Science.gov

Sample records for largest nuclear institute

  1. Presidential Pay Is Increasing Fastest at the Largest Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    At the top echelon of higher education, boards have to pay to play when hiring a president. "The Chronicle"'s latest survey of executive compensation shows what might be described as the minimum pay now required at the top institutions. At public research universities, the minimum compensation among the big players is roughly $450,000. In the…

  2. Social Institutions and Nuclear Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear technologists can offer an all but infinite source of relatively cheap and clean energy" but society must decide whether the price of eternal vigilance needed to ensure proper and safe operation of its nuclear energy system" is worth the benefits. (Author/AL)

  3. Institutional plan -- Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The US nuclear electric utility industry established the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) in 1979 to promote the highest levels of safety and reliability -- to promote excellence -- in the operation of its nuclear plants. After its formation, the Institute grew from a handful of on-loan personnel in late 1979 to an established work force of more than 400 permanent and on-loan personnel. INPO`s early years were marked by growth and evolution of its programs and organization. The Institute now focuses primarily on the effectiveness and enhancement of established programs and activities. For INPO to carry out its role, it must have the support of its members and participants and a cooperative but independent relationship with the NRC. A basis for that support and cooperation is an understanding of INPO`s role. This Institutional Plan is intended to provide that understanding by defining the Institute`s role and its major programs. This plan considers the existing and projected needs of the industry and the overall environment in which INPO and its members and participants operate.

  4. Successful Completion of the Largest Shipment of Russian Research Reactor High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Czech Republic to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Jeff Chamberlin

    2008-07-01

    On December 8, 2007, the largest shipment of high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. In February 2003, RRRFR Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Rež, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  5. Evolution of nuclear spectroscopy at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, P.

    2001-07-01

    Experimental studies of nuclear excitations have been an important subject from the earliest days when the institute was established. The construction of 4 MeV proton cyclotron was mainly aimed to achieve this goal. Early experiments in nuclear spectroscopy were done with radioactive nuclei with the help of beta and gamma ray spectrometers. Small NaI(Tl) detectors were used for gamma--gamma coincidence, angular correlation and life time measurements. The excited states nuclear magnetic moments were measured in perturbed gamma--gamma angular correlation experiments. A high transmission magnetic beta ray spectrometer was used to measure internal conversion coefficients and beta--gamma coincidence studies. A large number of significant contributions were made during 1950--59 using these facilities. Proton beam in the cyclotron was made available in the late 1950's and together with 14 MeV neutrons obtained from a C-W generator a large number of short-lived nuclei were investigated during 1960's and 1970's. The introduction of high resolution Ge gamma detectors and the improved electronics helped to extend the spectroscopic work which include on-line (p,p'g) and (p,n g) reaction studies. Nuclear spectroscopic studies entered a new phase in the 1980's with the availability of 40--80 MeV alpha beam from the variable energy cyclotron at VECC, Calcutta. A number of experimental groups were formed in the institute to study nuclear level schemes with (a,xn g) reactions. Initially only two unsuppressed Ge detectors were used for coincidence studies. Later in 1989 five Ge detectors with a large six segmented NaI(Tl) multiplicity-sum detector system were successfully used to select various channels in (a ,xn g) reactions. From 1990 to date a variety of medium energy heavy ions were made available from the BARC-TIFR Pelletron and the Nuclear Science Centre Pelletron. The state of the art gamma detector arrays in these centres enabled the Saha Institute groups to undertake more

  6. Largest College Endowments, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…

  7. p150Glued, the largest subunit of the dynactin complex, is nonessential in Neurospora but required for nuclear distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Tinsley, J H; Minke, P F; Bruno, K S; Plamann, M

    1996-01-01

    Dynactin is a multisubunit complex that is required for cytoplasmic dynein, a minus-end-directed, microtubule-associated motor, to efficiently transport vesicles along microtubules in vitro. p150Glued, the largest subunit of dynactin, has been identified in vertebrates and Drosophila and recently has been shown to interact with cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chains in vitro. The mechanism by which dynactin facilitates cytoplasmic dynein-dependent vesicle transport is unknown. We have devised a genetic screen for cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin mutants in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. In this paper, we report that one of these mutants, ro-3, defines a gene encoding an apparent homologue of p150Glued, and we provide genetic evidence that cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin interact in vivo. The major structural features of vertebrate and Drosophila p150Glued, a microtubule-binding site at the N-terminus and two large alpha-helical coiled-coil regions contained within the distal two-thirds of the polypeptide, are conserved in Ro3. Drosophila p150Glued is essential for viability; however, ro-3 null mutants are viable, indicating that dynactin is not an essential complex in N. crassa. We show that N. crassa cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin mutants have abnormal nuclear distribution but retain the ability to organize cytoplasmic microtubules and actin in anucleate hyphae. Images PMID:8744947

  8. Nuclear Concepts & Technological Issues Institute: Teacher Activity Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Candace C., Ed.; Lunetta, Lois W., Ed.

    For many summers the Radiation Science and Engineering Center at Pennsylvania State University has been the site of a Nuclear Concepts and Technological Issues Institute for secondary school science teachers. As a culminating activity of the institute teachers develop lesson plans, laboratory experiments, demonstrations, or other activities and…

  9. The nuclear matrix protein p255 is a highly phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit which associates with spliceosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, M; Lauriault, P; Dubois, M F; Lavoie, S; Bensaude, O; Chabot, B

    1996-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody CC-3 recognizes a phosphodependent epitope on a 255 kDa nuclear matrix protein (p255) recently shown to associate with splicing complexes as part of the [U4/U6.U5] tri-snRNP particle [Chabot et al. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 3206-3213]. In mouse and Drosophila cultured cells the electrophoretic mobility of p255, faster in the latter species, was identical to that of the hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (IIo). The CC-3 immunoreactivity of p255 was abolished by 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, which is known to cause the dephosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of subunit IIo by inhibiting the TFIIH-associated kinase. The identity of p255 was confirmed by showing that CC-3-immunoprecipitated p255 was recognized by POL3/3 and 8WG16, two antibodies specific to RNA polymerase II largest subunit. Lastly, the recovery of RNA polymerase II largest subunit from HeLa splicing mixtures was compromised by EDTA, which prevents the interaction of p255 with splicing complexes and inhibits splicing. Our results indicate that p255 represents a highly phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit physically associated with spliceosomes and possibly involved in coupling transcription to RNA processing. PMID:8972849

  10. Institutional Strain and Precarious Values in Meeting Future Nuclear Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Matthews; Todd R. LaPorte

    1998-11-01

    This paper explores the implications of moderately expanding plutonium "pit" production capability within the strongly R&D culture of Los Alamos National Laboratory, especially in terms of the lab's current capacity or "fitness for the future" in which institutional stewardship of the nation's nuclear deterrent capability becomes a primary objective. The institutional properties needed to assure "future fitness" includes the organizational requisites highly reliable operations and sustained institutional constancy in a manner that evokes deep public trust and confidence. Estimates are made of the degree to which the key Division and most relevant Program office in this evolution already exhibits them.

  11. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This annual report highlights the activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The topics of the report include the president and chairmen`s joint message, overview of programs serving as the foundation for most of its activities, performance indicators for the US nuclear utility industry, and INPO`s 1994 financial reports and rosters. INPO has four technical cornerstone programs that serve as the foundation for most of its activities. (1) Evaluations of nuclear power plants operated by member utilities are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (2) INPO supports its member utilities in their work to achieve and maintain accreditation of training programs. (3) Events analysis programs identify and communicate lessons learned from plant events so utilities can take action to prevent similar events at their plants. (4) INPO helps members improve in nuclear operations areas through assistance programs and other activities that continually evolve to meet the changing needs of the nuclear industry

  12. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations annual report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This annual report highlights the activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The topics of the report include the president and chairmen`s joint message, overview of programs serving as the foundation for most of its activities, performance indicators for the US nuclear utility industry, and INPO`s 1993 financial reports and rosters. INPO has four technical cornerstone programs that serve as the foundation for most of its activities. (1) Evaluations of nuclear power plants operated by member utilities are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (2) INPO supports its member utilities in their work to achieve and maintain accreditation of training programs. (3) Events analysis programs identify and communicate lessons learned from plant events so utilities can take action to prevent similar events at their plants. (4) INPO helps members improve in nuclear operations areas through assistance programs and other activities that continually evolve to meet the changing needs of the nuclear industry.

  13. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-02-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109 bq.month-1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for 137Cs and 44 TBq for 134Cs.

  14. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R(2) obtained from (137)Cs and (134)Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 10(9) bq.month(-1) while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for (137)Cs and 44 TBq for (134)Cs. PMID:25673214

  15. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109 bq.month−1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for 137Cs and 44 TBq for 134Cs. PMID:25673214

  16. Assessing the Institution of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher

    2010-05-14

    The nuclear nonproliferation regime is facing a crisis of effectiveness. During the Cold War, the regime was relatively effective in stemming the proliferation of nuclear weapons and building an institutional structure that could, under certain conditions, ensure continued success. However, in the evolving global context, the traditional approaches are becoming less appropriate. Globalization has introduced new sets of stresses on the nonproliferation regime, such as the rise of non-state actors, broadening extensity and intensity of supply chains, and the multipolarization of power. This evolving global context demands an analytical and political flexibility in order to meet future threats. Current institutional capabilities established during the Cold War are now insufficient to meet the nonproliferation regime’s current and future needs. The research was based on information gathered through interviews and reviews of the relevant literature, and two dominant themes emerged. First, that human security should be integrated into the regime to account for the rise of non-state actors and networked violence. Second, confidence in the regime’s overall effectiveness has eroded at a time where verification-based confidence is becoming more essential. The research postulates that a critical analysis of the regime that fully utilizes institutional theory, with its focus on rules, normative structures, and procedures will be essential to adapting the regime to the current global context, building mechanisms for generating trust, creating better enforcement, and providing flexibility for the future.

  17. Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among vegetable crops is second only to Solanaceae. The melon has a small genome size (454 Mb), which makes it suitable for molecular and genetic studies. Despite similar nuclear and chloroplast genome sizes, cucurbits show great variation when their mitochondrial genomes are compared. The melon possesses the largest plant mitochondrial genome, as much as eight times larger than that of other cucurbits. Results The nucleotide sequences of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were determined. The chloroplast genome (156,017 bp) included 132 genes, with 98 single-copy genes dispersed between the small (SSC) and large (LSC) single-copy regions and 17 duplicated genes in the inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb). A comparison of the cucumber and melon chloroplast genomes showed differences in only approximately 5% of nucleotides, mainly due to short indels and SNPs. Additionally, 2.74 Mb of mitochondrial sequence, accounting for 95% of the estimated mitochondrial genome size, were assembled into five scaffolds and four additional unscaffolded contigs. An 84% of the mitochondrial genome is contained in a single scaffold. The gene-coding region accounted for 1.7% (45,926 bp) of the total sequence, including 51 protein-coding genes, 4 conserved ORFs, 3 rRNA genes and 24 tRNA genes. Despite the differences observed in the mitochondrial genome sizes of cucurbit species, Citrullus lanatus (379 kb), Cucurbita pepo (983 kb) and Cucumis melo (2,740 kb) share 120 kb of sequence, including the predicted protein-coding regions. Nevertheless, melon contained a high number of repetitive sequences and a high content of DNA of nuclear origin, which represented 42% and 47% of the total sequence, respectively. Conclusions Whereas the size and gene organisation of chloroplast genomes are similar among the cucurbit species, mitochondrial genomes show a wide variety of sizes, with a non

  18. Cyclotron laboratory of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Georgiev, L. S.

    2016-06-01

    An accelerator laboratory is presently under construction in Sofia at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The laboratory will use a TR24 type of cyclotron, which provides a possibility to accelerate a proton beam with an energy of 15 to 24 MeV and current of up to 0.4 mA. An accelerator with such parameters allows to produce a large variety of radioisotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals. The most common radioisotopes that could be produced with such a cyclotron are PET isotopes like: 11C, 13N, 15O, 18F, 124I, 64Cu, 68Ge/68Ga, and SPECT isotopes like: 123I, 111In, 67Ga, 57Co, 99m Tc. Our aim is to use the cyclotron facility for research in the fields of radiopharmacy, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, solid state physics, applied research, new materials and for education in all these fields including nuclear energy. The building of the laboratory will be constructed nearby the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and the cyclotron together with all the equipment needed will be installed there.

  19. 76 FR 28192 - Petition for Rulemaking Submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Petition for Rulemaking Submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute AGENCY: Nuclear... rulemaking (PRM) submitted by Anthony R. Pietrangelo, on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), the...-mail: timothy.reed@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 22, 2010, (75 FR 65249), the...

  20. Institute for Nuclear Theory. Annual report No. 3, 1 March 1992--28 February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.; Bertsch, G.; Henley, E.M.

    1993-07-01

    This report briefly discussion the following programs of the Institute for Nuclear Theory: fundamental interactions in nuclei; strangeness in hadrons and nuclei; microscopic nuclear structure theory; nuclear physics in atoms and molecules; phenomenology and lattice QCD; and large amplitude collective motion.

  1. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security and safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeley, Phillip A.; Boyle, David R.; Williams, Adam David; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  2. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security & safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Adam David

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  3. Institute for Nuclear Theory annual report No. 4, 1 March 1993--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.; Bertsch, G.; Henley, E.M.

    1994-06-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Theory was created as a national center by the Department of Energy. It began operations March 1, 1990. This annual report summarizes the INT`s activities during its fourth year of operations.

  4. Saga is largest commercial submarine ever

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    The long-range autonomous submarine, Saga, went nuclear last year with an agreement between the French and two Canadian companies. The agreement to convert the prototype from Swedish Stirling closed-cycle combustion engines to a nuclear power supply will make Saga the first non-defense nuclear submarine. With an external hull displacement of 500 tons, Saga will be the largest commercial submarine ever built.

  5. 75 FR 10444 - Nuclear Energy Institute; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is denying a petition for rulemaking (PRM) submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) (the petitioner). The petitioner requested that the NRC amend the compliance date for specific requirements in the NRC's regulations. The NRC decided to deny PRM-73-14 for the reasons stated in this...

  6. 75 FR 63725 - Nuclear Energy Institute; Consideration of Petition in the Rulemaking Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will consider five of the issues raised in a petition submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and is denying the remaining four issues of the petition. The petition requests the NRC amend its regulations to clarify existing event reporting requirements based on experience gained since the requirements were...

  7. The Summer Nuclear Engineering Institute at The University of Texas at Austin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olvera, Juan

    2009-10-01

    The Summer Nuclear Engineering Institute (SNEI) at the University of Texas is a four week course that provides an opportunity for undergraduates to experience the field of nuclear engineering. This experience is especially important if you are a sophomore or junior and are not majoring in nuclear engineering as an undergrad, but would like to explore what nuclear engineering is like. Students will study fundamental nuclear engineering concepts, gain hands-on experience at UT's research reactor and receive six transferrable college credits. The SNEI program was first held in July of 2009, and will be held once again in the summer of 2010; it is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Education Grant Program which covers housing, meal plan, a travel and textbook allowance and a 1000 stipend.

  8. Institutional Radiation Safety Committee--Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1982-09-13

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is amending its regulations regarding hospitals licensed to use radioactive byproduct material for human applications. Currently, such a license requires that the hospital have a Medical Isotopes Committee to review clinical aspects of the use of radioactive materials within the hospital. The amendment requires instead a Radiation Safety Committee with a simplified membership that will focus on the radiation safety of workers and the general public. The rule change acknowledges the Food and Drug Administration's role in regulating the safety and effectiveness of radioactive drugs with respect to the patient. The membership of the new Radiation Safety Committee will include the hospital management and the nursing staff in decisions affecting radiation safety at the hospital and will be easier for smaller hospitals to recruit. PMID:10259789

  9. Remediation of old environmental liabilities in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc

    SciTech Connect

    Podlaha, J.

    2007-07-01

    The Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) is a leading institution in all areas of nuclear R and D in the Czech Republic. The NRI's activity encompasses nuclear physics, chemistry, nuclear power, experiments at research nuclear reactors and many other topics. The NRI operates two research nuclear reactors, many facilities as a hot cell facility, research laboratories, technology for radioactive waste (RAW) management, radionuclide irradiators, an electron accelerator, etc. After 50 years of activities in the nuclear field, there are some environmental liabilities that shall be remedied in the NRI. There are three areas of remediation: (1) decommissioning of old obsolete facilities (e.g. decay tanks, RAW treatment technology, special sewage system), (2) treatment of RAW from operation and dismantling of nuclear facilities, and (3) elimination of spent fuel from research nuclear reactors operated by the NRI. The goal is to remedy the environmental liabilities and eliminate the potential negative impact on the environment. Based on this postulate, optimal remedial actions have been selected and recommended for the environmental remediation. Remediation of the environmental liabilities started in 2003 and will be finished in 2012. Some liabilities have already been successfully remedied. The most significant items of environmental liabilities are described in the paper together with information about the history, the current state, the progress, and the future activities in the field of remediation of environmental liabilities in the NRI. (authors)

  10. TLD environmental monitoring at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taam, I H; da Rosa, L A R; Crispim, V R

    2008-09-01

    Since 2003 the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, operates a new cyclotron, RDS-111, to produce (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose to be used in nuclear medicine. Additionally, the IEN radioactive waste repository has been enlarged during the past last years, receiving a considerable amount of radioactive materials. Therefore, it became necessary to evaluate a possible increase of the environmental gamma exposure rates at the institute site due to the operation of the new accelerator and the enlargement of the institute waste repository as well. LiF:Mg,Cu,P, TLD-100H, and TL detectors were employed for environmental kerma rate evaluation and the results were compared with previous results obtained before the RDS-111 operation initialisation and the enlargement of IEN waste repository. No significant contribution for the enhancement of environmental gamma kerma rates was detected. PMID:18348907

  11. US assistance in physical protection at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology and the Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry, Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Zinneman, T.; Miranda, J.; Novick, A.; Roche, C.; Kuzmyez, G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. DOE is providing nuclear material safeguards assistance in both material control & accountability and physical protection to several nuclear facilities in Ukraine. This paper describes the types of physical protection upgrades that are presently being implemented at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology and at the Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry. These upgrades include: hardening of storage areas, improvements in access control, intrusion detection, CCTV assessment, alarm monitoring and voice communication systems. Methods used to implement these upgrades and problems encountered are discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  12. The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science & Engineering - a model for University-National Laboratory collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Gammon, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the aims and activities of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), from its foundation in 1958 through to 1993. The philosophy, structure and funding of the Institute are briefly reviewed, followed by an account of the development of national research facilities at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, with particular emphasis on nuclear techniques of analysis using neutron scattering instruments and particle accelerators. AINSE`s program of Grants, Fellowships and Studentships are explained with many examples given of projects having significance in the context of Australia`s national goals. Conference and training programs are also included. The achievements during these years demonstrate that AINSE has been an efficient and cost- effective model for collaboration between universities and a major national laboratory. In recent years, industry, government organisations and the tertiary education system have undergone major re-structuring and rationalization. A new operational structure for AINSE has evolved in response to these changes and is described.

  13. Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel of Nuclear Research Reactor VVR-S at the National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Lucian

    2009-05-01

    The Nuclear Research Reactor VVR-S (RR-VVR-S) located in Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, was designed for research and radioisotope production. It was commissioned in 1957 and operated without any event or accident for forty years until shut down in 1997. In 2002, by government decree, it was permanently shutdown for decommissioning. The National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) is responsible for decommissioning the RR-VVR-S, the first nuclear decommissioning project in Romania. In this context, IFIN-HH prepared and obtained approval from the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body for the Decommissioning Plan. One of the most important aspects for decommissioning the RR-VVR-S is solving the issue of the fresh and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored on site in wet storage pools. In the framework of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy and in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Rosatom State Corporation, Romania repatriated all fresh HEU fuel to the Russian Federation in 2003 and the HEU SNF will be repatriated to Russia in 2009. With the experience and lessons learned from this action and with the financial support of the Romanian Government it will be possible for Romania to also repatriate the LEU SNF to the Russian Federation before starting the dismantling and decontamination of the nuclear facility. [4pt] In collaboration with K. Allen, Idaho National Laboratory, USA; L. Biro, National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, Romania; and M. Dragusin, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania.

  14. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results.

  15. Acceleration mass spectrometer of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastigeev, S. A.; Frolov, A. R.; Goncharov, A. D.; Klyuev, V. F.; Konstantinov, E. S.; Kutnyakova, L. A.; Parkhomchuk, V. V.; Petrozhitskii, A. V.

    2014-09-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) made at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, is installed in the Geochronology of the Cenozoic Era Center for Collective Use for the carbon 14 dating of samples. Distinctive features of the BINP AMS include the use of a middle energy separator of ion beams, magnesium vapor target as a stripping target, and a time-of-flight telescope with thin films for accurate ion selection. Results of experiments measuring the radiocarbon concentration in test samples with radiocarbon labels for biomedical applications are presented.

  16. Vacuum photodiode detectors for broadband vacuum ultraviolet detection in the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, C. V. S.; Shankara Joisa, Y.; Hansalia, C. J.; Hui, Amit K.; Paul, Ratan; Ranjan, Prabhat

    1997-02-01

    We report on the application of the vacuum photodiode to detect vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation emitted from the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP) Tokamak. It is simple to fabricate and provides broadband spectral response in the VUV and ultrasoft x ray (10 eV-1 keV). In our design, a stainless steel photocathode is used, which has a response identical to tungsten in the wavelength range 100-1200 Å. Its surface is passivated, to minimize contamination and monolayer deposition, by electropolishing it. Some representative experimental results illustrating the range of applicability are presented with special emphasis on its performance in disruptive shots.

  17. Maintenance self-assessments - An INPO (Institute of Nuclear Power Operation) perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Subalusky, W.T.

    1990-06-01

    In March 1987, all nuclear utilities in the US were requested by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) to perform a self-assessment of their maintenance programs. The goal of these self-assessments was to have each station identify any existing problem areas in maintenance in clear and sufficient detail to determine the root causes of the problems and to provide a foundation for subsequent corrective actions. The self-assessments were to be performed by each nuclear station using the INPO document Guidelines for the Conduct of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Stations. By December 1987, 72 of 74 stations had completed the self-assessments, and by the middle of 1988, all stations had completed this systematic review of their maintenance programs. As part of an industry plan to ensure continued improvements in maintenance, INPO is following up on the effectiveness of these self-assessments during the course of plant evaluation visits. This presentation briefly reviews the approaches to self-assessment of the station's maintenance programs, some of the lessons learned from this effort, and the results, to date, of INPO follow-up efforts in this area.

  18. Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.

    2004-02-04

    The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and 'iron' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper.

  19. Test Facilities and Experience on Space Nuclear System Developments at the Kurchatov Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Garin, Vladimir P.; Glushkov, Evgeny S.; Kompaniets, George V.; Kukharkin, Nikolai E.; Madeev, Vicktor G.; Papin, Vladimir K.; Polyakov, Dmitry N.; Stepennov, Boris S.; Tchuniyaev, Yevgeny I.; Tikhonov, Lev Ya.; Uksusov, Yevgeny I.

    2004-02-01

    The complexity of space fission systems and rigidity of requirement on minimization of weight and dimension characteristics along with the wish to decrease expenditures on their development demand implementation of experimental works which results shall be used in designing, safety substantiation, and licensing procedures. Experimental facilities are intended to solve the following tasks: obtainment of benchmark data for computer code validations, substantiation of design solutions when computational efforts are too expensive, quality control in a production process, and ``iron'' substantiation of criticality safety design solutions for licensing and public relations. The NARCISS and ISKRA critical facilities and unique ORM facility on shielding investigations at the operating OR nuclear research reactor were created in the Kurchatov Institute to solve the mentioned tasks. The range of activities performed at these facilities within the implementation of the previous Russian nuclear power system programs is briefly described in the paper. This experience shall be analyzed in terms of methodological approach to development of future space nuclear systems (this analysis is beyond this paper). Because of the availability of these facilities for experiments, the brief description of their critical assemblies and characteristics is given in this paper.

  20. Largest impact craters on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Weitz, C. M.; Basilevsky, A. T.

    1992-01-01

    High-resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have allowed us to perform a detailed study on 25 large impact craters on Venus with diameters from 70 to 280 km. The dimension of these large craters is comparable with the characteristic thickness of the venusian lithosphere and the atmospheric scale height. Some physical parameters for the largest impact craters on Venus (LICV), such as depth, ring/diameter ratio, and range of ballistic ejecta deposits, have been obtained from the SAR images and the altimetry dataset produced by MIT. Data related to each of these parameters is discussed.

  1. Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) System Upgrades and Performance Testing at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) VNIIEF)

    SciTech Connect

    Bushmelev, Vadim; Viktorov, Vladimir; Zhikharev, Stanislav; Yuferev, Vladimir; Singh, Surinder Paul; Kuzminski, Jozef; Hogan, Kevin; McKisson, Jacquelin

    2008-01-01

    The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), founded in 1946 at the historic village of Sarov, in Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast, is the largest nuclear research center in the Rosatom complex. In the framework of international collaboration, the United States (US) Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency, in cooperation with US national laboratories, on the one hand, Rosatom and VNIIEF on the other hand, have focused their cooperative efforts to upgrade the existing material protection control and accountability system to prevent unauthorized access to the nuclear material. In this paper we will discuss the present status of material control and accounting (MC&A) system upgrades and the preliminary results from a pilot program on the MC&A system performance testing that was recently conducted at one technical area.

  2. The AMS Measurements and Its Applications in Nuclear Physics at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Shan; Shen Hongtao; He Ming; Dong Kejun; He Guozhu; Wang Xianggao; Yuan Jian; Wang Wei; Wu Shaoyong; Ruan Xiangdong; Wu Weimin

    2010-05-12

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), initiated in late 1970s at McMaster university based on the accelerator and detector technique, has long been applied in the studies on archaeology, geology, and cosmology, as a powerful tool for isotope dating. The advantages of AMS in the analysis of rare nuclides by direct counting of the atoms, small sample size and relatively free from the interferences of molecular ions have been well documented. This paper emphasizes that AMS can not only be used for archaeology, geology, environment, biology and so on, but also served as a unique tool for nuclear physics research. In this paper, the determination of the half-lives of {sup 79}Se, the measurements of the cross-sections of {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92g}Nb and {sup 238}U(n,3n){sup 236}U reactions, the detection and determination of ultratrace impurities in neutrino detector materials, and the measurement of the fission product nuclide {sup 126}Sn, are to be introduced, as some of examples of AMS applications in nuclear research conducted in AMS lab of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Searching for superheavy nuclides by using AMS is being planned.

  3. 75 FR 65249 - Anthony R. Pietrangelo on Behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute; Receipt of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is publishing for public comment a notice of receipt of a petition for rulemaking, dated September 3, 2010, which was filed with the NRC by Anthony R. Pietrangelo on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The petition was docketed by the NRC on September 13, 2010, and has been assigned Docket No. PRM-26-5. The petitioner requests that the NRC......

  4. Largest Solar Flare on Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The largest solar flare ever recorded occurred at 4:51 p.m. EDT, on Monday, April 2, 2001. as Observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite. Solar flares, among the solar systems mightiest eruptions, are tremendous explosions in the atmosphere of the Sun capable of releasing as much energy as a billion megatons of TNT. Caused by the sudden release of magnetic energy, in just a few seconds, solar flares can accelerate solar particles to very high velocities, almost to the speed of light, and heat solar material to tens of millions of degrees. The recent explosion from the active region near the sun's northwest limb hurled a coronal mass ejection into space at a whopping speed of roughly 7.2 million kilometers per hour. Luckily, the flare was not aimed directly towards Earth. Second to the most severe R5 classification of radio blackout, this flare produced an R4 blackout as rated by the NOAA SEC. This classification measures the disruption in radio communications. Launched December 2, 1995 atop an ATLAS-IIAS expendable launch vehicle, the SOHO is a cooperative effort involving NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). (Image courtesy NASA Goddard SOHO Project office)

  5. Nuclear Explosives in Peacetime, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodine, Virginia, Ed.; Bradford, Albert, Ed.

    Discussed are the commercial uses of nuclear explosives as well as the testing of nuclear weapons. Case histories of the use of nuclear explosives to stimulate oil and natural gas production are examined, and problems associated with nuclear blasting are discussed with special reference to canal construction. Effects of nuclear weapons testing are…

  6. Rehabilitating China's largest inland river.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiqing; Chen, Yaning; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xia, Yang

    2009-06-01

    Wetlands are particularly important for conserving China's biodiversity but riparian wetlands in the Tarim River basin in western China have been reduced by 46% during the last 3 decades. The world's largest habitat for Populus euphratica, which is in the Tarim River basin, significantly shrank. To protect and restore the deteriorated ecosystems along the Tarim River and its associated wetlands, China's government initiated a multimillion dollar river restoration project to release water from upper dams to the dried-up lower reaches of the Tarim River starting in 2000. We monitored the responses of groundwater and vegetation to water recharge in the lower reaches of the river from 2000 to 2006 by establishing nine 1000-m-long transects perpendicular to the river at intervals of 20-45 km along the 320-km river course below the Daxihaizi Reservoir, the source of water conveyance, to Lake Taitema, the terminus of the Tarim River. Water recharges from the Daxihaizi Reservoir to the lower reaches of the Tarim River significantly increased groundwater levels and vegetation coverage at all monitoring sites along the river. The mean canopy size of the endangered plant species P. euphratica doubled after 6 years of water recharge. Some rare migrating birds returned to rest on the restored wetlands in summer along the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The biggest challenge facing decision makers, however, is to balance water allocation and water rights between agricultural and natural ecosystems in a sustainable way. A large number of inhabitants in the Tarim Basin depend on these limited water resources for a living. At the same time, the endangered ecosystems need to be protected. Given the ecological, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical realities in the Tarim Basin, adaptive water policies and strategies are needed for water allocation in these areas of limited water resources. PMID:22748091

  7. A Program for Cultivating Nuclear Talent at Engineering Educational Institute in a Remote Area from Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsuyoshi

    Recently, in Japan, the number of students who hope for finding employment at the nuclear power company has decreased as students‧ concern for the nuclear power industry decreases. To improve the situation, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology launched the program of cultivating talent for nuclear power which supports research and education of nuclear power in the academic year of 2007. Supported by the program, Kushiro College of Technology conducted several activities concerning nuclear power for about a year. The students came to be interested in nuclear engineering through these activities and its results.

  8. The tissue bank at the national nuclear research institute in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esther Martínez-Pardo, María; Lourdes Reyes-Frías, Ma

    2003-01-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ, The National Nuclear Research Institute) received during 1997-1998 strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), to establish the first and only one tissue bank (BTR ININ tissue bank) in Mexico that uses ionising radiation as sterilising agent. In that time, the BTR staff was trained in different tissue banks in several countries. Basic equipment for tissue processing donated by the IAEA was received in 1998. In July, 1999 the Mexican Health Secretariat gave the Sanitary License No. 1062000001 to the BTR to operate as an official organ and tissue bank. In August, 2001 the ININ and the Hospital Materno Infantil (HMI-ISSEMYM) signed an agreement to collaborate in amnion processing. The hospital is responsible for donor selection, serology tests, tissue procurement and washing, since this hospital is the BTR amnion supplier. The tissues are collected by ININ weekly with complete documentation. The BTR is responsible for processing: cleaning, air drying, packaging, labelling, microbiological control and sterilisation by gamma irradiation. The sterilised tissue is kept under quarantine for 6 months to obtain the results of the donor second serology test. From March to June, 2002 the BTR has processed 347.86 units (50 cm(2) each), is say, 17,393 cm(2). In addition, the pig skin xenograft process has been implemented and a protocol for clinical applications of it is running at the Hospital Central Sur de Alta Especialidad (PEMEX). Also the ININ tissue bank present status and perspectives are described. PMID:15256855

  9. Food irradiation studies at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, Rep. of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ying-Kai; Tsai, Chao-Ming; Wu, Wen-Shi; Chang, Ming-Shia; Chang, Yung-Nien; Shu, Shih-Lin

    The use of radiation to inhibit sprouting of potatoes, onions, gingers and garlic was studied at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. The sprout inhibition doses of potatoes, onions, gingers and garlic were found to be 10, 5, 2.5, 7.5 Krads, respectively. Changes in the content of moisture, ash, reducing sugars, total sugars, lipids, proteins, fiber etc. were monitored in various agricultural foodstuffs both with and without γ-irradiation at various doses. Fungicides did not prevent potatoes from decaying at 10 or 25°C with or without gamma radiation. Onions treated with any of fungicides has significantly more healthy tissues than controls at 10°C but not 25°C after 30 and 60 days storage, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma radiation. Insect pests have been causing great damage to stored rice in Taiwan. The four most harmful insects are: Sitophilus Zeamais Mostschulsky. Rhyzopertha dominica. Tribolitum custaneum Herbst and Sitotroga cerealella Oliver. Adults, eggs or larvae of these insect pests were irradiated by 60Co gamma rays. The results show that 40 Krads of gamma-irradiation could completely control these four species of pests in stored rice.

  10. The radioisotope complex project "RIC-80" at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteleev, V. N.; Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Moroz, F. V.; Molkanov, P. L.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2015-12-01

    The high current cyclotron C-80 capable of producing 40-80 MeV proton beams with a current of up to 200 μA has been constructed at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. One of the main goals of the C-80 is the production of a wide spectrum of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. The project development of the radioisotope complex RIC-80 (radioisotopes at the cyclotron C-80) at the beam of C-80 has been completed. The RIC-80 complex is briefly discussed in this paper. The combination of the mass-separator with the target-ion source device, available at one of the new target stations for on-line or semi on-line production of a high purity separated radioisotopes, is explored in greater detail. The results of target and ion source tests for a mass-separator method for the production of high purity radioisotopes 82Sr and 223,224Ra are also presented.

  11. The radioisotope complex project “RIC-80” at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Panteleev, V. N. Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Moroz, F. V.; Molkanov, P. L.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2015-12-15

    The high current cyclotron C-80 capable of producing 40-80 MeV proton beams with a current of up to 200 μA has been constructed at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. One of the main goals of the C-80 is the production of a wide spectrum of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. The project development of the radioisotope complex RIC-80 (radioisotopes at the cyclotron C-80) at the beam of C-80 has been completed. The RIC-80 complex is briefly discussed in this paper. The combination of the mass-separator with the target-ion source device, available at one of the new target stations for on-line or semi on-line production of a high purity separated radioisotopes, is explored in greater detail. The results of target and ion source tests for a mass-separator method for the production of high purity radioisotopes {sup 82}Sr and {sup 223,224}Ra are also presented.

  12. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx}3-5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} and temperature {approx}7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  13. Institute for Nuclear Theory annual report No. 2, 1 March 1991--29 February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.; Henley, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research on the following topics in Nuclear physics: electromagnetic interactions and few-nucleon systems; N*'s and nucleon structure; mesons and fields in nuclei; and nuclear astrophysics of type II supernovae. (LSP).

  14. Implementation of the MPC and A Operations Monitoring (MOM) System at IRT-T FSRE Nuclear Power Institute (NPI)

    SciTech Connect

    Sitdikov,I.; Zenkov, A.; Tsibulnikov, Y.; Duncan, C.; Brownell, L.; Pratt, W.T.; Carbonaro, J.; White, R.M.; Coffing, J.A.

    2008-07-13

    The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program has been working since 1994 with nuclear sites in Russia to upgrade the physical protection (PP) and material control and accounting (MC&A) functions at facilities containing weapons usable nuclear material. In early 2001, the MPC&A program initiated the MPC&A Operations Monitoring (MOM) Project to monitor facilities where MPC&A upgrades have been installed to provide increased confidence that personnel are present and vigilant, provide confidence that security procedures are being properly performed and provide additional assurance that nuclear materials have not been stolen. The MOM project began as a pilot project at the Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and a MOM system was successfully installed in October 2001. Following the success of the MEPhI pilot project, the MPC&A Program expanded the installation of MOM systems to several other Russian facilities, including the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) in Tomsk. The MOM system was made operational at NPI in October 2004. This paper is focused on the experience gained from operation of this system and the objectives of the MOM system. The paper also describes how the MOM system is used at NPI and, in particular, how the data is analyzed. Finally, potential expansion of the MOM system at NPI is described.

  15. Blueprint of the world`s largest uranium markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bizal, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    This article is a review of two recently released reports: (1) the EURATOM Supply Agency Annual Report for 1995, and (2) the US Energy Information Administration Uranium Industry Annual for 1995. These reports provide myraid information on uranium production, deliveries, contracts, and prices, as well as enrichment market activity during 1995 in the world`s largest nuclear fuel markets: the European Union and the United States.

  16. Characteristics of potential repository wastes: Volume 4, Appendix 4A, Nuclear reactors at educational institutions of the United States; Appendix 4B, Data sheets for nuclear reactors at educational institutions; Appendix 4C, Supplemental data for Fort St. Vrain spent fuel; Appendix 4D, Supplemental data for Peach Bottom 1 spent fuel; Appendix 4E, Supplemental data for Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Volume 4 contains the following appendices: nuclear reactors at educational institutions in the United States; data sheets for nuclear reactors at educational institutions in the United States(operational reactors and shut-down reactors); supplemental data for Fort St. Vrain spent fuel; supplemental data for Peach Bottom 1 spent fuel; and supplemental data for Fast Flux Test Facility.

  17. Forty years of the Institute for Nuclear Research (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 22 December 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    On 22 December 2010, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), devoted to the 40th anniversary of the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, was held at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS in Troitsk. The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Matveev V A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Introductory word"; (2) Gavrin V N (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Contribution of the SAGE results to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics"; (3) Domogatsky G V (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Baikal neutrino experiment"; (4) Tkachev I I (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Observation of the Greisen - Zatsepin - Kuz'min effect at the Telescope Array Observatory"; (5) Kudenko Yu G (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Neutrino T2K experiment: the first results"; (6) Sadykov R A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Fields of study of condensed media at the neutron facility at the INR, RAS"; (7) Zhuikov B L (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Production of isotopes at the INR, RAS: reality and prospects".The papers written on the base of reports 1-5 and 7 are published below. In addition, the paper "High-power diode-pumped alkali lasers" by A M Shalagin is published. The paper is based on the report presented at the scientific session of the General Assembly of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS (13 December 2010) devoted to the 50th anniversary of the laser, the main materials of the session having been published in Usp. Fiz. Nauk 181 (8) 867 (2011) [Phys. Usp. 54 837 (2011)]. • Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences turns 40, V A Matveev Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 939-940 • The Russian-American gallium experiment SAGE, V N Gavrin Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9

  18. Correlation between effective and ambient neutron doses in radiation fields of nuclear-physics facilities at the joint institute for nuclear research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, S. V.; Lesovaya, E. N.; Timoshenko, G. N.

    2015-01-01

    The questions of a correlation between normative and operational quantities in the dosimetry of ionizing radiation still attract the attention of professionals working in the field. Since the neutron fields of nuclear-physics facilities at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) are highly varied, the question of whether the ambient neutron dose always serves as a conservative estimate of the effective dose (in the terms of which the dose limits are set) is of practical importance for radiation monitoring at JINR. We studied the correlation between the calculated values of effective and ambient neutron doses obtained based on a representative set of neutron spectra measured at JINR with the use of a multisphere neutron spectrometer. It is demonstrated that measuring the ambient neutron dose may not serve as a confirmation of compliance with the set dose limits in "hard" neutron fields.

  19. An optical comb filter for the stochastic cooling system at the Nuclotron accelerator (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadenko, I.; Bezshyyko, O.; Hohov, D.; Sidorin, A.; Trubnikov, G.; Shurkhno, N.; Stassen, R.

    2014-09-01

    To carry out longitudinal stochastic cooling of charge particle beams at the Nuclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), a unique optical comb filter was designed and developed. The designed filter has space-saving size, low insertion losses, and small dispersion. The comb filter tuning was automated using a specially designed software, which made it possible to reduce the tuning time and increase tuning accuracy up to several hertz. The designed filter with automatic tuning was successfully tested in an experiment on deuteron beam cooling. In this work, characteristics of the designed filter are presented and an algorithm of its automatic tuning is considered.

  20. On the radiation safety studies of space nuclear sources at the Scientific-Research Institute of Thermal Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Koroteev, A.S.; Gafarov, A.A.; Bakhtin, B.I.; Kosov, A.V. )

    1991-01-01

    The main directions and some results of the theoretical and experimental studies, carried out at the Scientific-Research Institute of Thermal Processes on the radiation safety (RS) problem of the space nuclear power sources (SNPS), are stated. The experimental base for SNPS aerodynamic heating and breakup research is described. Some results of studies on the development of RS system for SNPS of Cosmos-954''-type satellites and SNPS Topaz'' are represented. The main directions and results of research on the RS problem of radioisotope SNPS is showen. Some aspects of SNPS possible collisions with space debris in near-earth orbits is examined.

  1. 77 FR 9273 - WORKSHOP Sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... on the Treatment of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Uncertainties: Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear... (EPRI), will hold a joint workshop on the Treatment of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Uncertainties..., ``Enhancing Public Participation in NRC Meetings,'' (67 FR 36920; May 28, 2002). The NRC provides...

  2. Nuclear Concepts and Energy Resources Institute: A Unique Approach to Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jester, W. A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a four-week program to prepare Pennsylvania high school science teachers to teach a course in nuclear science. Includes program content and organization and the name/address of contact person for teachers interested in participating in the 1982 session. (SK)

  3. Teaching the Nuclear Age: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 14, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2009-01-01

    On March 28-29, 2009, FPRI's Wachman Center hosted 43 teachers from across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching the nuclear age. In his opening remarks, Walter A. McDougall observed that although students today are not made to crawl under their desks in air raid drills, that atomic power remains, and it is still necessary to raise a…

  4. Results in Developing an Engineering Degree Program in Safeguards and Security of Nuclear Materials at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Kryuchkov, Eduard F.; Geraskin, Nikolay I.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.; Duncan, Cristen L.

    2007-07-01

    The world’s first master’s degree program in nuclear safeguards and security, established at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), has now graduated nine classes of students. Most of the graduates have gone on to work at government agencies, research organizations, or obtain their PhD. In order to meet the demand for safeguards and security specialists at nuclear facilities, MEPhI established a 5½ year engineering degree program that provides more hands-on training desired by facilities. In February 2004, the first students began their studies in the new discipline Nuclear Material Safeguards and Nonproliferation. This class, as well as other subsequent classes, included students who started the program in their third year of studies, as the first 2½ years consists of general engineering curriculum. Fourteen students made up the first graduating class, receiving their engineering degrees in February 2007. The topics addressed in this paper include specific features of the program caused by peculiarities of Russian education legislation and government quality control of academic education. This paper summarizes the main joint actions undertaken by MEPhI and the US National Laboratories in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop the engineering degree program. Also discussed are the program’s specific training requirements, student internships, and job placement. The paper concludes with recommendations from a recent international seminar on nonproliferation education and training.

  5. Air pollution ranks as largest health risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 7 million people died in 2012 from air-pollution-related sicknesses, marking air pollution as the single largest environmental health risk. This finding, a result of better knowledge and assessment of the diseases, is more than double previous estimates of the risk of death from air pollution.

  6. Germany gets largest ever MRI scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2008-07-01

    A 57-tonne cylindrical magnet has arrived at the Jülich Research Centre in Germany, where physicists are putting together the world's largest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. When the machine comes online next year, medical researchers will use it to examine the brain in unprecedented detail, in the hope of gaining new insights into neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's.

  7. Application of modern computer technology to EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) nuclear computer programs: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feinauer, L.R.

    1989-08-01

    Many of the nuclear analysis programs in use today were designed and developed well over a decade ago. Within this time frame, tremendous changes in hardware and software technologies have made it necessary to revise and/or restructure most of the analysis programs to take advantage of these changes. As computer programs mature from the development phase to being production programs, program maintenance and portability become very important issues. The maintenance costs associated with a particular computer program can generally be expected to exceed the total development costs by as much as a factor of two. Many of the problems associated with high maintenance costs can be traced back to either poorly designed coding structure, or ''quick fix'' modifications which do not preserve the original coding structure. The lack of standardization between hardware designs presents an obstacle to the software designer in providing 100% portable coding; however, conformance to certain guidelines can ensure portability between a wide variety of machines and operating systems. This report presents guidelines for upgrading EPRI nuclear computer programs to conform to current programming standards while maintaining flexibility for accommodating future hardware and software design trends. Guidelines for development of new computer programs are also presented. 22 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Program for upgrading nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at all facilities within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuferev, V.; Zhikharev, S.; Yakimov, Y.

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Department of Energy-Russian program for strengthening nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A), plans have now been formulated to install an integrated MPC and A system at all facilities containing large quantities of weapons-usable nuclear material within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF, Arzamas-16) complex. In addition to storage facilities, the complex houses a number of critical facilities used to conduct nuclear physics research and facilities for developing procedures for disassembly of nuclear weapons.

  9. First Light for World's Largest 'Thermometer Camera'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-08-01

    LABOCA in Service at APEX The world's largest bolometer camera for submillimetre astronomy is now in service at the 12-m APEX telescope, located on the 5100m high Chajnantor plateau in the Chilean Andes. LABOCA was specifically designed for the study of extremely cold astronomical objects and, with its large field of view and very high sensitivity, will open new vistas in our knowledge of how stars form and how the first galaxies emerged from the Big Bang. ESO PR Photo 35a/07 ESO PR Photo 35a/07 LABOCA on APEX "A large fraction of all the gas in the Universe has extremely cold temperatures of around minus 250 degrees Celsius, a mere 20 degrees above absolute zero," says Karl Menten, director at the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn, Germany, that built LABOCA. "Studying these cold clouds requires looking at the light they radiate in the submillimetre range, with very sophisticated detectors." Astronomers use bolometers for this task, which are, in essence, thermometers. They detect incoming radiation by registering the resulting rise in temperature. More specifically, a bolometer detector consists of an extremely thin foil that absorbs the incoming light. Any change of the radiation's intensity results in a slight change in temperature of the foil, which can then be registered by sensitive electronic thermometers. To be able to measure such minute temperature fluctuations requires the bolometers to be cooled down to less than 0.3 degrees above absolute zero, that is below minus 272.85 degrees Celsius. "Cooling to such low temperatures requires using liquid helium, which is no simple feat for an observatory located at 5100m altitude," says Carlos De Breuck, the APEX instrument scientist at ESO. Nor is it simple to measure the weak temperature radiation of astronomical objects. Millimetre and submillimetre radiation opens a window into the enigmatic cold Universe, but the signals from space are heavily absorbed by water vapour in the Earth

  10. Opportunities for Russian Nuclear Weapons Institute developing computer-aided design programs for pharmaceutical drug discovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-23

    The goal of this study is to determine whether physicists at the Russian Nuclear Weapons Institute can profitably service the need for computer aided drug design (CADD) programs. The Russian physicists` primary competitive advantage is their ability to write particularly efficient code able to work with limited computing power; a history of working with very large, complex modeling systems; an extensive knowledge of physics and mathematics, and price competitiveness. Their primary competitive disadvantage is their lack of biology, and cultural and geographic issues. The first phase of the study focused on defining the competitive landscape, primarily through interviews with and literature searches on the key providers of CADD software. The second phase focused on users of CADD technology to determine deficiencies in the current product offerings, to understand what product they most desired, and to define the potential demand for such a product.

  11. Simultaneous measurements of plasma parameters in the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics Tokamak using a new low cost optoisolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, J.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Pal, R.; Bal, B.; Bhattacharya, P. S.

    2000-09-01

    In the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics Tokamak (SINP-TOKAMAK), simultaneous measurement of signals from some diagnostics, like, electrostatic probes, etc., is not possible because pickup noises due to the formation of ground and other loops affect them quite severely. To avoid these loops and also to isolate some diagnostics from the ground, we developed a new type of optical isolator using a very low cost optical isolator chip (MC2TE made by Motorola) in a novel configuration. We continuously kept the light emitting diode on and used a feedback arrangement at the receiving side of the photoemitted signal for achieving good isolation for very low signals with reasonably high frequency response and good linearity. The method is highly cost effective in low budget tokamak experiments.

  12. A heartrending burden of gynaecological cancers in advance stage at nuclear institute of medicine and radiotherapy Jamshoro Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Seema; Ashfaque, Sanober; Laghari, Naeem Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In Pakistan gynaecological cancers are among the leading causes of women’s morbidity and mortality posing huge financial burden on families, communities and state. Due to lack of national cancer registry exact facts and figures are unknown therefore this study was planned to find out prevalence, age, site and stage of presentation of gynaecological cancers at Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA), Jamshoro. Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional study was conducted from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2011 at NIMRA Jamshoro. All cases of genital tract cancers were evaluated, required data was entered on predesigned performa and results were analyzed manually. Results: Out of 2401 total registered cancer cases, 231 (9.6%) patients were suffering from gynaecological cancer making it third most common cancer. Ovary was commonest site followed by cervix and uterus. More than 60% cases presented in advanced stage, mostly during 4th and 5th decade of life. Conclusion: Gynecological cancer was among top three cancers at one of the busiest public sector cancer institute in Sindh province and significant number presented in advance stage making treatment difficult and expensive. There is urgent need for development and implementation of an effective health policy regarding cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27022358

  13. Flight performance of the largest volant bird

    PubMed Central

    Ksepka, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Pelagornithidae is an extinct clade of birds characterized by bizarre tooth-like bony projections of the jaws. Here, the flight capabilities of pelagornithids are explored based on data from a species with the largest reported wingspan among birds. Pelagornis sandersi sp. nov. is represented by a skull and substantial postcranial material. Conservative wingspan estimates (∼6.4 m) exceed theoretical maximums based on extant soaring birds. Modeled flight properties indicate that lift:drag ratios and glide ratios for P. sandersi were near the upper limit observed in extant birds and suggest that pelagornithids were highly efficient gliders, exploiting a long-range soaring ecology. PMID:25002475

  14. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  15. DEVELOPMENT, INSTALLATION AND OPERATION OF THE MPC&A OPERATIONS MONITORING (MOM) SYSTEM AT THE JOINT INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH (JINR) DUBNA, RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kartashov,V.V.; Pratt,W.; Romanov, Y.A.; Samoilov, V.N.; Shestakov, B.A.; Duncan, C.; Brownell, L.; Carbonaro, J.; White, R.M.; Coffing, J.A.

    2009-07-12

    The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Operations Monitoring (MOM) systems handling at the International Intergovernmental Organization - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) is described in this paper. Category I nuclear material (plutonium and uranium) is used in JINR research reactors, facilities and for scientific and research activities. A monitoring system (MOM) was installed at JINR in April 2003. The system design was based on a vulnerability analysis, which took into account the specifics of the Institute. The design and installation of the MOM system was a collaborative effort between JINR, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Financial support was provided by DOE through BNL. The installed MOM system provides facility management with additional assurance that operations involving nuclear material (NM) are correctly followed by the facility personnel. The MOM system also provides additional confidence that the MPC&A systems continue to perform effectively.

  16. Collapse of the world's largest herbivores.

    PubMed

    Ripple, William J; Newsome, Thomas M; Wolf, Christopher; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Everatt, Kristoffer T; Galetti, Mauro; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H; Levi, Taal; Lindsey, Peter A; Macdonald, David W; Malhi, Yadvinder; Painter, Luke E; Sandom, Christopher J; Terborgh, John; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2015-05-01

    Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass ≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change, and resource depression by livestock. Loss of large herbivores can have cascading effects on other species including large carnivores, scavengers, mesoherbivores, small mammals, and ecological processes involving vegetation, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and fire regimes. The rate of large herbivore decline suggests that ever-larger swaths of the world will soon lack many of the vital ecological services these animals provide, resulting in enormous ecological and social costs. PMID:26601172

  17. Project of a Super Charm-Tau factory at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk

    SciTech Connect

    Bondar, A. E.

    2013-09-15

    A project of a Super Charm-Tau factory is being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences) in Novosibirsk. The electron-positron collider to be employed will operate at c.m. energies in the range between 2 and 5 GeV at an unprecedentedly high luminosity of 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with a longitudinal electron polarization at the beam-interaction point. The main objective of experiments at the Super Charm-Tau factory is to study processes involving the production and properties of charmed quarks and tau leptons. A high luminosity of this setup will make it possible to obtain a statistical data sample that will be three to four orders of magnitude vaster than that from any other experiment performed thus far. Experiments at this setup are assumed to be sensitive to effects of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Investigations to be carried out at the Super-Charm-Tau factory will supplement future experiments at Super-B factories under construction in Italy and in Japan.

  18. Testing a Parachute for Mars in World's Largest Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The team developing the landing system for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory tested the deployment of an early parachute design in mid-October 2007 inside the world's largest wind tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

    In this image, two engineers are dwarfed by the parachute, which holds more air than a 280-square-meter (3,000-square-foot) house and is designed to survive loads in excess of 36,000 kilograms (80,000 pounds).

    The parachute, built by Pioneer Aerospace, South Windsor, Connecticut, has 80 suspension lines, measures more than 50 meters (165 feet) in length, and opens to a diameter of nearly 17 meters (55 feet). It is the largest disk-gap-band parachute ever built and is shown here inflated in the test section with only about 3.8 meters (12.5 feet) of clearance to both the floor and ceiling.

    The wind tunnel, which is 24 meters (80 feet) tall and 37 meters (120 feet) wide and big enough to house a Boeing 737, is part of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, operated by the U.S. Air Force, Arnold Engineering Development Center.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is building and testing the Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft for launch in 2009. The mission will land a roving analytical laboratory on the surface of Mars in 2010. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  19. The largest volcanic eruptions on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Scott E.; Peate, Ingrid Ukstins; Peate, David W.; Self, Stephen; Jerram, Dougal A.; Mawby, Michael R.; Marsh, J. S. (Goonie); Miller, Jodie A.

    2010-10-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) are sites of the most frequently recurring, largest volume basaltic and silicic eruptions in Earth history. These large-volume (> 1000 km 3 dense rock equivalent) and large-magnitude (> M8) eruptions produce areally extensive (10 4-10 5 km 2) basaltic lava flow fields and silicic ignimbrites that are the main building blocks of LIPs. Available information on the largest eruptive units are primarily from the Columbia River and Deccan provinces for the dimensions of flood basalt eruptions, and the Paraná-Etendeka and Afro-Arabian provinces for the silicic ignimbrite eruptions. In addition, three large-volume (675-2000 km 3) silicic lava flows have also been mapped out in the Proterozoic Gawler Range province (Australia), an interpreted LIP remnant. Magma volumes of > 1000 km 3 have also been emplaced as high-level basaltic and rhyolitic sills in LIPs. The data sets indicate comparable eruption magnitudes between the basaltic and silicic eruptions, but due to considerable volumes residing as co-ignimbrite ash deposits, the current volume constraints for the silicic ignimbrite eruptions may be considerably underestimated. Magma composition thus appears to be no barrier to the volume of magma emitted during an individual eruption. Despite this general similarity in magnitude, flood basaltic and silicic eruptions are very different in terms of eruption style, duration, intensity, vent configuration, and emplacement style. Flood basaltic eruptions are dominantly effusive and Hawaiian-Strombolian in style, with magma discharge rates of ~ 10 6-10 8 kg s -1 and eruption durations estimated at years to tens of years that emplace dominantly compound pahoehoe lava flow fields. Effusive and fissural eruptions have also emplaced some large-volume silicic lavas, but discharge rates are unknown, and may be up to an order of magnitude greater than those of flood basalt lava eruptions for emplacement to be on realistic time scales (< 10 years). Most

  20. The largest volcanic eruptions on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Scott E.; Peate, Ingrid Ukstins; Peate, David W.; Self, Stephen; Jerram, Dougal A.; Mawby, Michael R.; Marsh, J. S. (Goonie); Miller, Jodie A.

    2010-10-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) are sites of the most frequently recurring, largest volume basaltic and silicic eruptions in Earth history. These large-volume (> 1000 km 3 dense rock equivalent) and large-magnitude (> M8) eruptions produce areally extensive (10 4-10 5 km 2) basaltic lava flow fields and silicic ignimbrites that are the main building blocks of LIPs. Available information on the largest eruptive units are primarily from the Columbia River and Deccan provinces for the dimensions of flood basalt eruptions, and the Paraná-Etendeka and Afro-Arabian provinces for the silicic ignimbrite eruptions. In addition, three large-volume (675-2000 km 3) silicic lava flows have also been mapped out in the Proterozoic Gawler Range province (Australia), an interpreted LIP remnant. Magma volumes of > 1000 km 3 have also been emplaced as high-level basaltic and rhyolitic sills in LIPs. The data sets indicate comparable eruption magnitudes between the basaltic and silicic eruptions, but due to considerable volumes residing as co-ignimbrite ash deposits, the current volume constraints for the silicic ignimbrite eruptions may be considerably underestimated. Magma composition thus appears to be no barrier to the volume of magma emitted during an individual eruption. Despite this general similarity in magnitude, flood basaltic and silicic eruptions are very different in terms of eruption style, duration, intensity, vent configuration, and emplacement style. Flood basaltic eruptions are dominantly effusive and Hawaiian-Strombolian in style, with magma discharge rates of ~ 10 6-10 8 kg s -1 and eruption durations estimated at years to tens of years that emplace dominantly compound pahoehoe lava flow fields. Effusive and fissural eruptions have also emplaced some large-volume silicic lavas, but discharge rates are unknown, and may be up to an order of magnitude greater than those of flood basalt lava eruptions for emplacement to be on realistic time scales (< 10 years). Most

  1. Computer networks for financial activity management, control and statistics of databases of economic administration at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyupikova, T. V.; Samoilov, V. N.

    2003-04-01

    Modern information technologies urge natural sciences to further development. But it comes together with evaluation of infrastructures, to spotlight favorable conditions for the development of science and financial base in order to prove and protect legally new research. Any scientific development entails accounting and legal protection. In the report, we consider a new direction in software, organization and control of common databases on the example of the electronic document handling, which functions in some departments of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.

  2. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Nuclear Science Symposium, 18th, and Nuclear Power Systems Symposium, 3rd, San Francisco, Calif., November 3-5, 1971, Proceedings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Potential advantages of fusion power reactors are discussed together with the protection of the public from radioactivity produced in nuclear power reactors, and the significance of tritium releases to the environment. Other subjects considered are biomedical instrumentation, radiation damage problems, low level environmental radionuclide analysis systems, nuclear techniques in environmental research, nuclear instrumentation, and space and plasma instrumentation. Individual items are abstracted in this issue.

  3. Largest-ever Ozone Hole over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA instrument has detected an Antarctic ozone 'hole' (what scientists call an 'ozone depletion area') that is three times larger than the entire land mass of the United States-the largest such area ever observed. The 'hole' expanded to a record size of approximately 11 million square miles (28.3 million square kilometers) on Sept. 3, 2000. The previous record was approximately 10.5 million square miles (27.2 million square km) on Sept. 19, 1998. The ozone hole's size currently has stabilized, but the low levels in its interior continue to fall. The lowest readings in the ozone hole are typically observed in late September or early October each year. 'These observations reinforce concerns about the frailty of Earth's ozone layer. Although production of ozone-destroying gases has been curtailed under international agreements, concentrations of the gases in the stratosphere are only now reaching their peak. Due to their long persistence in the atmosphere, it will be many decades before the ozone hole is no longer an annual occurrence,' said Dr. Michael J. Kurylo, manager of the Upper Atmosphere Research Program, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. Ozone molecules, made up of three atoms of oxygen, comprise a thin layer of the atmosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. Most atmospheric ozone is found between approximately six miles (9.5 km) and 18 miles (29 km) above the Earth's surface. Scientists continuing to investigate this enormous hole are somewhat surprised by its size. The reasons behind the dimensions involve both early-spring conditions, and an extremely intense Antarctic vortex. The Antarctic vortex is an upper-altitude stratospheric air current that sweeps around the Antarctic continent, confining the Antarctic ozone hole. 'Variations in the size of the ozone hole and of ozone depletion accompanying it from one year to the next are not unexpected,' said Dr. Jack Kaye, Office of Earth Sciences Research Director, NASA Headquarters

  4. Conceptual design project: Accelerator complex for nuclear physics studies and boron neutron capture therapy application at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhI) Yerevan, Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avagyan, R. H.; Kerobyan, I. A.

    2015-07-01

    The final goal of the proposed project is the creation of a Complex of Accelerator Facilities at the Yerevan Physics Institute (CAF YerPhI) for nuclear physics basic researches, as well as for applied programs including boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The CAF will include the following facilities: Cyclotron C70, heavy material (uranium) target/ion source, mass-separator, LINAC1 (0.15-1.5 MeV/u) and LINAC2 (1.5-10 MeV/u). The delivered by C70 proton beams with energy 70 MeV will be used for investigations in the field of basic nuclear physics and with energy 30 MeV for use in applications.

  5. An investigation into the accuracy of the albedo dosimeter DVGN-01 in measuring personnel irradiation doses in the fields of neutron radiation at nuclear power installations of the joint institute for nuclear research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskrovnaya, L. G.; Goroshkova, E. A.; Mokrov, Yu. V.

    2010-05-01

    The calculated results of research into the accuracy of an individual albedo dosimeter DVGN-01 as it corresponds to the personal equivalent dose for neutrons H p (10) and to the effective dose for neutrons E eff in the neutron fields at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Nuclear Power Installations (JNPI) upon different geometries of irradiations are presented. It has been shown that correction coefficients are required for the specific estimation of doses by the dosimeter. These coefficients were calculated using the energy sensitivity curve of the dosimeter and the known neutron spectra at JNPI. By using the correction factors, the uncertainties of both doses will not exceed the limits given to the personnel according to the standards.

  6. Detail of the largest generator, an Enterprise 5000, also known ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of the largest generator, an Enterprise 5000, also known as "Big Bertha", looking southeast - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  7. Comments on Presentation on Industrial Nuclear Explosion Sites in the Russian Federation: Recovery and Institutional Monitoring Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Donald J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Sciences selected 6 U.S. scientists to review papers prepared by Russian specialists in 6 specific areas of radioactive waste management concern. As one of the U.S. specialists selected, Don Bradley attended a meeting in Moscow, Russia where the papers were formally presented. Following the presentation, eah one was critiqued by the U.S. specialist. In Mr. Bradley's case the topic was contamination at Peaceful Nuclear Explosion test sites (PNE's). The formal title of the meeting was: "Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials". Following discussions with the U.S. team, each of the U.S. specialists was charged with writing up a short comment paper for the U.S. Academy of Sciences. This is Mr. Bradley's comments on the presentation by Kasatkin V.V., Kamnev Ye.N. and Ilyichev V.A. (Rosatom, FGUP VNIPIpromtechnologii) .

  8. Approximating the largest eigenvalue of network adjacency matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2007-11-01

    The largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a network plays an important role in several network processes (e.g., synchronization of oscillators, percolation on directed networks, and linear stability of equilibria of network coupled systems). In this paper we develop approximations to the largest eigenvalue of adjacency matrices and discuss the relationships between these approximations. Numerical experiments on simulated networks are used to test our results.

  9. Effect of the size of experimental channels of the lead slowing-down spectrometer SVZ-100 (Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow) on the moderation constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latysheva, L. N.; Bergman, A. A.; Sobolevsky, N. M.; Ilić, R. D.

    2013-04-01

    Lead slowing-down (LSD) spectrometers have a low energy resolution (about 30%), but their luminosity is 103 to 104 times higher than that of time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers. A high luminosity of LSD spectrometers makes it possible to use them to measure neutron cross section for samples of mass about several micrograms. These features specify a niche for the application of LSD spectrometers in measuring neutron cross sections for elements hardly available in macroscopic amounts—in particular, for actinides. A mathematical simulation of the parameters of SVZ-100 LSD spectrometer of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow) is performed in the present study on the basis of the MCNPX code. It is found that the moderation constant, which is the main parameter of LSD spectrometers, is highly sensitive to the size and shape of detecting volumes in calculations and, hence, to the real size of experimental channels of the LSD spectrometer.

  10. Effect of the size of experimental channels of the lead slowing-down spectrometer SVZ-100 (Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow) on the moderation constant

    SciTech Connect

    Latysheva, L. N.; Bergman, A. A.; Sobolevsky, N. M.; Ilic, R. D.

    2013-04-15

    Lead slowing-down (LSD) spectrometers have a low energy resolution (about 30%), but their luminosity is 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} times higher than that of time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers. A high luminosity of LSD spectrometers makes it possible to use them to measure neutron cross section for samples of mass about several micrograms. These features specify a niche for the application of LSD spectrometers in measuring neutron cross sections for elements hardly available in macroscopic amounts-in particular, for actinides. A mathematical simulation of the parameters of SVZ-100 LSD spectrometer of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow) is performed in the present study on the basis of the MCNPX code. It is found that the moderation constant, which is the main parameter of LSD spectrometers, is highly sensitive to the size and shape of detecting volumes in calculations and, hence, to the real size of experimental channels of the LSD spectrometer.

  11. Time scale of the largest imaginable magnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliūnas, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    The depression of the horizontal magnetic field at Earth's equator for the largest imaginable magnetic storm has been estimated (Vasyliūnas, 2011a) as -Dst ~ 2500 nT, from the assumption that the total pressure in the magnetosphere (plasma plus magnetic field perturbation) is limited, in order of magnitude, by the minimum pressure of Earth's dipole field at the location of each flux tube. The obvious related question is how long it would take the solar wind to supply the energy content of this largest storm. The maximum rate of energy input from the solar wind to the magnetosphere can be evaluated on the basis either of magnetotail stress balance or of polar cap potential saturation, giving an estimate of the time required to build up the largest storm, which (for solar-wind and magnetospheric parameter values typical of observed superstorms) is roughly between ~2 and ~6 h.

  12. Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The new Diamond Valley Lake Reservoir near the city of Hemet in Riverside County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S.history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million cubic meters of foundation excavation and 84 million cubic meters of embankment construction. This set of MISR images captures the most recent phase in the reservoir's activation. At the upper left is a natural-color view acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on March 14, 2000 (Terra orbit 1273), shortly after the Metropolitan Water District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the surrounding land. The image at the upper right was acquired nearly one year later on March 1, 2001 (Terra orbit 6399), and shows a clear increase in the reservoir's water content. When full, the lake will hold nearly a trillion liters of water.

    According to the Metropolitan Water District, the 7 kilometer x 3 kilometer reservoir nearly doubles Southern California's above-groundwater storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a major aqueduct. In the face of electrical power shortages, it is also expected to reduce dependence on the pumping of water from northern mountains during the high-demand summer months. An unexpected result of site excavation was the uncovering of mastodon and mammoth skeletons along with bones from extinct species not previously thought to have been indigenous to the area, such as the giant long-horned bison and North American lion. A museum and interpretive center is being built to protect these finds.

    The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view combining data from the instrument's 26-degree forward view (displayed as blue) with data from the 26-degree backward

  13. Final Status Survey for the Largest Decommissioning Project on Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Dubiel, R.W.; Miller, J.; Quayle, D.

    2006-07-01

    To assist the United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) re-industrialization efforts at its gaseous diffusion site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, known as the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), the US DOE awarded a 6-year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) contract to BNG America (formerly BNFL Inc.) in 1997. The ETTP 3-Building D and D Project included the removal and disposition of the materials and equipment from the K-33, K-31, and K-29 Gaseous Diffusion Plant buildings. The three buildings comprise more than 4.8 million square feet (446,000 square meters) of floor surface area and more than 350 million pounds (148 million kilograms) of hazardous and radioactively contaminated material, making it the largest nuclear D and D project in progress anywhere in the world. The logistical hurdles involved in a project of this scope and magnitude required an extensive amount of Engineering and Health Physics professionals. In order to accomplish the Final Status Survey (FSS) for a project of this scope, the speed and efficiency of automated survey equipment was essential. Surveys of floors, structural steel and ceilings up to 60 feet (18 meters) were required. The FSS had to be expanded to include additional remediation and surveys due to characterization surveys and assumptions regarding the nature and extent of contamination provided by the US DOE. Survey design and technical bases had to consider highly variable constituents; including uranium from depleted to low enrichment, variable levels of Technetium-99 and transuranic nuclides, which were introduced into the cascade during the 1960's when recycled uranium (RU) from Savannah River was re-enriched at the facility. The RU was transported to unexpected locations from leaks in the cascade by complex building ventilation patterns. The primary survey tool used for the post remediation and FSS was the Surface Contamination Monitor (SCM) and the associated Survey Information Management System (SIMS

  14. Cassini sheds light on Titan's second largest lake, Ligeia Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is known for its dense, planet-like atmosphere and large lakes most likely made of methane and ethane. It has been suggested that Titan's atmosphere and surface are a model of early Earth. Since the early 2000s, NASA's Cassini space probe has been unlocking secrets of the distant moon.

  15. Building Earth's Largest Library: Driving into the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Amazon.com online bookstore as a blueprint for designing the world's largest library. Topics include selection; accessibility and convenience; quality of Web sites and search tools; personalized service; library collection development, including interlibrary loan; library catalogs and catalog records; a circulation system; costs;…

  16. Animals as Our Companions: World's Largest Math Event 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    The World's Largest Math Event 6 (WLME 6) is the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) celebration of mathematics and mathematics education and is the highlight of Mathematics Education Month. This year's event, slated for April 28, 2000, features the theme "Animals as Our Companions". This theme encourages students to explore the…

  17. The Power of Nature. World's Largest Math Event 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    The theme of the fifth annual World's Largest Math Event (WLME 5) is "The Power of Nature." This theme encourages students to explore natural forces that affect humankind, including phenomena such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and snowstorms, and the mathematics that underlies their study. The 15 activities for WLMES have been grouped into five…

  18. The Single Largest Education Donor Comes with Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    For the last decade, in districts big and small, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has emerged as the largest private funder of educational efforts. This began with an initiative around small schools in the early to mid-2000s, mostly abandoned now, and has gained traction in the past few years in areas such as teacher evaluation, the Common Core…

  19. The Roper Center: The World's Largest Archive of Survey Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, John M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the holdings and services provided by the Roper Center, the largest archive of survey data in the world. Explains the structure of and topics included in the online database, and discusses fees, membership opportunities, and future plans for the center. A sidebar by Burns W. Roper is included. (CLB)

  20. Afterglows from the largest explosions in the universe

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Dieter H.

    1999-01-01

    The distinction of “largest explosions in the universe” has been bestowed on cosmic gamma-ray bursts. Their afterglows are brighter than supernovae and therefore are called hypernovae. Photometry and spectroscopy of these afterglows have provided major breakthroughs in our understanding of this mysterious phenomenon. PMID:10220364

  1. Automation of the quantitative determination of elemental content in samples using neutron activation analysis on the IBR-2 reactor at the frank laboratory for neutron physics, joint institute for nuclear research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, A. Yu.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Software for the automated quantitative determination of element concentrations in samples is described. This software is used in neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor of the Frank Laboratory for Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (FLNP JINR).

  2. Bayesian Predictive Distribution for the Magnitude of the Largest Aftershock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, R.

    2014-12-01

    Aftershock sequences, which follow large earthquakes, last hundreds of days and are characterized by well defined frequency-magnitude and spatio-temporal distributions. The largest aftershocks in a sequence constitute significant hazard and can inflict additional damage to infrastructure. Therefore, the estimation of the magnitude of possible largest aftershocks in a sequence is of high importance. In this work, we propose a statistical model based on Bayesian analysis and extreme value statistics to describe the distribution of magnitudes of the largest aftershocks in a sequence. We derive an analytical expression for a Bayesian predictive distribution function for the magnitude of the largest expected aftershock and compute the corresponding confidence intervals. We assume that the occurrence of aftershocks can be modeled, to a good approximation, by a non-homogeneous Poisson process with a temporal event rate given by the modified Omori law. We also assume that the frequency-magnitude statistics of aftershocks can be approximated by Gutenberg-Richter scaling. We apply our analysis to 19 prominent aftershock sequences, which occurred in the last 30 years, in order to compute the Bayesian predictive distributions and the corresponding confidence intervals. In the analysis, we use the information of the early aftershocks in the sequences (in the first 1, 10, and 30 days after the main shock) to estimate retrospectively the confidence intervals for the magnitude of the expected largest aftershocks. We demonstrate by analysing 19 past sequences that in many cases we are able to constrain the magnitudes of the largest aftershocks. For example, this includes the analysis of the Darfield (Christchurch) aftershock sequence. The proposed analysis can be used for the earthquake hazard assessment and forecasting associated with the occurrence of large aftershocks. The improvement in instrumental data associated with early aftershocks can greatly enhance the analysis and

  3. ALMA Partners Break Ground on World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from North America, Europe, and Chile broke ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths. ALMA - the Atacama Large Millimeter Array - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located on the Chajnantor plain of the Chilean Andes in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, 16,500 feet (5,000 meters) above sea level. ALMA's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimeter portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ALMA Array Artist's Conception of ALMA Array in Compact Configuration (Click on Image for Larger Version) Other Images Available: Artist's conception of the antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Moonrise over ALMA test equipment near Cerro Chajnantor, Chile VertexRSI antenna at the VLA test site The Atacama Large Millimeter Array is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. "The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare for a spectacular new instrument," said Dr. Rita Colwell, director of the U.S. National Science Foundation. "The Atacama Large Millimeter Array will expand our vision of the Universe with "eyes" that pierce the shrouded mantles of

  4. Largest Lyapunov exponents for lattices of interacting classical spins.

    PubMed

    de Wijn, A S; Hess, B; Fine, B V

    2012-07-20

    We investigate how generic the onset of chaos in interacting many-body classical systems is in the context of lattices of classical spins with nearest-neighbor anisotropic couplings. Seven large lattices in different spatial dimensions were considered. For each lattice, more than 2000 largest Lyapunov exponents for randomly sampled Hamiltonians were numerically computed. Our results strongly suggest the absence of integrable nearest-neighbor Hamiltonians for the infinite lattices except for the trivial Ising case. In the vicinity of the Ising case, the largest Lyapunov exponents exhibit a power-law growth, while further away they become rather weakly sensitive to the Hamiltonian anisotropy. We also provide an analytical derivation of these results. PMID:22861854

  5. Rare gas record in the largest Apollo 15 rock.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.; Lightner, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results obtained from mass-spectrometry analyses of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in a 182-mg chip of the largest Apollo 15 rock 15555 are presented. The spallation krypton data indicate a well-shielded location through most of the time during which the rock was exposed to cosmic rays. Gas retention ages are estimated. No evidence for the presence of products from plutonium-244 or iodine-129 was found.

  6. World's largest TLP moves onto deepwater Norwegian location

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that the world's largest and most sophisticated tension leg platform (TLP) was floated out to Snorre oil field in the Norwegian North Sea last month. The 78,000 ton unit built by Norwegian independent, Sega Petroleum AS, Oslo, was installed in the southern part of block 34/7 and should produce first oil in August, about a month ahead of schedule.

  7. What Is the Largest Einstein Radius in the Universe?

    SciTech Connect

    Oguri, Masamune; Blandford, Roger D.

    2008-08-05

    The Einstein radius plays a central role in lens studies as it characterizes the strength of gravitational lensing. In particular, the distribution of Einstein radii near the upper cutoff should probe the probability distribution of the largest mass concentrations in the universe. Adopting a triaxial halo model, we compute expected distributions of large Einstein radii. To assess the cosmic variance, we generate a number of Monte-Carlo realizations of all-sky catalogues of massive clusters. We find that the expected largest Einstein radius in the universe is sensitive to parameters characterizing the cosmological model, especially {sigma}{sub s}: for a source redshift of unity, they are 42{sub -7}{sup +9}, 35{sub -6}{sup +8}, and 54{sub -7}{sup +12} arcseconds (errors denote 1{sigma} cosmic variance), assuming best-fit cosmological parameters of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five-year (WMAP5), three-year (WMAP3) and one-year (WMAP1) data, respectively. These values are broadly consistent with current observations given their incompleteness. The mass of the largest lens cluster can be as small as {approx} 10{sup 15} M{sub {circle_dot}}. For the same source redshift, we expect in all-sky {approx} 35 (WMAP5), {approx} 15 (WMAP3), and {approx} 150 (WMAP1) clusters that have Einstein radii larger than 2000. For a larger source redshift of 7, the largest Einstein radii grow approximately twice as large. While the values of the largest Einstein radii are almost unaffected by the level of the primordial non-Gaussianity currently of interest, the measurement of the abundance of moderately large lens clusters should probe non-Gaussianity competitively with cosmic microwave background experiments, but only if other cosmological parameters are well-measured. These semi-analytic predictions are based on a rather simple representation of clusters, and hence calibrating them with N-body simulations will help to improve the accuracy. We also find that these 'superlens

  8. Molecular characterization of the largest subunit of Plasmodium falciparum RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Fox, B A; Li, W B; Tanaka, M; Inselburg, J; Bzik, D J

    1993-09-01

    Plasmodium species possess developmentally regulated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. This report describes the expression and gene structure of the largest subunit of P. falciparum RNA polymerase I (RNAPI), which is responsible for the synthesis of rRNA. The RNAPI largest subunit gene was present as a single copy gene on chromosome 9. Three exons encode the 2910-amino acid RNAPI polypeptide (340 140 Da). A comparison of Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear RNAP largest subunits identified conserved amino acid positions and class-specific amino acid positions. Novel amino acid insertions were found between RNAPI conserved regions A and B (region A'), D and DE1 (region D'), DE2 and E (region DE2'), and F and G (region F'). Leucine zipper domains were found within regions D', DE2, and DE2'. A novel serine-rich repeat domain, a domain with homology to the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic upstream binding factor (UBF), and 4 highly conserved casein kinase II (CKII) Ser/Thr phosphorylation motifs were found within a 127-amino acid sub-region of enlarged region F'. The novel RNAPI serine-rich repeat contained a conserved motif, Ser-X3-Ser, which was also identified in the serine-rich repeat domains of the P. falciparum RNAPII and RNAPIII largest subunits, as well as within a highly homologous serine-rich repeat from trophozoite antigen R45. The results of this molecular analysis indicate that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanisms regulate the activity of P. falciparum RNAPI. PMID:8259131

  9. Publisher's Note: ''The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073507 (2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx} 3-5 Multiplication-Sign 1010 cm-3 and temperature {approx} 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  10. Numerical simulation of morphodynamic diversity in the World's largest rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, A.

    2012-04-01

    The World's largest rivers share many common properties, including gentle longitudinal bed gradients (~ 0.01-0.1 m per km), high mean annual discharges (~ >10,000 cumecs), and sand-sized bed sediment (D50 ~ 0.1-0.4 mm), yet despite these similarities they are characterised by diverse planform patterns and morphodynamic behaviour (including meandering, braided and anabranching river styles). Recent studies have shown that this diversity cannot be explained using existing channel pattern classification schemes that apply to small rivers. Indeed at present, the causes of morphodynamic diversity in the World's largest rivers remain unclear. Moreover, elucidation of process-form interactions in large rivers is hampered by logistical difficulties involved in field data collection, and by the time period over which satellite imagery is available, which is short given the slow rates of channel change in many large rivers. Numerical models provide a further possible approach for investigating large river morphodynamics. However, although many such models exist, they have generally been developed or applied to simulate either meandering or braided rivers, rather than to investigate a range of channel styles. This paper aims to address this shortcoming using a new numerical simulation model, which is applied to explore the controls on morphodynamic diversity in large sand-bed rivers. This model is based on the 2D shallow water equations with secondary circulation correction, with model components representing total sand transport, suspended transport of silt and clay, bank erosion, vegetation growth and floodplain development. Numerical simulations representing time periods of c. 200 years illustrate how a wide range of channel morphologies, including meandering, braided and anabranching channels, may develop from the same initial conditions and external forcing (valley gradient and discharge regime). These results shed light on the process controls on morphodynamic diversity

  11. The 120th anniversary of the birth of Academician D V Skobeltsyn (Joint meeting of the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Research Councils of the Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and of the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University, 28 November 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-04-01

    A joint meeting of the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and the Research Councils of the Lebedev Physical Institute of the RAS and of the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University took place at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute of the RAS on 28 November 2012.The following reports were put on the session agenda as posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division:1) Mesyats G A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Opening remarks"; (2) Sadovnichy V A (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "Academician D V Skobeltsyn and Moscow State University"; (3) Dalkarov O D (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Cosmic rays studies at FIAN"; (4) Panasyuk M I, Romanovskii E A (Skobteltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "Academician D V Skobeltsyn -- the founder of the scientific school of nuclear physics at Moscow State University"; (5) Mikhailin V V (Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "Synchrotron and undulator radiations and their application in spectroscopy"; (6) Toptygin I N (St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg) "The Petersburg period in the life of D V Skobeltsyn". Articles based on talks 1, 2, 4-6 are printed below. • Academician D V Skobeltsyn and FIAN, G A Mesyats Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 4, Pages 401-404 • Academician D V Skobeltsyn and Moscow State University, V A Sadovnichy Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 4, Pages 404-406 • Academician D V Skobeltsyn as the founder of the MSU school of nuclear physics, M I Panasyuk, E A Romanovskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 4, Pages 406-411 • Synchrotron and undulator radiations and their applications in spectroscopy, V V Mikhailin Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 4, Pages 412-417 • The Petersburg

  12. Historically largest geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC) since 1868

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Tohru

    2014-12-01

    Being stimulated by the previously reported large amplitude (202 nT at Kakioka) geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC) on 24 March 1991, we searched larger amplitude SCs in the past. We tried to collect old magnetograms and used the list of SC observed at Kakioka (27.5° gm.lat.) for the period 1924 to 2013 and Colaba (10.5°)-Alibag (10.3°) for 1868 to 1967. We found that the largest amplitude SC occurred on 24 March (the same day as 1991 SC), 1940. The H-component amplitude is larger than 273 nT at Kakioka and 310 nT at Alibag. We could also obtain the copy of the magnetogram of Cape Town (-33.3°) which shows 164 nT amplitude. The statistical analysis shows that the occurrence rate of SCs is less than 5% for amplitude larger than 50 nT and less than 1% for amplitude larger than 100 nT at both Kakioka and Alibag. Large amplitude SCs tend to occur during the declining phase of the solar activity. Finally, we discussed the possible increase of the dynamic pressure associated with the interplanetary shock causing the largest SC.

  13. Institution Closures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on the need to accelerate the closing of institutions for people with mental retardation. Articles are by both current and former residents of institutions and by professionals, and include: "The Realities of Institutions" (Tia Nelis); "I Cry Out So That I Won't Go Insane" (Mary F. Hayden); "Trends in…

  14. Earth's Largest Meteorite Impact Craters discovered in South America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellndorfer, J. M.; Schmidt-Falkenberg, H.

    2014-12-01

    Novel analysis of high resolution InSAR-based digital elevation data from the year 2001 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission combined with a recently produced dataset of pan-tropical vegetation height from ALOS-1 SAR and IceSAT/GLAS Lidar estimates led to the quasi-bald-Earth discovery of four sizable near-perfect circle arcs in South America under dense tropical forests ranging in length from 216 km to 441 km. Terrain elevation profiles of cross-sections across the arcs show a distinct vertical rising and falling in elevations of hundreds of meters over a horizontal distance of tens of kilometers. It is hypothesized that these sizable arcs and associated rim-like topographic terrain features are remnants of huge meteorite impact craters with diameters ranging from 770 km to 1,310 km, thus forming potentially the largest known impact carter structures discovered on Earth today. The potential impact crater rim structures are located north of the eastern Amazon River, in the coastal region of Recife and Natal, and in the Brazilian, Bolivian and Paraguayan border region encompassing the Pantanal. Elevation profiles, hillshades and gray-shaded elevation maps were produced to support the geomorphologic analysis. It is also speculated whether in three of the four potential impact craters, central uplift domes or peaks, which are typical for complex impact crater structures can be identified. The worlds largest iron ore mining area of Carajás in Para, Brazil, falls exactly in the center of the largest hypothesized circular impact crater showing topographic elevations similar to the rim structure discovered 655 km to the north-north-west. Based on the topographic/geomorphologic driven hypothesis, geologic exploration of these topographic features is needed to test whether indeed meteorite impact craters could be verified, what the more exact ellipsoidal shapes of the potential impact craters might be, and to determine when during geologic times the impacts would have taken

  15. Basal resistance for three of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapero, Daniel R.; Joughin, Ian R.; Poinar, Kristin; Morlighem, Mathieu; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Resistance at the ice-bed interface provides a strong control on the response of ice streams and outlet glaciers to external forcing, yet it is not observable by remote sensing. We used inverse methods constrained by satellite observations to infer the basal resistance to flow underneath three of the Greenland Ice Sheet's largest outlet glaciers. In regions of fast ice flow and high (>250 kPa) driving stresses, ice is often assumed to flow over a strong bed. We found, however, that the beds of these three glaciers provide almost no resistance under the fast-flowing trunk. Instead, resistance to flow is provided by the lateral margins and stronger beds underlying slower-moving ice upstream. Additionally, we found isolated patches of high basal resistivity within the predominantly weak beds. Because these small-scale (<1 ice thickness) features may be artifacts of overfitting our solution to measurement errors, we tested their robustness to different degrees of regularization.

  16. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene at the World's Largest Mass Gathering.

    PubMed

    Vortmann, Michael; Balsari, Satchit; Holman, Susan R; Greenough, P Gregg

    2015-02-01

    The 2013 Kumbh Mela, a Hindu religious festival and the largest human gathering on earth, drew an estimated 120 million pilgrims to bathe at the holy confluence of the Ganga (Ganges) and Yamuna rivers. To accommodate the massive numbers, the Indian government constructed a temporary city on the flood plains of the two rivers and provided it with roads, electricity, water and sanitation facilities, police stations, and a tiered healthcare system. This phenomenal operation and its impacts have gone largely undocumented. To address this gap, the authors undertook an evaluation and systematic monitoring initiative to study preparedness and response to public health emergencies at the event. This paper describes the water, sanitation, and hygiene components, with particular emphasis on preventive and mitigation strategies; the capacity for surveillance and response to diarrheal disease outbreaks; and the implications of lessons learned for other mass gatherings. PMID:25783442

  17. Correlates of species richness in the largest Neotropical amphibian radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Padial, J M; Castroviejo-Fisher, S; De La Riva, I; Vilà, C

    2011-01-01

    Although tropical environments are often considered biodiversity hotspots, it is precisely in such environments where least is known about the factors that drive species richness. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative analyses to study correlates of species richness for the largest Neotropical amphibian radiation: New World direct-developing frogs. Clade-age and species richness were nonsignficantly, negatively correlated, suggesting that clade age alone does not explain among-clade variation in species richness. A combination of ecological and morphological traits explained 65% of the variance in species richness. A more vascularized ventral skin, the ability to colonize high-altitude ranges, encompassing a large variety of vegetation types, correlated significantly with species richness, whereas larger body size was marginally correlated with species richness. Hence, whereas high-altitude ranges play a role in shaping clade diversity in the Neotropics, intrinsic factors, such as skin structures and possibly body size, might ultimately determine which clades are more speciose than others. PMID:21401771

  18. On the macroseismic magnitudes of the largest Italian earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Vittori, T.; Mulargia, F.

    1987-07-01

    The macroseismic magnitudes MT of the largest Italian earthquakes ( I0 ⩾ VIII, MCS) have been computed by using the intensity magnitude relationships recently assessed by the authors (1986) for the Italian region. The Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica (PFG) catalog of the Italian earthquakes, covering the period 1000-1980 (Postpischl, 1985) is the source data base and is reproduced in the Appendix: here the estimated values of MT are given side by side with the catalog macroseismic magnitudes MK i.e. the magnitudes computed according to the Karnik laws (Karnik, 1969). The one-sigma errors Δ MT are also given for each earthquake. The basic aim of the paper is to provide a handy and useful tool to researchers involved in seismicity and seismic-risk studies on Italian territory.

  19. 1. Photocopy of undated wash drawing. The largest building is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of undated wash drawing. The largest building is the Hotel Williams. Next to it is the Williams House (Williams Hotel Annex), HABS No. MI-258 A. Below them are the log cabins built by the American Fur Company (from left to right): Log Building No. 1 (MI-258 C), Log Building No. 2 (MI-258 D), Log Building No. 3 (not documented), Log Building No. 4 (MI-258 E), and Log Building No. 5 (MI-258 F). (Williams Log House, MI-258 B, and Log Building No. 8, MI-258 G, are not shown). The drawing is in the collection of the Michigan Historical Commission. Although it does not have a date, it was painted in the early 20th century after the main building was constructed. - Hotel Williams, Murray Bay, Munising, Alger County, MI

  20. Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Ripple, William J.; Newsome, Thomas M.; Wolf, Christopher; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Everatt, Kristoffer T.; Galetti, Mauro; Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham I. H.; Levi, Taal; Lindsey, Peter A.; Macdonald, David W.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Painter, Luke E.; Sandom, Christopher J.; Terborgh, John; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2015-01-01

    Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass ≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change, and resource depression by livestock. Loss of large herbivores can have cascading effects on other species including large carnivores, scavengers, mesoherbivores, small mammals, and ecological processes involving vegetation, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and fire regimes. The rate of large herbivore decline suggests that ever-larger swaths of the world will soon lack many of the vital ecological services these animals provide, resulting in enormous ecological and social costs. PMID:26601172

  1. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  2. The depths of the largest impact craters on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Ford, P. G.

    1993-01-01

    The largest impact craters on Venus may be used as evidence of various geological processes within the Venusian crust. We are continuing to construct a data base for the further investigation of large craters on Venus (LCV). We hope to find evidence of crater relaxation that might constrain the thickness and thermal gradient of the crust, as was proposed in an earlier work. The current work concentrates on 27 impact craters with diameters (d) larger than 70 km, i.e., large enough that the footprint of the Magellan altimeter has a good chance of sampling the true crater bottom. All altimeter echoes from points located within (d/2)+70 km from the crater center have been inspected.

  3. The World's Largest Real Time Magnetometer Array: MAGDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.

    2009-12-01

    This poster briefly out lines the current situation of the world's largest real time magnetometer array: MAGDAS. This array was conceived by Professor K. Yumoto of the Space Environment Research Center (SERC) based at Kyushu University in Japan. The first phase of MAGDAS deployment coincided with IHY (Years 2005-2009) and about 50 units were installed all over the world. The second phase of MAGDAS deployment is set to occur during ISWI (Intl. Space Weather Initiative, Years 2010-2012) using a new set of 50 magnetometers. MAGDAS stations are concentrated in three chains: (1) the 210 deg. MM chain through Asia, (2) the 96 deg. MM chain through Africa, and (3) the Dip Equator Chain. Data from MAGDAS is available to the scientific community but some conditions are attached to the data. We explain those conditions.

  4. The 260: The Largest Solid Rocket Motor Ever Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimmins, P.; Cousineau, M.; Rogers, C.; Shell, V.

    1999-01-01

    Aerojet in the mid 1960s, under contract to NASA, built and static hot fire tested the largest solid rocket motor (SRM) in history for the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of utilizing large SRMs for space exploration. This program successfully fabricated two high strength steel chambers, loaded each with approximately 1,68 million pounds of propellant, and static test fired these giants with their nozzles up from an underground silo located adjacent to the Florida everglades. Maximum thrust and total impulse in excess of 5,000,000 lbf and 3,470,000,000 lbf-sec were achieved. Flames from the second firing, conducted at night, were seen over eighty miles away. For comparative purposes: the thrust developed was nearly 100 times that of a Minuteman III second stage and the 260 in.-dia cross-section was over 3 times that of the Space Shuttle SRM.

  5. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme.

    PubMed

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W; Wilcove, David S

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  6. Spitzer/IRAC Photometry Of The Four Largest Uranian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Richard; Emery, J.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.

    2012-10-01

    The surfaces of the four largest Uranian satellites are dominated by water ice and a spectrally neutral constituent that is likely carbonaceous in composition. CO2 ice has been detected on Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania, with no detection on the furthest regular Uranian satellite, Oberon (Grundy et al., 2003, 2006). Whether CO2 ice is primordial or is actively produced in the Uranian system is unclear; however, it seems unlikely that primordial CO2 ice would remain exposed on an icy satellite surface over the age of the Solar System. One possible mechanism for producing CO2 ice is bombardment of water ice and carbonaceous material by charged particles caught in Uranus’ magnetic field. Unlike the other large Uranian satellites, Oberon spends part of its orbit outside the confines of Uranus’ magnetic field, which might help explain why CO2 ice has yet to be detected on Oberon. We are using photometric data gathered by the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), in order to search for the signature of CO2 ice on Oberon, and confirm its presence on Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania at longer wavelengths than previous studies. IRAC collects data in four different channels, which are centered roughly at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 µm. Additionally, we are gathering spectroscopic data using SpeX on IRTF, at similar longitudes to the IRAC observations, in order to characterize the distribution of CO2 ice on these icy satellites over a wide range of near-infrared wavelengths. Our preliminary photometry results for Oberon indicate that there is a steep reduction in reflected solar flux from channel 1 to channel 2, suggesting that surface materials are absorbing photons at wavelengths within the bandpass of channel 2. We will present the results of our photometric analysis of the four largest Uranian moons.

  7. Supergranulation as the Sun's largest buoyantly driven mode of convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossette, Jean-Francois; Rast, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Solar supergranulation has been characterized as horizontally divergent flow motions having a typical scale of 32 Mm using Doppler imaging, granule tracking and helioseismology. Unlike granules, the size of which is comparable to both the thickness of the radiative boundary layer and local scale height at the photosphere, supergranules do not appear to correspond to any particular length scale of the flow. Possible explanations ranging from convection theories involving Helium ionization to spatial correlation or self-organization of granular flows have been proposed as physical mechanisms to explain solar supergranulation. However, its existence remains largely a mystery. Remarkably, horizontal velocity power spectra obtained from Doppler imaging and correlation tracking of flow features at the solar surface reveal the presence of peaks corresponding to granular and supergranular scales, followed by a monotonic decrease in power at scales larger than supergranulation, which suggests that large-scale modes in the deep layers of the convection zone may be suppressed. Using 3D anelastic simulations of solar convection we investigate whether supergranulation may reflect the largest buoyantly driven mode of convection inside the Sun. Results show that the amount of kinetic energy contained in the largest flow scales relative to that associated with supergranular motions is a function of the depth of the transition from a convectively unstable to convectively stable mean stratification inside the simulation. This suggests that the observed monotonic decrease in power at scales larger than supergranulation may be explained by rapid cooling in the subphotospheric layers and an essentially isentropic solar interior, wherein convective driving is effectively suppressed.

  8. Largest Aftershocks of Megathrust Earthquakes in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, J.; Tsuzuki, M.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake of Mw9.0 induced the earthquake activity in high level all over Japan. It included not only earthquakes near active faults but also volcanic earthquakes. Although we have observed tens of thousands of aftershocks, yet we do not know which is the largest aftershock of the 2011 megathrust. There occurred several megathrust earthquakes worldwide in the last one hundred years, which are almost the same size or larger than the 2011 megathrust. We have studied their largest aftershocks based on our new hypothesis of along-dip double segmentation (ADDS) and along-strike single segmentation (ASSS). ADDS in the Tohoku-oki region along the Japan trench is characterized by the apparent absence of earthquakes in the trench-ward segments as opposed to the Japan Island-ward segments that have repeated small earthquakes of up to Mw8 class. In contrast, the 1960 Chile and the 2010 Maule megathrusts are characterized by ASSS with the weak seismic activity before the main event everywhere in the subduction zone. The difference between these two types of seismic segmentations would be that strongly coupled areas of trench-ward segments give rise to ADDS, whereas almost 100% coupled areas of shallow-parts of subduction zones give rise to ASSS. In other words, the phenomenon of a seismic gap can be identified for an ASSS megathrust, where as a doughnut pattern of seismic activity appears prior to a main ADDS event. In summary, most of the largest aftershocks of ADDS megathrusts are earthquakes of outer-rise(outer trench-slope) normal faultings, where there occur two types, dip-slip and strike-slip, depending on the structure of subducting oceanic plates. The 1933 Sanriku-oki Mw8.6 (the 1896 Meiji-Sanriku M~8.5) and the 2011 Tohoku-oki Mw7.7 (the 2011 Tohoku-oki Mw9.0) are the former and the 1987 Off Alaska Mw7.8 (the 1964 Alaska Mw9.2) and the 2012 Sumatra Mw8.6 (the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Mw9.3) are the latter. Those of ASSS megathrusts occurred

  9. Urban aerosol pollution assessment in Russian largest cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinina, Elizaveta; Chubarova, Natalia; Sviridenkov, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the aerosol pollution in 51 Russian largest cities, which are located in different climatic zones with various level of urban pollution using the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 550 nm from MODIS data with a spatial resolution 1°×1°during the warm period of 2000-2013. For better understanding of MODIS radiometers quality of AOT data over Russia the comparisons between AERONET data and MODIS data were fulfilled. They showed a good quality of the MODIS data and its possibility to detect an urban pollution from space. As a characteristic of urban aerosol pollution we used the difference between AOT in the city and the background value of AOT in the nearby region. The research showed, that urban aerosol pollution in Russian cities varied from 0.01 to 0.08. Besides, more precise assessment of urban aerosol pollution in Moscow was done basing on the AERONET network data in two sites at Moscow University Meteorological Observatory (MO) and at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS). For the assessment the simultaneous measurements at these two sites during the period from September 2006 till July 2013 were taken. The average AOT difference in the visible spectrum (wavelength: 500 nm) between MO and ZSS, which could be used as pollution characteristic, is about 0.02. These results are similar to similar research, which had been made earlier for a shorter period. The difference between AOT at these two sites is the largest in winter and is about 0.03. In order to assess the dominating aerosol components in different cities we used the data of Russian network on emissions and concentrations of the main pollutants over the 1988-2011 period. For each city we evaluated the ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen dioxide emissions and its trends to assess the dominating aerosol properties and temporal variability. As a result, the radiative forcing of urban aerosol pollution for different cities was evaluated. Depending on the location, the size and the level of

  10. Spectral properties of the largest asteroids associated with Taurid Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, M.; Birlan, M.; Nedelcu, D. A.; Vaubaillon, J.; Cristescu, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Context. The Taurid Complex is a massive stream of material in the inner part of the Solar System. It contains objects spanning the range of 10-6-103 m, considered by some authors to have a common cometary origin. The asteroids belonging to Taurid Complex are on Apollo type orbit, with most of them being flagged as potentially hazardous asteroids. In this context, understanding the nature and the origin of this asteroidal population is not only of scientific interest but also of practical importance. Aims: We aim to investigate the surface mineralogy of the asteroids associated with Taurid Complex using visible and near-infrared spectral data. Compositional linking between these asteroids and meteorites can be derived based on the obtained spectra. Methods: We obtained spectra of six of the largest asteroids (2201, 4183, 4486, 5143, 6063, and 269690) associated with Taurid complex. The observations were made with the IRTF telescope equipped with the spectro-imager SpeX. Their taxonomic classification is made using Bus-DeMeo taxonomy. The asteroid spectra are compared with the meteorite spectra from the Relab database. Mineralogical models were applied to determine their surface composition. All the spectral analysis is made in the context of the already published physical data. Results: Five of the objects studied in this paper present spectral characteristics similar to the S taxonomic complex. The spectra of ordinary chondrites (spanning H, L, and LL subtypes) are the best matches for these asteroid spectra. The asteroid (269690) 1996 RG3 presents a flat featureless spectrum which could be associated to a primitive C-type object. The increased reflectance above 2.1 microns constrains its geometrical albedo to a value around 0.03. Conclusions: While there is an important dynamical grouping among the Taurid Complex asteroids, the spectral data of the largest objects do not support a common cometary origin. Furthermore, there are significant variations between the

  11. World's Largest Gold Crystal Studied at Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema

    Vogel, Sven; Nakotte, Heinz

    2015-01-07

    When geologist John Rakovan needed better tools to investigate whether a dazzling 217.78-gram piece of gold was in fact the world's largest single-crystal specimen - a distinguishing factor that would not only drastically increase its market value but also provide a unique research opportunity - he traveled to Los Alamos National Laboratory's Lujan Neutron Scattering Center to peer deep inside the mineral using neutron diffractometry. Neutrons, different from other probes such as X-rays and electrons, are able to penetrate many centimeters deep into most materials. Revealing the inner structure of a crystal without destroying the sample - imperative, as this one is worth an estimated $1.5 million - would allow Rakovan and Lujan Center collaborators Sven Vogel and Heinz Nakotte to prove that this exquisite nugget, which seemed almost too perfect and too big to be real, was a single crystal and hence a creation of nature. Its owner, who lives in the United States, provided the samples to Rakovan to assess the crystallinity of four specimens, all of which had been found decades ago in Venezuela.

  12. Holocene dynamics of the Arctic's largest ice shelf

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, Dermot; Francus, Pierre; Pienitz, Reinhard; St-Onge, Guillaume; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2011-01-01

    Ice shelves in the Arctic lost more than 90% of their total surface area during the 20th century and are continuing to disintegrate rapidly. The significance of these changes, however, is obscured by the poorly constrained ontogeny of Arctic ice shelves. Here we use the sedimentary record behind the largest remaining ice shelf in the Arctic, the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf (Ellesmere Island, Canada), to establish a long-term context in which to evaluate recent ice-shelf deterioration. Multiproxy analysis of sediment cores revealed pronounced biological and geochemical changes in Disraeli Fiord in response to the formation of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf and its fluctuations through time. Our results show that the ice shelf was absent during the early Holocene and formed 4,000 years ago in response to climate cooling. Paleoecological data then indicate that the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf remained stable for almost three millennia before a major fracturing event that occurred ∼1,400 years ago. After reformation ∼800 years ago, freshwater was a constant feature of Disraeli Fiord until the catastrophic drainage of its epishelf lake in the early 21st century. PMID:22025693

  13. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  14. Cosmology on the Largest Scales with the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, S.; Raccanelli, A.; Bull, P.; Bertacca, D.; Chen, X.; Ferreira, P.; Kunz, M.; Maartens, R.; Mao, Y.; Santos, M.; Shapiro, P. R.; Viel, M.; Xu, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The study of the Universe on ultra-large scales is one of the major science cases for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The SKA will be able to probe a vast volume of the cosmos, thus representing a unique instrument, amongst next-generation cosmological experiments, for scrutinising the Universe's properties on the largest cosmic scales. Probing cosmic structures on extremely large scales will have many advantages. For instance, the growth of perturbations is well understood for those modes, since it falls fully within the linear regime. Also, such scales are unaffected by the poorly understood feedback of baryonic physics. On ultra-large cosmic scales, two key effects become significant: primordial non-Gaussianity and relativistic corrections to cosmological observables. Moreover, if late-time acceleration is driven not by dark energy but by modifications to general relativity, then such modifications should become apparent near and above the horizon scale. As a result, the SKA is forecast to deliver transformational constraints on non-Gaussianity and to probe gravity on super-horizon scales for the first time.

  15. Plans for building the largest thin solenoid ever

    SciTech Connect

    Heim, J.; Bowers, J.; Deis, G.

    1993-09-08

    The superconducting solenoid magnet for the GEM detector poses unusual fabrication and handling challenges because of its extraordinary size. It will be more than 30% larger in diameter than the largest existing particle detector coils. Each of the two coil elements that compose the air-core solenoid, will be about 19 meters in diameter and 15 meters long. Major components weighing as much as 1500 Mg must be transported and manipulated at the Interaction Region 5 (IR5) fabrication site of the SSC Laboratory as the magnets are fabricated. Because of their large size, the magnets will be fabricated, assembled and tested at special purpose facilities at the IR5 site. The site-use plan must accommodate the fabrication of other detector components and the assembly of large flux shaping iron structures in a timely manner to allow subsequent testing and detector assembly. Each cold mass will be composed of twelve 45-Mg coil windings that are joined prior to assembly into the 19-m diam annular cryostat.

  16. Largest meteor since Tunguska event explodes above Russian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-02-01

    The meteor that disintegrated in the atmosphere above Chelyabinsk, Russia, on 15 February, injuring more than 1000 people and causing widespread property damage from the shock wave, is the largest such incident since the 1908 Tunguska event in Siberia, according to Paul Chodas, research scientist in the Near-Earth Object (NEO) program office at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. During a 15 February teleconference, Chodas said it was an "incredible coincidence" that asteroid DA14 passed safely by Earth on the same day as the Chelyabinsk meteor; the 45-meter-wide asteroid sped by the planet at a distance of just 27,700 kilometers away on its closest approach. He stressed that the meteor was not related to DA14. The meteor "was coming from the wrong direction and at a completely different velocity," he said, noting that the orbit of the meteor went out to the asteroid belt while the orbit of DA14 "is very Earth-like, it does not go out so far."

  17. Four corners: The largest US methane anomaly viewed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kort, Eric A.; Frankenberg, Christian; Costigan, Keeley R.; Lindenmaier, Rodica; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Wunch, Debra

    2014-10-01

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas and ozone precursor. Quantifying methane emissions is critical for projecting and mitigating changes to climate and air quality. Here we present CH4 observations made from space combined with Earth-based remote sensing column measurements. Results indicate the largest anomalous CH4 levels viewable from space over the conterminous U.S. are located at the Four Corners region in the Southwest U.S. Emissions exceeding inventory estimates, totaling 0.59 Tg CH4/yr [0.50-0.67; 2σ], are necessary to bring high-resolution simulations and observations into agreement. This underestimated source approaches 10% of the EPA estimate of total U.S. CH4 emissions from natural gas. The persistence of this CH4 signal from 2003 onward indicates that the source is likely from established gas, coal, and coalbed methane mining and processing. This work demonstrates that space-based observations can identify anomalous CH4 emission source regions and quantify their emissions with the use of a transport model.

  18. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Brefort, Thomas; Tanaka, Shigeyuki; Neidig, Nina; Doehlemann, Gunther; Vincon, Volker; Kahmann, Regine

    2014-07-01

    In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function. PMID:24992561

  19. [A Standing Balance Evaluation Method Based on Largest Lyapunov Exponent].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Hongrui; Xiao, Jinzhuang; Zhao, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of human standing balance scientifically, we in this study proposed a new evaluation method based on the chaos nonlinear analysis theory. In this method, a sinusoidal acceleration stimulus in forward/backward direction was forced under the subjects' feet, which was supplied by a motion platform. In addition, three acceleration sensors, which were fixed to the shoulder, hip and knee of each subject, were applied to capture the balance adjustment dynamic data. Through reconstructing the system phase space, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of the dynamic data of subjects' different segments, then used the sum of the squares of the difference between each LLE (SSDLLE) as the balance capabilities evaluation index. Finally, 20 subjects' indexes were calculated, and compared with evaluation results of existing methods. The results showed that the SSDLLE were more in line with the subjects' performance during the experiment, and it could measure the body's balance ability to some extent. Moreover, the results also illustrated that balance level was determined by the coordinate ability of various joints, and there might be more balance control strategy in the process of maintaining balance. PMID:27079089

  20. World's Largest Gold Crystal Studied at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Sven; Nakotte, Heinz

    2014-04-03

    When geologist John Rakovan needed better tools to investigate whether a dazzling 217.78-gram piece of gold was in fact the world's largest single-crystal specimen - a distinguishing factor that would not only drastically increase its market value but also provide a unique research opportunity - he traveled to Los Alamos National Laboratory's Lujan Neutron Scattering Center to peer deep inside the mineral using neutron diffractometry. Neutrons, different from other probes such as X-rays and electrons, are able to penetrate many centimeters deep into most materials. Revealing the inner structure of a crystal without destroying the sample - imperative, as this one is worth an estimated $1.5 million - would allow Rakovan and Lujan Center collaborators Sven Vogel and Heinz Nakotte to prove that this exquisite nugget, which seemed almost too perfect and too big to be real, was a single crystal and hence a creation of nature. Its owner, who lives in the United States, provided the samples to Rakovan to assess the crystallinity of four specimens, all of which had been found decades ago in Venezuela.

  1. Claim of largest flood on record proves false

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffer, N. A.; Enzel, Y.; Waldmann, N.; Grodek, T.; Benito, G.

    A study of paleofloods in the Gardon River in southern France reveals the occurrence of past extreme floods that were larger than any observed historically. From 8 to 9 September 2002, during the course of the study by a complete coincidence, an extreme flood claimed the lives of 21 people and caused millions of dollars worth of damage to the towns and villages along the river. This flood was larger in magnitude than any flood on record, according to gaged data since 1890.An autumn storm, which is typical of this region, struck with immense force. The rain cell migrated from the lower reaches of the basin on the evening of 8 September to the upper parts of the basin, producing 680 mm of rain in 20 hours.The flood's peak discharge is preliminary estimated at 6000 m3 s-1. This flood is now considered by the media and professionals to be “The largest flood on record.” However, our research proves otherwise.

  2. Holocene dynamics of the Arctic's largest ice shelf.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, Dermot; Francus, Pierre; Pienitz, Reinhard; St-Onge, Guillaume; Vincent, Warwick F

    2011-11-22

    Ice shelves in the Arctic lost more than 90% of their total surface area during the 20th century and are continuing to disintegrate rapidly. The significance of these changes, however, is obscured by the poorly constrained ontogeny of Arctic ice shelves. Here we use the sedimentary record behind the largest remaining ice shelf in the Arctic, the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf (Ellesmere Island, Canada), to establish a long-term context in which to evaluate recent ice-shelf deterioration. Multiproxy analysis of sediment cores revealed pronounced biological and geochemical changes in Disraeli Fiord in response to the formation of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf and its fluctuations through time. Our results show that the ice shelf was absent during the early Holocene and formed 4,000 years ago in response to climate cooling. Paleoecological data then indicate that the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf remained stable for almost three millennia before a major fracturing event that occurred ∼1,400 years ago. After reformation ∼800 years ago, freshwater was a constant feature of Disraeli Fiord until the catastrophic drainage of its epishelf lake in the early 21st century. PMID:22025693

  3. Institutional Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  4. [Institutional Renewal].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The theme of this journal issue is "Institutional Renewal." Projects designed to address the issues of the 1980s at 18 colleges are described, and 15 definitions of institutional renewal are presented. Participating colleges were provided expert advice through the Association of American College's (AAC) Project Lodestar (renamed Consultation and…

  5. Institutional History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory

    1985-01-01

    Discusses recent work on scientific institutions in the United States, indicating that although historians have explored the origins of institutions, few have pursued these organizations into their later and perhaps equally complex years. Learned/professional organizations, museums, publications, and philanthropy are among the major topic areas…

  6. Cassini RADAR Observes Titan's Kraken Mare, The Largest Extraterrestrial Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging by Cassini's RADAR instrument beginning in 2006 revealed the presence of hundreds of hydrocarbon lakes and three large seas in Titan's north polar region [1,2]. Kraken Mare appeared to be the largest sea in IR images [3] but only the northern end was imaged by RADAR prior to 2012. High altitude SAR (HiSAR) observations on recent Titan flybys T84, T91, and T92 now provide complete coverage of Kraken and environs to ~50°N, at resolutions of 2-10 km. Backscatter statistics of the sea are 0.002 × 0.04, i.e., any return is substantially less than the noise and much less than typical dry land cross sections of 0.1-1.5. We conclude that Kraken is liquid filled to substantial depth over its entire extent. A surprising result is that the major seas all lie within a 1800 x 900 km 'box' (Fig.1). A third of the area inside this box (0.6 M km2) is sea, whereas the largest lake outside the box is only 0.005 M km2. Kraken's overall shape is complex (lobateness 4.4 vs 2.1 for Ligeia) but its 0.44 M km2 is divided by 20 to 160 km wide straits into 5 sub-basins that are elongated E-W across the box. Numerous straight shoreline segments parallel the edges of the box. Others parallel the 10°, 80°, and 170°W meridians, as do the rectangular drainage patterns mapped by [4]. These alignments suggest a key role for tectonics in creating the depressions occupied by the northern seas. Fensal and Aztlan (the 'lazy H' of dune-filled lows straddling the equator at longitudes 0°-70°W) form a similar pattern of elongated depressions connected by a narrow strait within a rectangular box. In contrast, Titan's small lakes are widely distributed. Multiple depressions with radar-dark floors have been identified near the south pole and hypothesized as former seabeds [5], but though similar in size to the northern seas, they are not aligned with one another or tightly clustered. Thus, the geography of the north and south poles will remain distinct even if

  7. Global assessment of nutrient loads to the world's largest lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Gabriel; Reder, Klara; Malsy, Marcus; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Lakes are essential resources of drinking water for a large part of mankind. Even so, most of the industrial and domestic waste water is discharged - often untreated - into rivers and streams that are finally the tributaries of these important freshwater bodies. Additionally, diffuse nutrient sources such as fertilizer and atmospheric deposition exacerbate existing algal blooms and low oxygen concentrations in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. In this tense atmosphere of competing water uses, it is necessary to analyze all sources of pollution as well as their total contributions in order to protect these water bodies against deterioration. Finally, this is a general and urgently needed basis for developing recommendations for involved stakeholders and decision makers. Therefore, the project eartH2Observe, initiated and financed by the European Commission, creates the necessary and underlying quantitative and qualitative hydrological and water use data. In this context, information for global as well as for regional water resource assessments is being prepared based on new earth observations and an ensemble of global hydrological models. As a member of this ensemble, WaterGAP3 provides global estimates of lake water quality relevant parameters on a 5 arc minutes grid, namely total phosphorus and total nitrogen. These nutrient loads to lakes from different sources such as industrial fertilizer, organic fertilizer, domestic loads, atmospheric deposition, and urban surface runoff are estimated for the period 1990 to 2010 in a monthly time step. Whereas nutrient loads and their changes into numerous lakes worldwide are calculated, a special focus is set on nutrient loads into the large and shallow Lake Peipus, which is located between Estonia and Russia and subject to blooms of harmful cyanobacteria. We present estimates, trends, as well as sources of present nutrient loads (TN and TP) to the world's largest lakes with detailed insights to the Lake Peipus situation

  8. Largest geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC) and interplanetary shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Tohru

    2015-04-01

    The long term variation of amplitude of geomagnetic sudden commencements (SCs) is examined by checking old magnetograms at Kakioka (27.5 deg. geomagnetic latitude) and Alibag (10.3 deg.) and SC lists prepared by both stations. We found that the SC occurred on March 24, 1940 was largest since 1868. The amplitude is 310 nT at Alibag and larger than 273 nT at Kakioka. The magnetogram of Cape Town (-33.3 deg) was also available for this event which shows 164 nT amplitude. This SC occurred during the main phase of a large magnetic storm which has been interested as one of space weather events. The statistical analysis shows that the occurrence probability is less than 5 % for SCs with amplitude larger than 50 nT and less than 1 % for SCs larger than 100 nT at both Kakioka and Alibag. Large amplitude SCs tend to occur in the declining phase of the sun spot cycle as is reported for magnetic storms. Siscoe et al. (1968) firstly proposed the relationship for the solar wind dynamic pressure P and SC amplitude, dH as dH = C*d(P^0.5) where d(P^0.5) shows a jump of the square root of P associated with interplanetary shocks. If we take the proportionality constant C as 15 nT/(nPa)^0.5 and the 300 nT SC amplitude (dH) needs pressure jump from 2 nPa (assumed dynamic pressure in front of the shock) to 460 nPa. If the non-linear effect for magnetospheric compression is taken into account, a larger dynamic pressure will be needed for this large amplitude SC. On the other hand, the proportionality constant, C, might become larger for larger amplitude SC because C includes effects of electric currents induced in the earth. Larger amplitude SCs have larger time variation rate by which C becomes larger and the required dynamic pressure increase becomes smaller. We do not know which of the two competing processes is dominant but we consider that the linear estimation of the required dynamic pressure described above may be valid as the first order approximation.

  9. GIS learning tool for world's largest earthquakes and their causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Moumita

    The objective of this thesis is to increase awareness about earthquakes among people, especially young students by showing the five largest and two most predictable earthquake locations in the world and their plate tectonic settings. This is a geographic based interactive tool which could be used for learning about the cause of great earthquakes in the past and the safest places on the earth in order to avoid direct effect of earthquakes. This approach provides an effective way of learning for the students as it is very user friendly and more aligned to the interests of the younger generation. In this tool the user can click on the various points located on the world map which will open a picture and link to the webpage for that point, showing detailed information of the earthquake history of that place including magnitude of quake, year of past quakes and the plate tectonic settings that made this place earthquake prone. Apart from knowing the earthquake related information students will also be able to customize the tool to suit their needs or interests. Students will be able to add/remove layers, measure distance between any two points on the map, select any place on the map and know more information for that place, create a layer from this set to do a detail analysis, run a query, change display settings, etc. At the end of this tool the user has to go through the earthquake safely guidelines in order to be safe during an earthquake. This tool uses Java as programming language and uses Map Objects Java Edition (MOJO) provided by ESRI. This tool is developed for educational purpose and hence its interface has been kept simple and easy to use so that students can gain maximum knowledge through it instead of having a hard time to install it. There are lots of details to explore which can help more about what a GIS based tool is capable of. Only thing needed to run this tool is latest JAVA edition installed in their machine. This approach makes study more fun and

  10. U.S.-Russian cooperation in nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2010-02-01

    The United States and Russia, the two largest nuclear powers, have a special obligation to provide leadership in nuclear disarmament and in strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime. In the past year the two countries made an effort to restart the arms control process by concluding a new treaty that would bring their legal disarmament obligations in line with the realities of their post-cold war relationships. The process of negotiating deeper nuclear reductions in the new environment turned out to be rather difficult, since the approaches that the countries used in the past are not well suited to dealing with issues like conversion of strategic nuclear delivery systems to conventional missions, tactical nuclear weapons, or dismantlement of nuclear warheads. This presentation considers the recent progress in U.S.-Russian arms control process and outlines the key issues at the negotiations. It also considers prospects for further progress in bilateral nuclear disarmament and issues that will be encountered at later stages of the process. The author argues that success of the arms reductions will depend on whether the United States and Russia will be able to build an institutional framework for cooperation on a range of issues - from traditional arms control to securing nuclear materials and from missile defense to strengthening the international nuclear safeguards. )

  11. CSCAPES Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Pothen

    2008-10-26

    We report on the progress made by researchers of the CSCAPES Institute at Old Dominion University for the years 2007 and 2008 in the areas of research, software creation, education and training, and outreach activities.

  12. E-Competent Teacher and Principal as the Foundation of E-Competent School E-Education, the Largest School Informatization Project in Slovenia 2008-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šverc, Magdalena; Flogie, Andrej; Krabonja, Maja Vicic; Percic, Kristjan

    2013-01-01

    During the years 2008-2013 Ministry of Education in the Republic of Slovenia prepared largest project of informatization of educational institutions. One of the main goals of the project E-Education is the development of the standard E-Competent Teacher, School Principal and IT Expert. The standard E-Competent Teacher, Principal and IT Expert…

  13. Drilling the Bushveld Complex- the world's largest layered mafic intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Trumbull, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The fact that surprising new discoveries can be made in layered mafic intrusions (e.g., subtle 100-150 m cyclicity in apparently homogeneous cumulates over 1000s of m) means that we are still in the first-order characterization phase of understanding these objects. Accordingly, we have secured funding from ICDP for a planning workshop to be held in Johannesburg in early 2014, aimed at scientific drilling of the Bushveld Complex, the world's largest layered mafic intrusion. Science objectives include, but are not limited to: 1. Magma chamber processes & melt evolution. How many melts/magmas/mushes were involved, what were their compositions and how did they interact? What, if anything, is missing from the Complex, and where did it go? Did Bushveld magmatism have an effect upon Earth's atmosphere at 2 Ga? 2. Crust-mantle interactions & origin of Bushveld granitoids. Are Bushveld granites & rhyolites crustal melts, differentiates from the mafic magmas or products of immiscibility? How can the evolved isotopic signatures in the mafic rocks (e.g., epsilon Nd to -8) be understood? 3. Origin of ore deposits. What were the relative roles of gravity settling, magma mixing, immiscibility and hydrothermal fluid transport in producing the PGE, Cr and V deposits? We have identified 3 potential drilling targets representing a total of ~12 km of drill core. Exact locations of drill sites are to be discussed at the workshop. Target A- East-Central Bushveld Complex. We propose 3 overlapping 3 km boreholes that will provide the first roof-to-floor continuous coverage of the Rustenburg Layered Suite. These boreholes will represent a curated, internationally available reference collection of Bushveld material for present and future research. Target B- Southeastern Bushveld Complex. We propose a single borehole of ~2 km depth, collared in Rooiberg felsite, and positioned to intersect the Roof Zone, Upper Zone, Main Zone and floor of the Complex. Amongst other things, this site will

  14. Smart-Geology for the World's largest fossil oyster reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorninger, Peter; Nothegger, Clemens; Djuricic, Ana; Rasztovits, Sascha; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    The geo-edutainment park "Fossilienwelt Weinviertel" at Stetten in Lower Austria exposes the world's largest fossil oyster biostrome. In the past decade, significant progress has been made in 3D digitizing sensor technology. To cope with the high amount of data, processing methods have been automated to a high degree. Consequently, we formulated the hypothesis that appropriate application of state-of-the-art 3D digitizing, data processing, and visualization technologies allows for a significant automation in paleontological prospection, making an evaluation of huge areas commercially feasible in both time and costs. We call the necessary processing steps "Smart Geology", being characterized by automation and large volumes of data. The Smart Geology project (FWF P 25883-N29) investigates three topics, 3D digitizing, automated geological and paleontological analysis and interpretation and finally investigating the applicability of smart devices for on-site accessibility of project data in order to support the two scientific hypotheses concerning the emerging process of the shell bed, i.e. was it formed by a tsunami or a major storm, and does it preserve pre- and post-event features. This contribution concentrates on the innovative and sophisticated 3D documentation and visualization processes being applied to virtualise approximately 15.000 fossil oysters at the approximately 25 by 17 m accessible shell bad. We decided to use a Terrestrial Laserscanner (TLS) for the determination of the geometrical 3D structures. The TLS achieves about 2 mm single point measurement accuracy. The scanning campaign provides a "raw" point cloud of approximately 1 bio. points at the respective area. Due to the scanning configuration used, the occurrence of occluded ares is minimized hence the full 3D structure of this unique site can be modelled. In addition, approximately 300 photos were taken with a nominal resolution of 0.6 mm per pixel. Sophisticated artificial lightning (close to

  15. The Largest Holocene Eruption of the Central Andes Found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Turiel, J.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Saavedra, J.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Carracedo, J.; Osterrieth, M.; Carrizo, J.; Esteban, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present new data and interpretation about a major eruption -spreading ˜110 km3 ashes over 440.000 km2- long thought to have occurred around 4200 years ago in the Cerro Blanco Volcanic Complex (CBVC) in NW Argentina. This eruption may be the biggest during the past five millennia in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, and possibly one of the largest Holocene eruptions in the world. The environmental effects of this voluminous eruption are still noticeable, as evidenced by the high content of arsenic and other trace elements in the groundwaters of the Chacopampean Plain. The recognition of this significant volcanic event may shed new light on interpretations of critical changes observed in the mid-Holocene paleontological and archaeological records, and offers researchers an excellent, extensive regional chronostratigraphic marker for reconstructing mid-Holocene geological history over a wide geographical area of South America. More than 100 ashes were sampled in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay during different field campaigns. Ash samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), grain size distributions laser diffraction, and geochemically by electron microprobe (EMPA) and laser ablation-HR-ICP-MS. New and published 14C ages were calibrated to calendar years BP. The age of the most recent CBVC eruption is 4407-4093 cal y BP, indirectly dated by 14C of associated organic sediment within the lower part of a proximal fall deposit of this event (26°53'16.05"S-67°44'48.68"W). This is the youngest record of a major volcanic event in the Southern Puna. This age is consistent with other radiocarbon dates of organic matter in palaeosols underlying or overlying distal ash fall deposits. Based on their products, all of rhyolitic composition, we have distinguished 8 main episodes during the evolution of the most recent CBVC eruption: 1) the eruption began with a white rhyolite lava dome extrusion; 2) followed by a Plinian

  16. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  17. Outsourced Investment Management: An Overview for Institutional Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing of investment management is a growing trend among institutional investors. With a broad range of institutions using or exploring the outsourced chief investment officer (OCIO) model, portfolio size is no longer the determining factor driving the outsourcing decision. For all but the largest institutional investors--those with deep…

  18. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-08

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  19. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-01

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 ± 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 ± 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 ± 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  20. Prescription patterns of psychotropic medications for the treatment of psychotic disorders in the largest mental health institutions of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rukat, Annika; Musisi, Seggane; Ströhle, Andreas; Mundt, Adrian P

    2014-10-01

    The study describes prescription patterns of psychotropic medications for patients treated for psychosis in psychiatric hospitals of Uganda. A cross-sectional quantitative survey of age, sex, diagnoses, and psychotropic medication of 682 psychiatric inpatients of the 2 national referral hospitals in Uganda was conducted on 1 day in March 2012. The percentage of patients treated with the same substance within the diagnostic categories schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, unspecified psychosis, and depressive disorder was calculated. Close to 90% of the patients with conditions diagnosed with any psychotic disorder were treated with first-generation antipsychotic drugs (eg, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, trifluoperazine, and depot fluphenazine). Carbamazepine in combination with first-generation antipsychotics was prescribed frequently (45%) for the treatment of bipolar affective disorder. The use of second-generation antipsychotics, lithium, and valproic acid was exceptional. Patients with depression usually received a combination (63%) of first-generation antipsychotics and antidepressants (fluoxetine or amitriptyline). Benzodiazepines were only infrequently used for patients diagnosed with psychoses. First-generation antipsychotics, antidepressants, and carbamazepine were the most frequently used medications for treatment of psychosis in Uganda. Although lithium and valproic acid were on the essential drug list in Uganda, their use was still infrequent. There is a need to ensure the practical availability of the drugs listed on the essential drug list and to support the implementation of their use in clinical practice. PMID:24943390

  1. Nuclear materials in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    The incident at Fukushima Daiichi brought materials in the nuclear industry into the spotlight. Nature Materials talks to Tatsuo Shikama, Director of the International Research Centre for Nuclear Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, about the current situation.

  2. Annual Report FY2013-- A Kinematically Complete, Interdisciplinary, and Co-Institutional Measurement of the 19F(α,n) Cross-section for Nuclear Safeguards Science

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, William A; Smith, Michael Scott; Clement, Ryan; Tan, Wanpeng; Stech, Ed; Cizewski, J A; Febbraro, Michael; Madurga Flores, Miguel

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this proposal is to enable neutron detection for precision Non-Destructive Assays (NDAs) of actinide-fluoride samples. Neutrons are continuously generated from a UFx matrix in a container or sample as a result of the interaction of alpha particles from uranium-decay α particles with fluorine nuclei in the matrix. Neutrons from 19F(α,n)22Na were once considered a poorly characterized background for assays of UFx samples via 238U spontaneous fission neutron detection [SMI2010B]. However, the yield of decay-α-driven neutrons is critical for 234,235U LEU and HEU assays, as it can used to determine both the total amount of uranium and the enrichment [BER2010]. This approach can be extremely valuable in a variety of safeguard applications, such as cylinder monitoring in underground uranium storage facilities, nuclear criticality safety studies, nuclear materials accounting, and other nonproliferation applications. The success of neutron-based assays critically depends on an accurate knowledge of the cross section of the (α,n) reaction that generates the neutrons. The 40% uncertainty in the 19F(α,n)22Na cross section currently limits the precision of such assays, and has been identified as a key factor in preventing accurate enrichment determinations [CRO2003]. The need for higher quality cross section data for (α,n) reactions has been a recurring conclusion in reviews of the nuclear data needs to support safeguards. The overarching goal of this project is to enable neutron detection to be used for precision Non- Destructive Assays (NDAs) of actinide-fluoride samples. This will significantly advance safeguards verification at existing declared facilities, nuclear materials accounting, process control, nuclear criticality safety monitoring, and a variety of other nonproliferation applications. To reach this goal, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rutgers University (RU), and the University of Notre

  3. Institutional Paralysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarmolinsky, Adam

    1975-01-01

    Institutional paralysis of higher education is the result of the disjunction between faculty and administration; the disjunction between substantive planning and bugetary decision-making; the disjunction between departmental structures and functional areas of university concern; and the disjunction between the theory of direct democracy and its…

  4. Institutional betrayal.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carly Parnitzke; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2014-09-01

    A college freshman reports a sexual assault and is met with harassment and insensitive investigative practices leading to her suicide. Former grade school students, now grown, come forward to report childhood abuse perpetrated by clergy, coaches, and teachers--first in trickles and then in waves, exposing multiple perpetrators with decades of unfettered access to victims. Members of the armed services elect to stay quiet about sexual harassment and assault during their military service or risk their careers by speaking up. A Jewish academic struggles to find a name for the systematic destruction of his people in Nazi Germany during the Holocaust. These seemingly disparate experiences have in common trusted and powerful institutions (schools, churches, military, government) acting in ways that visit harm upon those dependent on them for safety and well-being. This is institutional betrayal. The purpose of this article is to describe psychological research that examines the role of institutions in traumatic experiences and psychological distress following these experiences. We demonstrate the ways in which institutional betrayal has been left unseen by both the individuals being betrayed as well as the field of psychology and introduce means by which to identify and address this betrayal. PMID:25197837

  5. Institutional Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, M. June

    Institutional bonding was examined at a public, urban commuter college with exceptionally high attrition and visibly low morale. Changes in bonding and attrition were measured 6 years after a 2-year effort to develop school identity and student feelings of membership. It was found that a simple index of campus morale is provided by level of…

  6. Institution Morphisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  7. 10 CFR 61.14 - Institutional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Institutional information. 61.14 Section 61.14 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.14 Institutional information. The institutional information must include: (a) A...

  8. Next-generation museomics disentangles one of the largest primate radiations.

    PubMed

    Guschanski, Katerina; Krause, Johannes; Sawyer, Susanna; Valente, Luis M; Bailey, Sebastian; Finstermeier, Knut; Sabin, Richard; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Sonet, Gontran; Nagy, Zoltán T; Lenglet, Georges; Mayer, Frieder; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    Guenons (tribe Cercopithecini) are one of the most diverse groups of primates. They occupy all of sub-Saharan Africa and show great variation in ecology, behavior, and morphology. This variation led to the description of over 60 species and subspecies. Here, using next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) in combination with targeted DNA capture, we sequenced 92 mitochondrial genomes from museum-preserved specimens as old as 117 years. We infer evolutionary relationships and estimate divergence times of almost all guenon taxa based on mitochondrial genome sequences. Using this phylogenetic framework, we infer divergence dates and reconstruct ancestral geographic ranges. We conclude that the extraordinary radiation of guenons has been a complex process driven by, among other factors, localized fluctuations of African forest cover. We find incongruences between phylogenetic trees reconstructed from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, which can be explained by either incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization. Furthermore, having produced the largest mitochondrial DNA data set from museum specimens, we document how NGS technologies can "unlock" museum collections, thereby helping to unravel the tree-of-life. PMID:23503595

  9. Next-Generation Museomics Disentangles One of the Largest Primate Radiations

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Johannes; Sawyer, Susanna; Valente, Luis M.; Bailey, Sebastian; Finstermeier, Knut; Sabin, Richard; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Sonet, Gontran; Nagy, Zoltán T.; Lenglet, Georges; Mayer, Frieder; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Guenons (tribe Cercopithecini) are one of the most diverse groups of primates. They occupy all of sub-Saharan Africa and show great variation in ecology, behavior, and morphology. This variation led to the description of over 60 species and subspecies. Here, using next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) in combination with targeted DNA capture, we sequenced 92 mitochondrial genomes from museum-preserved specimens as old as 117 years. We infer evolutionary relationships and estimate divergence times of almost all guenon taxa based on mitochondrial genome sequences. Using this phylogenetic framework, we infer divergence dates and reconstruct ancestral geographic ranges. We conclude that the extraordinary radiation of guenons has been a complex process driven by, among other factors, localized fluctuations of African forest cover. We find incongruences between phylogenetic trees reconstructed from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, which can be explained by either incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization. Furthermore, having produced the largest mitochondrial DNA data set from museum specimens, we document how NGS technologies can “unlock” museum collections, thereby helping to unravel the tree-of-life. [Museum collection; next-generation DNA sequencing; primate radiation; speciation; target capture.] PMID:23503595

  10. Astronomer's new guide to the galaxy: largest map of cold dust revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    Astronomers have unveiled an unprecedented new atlas of the inner regions of the Milky Way, our home galaxy, peppered with thousands of previously undiscovered dense knots of cold cosmic dust -- the potential birthplaces of new stars. Made using observations from the APEX telescope in Chile, this survey is the largest map of cold dust so far, and will prove an invaluable map for observations made with the forthcoming ALMA telescope, as well as the recently launched ESA Herschel space telescope. ESO PR Photo 24a/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (annotated and in five sections) ESO PR Photo 24b/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (annotated) ESO PR Photo 24c/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (in five sections) ESO PR Photo 24d/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey ESO PR Photo 24e/09 The Galactic Centre and Sagittarius B2 ESO PR Photo 24f/09 The NGC 6357 and NGC 6334 nebulae ESO PR Photo 24g/09 The RCW120 nebula ESO PR Video 24a/09 Annotated pan as seen by the ATLASGAL survey This new guide for astronomers, known as the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) shows the Milky Way in submillimetre-wavelength light (between infrared light and radio waves [1]). Images of the cosmos at these wavelengths are vital for studying the birthplaces of new stars and the structure of the crowded galactic core. "ATLASGAL gives us a new look at the Milky Way. Not only will it help us investigate how massive stars form, but it will also give us an overview of the larger-scale structure of our galaxy", said Frederic Schuller from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, leader of the ATLASGAL team. The area of the new submillimetre map is approximately 95 square degrees, covering a very long and narrow strip along the galactic plane two degrees wide (four times the width of the full Moon) and over 40 degrees long. The 16 000 pixel-long map was made with the LABOCA submillimetre

  11. Kalman filter-based fast track reconstruction for charged particles in a Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment using parallel computing on a multicore server at the Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazimov, T. O.; Zyzak, M. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Kisel, P. I.

    2015-05-01

    One of the main goals in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment (GSI, Germany) is to find parameters of charged particle trajectories. An online full event reconstruction is planned to be carried out in this experiment, thus demanding fast algorithms be developed, which make the most of the capabilities of modern CPU and GPU architectures. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Kalman filter-based track reconstruction for charged particles implemented by using various code parallelization methods. A multicore server located at the Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (LIT JINR), with two CPU Intel Xeon X5660 processors and a GPU Nvidia GTX 480 video card is used.

  12. Bryant and Stratton Business Institute, Buffalo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attmore, Robert H.

    In June 1992, the New York State Office of the Comptroller performed an audit of Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) and Supplemental Tuition Assistance Program (STAP) awards at Bryant and Stratton Business Institute's Buffalo Campus (BC). TAP, the largest student grant and scholarship program administered by the Higher Education Services Corporation…

  13. Institute news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  14. Institute news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  15. Accelerated Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Multi-Institutional Prospective Study of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia Among Eight Asian Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Tatsuya Nakano, Takashi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A multi-institutional prospective single-arm study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Between 1999 and 2002, 120 patients (64 with Stage IIB and 56 with Stage IIIB) with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated RT. External beam RT consisted of 30 Gy to the whole pelvis, 1.5 Gy/fraction twice daily, followed by 20 Gy of pelvic RT with central shielding at a dose of 2-Gy fractions daily. A small bowel displacement device was used with the patient in the prone position. In addition to central shielding RT, intracavitary brachytherapy was started. Acute and late morbidities were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: The median overall treatment time was 35 days. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 4.7 years. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate for all patients was 84% and 70%, respectively. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate was 78% and 69% for tumors {>=}6 cm in diameter, respectively. No treatment-related death occurred. Grade 3-4 late toxicities of the small intestine, large intestine, and bladder were observed in 1, 1, and 2 patients, respectively. The 5-year actuarial rate of Grade 3-4 late toxicity at any site was 5%. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that accelerated hyperfractionated RT achieved sufficient pelvic control and survival without increasing severe toxicity. This treatment could be feasible in those Asian countries where chemoradiotherapy is not available.

  16. Engineering the largest RNA virus genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Almazán, Fernando; González, José M.; Pénzes, Zoltan; Izeta, Ander; Calvo, Enrique; Plana-Durán, Juan; Enjuanes, Luis

    2000-01-01

    The construction of cDNA clones encoding large-size RNA molecules of biological interest, like coronavirus genomes, which are among the largest mature RNA molecules known to biology, has been hampered by the instability of those cDNAs in bacteria. Herein, we show that the application of two strategies, cloning of the cDNAs into a bacterial artificial chromosome and nuclear expression of RNAs that are typically produced within the cytoplasm, is useful for the engineering of large RNA molecules. A cDNA encoding an infectious coronavirus RNA genome has been cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome. The rescued coronavirus conserved all of the genetic markers introduced throughout the sequence and showed a standard mRNA pattern and the antigenic characteristics expected for the synthetic virus. The cDNA was transcribed within the nucleus, and the RNA translocated to the cytoplasm. Interestingly, the recovered virus had essentially the same sequence as the original one, and no splicing was observed. The cDNA was derived from an attenuated isolate that replicates exclusively in the respiratory tract of swine. During the engineering of the infectious cDNA, the spike gene of the virus was replaced by the spike gene of an enteric isolate. The synthetic virus replicated abundantly in the enteric tract and was fully virulent, demonstrating that the tropism and virulence of the recovered coronavirus can be modified. This demonstration opens up the possibility of employing this infectious cDNA as a vector for vaccine development in human, porcine, canine, and feline species susceptible to group 1 coronaviruses. PMID:10805807

  17. How Does Institutional Grant Aid Impact College Choice? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    New evidence on how students' choice of postsecondary institution is sensitive to grant aid offers from the colleges and universities. Institutional aid sensitivity is largest for students from the least wealthy families but does not vary by race/ethnicity or measured academic ability. A technical appendix is included.

  18. An Institutional Approach to Course Redesign at a Hispanic-Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Rudolph J.; Ramirez, Adrian D.; Hernandez, Chris

    2013-01-01

    As with many higher education institutions, Fresno State struggles with graduation rates. The overall six-year graduation rate for first-time, full-time freshmen hovers around 50 percent. The graduation gap between the two largest ethnic groups, White (55.6) and Hispanic (43.5), was 12.1 percentage points in 2012. This article reports on the…

  19. NRPB3, the third largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, is essential for stomatal patterning and differentiation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Guan, Liping; Qian, Pingping; Xu, Fan; Wu, Zhongliang; Wu, Yujun; He, Kai; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stomata are highly specialized epidermal structures that control transpiration and gas exchange between plants and the environment. Signal networks underlying stomatal development have been previously uncovered but much less is known about how signals involved in stomatal development are transmitted to RNA polymerase II (Pol II or RPB), which plays a central role in the transcription of mRNA coding genes. Here, we identify a partial loss-of-function mutation of the third largest subunit of nuclear DNA-dependent Pol II (NRPB3) that exhibits an increased number of stomatal lineage cells and paired stomata. Phenotypic and genetic analyses indicated that NRPB3 is not only required for correct stomatal patterning, but is also essential for stomatal differentiation. Protein-protein interaction assays showed that NRPB3 directly interacts with two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, FAMA and INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1), indicating that NRPB3 serves as an acceptor for signals from transcription factors involved in stomatal development. Our findings highlight the surprisingly conserved activating mechanisms mediated by the third largest subunit of Pol II in eukaryotes. PMID:26989174

  20. NRPB3, the third largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, is essential for stomatal patterning and differentiation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Guan, Liping; