galaxies of different dominant activity types.

  11. Determination of Atto- to Femtogram Levels of Americium and Curium Isotopes in Large-Volume Urine Samples by Compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiongxin; Christl, Marcus; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-03-01

    Ultralow level analysis of actinides in urine samples may be required for dose assessment in the event of internal exposures to these radionuclides at nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants. A new bioassay method for analysis of sub-femtogram levels of Am and Cm in large-volume urine samples was developed. Americium and curium were co-precipitated with hydrous titanium oxide from the urine matrix and purified by column chromatography separation. After target preparation using mixed titanium/iron oxides, the final sample was measured by compact accelerator mass spectrometry. Urine samples spiked with known quantities of Am and Cm isotopes in the range of attogram to femtogram levels were measured for method evaluation. The results are in good agreement with the expected values, demonstrating the feasibility of compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the determination of minor actinides at the levels of attogram/liter in urine samples to meet stringent sensitivity requirements for internal dosimetry assessment. PMID:26822907

  12. Examination of Sex Differences in a Large Sample of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Vanessa P.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite consistent and substantive research documenting a large male to female ratio in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), only a modest body of research exists examining sex differences in characteristics. This study examined sex differences in developmental functioning and early social communication in children with ASD as compared to children with…

  13. A Large Sample Comparison of Grade Based Student Learning Outcomes in Online vs. Face-to-Face Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Joseph K.; Jacquemin, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of grade based learning outcomes between online and face-to-face course formats have become essential because the number of online courses, online programs and institutional student enrollments have seen rapid growth in recent years. Overall, online education is largely viewed by education professionals as being equivalent to…

  14. A Large Sample Evaluation of a Court-Mandated Batterer Intervention Program: Investigating Differential Program Effect for African American and Caucasian Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttell, Frederick P.; Carney, Michelle Mohr

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to (a) evaluate a 26-week batterer intervention program by investigating changes in psychological variables related to abuse (i.e., truthfulness, violence, lethality, control, alcohol use, drug use, and stress coping abilities) between pretreatment and posttreatment assessments in a large sample of…

  15. Psychometric Evaluation of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales in a Large Sample of Outpatients With Anxiety and Mood Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Liverant, Gabrielle I.; Brown, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    The latent structure, reliability, and validity of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; C. L. Carver & T. L. White, 1994) were examined in a large sample of outpatients (N = 1,825) with anxiety and mood disorders. Four subsamples were used for exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. In addition to generally…

  16. On Matrix Sampling and Imputation of Context Questionnaires with Implications for the Generation of Plausible Values in Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Su, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings on the consequences of matrix sampling of context questionnaires for the generation of plausible values in large-scale assessments. Three studies are conducted. Study 1 uses data from PISA 2012 to examine several different forms of missing data imputation within the chained equations framework: predictive mean…

  17. HIV Risk Behaviors in the U.S. Transgender Population: Prevalence and Predictors in a Large Internet Sample

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jamie; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Bockting, Walter O.

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of gender on HIV risk, a sample of the U.S. transgender population (N = 1,229) was recruited via the Internet. HIV risk and prevalence were lower than reported in prior studies of localized, urban samples, but higher than the overall U.S. population. Findings suggest that gender nonconformity alone does not itself result in markedly higher HIV risk. Sex with nontransgender men emerged as the strongest independent predictor of unsafe sex for both male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) participants. These sexual relationships constitute a process that may either affirm or problematize gender identity and sexual orientation, with different emphases for MtFs and FtMs, respectively. PMID:25022491

  18. Overweight and obesity: prevalence and correlates in a large clinical sample of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Katharine E; Hill, Alison P; Guion, Kimberly; Voltolina, Lisa; Fombonne, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and childhood obesity (OBY) are rising public health concerns. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overweight (OWT) and OBY in a sample of 376 Oregon children with ASD, and to assess correlates of OWT and OBY in this sample. We used descriptive statistics, bivariate, and focused multivariate analyses to determine whether socio-demographic characteristics, ASD symptoms, ASD cognitive and adaptive functioning, behavioral problems, and treatments for ASD were associated with OWT and OBY in ASD. Overall 18.1% of children met criteria for OWT and 17.0% met criteria for OBY. OBY was associated with sleep difficulties, melatonin use, and affective problems. Interventions that consider unique needs of children with ASD may hold promise for improving weight status among children with ASD. PMID:24488158

  19. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  20. High-contrast X-ray micro-tomography of low attenuation samples using large area hybrid semiconductor pixel detector array of 10 × 5 Timepix chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karch, J.; Krejci, F.; Bartl, B.; Dudak, J.; Kuba, J.; Kvacek, J.; Zemlicka, J.

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide excellent imaging properties such as unlimited dynamic range, high spatial resolution, high frame rate and energy sensitivity. Nevertheless, a limitation in the use of these devices for imaging has been the small sensitive area of a few square centimetres. In the field of microtomography we make use of a large area pixel detector assembled from 50 Timepix edgeless chips providing fully sensitive area of 14.3 × 7.15 cm2. We have successfully demonstrated that the enlargement of the sensitive area enables high-quality tomographic measurements of whole objects with high geometrical magnification without any significant degradation in resulting reconstructions related to the chip tilling and edgeless sensor technology properties. The technique of micro-tomography with the newly developed large area detector is applied for samples formed by low attenuation, low contrast materials such a seed from Phacelia tanacetifolia, a charcoalified wood sample and a beeswax seal sample.

  1. Assessment of fish assemblages and minimum sampling effort required to determine botic integrity of large rivers in southern Idaho, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Ott, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    width was determined to be sufficient for collecting an adequate number of fish to estimate species richness and evaluate biotic integrity. At most sites, about 250 fish were needed to effectively represent 95 percent of the species present. Fifty-three percent of the sites assessed, using an IBI developed specifically for large Idaho rivers, received scores of less than 50, indicating poor biotic integrity.

  2. Endo- and ectoparasites of large whales (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae): Overcoming difficulties in obtaining appropriate samples by non- and minimally-invasive methods

    PubMed Central

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M.R.; Prieto, Rui; Kleinertz, Sonja; Taubert, Anja; Silva, Monica A.

    2015-01-01

    Baleen and sperm whales, belonging to the Order Cetartiodactyla, are the largest and heaviest existent mammals in the world, collectively known as large whales. Large whales have been subjected to a variety of conservation means, which could be better monitored and managed if physiological and pathophysiological information, such as pathogen infections, could already be gathered from free-swimming animals instead of carcasses. Parasitic diseases are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population, and even ecosystem health. Furthermore, a number of parasite species have gained importance as opportunistic neozoan infections in the marine environment. Nonetheless, traditional approaches to study parasitic diseases have been impractical for large whales, since there is no current routine method for the capture and handling of these large animals and there is presently no practical method to obtain blood samples remotely from free-ranging whales. Therefore, we here not only intend to review the endo- and ectoparasite fauna of large whales but also to provide new insights in current available methods for gathering parasitological data by using non- or minimally invasive sampling techniques. We focus on methods, which will allow detailed parasitological studies to gain a broader knowledge on parasitoses affecting wild, free-swimming large whale populations. PMID:26835249

  3. Endo- and ectoparasites of large whales (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae): Overcoming difficulties in obtaining appropriate samples by non- and minimally-invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Prieto, Rui; Kleinertz, Sonja; Taubert, Anja; Silva, Monica A

    2015-12-01

    Baleen and sperm whales, belonging to the Order Cetartiodactyla, are the largest and heaviest existent mammals in the world, collectively known as large whales. Large whales have been subjected to a variety of conservation means, which could be better monitored and managed if physiological and pathophysiological information, such as pathogen infections, could already be gathered from free-swimming animals instead of carcasses. Parasitic diseases are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population, and even ecosystem health. Furthermore, a number of parasite species have gained importance as opportunistic neozoan infections in the marine environment. Nonetheless, traditional approaches to study parasitic diseases have been impractical for large whales, since there is no current routine method for the capture and handling of these large animals and there is presently no practical method to obtain blood samples remotely from free-ranging whales. Therefore, we here not only intend to review the endo- and ectoparasite fauna of large whales but also to provide new insights in current available methods for gathering parasitological data by using non- or minimally invasive sampling techniques. We focus on methods, which will allow detailed parasitological studies to gain a broader knowledge on parasitoses affecting wild, free-swimming large whale populations. PMID:26835249

  4. A large sample of Kohonen-selected SDSS quasars with weak emission lines: selection effects and statistical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusinger, H.; Balafkan, N.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: A tiny fraction of the quasar population shows remarkably weak emission lines. Several hypotheses have been developed, but the weak line quasar (WLQ) phenomenon still remains puzzling. The aim of this study was to create a sizeable sample of WLQs and WLQ-like objects and to evaluate various properties of this sample. Methods: We performed a search for WLQs in the spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 based on Kohonen self-organising maps for nearly 105 quasar spectra. The final sample consists of 365 quasars in the redshift range z = 0.6 - 4.2 (z¯ = 1.50 ± 0.45) and includes in particular a subsample of 46 WLQs with equivalent widths WMg ii< 11 Å and WC iv< 4.8 Å. We compared the luminosities, black hole masses, Eddington ratios, accretion rates, variability, spectral slopes, and radio properties of the WLQs with those of control samples of ordinary quasars. Particular attention was paid to selection effects. Results: The WLQs have, on average, significantly higher luminosities, Eddington ratios, and accretion rates. About half of the excess comes from a selection bias, but an intrinsic excess remains probably caused primarily by higher accretion rates. The spectral energy distribution shows a bluer continuum at rest-frame wavelengths ≳1500 Å. The variability in the optical and UV is relatively low, even taking the variability-luminosity anti-correlation into account. The percentage of radio detected quasars and of core-dominant radio sources is significantly higher than for the control sample, whereas the mean radio-loudness is lower. Conclusions: The properties of our WLQ sample can be consistently understood assuming that it consists of a mix of quasars at the beginning of a stage of increased accretion activity and of beamed radio-quiet quasars. The higher luminosities and Eddington ratios in combination with a bluer spectral energy distribution can be explained by hotter continua, i.e. higher accretion rates. If

  5. Research study on stabilization and control modern sampled-data control theory. [design of the Large Space Telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.

    1974-01-01

    The methods of continuous and discrete describing function analysis were applied to predicting the existence of self-sustained oscillations in the single-axis model of the large space telescope system with nonlinear control moment gyroscope friction characteristics. It is shown that the stability equations may be solved by a numerical-iterative technique using the describing function analysis, instead of the usual graphical methods. The numerical method is found to be effective in leading to a convergent solution rapidly, with an appropriate guess of the initial condition.

  6. Comparative study of large samples (2" × 2") plastic scintillators and EJ309 liquid with pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanowska-Hanke, J.; Moszynski, M.; Swiderski, L.; Sibczynski, P.; Szczesniak, T.; Krakowski, T.; Schotanus, P.

    2014-06-01

    In the paper we reported on the scintillation properties and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) performance of new plastic scintillators. The samples with dimension of 2 inches × 2 inches were tested: EJ299-34, EJ299-34G, EJ299-33 and EJ299-33G. They are the first commercially available plastics with neutron/gamma discrimination properties. The paper covers the measurements of emission spectra, photoelectron yield, analysis of the light pulse shapes originating from events related to gamma-rays and fast neutrons as well as neutron/gamma discrimination. The tested plastics are characterized by a photoelectron yield on a level of approximately 1600-2500 phe/MeV, depending on the sample. The highest value, measured for EJ299-34, is similar to the number of photoelectrons measured for EJ309 (2600 phe/MeV). The figure of merit (FOM) calculated for narrow energy cuts — indicating the PSD performance — showed that the PSD capabilities of the plastics are significantly lower than of EJ309. These scintillators are still under development in order to optimize the composition and manufacturing procedures. At this time the results obtained with the new plastics suggest their possible use as an alternative for liquid scintillators, especially if we consider their inflammability and non-toxicity.

  7. Automated Large Scale Parameter Extraction of Road-Side Trees Sampled by a Laser Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbergh, R. C.; Berthold, D.; Sirmacek, B.; Herrero-Huerta, M.; Wang, J.; Ebersbach, D.

    2015-08-01

    In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. Indeed, at, say, 50 km/h such systems collect point clouds consisting of half a million points per 100m. Method exists that extract tree parameters from relatively small patches of such data, but a remaining challenge is to operationally extract roadside tree parameters at regional level. For this purpose a workflow is presented as follows: The input point clouds are consecutively downsampled, retiled, classified, segmented into individual trees and upsampled to enable automated extraction of tree location, tree height, canopy diameter and trunk diameter at breast height (DBH). The workflow is implemented to work on a laser mobile mapping data set sampling 100 km of road in Sachsen, Germany and is tested on a stretch of road of 7km long. Along this road, the method detected 315 trees that were considered well detected and 56 clusters of tree points were no individual trees could be identified. Using voxels, the data volume could be reduced by about 97 % in a default scenario. Processing the results of this scenario took ~2500 seconds, corresponding to about 10 km/h, which is getting close to but is still below the acquisition rate which is estimated at 50 km/h.

  8. The dependence of the soft X ray spectral slope with radio property, luminosity, and redshift, for a large sample of AGN from the Einstein IPC data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, H.; Worrall, D. M.; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Elvis, Martin

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of the soft X-ray spectral slope on radio, optical and X-ray properties, and on redshift are reported for a large sample of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The sample includes 317 optically and radio-selected AGN from a preliminary version of the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) quasar and AGN data base. The main results are: the difference in X-ray slope between radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN were confirmed for an independent and much larger sample of sources; a difference in X-ray slope between flat and steep radio spectrum AGN is observed only in high luminosity sub-sample; in flat radio spectrum AGNs there is an indication for a dependence of the X-ray spectral index on X-ray luminosity redshift and alpha sub 0x.

  9. Magnetic zeolite NaA: synthesis, characterization based on metakaolin and its application for the removal of Cu2+, Pb2+.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haibo; Peng, Shuchuan; Shu, Lin; Chen, Tianhu; Bao, Teng; Frost, Ray L

    2013-06-01

    The optimum parameters for synthesis of zeolite NaA based on metakaolin were investigated according to results of cation exchange capacity and static water adsorption of all synthesis products and selected X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic zeolite NaA was synthesized by adding Fe3O4 in the precursor of zeolite. Zeolite NaA and magnetic zeolite NaA were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XRD. Magnetic zeolite NaA with different Fe3O4 loadings was prepared and used for removal of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+)). The results show the optimum parameters for synthesis zeolite NaA are SiO2/Al2O3=2.3, Na2O/SiO2=1.4, H2O/Na2O=50, crystallization time 8h, crystallization temperature 95 °C. The addition of Fe3O4 makes the NaA zeolite with good magnetic susceptibility and good magnetic stability regardless of the Fe3O4 loading, confirming the considerable separation efficiency. Additionally, Fe3O4 loading had a little effect on removal of heavy metal by magnetic zeolite, however, the adsorption capacity still reaches 2.3 mmol g(-1) for Cu(2+), Pb(2+) with a removal efficiency of over 95% in spite of 4.7% Fe3O4 loading. This indicates magnetic zeolite can be used to remove metal heavy at least Cu(2+), Pb(2+) from water with metallic contaminants and can be separated easily after a magnetic process. PMID:23340053

  10. The relationship between postpartum depression, domestic violence, childhood violence, and substance use: epidemiologic study of a large community sample.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Vigod, Simone

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of interpersonal violence and substance use to the prediction of postpartum depressive symptomatology. A community-based sample of 634 women in British Columbia, Canada was screened for interpersonal violence and substance use using the Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment (ALPHA) form. Of these women, 497 (78%) subsequently completed questionnaires at 8 weeks postpartum to assess for depressive symptomatology using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A predictive model for postpartum depressive symptomatology (EPDS > 9) was developed using regression analysis. Findings suggest that women who experience past or current interpersonal violence or personal or partner substance use problems should be considered for targeted screening for postpartum depression (PPD). PMID:23660619

  11. Detecting the Seeds of Nassella neesiana in Large Round Hay Bales, by Means of Non-Destructive Core Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Charles; McLaren, David; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2015-01-01

    In the last three decades or so there has been a significant increase in fodder trading, both in terms of the quantity of fodder traded and in terms of its economic value to the industry. Often, this fodder type may be supplied free of charge to graziers in distress due to circumstances that follow natural disasters such as bushfires, drought, and flood. However, because of the obvious urgency arising from these situations, it is suspected that much relief fodder may unintentionally pose an elevated risk for dispersal of weeds since it may be supplied from pasture not normally used for trade in fodder, and therefore is of unknown quality. Previous destructive method to detect weed propagules in bales of fodder are cumbersome, time consuming and of limited ecological and statistical value. Therefore, objective of this paper was to development of a convenient method to assess round pasture hay bales for the presence of weed propagules, to prevent unintentional spread of noxious species in hay bales. To examine this objective known quantity of seeds were added in a series of distributions to bales of seed free pasture hay, and a positive correlation for the amount of seed added per bale with that recovered in core samples was observed. Whilst the number of seeds detected per bale varied according to the distribution of seeds within the bales and the number of cores analysed, the absolute detection of seeds suggests that this sampling method is worthy of further examination. In addition, a pragmatic estimation of bale remnants after stock feeding has been investigated to more closely estimate the potential size of the remaining seed bank. The authors propose that development of this approach is timely, in the light of future climatic uncertainty driving extreme weather events that increase the need for relief fodder, which can be a potential vector for the spread of noxious weed seeds. PMID:26348493

  12. Detecting the Seeds of Nassella neesiana in Large Round Hay Bales, by Means of Non-Destructive Core Sampling.

    PubMed

    Weller, Sandra; Florentine, Singarayer; Sillitoe, James; Grech, Charles; McLaren, David; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2015-01-01

    In the last three decades or so there has been a significant increase in fodder trading, both in terms of the quantity of fodder traded and in terms of its economic value to the industry. Often, this fodder type may be supplied free of charge to graziers in distress due to circumstances that follow natural disasters such as bushfires, drought, and flood. However, because of the obvious urgency arising from these situations, it is suspected that much relief fodder may unintentionally pose an elevated risk for dispersal of weeds since it may be supplied from pasture not normally used for trade in fodder, and therefore is of unknown quality. Previous destructive method to detect weed propagules in bales of fodder are cumbersome, time consuming and of limited ecological and statistical value. Therefore, objective of this paper was to development of a convenient method to assess round pasture hay bales for the presence of weed propagules, to prevent unintentional spread of noxious species in hay bales. To examine this objective known quantity of seeds were added in a series of distributions to bales of seed free pasture hay, and a positive correlation for the amount of seed added per bale with that recovered in core samples was observed. Whilst the number of seeds detected per bale varied according to the distribution of seeds within the bales and the number of cores analysed, the absolute detection of seeds suggests that this sampling method is worthy of further examination. In addition, a pragmatic estimation of bale remnants after stock feeding has been investigated to more closely estimate the potential size of the remaining seed bank. The authors propose that development of this approach is timely, in the light of future climatic uncertainty driving extreme weather events that increase the need for relief fodder, which can be a potential vector for the spread of noxious weed seeds. PMID:26348493

  13. A large-sample investigation of statistical procedures for radar-based short-term quantitative precipitation forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, M.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2000-12-01

    We present the results of an extensive evaluation of radar-based quantitative precipitation forecasting techniques. Using a large data set of radar observations from the Tulsa, Oklahoma, WSR-88D radar we evaluate several techniques, including persistence, advection, and neural-network-based schemes. The scope of our study is limited to very-short-term forecast lead-times of up to three hours. We consider several spatial resolutions ranging from 4×4 km2 to 32×32 km2. Performance of the schemes is evaluated using several popular criteria that include correlation coefficient, multiplicative bias, and probability of detection. We discuss the effects of average storm intensity and rainfall intensity integration on the predictability limits. The most significant conclusions from the study are: (1) advection is the most important physical process that impacts useful predictions; (2) larger and more intense storms are easier to forecast; and (3) both spatial and temporal integration significantly extends the predictability limits.

  14. ROXA: a new multi-frequency selected large sample of blazars with SDSS and 2dF optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Giommi, Paolo; Turriziani, Sara

    2007-07-12

    Blazars are a small fraction of the overall AGN population but contribute in a fundamental way to the extragalactic cosmic backgrounds in the hard X-ray and {gamma}-ray bands and are the largest contaminant of CMB fluctuation maps. So far the number of known blazars is of the order of several hundreds, but the forthcoming AGILE, GLAST and Planck space observatories will detect a very large number of new objects of this type. We present the Radio - Optical - X-ray catalog (ROXA), a list of 816 objects among which are 510 confirmed blazars. This is useful for the planning of future identification work using SWIFT, AGILE, GLAST and Planck data.

  15. TIGER2 with solvent energy averaging (TIGER2A): An accelerated sampling method for large molecular systems with explicit representation of solvent.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianfeng; Snyder, James A; Stuart, Steven J; Latour, Robert A

    2015-10-14

    The recently developed "temperature intervals with global exchange of replicas" (TIGER2) accelerated sampling method is found to have inaccuracies when applied to systems with explicit solvation. This inaccuracy is due to the energy fluctuations of the solvent, which cause the sampling method to be less sensitive to the energy fluctuations of the solute. In the present work, the problem of the TIGER2 method is addressed in detail and a modification to the sampling method is introduced to correct this problem. The modified method is called "TIGER2 with solvent energy averaging," or TIGER2A. This new method overcomes the sampling problem with the TIGER2 algorithm and is able to closely approximate Boltzmann-weighted sampling of molecular systems with explicit solvation. The difference in performance between the TIGER2 and TIGER2A methods is demonstrated by comparing them against analytical results for simple one-dimensional models, against replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations for sampling the conformation of alanine dipeptide and the folding behavior of (AAQAA)3 peptide in aqueous solution, and by comparing their performance in sampling the behavior of hen egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solution. The new TIGER2A method solves the problem caused by solvent energy fluctuations in TIGER2 while maintaining the two important characteristics of TIGER2, i.e., (1) using multiple replicas sampled at different temperature levels to help systems efficiently escape from local potential energy minima and (2) enabling the number of replicas used for a simulation to be independent of the size of the molecular system, thus providing an accelerated sampling method that can be used to efficiently sample systems considered too large for the application of conventional temperature REMD. PMID:26472361

  16. TIGER2 with solvent energy averaging (TIGER2A): An accelerated sampling method for large molecular systems with explicit representation of solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianfeng; Snyder, James A.; Stuart, Steven J.; Latour, Robert A.

    2015-10-01

    The recently developed "temperature intervals with global exchange of replicas" (TIGER2) accelerated sampling method is found to have inaccuracies when applied to systems with explicit solvation. This inaccuracy is due to the energy fluctuations of the solvent, which cause the sampling method to be less sensitive to the energy fluctuations of the solute. In the present work, the problem of the TIGER2 method is addressed in detail and a modification to the sampling method is introduced to correct this problem. The modified method is called "TIGER2 with solvent energy averaging," or TIGER2A. This new method overcomes the sampling problem with the TIGER2 algorithm and is able to closely approximate Boltzmann-weighted sampling of molecular systems with explicit solvation. The difference in performance between the TIGER2 and TIGER2A methods is demonstrated by comparing them against analytical results for simple one-dimensional models, against replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations for sampling the conformation of alanine dipeptide and the folding behavior of (AAQAA)3 peptide in aqueous solution, and by comparing their performance in sampling the behavior of hen egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solution. The new TIGER2A method solves the problem caused by solvent energy fluctuations in TIGER2 while maintaining the two important characteristics of TIGER2, i.e., (1) using multiple replicas sampled at different temperature levels to help systems efficiently escape from local potential energy minima and (2) enabling the number of replicas used for a simulation to be independent of the size of the molecular system, thus providing an accelerated sampling method that can be used to efficiently sample systems considered too large for the application of conventional temperature REMD.

  17. Comparison of Two Methods for Estimating the Sampling-Related Uncertainty of Satellite Rainfall Averages Based on a Large Radar Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor); Bell, Thomas L.; Steiner, Matthias; Zhang, Yu; Wood, Eric F.

    2002-01-01

    The uncertainty of rainfall estimated from averages of discrete samples collected by a satellite is assessed using a multi-year radar data set covering a large portion of the United States. The sampling-related uncertainty of rainfall estimates is evaluated for all combinations of 100 km, 200 km, and 500 km space domains, 1 day, 5 day, and 30 day rainfall accumulations, and regular sampling time intervals of 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 8 h, and 12 h. These extensive analyses are combined to characterize the sampling uncertainty as a function of space and time domain, sampling frequency, and rainfall characteristics by means of a simple scaling law. Moreover, it is shown that both parametric and non-parametric statistical techniques of estimating the sampling uncertainty produce comparable results. Sampling uncertainty estimates, however, do depend on the choice of technique for obtaining them. They can also vary considerably from case to case, reflecting the great variability of natural rainfall, and should therefore be expressed in probabilistic terms. Rainfall calibration errors are shown to affect comparison of results obtained by studies based on data from different climate regions and/or observation platforms.

  18. Statistical Analysis of the Long Baseline Variability Properties of a Large Gamma-Ray Selected Blazar AGN Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrader, Chris R.

    2013-06-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has cataloged over 1800 gamma-ray (>100 MeV) point sources of which more than 1100 are identified with AGN. These AGN, and a large number of unidentified high-latitude objects of which a large fraction are also likely AGN, are predominantly representative of the radio-loud “blazar” subclass. The emission from these objects is well known to be beaming dominated and is almost always variable, often exhibiting high-amplitude flaring. To date there have been numerous studies of individual objects including multi-wavelength campaigns in some cases including parsec-scale radio jet morphological study. Collectively, this has led to new insight in to our understanding of the blazar phenomena and jet propagation in general. However, there remains a dearth of information on the collective variability characteristics of the population as a statistical ensemble. What, for example, are the distributions of flare amplitudes, durations, temporal profiles and recurrence histories among the gamma-ray blazar subclasses? Given the unprecedented sky coverage of Fermi - the full sky is observed approximately every two orbits leading to an approximate one part in 6 monitoring duty cycle for any point on the sky - we have begun to explore this issue. A light curve database compiled and maintained (weekly) by the Fermi Science Support Center contains flux histories for every source in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. In this contribution, we present our analysis of the statistical properties of the high-latitude component of this light curve database.

  19. Decline of Neuropsychological Abilities in a Large Sample of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Martina; Carletto, Sara; Ostacoli, Luca; Scavelli, Francesco; Pia, Lorenzo; Pagani, Marco; Bertolotto, Antonio; Malucchi, Simona; Signori, Alessio; Cavallo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this longitudinal study, we monitored two large groups of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls (HC) for 2 years, with the aim of comparing their neuropsychological profile over time. Method: Three hundred and twenty-two patients with MS and 303 HC were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N); neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. Two follow-ups were scheduled at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Results: A linear mixed model (LMM) with random intercept was run by considering participants’ performance on each test of the BRB-N at the three assessment points (baseline and follow-ups) as the within-subjects variable, and group (patients and controls) as the between-subjects factor. The interaction term was statistically significant for the tests: Symbol Digit Modalities test (SDMT) (p = 0.044), Paced Auditory Serial Addition test (PASAT) (p = 0.011) and Word List Generation (WLG) (p < 0.001), whereas for the PASAT-3 approached statistical significance (p = 0.05). In addition, a LMM with random intercept was also run by identifying three groups (controls, relapsing-remitting course of MS (i.e. RR-MS), and prog-MS). The interaction term was statistically significant for: PASAT-3 (p = 0.017), PASAT-2 (p = 0.0026), and WLG (p = 0.0022). Conclusions: Our results corroborate on a very large scale evidence that the abilities tapped by the tasks SDMT, PASAT and WLG are particularly sensitive to MS, and further extend this issue by showing that these abilities are likely to be more sensitive than others to the progression of the disease, as compared to HC. PMID:27375468

  20. Rapid determination of technetium-99 in large volume seawater samples using sequential injection extraction chromatographic separation and ICP-MS measurement.

    PubMed

    Shi, Keliang; Qiao, Jixin; Wu, Wangsuo; Roos, Per; Hou, Xiaolin

    2012-08-01

    An automated method was developed for rapid determination of (99)Tc in large volume seawater samples. The analytical procedure involves preconcentration of technetium with coprecipitation, online separation using extraction chromatography (two TEVA columns) implemented in a sequential injection setup, and measurement of (99)Tc by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Chromatographic behaviors of technetium, molybdenum, and ruthenium were investigated, and the mechanism of adsorption and elution of TcO(4)(-) on a TEVA column using HNO(3) was explored. The results show that not only NO(3)(-) but also acidity (or concentration of H(+)) of the loading or eluting solution affect the adsorption and desorption of TcO(4)(-) on TEVA resin. Decontamination factors of more than 1 × 10(6) for ruthenium and 5 × 10(5) for molybdenum are achieved. Chemical yields of technetium in the overall procedure range from 60% to 75% depending on the sample volumes, and a detection limit of 7.5 mBq/m(3) (or 11.5 pg/m(3)) for 200 L of seawater was obtained. Compared with the conventional analytical procedure, the developed method significantly reduces analytical time. A batch of samples (n > 4) can be analyzed within 24 h. The method has been successfully applied for rapid and automated determination of low level (99)Tc in large volume seawater samples. The analytical results of seawater samples collected in Denmark show a good agreement with the values obtained using the conventional method. PMID:22783983

  1. Analyzing large-scale samples confirms the association between the rs1051730 polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhijie; Jiang, Qinghua; Zhang, Tianjiao; Wu, Xiaoliang; Ma, Rui; Wang, Jixuan; Bai, Yang; Wang, Rongjie; Tan, Renjie; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    The early genome-wide association studies (GWAS) found a significant association between lung cancer and rs1051730 (15q25) polymorphism. However, the subsequent studies reported consistent and inconsistent results in different populations. Three meta-analysis studies were thus performed to reevaluate the association. But their results remain inconsistent. After that, some new GWAS studies reported conflicting results again. We think that the divergence of these results may be due to small-scale samples or heterogeneity among different populations. Therefore, we reevaluated the association by collecting more samples (N = 33,617 cases and 116,639 controls) from 31 studies, which incorporate 8 new studies and 23 previous studies used by one or more of the three meta-analysis studies. We observed a significant association between lung cancer and rs1051730 in pooled population by using allele (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.27–1.34, P  <  0.0001), dominant (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.29–1.55, P < 0.0001), recessive (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.42–1.65, P < 0.0001) and additive (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.61–1.90, P < 0.0001) models. Through the subgroup analysis, we observed a significant heterogeneity only in East Asian population (P = 0.006, I2 = 66.9%), and the association is significant in all subgroups (OR = 1.2976, 95% CI = 1.2622–1.3339 (European ancestry), OR = 1.5025, 95% CI = 1.2465–1.8110 (African), OR = 1.7818, 95% CI = 1.3915–2.2815 (East Asian), P < 0.0001). We believe that these results will contribute to understanding the genetic mechanism of lung cancer. PMID:26508385

  2. Aggressive Behavior Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Correlates in a Large Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alison Presmanes; Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Hagen, Arlene D.; Kriz, Daniel J.; Duvall, Susanne W.; van Santen, Jan; Nigg, Joel; Fair, Damien; Fombonne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior problems (ABP) are frequent yet poorly understood in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and are likely to co-vary significantly with comorbid problems. We examined the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of ABP in a clinical sample of children with ASD (N = 400; 2–16.9 years). We also investigated whether children with ABP experience more intensive medical interventions, greater impairments in behavioral functioning, and more severe comorbid problems than children with ASD who do not have ABP. One in four children with ASD had Child Behavior Checklist scores on the Aggressive Behavior scale in the clinical range (T-scores ≥ 70). Sociodemographic factors (age, gender, parent education, race, ethnicity) were unrelated to ABP status. The presence of ABP was significantly associated with increased use of psychotropic drugs and melatonin, lower cognitive functioning, lower ASD severity, and greater comorbid sleep, internalizing, and attention problems. In multivariate models, sleep, internalizing, and attention problems were most strongly associated with ABP. These comorbid problems may hold promise as targets for treatment to decrease aggressive behavior and proactively identify high-risk profiles for prevention. PMID:25221619

  3. Distinct variants of extreme psychopathic individuals in society at large: evidence from a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Drislane, Laura E; Patrick, Christopher J; Sourander, Andre; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Aggen, Steven H; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimäki, Petteri; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2014-04-01

    This study used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of men who scored high in overall psychopathy (i.e., ≥ 95th percentile on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; n = 193) from a larger sample evaluated for service in the Finnish military (N = 4043). Cluster variates consisted of scores on distinct facets of psychopathy together with a measure of negative affectivity. The best-fitting model specified 2 clusters, representing "primary" (n = 110) and "secondary" psychopathy (n = 83) groups. Compared to a low-psychopathy comparison group (n = 1878), both psychopathy subgroups showed markedly elevated levels of externalizing symptoms and criminal behavior. Secondary psychopathic participants also reported high levels of internalizing problems including anxiousness, depression, and somatization, and scored higher on the disinhibition facet of psychopathy relative to the primary group. By contrast, primary psychopathic individuals reported fewer internalizing problems than either the secondary psychopathy or comparison groups and scored higher on the boldness facet of psychopathy. Primary psychopathic participants also had higher rates of violent crimes than the secondary psychopaths. Implications for conceptualizing and studying psychopathy in nonforensic populations are discussed. PMID:24512459

  4. Who art thou? Personality predictors of artistic preferences in a large UK sample: the importance of openness.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Reimers, Stian; Hsu, Anne; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-08-01

    The present study examined individual differences in artistic preferences in a sample of 91,692 participants (60% women and 40% men), aged 13-90 years. Participants completed a Big Five personality inventory (Goldberg, 1999) and provided preference ratings for 24 different paintings corresponding to cubism, renaissance, impressionism, and Japanese art, which loaded on to a latent factor of overall art preferences. As expected, the personality trait openness to experience was the strongest and only consistent personality correlate of artistic preferences, affecting both overall and specific preferences, as well as visits to galleries, and artistic (rather than scientific) self-perception. Overall preferences were also positively influenced by age and visits to art galleries, and to a lesser degree, by artistic self-perception and conscientiousness (negatively). As for specific styles, after overall preferences were accounted for, more agreeable, more conscientious and less open individuals reported higher preference levels for impressionist, younger and more extraverted participants showed higher levels of preference for cubism (as did males), and younger participants, as well as males, reported higher levels of preferences for renaissance. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:19026107

  5. Saturday night's alright for fighting: antisocial traits, fighting, and weapons carrying in a large sample of youth.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Cricket Meehan, D

    2010-12-01

    The current study examines risk and protective factors for youth antisocial personality and behavior from a multivariate format. It is hoped that this research will elucidate those risk and protective factors most important for focus of future prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examines multiple factors associated with youth antisocial traits and behavior in a sample of 8,256 youth (mean age 14), with the goal of identifying the strongest and most consistent risk or protective factors. Data was collected from the Ohio version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System's (YRBSS) school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses identified peer delinquency, drug use and negative community influences as predictive of antisocial traits. Schools and families functioned as protective factors. Youth who fought frequently tended to be male, antisocial, dug using, depressed, and associated with delinquent peers. Weapons carrying was most common among drug using, antisocial males. Television and video game use were not predictive of antisocial, fighting or weapons carrying outcomes. Developmental patterns across age ranges regarding the relative importance of specific risk factors were also examined. Strategies for intervention and prevention of youth violence that focus on peers, neighborhoods, depression, and families may be particularly likely to bear fruit. PMID:20405321

  6. The frequency of stellar X-ray flares from a large-scale XMM-Newton sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, J.; Rosen, S.

    2014-07-01

    The XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue has been used as the basis for a survey of X-ray flares from late-type (i.e. spectral type F-M) stars in the Hipparcos Tycho catalogue. The XMM catalogue and its associated data products provide an excellent basis for a comprehensive and sensitive survey of stellar flares - both from targeted active stars and from those observed serendipitously in the ~half-degree diameter field-of-view of each observation. Our sample contains ˜ 130 flares with well-observed profiles; they range in duration from ˜ 1000 s to ˜ 10,000 s, have peak X-ray luminosities log(L_x, erg/s) from ˜ 29 to ˜ 32, and X-ray energy output log(E_x, erg) from ˜ 32 to ˜ 35. We present flare frequency distributions from both target and serendipitous observations. The latter provide an unbiased (with respect to stellar activity) estimate and allow us to predict numbers of stellar flares that may be detected in future X-ray wide-field surveys such as those based on "Lobster-eye" optics. We also compare the XMM-derived estimates with values derived from earlier X-ray transient surveys. Predictions for future wide-angle surveys are of value both for the study of the stellar energetics and for determining likely "contaminant" levels in programmes aimed at other types of transient event such as gamma-ray bursts.

  7. Distinct Variants of Extreme Psychopathic Individuals in Society at Large: Evidence from a Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Drislane, Laura E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Sourander, Andre; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Aggen, Steven H.; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimaki, Petteri; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    This study used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of men who scored high in overall psychopathy (i.e., ≥ 95th percentile on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; n = 193) from a larger sample evaluated for service in the Finnish military (N= 4043). Cluster variates consisted of scores on distinct facets of psychopathy together with a measure of negative affectivity. The best-fitting model specified two clusters, representing ‘primary’ (n = 110) and ‘secondary’ psychopathy (n = 83) groups. Compared to a low-psychopathy comparison group (n = 1878), both psychopathy subgroups showed markedly elevated levels of externalizing symptoms and criminal behavior. Secondary psychopathic participants also reported high levels of internalizing problems including anxiousness, depression, and somatization, and scored higher on the disinhibition facet of psychopathy relative to the primary group. By contrast, primary psychopathic individuals reported fewer internalizing problems than either the secondary psychopathy or comparison groups and scored higher on the boldness facet of psychopathy. Primary psychopathic participants also had higher rates of violent crimes than the secondary psychopaths. Implications for conceptualizing and studying psychopathy in non-forensic populations are discussed. PMID:24512459

  8. SELF-REPORT OF EMPATHY: A SHORTENED FRENCH ADAPTATION OF THE INTERPERSONAL REACTIVITY INDEX (IRI) USING TWO LARGE BELGIAN SAMPLES.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stéphanie; Rosseel, Yves; Kempenaers, Chantal; Loas, Gwenole; Linkowski, Paul

    2015-12-01

    For more than 30 years, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) has been used to measure the multidimensional aspects of empathy. But the 28-item, 4-factor model of Davis (1980 ) is currently contested because of methodological issues and for theoretical reasons. Confirmatory (CFA) and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were applied in two French-speaking Belgian student samples (1,244 participants in the first and 729 in the second study) to test this model and to propose a shortened version. A non-optimal fit was found with respect to the CFI value (Study 1). By splitting the student group into two random subsamples, EFA and then CFA were used to propose a 15-item, 4-factor model with good fit indices. A CFA on the second student group (Study 2) replicated this model. Results are discussed considering the influence of social desirability response bias, an absence of strong invariance across sex and the usefulness of self-report scales to measure empathy. PMID:26595295

  9. Carbon fiber plume sampling for large scale fire tests at Dugway Proving Ground. [fiber release during aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chovit, A. R.; Lieberman, P.; Freeman, D. E.; Beggs, W. C.; Millavec, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon fiber sampling instruments were developed: passive collectors made of sticky bridal veil mesh, and active instruments using a light emitting diode (LED) source. These instruments measured the number or number rate of carbon fibers released from carbon/graphite composite material when the material was burned in a 10.7 m (35 ft) dia JP-4 pool fire for approximately 20 minutes. The instruments were placed in an array suspended from a 305 m by 305 m (1000 ft by 1000 ft) Jacob's Ladder net held vertically aloft by balloons and oriented crosswind approximately 140 meters downwind of the pool fire. Three tests were conducted during which released carbon fiber data were acquired. These data were reduced and analyzed to obtain the characteristics of the released fibers including their spatial and size distributions and estimates of the number and total mass of fibers released. The results of the data analyses showed that 2.5 to 3.5 x 10 to the 8th power single carbon fibers were released during the 20 minute burn of 30 to 50 kg mass of initial, unburned carbon fiber material. The mass released as single carbon fibers was estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.2% of the initial, unburned fiber mass.

  10. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE THREE PATHWAYS TO WELL-BEING SCALE IN A LARGE SAMPLE OF ARGENTINEAN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Góngora, Vanesa C; Castro Solano, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    The Authentic Happiness Theory considers that well-being can be reached by three main pathways: a pleasant life, an engaged life, or a meaningful life. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale in Argentinean adolescents and compares that to prior results for Argentinean adults. A sample of 255 Argentinean adolescent students (110 boys, 145 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.6) was used in this study. The participants completed the Spanish versions of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Confirmatory factor analyses verified the three-factor structure of the test, accounting for 46% of the variance. The internal consistencies were α = .76 for the pleasant life, α = .80 for the engaged life, and α = .70 for the meaningful life. Concurrent validity was examined with the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Personal Wellbeing Index, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the engaged life was the pathway most strongly associated with the positive related measures. PMID:26302293

  11. Self-esteem development across the life span: a longitudinal study with a large sample from Germany.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem follows a quadratic trajectory across the life span, increasing during adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at age 60 years, and then declining in old age. No cohort effects on average levels of self-esteem or on the shape of the trajectory were found. Moreover, the trajectory did not differ across gender, level of education, or for individuals who had lived continuously in West versus East Germany (i.e., the 2 parts of Germany that had been separate states from 1949 to 1990). However, the results suggested that employment status, household income, and satisfaction in the domains of work, relationships, and health contribute to a more positive life span trajectory of self-esteem. The findings have significant implications, because they call attention to developmental stages in which individuals may be vulnerable because of low self-esteem (such as adolescence and old age) and to factors that predict successful versus problematic developmental trajectories. PMID:25485608

  12. NIHAO project - I. Reproducing the inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time with a large sample of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Dutton, Aaron A.; Stinson, Gregory S.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W.; Wadsley, James

    2015-11-01

    We introduce project NIHAO (Numerical Investigation of a Hundred Astrophysical Objects), a set of 100 cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations performed using the GASOLINE code, with an improved implementation of the SPH algorithm. The haloes in our study range from dwarf (M200 ˜ 5 × 109 M⊙) to Milky Way (M200 ˜ 2 × 1012 M⊙) masses, and represent an unbiased sampling of merger histories, concentrations and spin parameters. The particle masses and force softenings are chosen to resolve the mass profile to below 1 per cent of the virial radius at all masses, ensuring that galaxy half-light radii are well resolved. Using the same treatment of star formation and stellar feedback for every object, the simulated galaxies reproduce the observed inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time as expressed through the stellar mass versus halo mass relation, and the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation. We thus conclude that stellar feedback is the chief piece of physics required to limit the efficiency of star formation in galaxies less massive than the Milky Way.

  13. DS86 neutron dose: Monte Carlo analysis for depth profile of 152Eu activity in a large stone sample.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Iwatani, K; Oka, T; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Imanaka, T; Takada, J; Fujita, S; Hasai, H

    1999-06-01

    The depth profile of 152Eu activity induced in a large granite stone pillar by Hiroshima atomic bomb neutrons was calculated by a Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). The pillar was on the Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 132 m (WSW) from the hypocenter. It was a square column with a horizontal sectional size of 82.5 cm x 82.5 cm and height of 179 cm. Twenty-one cells from the north to south surface at the central height of the column were specified for the calculation and 152Eu activities for each cell were calculated. The incident neutron spectrum was assumed to be the angular fluence data of the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). The angular dependence of the spectrum was taken into account by dividing the whole solid angle into twenty-six directions. The calculated depth profile of specific activity did not agree with the measured profile. A discrepancy was found in the absolute values at each depth with a mean multiplication factor of 0.58 and also in the shape of the relative profile. The results indicated that a reassessment of the neutron energy spectrum in DS86 is required for correct dose estimation. PMID:10494148

  14. A systematic search for long-term variability in a large sample of X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccacaro, Tommaso; Garilli, Bianca; Mereghetti, Sandro

    1987-01-01

    A method which uses the correct measurement error distribution (Poisson) and which naturally takes into account detections as well as upper limits has been developed to search for flux variability in X-ray sources. The method is applied to 256 sources observed at least twice with the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter. These sources have, in the very large majority of cases, an X-ray flux in the range 1 x 10 to the -13th to 6 x 10 to the -12th erg/sq cm/s (0.2-3.5 keV). Thirty-one sources show flux variations with amplitude ranging from about 20 percent to a factor of 6. Flux variations of small amplitude seem to be fairly common, but can be detected only in bright sources or in sources observed with very long exposures. Variations of a factor of 2 or more are seen in about 15 percent of the sources for which variations of such an amplitude are detectable.

  15. Wide allelic heterogeneity with predominance of large IDS gene complex rearrangements in a sample of Mexican patients with Hunter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Ortigoza, M A; García-de Teresa, B; González-Del Angel, A; Berumen, J; Guardado-Estrada, M; Fernández-Hernández, L; Navarrete-Martínez, J I; Maza-Morales, M; Rius-Domínguez, R

    2016-05-01

    Hunter syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII) is caused by pathogenic variants in the IDS gene. This is the first study that examines the mutational spectrum in 25 unrelated Mexican MPSII families. The responsible genotype was identified in 96% of the families (24/25) with 10 novel pathogenic variants: c.133G>C, c.1003C>T, c.1025A>C, c.463_464delinsCCGTATAGCTGG, c.754_767del, c.1132_1133del, c.1463del, c.508-1G>C, c.1006+1G>T and c.(-217_103del). Extensive IDS gene deletions were identified in four patients; using DNA microarray analysis two patients showed the loss of the entire AFF2 gene, and epilepsy developed in only one of them. Wide allelic heterogeneity was noted, with large gene alterations (e.g. IDS/IDSP1 gene inversions, partial to extensive IDS deletions, and one chimeric IDS-IDSP1 allele) that occurred at higher frequencies than previously reported (36% vs 18.9-29%). The frequency of carrier mothers (80%) is consistent with previous descriptions (>70%). Carrier assignment allowed molecular prenatal diagnoses. Notably, somatic and germline mosaicism was identified in one family, and two patients presented thrombocytopenic purpura and pancytopenia after idursulfase enzyme replacement treatment. Our findings suggest a wide allelic heterogeneity in Mexican MPSII patients; DNA microarray analysis contributes to further delineation of the resulting phenotype for IDS and neighboring loci deletions. PMID:26762690

  16. In Situ SAXS/WAXS of Zeolite Microwave Synthesis: NaY, NaA, and Beta Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Panzarella,B.; Tompsett, G.; Conner, W.; Jones, K.

    2007-01-01

    A custom waveguide apparatus is constructed to study the microwave synthesis of zeolites by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The WR-284 waveguide is used to heat precursor solutions using microwaves at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The reaction vessels are designed to include sections of thin-walled glass, which permit X-rays to pass through the precursor solutions with minimal attenuation. Slots were machined into the waveguide to provide windows for X-ray energy to enter and scatter from solutions during microwave heating. The synthesis of zeolites with conventional heating is also studied using X-ray scattering in the same reactor. SAXS studies show that the crystallization of beta zeolite and NaY zeolite is preceded by a reorganization of nanosized particles in their precursor solutions or gels. The evolution of these particles during the nucleation and crystallization stages of zeolite formation depends on the properties of the precursor solution. The synthesis of NaA and NaX zeolites and sodalite from a single zeolite precursor is studied by microwave and conventional heating. Microwave heating shifts the selectivity of this synthesis in favor of NaA and NaX over sodalite; conventional heating leads to the formation of sodalite for synthesis from the same precursor. The use of microwave heating also led to a more rapid onset of NaA zeolite product crystallization compared to conventional heating. Pulsed and continuous microwave heating are compared for zeolite synthesis. The resulting rates of formation of the zeolite products, and the relative amounts of the products determined from the WAXS spectra, are similar when either pulsed or continuous microwave heating is applied in the reactor while maintaining the same synthesis temperature. The consequences of these results in terms of zeolite synthesis are discussed.

  17. Minimization of Childhood Maltreatment Is Common and Consequential: Results from a Large, Multinational Sample Using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Sciolla, Andres F.; Schneider, Beacher; Pappas, Katherine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Bohus, Martin; Bekh, Bradley; Carpenter, Linda; Carr, Alan; Dannlowski, Udo; Dorahy, Martin; Fahlke, Claudia; Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Karu, Tobi; Gerdner, Arne; Glaesmer, Heide; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Heins, Marianne; Kenny, Dianna T; Kim, Daeho; Knoop, Hans; Lobbestael, Jill; Lochner, Christine; Lauritzen, Grethe; Ravndal, Edle; Riggs, Shelley; Sar, Vedat; Schäfer, Ingo; Schlosser, Nicole; Schwandt, Melanie L; Stein, Murray B; Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Vogel, Mark; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has diverse, lifelong impact on morbidity and mortality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is one of the most commonly used scales to assess and quantify these experiences and their impact. Curiously, despite very widespread use of the CTQ, scores on its Minimization-Denial (MD) subscale—originally designed to assess a positive response bias—are rarely reported. Hence, little is known about this measure. If response biases are either common or consequential, current practices of ignoring the MD scale deserve revision. Therewith, we designed a study to investigate 3 aspects of minimization, as defined by the CTQ’s MD scale: 1) its prevalence; 2) its latent structure; and finally 3) whether minimization moderates the CTQ’s discriminative validity in terms of distinguishing between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Archival, item-level CTQ data from 24 multinational samples were combined for a total of 19,652 participants. Analyses indicated: 1) minimization is common; 2) minimization functions as a continuous construct; and 3) high MD scores attenuate the ability of the CTQ to distinguish between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Overall, results suggest that a minimizing response bias—as detected by the MD subscale—has a small but significant moderating effect on the CTQ’s discriminative validity. Results also may suggest that some prior analyses of maltreatment rates or the effects of early maltreatment that have used the CTQ may have underestimated its incidence and impact. We caution researchers and clinicians about the widespread practice of using the CTQ without the MD or collecting MD data but failing to assess and control for its effects on outcomes or dependent variables. PMID:26815788

  18. Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities. PMID:25415659

  19. Problematic Internet Use and Problematic Online Gaming Are Not the Same: Findings from a Large Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities. PMID:25415659

  20. Visual Perceptual Difficulties and Under-Achievement at School in a Large Community-Based Sample of Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cathy; Northstone, Kate; Sabates, Ricardo; Feinstein, Leon; Emond, Alan; Dutton, Gordon N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Difficulties with visual perception (VP) are often described in children with neurological or developmental problems. However, there are few data regarding the range of visual perceptual abilities in populations of normal children, or on the impact of these abilities on children's day-to-day functioning. Methods Data were obtained for 4512 participants in an ongoing birth cohort study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; ALSPAC). The children's mothers responded to questions designed to elicit indications of visual perceptual difficulties or immaturity, when their children were aged 13 years. We examined associations with standardised school test results in reading and in mathematics at age 13–14 years (SATS-KS3), accounting for potential confounders including IQ. Results Three underlying factors explained half the variance in the VP question responses. These correlated best with questions on interpreting cluttered scenes; guidance of movement and face recognition. The adjusted parameter estimates (95% CI) for the cluttered-scenes factor (0.05; 0.02 to 0.08; p<0.001) suggested positive associations with the reading test results whilst that for the guidance-of-movement factor (0.03; 0.00 to 0.06; p = 0.026) suggested positive association with the mathematics results. The raw scores were associated with both test results. Discussion VP abilities were widely distributed in this sample of 13-year old children. Lower levels of VP function were associated with under-achievement in reading and in mathematics. Simple interventions can help children with VP difficulties, so research is needed into practicable, cost-effective strategies for identification and assessment, so that support can be targeted appropriately. PMID:21445286

  1. Fundamental Parameters of a Large, Unbiased Sample of Massive, Young, Embedded Star Clusters in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallilar, Yigit; Barnes, Peter; Lada, Elizabeth; Ryder, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    Massive star cluster formation in our Galaxy is still a mystery. Unlike studies on nearby star formation regions (Pleiades, Orion Nebula), there is no unbiased sample of massive young star clusters except the CHaMP survey, which is focused on the Carina Arm (Barnes et al. 2011, ApJS, 196, 12). In this project, we examine properties of young clusters identified in the CHaMP survey through infrared photometry. Near infrared (J,H,K) imaging was obtained with the Australian Astronomical Telescope and deep mid infrared (IRAC bands 1,2) imaging was obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope during the warm mission. Photometric analysis was performed with a combination of Sextrac- tor and Psfex software. Photometric calibration for NIR data was handled exploiting 2Mass coverage for our fields. For MIR data, photometric calibration was obtained using GLIMPSE coverage for a small number of our images, then bootstrapping this to calibrate other images, since all images are obtained with the same pipeline. To identify cluster members, we provide constraints on the source classification using field AGB stars and faint background galaxies, which have similar characteristics as reddened young stellar objects. Predicted locations of these objects on color-magnitude and color-color diagrams are used as a guide, as are the stellar classification parameter from Sextractor and faint galaxy catalogs covering our fields. We also examine extinction properties towards these young clusters, exploiting well known properties of AGB star population in our fields. Combining the IR data with existing mm-wave specroscopy, we compute values for the gas to dust ratio of these young clusters using extinction properties plus differential H-K color maps and NH column density measurements, all obtained as a part of the CHaMP survey. These results help us to identify evolutionary stages of these young clusters. Eventually, we will constrain cluster properties like age, distance and metallicity with

  2. Minimization of Childhood Maltreatment Is Common and Consequential: Results from a Large, Multinational Sample Using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Kai; Thomas, Michael L; Sciolla, Andres F; Schneider, Beacher; Pappas, Katherine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Bohus, Martin; Bekh, Bradley; Carpenter, Linda; Carr, Alan; Dannlowski, Udo; Dorahy, Martin; Fahlke, Claudia; Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Karu, Tobi; Gerdner, Arne; Glaesmer, Heide; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Heins, Marianne; Kenny, Dianna T; Kim, Daeho; Knoop, Hans; Lobbestael, Jill; Lochner, Christine; Lauritzen, Grethe; Ravndal, Edle; Riggs, Shelley; Sar, Vedat; Schäfer, Ingo; Schlosser, Nicole; Schwandt, Melanie L; Stein, Murray B; Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Vogel, Mark; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has diverse, lifelong impact on morbidity and mortality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is one of the most commonly used scales to assess and quantify these experiences and their impact. Curiously, despite very widespread use of the CTQ, scores on its Minimization-Denial (MD) subscale-originally designed to assess a positive response bias-are rarely reported. Hence, little is known about this measure. If response biases are either common or consequential, current practices of ignoring the MD scale deserve revision. Therewith, we designed a study to investigate 3 aspects of minimization, as defined by the CTQ's MD scale: 1) its prevalence; 2) its latent structure; and finally 3) whether minimization moderates the CTQ's discriminative validity in terms of distinguishing between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Archival, item-level CTQ data from 24 multinational samples were combined for a total of 19,652 participants. Analyses indicated: 1) minimization is common; 2) minimization functions as a continuous construct; and 3) high MD scores attenuate the ability of the CTQ to distinguish between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Overall, results suggest that a minimizing response bias-as detected by the MD subscale-has a small but significant moderating effect on the CTQ's discriminative validity. Results also may suggest that some prior analyses of maltreatment rates or the effects of early maltreatment that have used the CTQ may have underestimated its incidence and impact. We caution researchers and clinicians about the widespread practice of using the CTQ without the MD or collecting MD data but failing to assess and control for its effects on outcomes or dependent variables. PMID:26815788

  3. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes da Silva, L. F. F.; Zamboni, C. B.; Bahovschi, V.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M. F.; Sant'Anna, O. A.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [HIII line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms.

  4. Quantitative Prediction of Beef Quality Using Visible and NIR Spectroscopy with Large Data Samples Under Industry Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, T.; Ren, J.; Craigie, C.; Zabalza, J.; Maltin, Ch.; Marshall, S.

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that the eating quality of beef has a significant influence on the repurchase behavior of consumers. There are several key factors that affect the perception of quality, including color, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. To support consumer repurchase choices, there is a need for an objective measurement of quality that could be applied to meat prior to its sale. Objective approaches such as offered by spectral technologies may be useful, but the analytical algorithms used remain to be optimized. For visible and near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) is a widely used technique for meat related quality modeling and prediction. In this paper, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based machine learning approach is presented to predict beef eating quality traits. Although SVM has been successfully used in various disciplines, it has not been applied extensively to the analysis of meat quality parameters. To this end, the performance of PLSR and SVM as tools for the analysis of meat tenderness is evaluated, using a large dataset acquired under industrial conditions. The spectral dataset was collected using VISNIR spectroscopy with the wavelength ranging from 350 to 1800 nm on 234 beef M. longissimus thoracis steaks from heifers, steers, and young bulls. As the dimensionality with the VISNIR data is very high (over 1600 spectral bands), the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was applied for feature extraction and data reduction. The extracted principal components (less than 100) were then used for data modeling and prediction. The prediction results showed that SVM has a greater potential to predict beef eating quality than PLSR, especially for the prediction of tenderness. The infl uence of animal gender on beef quality prediction was also investigated, and it was found that beef quality traits were predicted most accurately in beef from young bulls.

  5. Long-term resource variation and group size: A large-sample field test of the Resource Dispersion Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dominic DP; Baker, Samantha; Morecroft, Michael D; Macdonald, David W

    2001-01-01

    Background The Resource Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH) proposes a mechanism for the passive formation of social groups where resources are dispersed, even in the absence of any benefits of group living per se. Despite supportive modelling, it lacks empirical testing. The RDH predicts that, rather than Territory Size (TS) increasing monotonically with Group Size (GS) to account for increasing metabolic needs, TS is constrained by the dispersion of resource patches, whereas GS is independently limited by their richness. We conducted multiple-year tests of these predictions using data from the long-term study of badgers Meles meles in Wytham Woods, England. The study has long failed to identify direct benefits from group living and, consequently, alternative explanations for their large group sizes have been sought. Results TS was not consistently related to resource dispersion, nor was GS consistently related to resource richness. Results differed according to data groupings and whether territories were mapped using minimum convex polygons or traditional methods. Habitats differed significantly in resource availability, but there was also evidence that food resources may be spatially aggregated within habitat types as well as between them. Conclusions This is, we believe, the largest ever test of the RDH and builds on the long-term project that initiated part of the thinking behind the hypothesis. Support for predictions were mixed and depended on year and the method used to map territory borders. We suggest that within-habitat patchiness, as well as model assumptions, should be further investigated for improved tests of the RDH in the future. PMID:11511326

  6. AKARI IRC INFRARED 2.5-5 {mu}m SPECTROSCOPY OF A LARGE SAMPLE OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Shirahata, Mai; Ohyama, Yoichi; Onaka, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    We present the results of our systematic infrared 2.5-5 {mu}m spectroscopy of 60 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} = 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} L{sub sun} and 54 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) with L{sub IR} {>=} 10{sup 12} L{sub sun}, using the AKARI Infrared Camera (IRC). AKARI IRC slit-less spectroscopy allows us to probe the full range of emission from these galaxies, including spatially extended components. The 3.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, hydrogen recombination emission lines, and various absorption features are detected and used to investigate the properties of these galaxies. Because of the relatively small effect of dust extinction in the infrared range, quantitative discussion of these dusty galaxy populations is possible. For sources with clearly detectable Br{beta} (2.63 {mu}m) and Br{alpha} (4.05 {mu}m) emission lines, the flux ratios are found to be similar to those predicted by case B theory. Starburst luminosities are estimated from both 3.3 {mu}m PAH and Br{alpha} emission, which roughly agree with each other. In addition to the detected starburst activity, a significant fraction of the observed sources display signatures of obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), such as low PAH equivalent widths, large optical depths of dust absorption features, and red continuum emission. The energetic importance of optically elusive buried AGNs in optically non-Seyfert galaxies tends to increase with increasing galaxy infrared luminosity, from LIRGs to ULIRGs.

