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1

A Survey of Sexual Abuse in the Population at Large: Some Policy Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey information shows that sexual abuse of children is widespread, being reported by 19% of the females and 9% of the males in the sample. Most sexual victimization took place within the child's family, not with strangers, as "child molesters" have traditionally been stereotyped. While the problem cuts across social and economic lines, it seems…

Finkelhor, David

2

Sexual selection hinders adaptation in experimental populations of yeast  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection, the suite of processes that lead to differential mating success among individuals, probably influences the evolutionary trajectory of populations. Because sexual selection often shifts traits away from their survival optima, strong sexual selection pressures are thought to increase potential for population extinction, especially during environmental change. Sexual selection pressures may also increase the opportunity for speciation by accelerating the generation of pre-zygotic isolation among populations. These relationships remain largely untested experimentally. Here, we allow populations of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to evolve for approximately 250 generations with altered sex ratios in order to test the effect of the strength of sexual selection on the fate of populations. We find that populations experiencing stronger sexual selection are less able to adapt to a novel environment compared with populations experiencing weaker sexual selection or no sex, and that strong sexual selection erases the benefits of sexual reproduction. This pattern persists when fitness is assayed in a closely related environment. We also identify a trend that may suggest the beginning of pre-zygotic isolation between populations experiencing stronger sexual selection, though this is not statistically significant. These results highlight the importance of sexual selection in shaping macroevolutionary patterns and biodiversity.

Reding, L. P.; Swaddle, J. P.; Murphy, H. A.

2013-01-01

3

Causes of male sexual trait divergence in introduced populations of guppies.  

PubMed

Males from different populations of the same species often differ in their sexually selected traits. Variation in sexually selected traits can be attributed to sexual selection if phenotypic divergence matches the direction of sexual selection gradients among populations. However, phenotypic divergence of sexually selected traits may also be influenced by other factors, such as natural selection and genetic constraints. Here, we document differences in male sexual traits among six introduced Australian populations of guppies and untangle the forces driving divergence in these sexually selected traits. Using an experimental approach, we found that male size, area of orange coloration, number of sperm per ejaculate and linear sexual selection gradients for male traits differed among populations. Within populations, a large mismatch between the direction of selection and male traits suggests that constraints may be important in preventing male traits from evolving in the direction of selection. Among populations, however, variation in sexual selection explained more than half of the differences in trait variation, suggesting that, despite within-population constraints, sexual selection has contributed to population divergence of male traits. Differences in sexual traits were also associated with predation risk and neutral genetic distance. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection in trait divergence in introduced populations, despite the presence of constraining factors such as predation risk and evolutionary history. PMID:24456226

Lindholm, A K; Head, M L; Brooks, R C; Rollins, L A; Ingleby, F C; Zajitschek, S R K

2014-02-01

4

Detecting sexually antagonistic coevolution with population crosses.  

PubMed Central

The result of population crosses on traits such as mating rate, oviposition rate and survivorship are increasingly used to distinguish between modes of coevolution between the sexes. Two key hypotheses, erected from a verbal theory of sexually antagonistic coevolution, have been the subject of several recent tests. First, statistical interactions arising in population crosses are suggested to be indicative of a complex signal/receiver system. In the case of oviposition rates, an interaction between populations (x, y and z) would be indicated by the rank order of female oviposition rates achieved by x, y and z males changing depending upon the female (x, y or z) with which they mated. Second, under sexually antagonistic coevolution females will do 'best' when mated with their own males, where best is defined by the weakest response to the signal and the highest fitness. We test these hypotheses by crossing strains generated from a formal model of sexually antagonistic coevolution. Strains differ in the strength of natural selection acting on male and female traits. In our model, we assume sexually antagonistic coevolution of a single male signal and female receptor. The female receptor is treated as a preference function where both the slope and intercept of the function can evolve. Our results suggest that neither prediction is consistently supported. Interactions are not diagnostic of complex signal-receiver systems, and even under sexually antagonistic coevolution, females may do better mating with males of strains other than their own. These results suggest a reinterpretation of several recent experiments and have important implications for developing theories of speciation when sexually antagonistic coevolution is involved.

Rowe, Locke; Cameron, Erin; Day, Troy

2003-01-01

5

Mutator dynamics in sexual and asexual experimental populations of yeast  

PubMed Central

Background In asexual populations, mutators may be expected to hitchhike with associated beneficial mutations. In sexual populations, recombination is predicted to erode such associations, inhibiting mutator hitchhiking. To investigate the effect of recombination on mutators experimentally, we compared the frequency dynamics of a mutator allele (msh2?) in sexual and asexual populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Mutator strains increased in frequency at the expense of wild-type strains in all asexual diploid populations, with some approaching fixation in 150 generations of propagation. Over the same period of time, mutators declined toward loss in all corresponding sexual diploid populations as well as in haploid populations propagated asexually. Conclusions We report the first experimental investigation of mutator dynamics in sexual populations. We show that a strong mutator quickly declines in sexual populations while hitchhiking to high frequency in asexual diploid populations, as predicted by theory. We also show that the msh2? mutator has a high and immediate realized cost that is alone sufficient to explain its decline in sexual populations. We postulate that this cost is indirect; namely, that it is due to a very high rate of recessive lethal or strongly deleterious mutation. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that msh2? also has unknown directly deleterious effects on fitness, and that these effects may differ between haploid asexual and sexual populations. Despite these reservations, our results prompt us to speculate that the short-term cost of highly deleterious recessive mutations can be as important as recombination in preventing mutator hitchhiking in sexual populations.

2011-01-01

6

The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

2005-01-01

7

When will a sexual population evolve to an ESS?  

PubMed Central

A diploid, Mendelian population is considered in which m alleles at a single autosomal locus uniquely determine the phenotype of each individual. In the population, a game-theoretical conflict is supposed. If the genetic system is able to uniquely realize the phenotypic evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) state then the sexual population will evolve to this ESS.

Garay, J.; Varga, Z.

1998-01-01

8

Sexual isolation and mating propensity among allopatric Drosophila mettleri populations.  

PubMed

Drosophila mettleri is found in deserts of North America breeding in soil soaked by the juices of necrotic cacti. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) are the usual host cacti in Mexico and Arizona, while prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is used by an isolated population on Santa Catalina Island off the southern California Coast. Populations of D. mettleri show significant local genetic differentiation, especially when geographical isolation is coupled with host shifts. We tested for evidence of sexual isolation among allopatric populations of D. mettleri using a variety of choice and no-choice tests. Populations exhibited significant differences in mating propensity, which translated into significant deviations from random mating. While in some cases these deviations were consistent with sexual isolation, in others, negative assortative mating was observed. No relationship between degree of genetic differentiation and the appearance of sexual isolation was detected. PMID:18561017

Castrezana, Sergio J; Markow, Therese Ann

2008-07-01

9

Are Eukaryotic Microorganisms Clonal or Sexual? A Population Genetics Vantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the mode of reproduction of microorganisms in nature can only be decided by population genetic information. The evidence available indicates that many parasitic protozoa and unicellular fungi have clonal rather than sexual population structures, which has major consequences for medical research and practice. Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malaria, is a special case: the scarce evidence available

Michel Tibayrenc; Finn Kjellberg; Jacques Arnaud; Bruno Oury; S. Frederique Breniere; Marle-Laure Darde; Francisco J. Ayala

1991-01-01

10

Limits to the Rate of Adaptive Substitution in Sexual Populations  

PubMed Central

In large populations, many beneficial mutations may be simultaneously available and may compete with one another, slowing adaptation. By finding the probability of fixation of a favorable allele in a simple model of a haploid sexual population, we find limits to the rate of adaptive substitution, , that depend on simple parameter combinations. When variance in fitness is low and linkage is loose, the baseline rate of substitution is , where is the population size, is the rate of beneficial mutations per genome, and is their mean selective advantage. Heritable variance in log fitness due to unlinked loci reduces by under polygamy and under monogamy. With a linear genetic map of length Morgans, interference is yet stronger. We use a scaling argument to show that the density of adaptive substitutions depends on , , , and only through the baseline density: . Under the approximation that the interference due to different sweeps adds up, we show that , implying that interference prevents the rate of adaptive substitution from exceeding one per centimorgan per 200 generations. Simulations and numerical calculations confirm the scaling argument and confirm the additive approximation for ; for higher , the rate of adaptation grows above , but only very slowly. We also consider the effect of sweeps on neutral diversity and show that, while even occasional sweeps can greatly reduce neutral diversity, this effect saturates as sweeps become more common—diversity can be maintained even in populations experiencing very strong interference. Our results indicate that for some organisms the rate of adaptive substitution may be primarily recombination-limited, depending only weakly on the mutation supply and the strength of selection.

Weissman, Daniel B.; Barton, Nicholas H.

2012-01-01

11

Increasing access by priority populations to Australian sexual health clinics.  

PubMed

Data from a network of 35 Australian sexual health clinics, in geographically diverse locations, showed that the number and proportion of patients from priority populations (ie, young people, men who have sex with men, indigenous people, and female sex workers) increased significantly between 2004 and 2011. PMID:24275736

Ali, Hammad; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; O'Connor, Catherine C; Grulich, Andrew E; McNulty, Anna; Ryder, Nathan; Hellard, Margaret E; Guy, Rebecca J

2013-10-01

12

Computer Simulation of Sexual Selection on Age-Structured Populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using computer simulations of a bit-string model for age-structured populations, we found that sexual selection of older males is advantageous, from an evolutionary point of view. These results are in opposition to a recent proposal of females choosing younger males. Our simulations are based on findings from recent studies of polygynous bird species. Since secondary sex characters are found mostly in males, we could make use of asexual populations that can be implemented in a fast and efficient way.

Martins, S. G. F.; Penna, T. J. P.

13

Sexual Conf lict and Remarriage in Preindustrial Human Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual conflict is said to occur when one mating partner has an opportunity to increase its fitness at the cost of the other. We analyzed the effect of remarriage on lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in three preindustrial (1700–1900) socially monogamous Sami populations. In all populations, ever-married women’s age-specific mortality rates exceeded those of ever-married men during reproductive years. After the

Pekka Käär; Jukka Jokela; Juha Merilä; Timo Helle; Ilpo Kojola

1998-01-01

14

Genetic diversity in populations of asexual and sexual bag worm moths (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the two-fold cost of sex, most of the higher animals reproduce sexually. The advantage of sex has been suggested to be its ability, through recombination, to generate greater genetic diversity than asexuality, thus enhancing adaptation in a changing environment. We studied the genetic diversity and the population structure of three closely related species of bag worm moths: two strictly sexual (Dahlica charlottae and Siederia rupicolella) and one strictly asexual (D. fennicella). These species compete for the same resources and share the same parasitoids. Results Allelic richness was comparable between the sexual species but it was higher than in the asexual species. All species showed high heterozygote deficiency and a large variation was observed among FIS values across loci and populations. Large genetic differentiation was observed between populations confirming the poor dispersal ability of these species. The asexual species showed lower genotype diversity than the sexual species. Nevertheless, genotype diversity was high in all asexual populations. Conclusion The three different species show a similar population structure characterised by high genetic differentiation among populations and low dispersal. Most of the populations showed high heterozygote deficiency likely due to the presence of null alleles at most of the loci and/or to the Wahlund effect. Although the parthenogenetic D. fennicella shows reduced genetic diversity compared to the sexual species, it still shows surprisingly high genotype diversity. While we can not totally rule out the presence of cryptic sex, would explain this high genotype diversity, we never observed sex in the parthenogenetic D. fennicella, nor was there any other evidence of this. Alternatively, a non-clonal parthenogenetic reproduction, such as automictic thelytoky, could explain the high genotypic diversity observed in D. fennicella.

Grapputo, Alessandro; Kumpulainen, Tomi; Mappes, Johanna; Parri, Silja

2005-01-01

15

Sexual recombination punctuated by outbreaks and clonal expansions predicts Toxoplasma gondii population genetics  

PubMed Central

The cosmopolitan parasitic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting essentially any warm-blooded vertebrate worldwide, including most birds and mammals, and establishes chronic infections in one-third of the globe’s human population. The success of this highly prevalent zoonosis is largely the result of its ability to propagate both sexually and clonally. Frequent genetic exchanges via sexual recombination among extant parasite lineages that mix in the definitive felid host produces new lines that emerge to expand the parasite’s host range and cause outbreaks. Highly successful lines spread clonally via carnivorism and in some cases sweep to pandemic levels. The extent to which sexual reproduction versus clonal expansion shapes Toxoplasma’s current, global population genetic structure is the central question this review will attempt to answer.

Grigg, Michael E.; Sundar, Natarajan

2009-01-01

16

Sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections in student population.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the differences in sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections (STI) between the first-year and the last-year students. Data were collected by filling anonymous and consented questionnaire in June of 2011 at University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek, Croatia. Out of 857 students in the planned sample, 462 (53.9%) filled out the questionnaire, and 353/462 (76.4%) were sexually active. Data from sexually active students were processed and statistically significant results between first-year and the last-year students were presented. Studied sample consisted of 192/353 (54.4%) first-year students and 161/353 (45.6%) last-year students. Average age of sexual initiation for the first-year students was 17.28 +/- 1.29 years, a for the last-year students 18.45 +/- 2.14 years, and the difference is significant (Man-Whitney test = 10335.00, p < 0.01). First-year students have lower number of sexual partners (chi2 = 28.005, p < 0.01), during relationship they had lower number of intercourses with the third person (2 = 17.947, p < 0.01), and feel that lower number of their friends were already sexually active at the time of their own sexual initiation (chi2 = 18.350, p < 0.01). First-year students more often inform their partners about existing or previous STI (chi2 = 14.476, p < 0.01) and curiosity significantly influenced their decision regarding sexual initiation (chi2 = 8.689, p < 0.05). First-year students more often used condom at their first sexual intercourse (chi2 = 7.275, p < 0.01), and more rarely used withdrawal (chi2 = 6.380, p < 0.05). At their last sexual intercourse, first-year students more often used any kind of protection (chi2 = 3.853, p < 0.05),more often used condom (chi2 = 11.110, p < 0.01) and withdrawal (chi2 = 5.156, p < 0.05), and more rarely used contraceptive pills (chi2 = 4.405, p < 0.05). First-year students more often use condom in a permanent relationship (chi2 = 13.384, p < 0.05), and also plan to use it during following intercourse in the permanent relationship (chi2 = 17.575, p < 0.01). Growing condom use and decreasing risky sexual behaviour among students, as well as other adolescents and young adults needs to be maintained. Youth should learn before sexual initiation that only correct condom use at every sexual intercourse protects them against STI and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sexual education and STI/HIV prevention programmes, positive role of media (television) and civil organisations that communicate with the youth can help that. Such changes among adolescents and young adults should have to be seen in student population as well. PMID:24851594

Dijani?, Tomislav; Kozul, Karlo; Miskulin, Maja; Medi?, Alan; Jurcev-Savicevi?, Anamarija; Burazin, Jelena

2014-03-01

17

The maintenance of sexual reproduction in a structured population  

PubMed Central

We present the results of a computer simulation model in which a sexual population produces an asexual mutant. We estimate the probability that the new asexual lineage will go extinct. We find that whenever the asexual lineage does not go extinct the sexual population is out-competed, and only asexual individuals remain after a sufficiently long period of time has elapsed. We call this type of outcome an asexual takeover. Our results suggest that, given repeated mutations to asexuality, asexual takeover is likely in an unstructured environment. However, if the environment is subdivided into demes that are connected by migration, then asexual takeover becomes less likely. The probability of asexual takeover declines towards zero as the number of demes increases and as the rate of migration decreases. The reason for this is that asexuality leads to a greater loss of fitness due to mutation and genetic drift, in comparison to what occurs under sexual reproduction. Population subdivision slows the spread of asexual lineages, which allows more time for the genetic degeneration caused by asexuality to take place.

Peck, J. R.; Yearsley, J.; Barreau, G.

1999-01-01

18

Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population.  

PubMed

Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760-1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species. PMID:22547810

Courtiol, Alexandre; Pettay, Jenni E; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

2012-05-22

19

Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population  

PubMed Central

Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760–1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species.

Courtiol, Alexandre; Pettay, Jenni E.; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

2012-01-01

20

The Role of Sexual Selection and Conflict in Mediating Among-Population Variation in Mating Strategies and Sexually Dimorphic Traits in Sepsis punctum  

PubMed Central

The black scavenger fly Sepsis punctum exhibits striking among-population variation in the direction and magnitude of sexual size dimorphism, modification to the male forelimb and pre-copulatory behaviour. In some populations, male-biased sexual size dimorphism is observed; in other, less dimorphic, populations males court prior to mating. Such variation in reproductive traits is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it has the potential to limit gene flow among populations, contributing to speciation. Here, we investigate whether large male body size and modified forefemur are associated with higher male mating success within populations, whether these traits are associated with higher mating success among populations, and if these traits carry viability costs that could constrain their response to sexual selection. Flies from five distinct populations were reared at high or low food, generating high and low quality males. The expression of body size, forelimb morphology and courtship rate were each greater at high food, but high food males experienced higher mating success or reduced latency to first copulation in only one of the populations. Among populations, overall mating success increased with the degree of male-bias in overall body size and forelimb modification, suggesting that these traits have evolved as a means of increasing male mating rate. The increased mating success observed in large-male populations raises the question of why variation in magnitude of dimorphism persists among populations. One reason may be that costs of producing a large size constrain the evolution of ever-larger males. We found no evidence that juvenile mortality under food stress was greater for large-male populations, but development time was considerably longer and may represent an important constraint in an ephemeral and competitive growth environment.

Dmitriew, Caitlin; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

2012-01-01

21

HIV, Sexual Violence and Special Populations: Adolescence and Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

The risk of male to female transmission of HIV is impacted by baseline inflammation in the female genital tract, semen viral load and seminal plasma’s ability to induce specific patterns of cervical cytokine signalling and influx of immune cell populations. Disruption of the epithelial barrier during non-consensual intercourse may trigger further inflammation and initiation of cell-signalling pathways, thus facilitating transmission of HIV and expansion of local infection. Adolescent and pregnant women are at high risk for sexual violence and may exhibit alterations of genital mucosal immunity that promote immune activation, making them uniquely vulnerable to HIV acquisition.

Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Herold, Betsy C.

2013-01-01

22

Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior.  

PubMed

Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy

2013-01-01

23

Adult Sexual Assault: Prevalence, Symptomatology, and Sex Differences in the General Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and impact of adult sexual assault (ASA) were examined in a stratified random sample of the general population. Among 941 participants, ASA was reported by 22% of women and 3.8% of men. Multivariate risk factors for ASA included a younger age, being female, having been divorced, sexual abuse in childhood, and physical assault in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse

Diana M. Elliott; Doris S. Mok; John Brierel

2004-01-01

24

Sexual Body Image and Its Correlates: A Population-Based Study of Finnish Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual body image was examined in a population-based sample of 9,532 Finnish men and women, age 18 to 49 years. More than one half of women and men were satisfied with their genitals, one half of the women were satisfied with their breasts. Higher levels of genital satisfaction were related to higher frequencies of sexual behavior and better sexual function

Monica Ålgars; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Ada Johansson; Minja Westerlund; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

2011-01-01

25

Sexually Coercive Behavior in Male Youth: Population Survey of General and Specific Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about risk\\/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish\\u000a school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables\\u000a across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general\\u000a and specific risk\\/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth,

Cecilia Kjellgren; Gisela Priebe; Carl Göran Svedin; Niklas Långström

2010-01-01

26

Measuring community connectedness among diverse sexual minority populations.  

PubMed

Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial and ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study examined the reliability and validity of an existing measure of connectedness to the LGBT Community among a diverse group of sexual minority individuals in New York City, and whether differences in connectedness existed across gender and race or ethnicity. Scores on the measure demonstrated both internal consistency and construct stability across subgroups defined by gender and race or ethnicity. The subgroups did not differ in their mean levels of connectedness, and scores on the measure demonstrated factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity, both generally and within each of the subgroups. Inconsistencies were observed with regard to which scores on the measure demonstrated predictive validity in their associations with indicators of mental health and well-being. The scale is a useful tool for researchers and practitioners interested in understanding the role of community connectedness in the lives of diverse populations of sexual minority individuals. PMID:21512945

Frost, David M; Meyer, Ilan H

2012-01-01

27

The impact of sexually abstaining groups on persistence of sexually transmitted infections in populations with ephemeral pair bonds.  

PubMed

Individuals often stop reproducing some time before they die. In this paper we compose and analyze a logistic two-sex population model in which individuals form pairs just to mate (i.e. pair bonds are ephemeral) and later move on to sexually abstaining groups. Using this model, we study the impact of sexually abstaining groups on persistence of a benign sexually transmitted infection (STI) in populations with such ephemeral pair bonds. We observe that the presence of sexually abstaining groups cannot prevent an STI from invasion or eliminate it when already present if the transition rates to the sexually abstaining groups are independent of the infection status of individuals (susceptible or infected). On the other hand, if they depend on that status, the presence of sexually abstaining groups can prevent an STI from invasion or eliminate it when present. Specifically, in the simple case of sex-independent vital parameters, this happens if the transition rate of the infected individuals to the sexually abstaining group is higher than the transition rate of the susceptible ones. These results contrast the earlier results based on assuming long-term, stable pair bonds, in which case one is capable of preventing or eliminating the disease with the same isolation rate for the susceptible and infected individuals. PMID:21978737

Maxin, D; Berec, L; Covello, M; Jessee, J; Zimmer, M

2012-01-01

28

Predictors of Sexual Bother in a Population of Male North American Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence and associations of sexual bother in male medical students has not been extensively studied. Aims The aim of this study is to analyze predictors of sexual bother in a survey of male North American medical students. Methods Students enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February 2008 and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey of sexuality and sexual function. Main Outcome Measures The principle outcome measure was a single-item question inquiring about global satisfaction with sexual function. The survey also consisted of a questionnaire that included ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history, and a validated scale for the assessment of depression. Respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function, the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool, and the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality survey (SEAR). Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. Results There were 480 male subjects (mean age 26.3 years) with data sufficient for analysis. Forty-three (9%) reported sexual bother. Sexual bother was significantly more common in men with erectile dysfunction (ED), high risk of premature ejaculation (HRPE), depressive symptoms, and lower sexual frequency. However, after multivariate analysis including SEAR scores, ED, and HRPE were no longer independently predictive of sexual bother. Higher scores for all domains of the SEAR were associated with lower odds of sexual bother. Conclusions ED and HRPE are associated with sexual bother in this young and presumably healthy population. However, after controlling for relationship factors neither ED nor HRPE independently predicted sexual bother. It is plausible to hypothesize that sexual dysfunction from organic causes is rare in this population and is seldom encountered outside of relationship perturbations. Attention to relationship and psychological factors is likely of key importance in addressing sexual concerns in this population.

Smith, James F.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.

2013-01-01

29

Infection dynamics in coexisting sexual and asexual host populations: support for the red queen hypothesis *.  

PubMed

Abstract The persistence of sexual reproduction is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. The problem stems from the fact that, all else equal, asexual lineages should rapidly replace coexisting sexual individuals due to the cost of producing males in sexual populations. One possible countervailing advantage to sexual reproduction is that, on average, outcrossed offspring are more resistant than common clones to coevolving parasites, as predicted under the Red Queen hypothesis. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of infection by a sterilizing trematode (Microphallus sp.) in a natural population of freshwater snails that was composed of both sexual and asexual individuals (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). More specifically, we compared the frequency of infection in sexual and asexual individuals over a 5-year period at four sites at a natural glacial lake (Lake Alexandrina, South Island, New Zealand). We found that at most sites and over most years, the sexual population was less infected than the coexisting asexual population. Moreover, the frequency of uninfected sexual females was periodically greater than two times the frequency of uninfected asexual females. These results give clear support for a fluctuating parasite-mediated advantage to sexual reproduction in a natural population. PMID:25061675

Vergara, Daniela; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M

2014-08-01

30

A population of sexual Daphnia pulex resists invasion by asexual clones.  

PubMed

Asexual reproduction avoids the costs associated with sex, predicting that invading asexual clones can quickly replace sexual populations. Daphnia pulex populations in the Great Lakes area are predominately asexual, but the elimination of sexual populations by invading clones is poorly understood. Asexual clones were detected at low frequency in one rare sexual population in 1995, with some increase in frequency during 2003 and 2004. However, these clones remained at low frequency during further yearly sampling (2005-2013) with no evidence that the resident sexual population was in danger of elimination. There was evidence for hybridization between rare males produced by asexual clones and sexual females with the potential to produce new asexual genotypes and spread the genetic factors for asexuality. In a short-term laboratory competition experiment, the two most common asexual clones did not increase in frequency relative to a genetically diverse sexual population due in part to a greater investment in diapausing eggs that trades-off current population growth for increased contribution to the egg bank. Our results suggest that a successful invasion can be prolonged, requiring a combination of clonal genotypes with high fitness, persistence of clones in the egg bank and negative factors affecting the sexual population such as inbreeding depression resulting from population bottlenecks. PMID:24943366

Innes, David J; Ginn, Michael

2014-08-01

31

Sexual recombination in the Botrytis cinerea populations in Hungarian vineyards.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea (anamorph of Botryotinia fuckeliana) causes gray mold on a high number of crop plants including grapes. In this study, we investigated the genetic properties of a grape pathogenic population of B. cinerea in the area of Eger, Hungary. A total of 109 isolates from 12 areas were sampled. Based on the sequence of the beta-tubulin (tub1) locus, they all belong to group II, a phylogenetic species within B. cinerea. Seventy-four isolates were classified as transposa, with both the Flipper and Boty transposons, and 10 were classified as vacuma, lacking both transposons. The remaining isolates contained either only Flipper (13) or Boty (12). Multilocus analysis of sequences from tub1 and two other loci (elongation factor 1-alpha, tef1, and a minisatellite from the intron of an ATPase, MSB1) led to poor phylogenetic resolution of strains in individual clades. Analysis of five microsatellites (Bc2, Bc3, Bc5, Bc6, and Bc10) resulted in 55 microsatellite haplotypes within the 109 strains. No correlation was detected among individual haplotypes and the presence/absence of Flipper and/or Boty, the geographic origin, or the year of isolation. Application of the index of association, the chi-square test, and the phi test consistently indicated that the population of Hungarian isolates of B. cinerea undergoes sexual reproduction. However, the index of association test suggested the presence of some clonality, and the fixation index showed a low or occasionally moderate level of fixation in the Flipper populations. We conclude that the B. cinerea populations in Hungary consist of a strongly recombining group II phylogenetic species. PMID:19000006

Váczy, Kálmán Z; Sándor, Erzsébet; Karaffa, Levente; Fekete, Erzsébet; Fekete, Eva; Arnyasi, Mariann; Czeglédi, Levente; Kövics, György J; Druzhinina, Irina S; Kubicek, Christian P

2008-12-01

32

Sexual selection and temporal phenotypic variation in a damselfly population.  

PubMed

Temporal variation in selection can be generated by temporal variation in either the fitness surface or phenotypic distributions around a static fitness surface, or both concurrently. Here, we use within- and between-generation sampling of fitness surfaces and phenotypic distributions over 2 years to investigate the causes of temporal variation in the form of sexual selection on body size in the damselfly Enallagma aspersum. Within a year, when the average female body size differed substantially from the average male body size, male body size experienced directional selection. In contrast, when male and female size distributions overlapped, male body size experienced stabilizing selection when variances in body size were large, but no appreciable selection when the variances in body size were small. The causes of temporal variation in the form of selection can only be inferred by accounting for changes in both the fitness surface and changes in the distribution of phenotypes. PMID:21569154

Steele, D B; Siepielski, A M; McPeek, M A

2011-07-01

33

High Rates of Sexual Behavior in the General Population: Correlates and Predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 2450, 18–60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk\\u000a factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population.\\u000a Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health\\u000a indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of

Niklas Långström; R. Karl Hanson

2006-01-01

34

Medfly populations differ in diel and age patterns of sexual signalling  

PubMed Central

Insect populations may differ in several life history traits, including behavioural ones such as sexual signalling. We tested whether male Mediterranean fruit fly (medlfy), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations obtained from geographically isolated areas exhibit differences in quantitative and qualitative aspects of male sexual signalling. Male sexual signalling was studied in four medfly populations (originating from Brazil, Portugal, Kenya, and Greece) under identical laboratory conditions (25 °C, 60% r.h., and L14:D10). The four populations had been reared for one generation in the laboratory. Sexual signalling was studied in the F1 progeny that were fed one of two diets (yeast hydrolysate plus sugar or sugar only). On both diets, the four populations differed significantly in the progress of maturity (indicated by the average number of males exhibiting sexual signalling) and in the quantity of signalling after attaining maturity. Yeast availability significantly increased sexual signalling; however, it had a different impact on the quantity of signalling in the different populations. A bimodal pattern of sexual signalling, with one peak at approximately 08:00–09:00 hours and the second at approximately 13:00–14:00 hours, was recorded for all populations and diets. However, quantitative differences among the populations within the ‘sexually active’ period of the day resulted in significant differences in the daily pattern of sexual signalling. The significance of these findings for understanding adaptations of geographically-isolated medfly populations to different ecosystems, as well as its practical importance for the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against C. capitata, is discussed.

Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Carey, James R.

2009-01-01

35

Medfly populations differ in diel and age patterns of sexual signalling.  

PubMed

Insect populations may differ in several life history traits, including behavioural ones such as sexual signalling. We tested whether male Mediterranean fruit fly (medlfy), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations obtained from geographically isolated areas exhibit differences in quantitative and qualitative aspects of male sexual signalling. Male sexual signalling was studied in four medfly populations (originating from Brazil, Portugal, Kenya, and Greece) under identical laboratory conditions (25 °C, 60% r.h., and L14:D10). The four populations had been reared for one generation in the laboratory. Sexual signalling was studied in the F(1) progeny that were fed one of two diets (yeast hydrolysate plus sugar or sugar only). On both diets, the four populations differed significantly in the progress of maturity (indicated by the average number of males exhibiting sexual signalling) and in the quantity of signalling after attaining maturity. Yeast availability significantly increased sexual signalling; however, it had a different impact on the quantity of signalling in the different populations. A bimodal pattern of sexual signalling, with one peak at approximately 08:00-09:00 hours and the second at approximately 13:00-14:00 hours, was recorded for all populations and diets. However, quantitative differences among the populations within the 'sexually active' period of the day resulted in significant differences in the daily pattern of sexual signalling. The significance of these findings for understanding adaptations of geographically-isolated medfly populations to different ecosystems, as well as its practical importance for the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against C. capitata, is discussed. PMID:19774092

Diamantidis, Alexandros D; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Carey, James R

2008-09-01

36

Coalescence and genetic diversity in sexual populations under selection.  

PubMed

In sexual populations, selection operates neither on the whole genome, which is repeatedly taken apart and reassembled by recombination, nor on individual alleles that are tightly linked to the chromosomal neighborhood. The resulting interference between linked alleles reduces the efficiency of selection and distorts patterns of genetic diversity. Inference of evolutionary history from diversity shaped by linked selection requires an understanding of these patterns. Here, we present a simple but powerful scaling analysis identifying the unit of selection as the genomic "linkage block" with a characteristic length, , determined in a self-consistent manner by the condition that the rate of recombination within the block is comparable to the fitness differences between different alleles of the block. We find that an asexual model with the strength of selection tuned to that of the linkage block provides an excellent description of genetic diversity and the site frequency spectra compared with computer simulations. This linkage block approximation is accurate for the entire spectrum of strength of selection and is particularly powerful in scenarios with many weakly selected loci. The latter limit allows us to characterize coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics. PMID:24019480

Neher, Richard A; Kessinger, Taylor A; Shraiman, Boris I

2013-09-24

37

On the Genealogy of Large Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Markov chain is introduced which can be used to describe the family relationships among n individuals drawn from a particular generation of a large haploid population. The properties of this process can be studied, simultaneously for all n, by coupling techniques. Recent results in neutral mutation theory are seen as consequences of the genealogy described by the chain.

J. F. C. KINGMAN

38

Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

2009-01-01

39

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

2008-01-01

40

Auditory sexual difference in the large odorous frog Odorrana graminea.  

PubMed

Acoustic communication is an important behavior in frog courtship. Male and female frogs of most species, except the concave-eared torrent frog Odorrana tormota, have largely similar audiograms. The large odorous frogs (Odorrana graminea) are sympatric with O. tormota, but have no ear canals. The difference in hearing between two sexes of the frog is unknown. We recorded auditory evoked near-field potentials and single-unit responses from the auditory midbrain (the torus semicircularis) to determine auditory frequency sensitivity and threshold. The results show that males have the upper frequency limit at 24 kHz and females have the upper limit at 16 kHz. The more sensitive frequency range is 3-15 kHz for males and 1-8 kHz for females. Males have the minimum threshold at 11 kHz (58 dB SPL), higher about 5 dB than that at 3 kHz for females. The best excitatory frequencies of single units are mostly between 3 and 5 kHz in females and at 7-8 kHz in males. The underlying mechanism of auditory sexual differences is discussed. PMID:24510208

Liu, Wei-Rong; Shen, Jun-Xian; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Xu, Zhi-Min; Qi, Zhi; Xue, Mao-Qiang

2014-04-01

41

Sexual conflict and the gender load: correlated evolution between population fitness and sexual dimorphism in seed beetles  

PubMed Central

Although males and females share much of the same genome, selection is often distinct in the two sexes. Sexually antagonistic loci will in theory cause a gender load in populations, because sex-specific selection on a given trait in one sex will compromise the adaptive evolution of the same trait in the other sex. However, it is currently not clear whether such intralocus sexual conflict (ISC) represents a transient evolutionary state, where conflict is rapidly resolved by the evolution of sexual dimorphism (SD), or whether it is a more chronic impediment to adaptation. All else being equal, ISC should manifest itself as correlated evolution between population fitness and SD in traits expressed in both sexes. However, comparative tests of this prediction are problematic and have been unfeasible. Here, we assess the effects of ISC by comparing fitness and SD across distinct laboratory populations of seed beetles that should be well adapted to a shared environment. We show that SD in juvenile development time, a key life-history trait with a history of sexually antagonistic selection in this model system, is positively related to fitness. This effect is due to a correlated evolution between population fitness and development time that is positive in females but negative in males. Loosening the genetic bind between the sexes has evidently allowed the sexes to approach their distinct adaptive peaks.

Arnqvist, Goran; Tuda, Midori

2010-01-01

42

Sexual Segregation in Juvenile New Zealand Sea Lion Foraging Ranges: Implications for Intraspecific Competition, Population Dynamics and Conservation  

PubMed Central

Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use) is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account sex differences in foraging behaviour, as well as differential threat-risk to external impacts such as fisheries bycatch.

Leung, Elaine S.; Chilvers, B. Louise; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Moore, Antoni B.; Robertson, Bruce C.

2012-01-01

43

The Rate of Fitness-Valley Crossing in Sexual Populations  

PubMed Central

Biological traits result in part from interactions between different genetic loci. This can lead to sign epistasis, in which a beneficial adaptation involves a combination of individually deleterious or neutral mutations; in this case, a population must cross a “fitness valley” to adapt. Recombination can assist this process by combining mutations from different individuals or retard it by breaking up the adaptive combination. Here, we analyze the simplest fitness valley, in which an adaptation requires one mutation at each of two loci to provide a fitness benefit. We present a theoretical analysis of the effect of recombination on the valley-crossing process across the full spectrum of possible parameter regimes. We find that low recombination rates can speed up valley crossing relative to the asexual case, while higher recombination rates slow down valley crossing, with the transition between the two regimes occurring when the recombination rate between the loci is approximately equal to the selective advantage provided by the adaptation. In large populations, if the recombination rate is high and selection against single mutants is substantial, the time to cross the valley grows exponentially with population size, effectively meaning that the population cannot acquire the adaptation. Recombination at the optimal (low) rate can reduce the valley-crossing time by up to several orders of magnitude relative to that in an asexual population.

Weissman, Daniel B.; Feldman, Marcus W.; Fisher, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

44

Detecting cell assemblies in large neuronal populations.  

PubMed

Recent progress in the technology for single unit recordings has given the neuroscientific community the opportunity to record the spiking activity of large neuronal populations. At the same pace, statistical and mathematical tools were developed to deal with high-dimensional datasets typical of such recordings. A major line of research investigates the functional role of subsets of neurons with significant co-firing behavior: the Hebbian cell assemblies. Here we review three linear methods for the detection of cell assemblies in large neuronal populations that rely on principal and independent component analysis. Based on their performance in spike train simulations, we propose a modified framework that incorporates multiple features of these previous methods. We apply the new framework to actual single unit recordings and show the existence of cell assemblies in the rat hippocampus, which typically oscillate at theta frequencies and couple to different phases of the underlying field rhythm. PMID:23639919

Lopes-dos-Santos, Vítor; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Tort, Adriano B L

2013-11-15

45

Genetic differences among populations in sexual dimorphism: evidence for selection on males in a dioecious plant  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation among populations in the degree of sexual dimorphism may be a consequence of selection on one or both sexes. We analysed genetic parameters from crosses involving three populations of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, which exhibits sexual dimorphism in flower size, to determine whether population differentiation was a result of selection on one or both sexes. We took the novel approach of comparing the ratio of population differentiation of a quantitative trait (QST) to that of neutral genetic markers (FST) for males vs. females. We attributed 72.6% of calyx width variation in males to differences among populations vs. only 6.9% in females. The QST/FST ratio was 4.2 for males vs. 0.4 for females, suggesting that selection on males is responsible for differentiation among populations in calyx width and its degree of sexual dimorphism. This selection may be indirect via genetic correlations with other morphological and physiological traits.

YU, Q.; ELLEN, E. D.; WADE, M. J.; DELPH, L. F.

2011-01-01

46

Characteristics of victims of sexual abuse by gender and race in a community corrections population.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White women, African American men, and African American women) using univariate and logistic regression analyses, which were conducted separately for each group. White women were the most likely to report a history of sexual abuse (26.5%), followed by African American women (16.0%), White men (4.0%), and African American men (1.1%). For all groups, histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were associated with a history of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was associated with substance abuse problems for women but not the men. Cannabis dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the White women while cocaine dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the African American women. Several other variables were associated with sexual abuse for women but not men, including lower education (White women only), a history of violent offenses (White women only), and living in a shelter (African American women only). African American men tended to have higher levels of education; this was the only variable uniquely associated with either male group. Receiving psychiatric medications was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except African American men and a history of sex for drugs was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except White men. Consistent with national sample, women, particularly White women, were more likely to be victims of sexual abuse. The gender-race differences for the sociodemographic factors associated with sexual abuse, particularly the risk of substance abuse for women, suggest the need for tailored interventions for sexual abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:22203627

Clark, C Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B; Islam, M Aminul; Hanover, Erin E; Cropsey, Karen L

2012-06-01

47

Trends in High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among General Population Groups in China: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Results We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Discussion Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W. N.; de Vlas, Sake J.

2013-01-01

48

Sexual Behaviors among Adults in Puerto Rico: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Given changes in sexual behaviors and norms in the United States, there is a need for current and representative data on sexual behaviors with particular interest in gender, age, and racial/ethnic group differences. Aim Given the limited data for Hispanics and for Puerto Rico (PR), we described patterns of sexual behaviors and characteristics among a sexually active sample (n = 1,575) of adults aged 21–64 years in PR. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures for this study are sexual behaviors including age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners, vaginal and anal intercourse, and oral sex, among others. Methods Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. The prevalence of sexual behaviors and characteristics was described by age-group and gender during the lifetime and in the past 12 months. Results Overall, 96.8%, 81.6%, and 60.9% of participants had ever engaged in vaginal, oral and anal sex, respectively, whereas 23.7% were seropositive to any of the sexually transmitted infections under study. Sexual initiation ?15 years was reported by 37.8% of men and 21.4% of women; whereas 47.9% of men and 13.2% of women reported to have had ?7 sexual partners in their lifetime. Approximately, 3% of women and 6% of men reported same-sex sexual practices, while history of forced sexual relations was reported by 9.6% of women and 2.5% of men. Sexual initiation ?15 years was more common among individuals aged 21–34 years (41.4% men and 33.6% women) as compared with older cohorts. Although having had ?7 sexual partners over a lifetime among men was similar across age groups, this behavior decreased in older women cohorts. In both genders, the prevalence of oral and anal sex was also lower in the older age cohorts. Conclusion This study provides essential information than can help health professionals understand the sexual practices and needs of the population of PR.

Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suarez, Erick; Santos-Ortiz, Maria del Carmen; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Perez, Cynthia M.

2012-01-01

49

Molecular hyperdiversity and evolution in very large populations  

PubMed Central

The genomic density of sequence polymorphisms critically affects the sensitivity of inferences about ongoing sequence evolution, function, and demographic history. Most animal and plant genomes have relatively low densities of polymorphisms, but some species are hyperdiverse with neutral nucleotide heterozygosity exceeding 5%. Eukaryotes with extremely large populations, mimicking bacterial and viral populations, present novel opportunities for studying molecular evolution in sexually-reproducing taxa with complex development. In particular, hyperdiverse species can help answer controversial questions about the evolution of genome complexity, the limits of natural selection, modes of adaptation, and subtleties of the mutation process. However, such systems have some inherent complications and here we identify topics in need of theoretical developments. Close relatives of the model organisms Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster provide known examples of hyperdiverse eukaryotes, encouraging functional dissection of resulting molecular evolutionary patterns. We recommend how best to exploit hyperdiverse populations for analysis, for example, in quantifying the impact of non-crossover recombination in genomes and for determining the identity and micro-evolutionary selective pressures on non-coding regulatory elements.

Cutter, Asher D.; Jovelin, Richard; Dey, Alivia

2014-01-01

50

Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.  

PubMed

The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes. PMID:25034518

Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

2014-01-01

51

Sexual Activity and Impairment in Women with Systemic Sclerosis Compared to Women from a General Population Sample  

PubMed Central

Objective Reports of low sexual activity rates and high impairment rates among women with chronic diseases have not included comparisons to general population data. The objective of this study was to compare sexual activity and impairment rates of women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to general population data and to identify domains of sexual function driving impairment in SSc. Methods Canadian women with SSc were compared to women from a UK population sample. Sexual activity and, among sexually active women, sexual impairment were evaluated with a 9-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Among women with SSc (mean age?=?57.0 years), 296 of 730 (41%) were sexually active, 181 (61%) of whom were sexually impaired, resulting in 115 of 730 (16%) who were sexually active without impairment. In the UK population sample (mean age?=?55.4 years), 956 of 1,498 women (64%) were sexually active, 420 (44%) of whom were impaired, with 536 of 1,498 (36%) sexually active without impairment. Adjusting for age and marital status, women with SSc were significantly less likely to be sexually active (OR?=?0.34, 95%CI?=?0.28–0.42) and, among sexually active women, significantly more likely to be sexually impaired (OR?=?1.88, 95%CI?=?1.42–2.49) than general population women. Controlling for total FSFI scores, women with SSc had significantly worse lubrication and pain scores than general population women. Conclusions Sexual functioning is a problem for many women with scleroderma and is associated with pain and poor lubrication. Evidence-based interventions to support sexual activity and function in women with SSc are needed.

Levis, Brooke; Burri, Andrea; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

2012-01-01

52

Sexual Orientation and Mental and Physical Health Status: Findings From a Dutch Population Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. Methods. Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited

THEO G. M. SANDFORT; FLOOR BAKKER; FRANÇOIS G. SCHELLEVIS; INE VANWESENBEECK

53

Sexual orientation and mental and physical health status: findings from a Dutch population survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited

T. G. M. Sandfort; F. Bakker; F. G. Schellevis; I. Vanwesenbeeck

2006-01-01

54

Characteristics of Victims of Sexual Abuse by Gender and Race in a Community Corrections Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…

Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.

2012-01-01

55

High rates of sexual behavior in the general population: correlates and predictors.  

PubMed

We studied 2450, 18-60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population. Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of intercourse were mostly positive, whereas the correlates of high rates of masturbation and impersonal sex were typically undesirable. For both men and women, high rates of impersonal sex were related to separation from parents during childhood, relationship instability, sexually transmitted disease, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The association between hypersexuality and paraphilic sexual interests (exhibitionism, voyeurism, masochism/sadism) was particularly and equally strong for both genders (odds ratios of 4.6-25.6). The results held, with a few exceptions, when controlling for age, being in a stable relationship, living in a major city, and same-sex sexual orientation. We conclude that elevated rates of impersonal sex are associated with a range of negative health indicators in the general population. PMID:16502152

Långström, Niklas; Hanson, R Karl

2006-02-01

56

Adult sexual assault: prevalence, symptomatology, and sex differences in the general population.  

PubMed

The prevalence and impact of adult sexual assault (ASA) were examined in a stratified random sample of the general population. Among 941 participants, ASA was reported by 22% of women and 3.8% of men. Multivariate risk factors for ASA included a younger age, being female, having been divorced, sexual abuse in childhood, and physical assault in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse was especially common among sexually assaulted men and women (61 and 59%, respectively). ASA victims were more symptomatic than their nonassaulted cohorts on all scales of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI; J. Briere, 1995), despite an average of 14 years having passed since the assault. Assaulted men reported greater symptomatology than assaulted women, whereas nonassaulted men reported less symptomatology than nonassaulted women. PMID:15253092

Elliott, Diana M; Mok, Doris S; Briere, John

2004-06-01

57

Populations with elevated mutation load do not benefit from the operation of sexual selection.  

PubMed

Theory predicts that if most mutations are deleterious to both overall fitness and condition-dependent traits affecting mating success, sexual selection will purge mutation load and increase nonsexual fitness. We explored this possibility with populations of mutagenized Drosophila melanogaster exhibiting elevated levels of deleterious variation and evolving in the presence or absence of male-male competition and female choice. After 60 generations of experimental evolution, monogamous populations exhibited higher total reproductive output than polygamous populations. Parental environment also affected fitness measures - flies that evolved in the presence of sexual conflict showed reduced nonsexual fitness when their parents experienced a polygamous environment, indicating trans-generational effects of male harassment and highlighting the importance of a common garden design. This cost of parental promiscuity was nearly absent in monogamous lines, providing evidence for the evolution of reduced sexual antagonism. There was no overall difference in egg-to-adult viability between selection regimes. If mutation load was reduced by the action of sexual selection in this experiment, the resultant gain in fitness was not sufficient to overcome the costs of sexual antagonism. PMID:21658188

Hollis, B; Houle, D

2011-09-01

58

Populations with elevated mutation load do not benefit from the operation of sexual selection  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that if most mutations are deleterious to both overall fitness and condition-dependent traits affecting mating success, sexual selection will purge mutation load and increase nonsexual fitness. We explored this possibility with populations of mutagenized Drosophila melanogaster exhibiting elevated levels of deleterious variation and evolving in the presence or absence of male-male competition and female choice. After 60 generations of experimental evolution, monogamous populations exhibited higher total reproductive output than polygamous populations. Parental environment also affected fitness measures—flies that evolved in the presence of sexual conflict showed reduced nonsexual fitness when their parents experienced a polygamous environment, indicating trans-generational effects of male harassment and highlighting the importance of a common garden design. This cost of parental promiscuity was nearly absent in monogamous lines, providing evidence for the evolution of reduced sexual antagonism. There was no overall difference in egg-to-adult viability between selection regimes. If mutation load was reduced by the action of sexual selection in this experiment, the resultant gain in fitness was not sufficient to overcome the costs of sexual antagonism.

Hollis, Brian; Houle, David

2011-01-01

59

Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.  

PubMed

This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

2014-06-01

60

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach  

PubMed Central

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16–44?years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling.

Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-01-01

61

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach.  

PubMed

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16-44 years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling. PMID:22252417

Field, Nigel; Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-06-01

62

Population structure influences sexual conflict in wild populations of water striders  

PubMed Central

Summary In sexual conflict, aggressive males frequently diminish the long-term reproductive success of females in efforts to gain a short-term advantage over rival males. This short-term advantage can selectively favour high-exploitation males. However, just as the over-exploitation of resources can lead to local extinction, the over-exploitation of females in the form of harassment by aggressive males can yield similar consequences resulting in reduced female fecundity, increased female mortality and overall decline in mating activity. This outcome may often be prevented by selection acting at multiple levels of biological organization. Directional selection favouring aggressive exploitation within groups can be balanced by directional selection amongst groups opposing exploitation. Such between-group selection has recently been demonstrated in laboratory studies of water striders, where the conditional dispersal of individuals increased variation amongst groups and influenced the balance of selection toward reduced male aggression. This multilevel selection (MLS) framework also provides predictive value when investigating natural populations differing in their relative strength of selection within versus among groups. For water striders, the consequences of local exploitation cause fitness differences between groups, favouring less aggressive males. Inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams consist of isolated pools that prevent aggressive male water striders from escaping the consequences of local exploitation. We, therefore, predicted that inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams would favour the evolution of less aggressive males than would perennial streams, which allow aggressive males to move more freely and to escape the group-level costs of their aggression. Comparing two neighbouring streams during the mating season, we found that males dispersed naturally between pools at much higher rates in the perennial stream than in the ephemeral stream. As predicted, we found that males from the perennial stream were significantly more aggressive than those from the ephemeral stream. We also found that dispersers were significantly more aggressive than non-dispersers within each stream. These field results illustrate the relevance of the MLS framework in our understanding of the evolution of sexual conflict.

Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Dlugos, Michael J.; Holt, Galen P.; Wilson, David Sloan; Pepper, JohnW.

2013-01-01

63

The role of sexual harassment in cave and surface dwelling populations of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual coercion is a common behaviour for males trying to compensate for being inferior in male competition and\\/or female choice. We measured the cost of male sexual harassment for females as reduced feeding time in three populations of the Atlantic molly ( Poecilia mexicana). Of these populations, one originated from a typical river habitat, another from a lightless cave chamber

Martin Plath; Jakob Parzefall; Ingo Schlupp

2003-01-01

64

Population dynamics with a mixed type of sexual and asexual reproduction in a fluctuating environment  

PubMed Central

Background Carassius gibelio, a cyprinid fish from Eurasia, has the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually. This fish is also known as an invasive species which colonized almost all continental Europe, most likely originating from Asia and Eastern Europe. Populations of both sexually and asexually reproducing individuals exist in sympatry. In this study we try to elucidate the advantages of such a mixed type of reproduction. We investigate the dynamics of two sympatric populations with sexual and asexual reproduction in a periodically fluctuating environment. We define an individual-based computational model in which genotypes are represented by L loci, and the environment is composed of L resources for which the two populations compete. Results Our model demonstrates advantageous population dynamics where the optimal percentage of asexual reproduction depends on selection strength, on the number of selected loci and on the timescale of environmental fluctuations. We show that the sexual reproduction is necessary for "generating" fit genotypes, while the asexual reproduction is suitable for "amplifying" them. The simulations show that the optimal percentage of asexual reproduction increases with the length of the environment stability period and decrease with the strength of the selection and the number of loci. Conclusions In this paper we addressed the advantages of a mixed type of sexual and asexual reproduction in a changing environment and explored the idea that a species that is able to adapt itself to environmental fluctuation can easily colonize a new habitat. Our results could provide a possible explanation for the rapid and efficient invasion of species with a variable ratio of sexual and asexual reproduction such as Carassius gibelio.

2012-01-01

65

Large-Scale Age-Dependent Skewed Sex Ratio in a Sexually Dimorphic Avian Scavenger  

PubMed Central

Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed.

Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Carrete, Martina; Donazar, Jose Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

2012-01-01

66

Genetic diversity in populations of asexual and sexual bag worm moths (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the two-fold cost of sex, most of the higher animals reproduce sexually. The advantage of sex has been suggested to be its ability, through recombination, to generate greater genetic diversity than asexuality, thus enhancing adaptation in a changing environment. We studied the genetic diversity and the population structure of three closely related species of bag worm moths: two

Alessandro Grapputo; Tomi Kumpulainen; Johanna Mappes; Silja Parri

2005-01-01

67

Parental Opinion Concerning School Sexuality Education in a Culturally Diverse Population in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to expand upon previous research related to parental opinion concerning school sexuality education by sampling a culturally diverse, low-income population that has been traditionally under-represented in the literature. A total of 191 parents attending an urban community college completed a written questionnaire about what topics…

Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.

2013-01-01

68

The Exclusion of Intimacy in the Sexuality of the Contemporary College-Age Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that heterosexual sexual involvement in the contemporary college population is often sporadic, episodic, without commitment, and accompanied by deliberate effort of both partners to suppress tender, romantic feelings and intimacy. Suggests the sources of this situation lie in changes in the ethos, the ascent of women, advances in…

Cobliner, W. Godfrey

1988-01-01

69

Lifetime sexual assault prevalence rates and reporting practices in an emergency department population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: Studies suggest significant rates of female sexual assault (SA); the majority of SAs remain unreported, and few victims receive medical care. The purpose of this study was to determine lifetime prevalence rates of SA in an emergency department population and to assess reporting patterns to police, physicians, and social service agencies. Methods: A verbally administered survey was given

Kim M. Feldhaus; Debra Houry; Robin Kaminsky

2000-01-01

70

Sexual minority population density and incidence of lung, colorectal and female breast cancer in California  

PubMed Central

Objective Risk factors for breast, colorectal, and lung cancer are known to be more common among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, suggesting they may be more likely to develop these cancers. Our objective was to determine differences in cancer incidence by sexual orientation, using sexual orientation data aggregated at the county level. Methods Data on cancer incidence were obtained from the California Cancer Registry and data on sexual orientation were obtained from the California Health Interview Survey, from which a measure of age-specific LGB population density by county was calculated. Using multivariable Poisson regression models, the association between the age–race-stratified incident rate of breast, lung and colorectal cancer in each county and LGB population density was examined, with race, age group and poverty as covariates. Results Among men, bisexual population density was associated with lower incidence of lung cancer and with higher incidence of colorectal cancer. Among women, lesbian population density was associated with lower incidence of lung and colorectal cancer and with higher incidence of breast cancer; bisexual population density was associated with higher incidence of lung and colorectal cancer and with lower incidence of breast cancer. Conclusions These study findings clearly document links between county-level LGB population density and cancer incidence, illuminating an important public health disparity.

Boehmer, Ulrike; Miao, Xiaopeng; Maxwell, Nancy I; Ozonoff, Al

2014-01-01

71

Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population  

PubMed Central

African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings.

Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

2014-01-01

72

Evolutionary rescue of sexual and asexual populations in a deteriorating environment.  

PubMed

The environmental change experienced by many contemporary populations of organisms poses a serious risk to their survival. From the theory of evolutionary rescue, we predict that the combination of sex and genetic diversity should increase the probability of survival by increasing variation and thereby the probability of generating a type that can tolerate the stressful environment. We tested this prediction by comparing experimental populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that differ in sexuality and in the initial amount of genetic diversity. The lines were serially propagated in an environment where the level of stress caused by salt increased over time from fresh water to the limits of marine conditions. In the long term, the combination of high diversity and obligate sexuality was most effective in supporting evolutionary rescue. Most of the adaptation to high-salt environments in the obligate sexual-high diversity lines had occurred by midway through the experiment, indicating that positive genetic correlations of adaptation to lethal stress with adaptation to sublethal stress greatly increased the probability of evolutionary rescue. The evolutionary rescue events observed in this study provide evidence that major shifts in ways of life can arise within short time frames through the action of natural selection in sexual populations. PMID:23106714

Lachapelle, Josianne; Bell, Graham

2012-11-01

73

Insights from a large rural population laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Data are limited on health status behaviors and use of health services for rural residents. Yet rural areas now have higher rates of chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, than urban areas.METHODS: A population laboratory (Health Census) was established in rural Central NY (Otsego County) to study these variables in this population. HC `89 was a door-to-door enumeration

C Lewis; A Gadomski; A Nafziger; R Reed; P Jenkins; B Dennison; A Green

2000-01-01

74

Diet selection and seasonal dietary switch of a large sexually dimorphic herbivore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although diet selection and the physiological adaptations of grazers and browsers have been widely studied, much less is known about mixed-feeders that target both grass and woody species. The ability to switch diet allows the individual to respond to spatial and temporal changes in forage abundance and quality, providing a key mechanism for large herbivores to exploit heterogeneous environments. We compare diet selection and timing of the seasonal dietary switch for a large-bodied, sexually dimorphic mixed-feeder, the African elephant. The study was carried out on a small population of elephants (n = 48) in the Pongola Game Reserve (PGR), South Africa. Sex-specific dietary composition evaluated from feeding behaviour correlated with composition in dung samples from individuals of known sex. Grass was strongly preferred during the wet season and browse in the winter dry season. However, adult male elephants switched from browse to grass earlier, and consumed a greater overall proportion of grass in their diet, compared with adult females and their associated family groups. Male elephants also spent more time in grassland habitats, and expanded their ranges to a greater extent than females following the end of the dry season. Our results suggest that smaller adult body size, high nutritional demands of offspring, and the constraints of sociality have contributed to female elephants in PGR resolving their diet selection strategies to target higher quality foraging opportunities, whilst males appear to be adopting a rate maximizing approach. The behavioural differences between the sexes are pronounced, which has implications for elephant management approaches that are typically focussed at the population level.

Shannon, Graeme; Mackey, Robin L.; Slotow, Rob

2013-01-01

75

Analysis of sexually transmitted disease spreading in heterosexual and homosexual populations.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted diseases can pose major health problems so scientists and health agencies are very concerned about the spread of these diseases. Sexually transmitted diseases spread through a network of contacts created by the formation of sexual partnerships. In the paper, the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free graphs, representing heterosexual and homosexual contact networks, is considered. We propose an SIS model on sexual contact networks. We analytically derive the expression for the epidemic threshold and its dependence with the ratio of female and male in finite populations. It is shown that if the basic reproduction number R0 is less than 1 then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; if R0>1 then the disease-free equilibrium is unstable and there is a unique endemic equilibrium, which asymptotically attracts all nontrivial solutions. These theoretical results are supported by numerical simulations. We also carry out some sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of various model parameters. PMID:23403371

Zhang, Juping; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Yuming

2013-04-01

76

Change in male secondary sexual characters in artificial interspecific hybrid populations.  

PubMed Central

The interfertile Hawaiian species Drosophila silvestris and Drosophila heteroneura were hybridized, forming reciprocal populations; the SH hybrid line was begun with D. silvestris female parents, and the HS hybrid line was begun with D. heteroneura female parents. Mass laboratory cultures were maintained for 14 generations without artificial selection. The species differ strikingly in two male secondary sexual characters, head shape and foreleg tibial cilia number. These characters are known to be quantitative characters that are influenced by both sex-linked and autosomal factors and appear to be involved in sexual selection. In the later generations (4-14), head shape in SH flies changes significantly; cilia number changes in both SH and HS populations. In terms of the parental phenotypes, the SH population evolved toward a heteroneura-like head while simultaneously evolving toward a silvestris-like tibia. In the HS population, there was no significant change in head shape, but cilia number decreased, making it more like the parental heteroneura. Accordingly, these two secondary sexual characters pursue separate evolutionary pathways. We suggest that these changes are brought about by selection occurring naturally during the later generations.

Carson, H L; Val, F C; Templeton, A R

1994-01-01

77

Adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

Sex education is almost mandated in the United States. The data reviewing sexual activity in the adolescent population indicates that large numbers of women under the age of 19 who have unintended pregnancies are at risk for an increased frequency of sexually transmitted diseases which will affect their future. It is essential that good educational programs and preventive service programs be developed and mandated for the adolescent population. Experience in Western Europe demonstrates that the adolescent who has a proper education concerning sexual activity, sexually transmitted disease, and contraception is at lower risk for the many problems that we see in the United States. There must be cross-cultural data that can be translated for use in the entire world. As the population of this world ages, we must protect those who are entering adulthood from being exposed to the STDs and undertaking the responsibility of parenting without having reached full maturity. The cost in dollars of the sequelae of adolescent pregnancies are great. These costs are not only financial, but also emotional and social, and they have a negative impact on the country in which the adolescent lives. We have a heavy responsibility as physicians and health care professionals to see that the adolescents of the world are given the knowledge and models to use to reduce the risk for pregnancy and the acquisition of a sexually transmitted disease. PMID:9238294

Goldfarb, A F

1997-06-17

78

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.

Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Beria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andreia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

2009-01-01

79

Sexual Selection by Male Choice in Monogamous and Polygynous Human Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical possibility of coevolution of a viability-reducing female physical trait and a male mating preference for that trait by Fisherian sexual selection in monogamous and polygynous populations is demonstrated using two-locus haploid models. It is assumed that there is dichotomous variation in male resources, resource-rich males have a wider choice among females than resource-poor males, and a female has

Yasuo Ihara; Kenichi Aoki

1999-01-01

80

Assessing the Validity of Sexual Behaviour Reports in a Whole Population Survey in Rural Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual behaviour surveys are widely used, but under-reporting of particular risk behaviours is common, especially by women. Surveys in whole populations provide an unusual opportunity to understand the extent and nature of such under-reporting. Methods All consenting individuals aged between 15 and 59 within a demographic surveillance site in northern Malawi were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Validity of responses was assessed by analysis of probing questions; by comparison of results with in-depth interviews and with Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2) seropositivity; by comparing reports to same sex and opposite sex interviewers; and by quantifying the partnerships within the local community reported by men and by women, adjusted for response rates. Results 6,796 women and 5,253 men (83% and 72% of those eligible) consented and took part in sexual behaviour interviews. Probing questions and HSV-2 antibody tests in those who denied sexual activity identified under-reporting for both men and women. Reports varied little by sex or age of the interviewer. The number of marital partnerships reported was comparable for men and women, but men reported about 4 times as many non-marital partnerships. The discrepancy in reporting of non-marital partnerships was most marked for married women (men reported about 7 times as many non-marital partnerships with married women as were reported by married women themselves), but was only apparent in younger married women. Conclusions We have shown that the under-reporting of non-marital partnerships by women was strongly age-dependent. The extent of under-reporting of sexual activity by young men was surprisingly high. The results emphasise the importance of triangulation, including biomarkers, and the advantages of considering a whole population.

Glynn, Judith R.; Kayuni, Ndoliwe; Banda, Emmanuel; Parrott, Fiona; Floyd, Sian; Francis-Chizororo, Monica; Nkhata, Misheck; Tanton, Clare; Hemmings, Joanne; Molesworth, Anna; Crampin, Amelia C.; French, Neil

2011-01-01

81

Generalizing Classification Tables to Large Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technique of generalizing sample results in a classification study to large subpopulations of unequal sizes was examined. The usual output from the discriminant analysis routine in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was extended to handle the present statistical problems. Advantages of the technique were discussed. (Author/DWH)

Koslowsky, Meni

1985-01-01

82

Sexual assault while too intoxicated to resist: a general population study of Norwegian teenage girls  

PubMed Central

Background Underage drinking is widespread, but studies on alcohol-related sexual victimization among teenage girls are almost non-existent. Research on individual correlates and risk factors of sexual victimization more generally is also meager. This study focuses on sexual assault while incapacitated due to drunkenness among 15–18 year-old girls and examines how age, drinking behavior, impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating activities are associated with such victimization experiences. Methods Data stemmed from a school survey (response rate: 85%) in 16 Norwegian municipalities. Almost all analyses were restricted to girls who had been intoxicated in the past year (n?=?2701). In addition to bivariate associations, adjusted odds ratios and relative risks of incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) were estimated. Further, population-attributable fractions were calculated to explore how the prevalence of ISA victimization was likely to be affected if effective preventive measures were targeted solely at high-risk groups. Results The majority of the girls (71%) had been intoxicated in the past year, of which 7% had experienced ISA victimization in the same period. The proportion of victims decreased by age within the group that had been intoxicated, reflecting that the youngest girls were more likely to get severely drunk. Impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating behaviors were identified as potential risk factors, but the population-attributable fractions indicated that the groups with the highest risk of ISA victimization accounted for only a minority of all the cases of such victimization. Conclusion Sexual assault against teenage girls who are too drunk to resist seems to be prevalent in Norway – notably among the youngest girls who engage in heavy episodic drinking. This study also suggests that one should reconsider the notion that no individual attributes are related to females’ sexual assault victimization. It also indicates that a high risk approach to prevention, targeting groups with a high level of impulsivity or behavioral problems, may have limited effect on the prevalence of ISA victimization. Thus, from a public health perspective, it may be advisable to give priority to universal preventive measures to curb young girls’ risk of being sexually assaulted in a state of alcohol-induced incapacitation.

2014-01-01

83

High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Many plants reproduce both clonally and sexually, and the balance between the two modes of reproduction will vary among populations. Clonal reproduction was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent that reproductive mode varied locally between sites. The study sites were fragmented woodlands in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Methods A total of 95 strawberry ramets were sampled from the three sites via transects. Ramets were mapped and genotyped at five variable microsatellite loci. The variability at these five loci was sufficient to assign plants to clones with high confidence, and the spatial pattern of genets was mapped at each site. Key Results A total of 27 distinct multilocus genotypes were identified. Of these, 18 genotypes were detected only once, with the remaining nine detected in multiple ramets. The largest clone was identified in 16 ramets. No genets were shared between sites, and each site exhibited markedly different clonal and sexual recruitment patterns, ranging from two non-overlapping and widespread genets to 19 distinct genets. Only one flowering genet was female; the remainder were hermaphrodites. Conclusions Local population history or fine-scale ecological differences can result in dramatically different reproductive patterns at small spatial scales. This finding may be fairly widespread among clonal plant species, and studies that aim to characterize reproductive modes in species capable of asexual reproduction need to evaluate reproductive modes in multiple populations and sites.

Wilk, John A.; Kramer, Andrea T.; Ashley, Mary V.

2009-01-01

84

Assessing the association between childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual experiences in women with sexual difficulties.  

PubMed

Self-report instruments for assessing sexual well-being in women with sexual difficulties have not to date been explicitly validated among women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Given an extensive literature suggesting psychological differences between women with and without a history of CSA, it is possible that sexual well-being has a different meaning for these groups. Without validated scales, it is difficult to evaluate the impact of early sexual trauma on adult sexuality. The present study assessed whether the factor structure of widely used measures of sexual well-being were consistent across women experiencing sexual difficulties, with and without an abuse history, and to estimate effect sizes for the statistical effect of CSA on sexual well-being in this population. A sample of women with and without a history of CSA (N = 238) completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women. Structural equation models indicated generally consistent factor structures across groups, suggesting good construct validity. Effect size estimates indicated medium to large (0.53-0.72) effects of CSA on sexual well-being for women with sexual difficulties. These findings support and extend research regarding the potential effects of CSA that may inform treatment for this population. PMID:24948536

Stephenson, Kyle R; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

2014-06-01

85

Changes and Correlates in Multiple Sexual Partnerships among Chinese Adult Women----Population Based Surveys in 2000 and 2006  

PubMed Central

The sexual transmission of HIV and STI is becoming a major public health concern in China. However, studies on sexuality in China remain scant, particularly those that analyze female sexuality. This study is to investigate the prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships among adult women, and to examine trends and correlates for having more than one lifetime sexual partner. Multiple sexual partnership (MSP), coded as having one or none vs. two or more lifetime sexual partners, was the key binary outcome measure. The data were from two national probability surveys on sexual behaviors in China carried out in 2000 and 2006. The sample size of adult women was 1899 in 2000 (total sample n= 3812), and 2626 in 2006 (n=5404). Overall prevalence of MSP increased from 8.1% in 2000 to 29.6% in 2006 (Chi-square test, sig.=0.000). The most rapid changes took place among women with less education, those who worked in blue collar jobs and lower social status positions, and those living in rural areas or small towns. Women who were better educated, lived in big cities, and held management level occupations exhibited less change but had a higher baselines prevalence of MSP, suggesting that changes in MSP behavior may occur initially among women of higher socioeconomic status. Based on the 2006 dataset, significant positive correlates of MSP included more years of education, being in a long-term relationship, being middle aged, having a lower status job, going out dancing at entertainments venues, and being a state of overall health in the past 12 months. The significant recent increase in MSP among women reinforces the need to examine China’s sexual revolution in the context of a rapidly transitioning society. Findings regarding female sexuality also raise new questions to be explored in further sexuality studies, in order to better understand population sexual behaviors and to inform future HIV prevention efforts.

Yingying, Huang; Smith, Kumi; Suiming, Pan

2011-01-01

86

Host sexual selection and cuckoo parasitism: an analysis of nest size in sympatric and allopatric magpie Pica pica populations parasitized by the great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius  

PubMed Central

Magpies (Pica pica) build large nests that are the target of sexual selection, since males of early breeding pairs provide many sticks for nests and females mated to such males enjoy a material fitness benefit in terms of better quality territory and parental care of superior quality. Great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) preferentially parasitize large magpie nests and sexual selection for large nests is thus opposed by natural selection due to brood parasitism. Consistent with the hypothesized opposing selection pressures, in a comparative analysis of 14 magpie populations in Europe we found that nest volume was consistently smaller in sympatry than in allopatry with the great spotted cuckoo, in particular in areas with a high parasitism rate and high rates of rejection of mimetic model cuckoo eggs. These observations are consistent with the suggestion that magpies have evolved a smaller nest size in areas where cuckoos have exerted strong selection pressures on them in the recent past.

Soler, J. J.; nez, J. G. Mart; Soler, M.; ller, A. P. M

1999-01-01

87

Increased risk of prostate cancer following sexually transmitted infection in an Asian population.  

PubMed

The relationship between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and prostate cancer (PC) remains inconclusive. Moreover, all such studies to date have been conducted in Western populations. This study aimed to investigate the risk of PC following STI using a population-based matched-cohort design in Taiwan. The study cohort comprised 1055 patients with STIs, and 10 550 randomly selected subjects were used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that the hazard ratio for PC during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with a STI was 1.95 (95% confidence interval 1.18-3.23), that of comparison subjects after adjusting for urbanization level, geographical region, monthly income, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity, chronic prostatitis, history of vasectomy, tobacco use disorder, and alcohol abuse. We concluded that the risk of PC was higher for men who were diagnosed with a STI in an Asian population. PMID:23461984

Chung, S D; Lin, Y K; Huang, C C; Lin, H C

2013-12-01

88

Phenology of Scramble Polygyny in a Wild Population of Chrysolemid Beetles: The Opportunity for and the Strength of Sexual Selection  

PubMed Central

Recent debate has highlighted the importance of estimating both the strength of sexual selection on phenotypic traits, and the opportunity for sexual selection. We describe seasonal fluctuations in mating dynamics of Leptinotarsa undecimlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We compared several estimates of the opportunity for, and the strength of, sexual selection and male precopulatory competition over the reproductive season. First, using a null model, we suggest that the ratio between observed values of the opportunity for sexual selections and their expected value under random mating results in unbiased estimates of the actual nonrandom mating behavior of the population. Second, we found that estimates for the whole reproductive season often misrepresent the actual value at any given time period. Third, mating differentials on male size and mobility, frequency of male fighting and three estimates of the opportunity for sexual selection provide contrasting but complementary information. More intense sexual selection associated to male mobility, but not to male size, was observed in periods with high opportunity for sexual selection and high frequency of male fights. Fourth, based on parameters of spatial and temporal aggregation of female receptivity, we describe the mating system of L. undecimlineata as a scramble mating polygyny in which the opportunity for sexual selection varies widely throughout the season, but the strength of sexual selection on male size remains fairly weak, while male mobility inversely covaries with mating success. We suggest that different estimates for the opportunity for, and intensity of, sexual selection should be applied in order to discriminate how different behavioral and demographic factors shape the reproductive dynamic of populations.

Baena, Martha Lucia; Macias-Ordonez, Rogelio

2012-01-01

89

Introducing Human Sexuality into the Population Education Curriculum. The State-of-the-Art. Population Education Research Utilization Monograph Series 1 Part 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores one problem area that hampers the introduction and acceptance of sex education in schools. Specifically, the paper reviews problems related to the human sexuality component of population education programs in the Philippines. Research on the experiences of the Population Education Program (PEP) is discussed, as well as research…

Villanueva, Carmelita L.; Arellano-Reyes, Ma. Felicitas

90

Intragenomic conflict in populations infected by Parthenogenesis Inducing Wolbachia ends with irreversible loss of sexual reproduction  

PubMed Central

Background The maternally inherited, bacterial symbiont, parthenogenesis inducing (PI) Wolbachia, causes females in some haplodiploid insects to produce daughters from both fertilized and unfertilized eggs. The symbionts, with their maternal inheritance, benefit from inducing the production of exclusively daughters, however the optimal sex ratio for the nuclear genome is more male-biased. Here we examine through models how an infection with PI-Wolbachia in a previously uninfected population leads to a genomic conflict between PI-Wolbachia and the nuclear genome. In most natural populations infected with PI-Wolbachia the infection has gone to fixation and sexual reproduction is impossible, specifically because the females have lost their ability to fertilize eggs, even when mated with functional males. Results The PI Wolbachia infection by itself does not interfere with the fertilization process in infected eggs, fertilized infected eggs develop into biparental infected females. Because of the increasingly female-biased sex ratio in the population during a spreading PI-Wolbachia infection, sex allocation alleles in the host that cause the production of more sons are rapidly selected. In haplodiploid species a reduced fertilization rate leads to the production of more sons. Selection for the reduced fertilization rate leads to a spread of these alleles through both the infected and uninfected population, eventually resulting in the population becoming fixed for both the PI-Wolbachia infection and the reduced fertilization rate. Fertilization rate alleles that completely interfere with fertilization ("virginity alleles") will be selected over alleles that still allow for some fertilization. This drives the final resolution of the conflict: the irreversible loss of sexual reproduction and the complete dependence of the host on its symbiont. Conclusions This study shows that dependence among organisms can evolve rapidly due to the resolution of the conflicts between cytoplasmic and nuclear genes, and without requiring a mutualism between the partners.

2010-01-01

91

Evaluation of the potential for sexual reproduction in field populations of Cercospora beticola from USA.  

PubMed

Cercospora leaf spot, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola, is the most economically damaging foliar disease of sugarbeet worldwide. Although most C. beticola populations display characteristics reminiscent of sexual recombination, no teleomorph has been described. To assess whether populations in northern United States have characteristics consistent with sexual reproduction, 1024 isolates collected over a 3-y period were analyzed for frequency and distribution of mating type genes. After clone correction, an approximately equal distribution of mating types was found for each sampling year. Mating type frequency was also assessed in individual lesions. Lesions always consisted of isolates with a single mating type and microsatellite haplotype, but both mating types and up to five microsatellite haplotypes could be found on an individual leaf. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes were sequenced from 28 MAT1-1 and 28 MAT1-2 isolates, respectively. Three MAT1-1-1 nucleotide haplotypes were identified that encoded a single amino acid sequence. For MAT1-2-1, five nucleotide haplotypes were identified that encoded four protein variants. MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 gene expression analyses were conducted on plants inoculated with either or both mating types. MAT1-1-1 expression remained low, but MAT1-2-1 spiked during late stages of colonization. A segment of the MAT1-2-1 coding sequence was also found in MAT1-1 isolates. Taken together, these results suggest that C. beticola has the potential for sexual reproduction. PMID:22483049

Bolton, Melvin D; Secor, Gary A; Rivera, Viviana; Weiland, John J; Rudolph, Kurt; Birla, Keshav; Rengifo, Judith; Campbell, Larry G

2012-04-01

92

Sexual trauma increases the risk of developing psychosis in an ultra high-risk "prodromal" population.  

PubMed

Studies indicate a high prevalence of childhood trauma in patient cohorts with established psychotic disorder and in those at risk of developing psychosis. A causal link between childhood trauma and development of psychosis has been proposed. We aimed to examine the association between experience of childhood trauma and the development of a psychotic disorder in a large "Ultra High Risk" (UHR) for psychosis cohort. The data were collected as part of a longitudinal cohort study of all UHR patients recruited to research studies at the Personal Assessment and Clinical Evaluation clinic between 1993 and 2006. Baseline data were collected at recruitment to these studies. The participants completed a comprehensive follow-up assessment battery (mean time to follow-up 7.5 years, range 2.4-14.9 years), which included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), a self-report questionnaire that assesses experience of childhood trauma. The outcome of interest was transition to a psychotic disorder during the follow-up period. Data were available on 233 individuals. Total CTQ trauma score was not associated with transition to psychosis. Of the individual trauma types, only sexual abuse was associated with transition to psychosis (P = .02). The association remained when adjusting for potential confounding factors. Those with high sexual abuse scores were estimated to have a transition risk 2-4 times that of those with low scores. The findings suggest that sexual trauma may be an important contributing factor in development of psychosis for some individuals. PMID:23455040

Thompson, Andrew D; Nelson, Barnaby; Yuen, Hok Pan; Lin, Ashleigh; Amminger, Günter Paul; McGorry, Patrick D; Wood, Stephen J; Yung, Alison R

2014-05-01

93

Differing Mechanisms Underlie Sexual Size-Dimorphism in Two Populations of a Sex-Changing Fish  

PubMed Central

Variability in the density of groups within a patchy environment lead to differences in interaction rates, growth dynamics and social organization. In protogynous hermaphrodites there are hypothesised trade-offs among sex-specific growth, reproductive output and mortality. When differences in density lead to changes to social organization the link between growth and the timing of sex-change is predicted to change. The present study explores this prediction by comparing the social organisation and sex-specific growth of two populations of a protogynous tropical wrasse, Halichoeres miniatus, which differ in density. At a low density population a strict harem structure was found, where males maintained a tight monopoly of access and spawning rights to females. In contrast, at a high density population a loosely organised system prevailed, where females could move throughout multiple male territories. Otolith microstructure revealed the species to be annual and deposit an otolith check associated with sex-change. Growth trajectories suggested that individuals that later became males in both populations underwent a growth acceleration at sex-change. Moreover, in the high density population, individuals that later became males were those individuals that had the largest otolith size at hatching and consistently deposited larger increments throughout early larval, juvenile and female life. This study demonstrates that previous growth history and growth rate changes associated with sex change can be responsible for the sexual dimorphism typically found in sex-changing species, and that the relative importance of these may be socially constrained.

McCormick, Mark I.; Ryen, Christopher A.; Munday, Philip L.; Walker, Stefan P. W.

2010-01-01

94

Differing mechanisms underlie sexual size-dimorphism in two populations of a sex-changing fish.  

PubMed

Variability in the density of groups within a patchy environment lead to differences in interaction rates, growth dynamics and social organization. In protogynous hermaphrodites there are hypothesised trade-offs among sex-specific growth, reproductive output and mortality. When differences in density lead to changes to social organization the link between growth and the timing of sex-change is predicted to change. The present study explores this prediction by comparing the social organisation and sex-specific growth of two populations of a protogynous tropical wrasse, Halichoeres miniatus, which differ in density. At a low density population a strict harem structure was found, where males maintained a tight monopoly of access and spawning rights to females. In contrast, at a high density population a loosely organised system prevailed, where females could move throughout multiple male territories. Otolith microstructure revealed the species to be annual and deposit an otolith check associated with sex-change. Growth trajectories suggested that individuals that later became males in both populations underwent a growth acceleration at sex-change. Moreover, in the high density population, individuals that later became males were those individuals that had the largest otolith size at hatching and consistently deposited larger increments throughout early larval, juvenile and female life. This study demonstrates that previous growth history and growth rate changes associated with sex change can be responsible for the sexual dimorphism typically found in sex-changing species, and that the relative importance of these may be socially constrained. PMID:20485547

McCormick, Mark I; Ryen, Christopher A; Munday, Philip L; Walker, Stefan P W

2010-01-01

95

Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research  

PubMed Central

Modelling studies on the spatial distribution and spread of infectious diseases are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with global risk mapping and epidemic modelling studies now popular. Yet, in deriving populations at risk of disease estimates, these spatial models must rely on existing global and regional datasets on population distribution, which are often based on outdated and coarse resolution data. Moreover, a variety of different methods have been used to model population distribution at large spatial scales. In this review we describe the main global gridded population datasets that are freely available for health researchers and compare their construction methods, and highlight the uncertainties inherent in these population datasets. We review their application in past studies on disease risk and dynamics, and discuss how the choice of dataset can affect results. Moreover, we highlight how the lack of contemporary, detailed and reliable data on human population distribution in low income countries is proving a barrier to obtaining accurate large-scale estimates of population at risk and constructing reliable models of disease spread, and suggest research directions required to further reduce these barriers.

2012-01-01

96

Prevalence of sexual problems in Portugal: results of a population-based study using a stratified sample of men aged 18 to 70 years.  

PubMed

Despite the use of different methodologies, target populations, and clinical definitions of sexual problems, recent epidemiological studies have shown that the occurrence of sexual difficulties is a very common experience among men from the general population regardless of their age. The objective of this study was to present epidemiological data on the prevalence of sexual difficulties in a community sample of 650 sexually active Portuguese men, stratified by age, marital status, and educational level. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing sexual function in the previous four weeks (International Index of Erectile Function). Results showed that sexual difficulties were relatively common among this sample. Rapid ejaculation was the most frequently reported sexual difficulty (23.2%), followed by erectile difficulties (10.2%), orgasm problems (8.2%), and low desire (2.9%) in the previous four weeks. With the exception of rapid ejaculation, all categories showed age-specific prevalence rates, with sexual difficulties increasing gradually in men above age 45. Age was a significant predictor of all sexual difficulties except rapid ejaculation, and lower educational levels were related to orgasm difficulties. Findings are consistent with the majority of epidemiological studies indicating a high prevalence of sexual difficulties among men in the general population and highlight the importance and the need to implement sexual health promotion programs in the target population. PMID:23573897

Quinta Gomes, Ana Luísa; Nobre, Pedro J

2014-01-01

97

Population regulation in large northern herbivores: evolution, thermodynamics, and large predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding population regulation of large northern herbivores like cervids has important practical and theoretical implications. Corrective measures for high densities of cervids must be based on theory and thus necessitate analysis of contradicting views of top-down and bottom-up population control. The former considers cervids incapable of self-regulation and hence that they need external factors like predation to achieve effective population

W. T. Flueck

2000-01-01

98

Variable predation regimes predict the evolution of sexual dimorphism in a population of threespine stickleback.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism is widespread in nature and can be influenced by sex-specific natural selection resulting from ecological differences between the sexes. Here we show that contrasting life-history pressures and temporal shifts in ecology can exert a strong influence on the evolution of sexual dimorphism. The bony spines exhibited by stickleback are a defense against open-water avian predators but may be detrimental against benthic macroinvertebrate predators. Female stickleback from a coastal lake in western Canada occupy a more open-water ecological niche and exhibit greater dorsal and pelvic spine number than males, but the magnitude of these differences varies among life-history stages, seasons, and years. Ecological data on diet and parasite load and 62 seasonal estimates of selection over a 15-year period show that selection favors increased spine number in females and decreased spine number in males, but only when pronounced ecological differences between the sexes results in differential exposure to the two, divergent predation regimes. Thus occasional sex-reversals in ecological niche reversed the mode of selection. These processes caused a predictable response in the subsequent generation, indicating that divergent predation caused evolutionary change in dimorphism. However, temporal oscillations in sex-specific selection resulted in no net change in sexual dimorphism over the 15-year study period, indicating that fluctuations in directional selection can be responsible for long-term stasis. Replicated shifts in selective regime can demonstrate the primacy of ecological processes in driving evolution and our results illustrate how such shifts are detectable using long-term monitoring of natural populations. PMID:15266976

Reimchen, T E; Nosil, P

2004-06-01

99

Control of Weld Quality in Large Welded Populations,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of factorial experimental design during weld procedure development, as a statistical tool for the control of weld quality in large welded populations, is investigated. It is applied to single pass welds made in the laboratory using the spacer to t...

P. J. Alberry R. R. L. Brunnstrom J. A. Lambert R. A. Willgoss

1988-01-01

100

Enzyme variability in large-lake Daphnia populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme studies of two primarily parthenogenetic, large-lake Daphnia species, D. galeata mendotae and D. cucullata, revealed high clonal diversity and levels of enzyme polymorphism similar to those found in other groups of organisms. Temporal analyses showed moderate stability of genotypes. Hardy–Weinberg deviations were detected on some dates in D. cucullata, most often resulting from homozygote excesses. Thus, these populations show

Mona A Mort; Hans Georg Wolf

1985-01-01

101

Feasibility of testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in a general population sexual behaviour survey in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Our objective was to assess the feasibility of integrating first void urine (FVU) specimens testing for Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection into a general population sexual behaviour survey. A total of 752 randomly selected respondents aged 18 to 54 were enrolled into the survey. Face to face interviewing with self-administered sensitive questions was used. Overall survey response rate was 77.4%. A convenience sub-sample of 83 respondents were invited to provide FVU specimens for confidential testing for C. trachomatis genitourinary infection. Fifty-five complied. This resulted in 66% FVU specimen participation rate among targeted respondents. Two specimens tested positive by Amplicor polymerase chain reaction. High feasibility study overall response rate indicated good acceptability of the survey. It proved feasible to collect FVU specimens for C. trachomatis testing in the small sub-sample. Consequently, we proceeded with integration of testing for C. trachomatis into the ongoing main survey. PMID:12537716

Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L C; Wellings, K; Kese, D; Svab, I

2002-12-01

102

Recessive mutations from natural populations of Neurospora crassa that are expressed in the sexual diplophase.  

PubMed

Wild-collected isolates of Neurospora crassa Shear and Dodge were systematically examined for recessive mutations affecting the sexual phase of the life cycle, which is essentially diploid. Seventy-four of 99 wild-collected isolates from 26 populations in the United States, India and Pakistan carried one or more recessive mutations that reduced fertility significantly when homozygous; mutations affecting spore morphology were also detected. Limited complementation tests indicate that most of the 106 recovered mutations are unique.--The recessive diplophase (= sexual phase) mutations were uncovered by crossing each wild-collected isolate to a marked two-chromosome double-reciprocal translocation strain as "balancer." Surviving progeny receive approximately 60% of their genome from the wild parent, but receive the mating-type allele from the "balancer" parent. These progeny were backcrossed to the wild parent and were also crossed with a standard laboratory strain (fl). Reduced fertility in the backcross vs. normal fertility in the cross with the laboratory standard signals the presence of a recessive mutation in the wild-collected isolate.--Most of the mutants (95 of 106) fall into two major classes: those producing barren perithecia with no or few viable ascospores (51) and those with spore maturation defects (44). Most of the recessive barrens result either from an early block in meiosis of ascus development (25) or from a late disturbance in postmeiotic ascus behavior (18).--These recessive mutations are formally equivalent to recessive lethals in higher eukaryotes and may be important in determining the breeding structure of natural Neurospora populations. PMID:2933298

Leslie, J F; Raju, N B

1985-12-01

103

Relationship of sexual orientation to substance use, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and other factors in a population of homeless adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To explore the relationship of sexual orientation and gender to four sets of factors: (a) family history, (b) incarceration, (c) substance use, and (d) depression and suicide, in a population of homeless adolescents.Methods: A sample of homeless adolescents was recruited in Portland, Oregon and assessed using semi-structured interviews at baseline, three months and six months. A total of 532

John W Noell; Linda M Ochs

2001-01-01

104

Association of sexual problems with social, psychological, and physical problems in men and women: a cross sectional population survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of sexual problems with social, physical, and psychological problems. DESIGN: An anonymous postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Four general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 789 men and 979 women responding to a questionnaire sent to a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). MAIN RESULTS: Strong physical, social, and psychological associations were

K. M. Dunn; P. R. Croft; G. I. Hackett

1999-01-01

105

Characteristics of childhood sexual abuse in a predominantly mexican-american population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little has been written about the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse among Mexican Americans. In addition, certain aspects of the epidemiology of reported sexual abuse in the United States have changed significantly over the past 12 years. To better understand how characteristics of sexual abuse vary with ethnicity, race, gender, and age, we reviewed the records of 2,130 children under

D. Michael Foulds

1995-01-01

106

Sexual health for women: Some findings of a large national survey discussed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, data from the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles are reviewed. The survey, carried out in 1990–91, consists of a representative sample of 18 876 men and women aged 16–59 living in Great Britain. Data relevant to sexual health included information on sexual partners, practices and frequency, age at first intercourse, the use of contraceptives, attendance

Jane Wadsworth; John McEwan; Anne M. Johnson; Kaye Wellings; Julia Field

1995-01-01

107

The Power to Detect Quantitative Trait Loci Using Resequenced, Experimentally Evolved Populations of Diploid, Sexual Organisms  

PubMed Central

A novel approach for dissecting complex traits is to experimentally evolve laboratory populations under a controlled environment shift, resequence the resulting populations, and identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or genomic regions highly diverged in allele frequency. To better understand the power and localization ability of such an evolve and resequence (E&R) approach, we carried out forward-in-time population genetics simulations of 1 Mb genomic regions under a large combination of experimental conditions, then attempted to detect significantly diverged SNPs. Our analysis indicates that the ability to detect differentiation between populations is primarily affected by selection coefficient, population size, number of replicate populations, and number of founding haplotypes. We estimate that E&R studies can detect and localize causative sites with 80% success or greater when the number of founder haplotypes is over 500, experimental populations are replicated at least 25-fold, population size is at least 1,000 diploid individuals, and the selection coefficient on the locus of interest is at least 0.1. More achievable experimental designs (less replicated, fewer founder haplotypes, smaller effective population size, and smaller selection coefficients) can have power of greater than 50% to identify a handful of SNPs of which one is likely causative. Similarly, in cases where s ? 0.2, less demanding experimental designs can yield high power.

Baldwin-Brown, James G.; Long, Anthony D.; Thornton, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

108

Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant  

PubMed Central

Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5–1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex.

Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R.; Bacci, Mauricio; Garcia, Marcos V. B.; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D.; Mueller, Ulrich G.

2011-01-01

109

Sexuality in young patients with Parkinson's disease: a population based comparison with healthy controls  

PubMed Central

Answers from a multiple choice questionnaire on the opinions about public sexual attitudes, on emotion from personal sexual practice, on personal sexual function, and on general health perception were compared between 121 patients with Parkinson's disease (mean age 45 years) and 126 age and sex matched community derived controls. Patients were more dissatisfied with their present sexual functioning and relationship, and perceived their general health as poorer than the controls, whereas opinions about public sexual attitudes were only marginally different. No differences were found for sexual function. Further analysis showed that the perception of sexual functioning and general health in younger patients with Parkinson's disease is considerably influenced by depression and state of unemployment.??

Jacobs, H.; Vieregge, A.; Vieregge, P.

2000-01-01

110

The denominator problem: Estimating MSM-specific incidence of sexually transmitted infections and prevalence of HIV using population sizes of MSM derived from Internet surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Measuring prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections in hard to reach populations like men who have sex with men (MSM) is hampered by unknown size and regional distribution of this population. Community sample – and study-based measurements are often fraught with participation biases and do not allow generalization of the results for other regions or the whole population group of MSM. Methods We used the proportional regional distribution of participants of large internet-based surveys among MSM from Germany together with a general population survey-derived estimate of the MSM population to estimate regional population sizes. Based on transmission group category from surveillance data and regional MSM population size we calculated regional population-specific incidence rates of newly diagnosed HIV infection and syphilis. For HIV prevalence we compared estimates of prevalent HIV infections in MSM from a surveillance data-based model with a mixed model in which we used the proportional regional distribution of HIV positive participants from surveys and the estimated total number of prevalent HIV infections from the surveillance based model. Results Assuming a similar regional distribution of survey participants and the MSM population as a whole, the regional proportion of MSM in the general population can be estimated. Regional incidence calculated with the estimated MSM population as denominator and national surveillance data as numerator results in regional peak incidence rates of 7–8 per 1,000 MSM for newly diagnosed HIV infection and syphilis. The gradient between metropolitan and rural areas narrows considerably compared with calculations which use the total (male) population as denominator. Regional HIV prevalence estimates are comparable in the two models. Conclusion Considering the difficulties to obtain regionally representative data by other sampling methods for MSM, in Western post-industrialized countries internet-based surveys may provide an easy and low cost tool to estimate regional population distributions. With national surveillance data, which categorize transmission groups, regional population-specific incidence rates for reportable sexually transmitted infections can be estimated. HIV prevalence estimates for regional MSM populations show differences related to the level of urbanization, MSM concentration, and starting points of the HIV epidemic in western and eastern Germany.

Marcus, Ulrich; Schmidt, Axel J; Kollan, Christian; Hamouda, Osamah

2009-01-01

111

Correlates of HIV Infection Among Sexually Active Adults in Kenya: A National Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify factors associated with prevalent HIV in a national HIV survey in Kenya. Methods: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey was a nationally representative population-based sero-survey that examined demographic and behavioral factors and serologic testing for HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis in adults aged 15-64 years. We analyzed questionnaire and blood testing data to identify significant correlates of HIV infection among sexually active adults. Results: Of 10,957 eligible women and 8,883 men, we interviewed 10,239 (93%) women and 7,731 (87%) men. We collected blood specimens from 9,049 women and 6,804 men of which 6,447 women and 5,112 men were sexually active during the 12 months prior to the survey. HIV prevalence among sexually active adults was 7.4%. Factors independently associated with HIV among women were region (Nyanza vs Nairobi: adjusted OR [AOR] 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.3), number of lifetime sex partners (6-9 vs 0-1 partners: AOR 3.0, 95%CI 1.6-5.9), HSV-2 (AOR 6.5, 95%CI 4.9-8.8), marital status (widowed vs never married: AOR 2.7, 95%CI 1.5-4.8) and consistent condom use with last sex partner (AOR 2.3, 95%CI 1.6-3.4). Among men, correlates of HIV infection were 30-to-39-year-old age group (AOR 5.2, 95%CI 2.6-10.5), number of lifetime sex partners (10+ vs 0-1 partners, AOR 3.5, 95%CI 1.4-9.0), HSV-2 (AOR 4.7, 95%CI 3.2-6.8), syphilis (AOR 2.4, 95%CI 1.4-4.0), consistent condom use with last sex partner (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.1) and lack of circumcision (AOR 4.0, 95%CI 2.8 - 5.5). Conclusion: Kenya’s heterogeneous epidemic will require regional and gender-specific prevention approaches.

Oluoch, Tom; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Bunnell, Rebecca; Kaiser, Reinhard; Kim, Andrea A; Gichangi, Anthony; Mwangi, Mary; Dadabhai, Sufia; Marum, Lawrence; Orago, Alloys; Mermin, Jonathan

2011-01-01

112

Sexuality Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the state of sexuality education in the United States. After concerted efforts in the 1960s to stop sex education, interest in sexuality education resurged in the 1980s, largely as a result of AIDS fears. There is now a broad-based consensus on the necessity of sexuality education, but there are still few effective programs. (SLD)

Haffner, Debra W.

1998-01-01

113

Treatment-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted infections in a high-risk population.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization estimates that 340 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur every year, while 33 million individuals are estimated to be living with HIV. The AIDS and STI epidemics are not independent with untreated STIs increasing HIV acquisition and transmission. Female sex workers have increased prevalence of untreated STIs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. This paper aims to investigate why some female sex workers who experience symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers seek treatment while others do not. Data were collected from a cohort study conducted between 2002 and 2005 among female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Study subjects were recruited from 7 out of 15 administrative wards in Moshi as part of the Moshi's Women's Health Project. Data were restricted to women self-reporting symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers (n=459) within the past year. Logistic regression was performed with SAS 9.1. Qualitative analysis was performed using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions among a convenience sample (n=42) of women already enrolled in the study. All interviews and focus group discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed, and data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-four percent of the sample sought treatment for either ailment. Multivariate analysis identified relationship to man of last sexual intercourse, ever experiencing a pregnancy, and age as significant predictors to seeking treatment. Four salient themes of threats to fertility, stigma correlated with prostitution, discomfort with the physical exam, and perceived views of clients were revealed as predictors to why women seek or intentionally ignore symptoms. Understanding the motivations and barriers for seeking treatment of STIs has far ranging public health implications that could help curtail the unnecessary associated morbidity and mortality and curtail the transmission of HIV. PMID:20635239

Rosenheck, Rachel; Ngilangwa, David; Manongi, Rachael; Kapiga, Saidi

2010-11-01

114

[Aging and sexuality in women].  

PubMed

A large number of biological, psycho-relational and socio-cultural factors are related to women's sexual health and they may negatively affect the entire sexual response cycle inducing significant changes in sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and satisfaction during the entire reproductive life span. In spite of the high prevalence of sexual problems with increasing age, sexual retirement is not an inevitable consequence of the passage of time and a high proportion of men and women remains sexually active well into later life, a result of changing attitudes toward sexuality and the availability of effective treatments for sexual dysfunction. Population-based studies reported an age-related decline of sexual functioning and an additional adverse effect of menopausal status. Ageing per se interferes with the level of sexual performance, but sexual behaviour of midlife and older women is highly dependent on several factors such as general physical and mental well-being, quality of relationship and life situation. Sex hormones, mainly low levels of estradiol, are relevant for the lack of sexual awareness and vaginal receptivity in naturally menopausal women. Even diminished levels of androgens, as it more frequently occurs in surgically menopausal women, has a negative impact on desire and sexual responsiveness. Several hormonal treatments have been used locally or systemically to alleviate sexual symptoms, especially by using estrogen plus androgen preparations and tibolone, with noticeable results on drive, enjoyment, lubrication, ability to reach orgasm and initiation of sex. However, sexual counseling and individualized management is mandatory to obtain meaningful and long-lasting results in clinical practice. PMID:17576405

Nappi, R E; Albani, F; Valentino, V; Polatti, F; Chiovato, L; Genazzani, A R

2007-06-01

115

Evolutionarily stable sexual allocation by both stressed and unstressed potentially simultaneous hermaphrodites within the same population.  

PubMed

Factors influencing allocation of resources to male and female offspring continue to be of great interest to evolutionary biologists. A simultaneous hermaphrodite is capable of functioning in both male and female mode at the same time, and such a life-history strategy is adopted by most flowering plants and by many sessile aquatic animals. In this paper, we focus on hermaphrodites that nourish post-zygotic stages, e.g. flowering plants and internally fertilising invertebrates, and consider how their sex allocation should respond to an environmental stress that reduces prospects of survival but does not affect all individuals equally, rather acting only on a subset of the population. Whereas dissemination of pollen and sperm can begin at sexual maturation, release of seeds and larvae is delayed by embryonic development. We find that the evolutionarily stable strategy for allocation between male and female functions will be critically dependent on the effect of stress on the trade-off between the costs of male and female reproduction, (i.e. of sperm and embryos). Thus, we identify evaluation of this factor as an important challenge to empiricists interested in the effects of stress on sex allocation. When only a small fraction of the population is stressed, we predict that stressed individuals will allocate their resources entirely to male function and unstressed individuals will increase their allocation to female function. Conversely, when the fraction of stress-affected individuals is high, stressed individuals should respond to this stressor by increasing investment in sperm and unstressed individuals should invest solely in embryos. A further prediction of the model is that we would not expect to find populations in the natural world where both stressed and unstressed individuals are both hermaphrodite. PMID:22721995

Broom, M; Hughes, R N; Burrows, M T; Ruxton, G D

2012-09-21

116

Sexual and topological differences in palmprint and ridge density in the caucasian Spanish population.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that variation in ridge breadth is of biological, medical, and genetic interest, it has not received as much attention as other dermatoglyphic characteristics. Recently, sex differences in mean epidermal ridge breadth have been proposed in the field of forensic identification in order to infer gender from fingerprints found at the scene of a crime left by an unknown donor. The aim of this research was to analyze sexual, bimanual, and topological variations in epidermal ridge breadth on palmprints taken from a Spanish population sample for subsequent application in inferring gender from the palm marks. The material used in the present study was obtained from the palmprints of 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females) from the Caucasian Spanish. Since ridge breadth varies according to age, subjects of similar ages were recruited to ensure that growth had finished. Therefore, in order to assess topological variation in ridge density or number of ridges in a given space, the count was carried out for the five palmar areas: hypothenar, thenar/first interdigital, second interdigital, third interdigital, and fourth interdigital. This allowed the segmentation of 2000 ridge count areas for analysis. For this, two methods were used, one described by Cummins et al. (the ridge count was carried out along a 1cm line) and the other by Acree (the number of ridges per 25 mm(2) of surface area). The results obtained by the second method can be compared with those obtained for the ten fingers from this same sample and evaluated in a previous study. The results have demonstrated the existence of topological differences in ridge thickness on the epidermal palm surface; also females present a significantly higher ridge density than men and, therefore, have narrower ridges over the entire palmar surface. Those sexual differences found in the sample population can be used for inferring the gender from palm marks left by an unknown donor. The hypotheses that could explain the variability in ridge breadth are evaluated according to the obtained results. PMID:23601151

Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción

2013-06-10

117

Multi-level sexual selection: individual and family-level selection for mating success in a historical human population.  

PubMed

Precopulatory sexual selection is the association between fitness and traits associated with mate acquisition. Although sexual selection is generally recognized to be a powerful evolutionary force, most investigations are limited to characters belonging to individuals. A broader multilevel perspective acknowledges that individual fitness can be affected by aspects of mating success that are characters of groups, such as families. Parental mating success in polygynous or polyandrous human societies may exemplify traits under group-level sexual selection. Using fitness measures that account for age-structure, I measure multilevel selection for mate number over 55 years in a human population with declining rates of polygyny. Sexual selection had three components: individual-level selection for ever-mating (whether an individual mated) and individual- and family-level selection for polyandry and polygyny. Family- and individual-level selection for polygyny was equally strong, three times stronger than family-level selection for polyandry and more than an order of magnitude stronger than individual-level selection for polyandry. However, individual-level selection for polyandry and polygyny was more effective at explaining relative fitness variance than family-level selection. Selection for ever-mating was the most important source of sexual selection for fitness; variation for ever-mating explained 23% of relative fitness variance. PMID:23730758

Moorad, Jacob A

2013-06-01

118

Response of human populations to large-scale emergencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, little quantitative data regarding collective human behavior during dangerous events such as bombings and riots have been available, despite its importance for emergency management, safety and urban planning. Understanding how populations react to danger is critical for prediction, detection and intervention strategies. Using a large telecommunications dataset, we study for the first time the spatiotemporal, social and demographic response properties of people during several disasters, including a bombing, a city-wide power outage, and an earthquake. Call activity rapidly increases after an event and we find that, when faced with a truly life-threatening emergency, information rapidly propagates through a population's social network. Other events, such as sports games, do not exhibit this propagation.

Bagrow, James; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

2010-03-01

119

Sex in an uncertain world: environmental stochasticity helps restore competitive balance between sexually and asexually reproducing populations.  

PubMed

Like many organisms, individuals of the freshwater ostracod species Eucypris virens exhibit either obligate sexual or asexual reproductive modes. Both types of individual routinely co-occur, including in the same temporary freshwater pond (their natural habitat in which they undergo seasonal diapause). Given the well-known two-fold cost of sex, this begs the question of how sexually reproducing individuals are able to coexist with their asexual counterparts in spite of such overwhelming costs. Environmental stochasticity in the form of 'false dawn' inundations (where the first hydration is ephemeral and causes loss of early hatching individuals) may provide an advantage to the sexual subpopulation, which shows greater variation in hatching times following inundation. We explore the potential role of environmental stochasticity in this system using life-history data analysis, climate data, and matrix projection models. In the absence of environmental stochasticity, the population growth rate is significantly lower in sexual subpopulations. Climate data reveal that 'false dawn' inundations are common. Using matrix projection modelling with and without environmental stochasticity, we demonstrate that this phenomenon can restore appreciable balance to the system, in terms of population growth rates. This provides support for the role of environmental stochasticity in helping to explain the maintenance of sex and the occurrence of geographical parthenogenesis. PMID:24836646

Park, A W; Vandekerkhove, J; Michalakis, Y

2014-08-01

120

The interplay between local ecology, divergent selection, and genetic drift in population divergence of a sexually antagonistic female trait.  

PubMed

Genetically polymorphic species offer the possibility to study maintenance of genetic variation and the potential role for genetic drift in population divergence. Indirect inference of the selection regimes operating on polymorphic traits can be achieved by comparing population divergence in neutral genetic markers with population divergence in trait frequencies. Such an approach could further be combined with ecological data to better understand agents of selection. Here, we infer the selective regimes acting on a polymorphic mating trait in an insect group; the dorsal structures (either rough or smooth) of female diving beetles. Our recent work suggests that the rough structures have a sexually antagonistic function in reducing male mating attempts. For two species (Dytiscus lapponicus and Graphoderus zonatus), we could not reject genetic drift as an explanation for population divergence in morph frequencies, whereas for the third (Hygrotus impressopunctatus) we found that divergent selection pulls morph frequencies apart across populations. Furthermore, population morph frequencies in H. impressopunctatus were significantly related to local bioclimatic factors, providing an additional line of evidence for local adaptation in this species. These data, therefore, suggest that local ecological factors and sexual conflict interact over larger spatial scales to shape population divergence in the polymorphism. PMID:24635214

Green, Kristina Karlsson; Svensson, Erik I; Bergsten, Johannes; Härdling, Roger; Hansson, Bengt

2014-07-01

121

Evaluation of three gears for sampling spawning populations of rainbow trout in a large Alaskan river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alternatives to electrofishing are needed for sampling sexually mature rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during the spawning season in large Alaskan rivers. We compared hook and line, beach seining, and actively fished gill nets as sampling tools. Beach seining and active gill netting yielded similar catch rates, length frequencies, and sex ratios of sexually mature fish. Hook-and-line sampling was less effective, with a lower catch rate and selectivity for immature fish and sexually mature females. We conclude that both beach seining and active gill netting can serve as alternatives to electrofishing for sampling sexually mature rainbow trout stocks during the spawning season in large rivers with stable spring flows and spawning areas with few snags.

Schwanke, C. J.; Hubert, W. A.

2004-01-01

122

Sexually transmitted infections treatment and care available to high risk populations in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Limited literature exists on the quality and availability of treatment and care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Pakistan. This article aims to document existing services for the care and treatment of STIs available in Pakistan's public and private sectors to high risk groups (HRG), particularly the transgendered population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to document STI services in Lahore, Karachi, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and Quetta. Seventy-three interviews were administered with health service providers at the 3 largest public sector hospitals in each city, as well as with general physicians and traditional healers in the private sector. Twenty-five nongovernmental organizations (NGO) providing STI services were also interviewed. Fewer than 45% of private and public sector general practitioners had been trained in STI treatment after the completion of their medical curriculum, and none of the traditional healers had received any formal training or information on STIs. The World Health Organization (WHO) syndromic management guidelines were followed for STI management by 29% of public and private sector doctors and 5% of traditional healers. STI drugs were available at no cost at 44% of NGOs and at some public sector hospitals. Our findings show that although providers do treat HRGs for STIs, there are significant limitations in their ability to provide these services. These deterrents include, but are not limited to, a lack of STI training of service providers, privacy and adherence to recommended WHO syndromic management guidelines, and costly diagnostic and consultation fees. PMID:19856743

Rahimtoola, Minal; Hussain, Hamidah; Khowaja, Saira N; Khan, Aamir J

2008-01-01

123

Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction for the presence of sexual dysfunction within a Ghanaian urological population.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunction (SD) is devastating to a man's ego and its presence could defeat his purpose of masculinity. A number of studies have explored and reported on existing comorbidities between SD and medical conditions for which urological problems are no exception. However, in Ghana there is paucity of data exploring the epidemiological, etiological and health associations of medical conditions with SD. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence, types and determinants of SD in a sample of Ghanaian men with urological conditions. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2012 and April 2013 at the Urology clinic of the Tamale Teaching Hospital in the Northern Region of Ghana. A total of 200 participants were enrolled in the study. All participants were evaluated by using a semistructured questionnaire and the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction questionnaire. An overall response rate of 47.5% was estimated after 69 patients refused to partake in the study; 6 patients found the questionnaire too sensitive and refused to participate and 30 participants returned incomplete questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 36.5±13.8 years and ranged from 18 to 70 years. The estimated prevalence of SD was 71.6%. The prevalence of the various SD domains was as follows: non-sensuality (71.6%), premature ejaculation (70.5%), non-communication (69.5%), impotence and infrequency (68.4%), dissatisfaction (61.1%) and avoidance (57.9%). Participants who were married, consumed alcoholic beverages, smoked cigarettes and aging males who had children were at a greater risk of developing SD. Urologic patients have a high prevalence of SD that is dependent on marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking status and aged patients with children. PMID:24430277

Amidu, N; Quaye, L; Afoko, A A; Karikari, P; Gandau, B B N; Amoah, E O; Nuwoku, E

2014-07-01

124

Sexual Pharmacology: Love Potions, Pills, and Poisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human population is increasingly exposed to chemicals that affect sexual function, from industrial pollutants to life-saving pharmaceuticals. First, the products that can cause dysfunction, including endocrine disruptors, drugs of abuse, and prescription medications, are reviewed. A systemic perspective proves helpful in explaining the large variability in effects and side effects of medications. Secondly, the biological treatments of sexual dysfunction

Johan Verhulst; Jonathan K. Reynolds

2009-01-01

125

Gender differences in sexual behaviors and fantasies in a college population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents male and female responses of 193 university students to questions about sexual experiences and fantasies. There are few significant gender differences in experiences, but many in fantasies. Males fantasized about sex more and exhibited greater interest in partner variation and in the spectrum from domination to sadism. While male sexuality is often described as aggressive\\/sadistic and female

Ethel S. Person; Nettie Terestman; Wayne A. Myers; Eugene L. Goldberg; Carol Salvadori

1989-01-01

126

Sexual attitude and information questionnaire: Reliability and validity in a spinal cord injured population  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been a number of sexual counseling programs for spinal cord injured individuals, but little attempt has been made to assess the impact of such programs. One reason for this has been the lack of reliable and valid assessment devices. The present paper attempted to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Sexual Attitude and Information Questionnaire (SAIQ) as

Jo Ann Brockway; Jeffrey C. Steger

1981-01-01

127

Abortion Research: Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Problems in a Community College Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys of 70 male and 80 female community college students about their attitudes toward abortion, sexual behavior, and life problems support abortion rights. Antiabortion students were more religious, less sexually active, and less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many students currently experienced serious problems. (SLD)

Bryan, Janice Westlund; Freed, Florence Wallach

1993-01-01

128

The prevalence of a history of childhood sexual abuse in an acute adult inpatient population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of a history of childhood sexual abuse in a series of admissions to a general psychiatric hospital was estimated. One hundred and twenty subjects were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Case notes were examined to determine previous documented disclosure, diagnosis, and rates of admission and deliberate self harm. Forty-six percent reported a history of childhood sexual abuse by

Catherine J. Wurr; Ian M. Partridge

1996-01-01

129

Impact of the cataloged population upon very large space structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative concepts of transferring payloads to various Earth or interplanetary orbits often involve the construction (in low Earth orbit, or LEO) of very large space structures, such as tethers hundreds of kilometers in length or the "space elevator", in which mass is moved directly from the ground (or near it) into a geostationary orbit via a huge tower. Proponents of these ideas have devoted some thought as to how these structures could be made survivable against the small debris population; for example, multi-strand, or "Hoyt", tethers have been calculated to have lifetimes of many decades, if not centuries, when the debris flux of sub-centimeter particles is used in the computations. However, practically all advocates of such structures have ignored the cataloged population, consisting of debris greater than a few centimeters in size and satellites, both active and dormant, and it is this component, rather than the much more numerous small bodies, that ultimately determines the lifetimes of very large space constructs. We present the results of some numerical simulations that show that collisions between trackable space objects and such futuristic devices will occur on time scales as short as a few days, effectively eliminating LEO as a possible home for these structures.

Lewis, H.; Cooke, W.

130

Is child sexual abuse declining? Evidence from a population-based survey of men and women in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Substantiated cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the United States have declined significantly over the past decade. This may, or may not, reflect change in the underlying rate in the general population. This study examines age-cohort differences in the prevalence of self-reported CSA experiences of men and women aged 18–59 years in a community-based sample from a comparable

Michael P Dunne; David M Purdie; Michelle D Cook; Frances M Boyle; Jake M Najman

2003-01-01

131

Extensive Genetic Diversity, Unique Population Structure and Evidence of Genetic Exchange in the Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTrichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the

Melissa D. Conrad; Andrew W. Gorman; Julia A. Schillinger; Pier Luigi Fiori; Rossana Arroyo; Nancy Malla; Mohan Lal Dubey; Jorge Gonzalez; Susan Blank; William E. Secor; Jane M. Carlton

2012-01-01

132

Sexual Abuse and Suicidality: Gender Differences in a Large Community Sample of Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: A cross-sectional study of gender specific relationships between self-reported child sexual abuse and suicidality in a community sample of adolescents. Method: Students aged 14 years on average (N=2,485) from 27 schools in South Australia completed a questionnaire including items on sexual abuse and suicidality, and measures of…

Martin, Graham; Bergen, Helen A.; Richardson, Angela S.; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen

2004-01-01

133

Psychopathology in a Large Cohort of Sexually Abused Children Followed up to 43 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine the rate and risk of clinical and personality disorders diagnosed in childhood and adulthood in those known to have been sexually abused during childhood. Methods: Forensic medical records of 2,759 sexually abused children assessed between 1964 and 1995 were linked with a public psychiatric database between 12 and 43 years…

Cutajar, Margaret C.; Mullen, Paul E.; Ogloff, James R. P.; Thomas, Stuart D.; Wells, David L.; Spataro, Josie

2010-01-01

134

Adjustment among mothers reporting same-gender sexual partners: a study of a representative population sample from Quebec Province (Canada).  

PubMed

We examined the well-being of mothers and non-mothers reporting exclusive opposite-gender sexual partners (OG), same-gender sexual partners (SG), or both (BI) in a representative sample of 20,773 participants (11,034 women) 15-years-old or older from the population of Quebec province in Canada. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and SG and BI women (n = 179) were matched to a sample of OG women (n = 179) based on age, income, geographical area, and children (having at least one 18-year-old or younger biological or adopted child at home). We assessed social milieu variables, risk factors for health disorders, mental health, and quality of mothers' relationship with children. The findings indicated a sexual orientation main effect: Mothers and non-mothers in the SG and BI group, as compared to their OG controls, were significantly less likely to live in a couple relationship, had significantly lower levels of social support, higher prevalence of early negative life events, substance abuse, suicide ideation, and higher levels of psychological distress. There were no Sexual Orientation X Parenthood status effects. The results further indicated that sexual orientation did not account for unique variance in women's psychological distress beyond that afforded by their social milieu, health risk factors, and parenthood status. No significant differences were found for the quality of mothers' relationship with children. SG-BI and OG mothers with low levels of social integration were significantly more likely to report problems with children than parents with high levels of social integration. We need to understand how marginal sexualities and their associated social stigma, as risk indicators for mothers, interact with other factors to impact family life, parenting skills, and children's adjustment. PMID:17665300

Julien, Danielle; Jouvin, Emilie; Jodoin, Emilie; L'archevêque, Alexandre; Chartrand, Elise

2008-12-01

135

Molecular characterization of sexual diversity in a population of Serpula lacrymans, a tetrapolar basidiomycete.  

PubMed

Different mating systems have evolved in the fungal kingdom, including a tetrapolar multiallelic mating system in many basidiomycetes. In tetrapolar species, the presence of different alleles at two mating loci (MAT A and MAT B) is necessary for mating to occur. The tetrapolar fungus Serpula lacrymans causes wood-decay in buildings in temperate regions worldwide and is present in Europe with a genetically homogeneous founder population. Using genome sequence data, we annotated the two mating type loci for S. lacrymans and found the expected synteny with other basidiomycetes, except for a retrotransposon being present in one locus (MAT A). We developed markers linked to the MAT A and MAT B regions and used these to investigate the mating type diversity in the European population. Moreover, we found a good match between the genetic markers and functional mating types as revealed by segregation and mating studies. A low diversity of mating types is present in the European S. lacrymans population caused by the founder event where a limited number of genotypes were introduced. This finding contrasts the situation in natural fungal populations where a high diversity of mating types is normally present. Although S. lacrymans has a large and viable population in Europe, we argue that the low mating type diversity restrains the dispersal and establishment of the fungus. PMID:23390592

Skrede, Inger; Maurice, Sundy; Kauserud, Håvard

2013-02-01

136

Sexual Cannibalism: High Incidence in a Natural Population with Benefits to Females  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula), a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. Conclusions/Significance In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these field experiments support the hypothesis that sexual cannibalism is adaptive to females.

Rabaneda-Bueno, Ruben; Rodriguez-Girones, Miguel A.; Aguado-de-la-Paz, Sara; Fernandez-Montraveta, Carmen; De Mas, Eva; Wise, David H.; Moya-Larano, Jordi

2008-01-01

137

Age at sexual maturity, sex ratio, fecundity, and longevity of isolated headwater populations of Westslope cutthroat trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We sampled 19 isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in Montana to provide estimates of fecundity, longevity, sex ratio, and age at sexual maturity. Fecundity was estimated for 31 fish collected from two streams in the upper Missouri River drainage. Females smaller than 149 mm fork length (FL) were generally immature and their fecundities could not be estimated. Mean fecundities (SD) were 227 eggs (41.1) for 150-174-mm fish, 346 eggs (85.6) for 175-199-mm fish, and 459 eggs (150.8) for 200-mm and larger fish. A linear regression model (two stream samples combined) to predict fecundity (E) from fork length was developed (E = -494.9 + 4.4.FL: r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001) for westslope cutthroat trout in the upper Missouri River drainage. Regression slopes of fecundity against fish length differed significantly (P < 0.01) between these and some of the previously studied populations. Steeper slopes were associated with lacustrine-adfluvial populations. The average sex ratio was 1.3 males per female across all sampled streams. Males began to mature sexually at age 2 and all were mature by age 4. Some females (27%) were sexually mature at age 3 and most of them (93%) were mature by age 5. Length was a better predictor of sexual maturity than age. Males matured at 110-160 mm and females at 150-180 mm FL. The maximum estimated age was 8 years based on otoliths from 475 fish collected from our 19 study streams and 14 additional streams.

Downs, C. C.; White, R. G.; Shepard, B. B.

1997-01-01

138

Large variation in mitochondrial DNA of sexual and parthenogenetic Dahlica triquetrella (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) shows multiple origins of parthenogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Obligate parthenogenesis is relatively rare in animals. Still, in some groups it is quite common and has evolved and persisted multiple times. These groups may provide important clues to help solve the ‘paradox of sex’. Several species in the Psychidae (Lepidoptera) have obligate parthenogenesis. Dahlica triquetrella is one of those species where multiple transitions to parthenogenesis are postulated based on intensive cytological and behavioural studies. This has led to the hypothesis that multiple transitions from sexuals to diploid parthenogens occurred during and after the last glacial period, followed by transitions from parthenogenetic diploids to parthenogenetic tetraploids. Our study is the first to test these hypotheses using a molecular phylogeny based on mtDNA from multiple sexual and parthenogenetic populations from a wide geographic range. Results Parthenogenetic (and sexual) D. triquetrella are not monophyletic, and considerable sequence variation is present suggesting multiple transitions to parthenogenesis. However, we could not establish ancestral sexual haplotypes from our dataset. Our data suggest that some parthenogenetic clades have evolved, indicating origins of parthenogenesis before the last glacial period. Conclusions Multiple transitions to parthenogenesis have taken place in Dahlica triquetrella, confirming previous hypotheses. The number of different parthenogenetic clades, haplotypes and their apparent evolutionary age, clearly show that parthenogenesis has been a very successful reproductive strategy in this species over a long period.

2013-01-01

139

Bowel, Urinary, and Sexual Problems Among Long-Term Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To obtain insight into the long-term (5- to 10-year) effects of prostate cancer and treatment on bowel, urinary, and sexual function, we performed a population-based study. Prostate-specific function was compared with an age-matched normative population without prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Through the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry, we selected all men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 1998 in the southern Netherlands. In total, 964 patients, alive in November 2004, received questionnaire; 780 (81%) responded. Results: Urinary problems were most common after a prostatectomy; bowel problems were most common after radiotherapy. Compared with an age-matched normative population both urinary and bowel functioning and bother were significantly worse among survivors. Urinary incontinence was reported by 23-48% of survivors compared with 4% of the normative population. Bowel leakage occurred in 5-14% of patients compared with 2% of norms. Erection problems occurred in 40-74% of patients compared with 18% of norms. Conclusions: These results form an important contribution to the limited information available on prostate-specific problems in the growing group of long-term prostate cancer survivors. Bowel, urinary, and sexual problems occur more often among long-term survivors compared with a reference group and cannot be explained merely by age. Because these problems persist for many years, urologists should provide patients with adequate information before treatment. After treatment, there should be an appropriate focus on these problems.

Mols, Floortje [CoRPS-Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Comprehensive Cancer Centre South (CCCS), Eindhoven Cancer Registry, Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: F.Mols@uvt.nl; Korfage, Ida J. [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vingerhoets, Ad J.J.M. [Clinical Psychology Section, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Kil, Paul J.M. [Department of Urology, Sint Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg (Netherlands); Coebergh, Jan Willem W. [Comprehensive Cancer Centre South (CCCS), Eindhoven Cancer Registry, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Social Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de [CoRPS-Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Comprehensive Cancer Centre South (CCCS), Eindhoven Cancer Registry, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2009-01-01

140

Growth of deleterious mutant genes in a large population.  

PubMed

Formulae for the arrival probability and first arrival time for a single mutant gene to reach a certain number have been obtained by using a continuous branching process. If the mean of the progeny number of heterozygotes is less than one the arrival probability increases with increasing variance of the progeny distribution whereas if the mean is greater than one the contrary is true. Since most human populations are growing at fairly high rates, the result indicates that the probability for a single mutation to grow to a large number is quite high. Numerical computations show that the mean first arrival time decreases with increasing variance of the progeny distribution of the mutant carriers. The results have been applied to investigate the case of the acheiropodia gene in Brazil. The hypothesis that all acheiropodia genes in Brazil were derived from a single mutation seems to be tenable. PMID:952486

Li, W H

1976-05-01

141

Sexual abuse and suicidality: gender differences in a large community sample of adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A cross-sectional study of gender specific relationships between self-reported child sexual abuse and suicidality in a community sample of adolescents.Method: Students aged 14 years on average (N=2,485) from 27 schools in South Australia completed a questionnaire including items on sexual abuse and suicidality, and measures of depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), and family

Graham Martin; Helen A. Bergen; Angela S. Richardson; Leigh Roeger; Stephen Allison

2004-01-01

142

A fast algorithm for computing inbreeding coefficients in large populations.  

PubMed

Inbreeding coefficients of animals are required in many genetic analyses of livestock records. A modification of Colleau's indirect algorithm to compute inbreeding coefficients in large populations is presented. With overlapping generations, the modified algorithm evaluated all progeny of each sire simultaneously in one back and forth exploration of a reduced pedigree. Simulation for a relatively large number of generations, different number of sires, family sizes and mating designs showed that Colleau's algorithm was faster (from 1.2 to 143 times) than two other algorithms under comparison (Tier, modified Meuwissen and Luo), in all situations investigated. Modifying Colleau's algorithm considerably decreased computation time (from 50 to 89%), resulting in a very fast algorithm. The number of sires mostly affected computational efficiency of the modified algorithm, whereas family size and mating design had virtually no effect. In the updating situation, when only animals born in the last year were evaluated, given known inbreeding coefficients for the other, the modified algorithm was also fast compared with the other three algorithms. Memory requirements for the algorithms were also discussed. PMID:16191041

Sargolzaei, M; Iwaisaki, H; Colleau, J-J

2005-10-01

143

Facial width-to-height ratio in a Turkish population is not sexually dimorphic and is unrelated to aggressive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Weston et al. (2004; Wide faces or large canines? The attractive versus the aggressive primate. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 271, 416–419) found that facial width-to-height ratio (WHR) is a sexually dimorphic characteristic in humans; males have higher facial WHR than females. Following this study, Carré et al. (2008; In your face: facial metrics predict

Bar?? Özener

144

Sexual behaviour  

PubMed Central

Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare.

Mercer, Catherine H.

2014-01-01

145

Contrasting Life Histories in Neighbouring Populations of a Large Mammal  

PubMed Central

Background A fundamental life history question is how individuals should allocate resources to reproduction optimally over time (reproductive allocation). The reproductive restraint hypothesis predicts that reproductive effort (RE; the allocation of resources to current reproduction) should peak at prime-age, whilst the terminal investment hypothesis predicts that individuals should continue to invest more resources in reproduction throughout life, owing to an ever-decreasing residual reproductive value. There is evidence supporting both hypotheses in the scientific literature. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an uncommonly large, 38 year dataset on Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) shot at various times during the rutting period to test these two hypotheses. We assumed that body mass loss in rutting males was strongly related to RE and, using a process-based approach, modelled how male relative mass loss rates varied with age. For different regions of our study area, we provide evidence consistent with different hypotheses for reproductive allocation. In sites where RE declined in older age, this appears to be strongly linked to declining body condition in old males. In this species, terminal investment may only occur in areas with lower rates of body mass senescence. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that patterns of reproductive allocation may be more plastic than previously thought. It appears that there is a continuum from downturns in RE at old age to terminal investment that can be manifest, even across adjacent populations. Our work identifies uncertainty in the relationship between reproductive restraint and a lack of competitive ability in older life (driven by body mass senescence); both could explain a decline in RE in old age and may be hard to disentangle in empirical data. We discuss a number of environmental and anthropogenic factors which could influence reproductive life histories, underlining that life history patterns should not be generalised across different populations.

Mason, Tom H. E.; Chirichella, Roberta; Richards, Shane A.; Stephens, Philip A.; Willis, Stephen G.; Apollonio, Marco

2011-01-01

146

Evaluation of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) at Large Urban Primary Care Sexual Health Centre  

PubMed Central

Objective Despite substantial investment in Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems there has been little research to evaluate them. Our aim was to evaluate changes in efficiency and quality of services after the introduction of a purpose built EMR system, and to assess its acceptability by the doctors, nurses and patients using it. Methods We compared a nine month period before and after the introduction of an EMR system in a large sexual health service, audited a sample of records in both periods and undertook anonymous surveys of both staff and patients. Results There were 9,752 doctor consultations (in 5,512 consulting hours) in the Paper Medical Record (PMR) period and 9,145 doctor consultations (in 5,176 consulting hours in the EMR period eligible for inclusion in the analysis. There were 5% more consultations per hour seen by doctors in the EMR period compared to the PMR period (rate ratio?=?1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.02, 1.08) after adjusting for type of consultation. The qualitative evaluation of 300 records for each period showed no difference in quality (P>0.17). A survey of clinicians demonstrated that doctors and nurses preferred the EMR system (P<0.01) and a patient survey in each period showed no difference in satisfaction of their care (97% for PMR, 95% for EMR, P?=?0.61). Conclusion The introduction of an integrated EMR improved efficiency while maintaining the quality of the patient record. The EMR was popular with staff and was not associated with a decline in patient satisfaction in the clinical care provided.

Huffam, Sarah; Cummings, Rosey; Chen, Marcus Y.; Sze, Jun K.; Fehler, Glenda; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Schmidt, Tina; Berzins, Karen; Hocking, Jane S.

2013-01-01

147

Sexual dimorphism in human cranial trait scores: Effects of population, age, and body size.  

PubMed

Sex estimation from the skull is commonly performed by physical and forensic anthropologists using a five-trait scoring system developed by Walker. Despite the popularity of this method, validation studies evaluating its accuracy across a variety of samples are lacking. Furthermore, it remains unclear what other intrinsic or extrinsic variables are related to the expression of these traits. In this study, cranial trait scores and postcranial measurements were collected from four diverse population groups (U.S. Whites, U.S. Blacks, medieval Nubians, and Arikara Native Americans) following Walker's protocols (total n?=?499). Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to evaluate the accuracy of these traits in sex estimation, and to test for the effects of population, age, and body size on trait expressions. Results revealed significant effects of population on all trait scores. Sample-specific correct sex classification rates ranged from 74% to 94%, with an overall accuracy of 85% for the pooled sample. Classification performance varied among the traits (best for glabella and mastoid scores and worst for nuchal scores). Furthermore, correlations between traits were weak or nonsignificant, suggesting that different factors may influence individual traits. Some traits displayed correlations with age and/or postcranial size that were significant but weak, and within-population analyses did not reveal any consistent relationships between these traits across all groups. These results indicate that neither age nor body size plays a large role in trait expression, and thus does not need to be incorporated into sex estimation methods. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:259-269, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24595622

Garvin, Heather M; Sholts, Sabrina B; Mosca, Laurel A

2014-06-01

148

How large was the founding population of Darwin's finches?  

PubMed Central

A key assumption of many allopatric speciation models is that evolution in peripheral or isolated populations is facilitated by drastic reductions in population size. Population bottlenecks are believed to lead to rapid changes in gene frequencies through genetic drift, to facilitate rapid emergence of novel phenotypes, and to enhance reproductive isolation via genetic revolutions. For such effects to occur, founding populations must be very small, and remain small for some time after founding. This assumption has, however, rarely been tested in nature. One approach is to exploit the polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) to obtain information about the founding population. Here, we use the Mhc polymorphism to estimate the size of the founding population of Darwin's finches in the Galápagos Archipelago. The results indicate that the population could not have been smaller than 30 individuals.

Vincek, V.; O'Huigin, C.; Satta, Y.; Takahata, Y.; Boag, P. T.; Grant, P. R.; Grant, B. R.; Klein, J.

1997-01-01

149

Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth.

McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

150

The first large population based twin study of coeliac disease  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: The genetic load in coeliac disease has hitherto been inferred from case series or anecdotally referred twin pairs. We have evaluated the genetic component in coeliac disease by estimating the concordance rate for the disease among twin pairs in a large population based study. Methods: The Italian Twin Registry was matched with the membership lists of a patient support group. Forty seven twin pairs were recruited and screened for antiendomysial (EMA) and antihuman-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) antibodies; zygosity was verified by DNA fingerprinting and twins were typed for HLA class II DRB1 and DQB1 molecules. Results: Concordance rates for coeliac disease differ significantly between monozygotic (MZ) (0.86 probandwise and 0.75 pairwise) and dizygotic (DZ) (0.20 probandwise and 0.11 pairwise) twins. This is the highest concordance so far reported for a multifactorial disease. A logistic regression model, adjusted for age, sex, number of shared HLA haplotypes, and zygosity, showed that genotypes DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201 and DQA1*0301/DQB1*0302 (encoding for heterodimers DQ2 and DQ8, respectively) conferred to the non-index twin a risk of contracting the disease of 3.3 and 1.4, respectively. The risk of being concordant for coeliac disease estimated for the non-index twin of MZ pairs was 17 (95% confidence interval 2.1–134), independent of the DQ at risk genotype. Conclusion: This study provides substantial evidence for a very strong genetic component in coeliac disease, which is only partially due to the HLA region.

Greco, L; Romino, R; Coto, I; Di Cosmo, N; Percopo, S; Maglio, M; Paparo, F; Gasperi, V; Limongelli, M G; Cotichini, R; D'Agate, C; Tinto, N; Sacchetti, L; Tosi, R; Stazi, M A

2002-01-01

151

Use of the SSLP-based method for detection of rare apomictic events in a sexual AtSERK1 transgenic Arabidopsis population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present a screening method to evaluate the potential of genes to transfer aspects of apomixis into sexual crop plants.\\u000a Based on the assumption that an apomictic progeny is an exact genetic replica of the mother plant we employed a set of single\\u000a sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers to identify individuals displaying heterozygosity fixation in segregating sexual\\u000a populations as

Laksana Kantama; Yolanda Lambert; Haifen Hu; Hans de Jong; Sacco C. de Vries; Eugenia Russinova

2006-01-01

152

Attitudes and beliefs about anti-retroviral therapy are associated with high risk sexual behaviors among the general population of Kisumu, Kenya.  

PubMed

Attitudes and beliefs about antiretroviral therapy (ART) may affect sexual risk behaviors among the general population in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a cross-sectional population-based study in Kisumu, Kenya to test this hypothesis in October 2006. A total of 1655 participants were interviewed regarding attitudes and beliefs about ART and their sexual risk behaviors. The majority of participants, (71%) men and (70%) women, had heard of ART. Of these, 20% of men and 29% of women believed ART cures HIV. Among women, an attitude that "HIV is more controllable now that ART is available" was associated with sex with a non-spousal partner, increased lifetime number of sexual partners as well as a younger age at sexual debut. No significant associations with this factor were found among men. The belief that "ART cures HIV" was associated with younger age of sexual debut among women. The same belief was associated with an increased likelihood of exchanging sex for money/gifts and decreased likelihood of condom use at last sex among men. These findings were most significant for people aged 15-29 years. In high HIV seroprevalence populations with expanding access to ART, prevention programs must ensure their content counteracts misconceptions of ART in order to reduce high risk sexual behaviors, especially among youth. PMID:22050441

Smith, Rachel M; Carrico, Adam W; Montandon, Michele; Kwena, Zachary; Bailey, Robert; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

2011-12-01

153

Attitudes and beliefs about anti-retroviral therapy are associated with high risk sexual behaviors among the general population of Kisumu, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Attitudes and beliefs about antiretroviral therapy (ART) may affect sexual risk behaviors among the general population in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a cross-sectional population-based study in Kisumu, Kenya to test this hypothesis in October 2006. A total of 1655 participants were interviewed regarding attitudes and beliefs about ART and their sexual risk behaviors. The majority of participants, (71%) men and (70%) women, had heard of ART. Of these, 20% of men and 29% of women believed ART cures HIV. Among women, an attitude that “HIV is more controllable now that ART is available” was associated with sex with a non-spousal partner, increased lifetime number of sexual partners as well as a younger age at sexual debut. No significant associations with this factor were found among men. The belief that “ART cures HIV” was associated with younger age of sexual debut among women. The same belief was associated with an increased likelihood of exchanging sex for money/gifts and decreased likelihood of condom use at last sex among men. These findings were most significant for people aged 15–29 years. In high HIV seroprevalence populations with expanding access to ART, prevention programs must ensure their content counteracts misconceptions of ART in order to reduce high risk sexual behaviors, especially among youth.

Smith, Rachel M.; Carrico, Adam W.; Montandon, Michele; Kwena, Zachary; Bailey, Robert; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.

2013-01-01

154

Predictors of chronic breathlessness: a large population study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Breathlessness causes significant burden in our community but the underlying socio-demographic and lifestyle factors that may influence it are not well quantified. This study aims to define these predictors of chronic breathlessness at a population level. METHODS: Data were collected from adult South Australians in 2007 and 2008 (n = 5331) as part of a face-to-face, cross-sectional, whole-of-population, multi-stage,

Jacqueline A Bowden; Timothy HM To; Amy P Abernethy; David C Currow

2011-01-01

155

The Speed of Evolution in Large Asexual Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an asexual biological population of constant size N evolving in discrete time under the influence of selection and mutation. Beneficial mutations appear at rate U and their selective effects s are drawn from a distribution g(s). After introducing the required models and concepts of mathematical population genetics, we review different approaches\\u000a to computing the speed of logarithmic fitness

Su-Chan Park; Damien Simon; Joachim Krug

2010-01-01

156

Opting out increases HIV testing in a large sexually transmitted infections outpatient clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: In January 2007, opt-out HIV testing replaced provider-initiated testing at the sexually transmitted infections (STI) outpatient clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The effect of the opt-out strategy on the uptake of HIV testing was studied and factors associated with refusal of HIV testing were identified. Study Design: Data routinely collected at the STI clinic were analysed separately for men

R. L. J. Heijman; I. G. Stolte; H. F. J. Thiesbrummel; Leent van E; R. A. Coutinho; J. S. A. Fennema; M. Prins

2009-01-01

157

Assessment of sexual risk behaviors and perception of vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in women, 1999-2012: a population based survey in a medium-sized Brazilian city.  

PubMed

Sexual behavior is a key factor for susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. An evaluation of the sexual behavior of women at reproductive age was conducted in 1999. A replication of this study aims to evaluate the current situation and identify changes in sexual behavior, 13 years later. This is a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with 1071 women in Pelotas, Brazil. Compared to the 1999 study, a 14% increase in early sexual debut and an 8% decrease in the non-use of condoms were observed in 2012. The proportion of women who reported anal sex doubled between these periods. There was no trend of increase or decrease in the prevalence of behaviors with distinct patterns being observed for each of them. Reduction of non-use of condoms may be an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to promote safe sex. However, the increased prevalence of early sexual debut and anal sex indicates the need for campaigns to continue and to expand their focus, especially among vulnerable groups. PMID:24780361

Mesenburg, Marilia Arndt; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas

2014-01-01

158

Sexual Desire, Erection, Orgasm and Ejaculatory Functions and Their Importance to Elderly Swedish Men: A Population-bas ed Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Relevant information for clinical decision-making in a wide spectrum of diseases includes the extent to which sexual function is intact, how important it is to preserve sexual capacity and whether waning sexual function causes distress. Little information is available on elderly men. We aimed to obtain this basic information. Radiumhemmet's Scale of Sexual Function was posted to 435 randomly

ASGEIR R. HELGASON; JAN ADOLFSSON; PAUL DICKMAN; STEFAN ARVER; MATS FREDRIKSON; MARIANNE GOTHBERG; GUNNAR STEINECK

159

Sexual orientation, social capital and daily tobacco smoking: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have suggested poorer health in the homosexual and bisexual groups compared to heterosexuals. Tobacco smoking, which is a health-related behavior associated with psychosocial stress, may be one explanation behind such health differences. Social capital, i.e. the generalized trust in other people and social participation/social networks which decreases the costs of social interaction, has been suggested to affect health through psychosocial pathways and through norms connected with health related behaviours, The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sexual orientation and daily tobacco smoking, taking social capital into account and analyzing the attenuation of the logit after the introduction of social participation, trust and their combination in the models. Methods In 2008 a cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in southern Sweden with a postal questionnaire with 28,198 participants aged 18–80 (55% participation rate). This study was restricted to 24,348 participants without internally missing values on all included variables. Associations between sexual orientation and tobacco smoking were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. Results Overall, 11.9% of the men and 14.8% of the women were daily tobacco smokers. Higher and almost unaltered odds ratios of daily smoking compared to heterosexuals were observed for bisexual men and women, and for homosexual men throughout the analyses. The odds ratios of daily smoking among homosexual women were not significant. Only for the “other” sexual orientation group the odds ratios of daily smoking were reduced to not significant levels among both men and women, with a corresponding 54% attenuation of the logit in the “other” group among men and 31.5% among women after the inclusion of social participation and trust. In addition, only the “other” sexual orientation group had higher odds ratios of low participation than heterosexuals. Conclusions Bisexual men and women and homosexual men, but not homosexual women, are daily smokers to a higher extent than heterosexuals. Only for the “other” sexual orientation group the odds ratios of daily smoking were reduced to not significant levels after adjustments for covariates including trust and social participation.

2014-01-01

160

Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

2006-01-01

161

Population and habitat assessment: Monitoring bird populations over large areas: Introduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring provides essential information about status and change in bird populations. For Neotropical Migrant Birds (NTMBs), the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has been particularly influential in documenting regional population change and often is cited as justification for management actions. However, as with most bird surveys, the design of the BBS, and the geographic scale of the information, often limits its use either in evaluating the response of bird populations to management, or in identifying causes of population change.

Sauer, J.R.; Cooper, R.J.

2000-01-01

162

Prevalences of sexually transmitted infections in young adults and female sex workers in Peru: a national population-based survey  

PubMed Central

Summary Background We assessed prevalences of seven sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Peru, stratified by risk behaviours, to help to define care and prevention priorities. Methods In a 2002 household-based survey of the general population, we enrolled randomly selected 18–29-year-old residents of 24 cities with populations greater than 50?000 people. We then surveyed female sex workers (FSWs) in these cities. We gathered data for sexual behaviour; vaginal specimens or urine for nucleic acid amplification tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis; and blood for serological tests for syphilis, HIV, and (in subsamples) herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) and human T-lymphotropic virus. This study is a registered component of the PREVEN trial, number ISRCTN43722548. Findings 15?261 individuals from the general population and 4485 FSWs agreed to participate in our survey. Overall prevalence of infection with HSV2, weighted for city size, was 13·5% in men, 13·6% in women, and 60·6% in FSWs (all values in FSWs standardised to age composition of women in the general population). The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 4·2% in men, 6·5% in women, and 16·4% in FSWs; of T vaginalis infection was 0·3% in men, 4·9% in women, and 7·9% in FSWs; and of syphilis was 0·5% in men, 0·4% in women, and 0·8% in FSWs. N gonorrhoeae infection had a prevalence of 0·1% in men and women, and of 1·6% in FSWs. Prevalence of HIV infection was 0·5% in men and FSWs, and 0·1% in women. Four (0·3%) of 1535 specimens were positive for human T-lymphotropic virus 1. In men, 65·0% of infections with HIV, 71·5% of N gonorrhoeae, and 41·4% of HSV2 and 60·9% of cases of syphilis were in the 13·3% who had sex with men or unprotected sex with FSWs in the past year. In women from the general population, 66·7% of infections with HIV and 16·7% of cases of syphilis were accounted for by the 4·4% who had been paid for sex by any of their past three partners. Interpretation Defining of high-risk groups could guide targeting of interventions for communicable diseases—including STIs—in the general Peruvian population. Funding Wellcome Trust-Burroughs Wellcome Fund Infectious Disease Initiative and US National Institutes of Health.

Carcamo, Cesar P; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Hughes, James P; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

2012-01-01

163

[A mathematical model representing HIV/AIDS transmission dynamics in a sexually-active population].  

PubMed

This article presents a new model explaining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission dynamics amongst heterosexually active couples. It covers the assumptions made, the variables analysed, the model's sensitivity and the ordinary differential equations and control strategies used. The information was obtained from the Colombian state Statistics Department (DANE) and applied to different simulations in the system (with and without control), using the MAPLE programme code. Simulation results led to concluding that control using condoms was relevant in the model. It was not important if control were applied in women or men, nor was the percentage of sexually-active men and women. PMID:21031241

Mesa-Mazo, Mónica J; Vergaño-Salazar, Juan G; Sánchez-Botero, Claudia E; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

2010-04-01

164

Incident sexually transmitted infections and their risk factors in an Aboriginal community in Australia: a population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

website extra Extended tables can be found on the STI website www.sextransinf.com Objective: To identify risk factors for incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a remote Aboriginal community in Australia. Design: A population based cohort study. Setting: An Aboriginal community in central Australia. Participants: 1034 Aboriginal people aged 12–40 years, resident in the study region, seen during the period 1 January 1996 to 30 June 1998 for STI diagnosis. Main outcome measures: Incident rate of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis per 100 person years. Results: There were 313 episodes of incident gonorrhoea, 240 of incident chlamydial infection, and 17 of incident syphilis. For gonorrhoea, risk factors were age, substance abuse, and previous prevalent chlamydial infection with a rate ratio (RR) of 3.2 in people aged 15–19 years, 1.6 in people who abused alcohol, and 3.2 in women who had sniffed petrol on a regular basis. For chlamydia, risk factors were sex, age, and a previous history of STI with a RR of 2.7 in people aged 15–19 years. Similar factors were associated with an increased risk of syphilis but the associations were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study identified objective predictors of incident STI which can be used to target interventions and maximise their impact. The results of this study may well have relevance to indigenous communities in other countries that are faced with high levels of STI and substance abuse. Key Words: Aborigines; sexually transmitted infections; risk factors; Australia

Miller, P; Law, M; Torzillo, P; Kaldor, J

2001-01-01

165

Minireview: Hormones and Human Sexual Orientation  

PubMed Central

Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined.

2011-01-01

166

Student understanding in mechanics: A large population survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There has recently been a considerable growth in research probing student understanding in mechanics. Questions based on four such research probes were included in the end-of-high-school physics examination undertaken by some 5500 students. The results obtained give an indication of the extent to which various interpretations of some physical situations are held in a whole population. The possibilities of using research probes as a basis for assessment questions are also illustrated.

Gunstone, Richard

2005-10-20

167

Prevalence of Consensual Male-Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n?=?92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n?=?164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n?=?51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n?=?79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n?=?26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n?=?21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]?=?7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR?=?3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR?=?3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non-perpetrators (aOR?=?3.58; 95% CI 1.17–10.9). Conclusions In this sample, one in 20 men (5.4%) reported lifetime consensual sexual contact with a man, while about one in ten (9.6%) reported experience of male-on-male sexual violence victimization. Men who reported having had sex with men were more likely to be HIV+, as were men who reported perpetrating sexual violence towards other men. Whilst there was no direct measure of male–female concurrency (having overlapping sexual relationships with men and women), the data suggest that this may have been common. These findings suggest that HIV prevention messages regarding male–male sex in South Africa should be mainstreamed with prevention messages for the general population, and sexual health interventions and HIV prevention interventions for South African men should explicitly address male-on-male sexual violence. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert

2013-01-01

168

Highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in a Taiwanese HIV-positive population.  

PubMed

There are reports of increased sexual risk behaviors in the HIV-positive population since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Little is known about the effects of the case management (CM) program and HAART on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Taiwan. HIV-positive subjects, who visited the outpatient clinics of Taoyuan General Hospital between 2007 and 2010, were enrolled. A total of 574 subjects and 14,462 person-months were reviewed. Incident STDs occurred in 104 (18.1%) subjects, and the incidence rate was 8.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.1-10.5) per 100 person-years (PY). For men who have sex with men (MSM), heterosexual men and women, and injection drug users (IDU), 19.4 per 100 PY(95% CI, 15.7-24.0), 3.5 per 100 PY (95% CI, 1.4-7.3), and 1.1 per 100 PY (95% CI, 0.4-2.4) of STDs were noted, respectively; (MSM versus IDU and MSM versus heterosexual subjects, p<0.000001; heterosexual subjects versus IDU, p=0.061). Syphilis (59.6%) was the most common STD. Regular CM and no HAART (hazard ratio, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.14-5.84; p=0.02) was significantly associated with STDs in MSM. Though this retrospective study might underestimate the incidence of STDs and not draw the conclusion of causality, we concluded that the CM program and HAART are associated with lower acquisition of STDs in the Taiwanese HIV-positive population. PMID:23442028

Cheng, Shu-Hsing; Yang, Chin-Hui; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

2013-03-01

169

Asymptomatic sexually transmitted disease prevalence in four military populations: application of DNA amplification assays for Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening.  

PubMed

The prevalence of asymptomatic chlamydial and gonococcal infections in male and female military populations was determined using urine-based ligase chain reaction DNA amplification assays (DAAs). Cross-sectional surveys in four military settings revealed an overall prevalence of asymptomatic chlamydial infection of 4.2% (56/1338). This included 3.4% (21/618) of Western Pacific shipboard US Marine Corps enlisted men; 5.2% (21/406) of male marines shore-based in Okinawa, Japan; 2.7% (5/183) of female enlisted US Navy subtender personnel in dry dock; and 6.9% (9/131) of shore-based female naval personnel in San Diego. No gonococcal infections were detected. All subjects were treated within 2 weeks of screening; none of them had progressed to symptomatic disease. General population-based screening for asymptomatic sexually transmitted diseases, and in particular chlamydial infection, can be successfully implemented using urine-based DAA tests. Benefits are maximized in a population in which compliance for follow-up therapy is high. PMID:9806061

Brodine, S K; Shafer, M A; Shaffer, R A; Boyer, C B; Putnam, S D; Wignall, F S; Thomas, R J; Bales, B; Schachter, J

1998-10-01

170

Populations and determinants of airborne fungi in large office buildings.  

PubMed Central

Bioaerosol concentrations in office environments and their roles in causing building-related symptoms have drawn much attention in recent years. Most bioaerosol studies have been cross-sectional. We conducted a longitudinal study to examine the characteristics of airborne fungal populations and correlations with other environmental parameters in office environments. We investigated four office buildings in Boston, Massachusetts, during 1 year beginning May 1997, recruiting 21 offices with open workstations. We conducted intensive bioaerosol sampling every 6 weeks resulting in 10 sets of measurement events at each workstation, and recorded relative humidity, temperature, and CO2 concentrations continuously. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to identify groups of culturable fungal taxa that covaried in air. Four major groupings (PCA factors) were derived where the fungal taxa in the same groupings shared similar ecological requirements. Total airborne fungal concentrations varied significantly by season (highest in summer, lowest in winter) and were positively correlated with relative humidity and negatively related to CO2 concentrations. The first and second PCA factors had similar correlations with environmental variables compared with total fungi. The results of this study provide essential information on the variability within airborne fungal populations in office environments over time. These data also provide background against which cross-sectional data can be compared to facilitate interpretation. More studies are needed to correlate airborne fungi and occupants' health, controlling for seasonal effects and other important environmental factors.

Chao, H Jasmine; Schwartz, Joel; Milton, Donald K; Burge, Harriet A

2002-01-01

171

Do pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits covary in large herbivores?  

PubMed Central

Background In most species, males compete to gain both matings (via pre-copulatory competition) and fertilizations (via post-copulatory competition) to maximize their reproductive success. However, the quantity of resources devoted to sexual traits is finite, and so males are predicted to balance their investment between pre- and post-copulatory expenditure depending on the expected pay-offs that should vary according to mating tactics. In Artiodactyla species, males can invest in weapons such as horns or antlers to increase their mating gains or in testes mass/sperm dimensions to increase their fertilization efficiency. Moreover, it has been suggested that in these species, males with territory defence mating tactic might preferentially increase their investment in post-copulatory traits to increase their fertilization efficiency whereas males with female defence mating tactic might increase their investment in pre-copulatory sexually selected traits to prevent other males from copulating with females. In this study, we thus test the prediction that male’s weapon length (pre-copulatory trait) covaries negatively with relative testes size and/or sperm dimensions (post-copulatory traits) across Artiodactyla using a phylogenetically controlled framework. Results Surprisingly no association between weapon length and testes mass is found but a negative association between weapon length and sperm length is evidenced. In addition, neither pre- nor post-copulatory traits were found to be affected by male mating tactics. Conclusions We propose several hypotheses that could explain why male ungulates may not balance their reproductive investment between pre- and post-copulatory traits.

2014-01-01

172

Collective Response of Human Populations to Large-Scale Emergencies  

PubMed Central

Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response.

Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

2011-01-01

173

Population structure and the evolution of sexual size dimorphism and sex ratios in an insular population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hypotheses in the chelonian literature suggest that in species with sexual size dimorphism, the smaller sex will mature at a smaller size and a younger age than the larger sex, sex ratios should be biased in favor of the earlier maturing sex, and deviations from a 1:1 sex ratio result from maturation of the smaller sex at a younger age. I tested these hypotheses using data collected from 1991 to 1995 on an insular (Egmont Key) population of Florida box turtles, Terrapene carolina bauri. Contrary to predictions, the earlier maturing sex (males) grew to larger sizes than the late maturing sex. Males were significantly larger than females in mean carapace length but not mean body mass. Sex ratios were not balanced, favoring the earlier maturing sex (1.6 males:1 female), but the sex-ratio imbalance did not result from faster maturation of the smaller sex. The imbalance in the sex ratio in Egmont Key's box turtles is not the result of sampling biases; it may result from nest placement. Size-class structure and sex ratios can provide valuable insights into the status and trends of populations of long-lived turtles.

Dodd, C. K. , Jr.

1997-01-01

174

Dynamics of airborne fungal populations in a large office building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing concern with bioaerosols in large office buildings prompted this prospective study of airborne fungal concentrations in a newly constructed building on the Gulf coast. We collected volumetric culture plate air samples on 14 occasions over the 18-month period immediately following building occupancy. On each sampling occasion, we collected duplicate samples from three sites on three floors of this six-story building, and an outdoor sample. Fungal concentrations indoors were consistently below those outdoors, and no sample clearly indicated fungal contamination in the building, although visible growth appeared in the ventilation system during the course of the study. We conclude that modern mechanically ventilated buildings prevent the intrusion of most of the outdoor fungal aerosol, and that even relatively extensive air sampling protocols may not sufficiently document the microbial status of buildings.

Burge, H. A.; Pierson, D. L.; Groves, T. O.; Strawn, K. F.; Mishra, S. K.

2000-01-01

175

Effects of genotoxicity and its consequences at the population level in sexual and asexual Artemia assessed by analysis of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR).  

PubMed

There is considerable evidence that genetic damage in organisms occurs in the environment as a result of exposure to genotoxins and ionising radiation, but we have limited understanding of the extent to which this results in adverse consequences at a population level. We used inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to quantify genotoxic effects of the mutagen ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) on a sexual (Artemia franciscana) and an asexual (Artemia parthenogenetica) species of brine shrimp. The method provides information similar to that obtained with assessment of RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) but is more robust. Genetic damage was transmitted to the F1 generation in both Artemia species, but the sexual species showed a greater degree of recovery, as shown by higher values of genomic template stability. There was a strong correlation between DNA damage and effects on individual fitness parameters: size, survival, reproduction and population growth. These effects persisted into the F2 generation in A. parthenogenetica, but in the sexual A. franciscana only effects on fecundity continued beyond the exposed generation, even though there were substantial alterations in ISSR patterns in the F1 generation. Genetic biomarkers can thus be indicative of effects at the population level, but sexually reproducing species have a considerable assimilative capacity for the effects of genotoxins. PMID:23872504

Sukumaran, Sandhya; Grant, Alastair

2013-09-18

176

Recruitment using mobile telephones in an Irish general population sexual health survey: challenges and practical solutions  

PubMed Central

Background Non-coverage of households without a landline telephone is a major concern of telephone survey researchers. Sampling mobile telephone users in national surveys is vital in order to gain access to the growing proportion of households that use mobile telephones extensively or exclusively. The complex logistics of conducting surveys with mobile telephones have been discussed in the literature. This paper outlines the actual challenges encountered during a recent national sexual health survey in Ireland, which utilized a mobile telephone sampling frame to recruit approximately half of the sample. Method The 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey (ICCP-2010) is a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18-45 years living in Ireland (n = 3002; 1416 recruited by landline telephone and 1586 recruited by mobile telephone). The overall response rate for the survey was 69% (79% for the landline telephone strand; 61% for the mobile telephone strand). All interviews were conducted using computer-assisting telephone interviewing. Results During the 18-week fieldwork period, five main challenges relating to the use of mobile telephones were encountered: (1) explaining to respondents how random digit dialling works in relation to mobile telephones; (2) establishing the respondent's eligibility; (3) calling the respondent with the Caller ID blocked or withheld; (4) calling the respondent when they are in any number of locations or situations; and (5) explaining to respondents the importance of refusal conversion calls for the response rate calculation. Details of how the survey protocols and procedures were monitored and adapted throughout the study to ensure a high response rate are outlined. Conclusion It is undeniably more challenging to recruit respondents using mobile telephones as opposed to landline telephones. Respondents are generally not familiar with being contacted on their personal mobile telephone for the purposes of being recruited for a research study. The main challenge for survey methodologists and interviewers is to devise simple protocols to explain to respondents why they are being contacted on a mobile telephone. Recommendations for survey researchers interested in using this methodological approach in the future are discussed.

2012-01-01

177

Sexual desire, erection, orgasm and ejaculatory functions and their importance to elderly Swedish men: a population-based study.  

PubMed

Relevant information for clinical decision-making in a wide spectrum of diseases includes the extent to which sexual function is intact, how important it is to preserve sexual capacity and whether waning sexual function causes distress. Little information is available on elderly men. We aimed to obtain this basic information. Radiumhemmet's Scale of Sexual Function was posted to 435 randomly selected men aged 50-80 years. Assessments included sexual desire, erectile capacity, orgasm and ejaculation and to what extent waning sexual function distressed the men. The questions were answered anonymously. Information was obtained from 319 men (73%). Of these, 83% stated that sex was 'very important', 'important' or a 'spice to life'. Physiological potency for men aged 50-59, 60-69 and 70-80 amounted to 97%, 76% and 51% respectively. Among the oldest men (70-80 years), 46% reported orgasm at least once a month. Over 80% of all men who reported some level of erection stated that it was of importance to them to maintain the present level of erection stiffness. Most men who reported waning sexual function (compared with their youth) stated that this distressed them. Sex is important to elderly men. Even among the 70-80-year-olds, an intact sexual desire, erection and orgasm are common and it is considered important to preserve them. Sexual function should be considered in the clinical assessment of elderly men. PMID:8831873

Helgason, A R; Adolfsson, J; Dickman, P; Arver, S; Fredrikson, M; Göthberg, M; Steineck, G

1996-07-01

178

Reliability of Standard Health Assessment Instruments in a Large, Population-Based Cohort Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Millennium Cohort Study began in 2001 using mail and Internet questionnaires to gather occupational and environmental exposure, behavioral risk factor, and health outcome data from a large, population-based US military cohort. Standardized instruments...

B. Smith I. G. Jacobson M. A. Ryan T. C. Smith T. E. Corbeil

2006-01-01

179

High genetic variation in leopards indicates large and long-term stable effective population size  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we employ recently developed statistical and molecular tools to analyse the population history of the Tanzanian leopard ( Panthera pardus ), a large solitary felid. Because of their solitary lifestyle little is known of their past or present population dynamics. Eighty-one individuals were scored at 18 microsatellite loci. Overall, levels of hetero- zygosity were high (0.77 ?

G. Spong; M. Johansson; M. Björklund

2000-01-01

180

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... Sexual Assault Share This Page: Sexual Assault Resources Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American ... National Network at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). Sexual Assault Examinations It is important to know that a ...

181

How populations differentiate despite gene flow: sexual and natural selection drive phenotypic divergence within a land fish, the Pacific leaping blenny  

PubMed Central

Background Divergence between populations in reproductively important features is often vital for speciation. Many studies attempt to identify the cause of population differentiation in phenotype through the study of a specific selection pressure. Holistic studies that consider the interaction of several contrasting forms of selection are more rare. Most studies also fail to consider the history of connectivity among populations and the potential for genetic drift or gene flow to facilitate or limit phenotypic divergence. We examined the interacting effects of natural selection, sexual selection and the history of connectivity on phenotypic differentiation among five populations of the Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum), a land fish endemic to the island of Guam. Results We found key differences among populations in two male ornaments—the size of a prominent head crest and conspicuousness of a coloured dorsal fin—that reflected a trade-off between the intensity of sexual selection (male biased sex ratios) and natural selection (exposure to predators). This differentiation in ornamentation has occurred despite evidence suggesting extensive gene flow among populations, which implies that the change in ornament expression has been recent (and potentially plastic). Conclusions Our study provides an early snapshot of divergence in reproductively important features that, regardless of whether it reflects genetic or plastic changes in phenotype, could ultimately form a reproductive barrier among populations.

2014-01-01

182

Genetic structure in large, continuous mammal populations: the example of brown bears in northwestern Eurasia.  

PubMed

Knowledge of population structure and genetic diversity and the spatio-temporal demographic processes affecting populations is crucial for effective wildlife preservation, yet these factors are still poorly understood for organisms with large continuous ranges. Available population genetic data reveal that widespread mammals have for the most part only been carefully studied at the local population scale, which is insufficient for understanding population processes at larger scales. Here, we provide data on population structure, genetic diversity and gene flow in a brown bear population inhabiting the large territory of northwestern Eurasia. Analysis of 17 microsatellite loci indicated significant population substructure, consisting of four genetic groups. While three genetic clusters were confined to small geographical areas-located in Estonia, southern Finland and Leningrad oblast, Russia-the fourth cluster spanned a very large area broadly falling between northern Finland and the Arkhangelsk and Kirov oblasts of Russia. Thus, the data indicate a complex pattern where a fraction of the population exhibits large-scale gene flow that is unparalleled by other wild mammals studied to date, while the remainder of the population appears to have been structured by a combination of demographic history and landscape barriers. These results based on nuclear data are generally in good agreement with evidence previously derived using mitochondrial markers, and taken together, these markers provide complementary information about female-specific and population-level processes. Moreover, this study conveys information about spatial processes occurring over multiple generations that cannot be readily gained using other approaches, e.g. telemetry. PMID:21044194

Tammeleht, E; Remm, J; Korsten, M; Davison, J; Tumanov, I; Saveljev, A; Männil, P; Kojola, I; Saarma, U

2010-12-01

183

Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction and its Associated Factors in Women Aged 40-65 Years with 11 Years or More of Formal Education: A Population-Based Household Survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its associated factors in middle-aged women with 11 years or more of formal education. METHODS A cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out using an anonymous, self-response questionnaire. A total of 315 Brazilian-born women, 40–65 years of age with 11 years or more of schooling, participated in the study. The instrument used in the evaluation was based on the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was calculated from the mean score of sexual responsiveness (pleasure in sexual activities, excitation and orgasm), frequency of sexual activities and libido. Sociodemographic and clinical factors were evaluated. Poisson multiple regression analysis was carried out and the prevalence ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. RESULTS The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 35.9% among our study population. Multiple regression analysis showed that sexual dysfunction was positively associated with older age (prevalence ratios=1.04; 95%CI:1.01–1.07) and with the presence of hot flashes (prevalence ratios=1.37; 95%CI:1.04–1.80). Having a sexual partner (PR=0.47; 95%CI:0.34–0.65) and feeling well or excellent (prevalence ratios= 0.68; 95%CI: 0.52–0.88) were factors associated with lower sexual dysfunction scores. CONCLUSIONS Sexual dysfunction was present in more than one-third of women that were 40–65 years of age with 11 years or more of formal education. Within that age group, older age and hot flashes were associated with higher sexual dysfunction scores, whereas feeling well and having a sexual partner were associated with better sexuality.

Valadares, Ana L. R.; Pinto-Neto, Aarao M.; Osis, Maria J.; Sousa, Maria H.; Costa-Paiva, Lucia; Conde, Delio M.

2008-01-01

184

Neurologic Factors in Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Sexual dysfunction affects both men and women, involving organic disorders, psychological problems, or both. Overall, the state of our knowledge is less advanced regarding female sexual physiology in comparison with male sexual function. Female sexual dysfunction has received little clinical and basic research attention and remains a largely untapped field in medicine. The epidemiology of female sexual dysfunction is poorly understood because relatively few studies have been done in community settings. In the United States, female sexual dysfunction has been estimated to affect 40% of women in the general population. Among the elderly, however, it has been reported that up to 87% of women complain of sexual dissatisfaction. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of female sexual arousal disorders correlates significantly with increasing age. These studies have shown that sexual arousal and frequency of coitus in the female decreases with increasing age. The pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction appears more complex than that of males, involving multidimensional hormonal, neurological, vascular, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. Organic female sexual disorders may include a wide variety of vascular, neural, or neurovascular factors that lead to problems with libido, lubrication, and orgasm. However, the precise etiology and mechanistic pathways of age-related female sexual arousal disorders are yet to be determined. In the past two decades, some advances have been made in exploring the basic hemodynamics and neuroregulation of female sexual function and dysfunction in both animal models and in human studies. In this review, we summarize neural regulation of sexual function and neurological causes of sexual dysfunction in women.

Siroky, Mike B.

2010-01-01

185

A Population-Based Study of Childhood Sexual Contact in China: Prevalence and Long-Term Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This study provides national estimates of the prevalence of childhood sexual contact and its association with sexual well-being and psychological distress among adults in China. Method: A national stratified probability sample of 1,519 women and 1,475 men aged 20-64 years in urban China completed a computer-administered survey in…

Luo, Ye; Parish, William L.; Laumann, Edward O.

2008-01-01

186

The Father's Role in Sexual Socialization of Adolescent Females in an Upper and Upper-Middle Class Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because fathers have been found to be minimally involved in the transmission of sex information to their daughters, the role of the father in sexual socialization has not been systematically investigated. Forty-eight sets of parents and their teenage daughters were interviewed concerning the transmission of sex information and intrafamily communication about sexual attitudes and values. While fathers are seldom involved

Eileen H. Hepburn

1981-01-01

187

Lifestyle and Risk of Premature Sexual Activity in a High School Population of Seventh-Day Adventists: Valuegenesis 1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated Adventist lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture which reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents and thus also reduces the risk for both STDs and teen pregnancy. Data analysis demonstrated a wide variety of behaviors were associated with premature sexual activity, including previously reported high-risk…

Weinbender, Miriam L. M.; Rossignol, Annette MacKay

1996-01-01

188

The Relationship between Child Sexual Abuse and Alexithymic Symptoms in a Population of Recovering Adult Substance Abusers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group of sexually abused substance abusers scored higher than non-abused group on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Alexithymia symptomatology was found to be positively related to the duration of the sexual abuse. Results were interpreted as indicating that the development of symptoms may represent another defense victims employ to insulate…

Scher, Dean; Twaite, James A.

1999-01-01

189

Diversity lost: are all Holarctic large mammal species just relict populations?  

PubMed Central

Population genetic analyses of Eurasian wolves published recently in BMC Evolutionary Biology suggest that a major genetic turnover took place in Eurasian wolves after the Pleistocene. These results add to the growing evidence that large mammal species surviving the late Pleistocene extinctions nevertheless lost a large share of their genetic diversity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/104

2010-01-01

190

Diversity lost: are all Holarctic large mammal species just relict populations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population genetic analyses of Eurasian wolves published recently in BMC Evolutionary Biology suggest that a major genetic turnover took place in Eurasian wolves after the Pleistocene. These results add to the growing evidence that large mammal species surviving the late Pleistocene extinctions nevertheless lost a large share of their genetic diversity. See research article http:\\/\\/www.biomedcentral.com\\/1471-2148\\/10\\/104

Michael Hofreiter; Ian Barnes

2010-01-01

191

Sexuality and breast cancer: prime time for young patients  

PubMed Central

Sexuality and sexual functioning is a cardinal domain of health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients, namely in the younger population. Young women below 40 years of age go through a time in their lives where sexual self-identity has recently matured, their professional obligations are demanding and they bear interpersonal and childbearing expectations, all of which can suffer a devastating turnaround with cancer diagnosis and its physical and psychological aftermath. Although these women’s sexuality and directed interventions have remained largely unaddressed so far, concepts are evolving and treatment options are becoming diversified, chiefly on the field of non-hormonal pharmacological therapy of sexual dysfunction. This review will examine the definitions of female sexual dysfunction, the etiology of the disorders in young breast cancer patients, the assessment methods, the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options and the challenges that lie ahead.

2013-01-01

192

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

193

Sexually transmitted disease risk assessment used among low-risk populations in east central Africa: a review.  

PubMed

In sub-Saharan Africa where sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are prevalent but health resources are scarce, algorithms that act as STD/HIV risk assessment (RA) tools for family planning (FP) and maternal/child health (MCH) clinic attenders may be useful. These RA algorithms generally comprise questions about a person's social, economic, demographic, behavioural and clinical background. The answers can be scored or scaled to indicate a higher probability of current STD/HIV infection and thus the need for testing or treatment. RA can be done alone, or can be combined with clinical examination where laboratory diagnosis is not feasible. But how accurate are RA tools? We reviewed six studies at African sites that examined the use of RA combined with a clinical algorithm for STD screening of clinic attendees. Researchers reported the standard measures of test accuracy: sensitivity (per cent of infected women found positive by the tool); specificity (per cent of uninfected women found negative by the tool), and positive predictive value (per cent of women found positive by the tool who are truly infected). Most algorithms had low sensitivity (< 50%) and low positive predictive value (< 20%). The addition of clinical examination, and of leucocyte esterase (LE) testing, improved accuracy. But algorithms that performed well in one site were less accurate at other sites. For illustrative purposes, we considered a hypothetical population of 1,000 women attending a FP clinic. With a prevalence of cervical gonorrhoea of five per cent, algorithm sensitivity of 40%, and algorithm specificity of 75%, the positive predictive value of the RA tool would be 7.7%. In other words, 20 (7.7%) women diagnosed as infected would actually have gonorrhoea, and 237 false positive women would be treated needlessly, with the attendant costs and risks. However, with a disease prevalence above 50%, as might prevail for vaginal infections, and the same sensitivity and specificity figures, the positive predictive value may reach 70-80%. Risk assessment appears to be a relatively easy way to integrate STD management into family planning and MCH practice. However, there is no evidence to show its effectiveness for screening low-risk populations. We urge improvement of these tools, including information on the behaviour of male partners, and addition of simple screening tests such as leucocyte esterase dipsticks. PMID:9557419

Welsh, M; Feldblum, P; Chen, S

1997-12-01

194

Seasonal components of avian population change: Joint analysis of two large-scale monitoring programs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a combined analysis of data from two large-scale surveys of bird populations. The North American Breeding Bird Survey is conducted each summer; the Christmas Bird Count is conducted in early winter. The temporal staggering of these surveys allows investigation of seasonal components of population change, which we illustrate with an examination of the effects of severe winters on the Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus). Our analysis uses a hierarchical log-linear model with controls for survey-specific sampling covariates. Temporal change in population size is modeled seasonally, with covariates for winter severity. Overall, the winter?spring seasons are associated with 82% of the total population variation for Carolina Wrens, and an additional day of snow cover during winter?spring is associated with an incremental decline of 1.1% of the population.

Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

2007-01-01

195

Problems of adolescents sexuality.  

PubMed Central

Recent discussions highlighted adolescents' sexual behaviour, but published studies concentrate on specific problems or subgroups of patients without addressing factors related to sexuality. To obtain a broad picture we studied two groups of adolescents attending genito-urinary medicine/sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in contrasting areas of Britain, inner London and Swansea. These were evaluated for referral pattern, sexual partner, contraception, obstetric history, sexually transmitted disease, and cervical cytology findings. Over half the adolescents referred themselves but few doctors other than general practitioners referred patients. Sexual partners were regarded by males as casual but by females as regular. Only 66% (81) of females practised contraception. Adolescents had more STD's than the total clinic population except for genital herpes simplex infection, and a high prevalence of genital warts in females has important future implications. The main conclusions were that there is a need for sexually related education targetted at adolescents and their health care providers, especially doctors.

Whatley, J; Thin, N; Reynolds, B; Blackwell, A

1989-01-01

196

Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins. (author) [Spanish] La colonia actualmente usada para controlar la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), en Mexico tiene mas de 10 anos en cria masiva. Los insectos esteriles son liberados en una gran variedad de condiciones ambientales como parte de un control integrado para suprimir diversas poblaciones de esta plaga dentro de la Republica Mexicana. El objetivo de este documento esta dirigido a revisar el desempeno de las moscas esteriles frente a poblaciones silvestres procedentes de diferentes ambientes y para esto se realizaron comparaciones de compatibilidad y competitividad sexual de las moscas esteriles contra poblaciones silvestres de seis estados representativos de la Republica Mexicana: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan y Chiapas. Los resultados obtenidos manifiestan diferencias en el horario de inicio de llamado y mayor actividad sexual del macho entre las moscas provenientes de cada estado. Sin embargo el indice de aislamiento (ISI) reflejo compatibilidad sexual entre la cepa de laboratorio y todas las poblaciones analizadas, indicando que los individuos esteriles pueden aparearse satisfactoriamente con las poblaciones silvestres de los seis estados. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento del macho (MRPI) reflejo de manera global que los machos esteriles son tan efectivos para copular como los silvestres. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento de la hembra (FRPI) reflejo que en la mayoria de los estados las hembras silvestres copularon en mayor proporcion que las hembras esteriles, excepto para las poblaciones de Tamaulipas y Chiapas. En general, la baja participacion de las hembras esteriles en el campo permitio al macho esteril ampliar su probabilidad de apareamiento con las hembras silvestres. En cuanto al indice de esterilidad relativa (RSI), observamos que la aceptacion de las hembras silvestres al macho esteril (25-55%) fue similar a la de los machos silvestres. Las hembras de la poblacion de Chiapas registro la menor aceptacion. Finalmente, los resultados obtenidos en la prueba de Fried, la cual determi

Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J. [Programa Moscamed Moscafrut-Desarrollo de Metodos, Central Poniente No. 14 altos-Esq. 2a Avenida Sur. CP 30700 Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

2007-03-15

197

Resolved Stellar Populations with MAD: Preparing for the Era of Extremely Large Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep images in J, H and Ks filters using the Multi-conjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator (MAD) on the VLT have been made of a region of the Large Magellanic Cloud near the globular cluster NGC 1928. Our aim was to assess if accurate photometry could be carried out down to faint limits over the whole MAD field of view. In addition we tested how accurate a basic analysis of the properties of the stellar population could be made using the near-infrared MAD photometry, compared to the Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry. This study has implications for understanding the issues involved in Extremely Large Telescope imaging of resolved stellar populations.

Fiorentino, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Diolaiti, E.; Valenti, E.; Cignoni, M.; Mackey, A. D.

2012-03-01

198

Teenage Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS

... Sexuality Ages & Stages Listen Teenage Sexuality Article Body Sex and sexuality During this time, many young people ... be ready to have sexual intercourse? Will having sex help my relationship? If I am attracted to ...

199

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. [1] Sexual Health News & Information HHS Statement on LGBT Health Awareness ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

200

Early sexual behaviour and Chlamydia trachomatis infection - a population based cross-sectional study on gender differences among adolescents in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years). Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%). Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0). Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4), ?2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3), and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7) increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42) decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0) increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6), and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8). Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. We suggest that accumulation of essentially different experiences in the early sexually active years contribute to gender disparities in chlamydia risk in individuals this age. Gender-specific approaches may be the best alternative to control chlamydia infection in age group 15–20 years.

2012-01-01

201

High genetic variation in leopards indicates large and long-term stable effective population size.  

PubMed

In this paper we employ recently developed statistical and molecular tools to analyse the population history of the Tanzanian leopard (Panthera pardus), a large solitary felid. Because of their solitary lifestyle little is known of their past or present population dynamics. Eighty-one individuals were scored at 18 microsatellite loci. Overall, levels of heterozygosity were high (0.77 +/- 0.03), with a small heterozygote deficiency (0.06 +/- 0.03). Effective population size (Ne) was calculated to be 38 000-48 000. A Ne:N ratio of 0.42 (average from four cat studies) gives a present population size of about 100 000 leopards in Tanzania. Four different bottleneck tests indicated that this population has been large and stable for a minimum of several thousand years. FST values were low and no significant genetic structuring of the population could be detected. This concurs well with the large migration values (Nm) obtained (>3.3 individuals/generation). Our analysis reveals that ecological factors (e.g. disease), which are known to have had major impact on other carnivore populations, are unlikely to have impacted strongly on the population dynamics of Tanzanian leopards. The explanation may be found in their solitary life-style, their often nonconfrontational behaviour toward interspecific competitors, or that any bottlenecks have been of limited size, localized, or too short to have affected genetic variation to any measurable degree. Since the genetic structuring is weak, gene flow is not restricted to within protected areas. Local loss of genetic variation is therefore not of immediate concern. PMID:11091313

Spong, G; Johansson, M; Björklund, M

2000-11-01

202

Sexual Fantasy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the research literature on sexual fantasy, a central aspect of human sexual behavior. Topics include (a) gender similarities and differences in the incidence, frequency, and content of sexual fantasies and how they relate to sociocultural and sociobiological theories of sexual behavior; (b) the association between frequency or content of sexual fantasies and variables such as age, sexual

Harold Leitenberg; Kris Henning

1995-01-01

203

Sexual size dimorphism in anurans.  

PubMed Central

Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the direction and extent of sexual size dimorphism in anurans (in which males are usually smaller than females) as a result of sexual selection. Here, we present an analysis to test the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism in anurans is largely a function of differences between the sexes in life-history strategies. Morphological and demographic data for anurans were collected from the literature, and the mean size and age in each sex were calculated for 51 populations, across 30 species and eight genera. Comparisons across 14 Rana species, eight Bufo species and across the genera showed a highly significant relationship between size dimorphism, measured using the female-male size ratio, and mean female-male age difference. A comparison of a subset of 17 of these species for which phylogenetic information was available, using the method of independent contrasts, yielded a similar result. These results indicate that most of the variation in size dimorphism in the anura can be explained in terms of differences in the age structure between the sexes in breeding populations. If sexual selection has an effect on size dimorphism in anurans, it is likely to be only a secondary one.

Monnet, Jean-Matthieu; Cherry, Michael I

2002-01-01

204

An efficient algorithm for the exact analysis of multiclass queueing networks with large population sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an e-cient algorithm for the exact analysis of closed multiclass product-form queueing network models with large population sizes. We adopt a novel approach, based on linear systems of equations, which signiflcantly re- duces the cost of computing normalizing constants. With the proposed algorithm, the analysis of a model with N circulating jobs of multiple classes requires essentially the

Giuliano Casale

2006-01-01

205

Microscopic nature of 0{sup +} states populated in large abundance in deformed nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The low-lying excited 0{sup +} states populated in large abundance in several deformed nuclei through two-nucleon transfer reaction experiments are thoroughly investigated within a microscopic multiphonon framework. The approach reproduces satisfactorily the experimental data and provides exhaustive information about the nature of those states.

Lo Iudice, N. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Monte S Angelo, Via Cintia I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Sushkov, A. V.; Shirikov, N. Yu. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

2008-05-12

206

Poor mental health and sexual risk behaviours in Uganda: A cross-sectional population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Poor mental health predicts sexual risk behaviours in high-income countries, but little is known about this association in low-income settings in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is prevalent. This study investigated whether depression, psychological distress and alcohol use are associated with sexual risk behaviours in young Ugandan adults. Method Household sampling was performed in two Ugandan districts, with 646 men and women aged 18-30 years recruited. Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 was used to assess the presence of depression and psychological distress. Alcohol use was assessed using a question about self-reported heavy-episodic drinking. Information on sexual risk behaviour was obtained concerning number of lifetime sexual partners, ongoing concurrent sexual relationships and condom use. Results Depression was associated with a greater number of lifetime partners and with having concurrent partners among women. Psychological distress was associated with a greater number of lifetime partners in both men and women and was marginally associated (p = 0.05) with having concurrent partners among women. Psychological distress was associated with inconsistent condom use among men. Alcohol use was associated with a greater number of lifetime partners and with having concurrent partners in both men and women, with particularly strong associations for both outcome measures found among women. Conclusion Poor mental health is associated with sexual risk behaviours in a low-income sub-Saharan African setting. HIV preventive interventions should consider including mental health and alcohol use reduction components into their intervention packages, in settings where depression, psychological distress and alcohol use are common.

2011-01-01

207

Sexual dimorphism in a dioecious population of the wind-pollinated herb Mercurialis annua: the interactive effects of resource availability and competition  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Male-biased sex allocation commonly occurs in wind-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, and is often positively associated with size, notably in terms of height. Currently, it is not well established whether a corresponding pattern holds for dioecious plants: do males of wind-pollinated species exhibit greater reproductive allocation than females? Here, sexual dimorphism is investigated in terms of life history trade-offs in a dioecious population of the wind-pollinated ruderal herb Mercurialis annua. Methods The allocation strategies of males and females grown under different soil nutrient availability and competitive (i.e. no, male or female competitor) regimes were compared. Key Results Male reproductive allocation increased disproportionately with biomass, and was greater than that of females when grown in rich soils. Sexual morphs differentially adjusted their reproductive allocation in response to local environmental conditions. In particular, males reduced their reproductive allocation in poor soils, whereas females increased theirs, especially when competing with another female rather than growing alone. Finally, males displayed smaller above-ground vegetative sizes than females, but neither nutrient availability nor competition had a strong independent effect on relative size disparities between the sexes. Conclusions Selection appears to favour plasticity in reproductive allocation in dioecious M. annua, thereby maintaining a relatively constant size hierarchy between sexual morphs. In common with other dioecious species, there seems to be little divergence in the niches occupied by males and females of M. annua.

Hesse, Elze; Pannell, John R.

2011-01-01

208

Sexual Abuse Histories of Youth in Child Welfare Residential Treatment Centers: Analysis of the Odyssey Project Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multi-site examination of sexual abuse histories of youth in residential treatment centers asked, for the sample as a whole and by youth's gender: (a) How many perpetrators did each youth have? (b) What was the gender of the perpetrator? (c) What proportion of youth was abused by family members? (d) What proportion of youth was abused in a…

Baker, Amy J. L.; Curtis, Patrick A.; Papa-Lentini, Cynthia

2006-01-01

209

Childhood sexual abuse, adolescent sexual coercion and sexually transmitted infection acquisition among homeless female adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relationship between childhood experiences of sexual abuse, sexual coercion during adolescence, and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a population of homeless adolescents.Method: Homeless adolescent females (N = 216) from a northwestern United States city were recruited by street outreach workers for a longitudinal study of STI epidemiology. Baseline data on childhood abuse and

John Noell; Paul Rohde; John Seeley; Linda Ochs

2001-01-01

210

fastSTRUCTURE: Variational Inference of Population Structure in Large SNP Data Sets  

PubMed Central

Tools for estimating population structure from genetic data are now used in a wide variety of applications in population genetics. However, inferring population structure in large modern data sets imposes severe computational challenges. Here, we develop efficient algorithms for approximate inference of the model underlying the STRUCTURE program using a variational Bayesian framework. Variational methods pose the problem of computing relevant posterior distributions as an optimization problem, allowing us to build on recent advances in optimization theory to develop fast inference tools. In addition, we propose useful heuristic scores to identify the number of populations represented in a data set and a new hierarchical prior to detect weak population structure in the data. We test the variational algorithms on simulated data and illustrate using genotype data from the CEPH–Human Genome Diversity Panel. The variational algorithms are almost two orders of magnitude faster than STRUCTURE and achieve accuracies comparable to those of ADMIXTURE. Furthermore, our results show that the heuristic scores for choosing model complexity provide a reasonable range of values for the number of populations represented in the data, with minimal bias toward detecting structure when it is very weak. Our algorithm, fastSTRUCTURE, is freely available online at http://pritchardlab.stanford.edu/structure.html.

Raj, Anil; Stephens, Matthew; Pritchard, Jonathan K.

2014-01-01

211

Sexual health and stigma in urban newspaper coverage of methamphetamine.  

PubMed

The epidemic use of methamphetamine in the United States is a growing public health problem. Recently its use has increased among gay men who live in urban areas, with accompanying increases in sexually transmitted diseases. This study examined how methamphetamine and sexual health are framed. It investigated the stigma associated with heterosexuals and gay men. Stories from 13 urban newspapers in cities with large populations of gay men published from 2000 to 2006 were analyzed. Results indicated that methamphetamine and sexual health were framed primarily as an individual, present problem. Stories framed methamphetamine as a health problem slightly more often than as a crime problem, but health was the dominant frame in stories mentioning gay men. Crime was the dominant frame in stories with heterosexuals. Articles tied gay men to sexual health issues. Findings indicate gay men and heterosexuals are stigmatized in news coverage of sexual issues and methamphetamine but in different ways. PMID:19477770

Schwartz, Joseph; Andsager, Julie L

2008-03-01

212

Correction of Population Stratification in Large MultiEthnic Association Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe vast majority of genetic risk factors for complex diseases have, taken individually, a small effect on the end phenotype. Population-based association studies therefore need very large sample sizes to detect significant differences between affected and non-affected individuals. Including thousands of affected individuals in a study requires recruitment in numerous centers, possibly from different geographic regions. Unfortunately such a recruitment

David Serre; Alexandre Montpetit; Guillaume Paré; James C. Engert; Salim Yusuf; Bernard Keavney; Thomas J. Hudson; Sonia Anand

2008-01-01

213

After breast cancer: sexual functioning of sexual minority survivors.  

PubMed

Research on sexual difficulties after cancer has neglected sexual minority women (SMW); for example, lesbian and bisexual women. Clinicians treating these women are therefore at a disadvantage as they lack information about sexual problems in this population. This study tested the hypothesis that SMW with breast cancer have poorer sexual function than SMW without breast cancer, distinguishing partnered from unpartnered women. Using convenience sample recruitment, we conducted a case-control study to compare survivors of breast cancers who are SMW, in other words, cases to controls, that is, SMW without cancer. Anonymous survey data were collected from 85 cases after they had completed active cancer treatment and 85 age- and partner-status matched controls with no history of any cancer. Participants' self-reported sexual frequency and sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index were evaluated. Cases and controls did not differ in risk of sexual dysfunction or the level of overall sexual functioning; however, cases had lower sexual frequency and scored lower on desire and ability to reach orgasm, and higher on pain compared to controls. Results inform clinicians about sexual minority survivors' sexual domains affected by cancer. When discussing sexual problems and therapeutic options, sexual orientation should be ascertained. PMID:23730713

Boehmer, Ulrike; Ozonoff, Al; Timm, Alison; Winter, Michael; Potter, Jennifer

2014-01-01

214

Correction of Population Stratification in Large Multi-Ethnic Association Studies  

PubMed Central

Background The vast majority of genetic risk factors for complex diseases have, taken individually, a small effect on the end phenotype. Population-based association studies therefore need very large sample sizes to detect significant differences between affected and non-affected individuals. Including thousands of affected individuals in a study requires recruitment in numerous centers, possibly from different geographic regions. Unfortunately such a recruitment strategy is likely to complicate the study design and to generate concerns regarding population stratification. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 9,751 individuals representing three main ethnic groups - Europeans, Arabs and South Asians - that had been enrolled from 154 centers involving 52 countries for a global case/control study of acute myocardial infarction. All individuals were genotyped at 103 candidate genes using 1,536 SNPs selected with a tagging strategy that captures most of the genetic diversity in different populations. We show that relying solely on self-reported ethnicity is not sufficient to exclude population stratification and we present additional methods to identify and correct for stratification. Conclusions/Significance Our results highlight the importance of carefully addressing population stratification and of carefully “cleaning” the sample prior to analyses to obtain stronger signals of association and to avoid spurious results.

Serre, David; Montpetit, Alexandre; Pare, Guillaume; Engert, James C.; Yusuf, Salim; Keavney, Bernard; Hudson, Thomas J.; Anand, Sonia

2008-01-01

215

Montane refugia predict population genetic structure in the Large-blotched Ensatina salamander.  

PubMed

Understanding the biotic consequences of Pleistocene range shifts and fragmentation remains a fundamental goal in historical biogeography and evolutionary biology. Here, we combine species distribution models (SDM) from the present and two late Quaternary time periods with multilocus genetic data (mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites) to evaluate the effect of climate-induced habitat shifts on population genetic structure in the Large-blotched Ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii klauberi), a plethodontid salamander endemic to middle and high-elevation conifer forest in the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges of southern California and northern Baja California. A composite SDM representing the range through time predicts two disjunct refugia, one in southern California encompassing the core of the species range and the other in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir of northern Baja California at the southern limit of the species range. Based on our spatial model, we would expect a pattern of high connectivity among populations within the northern refugium and, conversely, a pattern of isolation due to long-term persistence of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir population. Our genetic results are consistent with these predictions based on the hypothetical refugia in that (i) historical measures of population connectivity among stable areas are correlated with gene flow estimates; and (ii) there is strong geographical structure between separate refugia. These results provide evidence for the role of recent climatic change in shaping patterns of population persistence and connectivity within the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges, an evolutionary hotspot. PMID:23379992

Devitt, Thomas J; Devitt, Susan E Cameron; Hollingsworth, Bradford D; McGuire, Jimmy A; Moritz, Craig

2013-03-01

216

The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Sexuality and Sexual Practices in North American Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Introduction There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed. Aims To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations. Methods An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008. Main Outcome Measures All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]). Results There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF < 26) was more common in homosexual men relative to heterosexual men (24% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). High risk for female sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55) was more common in heterosexual and bisexual women compared with lesbians (51%, 45%, and 29%, respectively, P = 0.005). Conclusion In this survey of highly educated young professionals, numerous similarities and some important differences in sexuality and sexual function were noted based on sexual orientation. It is unclear whether the dissimilarities represent differing relative prevalence of sexual problems or discrepancies in patterns of sex behavior and interpretation of the survey questions.

Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Ando, Kathryn A.; Rowen, Tami S.; Shindel, Alan W.

2013-01-01

217

Evidence of pheromonal constancy among sexual and asexual females in a population of fall cankerworm,Alsophila pometaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  

PubMed

The compounds (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene (I), (Z,Z,Z,E)-(II), and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene (III) have been implicated as components of the female sex pheromone of the fall cankerworm. Chromatographie determination of the proportions of these compounds in individual females of sympatric asexual and sexual reproductive forms of the species, with concurrent analysis of the electrophoretic profiles of the same females, showed that the I: II: III proportion of compounds was constant across electrophoretically differing asexual genotypes and between these and the sexual form. Life-history characters, in contrast, typically show great variation among these genetic groups. The results indicate that pheromonal constancy is maintained in a reproductive system that is theoretically vulnerable to selective pressures that would lead to heterogeneity in the species' pheromonal communication channel. PMID:24302391

Mitter, C; Klun, J A

1987-08-01

218

Behavioral treatment approaches for methamphetamine dependence and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among urban gay and bisexual men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Methamphetamine-dependent gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at high risk for HIV transmission, largely due to drug-associated sexual risk behaviors. This project evaluated the efficacy of four behavioral drug abuse treatments for reducing methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors among this population.

Steven Shoptaw; Cathy J. Reback; James A. Peck; Xiaowei Yang; Erin Rotheram-Fuller; Sherry Larkins; Rosemary C. Veniegas; Thomas E. Freese; Christopher Hucks-Ortiz

2005-01-01

219

The impact of child, family and child protective services factors on reports of child sexual abuse recurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child maltreatment is a phenomenon that has a long history in the United States (Pogge, 1992). Patterns of child sexual abuse are a common subject of research, although little has been documented regarding the incidence and risk factors for recurrence in large populations. Gaining knowledge of the risk factors correlated with child sexual abuse recurrence can affect and improve the

Allison Nadia Sinanan

2008-01-01

220

Normative data for the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC-sexuality items in the general Dutch population  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThe aim of the present study was to generate Dutch reference data for the EORTC QLQ-C30 and for five sexuality items from the EORTC QL-item bank. Furthermore, to evaluate the relative impact of self-reported health problems on these outcomes and compare the Dutch normative EORTC QLQ-C30 overall QoL with available Scandinavian and German normative data.

Lonneke V. van de Poll-Franse; Floortje Mols; Chad M. Gundy; Carien L. Creutzberg; Remi A. Nout; Irma M. Verdonck-de Leeuw; Martin J. Taphoorn; Neil K. Aaronson

2011-01-01

221

Temporal changes in the reproductive population structures and males’ secondary sexual character of the hermit crab Diogenes nitidimanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the reproductive ecology of D. nitidimanus in the Waka-River estuary with special reference to temporal change in the relative size of chelae length for males, i.e.,\\u000a secondary sexual character. Ovigerous females were observed from April to October, peaking in June–July with over 90% of females\\u000a being ovigerous. Adult female carapace size ranged from 3.5 to 8.5 mm, but with

Tsunenori Koga; Kenji Yoshino; Yuri Fukuda

2010-01-01

222

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF En Español Guys' Version C ollege Health: Sexual Health Knowing About My Health Eating Disorders First Aid Supplies Alcohol and Drugs Health Services Sexual Health How to Stay Healthy Sexual Assault/Rape Common ...

223

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

224

Patterns of Variation at Ustilago maydis Virulence Clusters 2A and 19A Largely Reflect the Demographic History of Its Populations  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of an intimate interaction between plant-biotrophic fungi and their hosts over evolutionary times involves strong selection and adaptative evolution of virulence-related genes. The highly specialised maize pathogen Ustilago maydis is assigned with a high evolutionary capability to overcome host resistances due to its high rates of sexual recombination, large population sizes and long distance dispersal. Unlike most studied fungus-plant interactions, the U. maydis – Zea mays pathosystem lacks a typical gene-for-gene interaction. It exerts a large set of secreted fungal virulence factors that are mostly organised in gene clusters. Their contribution to virulence has been experimentally demonstrated but their genetic diversity within U. maydis remains poorly understood. Here, we report on the intraspecific diversity of 34 potential virulence factor genes of U. maydis. We analysed their sequence polymorphisms in 17 isolates of U. maydis from Europe, North and Latin America. We focused on gene cluster 2A, associated with virulence attenuation, cluster 19A that is crucial for virulence, and the cluster-independent effector gene pep1. Although higher compared to four house-keeping genes, the overall levels of intraspecific genetic variation of virulence clusters 2A and 19A, and pep1 are remarkably low and commensurate to the levels of 14 studied non-virulence genes. In addition, each gene is present in all studied isolates and synteny in cluster 2A is conserved. Furthermore, 7 out of 34 virulence genes contain either no polymorphisms or only synonymous substitutions among all isolates. However, genetic variation of clusters 2A and 19A each resolve the large scale population structure of U. maydis indicating subpopulations with decreased gene flow. Hence, the genetic diversity of these virulence-related genes largely reflect the demographic history of U. maydis populations.

Kellner, Ronny; Hanschke, Christian; Begerow, Dominik

2014-01-01

225

Sexual Assault of Adult Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area were examined. Twenty-nine men, ranging in age from 18 to 65, who were victims of sexual assaults or attempted sexual assaults, were seen over a 16-month period. Information extracted from the unit database included client demographics and personal history, assault

LANA STERMAC; PETER M. SHERIDAN; ALISON DAVIDSON; SHEILA DUNN

1996-01-01

226

Sexual behaviour after antiretroviral therapy initiation in female sex workers and HIV-positive patients from the general population, Cotonou, Benin.  

PubMed

From September 2008 to December 2011, we enrolled and followed-up 247 HIV-negative, 88 untreated and 32 treated HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs), as well as 238 untreated and 115 treated HIV-positive patients from the general population (GP) of Cotonou, Benin. We wanted to assess the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on sexual risk-taking in FSWs and patients from the GP. We used multivariate log binomial regression models for repeated measures to compare risky behaviours reported during pre-ART and post-ART visits and we performed linear time-trend analyses to assess changes in condom use in all five groups. At 58.8% of pre-ART and 45.3% of post-ART visits (adjusted p-value=0.293), treated FSWs have reported ?16 clients during the last week of work. Inconsistent condom use with clients over the same period decreased by more than 50% (from 20.7 to 10.0%, adjusted p-value=0.082). In treated patients from the GP, inconsistent condom use with regular partners during the last four months was reported at 52.8% of pre-ART and 53.5% of post-ART visits (p=0.778). Reported casual sex was stable (36.8% versus 38.7%, adjusted p-value=0.924). In linear time-trend analyses, there was a significant downward trend in inconsistent condom use at the early stage of the study and stability thereafter in all HIV-negative and HIV-positive FSWs. There was no negative alteration in sexual behaviour following ART initiation either inpatients from the GP or in FSWs. The results underscore the key role of concomitant sexual risk-reduction strategies. PMID:23438011

Diabaté, Souleymane; Chamberland, Annie; Zannou, Djimon M; Geraldo, Nassirou; Azon-Kouanou, Angèle; Massinga-Loembé, Marguérite; Ahomadégbé, Christelle; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Tremblay, Cécile; Alary, Michel

2013-01-01

227

Dynamical quorum sensing and synchronization in large populations of chemical oscillators.  

PubMed

Populations of certain unicellular organisms, such as suspensions of yeast in nutrient solutions, undergo transitions to coordinated activity with increasing cell density. The collective behavior is believed to arise through communication by chemical signaling via the extracellular solution. We studied large, heterogeneous populations of discrete chemical oscillators (approximately 100,000) with well-defined kinetics to characterize two different types of density-dependent transitions to synchronized oscillatory behavior. For different chemical exchange rates between the oscillators and the surrounding solution, increasing oscillator density led to (i) the gradual synchronization of oscillatory activity, or (ii) the sudden "switching on" of synchronized oscillatory activity. We analyze the roles of oscillator density and exchange rate of signaling species in these transitions with a mathematical model of the interacting chemical oscillators. PMID:19179525

Taylor, Annette F; Tinsley, Mark R; Wang, Fang; Huang, Zhaoyang; Showalter, Kenneth

2009-01-30

228

Quantitative analysis of crypt cell population during postnatal development of the olfactory organ of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae), from birth to sexual maturity.  

PubMed

Crypt cells are one of three types of olfactory sensory neuron, differing from ciliated and microvillar cells in shape, localization and number, and found only in fish. Although crypt cells are morphologically well characterized, their function remains unclear. They were hypothesized to be involved in reproductive behaviours by detecting sex pheromones, but electrophysiological investigations revealed sensitivity to only amino acids. However, the number of crypt cells in adult guppies is not the same in the two sexes. In this study, we compared the size of the crypt cell population in juvenile guppies during the first 90 days after birth. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether a correlation exists between sex and the number of these olfactory neurons. The data show that guppies reach adult crypt cell density when they become sexually mature. Despite a constant increment in volume during development of the olfactory organ, the minimum density of crypt neurons occurs at ~45 days. Moreover, in the early weeks, the density of crypt neurons is greater in males than in females because in females the total number of cells decreases significantly after just 7 days. In adults, however, crypt neurons are found in higher density in females than in males. These findings suggest that the number of crypt cells is sex specific, with independent developmental dynamics between males and females. A role in pheromone detection could explain such a difference, but the early appearance of crypt cells in the first days of life is suggestive of other, not sexually related, functions. PMID:22786649

Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Franceschini, Valeria

2012-08-01

229

A Connectionist Modeling Approach to Rapid Analysis of Emergent Social Cognition Properties in Large-Populations  

SciTech Connect

Traditional modeling methodologies, such as those based on rule-based agent modeling, are exhibiting limitations in application to rich behavioral scenarios, especially when applied to large population aggregates. Here, we propose a new modeling methodology based on a well-known "connectionist approach," and articulate its pertinence in new applications of interest. This methodology is designed to address challenges such as speed of model development, model customization, model reuse across disparate geographic/cultural regions, and rapid and incremental updates to models over time.

Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL; Schryver, Jack C [ORNL

2009-01-01

230

Validation of Screening Questions for Limited Health Literacy in a Large VA Outpatient Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Previous studies have shown that a single question may identify individuals with inadequate health literacy. We evaluated\\u000a and compared the performance of 3 health literacy screening questions for detecting patients with inadequate or marginal health\\u000a literacy in a large VA population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted in-person interviews among a random sample of patients from 4 VA medical centers that included 3 health

Lisa D. Chew; Joan M. Griffin; Melissa R. Partin; Siamak Noorbaloochi; Joseph P. Grill; Annamay Snyder; Katharine A. Bradley; Sean M. Nugent; Alisha D. Baines; Michelle VanRyn

2008-01-01

231

Parents' Supportive Reactions to Sexual Orientation Disclosure Associated With Better Health: Results From a Population-Based Survey of LGB Adults in Massachusetts  

PubMed Central

This study investigated associations between coming out to parents, experiences of parental support, and self-reported health behaviors and conditions among a population-based sample of LGB individuals using data collected via the 2002 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (N=177). We explored the following two hypotheses: (1) LGB individuals who had never disclosed their sexual orientation to a parent would report higher levels of risk behaviors and poorer health conditions than those who had come out; and (2) among LGB respondents who had come out to their parents, the individuals whose parents had reacted unsupportively would report higher levels of risk behaviors and poorer health conditions than those who had come out to parents who were supportive. Approximately two-thirds of GB males and LB females reported receiving adequate social and emotional support from the parent to whom they first disclosed their sexual orientation. Among LB females, no disclosure of sexual orientation to a parent was associated with significantly elevated levels of past month illict drug use (AOR 12.16, 95% CI 2.87–51.54), fair or poor self-reported health status (AOR 5.71, 95% CI 1.45–22.51), and >15 days of depression in the past month (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 1.78–19.90), controlling for potential confounders. However, non-disclosure to a parent by GB males was not associated with greater odds of any of the health indicators assessed. Among GB males, those with unsupportive parents were significantly more likely to report current binge drinking (AOR 6.94, 95% CI 1.70–28.35) and >15 days depression in the past month (AOR 6.08, 95% CI 1.15–32.15), and among LB females, those with unsupportive parents were significantly more likely to report lifetime illicit drug use (AOR 11.43, 95% CI 2.50–52.30), and >15 days depression in the past month (AOR 5.51, 95% CI 1.36–22.36). We conclude that coming out may be associated with better health for LB women, and that parents who react non-supportively when their children disclose LGB sexual orientation may contribute to children’s increased odds of depression and hazardous substance use.

Rothman, Emily F.; Sullivan, Mairead; Keyes, Susan; Boehmer, Ulrike

2012-01-01

232

Hepatitis B testing and vaccination among adults with sexually transmitted infections in a large managed care organization.  

PubMed

Data on viral hepatitis B (HBV) testing and vaccination in primary care settings among persons at sexual risk for HBV infection have been sparse. We examined rates and factors associated with HBV serologic testing and vaccination rates in adults infected with sexually transmitted infections. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults diagnosed with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis in Kaiser Permanente Southern California in 2008-2011. The vaccine series initiation was examined in subjects who were tested susceptible. The 90-day hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing rate was 28.1% in 15 357 adults. Testing rates increased through the study period. Only 8.8% of patients received both HBsAg and hepatitis B surface antibody tests to determine prior exposure and susceptibility to HBV. Among those who were tested susceptible, 116 (10.6%) subjects initiated the vaccine series. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the odds of receiving testing was inversely associated with female sex, black race, other/unknown race, or having prespecified chronic comorbidities. In survival analysis, adults aged 25-34 years and ?55 years were more likely to initiate hepatitis B vaccine series compared with those aged 18-24 years. There are missed opportunities in HBV testing and vaccination in primary care. Implementation of provider decision-making support tools in the electronic medical record system may potentially improve hepatitis B testing and vaccination rates. PMID:24571863

Hechter, Rulin C; Jacobsen, Steven J; Luo, Yi; Nomura, Jim H; Towner, William J; Tartof, Sara Y; Tseng, Hung Fu

2014-06-15

233

Large and variable genome size unrelated to serpentine adaptation but supportive of cryptic sexuality in Cenococcum geophilum.  

PubMed

Estimations of genome size and its variation can provide valuable information regarding the genetic diversity of organisms and their adaptation potential to heterogeneous environments. We used flow cytometry to characterize the variation in genome size among 40 isolates of Cenococcum geophilum, an ectomycorrhizal fungus with a wide ecological and geographical distribution, obtained from two serpentine and two non-serpentine sites in Portugal. Besides determining the genome size and its intraspecies variation, we wanted to assess whether a relationship exists between genome size and the edaphic background of the C. geophilum isolates. Our results reveal C. geophilum to have one of the largest genome sizes so far measured in the Ascomycota, with a mean haploid genome size estimate of 0.208 pg (203 Mbp). However, no relationship was found between genome size and the edaphic background of the sampled isolates, indicating genetic and demographic processes to be more important for shaping the genome size variation in this species than environmental selection. The detection of variation in ploidy level among our isolates, including a single individual with both presumed haploid and diploid nuclei, provides supportive evidence for a possible cryptic sexual or parasexual cycle in C. geophilum (although other mechanisms may have caused this variation). The existence of such a cycle would have wide significance, explaining the high levels of genetic diversity and likelihood of recombination previously reported in this species, and adds to the increasing number of studies suggesting sexual cycles in previously assumed asexual fungi. PMID:23754539

Bourne, Elizabeth C; Mina, Diogo; Gonçalves, Susana C; Loureiro, João; Freitas, Helena; Muller, Ludo A H

2014-01-01

234

Validation of Blood-Based Assays Using Dried Blood Spots for Use in Large Population Studies  

PubMed Central

Assessment of health in large population studies has increasingly incorporated measures of blood-based biomarkers based on the use of dried blood spots (DBS). The validity of DBS assessments made by labs used by large studies is addressed by comparing assay values from DBS collected using conditions similar to those used in the field with values from whole blood samples. The DBS approach generates values that are strongly related to whole blood levels of HbA1c, cystatin C, and C-reactive protein. Assessing lipid levels reliably with DBS appears to be a greater challenge. However, even when DBS values and values from venous blood are highly correlated, they are often on a different scale, and using conventional cutoffs may be misleading.

CRIMMINS, EILEEN; KIM, JUNG KI; McCREATH, HEATHER; FAUL, JESSICA; WEIR, DAVID; SEEMAN, TERESA

2014-01-01

235

Sexual Harassment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper sets out the legal grounds for sexual harassment claims in education settings, and notes a number of pertinent cases that are illustrative of common legal and factual issues. Sexual harassment, including sexual abuse, is prohibited by federal and state statutes. Sexual harassment in the context of employment constitutes employment…

Uerling, Donald F.

236

Phylogeography of competing sexual and parthenogenetic forms of a freshwater flatworm: patterns and explanations  

PubMed Central

Background Models of the maintenance of sex predict that one reproductive strategy, sexual or parthenogenetic, should outcompete the other. Distribution patterns may reflect the outcome of this competition as well as the effect of chance and historical events. We review the distribution data of sexual and parthenogenetic biotypes of the planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Results S. polychroa lives in allopatry or sympatry across Europe except for Central and North-Western Europe, where sexual individuals have never been reported. A phylogenetic relationship between 36 populations based on a 385 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that haplotypes were often similar over large geographic distances. In North Italian lakes, however, diversity was extreme, with sequence differences of up to 5% within the same lake in both sexuals and parthenogens. Mixed populations showed "endemic" parthenogenetic lineages that presumably originated from coexisting sexuals, and distantly related ones that probably result from colonization by parthenogens independent from sexuals. Conclusions Parthenogens originated repeatedly from sexuals, mainly in Italy, but the same may apply to other Mediterranean regions (Spain, Greece). The degree of divergence between populations suggests that S. polychroa survived the ice ages in separate ice-free areas in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe and re-colonised Europe after the retreat of the major glaciers. Combining these results with those based on nuclear markers, the data suggest that repeated hybridisation between sexuals and parthenogenetic lineages in mixed populations maintains high levels of genetic diversity in parthenogens. This can explain why parthenogens persist in populations that were originally sexual. Exclusive parthenogenesis in central and western populations suggests better colonisation capacity, possibly because of inbreeding costs as well as hybridisation of sexuals with parthenogens.

Pongratz, Norbert; Storhas, Martin; Carranza, Salvador; Michiels, Nicolaas K

2003-01-01

237

Sexual Harassment, Sexual Coercion, and HIV Risk Among U.S. Adults 18-49 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual harassment and sexual coercion have received considerable public attention. However, the extent of these problems nationally and the breadth of their health consequences are not fully understood. We estimated the national prevalence of sexual harassment and sexual coercion, and examined their relationship to HIV risk in the general U.S. population. Data came from a 1992 telephone survey of a

Kyung-Hee Choi; Diane Binson; Melissa Adelson; Joseph A. Catania

1998-01-01

238

Covert Cultural Sexual Abuse of Gay Male Teenagers Contributing to Etiology of Sexual Addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gay male teenagers are at high risk for the development of sexual addiction. There exists a regular assault on the sexuality of gay males. This covert cultural sexual abuse suffered by these gay ado- lescents predisposes them to reenact this trauma through sexual acting out. The trauma model is useful in conceptualizing how to treat this population and address the

JOE KORT

2004-01-01

239

Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from the Large Aral Sea: Abundance, distribution, population structure and cyst production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica appeared in the Large Aral Sea (Central Asia) in 1998 when mineralization reached 63 ppt. Data on Artemia abundance and biomass, along with temperature and salinity measurements were collected in the western basin during 2002-2006, primarily in the autumn. During the study period, population density grew progressively, both in terms of number, from 250 to 1260 individuals per m 3, and in terms of biomass, from 0.3 to 1.3 g per m 3. In 2005, the population density and spatial distribution in the different parts of the sea (western and eastern basins and strait) was assessed. The horizontal distribution of the Artemia population was uniform in the deep central part of the western basin, although the distribution was quite patchy in the shallow coastal zone. Depth habitat of Artemia was restricted to the upper 20-25 m of depth, as the oxygen depletion and formation of anoxic layer prevented distribution of Artemia to the deeper waters. In autumn, all females reproduced oviparously, with an average clutch size of 30-35 eggs per female. The number of eggs in a clutch was positively correlated with female body length ( r2 = 0.36-0.44).

Arashkevich, Elena G.; Sapozhnikov, P. V.; Soloviov, K. A.; Kudyshkin, T. V.; Zavialov, P. O.

2009-03-01

240

Population dynamics of Phytophthora infestans in the Netherlands reveals expansion and spread of dominant clonal lineages and virulence in sexual offspring.  

PubMed

For a comprehensive survey of the structure and dynamics of the Dutch Phytophthora infestans population, 652 P. infestans isolates were collected from commercial potato fields in the Netherlands during the 10-year period 2000-2009. Genotyping was performed using 12 highly informative microsatellite markers and mitochondrial haplotypes. In addition, for each isolate, the mating type was determined. STRUCTURE analysis grouped the 322 identified genotypes in three clusters. Cluster 1 consists of a single clonal lineage NL-001, known as "Blue_13"; all isolates in this cluster have the A2 mating type and the Ia mitochondrial haplotype. Clusters 2 and 3 display a more elaborate substructure containing many unique genotypes. In Cluster 3, several distinct clonal lineages were also identified. This survey witnesses that the Dutch population underwent dramatic changes in the 10 years under study. The most notable change was the emergence and spread of A2 mating type strain NL-001 (or "Blue_13"). The results emphasize the importance of the sexual cycle in generating genetic diversity and the importance of the asexual cycle as the propagation and dispersal mechanism for successful genotypes. Isolates were also screened for absence of the Avrblb1/ipiO class I gene, which is indicative for virulence on Rpi-blb1. This is also the first report of Rpi-blb1 breakers in the Netherlands. Superimposing the virulence screening on the SSR genetic backbone indicates that lack the Avrblb1/ipiO class I gene only occurred in sexual progeny. So far, the asexual spread of the virulent isolates identified has been limited. PMID:23275876

Li, Y; van der Lee, T A J; Evenhuis, A; van den Bosch, G B M; van Bekkum, P J; Förch, M G; van Gent-Pelzer, M P E; van Raaij, H M G; Jacobsen, E; Huang, S W; Govers, F; Vleeshouwers, V G A A; Kessel, G J T

2012-12-01

241

The LMXB Population of the Nearest Large Elliptical Galaxy: Implications on the Distance to Maffei 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a member of the Maffei 1 group of galaxies that also includes Maffei 2 and IC342, Maffei 1 is the nearest normal large elliptical galaxy. Its distance, however, is the subject of debate with estimates ranging from 2.9-4.1 Mpc, with much of the confusion stemming from the large absorbing column density toward this low Galactic latitude galaxy. We have used Chandra to study the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) population of Maffei 1, which is only minimally affected by the large absorption as compared to optical and near-infrared wavelengths. Assuming a smaller distance for Maffei I leads to a dearth of LMXBs with luminosities in the 2-5 x 1038 ergs/s range as would be expected from a large elliptical galaxy. We discuss how the luminosity function of the LMXBs can lead to constraints on the distance to Maffei I. The nearness of Maffei 1 also allows us to probe the faint end of the LMXB luminosity function to depths comparable to other much longer observed elliptical galaxies with only a modest 55 ksec observation.

Rockwell, Ann Kathryn; Irwin, J. A.

2012-01-01

242

Evolution and human sexuality.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100

Gray, Peter B

2013-12-01

243

Sexuality and Down Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » Resources » Wellness » Sexuality » Sexuality & Down Syndrome Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual's self-esteem, ... problems related to sexual function. Do Individuals with Down Syndrome Have Sexual Feelings? In the past, sexuality ...

244

Characterization of mitochondrial haplogroups in a large population-based sample from the United States.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are valuable for investigations in forensic science, molecular anthropology, and human genetics. In this study, we developed a custom panel of 61 mtDNA markers for high-throughput classification of European, African, and Native American/Asian mitochondrial haplogroup lineages. Using these mtDNA markers, we constructed a mitochondrial haplogroup classification tree and classified 18,832 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date characterizing mitochondrial haplogroups in a population-based sample from the United States, and the first study characterizing mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in self-identified Mexican Americans separately from Hispanic Americans of other descent. We observed clear differences in the distribution of maternal genetic ancestry consistent with proposed admixture models for these subpopulations, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity of the United States Hispanic population. The mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in the other self-identified racial/ethnic groups within NHANES were largely comparable to previous studies. Mitochondrial haplogroup classification was highly concordant with self-identified race/ethnicity (SIRE) in non-Hispanic whites (94.8 %), but was considerably lower in admixed populations including non-Hispanic blacks (88.3 %), Mexican Americans (81.8 %), and other Hispanics (61.6 %), suggesting SIRE does not accurately reflect maternal genetic ancestry, particularly in populations with greater proportions of admixture. Thus, it is important to consider inconsistencies between SIRE and genetic ancestry when performing genetic association studies. The mitochondrial haplogroup data that we have generated, coupled with the epidemiologic variables in NHANES, is a valuable resource for future studies investigating the contribution of mtDNA variation to human health and disease. PMID:24488180

Mitchell, Sabrina L; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Murdock, Deborah G; Crawford, Dana C

2014-07-01

245

Sexual activity of Polish adults.  

PubMed

Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15-49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company - TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI) interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15), and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction). Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage) promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation. PMID:24738523

Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Izdebski, Zbigniew

2014-03-31

246

The Relationship between Parental Opinion of School-Based Sex Education, Parent-Child Communication about Sexuality, and Parenting Styles in a Diverse Urban Community College Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred and ninety-one parents attending an urban, community college were surveyed about what topics schools should teach their children about sexuality education, and how they communicate with their child about sexuality topics. The quantitative data was collected using a "School Sexuality Education Questionnaire" (SSEQ), and the "Parenting…

Heller, Janet

2009-01-01

247

Determinants of cluster size in large, population-based molecular epidemiology study of tuberculosis, northern Malawi.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis patients with identical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are described as clustered. Cluster size may depend on patient or strain characteristics. In a 7-year population-based study of tuberculosis in Karonga District, Malawi, clusters were defined by using IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism, excluding patterns with <5 bands. Spoligotyping was used to compare strains with an international database. Among 682 clustered patients, cluster size ranged from 2 to 37. Male patients, young adults, and town residents were over-represented in large clusters. Cluster size was not associated with HIV status or death from tuberculosis. Spoligotypes from 9 (90%) of 10 large cluster strains were identical or very similar (1 spacer different) to common spoligotypes found elsewhere, compared with 37 (66%) of 56 of those from nonclustered patients (p = 0.3). Large clusters were associated with factors likely to be related to social mixing, but spoligotypes of common strains in this setting were also common types elsewhere, consistent with strain differences in transmissibility. PMID:18598626

Glynn, Judith R; Crampin, Amelia C; Traore, Hamidou; Chaguluka, Steve; Mwafulirwa, Donex T; Alghamdi, Saad; Ngwira, Bagrey M M; Yates, Malcolm D; Drobniewski, Francis D; Fine, Paul E M

2008-07-01

248

Five novel mutations and two large deletions in a population analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene.  

PubMed

Mutational spectrum of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency was investigated in 107 families (90% of the Slovene PKU population). The entire coding region of the PAH gene was analyzed with dHPLC to select the samples where subsequently the automated sequencing analysis was performed. MLPA analysis was performed to identify large deletions, which were later confirmed with long-range PCR. Correlations with patients' phenotypes and genotype-based predictions of BH(4)-responsiveness were assessed. Altogether, disease-causing mutations were identified on 209 alleles (detection rate 97.7%). A spectrum of 36 different disease-causing mutations was identified: 20 missense mutations (80% of the alleles), eight splicing mutations (13% of the alleles), one nonsense mutation (0.5% of the alleles), four small deletions with frame shift (6% of the alleles), one small insertion with frame shift (0.5% of the alleles), and two large deletions (2% of the alleles). The most frequent mutation was p.R408W in exon 12, representing 29% of the alleles, which is in concordance with other neighboring and/or Slavic PKU populations. Other common mutations were: p.R158Q, p.A403V, p.P281L and p.E390G, accounting for 9%, 7%, 7% and 7% of the alleles respectively. Five novel mutations were detected: c.43_44insAG, c.56_59+1delACAGG, p.V45A, p.L62P and p.R157S. Large deletion of exon 5 (EX5del955) was found in three patients and a deletion of exon 3 (EX3del4765) in one patient. A spectrum of 64 different genotypes was found, seven of them accounting for over than a third of all families. Among thirteen families with homozygous mutation (13% of the PKU population), 10 had p.R408W, two had p.R158Q and one had p.E390G. Among 107 families, 58 were classified as classic PKU (54.2%), 28 as mild PKU (25.9%) and 21 as MHP (19.6%). Twenty-six different genotypes (40.6%) were predicted to be BH(4)-responsive, represented by 38 different families (35.5%). PMID:22513348

Groselj, Urh; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Kovac, Jernej; Hovnik, Tinka; Podkrajsek, Katarina Trebusak; Battelino, Tadej

2012-06-01

249

A Washington Photometric Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud Field Star Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present photometry for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud main body, from 21 fields covering a total area of 7.6 deg2, obtained from Washington CT 1 T 2 CTIO 4 m MOSAIC data. Extensive artificial star tests over the whole mosaic image data set and the observed behavior of the photometric errors with magnitude demonstrate the accuracy of the morphology and clearly delineate the position of the main features in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The representative T 1(MS TO) mags are on average ~0.5 mag brighter than the T 1 mags for the 100% completeness level of the respective field, allowing us to derive an accurate age estimate. We have analyzed the CMD Hess diagrams and used the peaks in star counts at the main sequence turnoff and red clump (RC) locations to age date the most dominant sub-population (or "representative" population) in the stellar population mix. The metallicity of this representative population is estimated from the locus of the most populous red giant branch track. We use these results to derive age and metallicity estimates for all of our fields. The analyzed fields span age and metallicity ranges covering most of the galaxy's lifetime and chemical enrichment, i.e., ages and metallicities between ~1 and 13 Gyr and ~-0.2 and -1.2 dex, respectively. We show that the dispersions associated with the mean ages and metallicities represent in general a satisfactory estimate of the age/metallicity spread (~1-3 Gyr/0.2-0.3 dex), although a few subfields have a slightly larger age/metallicity spread. Finally, we revisit the study of the vertical structure (VS) phenomenon, a striking feature composed of stars that extend from the bottom, bluest end of the RC to ~0.45 mag fainter. We confirm that the VS phenomenon is not clearly seen in most of the studied fields and suggest that its occurrence is linked to some other condition(s) in addition to the appropriate age, metallicity, and the necessary red giant star density.

Piatti, Andrés E.; Geisler, Doug; Mateluna, Renee

2012-10-01

250

Atrial fibrillation in a multiethnic inpatient population of a large public hospital.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been well-studied in minority and underserved populations. We report a one-year inpatient experience of AF among 80,021 total ECG records in a multiethnic population of a large public hospital. METHODS: ECG parameters, demographic data, discharge diagnoses, and discharge status were compiled for the first 1,999 hospitalizations associated with AF among 80,021 total ECG records and compared among the population subgroups. RESULTS: Of 3,935 records of patients with AF, 737 matched first hospitalizations. Mean age was 62.3 years; 56% were male. Hispanics comprised 59.2%, Caucasians 16.4%, Asians 11.1%, African Americans 10.3%; unclassified 3%; 30.6% were uninsured. Compared to Caucasians, Left ventricular hypertrophy was more common in African-American [9.9% vs. 21.1%, odds ratio (OR)=2.3] and Asians (9.9% vs. 15.3%, OR=2.76). At discharge, Caucasians more frequently had coronary artery disease, compared to Hispanics (26.4% vs. 17.7%, OR=0.62), African Americans (26.4% vs. 10.5%, OR=0.36), and Asians (26.4% vs. 8.5%, OR=0.25); cardiomyopathy was less common in Caucasians as compared to African Americans (2.5% vs. 10.5%, OR=4.2), Hispanics (2.5% vs. 3.9%, OR=1.5) and Asians (2.5% vs. 4.9%, OR=1.96). Mortality was 16%; nonsurvivors compared to survivors were older, 64.9 years vs. 61.8 years, p<0.05, more frequently had myocardial infarction (20.4% vs. 6.2%, p=0.000) and stroke (16.5% vs. 5.0%, p=0.000). CONCLUSIONS: This AF population, particularly African Americans, was younger than previously reported. ECG and discharge parameters had differential frequencies among race/ethnic subgroups. Nonsurvivors were older and more commonly had myocardial infarction and stroke. Further study is warranted of AF occurrence, management, and outcomes in lower-socioeconomic, multiethnic populations. Images Figure 2

Dang, David; Patel, Rajan; Haywood, L. Julian

2004-01-01

251

A WASHINGTON PHOTOMETRIC SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELD STAR POPULATION  

SciTech Connect

We present photometry for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud main body, from 21 fields covering a total area of 7.6 deg{sup 2}, obtained from Washington CT{sub 1} T{sub 2} CTIO 4 m MOSAIC data. Extensive artificial star tests over the whole mosaic image data set and the observed behavior of the photometric errors with magnitude demonstrate the accuracy of the morphology and clearly delineate the position of the main features in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The representative T{sub 1}(MS TO) mags are on average {approx}0.5 mag brighter than the T{sub 1} mags for the 100% completeness level of the respective field, allowing us to derive an accurate age estimate. We have analyzed the CMD Hess diagrams and used the peaks in star counts at the main sequence turnoff and red clump (RC) locations to age date the most dominant sub-population (or 'representative' population) in the stellar population mix. The metallicity of this representative population is estimated from the locus of the most populous red giant branch track. We use these results to derive age and metallicity estimates for all of our fields. The analyzed fields span age and metallicity ranges covering most of the galaxy's lifetime and chemical enrichment, i.e., ages and metallicities between {approx}1 and 13 Gyr and {approx}-0.2 and -1.2 dex, respectively. We show that the dispersions associated with the mean ages and metallicities represent in general a satisfactory estimate of the age/metallicity spread ({approx}1-3 Gyr/0.2-0.3 dex), although a few subfields have a slightly larger age/metallicity spread. Finally, we revisit the study of the vertical structure (VS) phenomenon, a striking feature composed of stars that extend from the bottom, bluest end of the RC to {approx}0.45 mag fainter. We confirm that the VS phenomenon is not clearly seen in most of the studied fields and suggest that its occurrence is linked to some other condition(s) in addition to the appropriate age, metallicity, and the necessary red giant star density.

Piatti, Andres E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Geisler, Doug; Mateluna, Renee, E-mail: andres@iafe.uba.ar [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

2012-10-01

252

Incidence of chronic bronchitis: a prospective study in a large general population.  

PubMed

Setting A county in western Sweden. Objective To prospectively investigate the incidence rate of chronic bronchitis (CB) in relation to smoking, age, sex, atopy and asthma in a large sample of the general population. Design Subjects from a county in western Sweden born between 1943 and 1973, who had participated in our previous study in 1993, were mailed a new questionnaire in 2003. Altogether 11?463 (72%) answered the questionnaire, which comprised items about smoking, atopy, respiratory symptoms and age at onset of CB symptoms. CB was defined as chronic productive cough for at least 3 months per year for 2 consecutive years. Results There were 98 new cases of CB during 1993-2003 in the study population aged 30-60 years at follow-up. The incidence rate was 0.9/1000 person-years (py); there was no significant difference between women and men or different age groups. However, CB incidence was higher in women in relation to smoking (incidence rate ratio 3.6, 95%CI 1.9-7.3) and in those with ever asthma (hazard ratio 5.6, 95%CI 3.5-9.0). Conclusion This prospective general population-based study shows an incidence rate of CB of 0.9/1000 py. Smoking and asthma were both associated with an increased risk of CB. PMID:24902568

Holm, M; Torén, K; Andersson, E

2014-07-01

253

Bride price and sexual risk taking in Uganda.  

PubMed

This study assessed the relationship of bride price to sexual risk taking based on a large, population-based survey. Data were collected on bride prices for 592 married women in 12 districts in Uganda in 2001. Controlling for covariates, we found that having had a bride price significantly lowered the wife's odds of sexual intercourse with a partner other than the spouse (OR= 0.222; 95% CI= 0.067, 0.737). Controlling for covariates, bride price increased the husband's odds of non-spousal sexual intercourse (OR=1.489; 95% CI= 0.746, 2.972), although this finding is not statistically significant. Bride price payment is statistically significantly associated with lower rates of non-spousal sexual contact in women, but is not statistically significantly associated with higher rates in men. PMID:20687272

Bishai, David; Falb, Kathryn L; Pariyo, George; Hindin, Michelle J

2009-03-01

254

Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported symptoms in a large, population-based military cohort  

PubMed Central

Background US military engagements have consistently raised concern over the array of health outcomes experienced by service members postdeployment. Exploratory factor analysis has been used in studies of 1991 Gulf War-related illnesses, and may increase understanding of symptoms and health outcomes associated with current military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The objective of this study was to use exploratory factor analysis to describe the correlations among numerous physical and psychological symptoms in terms of a smaller number of unobserved variables or factors. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study collects extensive self-reported health data from a large, population-based military cohort, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the interrelationships of numerous physical and psychological symptoms among US military personnel. This study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a large, population-based military cohort. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the covariance structure of symptoms reported by approximately 50,000 cohort members during 2004-2006. Analyses incorporated 89 symptoms, including responses to several validated instruments embedded in the questionnaire. Techniques accommodated the categorical and sometimes incomplete nature of the survey data. Results A 14-factor model accounted for 60 percent of the total variance in symptoms data and included factors related to several physical, psychological, and behavioral constructs. A notable finding was that many factors appeared to load in accordance with symptom co-location within the survey instrument, highlighting the difficulty in disassociating the effects of question content, location, and response format on factor structure. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential strengths and weaknesses of exploratory factor analysis to heighten understanding of the complex associations among symptoms. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship between factor analytic results and survey structure, as well as to assess the relationship between factor scores and key exposure variables.

2010-01-01

255

Sexuality, rights and personhood: tensions in a transnational world  

PubMed Central

Background This article discusses what happens when normative ‘global’ discourses of rights and individuated sexual identity confront the messiness of ‘local’ realities. It considers the tensions that emerge when the relationship between sexual and social identities is not obvious and the implications of such tensions for public health and sexual rights activism. These questions are addressed through debates over the naming of male-to-male sexualities and desires in the context of globalization and the growth of a large NGO (non-governmental organization) sector in urban Bangladesh. Methods The material in the paper draws on a research project undertaken in 2008-9 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A fundamental objective was to produce a contextualized understanding of sexuality in Dhaka city. Methods used included structured interviews, focus group discussions and informal conversations with a range of participants (students, factory workers, public health professionals and sexual minorities). The aim was to generate a conceptual and analytical framework around sexuality and rights rather than to undertake an empirical survey of any one population. Results As descriptors, globalized identity categories such as Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), used by public health providers, the state and donors; and gay/lesbian, invoked by human rights activists and transnational NGOs, are too narrow to capture the fluid and highly context-specific ways in which gender and sexually nonconforming persons understand themselves in Bangladesh. Further, class position mediates to a significant degree the reception, appropriation or rejection of transnational categories such as MSM and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT). The tension is reflected in the sometimes fraught relations between service providers to MSM, the people they serve and an emerging group who identify as LGBT. Conclusion A simple politics of recognition will be inadequate to the task of promoting health and human rights for all; such a strategy would effectively exclude individuals who do not necessarily connect their sexual practices with a specific sexual or social identity.

2011-01-01

256

A POPULATION OF ACCRETED SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of the stellar kinematics of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on {approx}5900 new and existing velocities of massive red supergiants, oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and other giants. After correcting the line-of-sight velocities for the LMC's space motion and accounting for asymmetric drift in the AGB population, we derive a rotation curve that is consistent with all of the tracers used, as well as that of published H I data. The amplitude of the rotation curve is v{sub 0} = 87 {+-} 5 km s{sup -1} beyond a radius R{sub 0} = 2.4 {+-} 0.1 kpc and has a position angle of the kinematic line of nodes of {theta} = 142 deg. {+-} 5 deg. By examining the outliers from our fits, we identify a population of 376 stars, or {approx}>5% of our sample, that have line-of-sight velocities that apparently oppose the sense of rotation of the LMC disk. We find that these kinematically distinct stars are either counter-rotating in a plane closely aligned with the LMC disk, or rotating in the same sense as the LMC disk, but in a plane that is inclined by 54 deg. {+-} 2 deg. to the LMC. Their kinematics clearly link them to two known H I arms, which have previously been interpreted as being pulled out from the LMC. We measure metallicities from the Ca triplet lines of {approx}1000 LMC field stars and 30 stars in the kinematically distinct population. For the LMC field, we find a median [Fe/H] = -0.56 {+-} 0.02 with dispersion of 0.5 dex, while for the kinematically distinct stars the median [Fe/H] is -1.25 {+-} 0.13 with a dispersion of 0.7 dex. The metallicity differences provide strong evidence that the kinematically distinct population originated in the Small Magellanic Cloud. This interpretation has the consequence that the H I arms kinematically associated with the stars are likely falling into the LMC, instead of being pulled out.

Olsen, Knut A. G.; Blum, Robert D. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D., E-mail: kolsen@noao.edu, E-mail: rblum@noao.edu, E-mail: dzaritsky@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: mboyer@stsci.edu, E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-08-10

257

Prevalence of Circumcision and its Association With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections in a Male US Navy Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives: To determine circumcision prevalence and its association with HIV and STI in a male United States military population. Design: Case-control study of HIV-infected U.S. military personnel (n = 232) from 7 military medical centers and male U.S. N...

A. G. Thomas L. N. Bakhireva R. A. Shaffer S. K. Brodine

2004-01-01

258

Prior History of Physical and Sexual Abuse Among the Psychiatric Inpatient Population: A Comparison of Males and Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite increasing attention given to the high prevalence and effects of abuse in the severely mentally ill, few studies have looked at its effects among males. While both male and female psychiatric patients report greater abuse history than the general population, studies have focused on females alone. The current study compared the effects of abuse history between 271 severely mentally

Andrew V. Shack; Patricia M. Averill; Charles Kopecky; Kenneth Krajewski; Pushpa Gummattira

2004-01-01

259

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Reaction Quiz: Baseball Injuries Learn the facts about sexual health with articles about puberty, menstruation, infections, and just ...

260

Human SexualityHow Do Men and Women Differ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of scientific research documents four important gender differences in sexuality. First, on a wide variety of measures, men show greater sexual desire than do women. Second, compared with men, women place greater emphasis on committed relationships as a context for sexuality. Third, aggression is more strongly linked to sexuality for men than for women. Fourth, women's sexuality

Letitia Anne Peplau

2003-01-01

261

Awareness of osteoporosis and its relationship with calcaneus quantitative ultrasound in a large Chinese community population  

PubMed Central

Background The People’s Republic of China has the largest population affected by osteoporosis in the world. However, no population-based survey of osteoporosis awareness in People’s Republic of China has been reported. This study investigated the level of basic awareness of osteoporosis in a large community in People’s Republic of China. The relationship between level of awareness and quantitative ultrasound (US) measurements at the calcaneus was also assessed. Methods A questionnaire was completed by 9983 men and women aged 40 years or older in Nanjing, People’s Republic of China, between June and December 2011. During this time, the study participants underwent quantitative US measurement. Data from 9049 of the subjects were included in the final analysis. Results The proportion of subjects who were aware of osteoporosis was very low. Only 30.7% had heard of osteoporosis, and only 18.5% had heard of osteoporotic fracture. In total, 52.9% of the subjects drank milk, 16.0% took calcium, 7.1% took vitamin D, and 47.2% were performing regular physical activity. Logistic regression showed that more highly educated older women had significantly better awareness of osteoporosis (P < 0.05). Subjects with a history of a previous osteoporotic fracture also had better awareness (P < 0.05) than subjects without such a history, except for those who drank milk. Similar to previous reports, female sex, old age, a low education level, and a personal history of osteoporotic fracture were significantly associated with a low quantitative US measurement (P < 0.001). Further, drinking milk and having not heard of osteoporosis were significantly associated with a higher quantitative US measurement (P < 0.05), while other indicators of osteoporosis awareness were not associated with quantitative US values (P > 0.05). Conclusion Awareness of osteoporosis in People’s Republic of China is very low. National awareness strategies should be implemented, especially for poorly educated young men.

Xu, Jingjing; Sun, Min; Wang, Zhixiao; Fu, Qi; Cao, Mengdei; Zhu, Zhenxin; Meng, Chuchen; Yan, Yan; Mao, Jia; Tao, Hua; Huang, Xiaoping; Lin, Zheng; Yang, Tao; He, Wei

2013-01-01

262

Large Bottleneck Size in Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Populations during Host Plant Colonization  

PubMed Central

The effective size of populations (Ne) determines whether selection or genetic drift is the predominant force shaping their genetic structure and evolution. Despite their high mutation rate and rapid evolution, this parameter is poorly documented experimentally in viruses, particularly plant viruses. All available studies, however, have demonstrated the existence of huge within-host demographic fluctuations, drastically reducing Ne upon systemic invasion of different organs and tissues. Notably, extreme bottlenecks have been detected at the stage of systemic leaf colonization in all plant viral species investigated so far, sustaining the general idea that some unknown obstacle(s) imposes a barrier on the development of all plant viruses. This idea has important implications, as it appoints genetic drift as a constant major force in plant virus evolution. By co-inoculating several genetic variants of Cauliflower mosaic virus into a large number of replicate host plants, and by monitoring their relative frequency within the viral population over the course of the host systemic infection, only minute stochastic variations were detected. This allowed the estimation of the CaMV Ne during colonization of successive leaves at several hundreds of viral genomes, a value about 100-fold higher than that reported for any other plant virus investigated so far, and indicated the very limited role played by genetic drift during plant systemic infection by this virus. These results suggest that the barriers that generate bottlenecks in some plant virus species might well not exist, or can be surmounted by other viruses, implying that severe bottlenecks during host colonization do not necessarily apply to all plant-infecting viruses.

Monsion, Baptiste; Froissart, Remy; Michalakis, Yannis; Blanc, Stephane

2008-01-01

263

The Precipitating Cloud Population of the MJO and its Relation to Large-Scale Atmospheric Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TRMM Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) data is composited by phase of the Wheeler and Hendon index during fourteen boreal winters (October-February 1998-2011) to investigate the variability of the precipitating cloud population as the MJO initiates in the central Indian Ocean and propagates into the Western Pacific. Warm-rain clouds, represented by isolated, shallow echoes (ISE) in the TRMM PR 2A23 product, are always present but more numerous in the suppressed stage. To analyze the 3D characteristics of deeper convection, we define and analyze the tallest and widest echoes. Deep convective cores (DC) are 30 dBZ echoes exceeding 8 km in altitude, and wide convective cores (WC) are 30 dBZ echoes contiguous over at least 800 km2. Broad stratiform regions (BS) are stratiform echoes contiguous over at least 50,000 km2. These echo entities are not mutually exclusive, are often associated with mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), and are analyzed over the central Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. The variability in the precipitating cloud population with phase has a similar magnitude across both geographic regions, i.e. in both initiating and propagating phases of the MJO. In terms of areal coverage, BS echo dominates the variability, being much greater in the active phase of the MJO and minimal in the suppressed phases. This result implies that large mesoscale organized convective systems appear primarily in the active phase. However, in terms of the number of convective elements, WCs and DCs are the most variable extreme echo features. Comparison of observations over the central Indian Ocean and western Pacific shows that the precipitating cloud population differs during the initiation and propagation stage. The most active MJO stage in the central Indian Ocean is characterized by echo features of all sizes and stages of development; while the active stage in the western Pacific is dominated first by BS echoes and then by WC echoes. ERA-interim data depict the variability in the large-scale relative humidity, circulation, and shear fields associated with the different categories of deep convection and illustrates that a systematic relationships exists over both oceans despite the variability of the large-scale flow being much smaller in the Western Pacific. The lower troposphere is consistently moist through all phases in both oceanic regions; however, ISEs are more numerous when the mid-troposphere is dry and the low-level (1000 - 750 hPa) shear is strong. BS echoes are at a maximum when the mid-troposphere is moist, with a strong upper-level (750 - 200 hPa) shear. However, if the upper-level shear is too strong the stratiform region becomes disconnected from the convective regions and BS echo coverage declines significantly. Strong low-level shear and a moist mid-troposphere favor WCs and DCs over both oceans. Strong low-level shear favors extreme convective cores since enhanced downward momentum transport by downdrafts causes stronger surface convergence and more robust convective triggering. In each geographic region, mid-tropospheric moisture rapidly increases one phase prior to significant increases in DC, WC, and BS echoes, maximizes as the extreme echo features maximize, and remains elevated until BS and WC echoes begin to decline.

Barnes, H. C.; Houze, R.; Brodzik, S. R.

2012-12-01

264

Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying  

MedlinePLUS

... bullying. Forcing someone to do sexual things is sexual assault or rape, and it's a crime. Back Continue Flirting or ... Spreading Rumors About Me. What Can I Do? Rape Cyberbullying Stress & Coping Center School Counselors How Can ...

265

Superoxide Dismutase 3 Polymorphism Associated with Reduced Lung Function in Two Large Populations  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) 3 inhibits oxidative fragmentation of lung matrix components collagen I, hyaluronan, and heparan sulfate. Inherited change in SOD3 expression or function could affect lung matrix homeostasis and influence pulmonary function. Objectives: To identify novel SOD3 polymorphisms that are associated with lung function or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Resequencing of 182 individuals identified two novel polymorphisms, E1 (rs8192287) and I1 (rs8192288), in a conserved region of the SOD3 gene of potential relationship to lung function. We next genotyped 9,093 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study for the polymorphisms and recorded spirometry, and admissions and deaths due to COPD during 26-year follow-up. Finally, we validated our findings in a cross-sectional analysis of 35,635 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study. Measurements and Main Results: Genotyping the Copenhagen City Heart Study identified 35 E1/I1 homozygotes, 1,050 heterozygotes, and 8,008 noncarriers (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: P = 0.93). Using quadruple lung function measurements, we found that E1/I1 homozygotes had 7% lower FVC % predicted (P = 0.006) and 4% lower FEV1 % predicted (P = 0.12) compared with noncarriers. In the Copenhagen General Population Study, E1/I1 homozygotes also had lower FVC % predicted than noncarriers (P = 0.03), confirming an association between E1/I1 genotype and reduced lung function. E1/I1 homozygotes had adjusted hazard ratios for COPD hospitalization and COPD mortality of 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0–5.9) and 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.9–15), respectively; the results were independent of influence from the R213G allele of the SOD3 gene. Conclusions: We identified two novel polymorphisms in a conserved region of the SOD3 gene and show that individuals that are homozygous for these polymorphisms have reduced FVC % predicted in two large, population-based studies.

Dahl, Morten; Bowler, Russell P.; Juul, Klaus; Crapo, James D.; Levy, Samuel; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.

2008-01-01

266

Sexual dimorphism in Southeast Asian crania: A geometric morphometric approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a number of studies stating that sexual dimorphism is population specific, sexual differences in Southeast Asian populations have received little attention. Previous studies in this region have focused on samples from Thailand or East Asian populations from China and Japan, examining sexual dimorphism predominantly of the postcranial bones, teeth and mandible with comparatively few cranial studies. These earlier studies

Hayley Green; Darren Curnoe

2009-01-01

267

Sexual sadism in sexual offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review considers the various conceptual and operational definitions of sexual sadism as this has been diagnosed among sexual offenders. The most persistent problem this review identified concerns the criteria of the fusion of sexual arousal with one or more of the various features of the offenders' actions or of the victims' responses. Not only do the definitions of

W. L Marshall; Pamela Kennedy

2003-01-01

268

Genetics of single-cell protein abundance variation in large yeast populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variation among individuals arises in part from differences in DNA sequences, but the genetic basis for variation in most traits, including common diseases, remains only partly understood. Many DNA variants influence phenotypes by altering the expression level of one or several genes. The effects of such variants can be detected as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). Traditional eQTL mapping requires large-scale genotype and gene expression data for each individual in the study sample, which limits sample sizes to hundreds of individuals in both humans and model organisms and reduces statistical power. Consequently, many eQTL are probably missed, especially those with smaller effects. Furthermore, most studies use messenger RNA rather than protein abundance as the measure of gene expression. Studies that have used mass-spectrometry proteomics reported unexpected differences between eQTL and protein QTL (pQTL) for the same genes, but these studies have been even more limited in scope. Here we introduce a powerful method for identifying genetic loci that influence protein expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We measure single-cell protein abundance through the use of green fluorescent protein tags in very large populations of genetically variable cells, and use pooled sequencing to compare allele frequencies across the genome in thousands of individuals with high versus low protein abundance. We applied this method to 160 genes and detected many more loci per gene than previous studies. We also observed closer correspondence between loci that influence protein abundance and loci that influence mRNA abundance of a given gene. Most loci that we detected were clustered in `hotspots' that influence multiple proteins, and some hotspots were found to influence more than half of the proteins that we examined. The variants that underlie these hotspots have profound effects on the gene regulatory network and provide insights into genetic variation in cell physiology between yeast strains.

Albert, Frank W.; Treusch, Sebastian; Shockley, Arthur H.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Kruglyak, Leonid

2014-02-01

269

ORIGIN OF THE UNUSUALLY LOW NITROGEN ABUNDANCES IN YOUNG POPULATIONS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

It is a longstanding problem that H II regions and very young stellar populations in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have nitrogen abundances ([N/H]) that are a factor of {approx}7 lower than the solar value. We here discuss a new scenario in which the observed unusually low nitrogen abundances can be closely associated with recent collisions and subsequent accretion of H I high velocity clouds (HVCs) that surround the Galaxy and have low nitrogen abundances. We show that if the observed low [N/H] is limited to very young stars with ages less than {approx}10{sup 7} yr, then the collision/accretion rate of the HVCs onto the LMC needs to be {approx}0.2 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} (corresponding to the total HVC mass of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub sun}) to dilute the original interstellar medium (ISM) before star formation. The required accretion rate means that even if the typical mass of HVCs accreted onto the LMC is {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub sun}, the Galaxy needs to have {approx}2500 massive HVCs within the LMC's orbital radius with respect to the Galactic center. The rather large number of required massive HVCs drives us to suggest that the HVCs are not likely to efficiently dilute the ISM of the LMC and consequently lower the [N/H]. We thus suggest the transfer of gas with low [N/H] from the Small Magellanic Cloud to the LMC as a promising scenario that can explain the observed low [N/H].

Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2010-10-01

270

Intraocular surgery in a large diabetes patient population: risk factors and surgical results.  

PubMed

The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in developed countries. Accordingly, the prevention and treatment of vision-threatening diabetic eye complications is assuming greater importance. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyse risk factors for intraocular surgery in a large diabetes population and to report surgical results. The specific objectives are to (1) estimate the incidence of diabetic vitrectomy and analyse risk factors (Study I), (2) report long-term results, prognostic factors and incidence of cataract surgery after diabetic vitrectomy (Study II), (3) report results and prognostic factors after cataract surgery in diabetes patients (Study III) and (4) analyse risk factors for diabetic papillopathy with emphasis on metabolic control variability (Study IV). All studies are based on a close-to-complete national surgery register and a large, closely followed diabetic retinopathy screening population. Study I (cohort study, 3980 type 1 diabetes patients) illustrates that diabetic vitrectomy is rarely required in a diabetes patient population with varying degrees of diabetic retinopathy. The risk of reaching diabetic vitrectomy increases fourfold with poor metabolic control, defined as glycosylated haemoglobin A1c > 75 mmol/mol (~9%), which points to good metabolic control as an important preventive measure. Study II (cohort study, 167 diabetes patients) shows that most diabetic vitrectomy patients stand to gain visual acuity ?0.3 after surgery. Visual acuity is stable after 1 year, and the stability is maintained through 10 years of follow-up. The use of silicone oil for endotamponade is a consistent long-term predictor of low vision after surgery. The risk of requiring cataract surgery after diabetic vitrectomy is substantial, and the risk increases if silicone oil is used. Study III (cohort study, 285 diabetes patients) shows, on the other hand, that diabetes patients can expect a significant improvement in visual acuity after cataract surgery, regardless of the degree of diabetic retinopathy. Poor preoperative visual acuity, a high degree of diabetic retinopathy and advanced age are predictors of a poor visual acuity after surgery. The risk of diabetic macular oedema after surgery is 4%. Finally, Study IV (case-control study, 2066 type 1 diabetes patients) demonstrates that diabetic papillopathy shares characteristics with diabetic retinopathy. The risk of experiencing diabetic papillopathy increases markedly with a drastic, recent reduction in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c and a small optic disc. This lends support to the theory that diabetic eye complications may occur in anatomically predisposed patients in response to metabolic control variability. Overall, results after intraocular surgery in diabetes patients are favourable. Surgery, however, is associated with costs to society, patient discomfort and risk of complications. This thesis provides an analysis of risk factors for intraocular surgery and identifies prognostic factors for visual acuity after surgery, which can be used for preventive purposes, surgical decision-making and patient counselling. PMID:24809766

Ostri, Christoffer

2014-05-01

271

Challenges of Measuring Diurnal Cortisol Concentrations in a Large Population-Based Field Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Longitudinal examinations of associations between daily stress, diurnal cortisol concentrations, and physiological parameters in population-based studies are needed. This study evaluates issues related to consent, collection, and protocol adherence for a low-burden saliva collection protocol. Methods In the 2007 pretest (N = 193) for Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) a three-sample, one-day, unsupervised saliva collection protocol was pilot tested. Embedded experiments allowed for examination of adherence and effects of monetary incentives. Results Although most (97%) study participants consented to collection, only about 80% actually mailed back samples. Use of a time-stamping TrackCap allowed comparison of self-reported and stamp-recorded collection times. Of returned samples, self-report of collection time was missing for about a quarter, and only about one in three respondents (of those for whom adherence was calculable) fully adhered to the collection protocol, indicating significant potential for bias. Consent, return, and protocol adherence were unrelated to key sociodemographic characteristics, and did not improve with higher monetary incentives or knowledge of being monitored. Conclusions Despite the relatively low-burden collection protocol and use of multiple strategies thought to improve collection and protocol adherence, response and adherence were poor, leading to a decision to drop cortisol measurement from the Wave IV Add Health protocol. Large field studies should carefully evaluate the feasibility of collection and protocol adherence for unsupervised collection protocols before implementing costly, and potentially unusable, biological measurements.

Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Whitsel, Eric A.; Wagner, Brandon; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

2011-01-01

272

Dynamic Large-Scale Chromosomal Rearrangements Fuel Rapid Adaptation in Yeast Populations  

PubMed Central

Large-scale genome rearrangements have been observed in cells adapting to various selective conditions during laboratory evolution experiments. However, it remains unclear whether these types of mutations can be stably maintained in populations and how they impact the evolutionary trajectories. Here we show that chromosomal rearrangements contribute to extremely high copper tolerance in a set of natural yeast strains isolated from Evolution Canyon (EC), Israel. The chromosomal rearrangements in EC strains result in segmental duplications in chromosomes 7 and 8, which increase the copy number of genes involved in copper regulation, including the crucial transcriptional activator CUP2 and the metallothionein CUP1. The copy number of CUP2 is correlated with the level of copper tolerance, indicating that increasing dosages of a single transcriptional activator by chromosomal rearrangements has a profound effect on a regulatory pathway. By gene expression analysis and functional assays, we identified three previously unknown downstream targets of CUP2: PHO84, SCM4, and CIN2, all of which contributed to copper tolerance in EC strains. Finally, we conducted an evolution experiment to examine how cells maintained these changes in a fluctuating environment. Interestingly, the rearranged chromosomes were reverted back to the wild-type configuration at a high frequency and the recovered chromosome became fixed in less selective conditions. Our results suggest that transposon-mediated chromosomal rearrangements can be highly dynamic and can serve as a reversible mechanism during early stages of adaptive evolution.

Chang, Shang-Lin; Lai, Huei-Yi; Tung, Shu-Yun; Leu, Jun-Yi

2013-01-01

273

Self-reported history of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and STI-related utilization of the German health care system by men who have sex with men: data from a large convenience sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In Germany, testing and treatment of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) services are not provided by one medical discipline,\\u000a but rather dispersed among many different providers. Common STIs like gonorrhoea or Chlamydia infection are not routinely\\u000a reported. Although men who have sex with men (MSM) are particularly vulnerable to STIs, respective health care utilization\\u000a among MSM is largely unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A sexual

Axel J Schmidt; Ulrich Marcus

2011-01-01

274

Sexual knowledge of Canadian adolescents after completion of high school sexual education requirements  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Formal sexual education is a mandatory component of the high school curriculum in most Canadian provinces. The present study was a preliminary assessment of sexual knowledge among a sample of Ontario adolescents who had completed their high school sexual education requirements. METHODS: A questionnaire, testing understanding of the learning objectives of Ontario’s minimally required high school sexual education course, was distributed in a paediatric emergency department to 200 adolescent patients who had completed the course. RESULTS: Respondents demonstrated good understanding of pregnancy physiology and sexually transmitted infections, but poor understanding of concepts related to reproductive physiology, contraception, HIV/AIDS and sexual assault. Most respondents could not identify Canada’s age of sexual consent. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents demonstrated concerning gaps in sexual knowledge despite completion of their sexual education requirements. Further studies must determine whether a representative, population-based student sample would exhibit similar findings. Sexual education currently offered in Ontario may require investigation.

Kumar, Maya M; Lim, Rodrick; Langford, Cindy; Seabrook, Jamie A; Speechley, Kathy N; Lynch, Timothy

2013-01-01

275

Sexual Orientation and Supervision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterosexism and homophobia complicate the supervisory relationship regardless of whether it is the therapist, client, or supervisor who is a sexual minority. Several supervision models have been applied to gay and lesbian populations, including Stoltenberg and Delworth's (1987) Developmental Model, Buhrke's Conflictual Situation Model (1986), Holloway's (1995) Supervisee Empowerment Model, and Russell and Greenhouse's (1997) Homonegativity Model. Each of these

Stephen C. Halpert; Joan Pfaller

2001-01-01

276

Phase Coding on the Large-Scaled Neuronal Population Subjected to Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic nonlinear model of neuronal activity in a neuronal population is proposed in this paper, where the combined dynamics\\u000a of phase and amplitude is taken into account. An average number density is introduced to describe collective behavior of neuronal\\u000a population, and a firing density of neurons in the neuronal population is referred to be neural coding. The numerical simulations

Rubin Wang; Xianfa Jiao; Jianhua Peng

2006-01-01

277

Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunctions  

PubMed Central

Ten years of research that has provided data regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions is reviewed. A thorough review of the literature identified 52 studies that have been published in the 10 years since an earlier review by Spector and Carey (1990). Community samples indicate a current prevalence of 0 - 3% for male orgasmic disorder, 0 - 5% for erectile disorder, and 0 - 3% for male hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Pooling current and 1-year figures provides community prevalence estimates of 7 - 10% for female orgasmic disorder and 4 - 5% for premature ejaculation. Stable community estimates of the current prevalence for the other sexual dysfunctions remain unavailable. Prevalence estimates obtained from primary care and sexuality clinic samples are characteristically higher. Although a relatively large number of studies have been conducted since Spector and Carey’s (1990) review, the lack of methodological rigor of many studies limits the confidence that can be placed in these findings.

Simons, Jeffrey; Carey, Michael P.

2008-01-01

278

Monogamous networks and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of sexual mixing and heterogeneity in the number of sexual partners can have a huge effect on the spread of a sexually transmitted disease (STD). The sexual mixing network identifies all partnerships within a population over a given period and is a powerful tool in the study of such infections. Previous models assumed all links within the network to

Ken T. D. Eames; Matt J. Keeling

2004-01-01

279

Sexual behaviour in sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to provide further information related to newly described parasomnia variant, Sexual Behaviour\\u000a in Sleep (SBS, sexsomnia). Previous studies dealt with selected population, typically middle-aged males, featuring extensive\\u000a medico-legal exposure. At the same time, an anecdotal evidence suggested higher involvement of younger population, and skew\\u000a towards balance between genders comparable to those seen in other

Nikola N. Trajanovic; Michael Mangan; Colin M. Shapiro

2007-01-01

280

Waterscape genetics of the yellow perch (Perca flavescens): patterns across large connected ecosystems and isolated relict populations.  

PubMed

Comparisons of a species' genetic diversity and divergence patterns across large connected populations vs. isolated relict areas provide important data for understanding potential response to global warming, habitat alterations and other perturbations. Aquatic taxa offer ideal case studies for interpreting these patterns, because their dispersal and gene flow often are constrained through narrow connectivity channels that have changed over geological time and/or from contemporary anthropogenic perturbations. Our research objective is to better understand the interplay between historic influences and modern-day factors (fishery exploitation, stocking supplementation and habitat loss) in shaping population genetic patterns of the yellow perch Perca flavescens (Percidae: Teleostei) across its native North American range. We employ a modified landscape genetics approach, analysing sequences from the entire mitochondrial DNA control region and 15 nuclear DNA microsatellite loci of 664 spawning adults from 24 populations. Results support that perch from primary glacial refugium areas (Missourian, Mississippian and Atlantic) founded contemporary northern populations. Genetic diversity today is highest in southern (never glaciated) populations and also is appreciable in northern areas that were founded from multiple refugia. Divergence is greater among isolated populations, both north and south; the southern Gulf Coast relict populations are the most divergent, reflecting their long history of isolation. Understanding the influence of past and current waterway connections on the genetic structure of yellow perch populations may help us to assess the roles of ongoing climate change and habitat disruptions towards conserving aquatic biodiversity. PMID:23078285

Sepulveda-Villet, Osvaldo J; Stepien, Carol A

2012-12-01

281

Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

282

LARGE NONLETHAL EFFECTS OF AN INVASIVE INVERTEBRATE PREDATOR ON ZOOPLANKTON POPULATION GROWTH RATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to determine the contribution of lethal and nonlethal effects to a predator's net effect on a prey's population growth rate in a natural setting. We focused on the effects of an invasive invertebrate predator, Bythotrephes longimanus ,o n zooplankton prey populations in Lakes Michigan and Erie. Field data taken at multiple dates and locations in both

Kevin L. Pangle; Scott D. Peacor; Ora E. Johannsson

2007-01-01

283

Large genetic change at small fitness cost in large populations of Drosophila melanogaster selected for wind tunnel flight: rethinking fitness surfaces.  

PubMed

The fitness effects of extreme genetic change by selection were studied in large populations subjected to prolonged, intense selection. Two replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster, with estimated effective sizes 500 < or = Ne < or = 1000, were selected for increased performance in a wind tunnel, selecting on average the fastest 4.5% of flies. The mean apparent flying speed of both lines increased from approximately 2 to 170 cm/sec and continued to respond at diminishing rates, without reaching a plateau, for 100 generations. Competitive fitness tests in generations 50 and 85 showed minimal or no fitness loss in selected lines compared to controls. Sublines relaxed in generations 65 and 85 showed minimal or no regression in apparent flying speed. Hybrid lines, from a cross of selected x control lines in generation 75, responded to reselection saltationally, showing that the chromosomes of the selected lines had been assembled from alleles at many loci, from many different chromosomes in the base population. Thus, major genetic change was achieved, but without the costs usually associated with strong directional selection. Large population size has been interpreted, in opposing models, as either a brake or an accelerator in its effects on long-term change by selection. These results favor the second model, and challenge the concept of rugged fitness surfaces underlying the first model. PMID:8878686

Weber, K E

1996-09-01

284

Sexual pain.  

PubMed

Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain. PMID:20393420

Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

2009-12-01

285

Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive

John D. C. Linnell; Henrik Broseth; John Odden; Erlend Birkeland Nilsen

2010-01-01

286

Two Test Items to Explore High School Students' Beliefs of Sample Size When Sampling from Large Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two test items that examined high school students' beliefs of sample size for large populations using the context of opinion polls conducted prior to national and state elections were developed. A trial of the two items with 21 male and 33 female Year 9 students examined their naive understanding of sample size: over half of students chose a…

Bill, Anthony; Henderson, Sally; Penman, John

2010-01-01

287

Relation between the angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T gene polymorphism and blood pressure in a large, homogeneous study population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the association of the angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism with arterial blood pressure (BP) at rest and under physical stress in a homogeneous large-scale study population. In all, 1903 men who passed routine medical examination for military flying duty were recruited. BP and heart rate were measured at rest, during, and after bicycle ergometry.

J R Ortlepp; J Metrikat; V Mevissen; F Schmitz; M Albrecht; P Maya-Pelzer; P Hanrath; K Zerres; R Hoffmann; JR Ortlepp

2003-01-01

288

A Large Plasmodium vivax Reservoir and Little Population Structure in the South Pacific  

PubMed Central

Introduction The importance of Plasmodium vivax in malaria elimination is increasingly being recognized, yet little is known about its population size and population genetic structure in the South Pacific, an area that is the focus of intensified malaria control. Methods We have genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 295 P. vivax isolates from four geographically distinct sites in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and one site from Solomon Islands, representing different transmission intensities. Results Diversity was very high with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.62 to 0.98 for the different markers. Effective population size was high (12?872 to 19?533 per site). In PNG population structuring was limited with moderate levels of genetic differentiation. FST values (adjusted for high diversity of markers) were 0.14–0.15. Slightly higher levels were observed between PNG populations and Solomon Islands (FST?=?0.16). Conclusions Low levels of population structure despite geographical barriers to transmission are in sharp contrast to results from regions of low P. vivax endemicity. Prior to intensification of malaria control programs in the study area, parasite diversity and effective population size remained high.

Koepfli, Cristian; Timinao, Lincoln; Antao, Tiago; Barry, Alyssa E.; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Felger, Ingrid

2013-01-01

289

Uninformative exaggeration of male sexual ornaments in barn swallows.  

PubMed

Models of sexual selection suggest that mate-choice preferences are favored because differences between males in their degree of ornamental exaggeration convey useful information about the direct or indirect benefits they have to offer [1-5]. Such arguments assume that variation in male ornament size can be attributed to variation in the degree of sexually selected exaggeration. We provide the first test of this assumption by conducting tail-length experiments in male barn swallows. Over the last twenty years, a large amount of work has shown that female barn swallows are influenced by male tail length when choosing a mate [6-12]. Recent experiments have shown that a combination of natural and sexual selection results in the elongated tail streamer--a tail that is on average across the population about 12 mm (approximately 10%) longer than the aerodynamic optimum [13, 14]. We show that the aerodynamically optimal tail length varies significantly between males, whereas the extent of streamer elongation beyond the optimum does not. Similarly, the aerodynamically optimal tail length significantly predicts observed tail length and conveys information about flight performance, whereas the extent of sexually selected exaggeration of streamer length does not. Therefore, contrary to handicap models of sexual selection, the sexually selected exaggeration of this trait provides females with little information about any aspect of mate quality PMID:17412591

Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Johnstone, Rufus A; Evans, Matthew R

2007-05-15

290

Bem Sex Role Inventory Undifferentiated Score: A Comparison of Sexual Dysfunction Patients with Sexual Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined Bem Sex Role undifferentiated scores on 93 male sex offenders as compared with 50 male sexually dysfunctional patients. Chi-square analyses revealed significant difference: offenders obtained undifferentiated scores more often than did sexual dysfunctional population. Concluded that Bem Sex Role Inventory is useful in identifying sexual

Dwyer, Margretta; And Others

1988-01-01

291

The impact of climate change on the bottom up regulation of density dependence in large herbivore populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Population dynamics are regulated by either density dependent or, independent (environmental) factors, and climate change may influence populations through either pathway. One key factor in the population dynamics of large herbivores is the dynamics of vegetation nutrient content, which although being an environmental factor, has the potential to impact the degree of density dependence that regulates population dynamics. To understand this bottom up regulatory mechanism and how climate interacts with vegetation, we will estimate the influence of vegetation dynamics on annual abundance estimates of multiple vertebrate populations using time-series analysis. We will test the hypothesis that the strength of density dependence is expected to vary inversely with changes in vegetation availability, i.e., in areas with higher forage abundance and quality, density dependence is expected to be stronger. Extended to climate change, this hypothesis predicts that climate impacts will be stronger in areas of low vegetation availability, such as the arctic and alpine regions. We will analyze a combined dataset of 55 globally distributed Cervus (elk/red deer) and Rangifer (caribou/reindeer) populations that inhabit areas >100km2. These population time-series we will be analyzed using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian state-space models, and to represent annual vegetation dynamics we will use Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data (i.e., third generation GIMMS NDVI from AVHRR sensors).

Ahrestani, F.; Smith, W. A.; Hebblewhite, M.; Running, S. W.; Post, E.

2013-12-01

292

Genetic variation in Fc? receptor IIa and risk of coronary heart disease: negative results from two large independent populations  

PubMed Central

Background The role of the Fc? receptor IIa (Fc?RIIa), a receptor for C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute phase protein, in atherosclerosis is not yet clear. We sought to investigate the association of Fc?RIIa genotype with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in two large population-based samples. Methods Fc?RIIa-R/H131 polymorphisms were determined in a population of 527 patients with a history of myocardial infarction and 527 age and gender matched controls drawn from a population-based MONICA- Augsburg survey. In the LURIC population, 2227 patients with angiographically proven CHD, defined as having at least one stenosis ? 50%, were compared with 1032 individuals with stenosis <50%. Results In both populations genotype frequencies of the Fc?RIIa gene did not show a significant departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Fc?RIIa R(-131) ? H genotype was not independently associated with lower risk of CHD after multivariable adjustments, neither in the MONICA population (odds ratio (OR) 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 1.44), nor in LURIC (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.14). Conclusion Our results do not confirm an independent relationship between Fc?RIIa genotypes and risk of CHD in these populations.

Karakas, Mahir; Hoffmann, Michael M; Vollmert, Caren; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Meisinger, Christa; Winkelmann, Bernhard; Khuseyinova, Natalie; Bohm, Bernhard O; Illig, Thomas; Marz, Winfried; Koenig, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

293

Sexual Assault of Adult Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…

Stermac, Lana; And Others

1996-01-01

294

The application of traditional and geometric morphometric analyses for forensic quantification of sexual dimorphism: preliminary investigations in a Western Australian population.  

PubMed

A current limitation of forensic practice in Western Australia is a lack of contemporary population-specific standards for biological profiling; this directly relates to the unavailability of documented human skeletal collections. With rapidly advancing technology, however, it is now possible to acquire accurate skeletal measurements from 3D scans contained in medical databases. The purpose of the present study, therefore, is to explore the accuracy of using cranial form to predict sex in adult Australians. Both traditional and geometric morphometric methods are applied to data derived from 3D landmarks acquired in CT-reconstructed crania. The sample comprises multi-detector computed tomography scans of 200 adult individuals; following 3D volume rendering, 46 anatomical landmarks are acquired using OsiriX (version 3.9). Centroid size and shape (first 20 PCs of the Procrustes coordinates) and the inter-landmark (ILD) distances between all possible pairs of landmarks are then calculated. Sex classification effectiveness of the 3D multivariate descriptors of size and shape and selected ILD measurements are assessed and compared; robustness of findings is explored using resampling statistics. Cranial shape and size and the ILD measurements are sexually dimorphic and explain 3.2 to 54.3 % of sample variance; sex classification accuracy is 83.5-88.0 %. Sex estimation using 3D shape appears to have some advantages compared to approaches using size measurements. We have, however, identified a simple and biologically meaningful single non-traditional linear measurement (glabella-zygion) that classifies Western Australian individuals according to sex with a high degree of expected accuracy (87.5-88 %). PMID:22399102

Franklin, Daniel; Cardini, Andrea; Flavel, Ambika; Kuliukas, Algis

2012-07-01

295

Dynamics of an emerging disease drive large-scale amphibian population extinctions.  

PubMed

Epidemiological theory generally suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because the pathogen should fade out when the host population is driven below some threshold density. An emerging infectious disease, chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is directly linked to the recent extinction or serious decline of hundreds of amphibian species. Despite continued spread of this pathogen into uninfected areas, the dynamics of the host-pathogen interaction remain unknown. We use fine-scale spatiotemporal data to describe (i) the invasion and spread of Bd through three lake basins, each containing multiple populations of the mountain yellow-legged frog, and (ii) the accompanying host-pathogen dynamics. Despite intensive sampling, Bd was not detected on frogs in study basins until just before epidemics began. Following Bd arrival in a basin, the disease spread to neighboring populations at approximately 700 m/yr in a wave-like pattern until all populations were infected. Within a population, infection prevalence rapidly reached 100% and infection intensity on individual frogs increased in parallel. Frog mass mortality began only when infection intensity reached a critical threshold and repeatedly led to extinction of populations. Our results indicate that the high growth rate and virulence of Bd allow the near-simultaneous infection and buildup of high infection intensities in all host individuals; subsequent host population crashes therefore occur before Bd is limited by density-dependent factors. Preventing infection intensities in host populations from reaching this threshold could provide an effective strategy to avoid the extinction of susceptible amphibian species in the wild. PMID:20457913

Vredenburg, Vance T; Knapp, Roland A; Tunstall, Tate S; Briggs, Cheryl J

2010-05-25

296

CUMULATIVE IMPACTS ASSESSMENT ALONG A LARGE RIVER, USING BROWN BULLHEAD CATFISH (AMEIURUS NEBULOSUS) POPULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of point-source and diffuse discharges on resident populations of brown bullhead catfish ( Ameiurus nebulosus (LeSueur, 1819)) in the Waikato River (New Zealand) were assessed at sites both upstream and downstream of point-source discharges. At each site, the population parameters, relative abundance, age structure, and individual indices, such as condition factor, organ (gonad, liver, and spleen) to somatic

David W. West; Nicholas Ling; Brendan J. Hicks; Louis A. Tremblay; Nick D. Kim; Michael R. van den Heuvel

2006-01-01

297

Examining Discrepancies Among Sexual Orientation Components in a Representative Sample of Men at Risk for HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compares the effects associated with sexual orientation components (sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior in the past three months) on rates of reported mental illness and risky sexual behavior in a representative sample of men at high risk for HIV\\/AIDS. Important differences between populations of individuals who responded consistently and inconsistently across sexual orientation components were observed,

Tyrel J. Starks; Joel T. Nadler; Lynda M. Sagrestano; Paul D. Sarvela

2009-01-01

298

NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

2013-01-01

299

Inferring the contribution of sexual reproduction, migration and off-season survival to the temporal maintenance of microbial populations: a case study on the wheat fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici.  

PubMed

Understanding the mode of temporal maintenance of plant pathogens is an important domain of microbial ecology research. Due to the inconspicuous nature of microbes, their temporal maintenance cannot be studied directly through tracking individuals and their progeny. Here, we suggest a series of population genetic analyses on molecular marker variation in temporally spaced samples to infer about the relative contribution of sexual reproduction, off-season survival and migration to the temporal maintenance of pathogen populations. We used the proposed approach to investigate the temporal maintenance of wheat yellow rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST), in the Himalayan region of Pakistan. Multilocus microsatellite genotyping of PST isolates revealed high genotypic diversity and recombinant population structure across all locations, confirming the existence of sexual reproduction in this region. The genotypes were assigned to four genetic groups, revealing a clear differentiation between zones with and without Berberis spp., the alternate host of PST, with an additional subdivision within the Berberis zone. The lack of any differentiation between samples across two sampling years, and the very infrequent resampling of multilocus genotypes over years at a given location was consistent with limited over-year clonal survival, and a limited genetic drift. The off-season oversummering population in the Berberis zone, likely to be maintained locally, served as a source of migrants contributing to the temporal maintenance in the non-Berberis zone. Our study hence demonstrated the contribution of both sexual recombination and off-season oversummering survival to the temporal maintenance of the pathogen. These new insights into the population biology of PST highlight the general usefulness of the analytical approach proposed. PMID:24354737

Ali, Sajid; Gladieux, Pierre; Rahman, Hidayatur; Saqib, Muhammad S; Fiaz, Muhammad; Ahmad, Habib; Leconte, Marc; Gautier, Angélique; Justesen, Annemarie F; Hovmøller, Mogens S; Enjalbert, Jérôme; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

2014-02-01

300

Self-reported history of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and STI-related utilization of the German health care system by men who have sex with men: data from a large convenience sample  

PubMed Central

Background In Germany, testing and treatment of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) services are not provided by one medical discipline, but rather dispersed among many different providers. Common STIs like gonorrhoea or Chlamydia infection are not routinely reported. Although men who have sex with men (MSM) are particularly vulnerable to STIs, respective health care utilization among MSM is largely unknown. Methods A sexual behaviour survey among MSM was conducted in 2006. Questions on self-reported sexual behaviour, STI-related health care consultation and barriers to access, coverage of vaccination against hepatitis, screening for asymptomatic STIs, self-reported history of STIs, and partner notification were analysed. Analysis was stratified by HIV-serostatus (3,511 HIV-negative/unknown versus 874 positive). Results General Practitioners, particularly gay doctors, were preferred for STI-related health care. Low threshold testing in sex-associated venues was acceptable for most respondents. Shame and fear of homophobic reactions were the main barriers for STI-testing. More than half of the respondents reported vaccination against hepatitis A/B. HIV-positive MSM reported screening offers for STIs three to seven times more often than HIV-negative or untested MSM. Unlike testing for syphilis or hepatitis C, screening for asymptomatic pharyngeal and rectal infections was rarely offered. STIs in the previous twelve months were reported by 7.1% of HIV-negative/untested, and 34.7% of HIV-positive respondents. Conclusions Self-reported histories of STIs in MSM convenience samples differ significantly by HIV-serostatus. Higher rates of STIs among HIV-positive MSM may partly be explained by more testing. Communication between health care providers and their clients about sexuality, sexual practices, and sexual risks should be improved. A comprehensive STI screening policy for MSM is needed.

2011-01-01

301

Accumulation of factors influencing children's middle ear disease: risk factor modelling on a large population cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Data were analysed from a large national birth cohort to examine cumulative and interactive prediction from various risk factors for childhood middle ear disease, and to resolve conflicting evidence arising from small and incompletely controlled studies. The large sample size permitted appropriate covariate adjustment to give generality, and permit demographic breakdown of the risk factors. SETTING: A large

K. E. Bennett; M. P. Haggard

1998-01-01

302

Sexual Sadism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism

Wolfgang Berner; Peter Berger; Andreas Hill

2003-01-01

303

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy aging. As we age, our bodies undergo changes that may hinder the rewarding sex life enjoyed until this time. For example, hormone levels decrease, medical conditions may affect sexual performance, chronic pain may get in the way, and surgery can have a severe impact on sexual response. ...

304

Population structure of two beetle-associated yeasts: comparison of a New World asexual and an endemic Nearctic sexual species in the Metschnikowia clade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure of two related yeast species, one sexual and one asexual, was compared using polymorphic DNA markers.\\u000a Although both yeasts propagate by asexual budding of haploid cells, Metschnikowia borealis reproduces sexually when compatible strains come in contact. To what extent this has occurred in nature was not known. As\\u000a Candida ipomoeae is a closely related, asexual species, the

Alison M. Wardlaw; Tanya E. Berkers; Karen C. Man; Marc-André Lachance

2009-01-01

305

Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.  

PubMed

Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24962364

Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

2014-06-01

306

Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to provide data-based estimates of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and describe risk factors for such violence. Methods. We used nationally representative household survey data from 3436 women selected to answer the domestic violence module who took part in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey along with population estimates to estimate levels of sexual violence. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyze correlates of sexual violence. Results. Approximately 1.69 to 1.80 million women reported having been raped in their lifetime (with 407 397–433 785 women reporting having been raped in the preceding 12 months), and approximately 3.07 to 3.37 million women reported experiencing intimate partner sexual violence. Reports of sexual violence were largely independent of individual-level background factors. However, compared with women in Kinshasa, women in Nord-Kivu were significantly more likely to report all types of sexual violence. Conclusions. Not only is sexual violence more generalized than previously thought, but our findings suggest that future policies and programs should focus on abuse within families and eliminate the acceptance of and impunity surrounding sexual violence nationwide while also maintaining and enhancing efforts to stop militias from perpetrating rape.

Palermo, Tia; Bredenkamp, Caryn

2011-01-01

307

Chronic Physical Illness and Mental Health in Children. Results from a Large-Scale Population Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in detecting emotional and behavioural problems among children with chronic illness (CI). Methods: Parents and teachers of a population of primary school children in Norway (n = 9430) completed a…

Hysing, Mari; Elgen, Irene; Gillberg, Christopher; Lie, Stein Atle; Lundervold, Astri J.

2007-01-01

308

Mesopic contrast sensitivity in the presence or absence of glare in a large driver population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background To evaluate mesopic contrast sensitivity in conditions of glare and no glare in a vehicle driver population, and to explore the effects of age, habitual spectacle correction, photopic visual acuity and driving exposure. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on 297 drivers stratified by age into six groups. The mesopic contrast sensitivity was measured in the absence or presence

María C. Puell; Catalina Palomo; Celia Sánchez-Ramos; Consuelo Villena

2004-01-01

309

A metapopulation model for chikungunya including populations mobility on a large-scale network.  

PubMed

In this paper we study the influence of populations mobility on the spread of a vector-borne disease. We focus on the chikungunya epidemic event that occurred in 2005-2006 on the Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, France, and validate our models with real epidemic data from the event. We propose a metapopulation model to represent both a high-resolution patch model of the island with realistic population densities and also mobility models for humans (based on real-motion data) and mosquitoes. In this metapopulation network, two models are coupled: one for the dynamics of the mosquito population and one for the transmission of the disease. A high-resolution numerical model is created from real geographical, demographical and mobility data. The Island is modeled with an 18,000-nodes metapopulation network. Numerical results show the impact of the geographical environment and populations' mobility on the spread of the disease. The model is finally validated against real epidemic data from the Réunion event. PMID:23154189

Moulay, Djamila; Pigné, Yoann

2013-02-01

310

Detection of Sickle Cell Disease in Large Human Populations by an Automated Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 2,939 specimens was tested in this mixed population of both military and civilian individuals. Complete agreement among the results of all tests was obtained. An automated test for the determination of S hemoglobin can be performed at the rate ...

B. M. Nichols F. R. Camp J. M. Lusher N. F. Conte R. M. Nalbandian

1971-01-01

311

APOE Genotype and Cognitive Functioning in a Large Age-Stratified Population Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that the cognitive effects of Alzheimer's disease can be seen decades before disease diagnosis. If this is the case, then the apolipoprotein E (APOE)*E4 allele might be expected to have effects on cognitive functioning earlier in the life span. To assess such effects, the authors examined data on the *E4 allele and cognitive functioning from a population

Anthony F. Jorm; Karen A. Mather; Peter Butterworth; Kaarin J. Anstey; Helen Christensen; Simon Easteal

2007-01-01

312

Autosomal STR allele frequencies for the CODIS system from a large random population sample in Chile.  

PubMed

The thirteen autosomal STR loci of the CODIS system were typed from DNA of 732 unrelated male individuals sampled from different locations in Chile. This is the first report of allele frequencies for the thirteen STRs loci defined in the CODIS system from the Chilean population. PMID:21813345

Vergara, Ismael A; Villouta, Pamela; Herrera, Sandra; Melo, Francisco

2012-05-01

313

Alternative sexualities and changing sexual cultures among Latin American men.  

PubMed

The research on male homosexuality and alternative sexual cultures among Latin American men is one of the richest sources of data and cross-cultural analysis on sexuality, sexual identities and sexual communities anywhere in the world. New research includes not only an ongoing concern to describe the distinct contours of different social and cultural constructions of sexual identity (a concern that has been evident in this field for 3 decades), but also a concern to describe the complex process of social, cultural, economic and political change taking place in sexual cultures throughout the region. Numerous papers now document the dilemmas confronted--and the creative solutions that have been invented--by Latino American men in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and the emerging struggles for sexual rights and sexual-determination that can now be seen emerging in major urban centers throughout the region. These papers demonstrate the limitations of the dominant North American models of behavior change in response to AIDS by carefully uncovering the culturally articulated worlds of intimacy and desire that such models ignore, pointing the way toward a culturally constituted prevention practice as the only possible route to health promotion--possibly among all marginalized and vulnerable populations. PMID:12322214

Parker, R; Caceres, C

1999-01-01

314

Sexual selection on alleles that determine body size in the swordtail Xiphophorus nigrensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a natural population, we document changes in the frequencies of alleles influencing body size and size-correlated alternative male reproductive tactics, and we examine the possible role of sexual selection in producing these changes. Male swordtails (Xiphophorus nigrensis, Rio Choy) exhibit three body size classes (small, intermediate, and large) that primarily derive from allelic variation (s, I, L) at the

Michael J. Ryan; Diana K. Hews; William E. Wagner Jr

1990-01-01

315

Sexual health, vulnerabilities and risk behaviours among homeless adults.  

PubMed

It is well known that homeless individuals are at risk for a variety of health problems, including sexually transmissible infections. Optimisation of health services for the homeless requires knowledge of their sexual health. The sexual health and sexual vulnerability factors of 500 homeless adults (196 women) were assessed in a cross-sectional survey in three Canadian cities. Our data indicate that a significant proportion of individuals and more women than men reported multiple experiences that compromise their sexual health exponentially. These findings may inform health policies related to sexuality to foster positive sexual health outcomes for all people, including marginalised populations. PMID:24670303

Strehlau, Verena; Torchalla, Iris; Linden, Isabelle; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael

2014-03-01

316

Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range\\u000a of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand\\u000a technically challenging. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management

John D. C. LinnellHenrik; Henrik Broseth; John Odden; Erlend Birkeland Nilsen

2010-01-01

317

Human Sexuality: How Do Men and Women Differ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of scientific research documents four important gender differences in sexuality. First, on a wide variety of measures, men show greater sexual desire than do women. Second, compared with men, women place greater emphasis on com- mitted relationships as a context for sexuality. Third, aggression is more strongly linked to sexuality for men than for women. Fourth, women's

Letitia Anne Peplaul

318

Birth seasonality and calf mortality in a large population of Asian elephants  

PubMed Central

In seasonal environments, many species concentrate their reproduction in the time of year most likely to maximize offspring survival. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) inhabit regions with seasonal climate, but females can still experience 16-week reproductive cycles throughout the year. Whether female elephants nevertheless concentrate births on periods with maximum offspring survival prospects remains unknown. We investigated the seasonal timing of births, and effects of birth month on short- and long-term mortality of Asian elephants, using a unique demographic data set of 2350 semicaptive, longitudinally monitored logging elephants from Myanmar experiencing seasonal variation in both workload and environmental conditions. Our results show variation in birth rate across the year, with 41% of births occurring between December and March. This corresponds to the cool, dry period and the beginning of the hot season, and to conceptions occurring during the resting, nonlogging period between February and June. Giving birth during the peak December to March period improves offspring survival, as the odds for survival between age 1 and 5 years are 44% higher for individuals born during the high birth rate period than those conceived during working months. Our results suggest that seasonal conditions, most likely maternal workload and/or climate, limit conception rate and calf survival in this population through effects on maternal stress, estrus cycles, or access to mates. This has implications for improving the birth rate and infant survival in captive populations by limiting workload of females of reproductive age. As working populations are currently unsustainable and supplemented through the capture of wild elephants, it is imperative to the conservation of Asian elephants to understand and alleviate the effects of seasonal conditions on vital rates in the working population in order to reduce the pressure for further capture from the wild.

Mumby, Hannah S; Courtiol, Alexandre; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

2013-01-01

319

Birth seasonality and calf mortality in a large population of Asian elephants.  

PubMed

In seasonal environments, many species concentrate their reproduction in the time of year most likely to maximize offspring survival. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) inhabit regions with seasonal climate, but females can still experience 16-week reproductive cycles throughout the year. Whether female elephants nevertheless concentrate births on periods with maximum offspring survival prospects remains unknown. We investigated the seasonal timing of births, and effects of birth month on short- and long-term mortality of Asian elephants, using a unique demographic data set of 2350 semicaptive, longitudinally monitored logging elephants from Myanmar experiencing seasonal variation in both workload and environmental conditions. Our results show variation in birth rate across the year, with 41% of births occurring between December and March. This corresponds to the cool, dry period and the beginning of the hot season, and to conceptions occurring during the resting, nonlogging period between February and June. Giving birth during the peak December to March period improves offspring survival, as the odds for survival between age 1 and 5 years are 44% higher for individuals born during the high birth rate period than those conceived during working months. Our results suggest that seasonal conditions, most likely maternal workload and/or climate, limit conception rate and calf survival in this population through effects on maternal stress, estrus cycles, or access to mates. This has implications for improving the birth rate and infant survival in captive populations by limiting workload of females of reproductive age. As working populations are currently unsustainable and supplemented through the capture of wild elephants, it is imperative to the conservation of Asian elephants to understand and alleviate the effects of seasonal conditions on vital rates in the working population in order to reduce the pressure for further capture from the wild. PMID:24198940

Mumby, Hannah S; Courtiol, Alexandre; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

2013-10-01

320

A Large Stellar Evolution Database for Population Synthesis Studies. III. Inclusion of the Full Asymptotic Giant Branch Phase and Web Tools for Stellar Population Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar evolution tracks and isochrones are key inputs for a wide range of astrophysical studies; in particular, they are essential to the interpretation of photometric and spectroscopic observations of resolved and unresolved stellar populations. We have made available to the astrophysical community a large, homogenous database of up-to-date stellar tracks and isochrones and a set of programs useful in population synthesis studies. In this paper we first summarize the main properties of our stellar model database (BaSTI ) already introduced by Pietrinferni and coworkers. We then discuss an important update of the database, i.e., the extension of all stellar models and isochrones until the end of the thermal pulses along the asymptotic giant branch. This extension of the library is particularly relevant for stellar population analyses in the near-infrared or longer wavelengths, where the contribution to the integrated photometric properties by cool and bright asymptotic giant branch stars is significant. A few comparisons with empirical data are also presented and briefly discussed. We then present three Web tools that allow an interactive access to the database and make it possible to compute user-specified evolutionary tracks, isochrones, stellar luminosity functions, and synthetic color-magnitude diagrams and integrated magnitudes for arbitrary star formation histories. All these Web tools are available at the BaSTI database official Web site.

Cordier, Daniel; Pietrinferni, Adriano; Cassisi, Santi; Salaris, Maurizio

2007-02-01

321

Large-scale search of SNPs for type 2 DM susceptibility genes in a Japanese population.  

PubMed

The etiology of type 2 diabetes (DM) is polygenic. We investigated here genes and polymorphisms that associate with DM in the Japanese population. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 398 derived from 120 candidate genes were examined for association with DM in a population-based case-control study. The study group consisted of 148 cases and 227 controls recruited from Funagata, Japan. No evident subpopulation structure was detected for the tested population. The association tests were conducted with standard allele positivity tables (chi(2) tests) between SNP genotype frequency and case-control status. The independent association of the SNPs from serum triglyceride levels and body mass index was examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. A value of P<0.01 was accepted as statistically significant. Six genes (met proto-oncogene, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, fatty acid binding protein 2, LDL receptor defect C complementing, aldolase B, and sulfonylurea receptor) were shown to be associated with DM. PMID:12646233

Daimon, Makoto; Ji, Guijin; Saitoh, Tamotsu; Oizumi, Toshihide; Tominaga, Makoto; Nakamura, Takahiro; Ishii, Keisuke; Matsuura, Tadashi; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Matsumine, Hiroto; Kido, Takashi; Htay, Lwin; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Kato, Takeo

2003-03-21

322

Interventions to Prevent Sexual Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the majority of rape-prevention efforts have been directed at female college populations, primarily teaching\\u000a avoidance and self-defense skills (Parrot, 1990). Little was known about adolescent dating and even less about sexual violence\\u000a in adolescence. As knowledge of adolescent sexual assault advanced, primary prevention efforts expanded, and more programs\\u000a began to target younger audiences. Developmentally, it makes sense to educate

Paul A. Schewe

323

Sexual Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... in the mood for sex Trouble becoming aroused (vaginal dryness) and having orgasms Pain during sex or sexual ... barriers to enjoying intimacy. If you're having vaginal dryness, try using an over-the-counter lubricant. Keep ...

324

Sexual Problems  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... sensate focus, which are types of specific sexual exercises. Sex therapists and counselors are mental health providers ... one’s thinking influences feelings and behavior. Sensate focus exercises are structured “touching” activities that are designed to ...

325

Evangelicalism, sexual morality, and sexual addiction: opposing views and continued conflicts.  

PubMed

While much of the Christian evangelical movement fosters judgmental attitudes surrounding sexuality, disapproving of other individuals who exhibit behaviors deemed morally reprehensible, other evangelical denominations embrace different viewpoints about human sexuality. In spite of the existence of ecumenical evangelical groups, the majority defines sexual morality through a narrow and prescriptive outlook and pathologizes certain sexual behaviors. Solutions to identified sexual problems are often provided through restrictive viewpoints despite the existence of largely opposing positions within this movement. Reaction formation and authoritarian personality theory are theorized as the primary explanations for individuals failing to conform to stringent religious sexual expectations. PMID:20182916

Edger, Kailla

2012-03-01

326

Variation in craniomandibular morphology and sexual dimorphism in pantherines and the sabercat Smilodon fatalis.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism is widespread among carnivorans, and has been an important evolutionary factor in social ecology. However, its presence in sabertoothed felids remains contentious. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of extant Panthera and the sabertoothed felid Smilodon fatalis. S. fatalis has been reported to show little or no sexual dimorphism but to have been intraspecifically variable in skull morphology. We found that large and small specimens of S. fatalis could be assigned to male and female sexes with similar degrees of confidence as Panthera based on craniomandibular shape. P. uncia is much less craniomandibularly variable and has low levels of sexual size-dimorphism. Shape variation in S. fatalis probably reflects sexual differences. Craniomandibular size-dimorphism is lower in S. fatalis than in Panthera except P. uncia. Sexual dimorphism in felids is related to more than overall size, and S. fatalis and the four large Panthera species show marked and similar craniomandibular and dental morphometric sexual dimorphism, whereas morphometric dimorphism in P. uncia is less. Many morphometric-sexually dimorphic characters in Panthera and Smilodon are related to bite strength and presumably to killing ecology. This suggests that morphometric sexual dimorphism is an evolutionary adaptation to intraspecific resource partitioning, since large males with thicker upper canines and stronger bite forces would be able to hunt larger prey than females, which is corroborated by feeding ecology in P. leo. Sexual dimorphism indicates that S. fatalis could have been social, but it is unlikely that it lived in fusion-fission units dominated by one or a few males, as in sub-Saharan populations of P. leo. Instead, S. fatalis could have been solitary and polygynous, as most extant felids, or it may have lived in unisexual groups, as is common in P. leo persica. PMID:23110232

Christiansen, Per; Harris, John M

2012-01-01

327

Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.  

PubMed

This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708

Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

2014-06-01

328

Arterial stiffness, fatty liver and the presence of coronary artery calcium in a large population cohort  

PubMed Central

Background We tested whether fatty liver, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and conventional cardiovascular risk factors were associated with a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score?>?0 (as a marker of the presence of early atherosclerosis) in a cohort of healthy Korean adults. Method The study population consisted of individuals who underwent a comprehensive health examination in 2010 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University in South Korea. The 6009 subjects of total 7371 participants who had an assigned CAC score following coronary computed tomography (CT) scanning and baPWV were analyzed. Results Among the study subjects, 39.2% of the population had evidence of fatty liver by ultrasound and 4.6% of the population had evidence of CAC score?>?0. Among individuals with a CAC score?=?0, 38% of the individuals had fatty liver compared with 58% of the individuals with a CAC score?>?0. The individuals with a CAC score?>?0 also had higher blood pressure and had more metabolic abnormalities. The prevalence of CAC score?>?0 was increased according to baPWV quartiles and was higher in the fatty liver group in comparison with those without fatty liver. The odds ratio for CAC score?>?0, after adjusting for clinical risk factors, showed a significant elevation with increasing quartiles of baPWV and the presence of fatty liver. Conclusion We showed that both fatty liver and baPWV are independently associated with the presence of CAC, a marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. These associations are independent of conventional risk factors and medical history.

2013-01-01

329

LifeGene--a large prospective population-based study of global relevance.  

PubMed

Studying gene-environment interactions requires that the amount and quality of the lifestyle data is comparable to what is available for the corresponding genomic data. Sweden has several crucial prerequisites for comprehensive longitudinal biomedical research, such as the personal identity number, the universally available national health care system, continuously updated population and health registries and a scientifically motivated population. LifeGene builds on these strengths to bridge the gap between basic research and clinical applications with particular attention to populations, through a unique design in a research-friendly setting. LifeGene is designed both as a prospective cohort study and an infrastructure with repeated contacts of study participants approximately every 5 years. Index persons aged 18-45 years old will be recruited and invited to include their household members (partner and any children). A comprehensive questionnaire addressing cutting-edge research questions will be administered through the web with short follow-ups annually. Biosamples and physical measurements will also be collected at baseline, and re-administered every 5 years thereafter. Event-based sampling will be a key feature of LifeGene. The household-based design will give the opportunity to involve young couples prior to and during pregnancy, allowing for the first study of children born into cohort with complete pre-and perinatal data from both the mother and father. Questions and sampling schemes will be tailored to the participants' age and life events. The target of LifeGene is to enroll 500,000 Swedes and follow them longitudinally for at least 20 years. PMID:21104112

Almqvist, Catarina; Adami, Hans-Olov; Franks, Paul W; Groop, Leif; Ingelsson, Erik; Kere, Juha; Lissner, Lauren; Litton, Jan-Eric; Maeurer, Markus; Michaëlsson, Karl; Palmgren, Juni; Pershagen, Göran; Ploner, Alexander; Sullivan, Patrick F; Tybring, Gunnel; Pedersen, Nancy L

2011-01-01

330

Mechanisms that control bacterial populations in continuous-flow culture models of mouse large intestinal flora.  

PubMed

A previous study had established that anaerobic continuous-flow (CF) cultures of conventional mouse cecal flora were able to maintain the in vivo ecological balance among the indigenous bacterial species tested. This paper describes experiments designed to determine the mechanisms which control the population sizes of these species in such CF cultures. One strain each of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium sp., and Eubacterium sp. were studied. Growth of these strains in filtrates of CF cultures was considerably more rapid than in the CF cultures themselves, indicating that the inhibitory activity had been lost in the process of filtration. Growth rates to match those in CF cultures could be obtained, however, by restoring the original levels of H(2)S in the culture filtrates. The inhibitory effect of H(2)S in filtrates and in dialysates of CF cultures could be abolished by adding glucose or pyruvate, but not formate or lactate. The fatty acids present in CF cultures matched those in the cecum of conventional mice in both quality and concentration. These acids could not account for the slow rates of growth of the tested strains in CF cultures, but they did cause a marked increase in the initial lag phase of E. coli growth. The results obtained are compatible with the hypothesis that the populations of most indigenous intestinal bacteria are controlled by one or a few nutritional substrates which a given strain can utilize most efficiently in the presence of H(2)S and at the prevailing conditions of pH and anaerobiosis. This hypothesis consequently implies that the populations of enterobacteria, such as the E. coli strain tested, and those of the predominant anaerobes are controlled by analogous mechanisms. PMID:6339388

Freter, R; Brickner, H; Botney, M; Cleven, D; Aranki, A

1983-02-01

331

Environments and populations of supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stellar and interstellar environments of the 32 known SNRs in the LMC have been examined to determine the relative numbers of population I and II progenitors. At least 2/3 of the LMC SNRs are associated with pop I environments. The data suggest that the existing SNR surveys are biased against the detection of SNRs located in evolved star-forming regions, such as supershells produced by OB asociations, and in the cores of luminous H II regions. Therefore, the fraction of SNRs in pop I environments may be even higher. The results are compared to previous studies of SN statistics in late-type galaxies.

Chu, You-Hua; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.

1988-01-01

332

Workplace Bullying and Sleep Disturbances: Findings from a Large Scale Cross-Sectional Survey in the French Working Population  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between workplace bullying, the characteristics of workplace bullying, and sleep disturbances in a large sample of employees of the French working population. Design: Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument developed by Leymann, and sleep disturbances, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physical and chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. Setting: General working population. Participants: The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the southeast of France. Results: Workplace bullying was strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Past exposure to bullying also increased the risk for this outcome. The more frequent the exposure to bullying, the higher the risk of experiencing sleep disturbances. Observing someone else being bullied in the workplace was also associated with the outcome. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms diminished the magnitude of the associations that remained significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of workplace bullying (around 10%) was found to be high in this study as well was the impact of this major job-related stressor on sleep disturbances. Although no conclusion about causality could be drawn from this cross-sectional study, the findings suggest that the contribution of workplace bullying to the burden of sleep disturbances may be substantial. Citation: Niedhammer I; David S; Degioanni S; Drummond A; Philip P. Workplace bullying and sleep disturbances: findings from a large scale cross-sectional survey in the French working population. SLEEP 2009;32(9):1211-1219.

Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stephanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre

2009-01-01

333

Sexual dimorphism in the brain aromatase expression and activity, and in the central expression of other steroidogenic enzymes during the period of sex differentiation in monosex rainbow trout populations.  

PubMed

Using genetic monosex male and female rainbow trout populations, the potential sex differences in the central expression of estrogen receptors (esr1, esr2a, esr2b), brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) and some other steroidogenic enzymes was studied over the period of sex differentiation (from 35 to 63 dpf: days post-fertilization) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). In addition, aromatase activity was evaluated during this period. The results indicated that brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) expression and activity showed a clear and significant sexually dimorphic pattern with higher levels in male brain between 35 and 53 dpf before the time of gonad morphological differentiation. At that time the expression of a key enzyme involved in the conversion of cholesterol into steroids, the cyp11a1 (p450scc), as well as the estrogen receptors were also sexually dimorphic. The dimorphism was lost from 56 dpf onwards. Transcription factors such as nr5a1b (sf1) and nr0b1 (dax1), but not foxl2a were also higher in males than in females. These results demonstrate that, before or during the early period of morphological gonad differentiation, the brain exhibits a clear sexual dimorphism with respect to the expression and activity of aromatase as well as of certain enzymes and factors involved in steroid synthesis as p450scc and sf1. The results suggest a higher potentiality to produce estrogens by male brains during sex differentiation time. PMID:20955710

Vizziano-Cantonnet, Denise; Anglade, Isabelle; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Fostier, Alexis; Guiguen, Yann; Kah, Olivier

2011-01-15

334

Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying  

MedlinePLUS

... like other kinds of bullying, sexual bullying involves comments, gestures, actions, or attention that is intended to ... or harassment may be verbal (like making rude comments to or about someone), but it doesn't ...

335

Sexuality education: Finnish and Chilean experiences.  

PubMed

All children and young people have the right to age-appropriate sexuality education regardless of gender, sexual orientation, ability or faith. Sexuality education provides knowledge, skills and positive values to determine and enjoy their sexuality, have safe, fulfilling relationships if one so wishes and decides, and to take responsibility for their own and for a possible partner's sexual health and well-being. Several international programs have been developed and recently published by the Population Council, IPPF and other coworkers, by UNICEF, and by WHO Europe. This chapter will briefly describe recent global development in sexuality education, and then, as examples, experience from two countries, Finland and Chile. The experiences from these school based programs suggest an important role of sexuality education. PMID:22846538

Apter, Dan; Molina Cartes, Ramiro

2012-01-01

336

Sexually antagonistic coevolution for sexual harassment can act as a barrier to further invasions by parthenogenesis.  

PubMed

The assumption of a twofold cost of sex not only complicates the maintenance of sex but also sets conditions for sexual conflict: in organisms with the twofold cost, males often sexually harass females. Sexual harassment is detrimental to female fitness and thus might help maintain sexual populations if male harassment inflicts a harsher cost on parthenogens than on sexual females (asymmetric harassment cost). However, the generality of this concept is now considered doubtful because selective harassment of parthenogens results in loss of mating opportunities for males. Using three mathematical models, I show here that sexual harassment still can impose the asymmetric cost on parthenogens. First, I apply the Lotka-Volterra model to show the degree of asymmetric harassment cost that permits sex to be maintained stably in the population. Second, using adaptive dynamics, I examine whether sexually antagonistic coevolution for sexual harassment, which occurs only in sexual populations, can promote the asymmetric harassment cost. Finally, an individual-based model, which assumes a spatial structure unlike that in the other two, demonstrates that the asymmetric evolution of harassment cost prevents further invasions of parthenogens from different patches into sexual lineages; these mechanisms may account for allopatric distributions of sexual and parthenogenetic lineages as well as the maintenance of sex. PMID:23348776

Kawatsu, Kazutaka

2013-02-01

337

Inmates' Cultural Beliefs About Sexual Violence and Their Relationship to Definitions of Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern prison system, results suggest that increases in subscriptions to

Shannon K. Fowler; Ashley G. Blackburn; James W. Marquart; Janet L. Mullings

2010-01-01

338

Inmates' Cultural Beliefs about Sexual Violence and Their Relationship to Definitions of Sexual Assault  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…

Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.

2010-01-01

339

The DSM diagnostic criteria for sexual sadism.  

PubMed

I reviewed the empirical literature for 1900-2008 on the paraphilia of Sexual Sadism for the Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Workgroup for the forthcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The results of this review were tabulated into a general summary of the criticisms relevant to the DSM diagnosis of Sexual Sadism, the assessment of Sexual Sadism utilizing the DSM in samples drawn from forensic populations, and the assessment of Sexual Sadism using the DSM in non-forensic populations. I conclude that the diagnosis of Sexual Sadism should be retained, that minimal modifications of the wording of this diagnosis are warranted, and that there is a need for the development of dimensional and structured diagnostic instruments. PMID:19997774

Krueger, Richard B

2010-04-01

340

Changes in the Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse, Its Risk Factors, and Their Associations as a Function of Age Cohort in a Finnish Population Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We examined (1) the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences as a function of cohort and gender, (2) the prevalence of factors associated with CSA as a function of cohort and whether the association of these factors with CSA remained the same irrespective of cohort, and (3) whether any cohort differences could be…

Laaksonen, Toni; Sariola, Heikki; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

2011-01-01

341

Vulvovaginal candida in a young sexually active population: prevalence and association with oro-genital sex and frequent pain at intercourse  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candida among sexually active adolescents. To determine past and present symptoms, including pain at intercourse and potential behavioural risk factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods: At an adolescent centre, 219 sexually active women who underwent genital examination, also completed a questionnaire on a history of genital symptoms and infections, sexual and hygiene habits, and the use of contraceptives. Symptoms and clinical signs were registered. Vaginal samples were analysed for candida species and urine for Chlamydia trachomatis. Results: Candida culture was positive in 42% of the women and only 15% were asymptomatic. A history of recurrent candidiasis was given by 22%. Frequent pain at intercourse was reported by 24% and frequent oro-genital sex by 42% of the women. Frequent pain at intercourse was significantly associated with both the growth of candida and a history of recurrent candidiasis. Oro-genital sex was an independent risk factor for the growth of candida. Conclusion: In sexually active adolescents, who underwent genital examination, candida cultures were positive in 42%. The habit of frequent oro-genital sex was associated with the growth of candida. Pain at intercourse was associated with the growth of candida and recurrent candidiasis.

Rylander, E; Berglund, A; Krassny, C; Petrini, B

2004-01-01

342

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)  

MedlinePLUS

... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Sexually transmitted diseases STDs Sexually transmitted infections STIs Medical or Scientific Names Sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted infections Last Updated ...

343

Dealing with Sexual Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... affect sexuality and fertility Dealing with sexual problems Vaginal dryness Premature menopause Coping with the loss of a ... treatments can affect sexuality and fertility Next Topic Vaginal dryness Dealing with sexual problems When you first think ...

344

Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

345

A dose-response relationship between exposure to a large-scale HIV preventive intervention and consistent condom use with different sexual partners of female sex workers in southern India  

PubMed Central

Background The Avahan Initiative, a large-scale HIV preventive intervention targeted to high-risk populations including female sex workers (FSWs), was initiated in 2003 in six high-prevalence states in India, including Karnataka. This study assessed if intervention exposure was associated with condom use with FSWs’ sexual partners, including a dose-response relationship. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional study (2006-07) of 775 FSWs in three districts in Karnataka. Survey methods accounted for the complex cluster sampling design. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to separately model the relationships between each of five intervention exposure variables and five outcomes for consistent condom use (CCU= always versus frequently/sometimes/never) with different sex partners, including with: all clients; occasional clients; most recent repeat client; most recent non-paying partner; and the husband or cohabiting partner. Linear tests for trends were conducted for three continuous intervention exposure variables. Results FSWs reported highest CCU with all clients (81.7%); CCU was lowest with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner (9.6%). In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with all clients and with occasional clients were 6.3-fold [95% confidence intervals, CIs: 2.8-14.5] and 2.3-fold [95% CIs: 1.4-4.1] higher among FSWs contacted by intervention staff and 4.9-fold [95% CIs: 2.6-9.3] and 2.3-fold [95% CIs: 1.3-4.1] higher among those who ever observed a condom demonstration by staff, respectively, compared to those who had not. A significant dose-response relationship existed between each of these CCU outcomes and increased duration since first contacted by staff (P=0.001; P=0.006) and numbers of condom demonstrations witnessed (P=0.004; P=0.026); a dose-response relationship was also observed between condom use with all clients and number of times contacted by staff (P=0.047). Intervention exposure was not associated with higher odds of CCU with the most recent repeat client, most recent non-paying partner or with the husband or cohabiting partner. Conclusion Study findings suggest that exposure to a large-scale HIV intervention for FSWs was associated with increased CCU with commercial clients. Moreover, there were dose-response relationships between CCU with clients and increased duration since first contacted by staff, times contacted by staff and number of condom demonstrations. Additional program effort is required to increase condom use with non-commercial partners.

2011-01-01

346

Can stimulated Raman pumping cause large population transfers in isolated molecules?  

PubMed

When stimulated Raman pumping (SRP) is applied to a stream of isolated molecules, such as found in a supersonic molecular beam expansion, we show that SRP can neither saturate nor power broaden a molecular transition connecting two metastable levels that is resonant with the energy difference between the pump and Stokes laser pulses. Using the optical Bloch-Feynman equations, we discuss the pumping of the hydrogen molecule from H(2) (v = 0, J = 0, M = 0) to H(2) (v = 1, J = 2, M = 0) as an illustration of how coherent population return severely reduces the SRP pumping efficiency unless the pump and Stokes laser pulses are applied with an appropriate relative delay and ratio of intensities. PMID:22088058

Mukherjee, Nandini; Zare, Richard N

2011-11-14

347

Multiple regression for molecular-marker, quantitative trait data from large F 2 populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular marker-quantitative trait associations are important for breeders to recognize and understand to allow application in selection. This work was done to provide simple, intuitive explanations of trait-marker regression for large samples from an F2 and to examine the properties of the regression estimators. Beginning with a(- 1,0,1) coding of marker classes and expected frequencies in the F2, expected values,

A. J. Wright; R. P. Mowers

1994-01-01

348

Decision-making in adolescent sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In light of the social and public health consequences of at-risk sexual behavior for adolescents, a great need exists to understand adolescent sexual and reproductive decision-making. Further information can guide medical professionals in the intervention and counseling of this at-risk population. The main objective of this preliminary study is to survey female adolescent gynecological patients about their sexual experiences

Melissa Marshall; Diane Merritt

2001-01-01

349

Female sexual health consensus clinical guidelines.  

PubMed

Objective: To establish national guidelines for the assessment of women's sexual health concerns and the provision of sexual heath care for women. Evidence: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from May to October 2010, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., sexuality, "sexual dysfunction," "physiological," dyspareunia) and key words (e.g., sexual dysfunction, sex therapy, anorgasmia). Results were restricted, where possible, to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Each article was screened for relevance and the full text acquired if determined to be relevant. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the members of the Expert Workgroup established by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Values: The quality of evidence was evaluated and recommendations made using the use of criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Summary Statements and Recommendations Introduction Summary Statements 1. Sexual concerns are prevalent in the population. (II-1) 2. Many women have to look outside medicine for solutions to their sexual concerns. (II-1) 3. Many health care providers have the ability to deal with sexual health issues. (II-3) 4. Health care providers need a better understanding of female sexual issues/problems. (II-3) Chapter 1: Sexuality Across the Lifespan Summary Statements 5. Children are sexual from birth. Expression of sexuality is a developmental process. (II-2) 6. Most discourse on adolescent sexuality focuses on the potential for adverse consequences such as exploitation, sexual assault, unwanted pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections, and has generally neglected to communicate to girls that expression of sexuality and sexual experimentation are normal and healthy. (II-2) 7. Age-appropriate sexual expression is a positive part of the development of adolescent girls. Negative, coercive, and discriminatory experiences can detrimentally affect sexual well-being. (II-2) 8. Variations exist in same-sex and opposite-sex sexual behaviour; same-sex and opposite-sex sexual behaviour is not equivalent to self-definition as heterosexual or lesbian or bisexual. Some women who have sex with women may be reluctant to define themselves as lesbian because women who identify themselves or who are identified by others as lesbian or bisexual may experience social discrimination. (II-2) 9. Women express their sexuality in a variety of ways and in a variety of situations, including with a partner and through masturbation. (II-2) 10. Masturbation and self-pleasuring can be important for self-knowledge and as a sexual outlet in themselves for women who have and those who do not have a partner. (III) 11. Relationship factors have a major influence on a woman's sexual well-being. (II-2) 12. Pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as experience with infertility, can affect sexual functioning. (II-2) 13. Decline in frequency of sexual activity at menopause does not alter women's potential for desire, arousal, orgasm, sexual pleasure, or sexual satisfaction. (II-2) 14. Psychological, relationship, social, cultural, and biological factors affect women's sexual well-being as they age and experience menopause. (II-2) 15. Most women with a partner continue to engage in sexual activity. Women often cease sexual activity not because of lack of interest but because they do not have a partner. (II-2) 16. Women's sexuality may be affected by biological events (e.g., puberty, childbirth, menopause, and aging), by their own p

Lamont, John

2012-08-01

350

[Role of general hospitals in health services to population of a large city].  

PubMed

Parameters characterizing public health activities in Chelyabinsk are analyzed. Time course of volume parameters characterizing the activities of multi-discipline hospitals and analogous parameters for the whole city demonstrate their relationships and necessitate optimization of management of primarily large multi-discipline institutions. Among the elements of this optimization are planning of volume parameters of the treatment-and-prophylaxis institutions in accordance with the municipal order, revision of indications for hospitalization, control of validity of hospitalization, and improvement of managing technologies in outpatient clinics. PMID:11763766

Alekseev, N A

2001-01-01

351

Laparoscopic vs Open Colectomy for Colon Cancer: Results from a Large Nationwide Population-based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Laparoscopic colectomy has only recently become an accepted technique for the treatment of colon cancer. We sought to analyze\\u000a factors that affect the type of resection performed and associated outcomes from a large nationwide database.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  All admissions with a primary diagnosis of colon cancer undergoing elective resection were selected from the 2003 and 2004\\u000a Nationwide Inpatient Samples. Multiple linear and

Scott R. Steele; Tommy A. Brown; Robert M. Rush; Matthew J. Martin

2008-01-01

352

Combination antiretroviral therapy in population affected by conflict: outcomes from large cohort in northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure the clinical and immunological outcomes of HIV positive adult patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in conflict affected northern Uganda. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Gulu District, northern Uganda. Participants 1625 adults (aged over 14 years) receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: all cause mortality. Secondary outcomes: impact of covariates (sex, age, CD4 count at start, adherence, tuberculosis at start, duration of treatment, and internally displaced person status) on mortality. Results Sixty nine (4.2%) patients died during follow-up. The mortality incidence rate was 3.48 (95% confidence interval 2.66 to 4.31) per 100 person years. Patients started treatment with a median CD4 count of 157 (interquartile range 90-220) cells/?l; most (1009; 63%) had World Health Organization stage 2 defined illness. Sixty two patients had pulmonary tuberculosis at the start of treatment. Of the 1521 patients with adherence data, 118 (7.8%) had adherence of less than 95% and 1403 (92.2%) had adherence of 95% or above. Conclusion Patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in conflict affected northern Uganda had a mortality comparable to that of patients in peaceful, low income settings and better adherence than patients in higher income settings. These favourable findings highlight the need to expand access to combination antiretroviral therapy in populations affected by armed conflict.

2009-01-01

353

CLUSTERING OF LARGE CELL POPULATIONS: METHOD AND APPLICATION TO THE BASAL FOREBRAIN CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM  

PubMed Central

Functionally related groups of neurons spatially cluster together in the brain. To detect groups of functionally related neurons from 3D histological data, we developed an objective clustering method that provides a description of detected cell clusters that is quantitative and amenable to visual exploration. This method is based on bubble clustering (Gupta and Gosh, 2008). Our implementation consists of three steps: (i) an initial data exploration for scanning the clustering parameter space; (ii) determination of the optimal clustering parameters; (iii) final clustering. We designed this algorithm to flexibly detect clusters without assumptions about the underlying cell distribution within a cluster or the number and sizes of clusters. We implemented the clustering function as an integral part of the neuroanatomical data visualization software Virtual RatBrain (http://www.virtualratbrain.org). We applied this algorithm to the basal forebrain cholinergic system, which consists of a diffuse but inhomogeneous population of neurons (Zaborszky, 1992). With this clustering method, we confirmed the inhomogeneity in this system, defined cell clusters, quantified and localized them, and determined the cell density within clusters. Furthermore, by applying the clustering method to multiple specimens from both rat and monkey, we found that cholinergic clusters display remarkable cross-species preservation of cell density within clusters. This method is efficient not only for clustering cell body distributions but may also be used to study other distributed neuronal structural elements, including synapses, receptors, dendritic spines and molecular markers.

Nadasdy, Zoltan; Varsanyi, Peter; Zaborszky, Laszlo

2010-01-01

354

A large population of king crabs in Palmer Deep on the west Antarctic Peninsula shelf and potential invasive impacts  

PubMed Central

Lithodid crabs (and other skeleton-crushing predators) may have been excluded from cold Antarctic continental shelf waters for more than 14 Myr. The west Antarctic Peninsula shelf is warming rapidly and has been hypothesized to be soon invaded by lithodids. A remotely operated vehicle survey in Palmer Deep, a basin 120 km onto the Antarctic shelf, revealed a large, reproductive population of lithodids, providing the first evidence that king crabs have crossed the Antarctic shelf. DNA sequencing and morphology indicate the lithodid is Neolithodes yaldwyni Ahyong & Dawson, previously reported only from Ross Sea waters. We estimate a N. yaldwyni population density of 10 600 km?2 and a population size of 1.55 × 106 in Palmer Deep, a density similar to lithodid populations of commercial interest around Alaska and South Georgia. The lithodid occurred at depths of more than 850 m and temperatures of more than 1.4°C in Palmer Deep, and was not found in extensive surveys of the colder shelf at depths of 430–725 m. Where N. yaldwyni occurred, crab traces were abundant, megafaunal diversity reduced and echinoderms absent, suggesting that the crabs have major ecological impacts. Antarctic Peninsula shelf waters are warming at approximately 0.01°C yr?1; if N. yaldwyni is currently limited by cold temperatures, it could spread up onto the shelf (400–600 m depths) within 1–2 decades. The Palmer Deep N. yaldwyni population provides an important model for the potential invasive impacts of crushing predators on vulnerable Antarctic shelf ecosystems.

Smith, Craig R.; Grange, Laura J.; Honig, David L.; Naudts, Lieven; Huber, Bruce; Guidi, Lionel; Domack, Eugene

2012-01-01

355

A large population of king crabs in Palmer Deep on the west Antarctic Peninsula shelf and potential invasive impacts.  

PubMed

Lithodid crabs (and other skeleton-crushing predators) may have been excluded from cold Antarctic continental shelf waters for more than 14 Myr. The west Antarctic Peninsula shelf is warming rapidly and has been hypothesized to be soon invaded by lithodids. A remotely operated vehicle survey in Palmer Deep, a basin 120 km onto the Antarctic shelf, revealed a large, reproductive population of lithodids, providing the first evidence that king crabs have crossed the Antarctic shelf. DNA sequencing and morphology indicate the lithodid is Neolithodes yaldwyni Ahyong & Dawson, previously reported only from Ross Sea waters. We estimate a N. yaldwyni population density of 10 600 km(-2) and a population size of 1.55 × 10(6) in Palmer Deep, a density similar to lithodid populations of commercial interest around Alaska and South Georgia. The lithodid occurred at depths of more than 850 m and temperatures of more than 1.4°C in Palmer Deep, and was not found in extensive surveys of the colder shelf at depths of 430-725 m. Where N. yaldwyni occurred, crab traces were abundant, megafaunal diversity reduced and echinoderms absent, suggesting that the crabs have major ecological impacts. Antarctic Peninsula shelf waters are warming at approximately 0.01°C yr(-1); if N. yaldwyni is currently limited by cold temperatures, it could spread up onto the shelf (400-600 m depths) within 1-2 decades. The Palmer Deep N. yaldwyni population provides an important model for the potential invasive impacts of crushing predators on vulnerable Antarctic shelf ecosystems. PMID:21900324

Smith, Craig R; Grange, Laura J; Honig, David L; Naudts, Lieven; Huber, Bruce; Guidi, Lionel; Domack, Eugene

2012-03-01

356

Hepatitis C virus infection in a large cohort of homosexually active men: independent associations with HIV-1 infection and injecting drug use but not sexual behaviour.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a cohort of homosexually active men, with particular reference to assessing sexual transmission. DESIGN: Prevalence based on cross-sectional testing for HCV (c100 protein) antibody in a cohort using sera stored between 1984 and 1989, and assessment of risk factors using a case-control analysis based on questionnaire data from HCV positive and negative subjects. SUBJECTS/SETTING: 1038 homosexually active men who were participating in a prospective study established to identify risk factors for AIDS. They had been recruited through private and public primary care and sexually transmissible disease (STD) services in central Sydney. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of HCV antibody and its association with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and other STDs, number of sexual partners, sexual practices and recreational drug use. RESULTS: Overall, 7.6% of subjects tested were seropositive for HCV antibody. In univariate analysis, HCV infection was significantly associated with injecting drug use (IDU) (OR = 8.18, p < 0.0001) and HIV infection (OR = 3.14, p < 0.0001) and with self reported history of syphilis (OR = 1.88, p = 0.016), anogenital herpes (OR = 1.93, p = 0.017), gonorrhoea (OR = 2.43, p = 0.009) and hepatitis B (OR = 1.92, p = 0.010). In case control analysis, similar sexual behaviours (partner numbers and practices) were reported by HCV positive and HCV negative subjects except that HCV negative subjects more frequently reported engaging than HCV positive subject in unprotected receptive anal intercourse without ejaculation (OR = 0.61, p = 0.034), unprotected insertive (OR = 0.59, p = 0.039) and receptive (OR = 0.56, p = 0.016) oro-anal intercourse (rimming) and insertive fisting (OR = 0.48, p = 0.034). In multiple logistic regression analyses, only HIV-1 infection (OR = 3.18, p < 0.0001) and IDU in the previous six months (OR = 7.24, p < 0.0001) remained significantly associated with the presence of HCV antibody. CONCLUSIONS: IDU was the major behavioural risk factor for HCV infection. If sexual or another from of transmission did occur, it may have been facilitated by concurrent HIV-1 infection.

Bodsworth, N J; Cunningham, P; Kaldor, J; Donovan, B

1996-01-01

357

Prevalence, awareness and risk factors of hypertension in a large cohort of Iranian adult population  

PubMed Central

Background There is considerable variation in hypertension prevalence and awareness, and their correlates, across different geographic locations and ethnic groups. We performed this cross-sectional analysis on data from the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). Methods Enrollment in this study occurred in 2004–2008, and included 50,045 healthy subjects from Golestan Province in northeastern Iran. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ?140, a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ?90, a prior diagnosis of hypertension, or the use of antihypertensive drugs. Potential correlates of hypertension and its awareness were analyzed by logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, BMI, place of residence, literacy, ethnicity, physical activity, smoking, black and green tea consumption and wealth score. Results Of the total cohort participants, 21,350 (42.7%) were hypertensive. Age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, using the 2001 WHO standard world population, was 41.8% (95%CI: 38.3%–45.2%). Hypertension was directly associated with female sex, increased BMI, Turkmen ethnicity, and lack of physical activity, and inversely associated with drinking black tea and wealth score. Among hypertensive subjects, 46.2% were aware of their disease, 17.6% were receiving antihypertensive medication, and 32.1% of the treated subjects had controlled hypertension. Hypertension awareness was greater among women, the elderly, overweight and obese subjects, and those with a higher wealth score. Conclusions Hypertension is highly prevalent in rural Iran, many of the affected individuals are unaware of their disease, and the rate of control by antihypertensive medications is low. Increasing hypertension awareness and access to health services, especially among less privileged residents are recommended.

MALEKZADEH, Masoud M.; ETEMADI, Arash; KAMANGAR, Farin; KHADEMI, Hooman; GOLOZAR, Asieh; ISLAMI, Farhad; POURSHAMS, Akram; POUSTCHI, Hossein; NAVABAKHSH, Behrouz; NAEMI, Mohammad; PHAROAH, Paul D.; ABNET, Christian C.; BRENNAN, Paul; BOFFETTA, Paolo; DAWSEY, Sanford M.; ESTEGHAMATI, Alireza; MALEKZADEH, Reza

2013-01-01

358

Large-scale comparative analysis of pertussis population dynamics: periodicity, synchrony, and impact of vaccination.  

PubMed

Pertussis is a worldwide infectious disease which persists despite massive vaccination campaigns that have gone on for several decades. To obtain an overall view of pertussis dynamics and the impact of vaccination, the authors performed, using the wavelet method, a comparative analysis of pertussis time series in 12 countries to detect and quantify periodicity and synchrony between them. Results showed a clear 3- to 4-year cycle in all countries, but the main finding was that this periodicity was transient. No global pattern in the effect of vaccination on pertussis dynamics was observed, but some spatial synchrony between countries was detected. This large-scale comparative analysis of pertussis dynamics sheds light on the complexity of the multiple interactions involved in global pertussis spatial dynamic patterns. It suggests a need to perform a global survey of human infectious diseases over the long term, which would permit better assessment of the risk of disease outbreaks in the future. PMID:15937025

Broutin, Hélène; Guégan, Jean-François; Elguero, Eric; Simondon, François; Cazelles, Bernard

2005-06-15

359

Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Low Back: I. Overview of Large Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific and medical data have been gathered for nearly 500 motor-vehicle occupants, whose dynamic response[1-2] was calculated to determine the forces generated at all potential injury sites. Particular attention was paid to the load within the lumbosacral spine to examine the influence of certain variables relating to the occupant (height, weight, sex), the impact (magnitude, direction), and the low back itself (local vector, anatomical level). Exhaustive efforts were made to match the force with each variable using linear and logarithmic fits, but correlation coefficients were generally not high. These results might be influenced by the emphasis in this research to obtain the best statistics with large groupings of patients. Hence, a separate study with more detail is proposed as a significant continuation of this effort. 1. Proper Treatment of Complex Human Structures, Announcer 27 (4), 100 (1997); 2. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: I & II, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45, 1018 (2000).

Shaibani, Saami J.

2001-03-01

360

Variability in mutational fitness effects prevents full lethal transitions in large quasispecies populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of mutational fitness effects (DMFE) is crucial to the evolutionary fate of quasispecies. In this article we analyze the effect of the DMFE on the dynamics of a large quasispecies by means of a phenotypic version of the classic Eigen's model that incorporates beneficial, neutral, deleterious, and lethal mutations. By parameterizing the model with available experimental data on the DMFE of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Tobacco etch virus (TEV), we found that increasing mutation does not totally push the entire viral quasispecies towards deleterious or lethal regions of the phenotypic sequence space. The probability of finding regions in the parameter space of the general model that results in a quasispecies only composed by lethal phenotypes is extremely small at equilibrium and in transient times. The implications of our findings can be extended to other scenarios, such as lethal mutagenesis or genomically unstable cancer, where increased mutagenesis has been suggested as a potential therapy.

Sardanyés, Josep; Simó, Carles; Martínez, Regina; Solé, Ricard V.; Elena, Santiago F.

2014-04-01

361

A population of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope.  

PubMed

Pulsars are born with subsecond spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface. PMID:19574349

Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bignami, G F; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Camilo, F; Caraveo, P A; Carlson, P; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cognard, I; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbet, R; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; Desvignes, G; de Angelis, A; de Luca, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Freire, P C C; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hobbs, G; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Johnston, S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kramer, M; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Manchester, R N; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; McLaughlin, M A; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ransom, S M; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stappers, B W; Starck, J L; Striani, E; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Theureau, G; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Van Etten, A; Vasileiou, V; Venter, C; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wang, P; Watters, K; Webb, N; Weltevrede, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

2009-08-14

362

Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: I. Overview of Large Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific and medical data have been gathered for nearly 500 motor-vehicle occupants, whose dynamic response[1-2] was calculated to determine the forces generated at all potential injury sites. Particular attention was paid to the load within the cervical spine to examine the influence of certain variables relating to the occupant (height, weight, sex), the impact (magnitude, direction), and the neck itself (local vector, anatomical level). Exhaustive efforts were made to match the force with each variable using linear and logarithmic fits, but correlation coefficients were generally not high. These results might be influenced by the emphasis in this research to obtain the best statistics with large groupings of patients. Hence, a separate study with more detail is proposed as a significant continuation of this effort. 1. Proper Treatment of Complex Human Structures, Announcer 27 (4), 100 (1997); 2. Physics as a Key Element in the Complete Description of Dichotomies in Injury Distribution, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 274 (1999).

Shaibani, Saami J.

2000-03-01

363

Anti-MDA5 Antibodies in a Large Mediterranean Population of Adults with Dermatomyositis  

PubMed Central

A new myositis-specific autoantibody directed against melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (anti-MDA5) has been described in patients with dermatomyositis (DM). We report the clinical characteristics of patients with anti-MDA5 in a large Mediterranean cohort of DM patients from a single center, and analyze the feasibility of detecting this autoantibody in patient sera using new assays with commercially available recombinant MDA5. The study included 117 white adult patients with DM, 15 (13%) of them classified as clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM). Clinical manifestations were analyzed, with special focus on interstitial lung disease and its severity. Determination of anti-MDA5 antibodies was performed by a new ELISA and immunoblot technique. In sera, from 14 (12%) DM patients (8 CADM), MDA5 was recognized by ELISA, and confirmed by immunoblot. Eight of the 14 anti-MDA5-positive patients (57.14%) presented rapidly-progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) versus 3 of 103 anti-MDA5-negative patients (2.91%) (P < 0.05; OR: 44.4, 95% CI 9.3–212). The cumulative survival rate was significantly lower in anti-MDA5-positive patients than in the remainder of the series (P < 0.05). Patients with anti-MDA5-associated ILD presented significantly lower 70-month cumulative survival than antisynthetase-associated ILD patients. Among the cutaneous manifestations, only panniculitis was significantly associated with the presence of anti-MDA5 antibodies (P < 0.05; OR: 3.85, 95% CI 1.11–13.27). These findings support the reliability of using commercially available recombinant MDA5 for detecting anti-MDA5 antibodies and confirm the association of these antibodies with RP-ILD in a large series of Mediterranean patients with DM.

Martinez, Maria Angeles; Trallero-Araguas, Ernesto; Balada, Eva; Vilardell-Tarres, Miquel; Juarez, Candido

2014-01-01

364

A Large Population Genetic Study of 15 Autosomal Short Tandem Repeat Loci for Establishment of Korean DNA Profile Database  

PubMed Central

Genotyping of highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers is widely used for the genetic identification of individuals in forensic DNA analyses and in paternity disputes. The National DNA Profile Databank recently established by the DNA Identification Act in Korea contains the computerized STR DNA profiles of individuals convicted of crimes. For the establishment of a large autosomal STR loci population database, 1805 samples were obtained at random from Korean individuals and 15 autosomal STR markers were analyzed using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. For the 15 autosomal STR markers, no deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The most informative locus in our data set was the D2S1338 with a discrimination power of 0.9699. The combined matching probability was 1.521 × 10-17. This large STR profile dataset including atypical alleles will be important for the establishment of the Korean DNA database and for forensic applications.

Yoo, Seong Yeon; Cho, Nam Soo; Park, Myung Jin; Seong, Ki Min; Hwang, Jung Ho; Song, Seok Bean; Han, Myun Soo; Lee, Won Tae; Chung, Ki Wha

2011-01-01

365

Inmate Sexual Assault: The Plague That Persists  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the population of incarcerated inmates continues to swell to record proportions in the United States, the problem of inmate sexual assault continues to occur. Although no one is immune from such attacks, there are known characteristics that place inmates at increased risk of victimization. The trauma of inmate sexual assault is dev- astating and pervasive, with complex medical, physical,

ROBERT W. DUMOND

2000-01-01

366

Sexual Partner Preference in Female Japanese Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese

Paul L. Vasey

2002-01-01

367

Large indoor cage study of the suppression of stable Aedes aegypti populations by the release of thiotepa-sterilised males.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. In this study, we determined the efficacy of thiotepa-sterilised males in reducing the target Aedes aegypti populations. Treated male pupae were released weekly into large laboratory cages at a constant ratio of either 5:1 or 2:1 sterile-to-fertile males. A two-to-one release ratio reduced the hatch rate of eggs laid in the cage by approximately a third and reduced the adult catch rate by approximately a quarter, but a 5:1 release drove the population to elimination after 15 weeks of release. These results indicate that thiotepa exposure is an effective means of sterilising Ae. aegypti and males thus treated are able to reduce the reproductive capacity of a stable population under laboratory conditions. Further testing of the method in semi-field enclosures is required to evaluate the mating competitiveness of sterile males when exposed to natural environmental conditions. If proven effective, SIT using thiotepa-sterilised males may be incorporated into an integrated programme of vector control to combat dengue in Cuba. PMID:24863972

Gato, René; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Bruzon, Rosa Y; Companioni, Ariamys; Menendez, Zulema; González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Misladys

2014-06-01

368

Parameter estimation for basin-scale ecosystem-linked population models of large pelagic predators: Application to skipjack tuna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Spatial Ecosystem and Population Dynamic Model (SEAPODYM) is used in a data assimilation study aiming to estimate model parameters that describe dynamics of Pacific skipjack tuna population on ocean-based scale. The model based on advection-diffusion-reaction equations explicitly predicts spatial dynamics of large pelagic predators, while taking into account data on several mid-trophic level components, oceanic primary productivity and physical environment. In order to improve its quantitative ability, the model was parameterized through assimilation with commercial fisheries data, and optimization was carried out using maximum likelihood estimation approach. To address the optimization task we implemented an adjoint technique to obtain an exact, analytical evaluation of the likelihood gradient. We conducted a series of computer experiments in order to (i) determine model sensitivity with respect to variable parameters and, hence, investigate their observability; (ii) estimate observable parameters and their errors; and (iii) justify the reliability of the computed solution. Parameters describing recruitment, movement, habitat preferences, natural and fishing mortality of skipjack population were analysed and estimated. Results of the study suggest that SEAPODYM with achieved parameterization scheme can help to investigate the impact of fishing under various management scenarios, and also conduct forecasts of a given species stock and spatial dynamics in a context of environmental and climate changes.

Senina, Inna; Sibert, John; Lehodey, Patrick

2008-09-01

369

The effects of workplace health promotion on absenteeism and employment costs in a large industrial population.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the impact of a comprehensive workplace health promotion program on absences among full-time employees in a large, multi-location, diversified industrial company. A pretest-posttest control group design was used to study 41 intervention sites and 19 control sites with 29,315 and 14,573 hourly employees, respectively. Blue-collar employees at intervention sites experienced an 14.0 percent decline in disability days over two years versus a 5.8 percent decline at control sites. This resulted in a net difference of 11,726 fewer disability days over two years at program sites compared with non-program sites. Savings due to lower disability costs at intervention sites offset program costs in the first year, and provided a return of $2.05 for every dollar invested in the program by the end of the second year. These results suggest that comprehensive workplace health promotion programs can reduce disability days among blue collar employees and provide a good return on investment.

Bertera, R L

1990-01-01

370

Rapid impact testing for quantitative assessment of large populations of bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the widely acknowledged shortcomings of visual inspection have fueled significant advances in the areas of non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring (SHM) over the last several decades, the actual practice of bridge assessment has remained largely unchanged. The authors believe the lack of adoption, especially of SHM technologies, is related to the 'single structure' scenarios that drive most research. To overcome this, the authors have developed a concept for a rapid single-input, multiple-output (SIMO) impact testing device that will be capable of capturing modal parameters and estimating flexibility/deflection basins of common highway bridges during routine inspections. The device is composed of a trailer-mounted impact source (capable of delivering a 50 kip impact) and retractable sensor arms, and will be controlled by an automated data acquisition, processing and modal parameter estimation software. The research presented in this paper covers (a) the theoretical basis for SISO, SIMO and MIMO impact testing to estimate flexibility, (b) proof of concept numerical studies using a finite element model, and (c) a pilot implementation on an operating highway bridge. Results indicate that the proposed approach can estimate modal flexibility within a few percent of static flexibility; however, the estimated modal flexibility matrix is only reliable for the substructures associated with the various SIMO tests. To overcome this shortcoming, a modal 'stitching' approach for substructure integration to estimate the full Eigen vector matrix is developed, and preliminary results of these methods are also presented.

Zhou, Yun; Prader, John; Devitis, John; Deal, Adrienne; Zhang, Jian; Moon, Franklin; Aktan, A. Emin

2011-03-01

371

A LARGE STELLAR EVOLUTION DATABASE FOR POPULATION SYNTHESIS STUDIES. VI. WHITE DWARF COOLING SEQUENCES  

SciTech Connect

We present a new set of cooling models and isochrones for both H- and He-atmosphere white dwarfs (WDs), incorporating accurate boundary conditions from detailed model atmosphere calculations, and carbon-oxygen chemical abundance profiles based on updated stellar evolution calculations from the BaSTI stellar evolution archive-a theoretical data center for the Virtual Observatory. We discuss and quantify the uncertainties in the cooling times predicted by the models, arising from the treatment of mixing during the central H- and He-burning phases, the number of thermal pulses experienced by the progenitors, progenitor metallicity, and the {sup 12}C({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 16}O reaction rate. The largest sources of uncertainty turn out to be related to the treatment of convection during the last stages of the progenitor central He-burning phase and the {sup 12}C({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 16}O reaction rate. We compare our new models to previous calculations performed with the same stellar evolution code, and discuss their application to the estimate of the age of the solar neighborhood and the interpretation of the observed number ratios between H- and He-atmosphere WDs. The new WD sequences and an extensive set of WD isochrones that cover a large range of ages and progenitor metallicities are made publicly available at the official BaSTI Web site.

Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 12 Quays House, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, via M. Maggini, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Kowalski, P. M. [Helmholtz-Centre Potsdam-GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 3.3, D-14473, Potsdam (Germany); Isern, J., E-mail: ms@astro.livjm.ac.u, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.i, E-mail: adriano@oa-teramo.inaf.i [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC), Facultat de Ciencies, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

2010-06-20

372

Initial guess by improved population-based intelligent algorithms for large inter-frame deformation measurement using digital image correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital image correlation (DIC) has received a widespread research and application in experimental mechanics. In DIC, the performance of subpixel registration algorithm (e.g., Newton-Raphson method, quasi-Newton method) relies heavily on the initial guess of deformation. In the case of small inter-frame deformation, the initial guess could be found by simple search scheme, the coarse-fine search for instance. While for large inter-frame deformation, it is difficult for simple search scheme to robustly estimate displacement parameters and deformation parameters simultaneously with low computational cost. In this paper, we proposed three improving strategies, i.e. Q-stage evolutionary strategy (T), parameter control strategy (C) and space expanding strategy (E), and then combined them into three population-based intelligent algorithms (PIAs), i.e. genetic algorithm (GA), differential evolution (DE) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), and finally derived eighteen different algorithms to calculate the initial guess for qN. The eighteen algorithms were compared in three sets of experiments including large rigid body translation, finite uniaxial strain and large rigid body rotation, and the results showed the effectiveness of proposed improving strategies. Among all compared algorithms, DE-TCE is the best which is robust, convenient and efficient for large inter-frame deformation measurement.

Zhao, Jia-qing; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Li-ping; Ma, Yuan

2012-03-01

373

Genome-wide association mapping identifies the genetic basis of discrete and quantitative variation in sexual weaponry in a wild sheep population.  

PubMed

Understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic variation in natural populations is a fundamental goal of evolutionary genetics. Wild Soay sheep (Ovis aries) have an inherited polymorphism for horn morphology in both sexes, controlled by a single autosomal locus, Horns. The majority of males have large normal horns, but a small number have vestigial, deformed horns, known as scurs; females have either normal horns, scurs or no horns (polled). Given that scurred males and polled females have reduced fitness within each sex, it is counterintuitive that the polymorphism persists within the population. Therefore, identifying the genetic basis of horn type will provide a vital foundation for understanding why the different morphs are maintained in the face of natural selection. We conducted a genome-wide association study using ?36000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and determined the main candidate for Horns as RXFP2, an autosomal gene with a known involvement in determining primary sex characters in humans and mice. Evidence from additional SNPs in and around RXFP2 supports a new model of horn-type inheritance in Soay sheep, and for the first time, sheep with the same horn phenotype but different underlying genotypes can be identified. In addition, RXFP2 was shown to be an additive quantitative trait locus (QTL) for horn size in normal-horned males, accounting for up to 76% of additive genetic variation in this trait. This finding contrasts markedly from genome-wide association studies of quantitative traits in humans and some model species, where it is often observed that mapped loci only explain a modest proportion of the overall genetic variation. PMID:21651634

Johnston, Susan E; McEwan, John C; Pickering, Natalie K; Kijas, James W; Beraldi, Dario; Pilkington, Jill G; Pemberton, Josephine M; Slate, Jon

2011-06-01

374

Histories of Sexual Abuse in Adolescent Male Runaways.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated data on sexual victimization, physical victimization, family structure, family financial stability, delinquent and criminal activities, and reasons for running away in histories of 89 Canadian male runaways. Runaways evidenced dramatically higher rates of sexual and physical abuse than did randomly sampled populations. Sexually abused…

Janus, Mark-David; And Others

1987-01-01

375

Assessing female sexual offenders’ motivations and cognitions: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-structured interviews eliciting cognitions and motivations were carried out with 15 incarcerated female child sexual abusers (nearly 50% of the current UK female sexual offender prison population). Qualitative analysis indicated that four of the five motivational schemas (implicit theories) suggested by Ward (Ward, 2000; Ward & Keenan, 1999) to underlie male sexual offenders’ cognitions could be clearly identified in women,

Anthony R. Beech; Natalie Parrett; Tony Ward; Dawn Fisher

2009-01-01

376

THE MAGELLANIC MOPRA ASSESSMENT (MAGMA). I. THE MOLECULAR CLOUD POPULATION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

We present the properties of an extensive sample of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) mapped at 11 pc resolution in the CO(1-0) line. Targets were chosen based on a limiting CO flux and peak brightness as measured by the NANTEN survey. The observations were conducted with the ATNF Mopra Telescope as part of the Magellanic Mopra Assessment. We identify clouds as regions of connected CO emission and find that the distributions of cloud sizes, fluxes, and masses are sensitive to the choice of decomposition parameters. In all cases, however, the luminosity function of CO clouds is steeper than dN/dL{proportional_to}L{sup -2}, suggesting that a substantial fraction of mass is in low-mass clouds. A correlation between size and linewidth, while apparent for the largest emission structures, breaks down when those structures are decomposed into smaller structures. We argue that the correlation between virial mass and CO luminosity is the result of comparing two covariant quantities, with the correlation appearing tighter on larger scales where a size-linewidth relation holds. The virial parameter (the ratio of a cloud's kinetic to self-gravitational energy) shows a wide range of values and exhibits no clear trends with the CO luminosity or the likelihood of hosting young stellar object (YSO) candidates, casting further doubt on the assumption of virialization for molecular clouds in the LMC. Higher CO luminosity increases the likelihood of a cloud harboring a YSO candidate, and more luminous YSOs are more likely to be coincident with detectable CO emission, confirming the close link between giant molecular clouds and massive star formation.

Wong, Tony; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Looney, Leslie W.; Seale, Jonathan; Welty, Daniel E. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hughes, Annie; Maddison, Sarah [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Muller, Erik; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Pineda, Jorge L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Paradis, Deborah [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Henkel, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Klein, Ulrich, E-mail: wongt@astro.illinois.edu [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

2011-12-01

377

Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.  

PubMed

Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning. PMID:21667232

Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

2012-04-01

378

Correlates of Sexual Functioning in Women Veterans: Mental Health, Gynecologic Health, Health Status, and Sexual Assault History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military women are a unique population with occupational risks that may influence their sexual health, yet relatively little is know about specific correlates associated with servicewomen's sexual functioning. 1004 Midwestern U.S. women veterans ? 52 years of age completed a telephone interview assessing sexual assault history, mental health, gynecologic health, and health-related quality of life. Half experienced at least one

Anne G. Sadler; Michelle A. Mengeling; Sarah S. Fraley; James C. Torner; Brenda M. Booth

2012-01-01

379

Assessing knowledge of human papillomavirus and collecting data on sexual behavior: computer assisted telephone versus face to face interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Education campaigns seeking to raise awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) and promoting HPV vaccination depend on accurate surveys of public awareness and knowledge of HPV and related sexual behavior. However, the most recent population-based studies have relied largely on computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) as opposed to face to face interviews (FTFI). It is currently unknown how these survey modes

Anthony Smith; Anthony Lyons; Marian Pitts; Samantha Croy; Richard Ryall; Suzanne Garland; Mee Lian Wong; Eng Hseon Tay

2009-01-01

380

Sexual Experiences Survey: Reliability and Validity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes reliability and validity data for the Sexual Experiences Survey, a self-report instrument designed to identify hidden rape victims and undetected offenders among a normal population. (Author/BH)

Koss, Mary P.; Gidycz, Christine A.

1985-01-01

381

Sexually transmitted organisms in sexually abused children  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo establish the prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms and other genital organisms in potentially sexually abused children.DESIGNProspective study of children attending an inner London department of community paediatrics for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.SUBJECTSChildren under 16 referred for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.OUTCOME MEASURESPrevalence of sexually transmitted organisms in relation to age, symptoms, and type of abuse.RESULTSSwabs were taken from

A J Robinson; J E M Watkeys; G L Ridgway

1998-01-01

382

Requirements for discrete actuator and segmented wavefront correctors for aberration compensation in two large populations of human eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous types of wavefront correctors have been employed in adaptive optics (AO) systems for correcting the ocular wavefront aberration. While all have improved image quality, none have yielded diffraction-limited imaging for large pupils (?6 mm), where the aberrations are most severe and the benefit of AO the greatest. To this end, we modeled the performance of discrete actuator, segmented piston-only, and segmented piston/tip/tilt wavefront correctors in conjunction with wavefront aberrations measured on normal human eyes in two large populations. The wavefront error was found to be as large as 53 ?m, depending heavily on the pupil diameter (2-7.5 mm) and the particular refractive state. The required actuator number for diffraction-limited imaging was determined for three pupil sizes (4.5, 6, and 7.5 mm), three second-order aberration states, and four imaging wavelengths (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 ?m). The number across the pupil varied from only a few actuators in the discrete case to greater than 100 for the piston-only corrector. The results presented will help guide the development of wavefront correctors for the next generation of ophthalmic instrumentation.

Doble, Nathan; Miller, Donald T.; Yoon, Geunyoung; Williams, David R.

2007-07-01

383

Requirements for discrete actuator and segmented wavefront correctors for aberration compensation in two large populations of human eyes  

PubMed Central

Numerous types of wavefront correctors have been employed in adaptive optics (AO) systems for correcting the ocular wavefront aberration. While all have improved image quality, none have yielded diffraction-limited imaging for large pupils (?6 mm), where the aberrations are most severe and the benefit of AO the greatest. To this end, we modeled the performance of discrete actuator, segmented piston-only, and segmented piston/tip/tilt wavefront correctors in conjunction with wavefront aberrations measured on normal human eyes in two large populations. The wavefront error was found to be as large as 53 ?m, depending heavily on the pupil diameter (2–7.5 mm) and the particular refractive state. The required actuator number for diffraction-limited imaging was determined for three pupil sizes (4.5, 6, and 7.5 mm), three second-order aberration states, and four imaging wavelengths (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 ?m). The number across the pupil varied from only a few actuators in the discrete case to greater than 100 for the piston-only corrector. The results presented will help guide the development of wavefront correctors for the next generation of ophthalmic instrumentation.

Doble, Nathan; Miller, Donald T.; Yoon, Geunyoung; Williams, David R.

2009-01-01

384

Sexual dimorphism and sexual selection: a unified economic analysis.  

PubMed

We develop a life history model with two sexes, and study the optimal energy allocation strategy of males and females. We join Darwin and others in suggesting that the origin of sexual dimorphism and sexual selection is the difference between male and female reproduction costs. Due to this assumed cost difference, the resulting Bellman equations of gene dynamics in our two-sex life history model imply a large "energy surplus" on the part of males. This allows the male form to devote energy to the development of some costly male traits that help the males to compete for access to females. These costly male traits are sexually dimorphic. Using this life history model, we are able to explain important features of sexual dimorphism, as well as why males often transfer less to their offspring than do females, and why only females have a menopause. PMID:22699007

Cyrus Chu, C Y; Lee, Ronald D

2012-12-01

385

Puberty and adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672

Fortenberry, J Dennis

2013-07-01

386

The integration of recombination and physical maps in a large-genome monocot using haploid genome analysis in a trihybrid allium population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated mapping in large-genome monocots has been carried out on a limited number of species. Furthermore, integrated maps are difficult to construct for these species due to, among other reasons, the specific plant populations needed. To fill these gaps, Alliums were chosen as target species and a new strategy for constructing suitable populations was developed. This strategy involves the use

L. I. Khrustaleva; P. E. de Melo; Heusden van A. W; C. Kik

2005-01-01

387

Sexual problems of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual problems of women have been organized into four categories, arranged in a hierarchy, each group above including new and broader elements. They range from sexual dysfunction, including psychosomatic problems, to distortions of sexual activity, then to the immediate sexual-interpersonal sphere, and finally, the social-sexual sphere. Illustrations and brief dynamics are given, and a neuroanatomical basis is presented for

Natalie Shainess

1974-01-01

388

Sexual segregation of pelagic sharks and the potential threat from fisheries.  

PubMed

Large pelagic sharks are declining in abundance in many oceans owing to fisheries exploitation. What is not known however is whether within-species geographical segregation of the sexes exacerbates this as a consequence of differential exploitation by spatially focused fisheries. Here we show striking sexual segregation in the fastest swimming shark, the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus, across the South Pacific Ocean. The novel finding of a sexual 'line in the sea' spans a historical longline-fishing intensity gradient, suggesting that differential exploitation of the sexes is possible, a phenomenon which may underlie changes in the shark populations observed elsewhere. PMID:19324655

Mucientes, Gonzalo R; Queiroz, Nuno; Sousa, Lara L; Tarroso, Pedro; Sims, David W

2009-04-23

389

A LARGE STELLAR EVOLUTION DATABASE FOR POPULATION SYNTHESIS STUDIES. V. STELLAR MODELS AND ISOCHRONES WITH CNONa ABUNDANCE ANTICORRELATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present a new grid of stellar models and isochrones for old stellar populations, covering a large range of [Fe/H] values, for an heavy element mixture characterized by CNONa abundance anticorrelations as observed in Galactic globular cluster stars. The effect of this metal abundance pattern on the evolutionary properties of low-mass stars, from the main sequence to the horizontal branch phase, is analyzed. We perform comparisons between these new models, and our reference {alpha}-enhanced calculations, and discuss briefly implications for color-magnitude diagrams showing multiple main sequence or subgiant branches. A brief qualitative discussion of the effect of CN abundances on color-T {sub eff} transformations is also presented, highlighting the need to determine theoretical color transformations for the appropriate metal mixture, if one wants to interpret observations in the Stroemgren system, or broadband filters blueward of the Johnson V band.

Pietrinferni, Adriano; Cassisi, Santi [Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via M. Maggini, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Salaris, Maurizio [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)] (and others)

2009-05-20

390

Sexual transmission of hepatitis C.  

PubMed

It is generally agreed that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be efficiently transmitted parenterally, although data on viral transmission by sexual or non-sexual intrafamilial contact are conflicting. Since data collection began in 1989, the first study dealt with the risk of sexual transmission among multiple sex partners. Other investigations followed, emphasizing that risk increases in specific groups such as patients co-infected with HIV and HBV, sex workers, homosexuals, illicit drug users and patients attended at sexually transmittable disease clinics. The question arises as to what might be the risk for monogamous heterosexuals in the general population, in which one of the partners has HCV? The literature provides overall rates that vary from zero to 27%; however, most studies affirm that the chances of sexual transmission are low or almost null, with rates for this mode fluctuating from zero to 3%. Intrafamilial transmission is strongly considered but inconclusive, since when mentioning transmission between sex partners within the same household, specific situations also should be considered, such as the sharing of personal hygiene items, like razorblades, toothbrushes, nail clippers and manicure pliers, which are important risk factors in HCV transmission. In this review, we discuss the hypotheses of sexual and/or intrafamilial transmission. PMID:18026632

Cavalheiro, Norma de Paula

2007-01-01

391

Prostitution, sexual behavior and STDs.  

PubMed

Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. As sexual behaviour is an important determinant in transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sex workers (SWs), transgenders and clients are often labeled as a "high risk group" in the context of HIV and STDs. It has been documented that female sex workers in particular have an increased prevalence of untreated STDs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. People involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why they remain in this type of activity given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. The aim of this paper is to provide a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the relationship between prostitution, sexual behavior and outbreaks of STDs; to assess the role that migrants, trans