  7. Maternal intrusiveness, family financial means, and anxiety across childhood in a large multiphase sample of community youth

    PubMed Central

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive parenting has been positively associated with child anxiety, although examinations of this relationship to date have been largely confined to middle to upper middle class families and have rarely used longitudinal designs. With several leading interventions for child anxiety emphasizing the reduction of parental intrusiveness, it is critical to determine whether the links between parental intrusiveness and child anxiety broadly apply to families of all financial means, and whether parental intrusiveness prospectively predicts the development of child anxiety. This study employed latent growth curve analysis to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal intrusiveness and financial means on the developmental trajectory of child anxiety from 1st grade to age 15 in 1,121 children (50.7% male) and their parents from the NICHD SECCYD. The overall model was found to provide good fit, revealing that early maternal intrusiveness and financial means did not impact individual trajectories of change in child anxiety, which were stable from 1st to 5th grade, and then decrease from 5th grade to age 15. Cross-sectional analyses also examined whether family financial means moderated contemporaneous relationships between maternal intrusiveness and child anxiety in 3rd and 5th grades. The relationship between maternal intrusiveness and child anxiety was moderated by family financial means for 1st graders, with stronger links found among children of lower family financial means, but not for 3rd and 5th graders. Neither maternal intrusiveness nor financial means in 1st grade predicted subsequent changes in anxiety across childhood. Findings help elucidate for whom and when maternal intrusiveness has the greatest link with child anxiety and can inform targeted treatment efforts. PMID:23929005

  8. Undergraduate student drinking and related harms at an Australian university: web-based survey of a large random sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in university student hazardous drinking among the media and policy makers. However there have been no population-based studies in Australia to date. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of hazardous drinking and secondhand effects among undergraduates at a Western Australian university. Method We invited 13,000 randomly selected undergraduate students from a commuter university in Australia to participate in an online survey of university drinking. Responses were received from 7,237 students (56%), who served as participants in this study. Results Ninety percent had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months and 34% met criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT score ≥ 8 and greater than 6 standard drinks in one sitting in the previous month). Men and Australian/New Zealand residents had significantly increased odds (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.9-2.3; OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 4.4-6.2) of being categorised as dependent (AUDIT score 20 or over) than women and non-residents. In the previous 4 weeks, 13% of students had been insulted or humiliated and 6% had been pushed, hit or otherwise assaulted by others who were drinking. One percent of respondents had experienced sexual assault in this time period. Conclusions Half of men and over a third of women were drinking at hazardous levels and a relatively large proportion of students were negatively affected by their own and other students' drinking. There is a need for intervention to reduce hazardous drinking early in university participation. Trial registration ACTRN12608000104358 PMID:22248011

  9. Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Viable Giardia Cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Large-Volume Water Samples with Wound Fiberglass Cartridge Filters and Reverse Transcription-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kaucner, Christine; Stinear, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    We recently described a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for detecting low numbers of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts spiked into clarified environmental water concentrates. We have now modified the assay for direct analysis of primary sample concentrates with simultaneous detection of viable C. parvum oocysts, Giardia cysts, and a novel type of internal positive control (IPC). The IPC was designed to assess both efficiency of mRNA isolation and potential RT-PCR inhibition. Sensitivity testing showed that low numbers of organisms, in the range of a single viable cyst and oocyst, could be detected when spiked into 100-μl packed pellet volumes of concentrates from creek and river water samples. The RT-PCR was compared with an immunofluorescence (IF) assay by analyzing 29 nonspiked environmental water samples. Sample volumes of 20 to 1,500 liters were concentrated with a wound fiberglass cartridge filter. Frequency of detection for viable Giardia cysts increased from 24% by IF microscopy to 69% by RT-PCR. Viable C. parvum oocysts were detected only once by RT-PCR (3%) in contrast to detection of viable Cryptosporidium spp. in four samples by IF microscopy (14%), suggesting that Cryptosporidium species other than C. parvum were present in the water. This combination of the large-volume sampling method with RT-PCR represents a significant advance in terms of protozoan pathogen monitoring and in the wider application of PCR technology to this field of microbiology. PMID:9572946

  10. Method for determination of neptunium in large-sized urine samples using manganese dioxide coprecipitation and 242Pu as yield tracer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-02-01

    A novel method for bioassay of large volumes of human urine samples using manganese dioxide coprecipitation for preconcentration was developed for rapid determination of (237)Np. (242)Pu was utilized as a nonisotopic tracer to monitor the chemical yield of (237)Np. A sequential injection extraction chromatographic (SI-EC) system coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was exploited to facilitate the rapid column separation and quantification. The analytical results demonstrated satisfactory performance of the MnO(2) coprecipitation as indicated by the high chemical yields close to 100% and high separation capacity of processing up to 5 L of human urine samples. The MnO(2) coprecipitation process is simple and straightforward in which a batch (8-12) of samples can be pretreated within 4 h (i.e., <0.5 h/sample). In connection with the automated column separation and ICPMS quantification, which takes less than 1.5 h in total, the overall analytical time was on average less than 2 h for each sample. The high effectiveness and sample throughput make the developed method well suited for urine bioassay of (237)Np in routine monitoring of occupationally internal radiation exposure and rapid analysis of neptunium contamination level for emergency preparedness. PMID:23252688

  11. Detection of Babesia bovis in blood samples and its effect on the hematological and serum biochemical profile in large ruminants from Southern Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Zulfiqar, Samreen; Shahnawaz, Sadia; Ali, Muhammad; Bhutta, Arif Mahmood; Iqbal, Shahid; Hayat, Sikandar; Qadir, Shazia; Latif, Muhammad; Kiran, Nazia; Saeed, Ali; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the presence of Babesia bovis (B. bovis) in large ruminants in southern Punjab and its effect on hematological and serum biochemical profile of host animals. Methods Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, including 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts in southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite positive and negative samples to demonstrate the effect of B. bovis on the blood and serological profile of infected animals. Results 27 out of 144 animals, from 5 out of 6 sampling districts, produced the 541-bp fragment specific for B. bovis. Age of animals (P=0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P=0.04) and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P=0.5) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of bovine babesiosis in the study area. ALT concentrations were the only serum biochemical values that significantly varied between parasite positive and negative cattle. Conclusions : This study has reported for the first time the presence of B. bovis in large ruminant and the results can lead to the prevention of babesiosis in the region to increase the livestock output. PMID:23569878

  12. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  13. Women's weight and disordered eating in a large Norwegian community sample: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    Eik-Nes, Trine; Romild, Ulla; Guzey, Ismail; Holmen, Turid; Micali, Nadia; Bjørnelv, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An increasing part of the population is affected by disordered eating (DE) even though they do not meet the full eating disorder (ED) criteria. To improve treatment in the range of weight-related disorders, there is a need to improve our knowledge about DE and relevant correlates of weight problems such as underweight, overweight and obesity. However, studies investigating DE and weight problems in a wide range of ages in the general population have been lacking. This paper explores DE, weight problems, dieting and weight dissatisfaction among women in a general population sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3). Participants The population included 27 252 women, aged 19–99 years, with information on DE outcomes and covariates. Outcomes DE was assessed with an 8-item version of the Eating Attitude Test and the Eating Disorder Scale-5. Body mass index (BMI) was objectively measured. Data on dieting and weight dissatisfaction were collected from self-reported questionnaires and analysed across weight categories. Crude and adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used. Results High rates of overweight (38%) and obesity (23%) were found. DE was associated with weight problems. In women aged <30 years, 11.8% (95% CI 10.3 to 13.1) reported DE, and 12% (95% CI 11.5 to 12.6) reported DE in women aged >30 years. In those of younger ages (19–29 years), lower weight predicted DE, while increasing weight predicted DE in older aged women (30–99 years). The majority of women were dissatisfied with their weight (58.8%), and 54.1% of the women reported dieting. Neither BMI status nor age was associated with dieting or weight dissatisfaction. Conclusions A high prevalence of DE was observed, and findings suggest that weight problems and DE are not distinct from one another. Dieting was associated with women's weight dissatisfaction, rather than with actual weight

  14. A method for preparing 2- to 50-micron-thick fresh-frozen sections of large samples and undecalcified hard tissues.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, T; Shimizu, M

    2000-05-01

    This article describes a method for preparing 2- to 50-micron-thick fresh-frozen sections from large samples and completely calcified tissue samples. In order to perform the more routine work involved, a tungsten carbide disposable blade was installed to a heavy-duty sledge cryomicrotome. An entire 10-day-old rat and bone and tooth samples from a 7-month-old rat were rapidly frozen. The frozen samples were attached to the cryomicrotome stage. The cutting surface of the samples was covered with a polyvinylidene chloride film coated with synthetic rubber cement and cut at -25 degrees C. The soft tissues and the hard tissues were satisfactorily preserved and all tissue cells were easily identifiable. Enzymatic activity in the fresh sections was much stronger than that in chemically fixed and/or decalcified sections. The sections permitted histological and histochemical studies without trouble. In addition, the sections can be used for multiple experiments such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microprobe X-ray micro-analysis. This method can be used with conventional cryomicrotome equipment. PMID:10883392

  15. Large-Scale Multiplexed Quantitative Discovery Proteomics Enabled by the Use of an O-18-Labeled “Universal” Reference Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Kaushal, Amit; Xiao, Wenzhong; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jescheke, Marc G.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Davis, Ronald W.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Hemdon, David N.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative comparison of protein abundances across a relatively large number of patient samples is an important challenge for clinical proteomic applications. Herein we describe a dual-quantitation strategy that allows the simultaneous integration of complementary label-free and stable isotope labeling based approaches without increasing the number of LC-MS analyses. The approach utilizes a stable isotope 18O-labeled “universal” reference sample as a comprehensive set of internal standards spiked into each individually processed unlabeled patient sample. The quantitative data are based on both the direct 16O-MS intensities for label-free quantitation and the 16O/18O isotopic peptide pair ratios that compare each patient sample to the identical labeled reference. The effectiveness of this dual-quantitation approach for large scale quantitative proteomics is demonstrated by the application to a set of 38 clinical plasma samples from surviving and non-surviving severe burn patients. With the coupling of immunoaffinity depletion, cysteinyl-peptide enrichment based fractionation, high resolution LC-MS measurements, and the dual-quantitation approach, a total of 318 proteins were confidently quantified with at least two peptides and 263 proteins were quantified by both approaches. The strategy also enabled a direct comparison between the two approaches with the labeling approach showing significantly better precision in quantitation while the label-free approach resulted in more protein identifications. The relative abundance differences determined by the two approaches also show strong correlation. Finally, the dual-quantitation strategy allowed us to identify more candidate protein biomarkers, illustrating the complementary nature of the two quantitative methods.

  16. Dual-domain microchip-based process for volume reduction solid phase extraction of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Carmen R; Hagan, Kristin A; Strachan, Briony C; Higginson, Joshua J; Bienvenue, Joan M; Greenspoon, Susan A; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2010-07-01

    A microfluidic device was developed to carry out integrated volume reduction and purification of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples commonly encountered in forensic genetic analysis. The dual-phase device seamlessly integrates two orthogonal solid-phase extraction (SPE) processes, a silica solid phase using chaotrope-driven binding and an ion exchange phase using totally aqueous chemistry (chitosan phase), providing the unique capability of removing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors used in silica-based extractions (guanidine and isopropanol). Nucleic acids from a large volume sample are shown to undergo a substantial volume reduction on the silica phase, followed by a more stringent extraction on the chitosan phase. The key to interfacing the two steps is mixing of the eluted nucleic acids from the first phase with loading buffer which is facilitated by flow-mediated mixing over a herringbone mixing region in the device. The complete aqueous chemistry associated with the second purification step yields a highly concentrated PCR-ready eluate of nucleic acids devoid of PCR inhibitors that are reagent-based (isopropanol) and sample-based (indigo dye), both of which are shown to be successfully removed using the dual-phase device but not by the traditional microfluidic SPE (muSPE). The utility of the device for purifying DNA was demonstrated with dilute whole blood, dilute semen, a semen stain, and a blood sample inhibited with indigo dye, with the resultant DNA from all shown to be PCR amplifiable. The same samples purified using muSPE were not all PCR amplifiable due to a smaller concentration of the DNA and the lack of PCR-compatible aqueous chemistry in the extraction method. The utility of the device for the purification of RNA was also demonstrated, by the extraction of RNA from a dilute semen sample, with the resulting RNA amplified using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The vrSPE-SPE device reliably yields a volume reduction for

  17. Oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the dispersive solid-phase extraction of quinolone antibiotics from water samples using capillary electrophoresis and large volume sample stacking with polarity switching.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Afonso, María M; Palenzuela, J Antonio; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2011-08-01

    In this work, a new method for the determination of eleven quinolone antibiotics (moxifloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin, pefloxacin, oxolinic acid and flumequine) in different water samples using dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) and capillary zone electrophoresis with diode-array detection was developed. Oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNTs) were used for the first time as stationary phases for the off-line preconcentration by dSPE of the antibiotics. A 65 mM phosphate buffer at pH 8.5 was found adequate for analyte separation while large volume sample stacking with polarity switching of the analytes dissolved in water containing 10% (v/v) of acetonitrile was carried out in order to improve the sensitivity. dSPE parameters, such as sample volume and pH, o-MWCNT amount, volume and type of eluent in dSPE were optimized. Application of the developed method to the analysis of spiked Milli-Q, mineral, tap, and wastewater samples resulted in good recoveries values ranging from 62.3 to 116% with relative standard deviation values lower than 7.7% in all cases. Limits of detection were in the range of 28-94 ng/L. The proposed method is very fast, simple, repeatable, accurate and highly selective. PMID:21726875

  18. Implicit and Explicit Anti-Fat Bias among a Large Sample of Medical Doctors by BMI, Race/Ethnicity and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Sabin, Janice A.; Marini, Maddalena; Nosek, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight patients report weight discrimination in health care settings and subsequent avoidance of routine preventive health care. The purpose of this study was to examine implicit and explicit attitudes about weight among a large group of medical doctors (MDs) to determine the pervasiveness of negative attitudes about weight among MDs. Test-takers voluntarily accessed a public Web site, known as Project Implicit®, and opted to complete the Weight Implicit Association Test (IAT) (N = 359,261). A sub-sample identified their highest level of education as MD (N = 2,284). Among the MDs, 55% were female, 78% reported their race as white, and 62% had a normal range BMI. This large sample of test-takers showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen’s d = 1.0). MDs, on average, also showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen’s d = 0.93). All test-takers and the MD sub-sample reported a strong preference for thin people rather than fat people or a strong explicit anti-fat bias. We conclude that strong implicit and explicit anti-fat bias is as pervasive among MDs as it is among the general public. An important area for future research is to investigate the association between providers’ implicit and explicit attitudes about weight, patient reports of weight discrimination in health care, and quality of care delivered to overweight patients. PMID:23144885

  19. Implicit and explicit anti-fat bias among a large sample of medical doctors by BMI, race/ethnicity and gender.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Janice A; Marini, Maddalena; Nosek, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Overweight patients report weight discrimination in health care settings and subsequent avoidance of routine preventive health care. The purpose of this study was to examine implicit and explicit attitudes about weight among a large group of medical doctors (MDs) to determine the pervasiveness of negative attitudes about weight among MDs. Test-takers voluntarily accessed a public Web site, known as Project Implicit®, and opted to complete the Weight Implicit Association Test (IAT) (N = 359,261). A sub-sample identified their highest level of education as MD (N = 2,284). Among the MDs, 55% were female, 78% reported their race as white, and 62% had a normal range BMI. This large sample of test-takers showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen's d = 1.0). MDs, on average, also showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen's d = 0.93). All test-takers and the MD sub-sample reported a strong preference for thin people rather than fat people or a strong explicit anti-fat bias. We conclude that strong implicit and explicit anti-fat bias is as pervasive among MDs as it is among the general public. An important area for future research is to investigate the association between providers' implicit and explicit attitudes about weight, patient reports of weight discrimination in health care, and quality of care delivered to overweight patients. PMID:23144885

  20. Detecting the land-cover changes induced by large-physical disturbances using landscape metrics, spatial sampling, simulation and spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Yu-Pin; Huang, Yu-Long; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to integrate the conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and spatial analysis in remotely sensed images, to monitor the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial heterogeneity and variability. The multiple NDVI images demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by spatial analysis such as variogram, Moran'I and landscape metrics in the study area. The hybrid method delineates the spatial patterns and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The cLHS approach is applied to select samples from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images from SPOT HRV images in the Chenyulan watershed of Taiwan, and then SGS with sufficient samples is used to generate maps of NDVI images. In final, the NDVI simulated maps are verified using indexes such as the correlation coefficient and mean absolute error (MAE). Therefore, the statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images present a very robust behavior, which advocates the use of the index for the quantification of the landscape spatial patterns and land cover change. In addition, the results transferred by Open Geospatial techniques can be accessed from web-based and end-user applications of the watershed management. PMID:22399972

  1. A Critical Proton MR Spectroscopy Marker of Alzheimer's Disease Early Neurodegenerative Change: Low Hippocampal NAA/Cr Ratio Impacts APOE ɛ4 Mexico City Children and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Melo-Sánchez, Gastón; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Styner, Martin; Mukherjee, Partha S; Lin, Weili; Jewells, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Severe air pollution exposures produce systemic, respiratory, myocardial, and brain inflammation and Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmarks in clinically healthy children. We tested whether hippocampal metabolite ratios are associated with contrasting levels of air pollution, APOE, and body mass index (BMI) in paired healthy children and one parent sharing the same APOE alleles. We used 1H-MRS to interrogate bilateral hippocampal single-voxel in 57 children (12.45 ± 3.4 years) and their 48 parents (37.5 ± 6.78 years) from a low pollution city versus Mexico City (MC). NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr metabolite ratios were analyzed. The right hippocampus NAA/Cr ratio was significantly different between cohorts (p = 0.007). The NAA/Cr ratio in right hippocampus in controls versus APOE ɛ4 MC children and in left hippocampus in MC APOE ɛ4 parents versus their children was significantly different after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI (p = 0.027 and 0.01, respectively). The NAA/Cr ratio is considered reflective of neuronal density/functional integrity/loss of synapses/higher pTau burden, thus a significant decrease in hippocampal NAA/Cr ratios may constitute a spectral marker of early neurodegeneration in young urbanites. Decreases in NAA/Cr correlate well with cognitive function, behavioral symptoms, and dementia severity; thus, since the progression of AD starts decades before clinical diagnosis, our findings support the hypothesis that under chronic exposures to fine particulate matter and ozone above the standards, neurodegenerative processes start in childhood and APOE ɛ4 carriers are at higher risk. Gene and environmental factors are critical in the development of AD and the identification and neuroprotection of young urbanites at high risk must become a public health priority. PMID:26402110

  2. Different profiles of acute stress disorder differentially predict posttraumatic stress disorder in a large sample of female victims of sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Shevlin, Mark; Hyland, Philip; Elklit, Ask

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to test the dimensional structure of acute stress disorder (ASD). Latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (Bryant, Moulds, & Guthrie, 2000) using a large sample of female victims of sexual trauma. Four distinct classes were found. Two of the classes represented high and low levels of ASD, and the high ASD class was associated with a high probability of subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There were 2 intermediate classes that were differentiated by the number of arousal symptoms, and the class with high levels of arousal symptoms had a higher risk of PTSD. The results suggested that ASD is best described by qualitatively and quantitatively differing subgroups in this sample, whereas previous research has assumed ASD to be dimensional. This may explain the limited success of using ASD to predict subsequent PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24978131

  3. A New Sample Transect through the Sierra Madre Occidental Silicic Large Igneous Province in Southern Chihuahua State, Mexico: First Stratigraphic, Petrologic, and Geochemical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, G. D.; Davila Harris, P.; Brown, S. R.; Anderson, L.; Moreno, N.

    2014-12-01

    We completed a field sampling transect across the northern Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province (SMO) in December 2013. Here we present the first stratigraphic, petrological, and geochemical data from the transect between Hidalgo del Parral and Guadalupe y Calvo, Chihuahua, Mexico. This is the first new transect across the SMO in 25 years and the only one between existing NE - SW transects at Chihuahua - Hermosillo and Durango - Mazatlan. The 245 km-long transect along Mexican Highway 24 crosses the boundary between the extended (Basin and Range) and non-extended (Sierra Madre Occidental plateau) parts of the SMO, and allows sampling of previously undescribed Oligocene (?) - early Miocene (?) rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas, and occasional post-rhyolite, Miocene (?) SCORBA basaltic andesite lavas. 54 samples of rhyolitic ignimbrites (40) and lavas (7), and basaltic andesite lavas (7) were sampled along the transect, including 8 canyon sections with more than one unit. The ignimbrites are overwhelming rhyodacitic (plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) or rhyolitic (quartz (+/- sanidine) in additon to plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) and sparsely to highly phyric. Preliminary petrographic (phenocryst abundances) and geochemical (major and trace element) will be presented and compared to existing data from elsewhere in the SMO. Future work will include U-Pb zircon dating and whole rock and in-zircon radiogenic isotopes analyses.

  4. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. PMID:24703526

  5. A Large Sample Volume Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Probe for In-Situ Investigations with Constant Flow of Reactants

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Sears, Jesse A.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Ford, Joseph J.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhu, Kake; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Hoyt, David W.; Peden, Charles HF

    2012-02-21

    A large-sample-volume constant-flow magic angle sample spinning (CF-MAS) NMR probe is reported for in-situ studies of the reaction dynamics, stable intermediates/transition states, and mechanisms of catalytic reactions. In our approach, the reactants are introduced into the catalyst bed using a fixed tube at one end of the MAS rotor while a second fixed tube, linked to a vacuum pump, is attached at the other end of the rotor. The pressure difference between both ends of the catalyst bed inside the sample cell space forces the reactants flowing through the catalyst bed, which improves the diffusion of the reactants and products. This design allows the use of a large sample volume for enhanced sensitivity and thus permitting in-situ 13C CF-MAS studies at natural abundance. As an example of application, we show that reactants, products and reaction transition states associated with the 2-butanol dehydration reaction over a mesoporous silicalite supported heteropoly acid catalyst (HPA/meso-silicalite-1) can all be detected in a single 13C CF-MAS NMR spectrum at natural abundance. Coke products can also be detected at natural 13C abundance and under the stopped flow condition. Furthermore, 1H CF-MAS NMR is used to identify the surface functional groups of HPA/meso-silicalite-1 under the condition of in-situ drying . We also show that the reaction dynamics of 2-butanol dehydration using HPA/meso-silicalite-1 as a catalyst can be explored using 1H CF-MAS NMR.

  6. Development of high internal phase emulsion polymeric monoliths for highly efficient enrichment of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from large-volume water samples.

    PubMed

    Su, Rihui; Ruan, Guihua; Nie, Honggang; Xie, Ting; Zheng, Yanjie; Du, Fuyou; Li, Jianping

    2015-07-31

    In this work, polymerized high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE) monoliths were prepared and applied as monolithic adsorbent materials for proconcentration of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from large-volume water samples. The monolithic polyHIPE columns were prepared by in situ polymerization of the continuous phase of a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing styrene (STY), divinylbenzene (DVB) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) in pipette tips, and the resulting STY/DVB/GMA polyHIPE monoliths exhibited highly interconnected porosity and large surface areas, making them excellent candidates as adsorbents for enrichment of trace aromatic compounds. The prepared STY/DVB/GMA polyHIPE monoliths were applied to the determination of trace PAHs in environmental water samples by combing with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the polyHIPE monoliths could effectively enrich trace 13 PAHs from 500mL of water samples, the mean recoveries at four spiked levels were ranged from 80.7% to 115.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 14%, and the detection limits (LODs) were ranged from 4.0 to 228pg/L. In addition, the prepared polyHIPE monolith was stable enough for more than 200 replicate extraction cycles without measurable loss of performance on the enrichment of PAHs, and good column-to-column repeatability was obtained with RSD less than 13%. The proposed method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 13 PAHs in water samples with satisfactory recoveries. PMID:26077972

  7. Influence of large-scale motion on turbulent transport for confined coaxial jets. Volume 1: Analytical analysis of the experimental data using conditional sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brondum, D. C.; Bennett, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of large scale coherent structures in turbulent shear flows has been well documented. Discrepancies between experimental and computational data suggest a necessity to understand the roles they play in mass and momentum transport. Using conditional sampling and averaging on coincident two component velocity and concentration velocity experimental data for swirling and nonswirling coaxial jets, triggers for identifying the structures were examined. Concentration fluctuation was found to be an adequate trigger or indicator for the concentration-velocity data, but no suitable detector was located for the two component velocity data. The large scale structures are found in the region where the largest discrepancies exist between model and experiment. The traditional gradient transport model does not fit in this region as a result of these structures. The large scale motion was found to be responsible for a large percentage downstream at approximately the mean velocity of the overall flow in the axial direction. The radial mean velocity of the structures was found to be substantially greater than that of the overall flow.

  8. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, s...

  9. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. Methods A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. Results We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. Conclusion The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables. PMID:25657583

  10. Enantioselective column coupled electrophoresis employing large bore capillaries hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry for ultra-trace determination of chiral compounds in complex real samples.

    PubMed

    Piešťanský, Juraj; Maráková, Katarína; Kovaľ, Marián; Havránek, Emil; Mikuš, Peter

    2015-12-01

    A new multidimensional analytical approach for the ultra-trace determination of target chiral compounds in unpretreated complex real samples was developed in this work. The proposed analytical system provided high orthogonality due to on-line combination of three different methods (separation mechanisms), i.e. (1) isotachophoresis (ITP), (2) chiral capillary zone electrophoresis (chiral CZE), and (3) triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ MS). The ITP step, performed in a large bore capillary (800 μm), was utilized for the effective sample pretreatment (preconcentration and matrix clean-up) in a large injection volume (1-10 μL) enabling to obtain as low as ca. 80 pg/mL limits of detection for the target enantiomers in urine matrices. In the chiral CZE step, the different chiral selectors (neutral, ionizable, and permanently charged cyclodextrins) and buffer systems were tested in terms of enantioselectivity and influence on the MS detection response. The performance parameters of the optimized ITP - chiral CZE-QqQ MS method were evaluated according to the FDA guidance for bioanalytical method validation. Successful validation and application (enantioselective monitoring of renally eliminated pheniramine and its metabolite in human urine) highlighted great potential of this chiral approach in advanced enantioselective biomedical applications. PMID:26377388

  11. Velocity dispersions and dynamical masses for a large sample of quiescent galaxies at z >1: Improved measures of the growth in mass and size

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, Sirio; Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S.

    2014-03-10

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy for a sample of 103 massive (M > 10{sup 10.6} M {sub ☉}) galaxies with redshifts 0.9 < z < 1.6. Of these, 56 are quiescent with high signal-to-noise absorption line spectra, enabling us to determine robust stellar velocity dispersions for the largest sample yet available beyond a redshift of 1. Together with effective radii measured from deep Hubble Space Telescope images, we calculate dynamical masses and address key questions relating to the puzzling size growth claimed by many observers for quiescent galaxies over the redshift interval 0 < z < 2. Our large sample provides the first opportunity to carefully examine the relationship between stellar and dynamical masses at high redshift. We find this relation closely follows that determined locally. We also confirm the utility of the locally established empirical calibration which enables high-redshift velocity dispersions to be estimated photometrically, and we determine its accuracy to be 35%. To address recent suggestions that progenitor bias—the continued arrival of recently quenched larger galaxies—can largely explain the size evolution of quiescent galaxies, we examine the growth at fixed velocity dispersion assuming this quantity is largely unaffected by the merger history. Using the velocity dispersion-age relation observed in the local universe, we demonstrate that significant size and mass growth have clearly occurred in individual systems. Parameterizing the relation between mass and size growth over 0 < z < 1.6 as R∝M {sup α}, we find α = 1.6 ± 0.3, in agreement with theoretical expectations from simulations of minor mergers. Relaxing the assumption that the velocity dispersion is unchanging, we examine growth assuming a constant ranking in galaxy velocity dispersion. This approach is applicable only to the large-dispersion tail of the distribution, but yields a consistent growth rate of α = 1.4 ± 0.2. Both methods confirm that progenitor bias alone is

  12. k0-NAA quality assessment in an Algerian laboratory by analysis of SMELS and four IAEA reference materials using Es-Salam research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidatou, L. A.; Dekar, S.; Boukari, S.

    2012-08-01

    Different types of synthetic multi-element standard material (SMELS) and four IAEA reference materials, 140, Sl-1, Soil-7 and Lichen-336 were analyzed for validation and QC/QA of the k0-standardised Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-NAA). The samples of SMELS and RMs were irradiated at Es-Salam research reactor and measured on an absolutely calibrated HPGe detector with 35% relative efficiency connected to a Canberra Genie 2k inspector. Concentrations of 33 elements such as As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, In, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb, Zn, and Zr were determined in SMELS and RMs. The analytical results agreed well with the assigned values of SMELS and certified values of RMs. In the case of RMs, concentrations of a few elements, whose certified values are not available, could be determined. The comparison between experimental values and assigned/certified data for SMELS and RMs was made by means of the results from Relative Bias, Z-score and U-score. The relatives bias of the elements determined in SMELS with respect to the assigned values were all within±4.6%. For RMs with respect to certified values were within±10% except for few elements for which RB varied from -28.6% to +12.8%. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level for most of the elements in both the materials were within ±1. The U-scores for most of the elements were lower than 1.

  13. The Hiroshima thermal-neutron discrepancy for (36)Cl at large distances. Part I: New (36)Cl measurements in granite samples exposed to A-bomb neutrons.

    PubMed

    Huber, Thomas; Rühm, Werner; Kato, Kazuo; Egbert, Stephen D; Kubo, Florian; Lazarev, Vitali; Nolte, Eckehart

    2005-10-01

    The long-lived radioisotope (36)Cl (half-life: 301,000 years) was measured in granite samples exposed to A-bomb neutrons at distances from 94 to 1,591 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima, by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios decrease from 1.6 x 10(-10) close to the hypocenter to about 1-2 x 10(-13), at a distance of 1,300 m from the hypocenter. At this distance and beyond the measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios do not change significantly and scatter around values of 1-2 x 10(-13). These findings suggest that the (36)Cl had been predominantly produced by thermalized neutrons from the A-bomb via neutron capture on stable (35)Cl, at distances from the hypocenter smaller than about 1,200 m. At larger distances, however, confounding processes induced by cosmic rays or neutrons from the decay of uranium and thorium become important. This hypothesis is theoretically and experimentally supported in a consecutive paper. The results are compared to calculations that are based on the most recent dosimetry system DS02. Close to the hypocenter, measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios are lower than those calculated, while they are significantly higher at large distances from the hypocenter. If the contribution of the cosmic rays and of the neutrons from the decay of uranium and thorium in the sample was subtracted, however, no significant deviation from the DS02 calculations was observed, at those distances. Thus, the Hiroshima neutron discrepancy reported in the literature for (36)Cl for samples from large distances from the hypocenter, i.e., higher measured (36)Cl/Cl ratios than predicted by the previous dosimetry system DS86, was not confirmed. PMID:16177928

  14. The bispectrum of the Lyman α forest at z~ 2-2.4 from a large sample of UVES QSO absorption spectra (LUQAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viel, M.; Matarrese, S.; Heavens, A.; Haehnelt, M. G.; Kim, T.-S.; Springel, V.; Hernquist, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a determination of the bispectrum of the flux in the Lyman α forest of quasi-stellar object (QSO) absorption spectra obtained from a large sample of Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) QSO absorption spectra (LUQAS), which consists of spectra observed with the high-resolution UVES. Typical errors on the observed bispectrum as obtained from a jack-knife estimator are ~ 50 per cent. For wavenumbers in the range 0.03 < k < 0.1 s km-1 the observed bispectrum agrees within the errors with that of the synthetic absorption spectra obtained from numerical hydro-simulations of a ΛCDM model with and without feedback from star formation. Including galactic feedback changes the bispectrum by less than 10 per cent. At smaller wavenumbers, the associated metal absorption lines contribute about 50 per cent to the bispectrum and the observed bispectrum exceeds that of the simulations. At wavenumbers k < 0.03 s km-1, second-order perturbation theory applied to the flux spectrum gives a reasonable (errors smaller than 30 per cent) approximation to the bispectra of observed and simulated absorption spectra. The bispectrum of the observed absorption spectra also agrees, within the errors, with that of a randomized set of absorption spectra where a random shift in wavelength has been added to absorption lines identified with VPFIT. This suggests that for a sample of the size presented here, the errors on the bispectrum are too large to discriminate between models with very different 3D distribution of Lyman α absorption. If it were possible to substantially reduce these errors for larger samples of absorption spectra, the bispectrum might become an important statistical tool for probing the growth of gravitational structure in the Universe at redshift z>~ 2.

  15. Statistical searches for microlensing events in large, non-uniformly sampled time-domain surveys: A test using palomar transient factory data

    SciTech Connect

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Fournier, Amanda P.; Street, Rachel; Ofek, Eran O.; Covey, Kevin R.; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason

    2014-01-20

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ∼20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ∼40 times in the R band, ∼2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  16. In Situ Investigation of the 3D Mechanical Microstructure at Nanoscale: Nano-CT Imaging Method of Local Small Region in Large Scale Sample

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Hu, Xiao-fang; Qu, Hong-yan; Kang, Dan; Xiao, Ti-qiao

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the local micro-/nanoscale region in a large scale sample, an image reconstruction method for nanometer computed tomography (nano-CT) was proposed in this paper. In the algorithm, wavelets were used to localize the filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm because of its space-frequency localization property. After the implementation of the algorithm, two simulation local reconstruction experiments were performed to confirm its effectiveness. Three evaluation criteria were used in the experiments to judge the quality of the reconstructed images. The experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper performed best because (1) the quality of its results had improved 20%–30% compared to the results of FBP and 10%–30% compared to the results of another wavelet algorithm; (2) the new algorithm was stable under different circumstances. Besides, an actual reconstruction experiment was performed using real projection data that had been collected in a CT experiment. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images of the sample were reconstructed. The microstructure of the sample could be clearly observed in the reconstructed images. Since much attention has been directed towards the nano-CT technique to investigate the microstructure of materials, this new wavelet-based local tomography algorithm could be considered as a meaningful effort. PMID:24723829

  17. In situ investigation of the 3D mechanical microstructure at nanoscale: nano-CT imaging method of local small region in large scale sample.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bo; Xu, Feng; Hu, Xiao-fang; Qu, Hong-yan; Kang, Dan; Xiao, Ti-qiao

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the local micro-/nanoscale region in a large scale sample, an image reconstruction method for nanometer computed tomography (nano-CT) was proposed in this paper. In the algorithm, wavelets were used to localize the filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm because of its space-frequency localization property. After the implementation of the algorithm, two simulation local reconstruction experiments were performed to confirm its effectiveness. Three evaluation criteria were used in the experiments to judge the quality of the reconstructed images. The experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper performed best because (1) the quality of its results had improved 20%-30% compared to the results of FBP and 10%-30% compared to the results of another wavelet algorithm; (2) the new algorithm was stable under different circumstances. Besides, an actual reconstruction experiment was performed using real projection data that had been collected in a CT experiment. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images of the sample were reconstructed. The microstructure of the sample could be clearly observed in the reconstructed images. Since much attention has been directed towards the nano-CT technique to investigate the microstructure of materials, this new wavelet-based local tomography algorithm could be considered as a meaningful effort. PMID:24723829

  18. Trace analysis of oxidized, nitrated, and chlorinated aromatic amino acids by capillary electrophoresis with electroosmotic flow modification allowing large-volume sample stacking.

    PubMed

    Tábi, Tamás; Magyar, Kálmán; Szöko, Eva

    2005-05-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of the oxidized, nitrated, and chlorinated aromatic amino acids, as well as their parent compounds. These modifications of the aromatic amino acids in proteins or free form are induced by the attack of reactive, mainly free radical species generated during cell stress, and these stable products may serve as biomarkers of cell damage. The analytes tyrosine, phenylalanine, dihydroxyphenylalanine, tryptophan, 3-nitrotyrosine, 3-chlorotyrosine, ortho-tyrosine, meta-tyrosine, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (internal standard 1), and alpha-methyltyrosine (internal standard 2) were separated in their anionic forms in alkaline borate buffer. The polyamine spermine was used as electroosmotic flow (EOF) modifier. Adsorbing to the capillary wall, spermine can either suppress or even reverse the EOF depending on its concentration and the pH. The effects of the pH of the separation buffer, the spermine concentration, the temperature, and the applied field strength on the separation were examined. The modified aromatic amino acids are present in biological fluids in a much lower concentration than their parent compounds, thus high detection sensitivity of the analytical method is required. To achieve good detection sensitivity, field-amplified sample stacking of large injection volumes was applied. Omitting polyamine from the sample buffer allowed local reversal of the EOF, thus removal of the low conductivity sample buffer at the capillary inlet. In this way, 100% of the capillary to the detection window could be filled with the sample, and the detection limits achieved for the modified aromatic amino acids were in the range of 2.5-10 nM. PMID:15818575

  19. Elastic Properties of Subduction Zone Materials in the Large Shallow Slip Environment for the Tohoku 2011 Earthquake: Laboratory data from JFAST Core Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppson, T.; Tobin, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw=9.0) produced large displacements of ~50 meters near the Japan Trench. In order to understand earthquake propagation and slip stabilization in this environment, quantitative values of the real elastic properties of fault zones and their surrounding wall rock material is crucial. Because elastic and mechanical properties of faults and wallrocks are controlling factors in fault strength, earthquake generation and propagation, and slip stabilization, an understanding of these properties and their depth dependence is essential to understanding and accurately modeling earthquake rupture. In particular, quantitatively measured S-wave speeds, needed for estimation of elastic properties, are scarce in the literature. We report laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements performed at elevated pressures, as well as the calculated dynamic elastic moduli, for samples of the rock surrounding the Tohoku earthquake principal fault zone recovered by drilling during IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). We performed measurements on five samples of gray mudstone from the hanging wall and one sample of underthrust brown mudstone from the footwall. We find P- and S-wave velocities of 2.0 to 2.4 km/s and 0.7 to 1.0 km/s, respectively, at 5 MPa effective pressure. At the same effective pressure, the hanging wall samples have shear moduli ranging from 1.4 to 2.2 GPa and the footwall sample has a shear modulus of 1.0 GPa. While these values are perhaps not surprising for shallow, clay-rich subduction zone sediments, they are substantially lower than the 30 GPa commonly assumed for rigidity in earthquake rupture and propagation models [e.g., Ide et al., 1993; Liu and Rice, 2005; Loveless and Meade, 2011]. In order to better understand the elastic properties of shallow subduction zone sediments, our measurements from the Japan Trench are compared to similar shallow drill core samples from the Nankai Trough, Costa Rica

  20. Comprehensive gas chromatography with Time of Flight MS and large volume introduction for the detection of fluoride-induced regenerated nerve agent in biological samples.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, J A; Trap, H C; Noort, D; van der Schans, M J

    2010-05-15

    Recently, several methods have been developed to verify exposure to nerve agents. Most of these methods, such as the fluoride reactivation technique and the analysis of inhibited phosphonylated butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), are based on mass spectrometry. The high specificity of the mass spectrometer might also imply a disadvantage, because the acquisition mass, i.e. the identity of the analyte must be known beforehand in order to direct the MS analysis in the most sensitive mode. In real cases, the identity of the nerve agent is not always known beforehand and the mass spectrometer should be operated in a scanning mode, with the consequence that sensitivity of the method will be lower. Comprehensive GC, or GC x GC, is a technique which offers enhanced separation. The implied larger selectivity of the GC separation allows mass spectrometry to be conducted in a less specific, scanning, mode. By the use of this configuration, the identity of the nerve agent does not have to be known beforehand but can be traced. In order to be able to detect lower concentrations and assess lower exposure levels, a large volume injection technique was developed allowing sample sizes up to 100 microL. The technique was tested with plasma samples that had been inhibited with various nerve agents. Subsequently, the cholinesterase-bound nerve agent was regenerated by the fluoride reactivation technique. Using the newly developed comprehensive GC-MS method it was possible to detect nerve agent at an exposure level of 1% BuChE inhibition, which is approximately 70 pg nerve agent/mL. These low exposure levels cannot be verified with a cholinesterase (ChE) activity assay. Moreover, the identity of the regenerated nerve agent was verified by the mass spectrum that was generated by the TOF mass spectrometer. This paper presents a technique able to deliver full-scan data on the analysis of nerve agents in biomedical samples at relevant exposure levels (1% BuChE inhibition). This full-scan data

  1. The VLT/NaCo large program to probe the occurrence of exoplanets and brown dwarfs in wide orbits. I. Sample definition and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desidera, S.; Covino, E.; Messina, S.; Carson, J.; Hagelberg, J.; Schlieder, J. E.; Biazzo, K.; Alcalá, J. M.; Chauvin, G.; Vigan, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Bonavita, M.; Bonnefoy, M.; Delorme, P.; D'Orazi, V.; Esposito, M.; Feldt, M.; Girardi, L.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Lagrange, A. M.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Launhardt, R.; Marmier, M.; Melo, C.; Meyer, M.; Mouillet, D.; Moutou, C.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.; Zaidi, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Young, close stars are ideal targets for searching planets using the direct imaging technique. The determination of stellar parameters is crucial for the interpretation of imaging survey results, particularly since the luminosity of substellar objects has a strong dependence on system age. Aims: We have conducted a large program with NaCo at the VLT to search for planets and brown dwarfs in wide orbits around 86 stars. A large fraction of the targets observed with NaCo were poorly investigated in the literature. We performed a study to characterize the fundamental properties (age, distance, and mass) of the stars in our sample. To improve target age determinations, we compiled and analyzed a complete set of age diagnostics. Methods: We measured spectroscopic parameters and age diagnostics using dedicated observations acquired with FEROS and CORALIE spectrographs at La Silla Observatory. We also made extensive use of archival spectroscopic data and the results that are available in the literature. Additionally, we exploited photometric time-series, which are available in ASAS and Super-WASP archives, to derive a rotational period for a large fraction of our program stars. Results: We provided updated characterization of all the targets observed in the VLT NaCo Large program, a survey designed to probe the occurrence of exoplanets and brown dwarfs in wide orbits. The median distance and age of our program stars are 64 pc and 100 Myr, respectively. Nearly all the stars have masses between 0.70 and 1.50 M⊙, with a median value of 1.01 M⊙. The typical metallicity is close to solar with a dispersion that is smaller than that of samples usually observed in radial velocity surveys. Several stars are confirmed or proposed here to be members of close young moving groups. Eight spectroscopic binaries are identified. Based on observations collected at La Silla and Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile) using FEROS, HARPS, and NaCo; with the CORALIE echelle spectrograph

  2. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under In Vitro Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3 + 1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA + 0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  3. A splice donor mutation in NAA10 results in the dysregulation of the retinoic acid signaling pathway and causes Lenz microphthalmia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esmailpour, Taraneh; Riazifar, Hamidreza; Liu, Linan; Donkervoort, Sandra; Huang, Vincent H; Madaan, Shreshtha; Shoucri, Bassem M; Busch, Anke; Wu, Jie; Towbin, Alexander; Chadwick, Robert B; Sequeira, Adolfo; Vawter, Marquis P; Sun, Guoli; Johnston, Jennifer J; Biesecker, Leslie G; Kawaguchi, Riki; Sun, Hui; Kimonis, Virginia; Huang, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lenz microphthalmia syndrome (LMS) is a genetically heterogeneous X-linked disorder characterised by microphthalmia/anophthalmia, skeletal abnormalities, genitourinary malformations, and anomalies of the digits, ears, and teeth. Intellectual disability and seizure disorders are seen in about 60% of affected males. To date, no gene has been identified for LMS in the microphthalmia syndrome 1 locus (MCOPS1). In this study, we aim to find the disease-causing gene for this condition. Methods and results Using exome sequencing in a family with three affected brothers, we identified a mutation in the intron 7 splice donor site (c.471+2T→A) of the N-acetyltransferase NAA10 gene. NAA10 has been previously shown to be mutated in patients with Ogden syndrome, which is clinically distinct from LMS. Linkage studies for this family mapped the disease locus to Xq27-Xq28, which was consistent with the locus of NAA10. The mutation co-segregated with the phenotype and cDNA analysis showed aberrant transcripts. Patient fibroblasts lacked expression of full length NAA10 protein and displayed cell proliferation defects. Expression array studies showed significant dysregulation of genes associated with genetic forms of anophthalmia such as BMP4, STRA6, and downstream targets of BCOR and the canonical WNT pathway. In particular, STRA6 is a retinol binding protein receptor that mediates cellular uptake of retinol/vitamin A and plays a major role in regulating the retinoic acid signalling pathway. A retinol uptake assay showed that retinol uptake was decreased in patient cells. Conclusions We conclude that the NAA10 mutation is the cause of LMS in this family, likely through the dysregulation of the retinoic acid signalling pathway. PMID:24431331

  4. Factor analysis of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in a large sample of patients suspected of dementia.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B; Smernoff, Eric N; Reese, Eirah M; Hafer, Donald G; Harris, James B

    2010-01-01

    The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS; Randolph, 1998) is a popular neuropsychological assessment instrument with research supporting its clinical utility. However, the index structure of the RBANS was derived theoretically and was not based on factor analysis. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure in a large heterogeneous sample of patients referred for a dementia evaluation, using exploratory factor analysis. Results suggest a two-factor solution, the first factor defined predominantly as a memory factor and the second as predominantly a visuospatial factor. This study also sought to validate the obtained factors by examining their relationship with external neuropsychological variables. Correlations between the external variables provide further support for Factor 1 as a memory factor. Correlations with Factor 2 support its visuospatial features, although this factor may also be associated with other cognitive domains such as attention and general ability. PMID:20146117

  5. Schooling has smaller or insignificant effects on adult health in the US than suggested by cross-sectional associations: new estimates using relatively large samples of identical twins.

    PubMed

    Amin, Vikesh; Behrman, Jere R; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-01

    Numerous theoretical reasons have been posited about why more schooling might improve health. Adult health outcomes and behaviors generally are significantly associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health outcomes and behaviors. Causal estimates based on schooling variation from policies and from within-MZ (monozygotic) twins have reached mixed conclusions. This study contributed new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using three relatively large US twins samples. The estimates suggested that schooling was significantly associated with numerous health outcomes and behaviors. However, with within-MZ twins control for unobserved factors, schooling was no longer associated with most indicators of better health (with the exception of self-reported health), while it continued to be associated with outcomes such as fertility and spousal schooling. Similar patterns were observed for spousal schooling. PMID:25110343

  6. Prevalence and predictors of Axis I disorders in a large sample of treatment-seeking victims of sexual abuse and incest

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Eoin; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Hyland, Philip; Murphy, Siobhan; Murphy, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common occurrence and a robust, yet non-specific, predictor of adult psychopathology. While many demographic and abuse factors have been shown to impact this relationship, their common and specific effects remain poorly understood. Objective This study sought to assess the prevalence of Axis I disorders in a large sample of help-seeking victims of sexual trauma, and to examine the common and specific effects of demographic and abuse characteristics across these different diagnoses. Method The participants were attendees at four treatment centres in Denmark that provide psychological therapy for victims of CSA (N=434). Axis I disorders were assessed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between CSA characteristics (age of onset, duration, number of abusers, number of abusive acts) and 10 adult clinical syndromes. Results There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders and the abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the outcome variables. Having experienced sexual abuse from more than one perpetrator was the strongest predictor of psychopathology. Conclusions The relationship between CSA and adult psychopathology is complex. Abuse characteristics have both unique and shared effects across different diagnoses. Highlights of the article The prevalence of Axis I disorders were assessed in a large sample of sexual abuse and incest survivors. The impact of demographic and abuse characteristics were also examined. There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders. Abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the disorders. Abuse from multiple perpetrators was the strongest overall predictor of psychopathology. PMID:27064976

  7. Does developmental timing of exposure to child maltreatment predict memory performance in adulthood? Results from a large, population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Busso, Daniel S; Raffeld, Miriam R; Smoller, Jordan W; Nelson, Charles A; Doyle, Alysa E; Luk, Gigi

    2016-01-01

    Although maltreatment is a known risk factor for multiple adverse outcomes across the lifespan, its effects on cognitive development, especially memory, are poorly understood. Using data from a large, nationally representative sample of young adults (Add Health), we examined the effects of physical and sexual abuse on working and short-term memory in adulthood. We examined the association between exposure to maltreatment as well as its timing of first onset after adjusting for covariates. Of our sample, 16.50% of respondents were exposed to physical abuse and 4.36% to sexual abuse by age 17. An analysis comparing unexposed respondents to those exposed to physical or sexual abuse did not yield any significant differences in adult memory performance. However, two developmental time periods emerged as important for shaping memory following exposure to sexual abuse, but in opposite ways. Relative to non-exposed respondents, those exposed to sexual abuse during early childhood (ages 3-5), had better number recall and those first exposed during adolescence (ages 14-17) had worse number recall. However, other variables, including socioeconomic status, played a larger role (than maltreatment) on working and short-term memory. We conclude that a simple examination of "exposed" versus "unexposed" respondents may obscure potentially important within-group differences that are revealed by examining the effects of age at onset to maltreatment. PMID:26585216

  8. Quantitation of fluoride ion released sarin in red blood cell samples by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry using isotope dilution and large-volume injection.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, E M; McGuire, J M; Evans, R A; Edwards, J L; Hulet, S W; Benton, B J; Forster, J S; Burnett, D C; Muse, W T; Matson, K; Crouse, C L; Mioduszewski, R J; Thomson, S A

    2004-01-01

    A new method for measuring fluoride ion released isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin, GB) in the red blood cell fraction was developed that utilizes an autoinjector, a large-volume injector port (LVI), positive ion ammonia chemical ionization detection in the SIM mode, and a deuterated stable isotope internal standard. This method was applied to red blood cell (RBC) and plasma ethyl acetate extracts from spiked human and animal whole blood samples and from whole blood of minipigs, guinea pigs, and rats exposed by whole-body sarin inhalation. Evidence of nerve agent exposure was detected in plasma and red blood cells at low levels of exposure. The linear method range of quantitation was 10-1000 pg on-column with a detection limit of approximately 2-pg on-column. In the course of method development, several conditions were optimized for the LVI, including type of injector insert, injection volume, initial temperature, pressure, and flow rate. RBC fractions had advantages over the plasma with respect to assessing nerve agent exposure using the fluoride ion method especially in samples with low serum butyrylcholinesterase activity. PMID:15239856

  9. Dense Sampling and Large Volume: The Structure of the Intergalactic Medium from 50,000 SDSS3 BOSS Quasar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Rupert A.; Arnau, E.; Aubourg, E.; Bailey, S.; Bechtold, J.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bolton, A.; Borde, A.; Brinkmann, J.; Busca, N.; Carithers, W.; Cen, R.; Charlassier, R.; Cortes, M.; Dall'Aglio, A.; Cristiani, S.; Dawson, K.; Delubac, T.; Font-Ribera, A.; Hamilton, J.; Ho, S.; Lee, K.; LeGoff, J.; Kirkby, D.; Lundgren, B.; Menard, B.; Miralda-Escude, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Myers, A.; Paris, I.; Peirani, S.; Petitjean, P.; Pieri, M.; Rich, J.; Rollinde, E.; Ross, N.; Schlegel, D.; Skibba, R.; Slosar, A.; Suzuki, N.; Trac, H.; Vikas, S.; Viel, M.; Wake, D.; Weinberg, D.; White, M.; Yeche, C.

    2012-01-01

    The BOSS quasar spectra analyzed so far contain over a quarter billion pixels of information on the intervening intergalactic medium. The statistical power of BOSS has previously enabled 10% of the eventual full dataset to yield the first measurements of three dimensional large-scale structure in the Lya forest (Slosar et al 2011). Here we present results from a sample several times larger, covering several topics in cosmology and intergalactic medium science which are qualitatively transformed by the dense sampling (20 quasars per square degree) and enormous sky area. These include new constraints on cosmology and the neutrino mass from a Lya forest power spectrum measurement using 20 times more spectra than the largest previously published analysis (from SDSS), a new catalog of metal absorbers and a stacking analysis which has uncovered many metal species never before seen in the intergalactic medium. Cross-correlations of quasars, galaxies, metal lines and Lyman series absorption provide us with a wide variety of probes, including of cosmology, quasar host masses, lifetimes, and absorber galaxy masses. We show several of these results. We also show through correlation function analysis that the prime task, of making a BAO detection from Lya forest clustering, (the first BAO constraint between z=1 and the CMB) is well on the way to completion.

  10. Analysis of Six β-Lactam Residues in Milk and Egg by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Large-Volume Sample Stacking and Polarity Switching.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Xiu; Chen, Guan-Hua; Fang, Rou; Zhang, Li; Yi, Ling-Xiao; Meng, Hong-Lian

    2016-05-01

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with large-volume sample stacking and polarity switching was developed to analyze amoxicllin, cephalexin, oxacillin, penicillin G, cefazolin, and cefoperazone in milk and egg. The important parameters influencing separation and enrichment factors were optimized. The optimized running buffer consisted of 10 mM phosphate and 22 mM SDS at pH 6.7. The sample size was 1.47 kPa × 690 s, the reverse voltage was 20 kV, and the electric current recovery was 95%. Under these optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of six β-lactams were 193-601. Their LODs were <0.26 ng/g, and LOQs were all 2 ng/g, which was only 1/50-1/2 of the maximum residual limits demanded by U.S. and Japanese regulations. The intraday and interday RSDs of method were lower than 3.70 and 3.91%, respectively. The method can be applied to determine these six antibiotic residues in egg and milk. PMID:27088652

  11. A tunable general purpose Q-band resonator for CW and pulse EPR/ENDOR experiments with large sample access and optical excitation.

    PubMed

    Reijerse, Edward; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Isaacson, Roger; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We describe a frequency tunable Q-band cavity (34 GHz) designed for CW and pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) as well as Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR) experiments. The TE(011) cylindrical resonator is machined either from brass or from graphite (which is subsequently gold plated), to improve the penetration of the 100 kHz field modulation signal. The (self-supporting) ENDOR coil consists of four 0.8mm silver posts at 2.67 mm distance from the cavity center axis, penetrating through the plunger heads. It is very robust and immune to mechanical vibrations. The coil is electrically shielded to enable CW ENDOR experiments with high RF power (500 W). The top plunger of the cavity is movable and allows a frequency tuning of ±2 GHz. In our setup the standard operation frequency is 34.0 GHz. The microwaves are coupled into the resonator through an iris in the cylinder wall and matching is accomplished by a sliding short in the coupling waveguide. Optical excitation of the sample is enabled through slits in the cavity wall (transmission ∼60%). The resonator accepts 3mm o.d. sample tubes. This leads to a favorable sensitivity especially for pulse EPR experiments of low concentration biological samples. The probehead dimensions are compatible with that of Bruker flexline Q-band resonators and it fits perfectly into an Oxford CF935 Helium flow cryostat (4-300 K). It is demonstrated that, due to the relatively large active sample volume (20-30 μl), the described resonator has superior concentration sensitivity as compared to commercial pulse Q-band resonators. The quality factor (Q(L)) of the resonator can be varied between 2600 (critical coupling) and 1300 (over-coupling). The shortest achieved π/2-pulse durations are 20 ns using a 3 W microwave amplifier. ENDOR (RF) π-pulses of 20 μs ((1)H @ 51 MHz) were obtained for a 300 W amplifier and 7 μs using a 2500 W amplifier. Selected applications of the

  12. A tunable general purpose Q-band resonator for CW and pulse EPR/ENDOR experiments with large sample access and optical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijerse, Edward; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Isaacson, Roger; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We describe a frequency tunable Q-band cavity (34 GHz) designed for CW and pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) as well as Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR) experiments. The TE 011 cylindrical resonator is machined either from brass or from graphite (which is subsequently gold plated), to improve the penetration of the 100 kHz field modulation signal. The (self-supporting) ENDOR coil consists of four 0.8 mm silver posts at 2.67 mm distance from the cavity center axis, penetrating through the plunger heads. It is very robust and immune to mechanical vibrations. The coil is electrically shielded to enable CW ENDOR experiments with high RF power (500 W). The top plunger of the cavity is movable and allows a frequency tuning of ±2 GHz. In our setup the standard operation frequency is 34.0 GHz. The microwaves are coupled into the resonator through an iris in the cylinder wall and matching is accomplished by a sliding short in the coupling waveguide. Optical excitation of the sample is enabled through slits in the cavity wall (transmission ˜60%). The resonator accepts 3 mm o.d. sample tubes. This leads to a favorable sensitivity especially for pulse EPR experiments of low concentration biological samples. The probehead dimensions are compatible with that of Bruker flexline Q-band resonators and it fits perfectly into an Oxford CF935 Helium flow cryostat (4-300 K). It is demonstrated that, due to the relatively large active sample volume (20-30 μl), the described resonator has superior concentration sensitivity as compared to commercial pulse Q-band resonators. The quality factor ( Q L) of the resonator can be varied between 2600 (critical coupling) and 1300 (over-coupling). The shortest achieved π/2-pulse durations are 20 ns using a 3 W microwave amplifier. ENDOR (RF) π-pulses of 20 μs ( 1H @ 51 MHz) were obtained for a 300 W amplifier and 7 μs using a 2500 W amplifier. Selected applications of the

  13. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K

    2015-12-01

    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The

  14. Zirconia coated stir bar sorptive extraction combined with large volume sample stacking capillary electrophoresis-indirect ultraviolet detection for the determination of chemical warfare agent degradation products in water samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingjing; Hu, Bin; Li, Xiaoyong

    2012-07-20

    In this study, a sensitive, selective and reliable analytical method by combining zirconia (ZrO₂) coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with large volume sample stacking capillary electrophoresis-indirect ultraviolet (LVSS-CE/indirect UV) was developed for the direct analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) (including ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMPA)) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA) in environmental waters. ZrO₂ coated stir bar was prepared by adhering nanometer-sized ZrO₂ particles onto the surface of stir bar with commercial PDMS sol as adhesion agent. Due to the high affinity of ZrO₂ to the electronegative phosphonate group, ZrO₂ coated stir bars could selectively extract the strongly polar AAPAs and MPA. After systematically optimizing the extraction conditions of ZrO₂-SBSE, the analytical performance of ZrO₂-SBSE-CE/indirect UV and ZrO₂-SBSE-LVSS-CE/indirect UV was assessed. The limits of detection (LODs, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) obtained by ZrO₂-SBSE-CE/indirect UV were 13.4-15.9 μg/L for PMPA, EMPA and MPA. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=7, c=200 μg/L) of the corrected peak area for the target analytes were in the range of 6.4-8.8%. Enhancement factors (EFs) in terms of LODs were found to be from 112- to 145-fold. By combining ZrO₂ coating SBSE with LVSS as a dual preconcentration strategy, the EFs were magnified up to 1583-fold, and the LODs of ZrO₂-SBSE-LVSS-CE/indirect UV were 1.4, 1.2 and 3.1 μg/L for PMPA, EMPA, and MPA, respectively. The RSDs (n=7, c=20 μg/L) were found to be in the range of 9.0-11.8%. The developed ZrO₂-SBSE-LVSS-CE/indirect UV method has been successfully applied to the analysis of PMPA, EMPA, and MPA in different environmental water samples, and the recoveries for the spiked water samples were found to be in the range of 93.8-105.3%. PMID:22673812

  15. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    PubMed

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. PMID:26143355

  16. Application of dried blood spots to determine vitamin D status in a large nutritional study with unsupervised sampling: the Food4Me project.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Ulrich; Baur, Manuela; Roos, Franz F; Brennan, Lorraine; Daniel, Hannelore; Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Mike; Godlewska, Magdalena; Hartwig, Kai; Kolossa, Silvia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Livingstone, Katherine M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Macready, Anna L; Manios, Yannis; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Moschonis, George; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; O'Donovan, Clare B; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Saris, Wim H M; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Traczyk, Iwona; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Walsh, Marianne C; Woolhead, Clara; Mathers, John C; Weber, Peter

    2016-01-28

    An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D3 levels (P<0·001 for each case). Seasonal effects were modelled by fitting a sine function with a minimum 25(OH)D3 level on 20 January and a maximum on 21 July. The seasonal amplitude varied from centre to centre. The largest difference between winter and summer levels was found in Germany and the smallest in Poland. The model was cross-validated to determine the consistency of the predictions and the performance of the DBS method. The Pearson's correlation between the measured values and the predicted values was r 0·65, and the sd of their differences was 21·2 nmol/l. This includes the analytical variation and the biological variation within subjects. Overall, DBS obtained by unsupervised sampling of the participants at home was a viable methodology for obtaining vitamin D status information in a large nutritional study. PMID:26548417

  17. Dynamics of large submarine landslide from analyzing the basal section of mass-transport deposits sampled by IODP Nankai Trough Submarine Landslide History (NanTroSLIDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, M.; Dugan, B.; Henry, P.; Jurado, M. J.; Kanagawa, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Moore, G. F.; Panieri, G.; Pini, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mulitbeam swath bathymetry and reflection seismic data image large submarine landslide complexes along ocean margins worldwide. However, slope failure initiation, acceleration of motion and mass-transport dynamics of submarine landslides, which are all key to assess their tsunamigenic potential or impact on offshore infrastructure, cannot be conclusively deduced from geometric expression and acoustic characteristics of geophysical data sets alone, but cores and in situ data from the subsurface are needed to complement our understanding of submarine landslide dynamics. Here we present data and results from drilling, logging and coring thick mass-transport deposits (MTDs) in the Nankai Trough accretionary prism during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 333 and 338. We integrate analysis on 3D seismic and Logging While Drilling (LWD) data sets, with data from laboratory analysis on core samples (geotechnical shear experiments, X-ray Computed Tomography (X-CT), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of deformation indicators, and magnetic fabric analysis) to study nature and mode of deformation and dynamics of mass transport in this active tectonic setting. In particular, we show that Fe-S filaments commonly observed on X-ray CT data of marine sediments, likely resulting from early diagenesis of worm burrows, are folded in large MTDs and display preferential orientation at their base. The observed lineation has low dip and is interpreted as the consequence of shear along the basal surface, revealing a new proxy for strain in soft sediments that can be applied to cores that reach through the entire depth of MTDs. Shear deformation in the lower part of thick MTDs is also revealed from AMS data, which - in combination with other paleo-magnetic data - is used to reconstruct strain and transport direction of the landslides.

  18. The Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST): Success in logging, sampling and instrumenting the megathrust in the region of large slip during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, F. M.; Mori, J. J.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    The very large fault slip during the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, reaching a maximum of >50 m near the Japan Trench, is the largest ever observed for an earthquake and responsible for the peak tsunami heights of 20 to 40 meters that devastated a large portion of the coast of northeast Honshu. Although the cause of significant seismic slip at shallow depths is not entirely understood, a number of possible contributing factors have been identified. Key questions include how displacement was accommodated near the trench, and whether coseismic weakening of the shallow megathrust had a role in the mechanics of such large displacement. These and other questions are being addressed with data from the recently completed rapid-response expedition undertaken by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). Drilling the plate boundary interface was technically challenging because of the 6.9 km water depth and the need to penetrate > 800 m through the prism to reach the subducting plate. Nonetheless, three successful holes were drilled to the target depth. Logging and spot coring data from the first two boreholes indicate that the location of the plate-boundary décollement is tens of meters above bedded chert on the basaltic crust of the subducting plate. Notably, the décollement is considerably thinner than subduction thrusts drilled elsewhere. Distinguishing characteristics of the décollement that are compatible with coseismic weakening include the pronounced localization of shear to a meters-thick layer of scaly clay and to mesoscale slip surfaces within the layer. A one meter section of the scaly clay was retrieved, which provides ample material for characterization of structural, physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the plate interface, and post-cruise analyses of samples are already producing new results. The third hole was completed during the second leg of the expedition, and a temperature measurement string was successfully installed across the

  19. Medication use in a large international sample of people with multiple sclerosis: associations with quality of life, relapse rate and disability

    PubMed Central

    Jelinek, George A.; Weiland, Tracey J.; Hadgkiss, Emily J.; Marck, Claudia H.; Pereira, Naresh; van der Meer, Dania M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between medication use and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), relapse rate and disability in an international cohort of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Methods: Using Web 2.0 platforms, the authors recruited PwMS who completed survey items on demographics, medication use, HRQOL, relapse rate and disability. Results: Of 2276 respondents from 56 countries, approximately half were taking a disease-modifying drug (DMD), most commonly glatiramer acetate or an interferon. Use of DMDs was not consistently associated with HRQOL. Individually, glatiramer acetate was associated with better HRQOL when compared with other DMDs or no DMD use. Overall, DMD use was neither associated with disability nor lower relapse rate, although those taking a DMD >12 months had 23.9% fewer relapses than those not taking a DMD. Polypharmacy, defined as those taking five or more over the counter, prescription or herbal medications, irrespective of DMD use, was associated with markedly worse HRQOL across all domains. Discussion: There was no consistent association of DMD use with better health outcomes in this large international \\sample of PwMS, although relapse rate appears lower for those taking a DMD for >12 months. Glatiramer acetate had associations with better HRQOL compared with other DMDs. PMID:25905471

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in a large national sample of pet dogs visiting veterinary hospitals in the United States (2003-2009).

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed S; Glickman, Larry T; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elizabeth; Moore, George E

    2013-07-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of intestinal infection of dogs with Giardia spp. in the United States vary widely. Risk factors for infection in a large sample of dogs over an extended period of time have not been well characterized. A national, electronic database of medical records was used to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for Giardia spp. infection among dogs visiting Banfield Pet Hospital™ located in 43 states in the United States. The overall prevalence of Giardia spp. Infection was 0.44% (95% CI: 0.43-0.45%) in approximately 2.5 million owned dogs who had a fecal flotation test performed from January 2003 to December 2009. A steady decrease in annual prevalence was observed, from a high of 0.61% in 2003 to 0.27% in 2009. Seasonal increases in prevalence were noted during the winter and summer months. Giardia spp. prevalence was highest in the Mountain region, especially Colorado (2.63%; 95% CI: 2.53-2.73%), and in puppies ≤0.5 year of age (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.61-0.64%). It was lowest for dogs of mixed breeding compared with pure breeds. Infection risk was 25-30% greater in sexually intact dogs compared to spayed and neutered dogs. PMID:23337331

  1. A field study of sleep disturbance: effects of aircraft noise and other factors on 5,742 nights of actimetrically monitored sleep in a large subject sample.

    PubMed

    Horne, J A; Pankhurst, F L; Reyner, L A; Hume, K; Diamond, I D

    1994-03-01

    This field study assessed the effects of nighttime aircraft noise on actimetrically measured sleep in 400 people (211 women and 189 men; 20-70 years of age; one per household) habitually living at eight sites adjacent to four U.K. airports, with different levels of night flying. Subjects wore wrist-actimeters for 15 nights and completed morning sleep logs. A sample of 178 nights of sleep electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded synchronously with actigrams. The EEG was used to develop filters for the raw actigrams, in order to: (1) estimate sleep onset and (2) compare actigrams with aircraft noise events (ANEs). Actigrams, filtered to detect the onset of discrete movements, were able to detect 88% of all EEG-determined periods of interim wakefulness of > 15 seconds and periods of movement time of > 10 seconds. The main findings were: (1) actimetry and self-reports showed that only a minority of ANEs affected sleep, and, for most of our subjects, that domestic and idiosyncratic factors had much greater effects; (2) despite large between-site variations in ANEs, the difference between sites in overall sleep disturbance was not significant; (3) there was a diminished actimetric response to ANEs in the first hour of sleep and, apparently, also in the last hour of sleep; and (4) men had significantly more discrete movements than women and were more likely to respond to ANEs. PMID:8036369

  2. They Might Be Giants: Confirming Candidate OB Stars While Netting a Large Sample of Massive Star Spectra in the Great Nebula in Carina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povich, Matthew S.; McSwain, M. Virginia

    2013-02-01

    We propose one night of observations with the AAOmega instrument on the Anglo-Australian Telescope to obtain spectra of a large sample of massive stars in the Great Nebula in Carina, the nearest analog of extragalactic starburst regions. Our targets include >100 spectroscopically classified OB stars plus 55 candidate OB stars that we recently identified via X-ray emission and infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These observations will confirm or reject individual candidate OB stars as massive members of the Carina Nebula stellar population, a vital test for our methodology that will pave the way to discovering new massive stars in other regions. Determining the nature of the candidate OB stars is critical to any census of the massive stellar population in Carina, impacting our understanding of the energetics and stellar initial mass function in this well-studied region. We will employ spectral modeling and broadband optical-IR SED fitting to derive physical properties (e.g. temperature, bolometric luminosity, surface gravity, and mass) of the known OB stars and those newly-confirmed candidate OB stars with high (ga100) signal-to- noise spectra.

  3. The relationship between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and peptic ulcer disease in a large population-based adult sample.

    PubMed

    Realo, Anu; Teras, Andero; Kööts-Ausmees, Liisi; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Allik, Jüri

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the relationship between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and physician-confirmed peptic ulcer disease (PUD) diagnosis in a large population-based adult sample, controlling for the relevant behavioral and sociodemographic factors. Personality traits were assessed by participants themselves and by knowledgeable informants using the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO PI-3). When controlling for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking, only one of the five NEO PI-3 domain scales - higher Neuroticism - and two facet scales - lower A1: Trust and higher C1: Competence - made a small, yet significant contribution (p < 0.01) to predicting PUD in logistic regression analyses. In the light of these relatively modest associations, our findings imply that it is certain behavior (such as smoking) and sociodemographic variables (such as age, gender, and education) rather than personality traits that are associated with the diagnosis of PUD at a particular point in time. Further prospective studies with a longitudinal design and multiple assessments would be needed to fully understand if the FFM personality traits serve as risk factors for the development of PUD. PMID:26437682

  4. Field performance of the Skindex-17 quality of life questionnaire: a comparison with the Skindex-29 in a large sample of dermatological outpatients.

    PubMed

    Sampogna, Francesca; Spagnoli, Alessandra; Di Pietro, Cristina; Pagliarello, Calogero; Paradisi, Andrea; Tabolli, Stefano; Abeni, Damiano

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires in routine clinical practice is hampered by several factors, including their length and thus the time needed to complete and score them. For this reason, growing efforts are devoted both to create short questionnaires and to shorten existing ones. The Skindex-17 is a dermatological HRQoL instrument that was derived from the Skindex-29 using Rasch analysis. It consists of 17 items instead of 29, and answers are given on a three-point scale instead of a five-point scale. The aim of this study was to compare information obtained by the Skindex-29 and the Skindex-17 in a large sample of dermatological outpatients. We compared the Skindex-29 with the Skindex-17 scores in 2,487 patients with several dermatological conditions, using intraclass correlation coefficients. The overall correlation was 0.957 for the symptoms scale and 0.940 for the psychosocial scale. The values were very similar for all diseases. The concordance between the levels of severity of the Skindex subscales in the two instruments was also very high. In conclusion, the Skindex-17 provided very similar information compared with the Skindex-29, with the advantage of being shorter and including some important psychometric properties. PMID:22832497

  5. What Types of Pornography Do People Use and Do They Cluster? Assessing Types and Categories of Pornography Consumption in a Large-Scale Online Sample.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2016-09-01

    Previous research on exposure to different types of pornography has primarily relied on analyses of millions of search terms and histories or on user exposure patterns within a given time period rather than the self-reported frequency of consumption. Further, previous research has almost exclusively relied on theoretical or ad hoc overarching categorizations of different types of pornography, when investigating patterns of pornography exposure, rather than latent structure analyses of these exposure patterns. In contrast, using a large sample of 18- to 40-year-old heterosexual and nonheterosexual Croatian men and women, this study investigated the self-reported frequency of using 27 different types of pornography and statistically explored their latent structures. The results showed substantial differences in consumption patterns across gender and sexual orientation. However, latent structure analyses of the 27 different types of pornography assessed suggested that although several categories of consumption were gender and sexual orientation specific, common categories across the different types of pornography could be established. Based on this finding, a five-item scale was proposed to indicate the use of nonmainstream (paraphilic) pornographic content, as this type of pornography has often been targeted in previous research. To the best of our knowledge, no similar measurement tool has been proposed before. PMID:26445007

  6. Study of intradrystalline diffusion in zeolites communication 3. Kinetics of adsorption of trans-2-butene by NaA and NaMgA zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Broddak, R.; Dubinin, M.M.; Falko, L.A.; Gorlov, V.A.; Kuhlmann, B.; Scholner, E.; Voloshchuk, A.M.

    1985-09-10

    This article studies the kinetics of adsorption of trans-2-butene by NaA zeolite with a varying crystal size, microcrystalline granulated NaA zeolite using granules of different sizes, and microcrystalline powdered Na/sub 8/Mg/sub 2/A zeolite. It is shown that the rate of adsorption is determined by the intracrystalline diffusion and that the effect of transfer in the transport pores and the final rate of dissipation of the heat of adsorption can be neglected. In adsorption of trans-2-butene by Na/sub 8/Mg/sub 2/A zeolite with a stepwise change in the pressure of the adsorbate, the kinetic curves are satisfactorily described by an internal diffusion equation for the kinetics of isothermal adsorption. The kinetics of adsorption were studied at 303 degrees K from the one-component vapor phase on a vacuum adsorption setup using quartz spring balance.

  7. A compact DD neutron generator–based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingzi; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H.

    2015-01-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator–based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*109 neutrons/second was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R2 = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg/g dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans. PMID:25154883

  8. De novo missense mutations in the NAA10 gene cause severe non-syndromic developmental delay in males and females

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Bernt; Støve, Svein I; Endele, Sabine; Myklebust, Line M; Hoyer, Juliane; Sticht, Heinrich; Azzarello-Burri, Silvia; Rauch, Anita; Arnesen, Thomas; Reis, André

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed the power of whole-exome sequencing to identify mutations in sporadic cases with non-syndromic intellectual disability. We now identified de novo missense variants in NAA10 in two unrelated individuals, a boy and a girl, with severe global developmental delay but without any major dysmorphism by trio whole-exome sequencing. Both de novo variants were predicted to be deleterious, and we excluded other variants in this gene. This X-linked gene encodes N-alpha-acetyltransferase 10, the catalytic subunit of the NatA complex involved in multiple cellular processes. A single hypomorphic missense variant p.(Ser37Pro) was previously associated with Ogden syndrome in eight affected males from two different families. This rare disorder is characterized by a highly recognizable phenotype, global developmental delay and results in death during infancy. In an attempt to explain the discrepant phenotype, we used in vitro N-terminal acetylation assays which suggested that the severity of the phenotype correlates with the remaining catalytic activity. The variant in the Ogden syndrome patients exhibited a lower activity than the one seen in the boy with intellectual disability, while the variant in the girl was the most severe exhibiting only residual activity in the acetylation assays used. We propose that N-terminal acetyltransferase deficiency is clinically heterogeneous with the overall catalytic activity determining the phenotypic severity. PMID:25099252

  9. A compact DD neutron generator-based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingzi; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H

    2014-09-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*10(9) neutrons s(-1) was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R(2) = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg g(-1) dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans. PMID:25154883

  10. Novel Synthesis Method of Micronized Ti-Zeolite Na-A and Cytotoxic Activity of Its Silver Exchanged Form

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, H. F.; Hegazy, W. H.; Abo-almaged, H. H.; El-Bassyouni, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    The core-shell method is used as a novel synthetic process of micronized Ti-Zeolite Na-A which involves calcination at 700°C of coated Egyptian Kaolin with titanium tetrachloride in acidic medium as the first step. The produced Ti-coated metakaolinite is subjected to microwave irradiation at low temperature of 80°C for 2 h. The prepared micronized Ti-containing Zeolites-A (Ti-Z-A) is characterized by FTIR, XRF, XRD, SEM, and EDS elemental analysis. Ag-exchanged form of Ti-Z-Ag is also prepared and characterized. The Wt% of silver exchanged onto the Ti-Zeolite structure was determined by atomic absorption spectra. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of Ti-Z-Ag against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HePG2), colon cell line carcinoma (HCT116), lung carcinoma cell line (A549), and human Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) is reported. The results were promising and revealed that the exchanged Ag form of micronized Ti-Zeolite-A can be used as novel antitumor drug. PMID:25705142

  11. Novel synthesis method of micronized ti-zeolite na-a and cytotoxic activity of its silver exchanged form.

    PubMed

    Youssef, H F; Hegazy, W H; Abo-Almaged, H H; El-Bassyouni, G T

    2015-01-01

    The core-shell method is used as a novel synthetic process of micronized Ti-Zeolite Na-A which involves calcination at 700°C of coated Egyptian Kaolin with titanium tetrachloride in acidic medium as the first step. The produced Ti-coated metakaolinite is subjected to microwave irradiation at low temperature of 80°C for 2 h. The prepared micronized Ti-containing Zeolites-A (Ti-Z-A) is characterized by FTIR, XRF, XRD, SEM, and EDS elemental analysis. Ag-exchanged form of Ti-Z-Ag is also prepared and characterized. The Wt% of silver exchanged onto the Ti-Zeolite structure was determined by atomic absorption spectra. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of Ti-Z-Ag against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HePG2), colon cell line carcinoma (HCT116), lung carcinoma cell line (A549), and human Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) is reported. The results were promising and revealed that the exchanged Ag form of micronized Ti-Zeolite-A can be used as novel antitumor drug. PMID:25705142

  12. Morphometry and pattern of a large sample (>20,000) of Canadian eskers and implications for subglacial drainage beneath ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrar, Robert D.; Stokes, Chris R.; Evans, David J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ice sheet flow is strongly influenced by the nature and quantity of meltwater entering the subglacial system. Accessing and monitoring contemporary drainage systems beneath ice sheets is notoriously difficult, but it is possible to utilise the exposed beds of palaeo-ice sheets. In particular, eskers record deposition in glacial drainage channels and are widespread on the exposed beds of former ice sheets. However, unlike some other common glacial landforms (e.g. drumlins) there have been relatively few attempts to investigate and quantify their characteristics at the ice sheet scale. This paper presents data on the distribution, pattern, and morphometry of a large (>20,000) sample of eskers in Canada, formed under the Laurentide Ice Sheet, including quantification of their length, fragmentation, sinuosity, lateral spacing, number of tributaries, and downstream elevation changes. Results indicate that eskers are typically very long (hundreds of km) and often very straight (mean sinuosity approximates 1). We interpret these long esker systems to reflect time-transgressive formation in long, stable conduits under hydrostatic pressure. The longest eskers (in the Keewatin sector) are also the least fragmented, which we interpret to reflect formation at an ice margin experiencing stable and gradual retreat. In many locations, the lateral distance between neighbouring eskers is remarkably consistent and results indicate a preferred spacing of around 12 km, consistent with numerical models which predict esker spacing of 8-25 km. In other locations, typically over soft sediments, eskers are rarer and their patterns are more chaotic, reflecting fewer large R-channels and rapidly changing ice sheet dynamics. Comparison of esker patterns with an existing ice margin chronology reveals that the meltwater drainage system evolved during deglaciation: eskers became more closely spaced with fewer tributaries as deglaciation progressed, which has been interpreted to reflect increased

  13. Association of Common Polymorphisms in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alpha4 Subunit Gene with an Electrophysiological Endophenotype in a Large Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mobascher, A.; Diaz-Lacava, A.; Wagner, M.; Gallinat, J.; Wienker, T. F.; Drichel, D.; Becker, T.; Steffens, M.; Dahmen, N.; Gründer, G.; Thürauf, N.; Kiefer, F.; Kornhuber, J.; Toliat, M. R.; Thiele, H.; Nürnberg, P.; Steinlein, O.; Winterer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in genes coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits affect cognitive processes and may contribute to the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CHRNA4 gene that codes for the alpha4 subunit of alpha4/beta2-containing receptors have previously been implicated in aspects of (mostly visual) attention and smoking-related behavioral measures. Here we investigated the effects of six synonymous but functional CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs on the N100 event-related potential (ERP), an electrophysiological endophenotype elicited by a standard auditory oddball. A total of N = 1,705 subjects randomly selected from the general population were studied with electroencephalography (EEG) as part of the German Multicenter Study on nicotine addiction. Two of the six variants, rs1044396 and neighboring rs1044397, were significantly associated with N100 amplitude. This effect was pronounced in females where we also observed an effect on reaction time. Sequencing of the complete exon 5 region in the population sample excluded the existence of additional/functional variants that may be responsible for the observed effects. This is the first large-scale population-based study investigation the effects of CHRNA4 SNPs on brain activity measures related to stimulus processing and attention. Our results provide further evidence that common synonymous CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs affect cognitive processes and suggest that they also play a role in the auditory system. As N100 amplitude reduction is considered a schizophrenia-related endophenotype the SNPs studied here may also be associated with schizophrenia outcome measures. PMID:27054571

  14. Serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) influences decision making under ambiguity and risk in a large Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi; Lei, Xuemei; Ding, Ni; Li, Jin; Li, He; Chen, Chunhui; Li, Jun; Moyzis, Robert K; Bechara, Antoine

    2010-11-01

    Risky decision making is a complex process that involves weighing the probabilities of alternative options that can be desirable, undesirable, or neutral. Individuals vary greatly in how they make decisions either under ambiguity and/or under risk. Such individual differences may have genetic bases. Based on previous studies on the genetic basis of decision making, two decision making tasks [i.e., the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Loss Aversion Task (LAT)] were used to test the effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on decision making under ambiguity and under risk in a large Han Chinese sample (572 college students, 312 females). Basic intelligence and memory tests were also included to control for the influence of basic cognitive abilities on decision making. We found that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism significantly influenced performance in both IGT and LAT. After controlling for intelligence and memory abilities, subjects homozygous for s allele had lower IGT scores than l carriers in the first 40 trials of the IGT task. They also exhibited higher loss aversion than l carriers in the LAT task. Moreover, the effects of 5-HTTLPR were stronger for males than for females. These results extend the literature on the important role of emotion in decision making under ambiguity and risk, and shed additional lights on how decision making is influenced by culture as well as sex differences. Combining our results with existing literature, we propose that these effects might be mediated by a neural circuitry that comprises the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and insular cortex. Understanding the genetic factors affecting decision making in healthy subjects may allow us to better identify at-risk individuals, and better target the development of new potential treatments for specific disorders such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. PMID:20659488

  15. Association of Common Polymorphisms in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alpha4 Subunit Gene with an Electrophysiological Endophenotype in a Large Population-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Mobascher, A; Diaz-Lacava, A; Wagner, M; Gallinat, J; Wienker, T F; Drichel, D; Becker, T; Steffens, M; Dahmen, N; Gründer, G; Thürauf, N; Kiefer, F; Kornhuber, J; Toliat, M R; Thiele, H; Nürnberg, P; Steinlein, O; Winterer, G

    2016-01-01

    Variation in genes coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits affect cognitive processes and may contribute to the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CHRNA4 gene that codes for the alpha4 subunit of alpha4/beta2-containing receptors have previously been implicated in aspects of (mostly visual) attention and smoking-related behavioral measures. Here we investigated the effects of six synonymous but functional CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs on the N100 event-related potential (ERP), an electrophysiological endophenotype elicited by a standard auditory oddball. A total of N = 1,705 subjects randomly selected from the general population were studied with electroencephalography (EEG) as part of the German Multicenter Study on nicotine addiction. Two of the six variants, rs1044396 and neighboring rs1044397, were significantly associated with N100 amplitude. This effect was pronounced in females where we also observed an effect on reaction time. Sequencing of the complete exon 5 region in the population sample excluded the existence of additional/functional variants that may be responsible for the observed effects. This is the first large-scale population-based study investigation the effects of CHRNA4 SNPs on brain activity measures related to stimulus processing and attention. Our results provide further evidence that common synonymous CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs affect cognitive processes and suggest that they also play a role in the auditory system. As N100 amplitude reduction is considered a schizophrenia-related endophenotype the SNPs studied here may also be associated with schizophrenia outcome measures. PMID:27054571

  16. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy Can Improve Esophageal Motility in Patients with Achalasia from a Large Sample Self-Control Research (66 Patients)

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shuangzhe; Linghu, Enqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) as a new approach to achalasia attracts broad attention. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the results with esophageal motility after POEM through the first large sample clinical research. Patients and Methods We have a self-control research with all patients (205 in total) who underwent POEM from 2010 to 2014 at our Digestive Endoscopic Center, 66 patients of which underwent high resolution manometry (HRM) before and after POEM in our motility laboratory. Follow-ups last for 5.6 months on average. Outcome variables analyzed included upper esophageal sphincter pressure (UESP), upper esophageal sphincter residual pressure (UESRP), lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), lower esophageal sphincter residual pressure (LESRP) and esophageal body peristalsis. We have a statistical analysis to illustrate how POEM impacts on the change of esophageal motility. Results The symptoms related to dysphagia were relieved in 95% of patients in recent term after POEM. While HRM showed a statistically significant reduction of URSRP, LESP and LESRP (P<0.01), however, peristalsis was not consistently affected. There were 11 patients who had undergone other prior endoscopic treatment (endoscopic dilation or botulinum toxin injection) and 55 patients had not. The statistical difference (P>0.05) did not occur for these two groups on LESP and LESRP reduction. Conclusions POEM clearly relieved the symptoms related to dysphagia by lowering the pressure of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES),and other endoscopic treatment before POEM did not affect the improvement of LES pressure. These results are concluded from our short-term follow-up study, while the long-term efficacy remains to be further illustrated. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-12002204) PMID:25993648

  17. Serotonin Transporter Gene-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Influences Decision Making under Ambiguity and Risk in a Large Chinese Sample

    PubMed Central

    He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi; Lei, Xuemei; Ding, Ni; Li, Jin; Li, He; Chen, Chunhui; Li, Jun; Moyzis, Robert K.; Bechara, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Risky decision-making is a complex process that involves weighing the probabilities of alternative options that can be desirable, undesirable, or neutral. Individuals vary greatly in how they make decisions either under ambiguity and/or under risk. Such individual differences may have genetic bases. Based on previous studies on the genetic basis of decision making, two decision making tasks [i.e., Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Loss Aversion Task (LAT)] were used to test the effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on decision making under ambiguity and under risk in a large Han Chinese sample (572 college students, 312 females). Basic intelligence and memory tests were also included to control for the influence of basic cognitive abilities on decision making. We found that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism significantly influenced performance in both IGT and LAT. After controlling for intellectual and memory abilities, subjects homozygous for s allele had lower IGT scores than l carriers in the first 40 trials of the IGT task. They also exhibited higher loss aversion than l carriers in the LAT task. Moreover, the effects of 5-HTTLPR were stronger for males than for females. These results extend the literature on the important role of emotion in decision under ambiguity and risk, and provide additional lights on how decision-making is influenced by culture as well as sex differences. Combining our results with existing literature, we propose that these effects might be mediated by a neural circuitry that comprises the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and insular cortex. Understanding the genetic factors affecting decision in healthy subjects may allow us better identify at-risk individuals, and target better the development of new potential treatments for specific disorders such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. PMID:20659488

  18. Detection of a large sample of γ Doradus stars from Kepler space photometry and high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Yakushechkin, A.; Debosscher, J.; Degroote, P.; Bloemen, S.; Pápics, P. I.; de Vries, B. L.; Lombaert, R.; Hrudkova, M.; Frémat, Y.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2013-08-01

    Context. The launches of the MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler missions opened up a new era in asteroseismology, the study of stellar interiors via interpretation of pulsation patterns observed at the surfaces of large groups of stars. These space missions deliver a huge amount of high-quality photometric data suitable to study numerous pulsating stars. Aims: Our ultimate goal is a detection and analysis of an extended sample of γ Dor-type pulsating stars with the aim to search for observational evidence of non-uniform period spacings and rotational splittings of gravity modes in main-sequence stars typically twice as massive as the Sun. This kind of diagnostic can be used to deduce the internal rotation law and to estimate the amount of rotational mixing in the near core regions. Methods: We applied an automated supervised photometric classification method to select a sample of 69 Gamma Doradus (γ Dor) candidate stars. We used an advanced method to extract the Kepler light curves from the pixel data information using custom masks. For 36 of the stars, we obtained high-resolution spectroscopy with the HERMES spectrograph installed at the Mercator telescope. The spectroscopic data are analysed to determine the fundamental parameters like Teff, log g, vsini, and [M/H]. Results: We find that all stars for which spectroscopic estimates of Teff and log g are available fall into the region of the HR diagram, where the γ Dor and δ Sct instability strips overlap. The stars cluster in a 700 K window in effective temperature; log g measurements suggest luminosity class IV-V, i.e. sub-giant or main-sequence stars. From the Kepler photometry, we identify 45 γ Dor-type pulsators, 14 γ Dor/δ Sct hybrids, and 10 stars, which are classified as "possibly γ Dor/δ Sct hybrid pulsators". We find a clear correlation between the spectroscopically derived vsini and the frequencies of independent pulsation modes. Conclusions: We have shown that our photometric classification based on the

  19. High-throughput database search and large-scale negative polarity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ultraviolet photodissociation for complex proteomic samples.

    PubMed

    Madsen, James A; Xu, Hua; Robinson, Michelle R; Horton, Andrew P; Shaw, Jared B; Giles, David K; Kaoud, Tamer S; Dalby, Kevin N; Trent, M Stephen; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2013-09-01

    The use of ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) for the activation and dissociation of peptide anions is evaluated for broader coverage of the proteome. To facilitate interpretation and assignment of the resulting UVPD mass spectra of peptide anions, the MassMatrix database search algorithm was modified to allow automated analysis of negative polarity MS/MS spectra. The new UVPD algorithms were developed based on the MassMatrix database search engine by adding specific fragmentation pathways for UVPD. The new UVPD fragmentation pathways in MassMatrix were rigorously and statistically optimized using two large data sets with high mass accuracy and high mass resolution for both MS(1) and MS(2) data acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer for complex Halobacterium and HeLa proteome samples. Negative mode UVPD led to the identification of 3663 and 2350 peptides for the Halo and HeLa tryptic digests, respectively, corresponding to 655 and 645 peptides that were unique when compared with electron transfer dissociation (ETD), higher energy collision-induced dissociation, and collision-induced dissociation results for the same digests analyzed in the positive mode. In sum, 805 and 619 proteins were identified via UVPD for the Halobacterium and HeLa samples, respectively, with 49 and 50 unique proteins identified in contrast to the more conventional MS/MS methods. The algorithm also features automated charge determination for low mass accuracy data, precursor filtering (including intact charge-reduced peaks), and the ability to combine both positive and negative MS/MS spectra into a single search, and it is freely open to the public. The accuracy and specificity of the MassMatrix UVPD search algorithm was also assessed for low resolution, low mass accuracy data on a linear ion trap. Analysis of a known mixture of three mitogen-activated kinases yielded similar sequence coverage percentages for UVPD of peptide anions versus conventional collision-induced dissociation of

  20. High-throughput Database Search and Large-scale Negative Polarity Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Ultraviolet Photodissociation for Complex Proteomic Samples*

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, James A.; Xu, Hua; Robinson, Michelle R.; Horton, Andrew P.; Shaw, Jared B.; Giles, David K.; Kaoud, Tamer S.; Dalby, Kevin N.; Trent, M. Stephen; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) for the activation and dissociation of peptide anions is evaluated for broader coverage of the proteome. To facilitate interpretation and assignment of the resulting UVPD mass spectra of peptide anions, the MassMatrix database search algorithm was modified to allow automated analysis of negative polarity MS/MS spectra. The new UVPD algorithms were developed based on the MassMatrix database search engine by adding specific fragmentation pathways for UVPD. The new UVPD fragmentation pathways in MassMatrix were rigorously and statistically optimized using two large data sets with high mass accuracy and high mass resolution for both MS1 and MS2 data acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer for complex Halobacterium and HeLa proteome samples. Negative mode UVPD led to the identification of 3663 and 2350 peptides for the Halo and HeLa tryptic digests, respectively, corresponding to 655 and 645 peptides that were unique when compared with electron transfer dissociation (ETD), higher energy collision-induced dissociation, and collision-induced dissociation results for the same digests analyzed in the positive mode. In sum, 805 and 619 proteins were identified via UVPD for the Halobacterium and HeLa samples, respectively, with 49 and 50 unique proteins identified in contrast to the more conventional MS/MS methods. The algorithm also features automated charge determination for low mass accuracy data, precursor filtering (including intact charge-reduced peaks), and the ability to combine both positive and negative MS/MS spectra into a single search, and it is freely open to the public. The accuracy and specificity of the MassMatrix UVPD search algorithm was also assessed for low resolution, low mass accuracy data on a linear ion trap. Analysis of a known mixture of three mitogen-activated kinases yielded similar sequence coverage percentages for UVPD of peptide anions versus conventional collision-induced dissociation of

  1. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Y A; Landsberger, S; O'Kelly, D J; Braisted, J; Gabdo, H; Ewa, I O B; Umar, I M; Funtua, I I

    2010-10-01

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10(12)n cm(-2)s(-1) and epithermal flux of 1.4x10(11)n cm(-2)s(-1). Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements. PMID:20472451

  2. Impurities analysis of polycrystalline silicon substrates: Neutronic Activation Analysis (NAA) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounis, A.; Lenouar, K.; Gritly, Y.; Abbad, B.; Azzaz, M.; Taïbi, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we have determined the concentration of some impurities such as carbon, iron, copper, titanium, nickel of the flat product (polycrystalline silicon). These impurities generate a yield decrease in the photovoltaic components. The material (polycrystalline silicon) used in this work is manufactured by the Unit of Silicon Technology Development (UDTS Algiers, Algeria). The 80 kg ingot has been cutted into 16 briquettes in order to have plates (flat product) of 100 mm×100 mm dimensions. Each briquette is divided into three parts top (T), middle (M) and bottom (B). For this purpose, the following instrumental analysis techniques have been employed: neutronic analysis (neutronic activation analysis) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Masses of 80 mg are sampled and form of discs 18 mm in diameter, then exposed to a flux of neutron of 2.1012neutron cm-2 s-1 during 15 min. The energetic profile of incidental flux is constituted of fast neutrons (ΦR = 3.1012n.cm-2 s-1; E = 2 Mev), thermal neutrons (ΦTH = 1013n.cm-2 s-1; E = 0.025 ev) and epithermal neutrons (Φepi = 7.1011 n cm-2 s-1; E>4.9 ev), irradiation time 15 mn, after 20 mn of decrement, acquisitions of 300 s are carried out. The results are expressed by disintegration per second which does not exceed the 9000 Bq, 500 Bq and 2600 Bq, respectively for copper, titanium and nickel. It is observed that the impurities concentrations in the medium are higher. The impurities in the bottom of the ingots originate from the crucible. The impurities in the top originate from impurities dissolved in the liquid silicon, which have segregated to the top layer of the ingot and after solidification diffuse. Silicon corresponds to a mixture of three isotopes 28Si, 29Si and 30Si. These elements clearly appear on the mass spectrum (SIMS). The presence of iron and the one of nickel has been noticed.

  3. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using different testers and independent population samples in maize reveals low power of QTL detection and large bias in estimates of QTL effects.

    PubMed

    Melchinger, A E; Utz, H F; Schön, C C

    1998-05-01

    The efficiency of marker-assisted selection (MAS) depends on the power of quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and unbiased estimation of QTL effects. Two independent samples N = 344 and 107 of F2 plants were genotyped for 89 RFLP markers. For each sample, testcross (TC) progenies of the corresponding F3 lines with two testers were evaluated in four environments. QTL for grain yield and other agronomically important traits were mapped in both samples. QTL effects were estimated from the same data as used for detection and mapping of QTL (calibration) and, based on QTL positions from calibration, from the second, independent sample (validation). For all traits and both testers we detected a total of 107 QTL with N = 344, and 39 QTL with N = 107, of which only 20 were in common. Consistency of QTL effects across testers was in agreement with corresponding genotypic correlations between the two TC series. Most QTL displayed no significant QTL x environment nor epistatic interactions. Estimates of the proportion of the phenotypic and genetic variance explained by QTL were considerably reduced when derived from the independent validation sample as opposed to estimates from the calibration sample. We conclude that, unless QTL effects are estimated from an independent sample, they can be inflated, resulting in an overly optimistic assessment of the efficiency of MAS. PMID:9584111

  4. Comparison of different sample and target preparation procedures for PIXE analysis of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; De Reu, L.; Vandenhaute, J.

    1984-04-01

    Four different methods for preparing PIXE targets from biological samples were compared. All methods involved doping with an internal standard and preparing target deposits of 1-4 mg/cm 2 on a thin substrate. In method A targets were prepared using powdered freeze-dried material. Methods B and C both included a low temperature ashing preconcentration step and method D involved an acid digestion in a teflon bomb. The procedures were applied to reference materials (e.g. NBS standards) and to "real" samples such as human kidneys and a liver, which had been analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). For most elements good agreement was observed between the results of the four target preparation methods and the reference values or the NAA results. Exceptions, however, were Br, Se and Cd, which were lost in some methods. The detection limits in the different methods are compared.

  5. The validation of Kayzero-assisted NAA in Budapest, Rez, and Ljubljana via the analysis of three BCR certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    De Corte, F; van Sluijs, R; Simonits, A; Kucera, J; Smodis, B; Byrne, A R; De Wispelaere, A; Bossus, D; Frána, J; Horák, Z; Jaćimović, R

    2001-05-01

    After installation and calibration of k0-assisted NAA in three Central European research institutes (AEKI-Budapest, NPI-Rez, and IJS, Ljubljana), its validation was established via the analysis of three BCR certified reference materials. The matrices of choice were: CRM 277 estuarine sediment, CRM 038 coal fly ash from pulverized coal, and CRM 101 spruce needles. For some elements, e.g. Zn, Cd, and Hg, the analyses were not only performed instrumentally (INAA), but also in the radiochemical mode (RNAA). The work was performed in the framework of a European Copernicus Project. PMID:11393234

  6. Brief Report: Accuracy and Response Time for the Recognition of Facial Emotions in a Large Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Elian; de Rosnay, Marc; Wierda, Marlies; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander

    2014-01-01

    The empirical literature has presented inconsistent evidence for deficits in the recognition of basic emotion expressions in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which may be due to the focus on research with relatively small sample sizes. Additionally, it is proposed that although children with ASD may correctly identify emotion…

  7. Genetic Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from a Large Number of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Samples of Human Isolates in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Sima; Torbaghan, Shams Shariat; Dabiri, Shahriar; Babaei, Zahra; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, presents an important medical and veterinary problem globally, including that in Iran. Different genotypes of E. granulosus have been reported from human isolates worldwide. This study identifies the genotype of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in three provinces of Iran using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. In this study, 200 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from human CE cases were collected from Alborz, Tehran, and Kerman provinces. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were performed for genetic characterization of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates from this study and reference sequences of different genotypes was done using a maximum likelihood method. In total, 54.4%, 0.8%, 1%, and 40.8% of the samples were identified as the G1, G2, G3, and G6 genotypes, respectively. The findings of the current study confirm the G1 genotype (sheep strain) to be the most prevalent genotype involved in human CE cases in Iran and indicates the high prevalence of the G6 genotype with a high infectivity for humans. Furthermore, this study illustrates the first documented human CE case in Iran infected with the G2 genotype. PMID:25535316

  8. Who Really Uses Condoms?: Findings from a Large Internet-Recruited Random Sample of Unmarried Heterosexual College Students in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas; Omli, Morrow R.; Cohen, Gail; Champion, Heather; Durant, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Using data collected from an online internet-based assessment, we explored condom use rates and the characteristics of condom users among sexually active, unmarried heterosexual college students within a stratified random sample of 2,645 students from 10 universities in North Carolina. Of 1,417 students who fit the inclusion criteria, 39% were…

  9. Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse: Results from a Large Population-Based Sample of Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment has been linked to negative adult health outcomes; however, much past research includes only clinical samples of women, focuses exclusively on sexual abuse and/or fails to control for family background and childhood characteristics, both potential confounders. Further research is needed to obtain accurate,…

  10. VOC Contamination in Hospital, from Stationary Sampling of a Large Panel of Compounds, in View of Healthcare Workers and Patients Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Mosqueron, Luc; Berrubé, Adèle; Mukensturm, Gaël; Buffet-Bataillon, Sylvie; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Thomas, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess, for the first time, the nature of the indoor air contamination of hospitals. Methods and Findings More than 40 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, ethers and terpenes were measured in a teaching hospital in France, from sampling in six sampling sites – reception hall, patient room, nursing care, post-anesthesia care unit, parasitology-mycology laboratory and flexible endoscope disinfection unit – in the morning and in the afternoon, during three consecutive days. Our results showed that the main compounds found in indoor air were alcohols (arithmetic means ± SD: 928±958 µg/m3 and 47.9±52.2 µg/m3 for ethanol and isopropanol, respectively), ethers (75.6±157 µg/m3 for ether) and ketones (22.6±20.6 µg/m3 for acetone). Concentrations levels of aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes and limonene were widely variable between sampling sites, due to building age and type of products used according to health activities conducted in each site. A high temporal variability was observed in concentrations of alcohols, probably due to the intensive use of alcohol-based hand rubs in all sites. Qualitative analysis of air samples led to the identification of other compounds, including siloxanes (hexamethyldisiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane), anesthetic gases (sevoflurane, desflurane), aliphatic hydrocarbons (butane), esters (ethylacetate), terpenes (camphor, α-bisabolol), aldehydes (benzaldehyde) and organic acids (benzoic acid) depending on sites. Conclusion For all compounds, concentrations measured were lower than concentrations known to be harmful in humans. However, results showed that indoor air of sampling locations contains a complex mixture of VOCs. Further multicenter studies are required to compare these results. A full understanding of the exposure of healthcare workers and patients to complex

  11. g in Middle Childhood: Moderate Genetic and Shared Environmental Influence Using Diverse Measures of General Cognitive Ability at 7, 9 and 10 Years in a Large Population Sample of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Oliver S. P.; Arden, Rosalind; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A 2003 paper in this journal reported results from a large sample of twins assessed at 2, 3 and 4 years of age on parent-administered tests and reports of their verbal and nonverbal ability. We found clear evidence for phenotypic general cognitive ability (g) that accounted for about 50% of the variance, for modest genetic influence on g (about…

  12. Comparing two basic subtypes in OCD across three large community samples: a pure compulsive versus a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Stephanie; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Kawohl, Wolfram; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Castelao, Enrique; Vandeleur, Caroline; Angst, Jules; Preisig, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Due to its heterogeneous phenomenology, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been subtyped. However, these subtypes are not mutually exclusive. This study presents an alternative subtyping approach by deriving non-overlapping OCD subtypes. A pure compulsive and a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype (including subjects manifesting obsessions with/without compulsions) were analyzed with respect to a broad pattern of psychosocial risk factors and comorbid syndromes/diagnoses in three representative Swiss community samples: the Zurich Study (n = 591), the ZInEP sample (n = 1500), and the PsyCoLaus sample (n = 3720). A selection of comorbidities was examined in a pooled database. Odds ratios were derived from logistic regressions and, in the analysis of pooled data, multilevel models. The pure compulsive subtype showed a lower age of onset and was characterized by few associations with psychosocial risk factors. The higher social popularity of the pure compulsive subjects and their families was remarkable. Comorbidities within the pure compulsive subtype were mainly restricted to phobias. In contrast, the mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype had a higher prevalence and was associated with various childhood adversities, more familial burden, and numerous comorbid disorders, including disorders characterized by high impulsivity. The current comparison study across three representative community surveys presented two basic, distinct OCD subtypes associated with differing psychosocial impairment. Such highly specific subtypes offer the opportunity to learn about pathophysiological mechanisms specifically involved in OCD. PMID:25827623

  13. Schizotypal personality questionnaire--brief revised (updated): An update of norms, factor structure, and item content in a large non-clinical young adult sample.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Charlie A; Hoffman, Lesa; Spaulding, William D

    2016-04-30

    This study updates and provides evidence for the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of a standard instrument for detection and measurement of schizotypy in non-clinical young adults. Schizotypy represents a set of traits on which both nonclinical and schizophrenia-spectrum populations vary meaningfully. These traits are linked to biological, cognitive, and social dimensions of serious mental illness (SMI), to clinical and subclinical variation in personal and social functioning, and to risk for SMI. Reliable and valid identification of schizotypal traits has important implications for clinical practice and research. Four consecutive independent samples of undergraduates were administered the SPQ-BR (N=2552). Confirmatory factor analyses suggested a minor item wording change improved reliability, and this Updated questionnaire was implemented for three-quarters of the sample (SPQ-BRU). A, single-order, nine-factor structure had acceptable psychometric properties. The best fitting second-order structure included four higher-order factors that distinguished Social Anxiety and Interpersonal factors. This differentiation was supported by differential relationships with treatment history. The Disorganized factor had the greatest unique relationship with personal and family treatment history. With few exceptions, factor loadings showed stability across samples. Overall, the higher-order and lower-order factors of schizotypy demonstrated reliability and convergent and discriminant validity; detailed psychometric data are presented in a supplement. PMID:27086255

  14. In-situ preparation of NaA zeolite/chitosan porous hybrid beads for removal of ammonium from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Xiang; Chao, Cong; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Jindun

    2014-07-17

    Inorganic/organic hybrid materials play important roles in removal of contaminants from wastewater. Herein, we used the natural materials of halloysite and chitosan to prepare a new adsorbent of NaA zeolite/chitosan porous hybrid beads by in-situ hydrothermal synthesis method. SEM indicated that the porous hybrid beads were composed of 6-8 μm sized cubic NaA zeolite particles congregated together with chitosan. The adsorption behavior of NH4(+) from aqueous solution onto hybrid beads was investigated at different conditions. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. A maximum adsorption capacity of 47.62 mg/g at 298 K was achieved according to Langmuir model. The regenerated or reused experiments indicated that the adsorption capacity of the hybrid beads could maintain in 90% above after 10 successive adsorption-desorption cycles. The high adsorption and reusable ability implied potential application of the hybrid beads for removing NH4(+) pollutants from wastewater. PMID:24702924

  15. Obsessive–compulsive symptoms in a large population-based twin-family sample are predicted by clinically based polygenic scores and by genome-wide SNPs

    PubMed Central

    den Braber, A; Zilhão, N R; Fedko, I O; Hottenga, J-J; Pool, R; Smit, D J A; Cath, D C; Boomsma, D I

    2016-01-01

    Variation in obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS) has a heritable basis, with genetic association studies starting to yield the first suggestive findings. We contribute to insights into the genetic basis of OCS by performing an extensive series of genetic analyses in a homogeneous, population-based sample from the Netherlands. First, phenotypic and genetic longitudinal correlations over a 6-year period were estimated by modeling OCS data from twins and siblings. Second, polygenic risk scores (PRS) for 6931 subjects with genotype and OCS data were calculated based on meta-analysis results from IOCDF-GC, to investigate their predictive value. Third, the contribution of measured single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to the heritability was estimated using random-effects modeling. Last, we performed an exploratory genome-wide association study (GWAS) of OCS, testing for SNP- and for gene-based associations. Stability in OCS (test–retest correlation 0.63) was mainly explained by genetic stability. The PRS based on clinical samples predicted OCS in our population-based twin-family sample. SNP-based heritability was estimated at 14%. GWAS revealed one SNP (rs8100480), located within the MEF2BNB gene, associated with OCS (P=2.56 × 10−8). Additional gene-based testing resulted in four significantly associated genes, which are located i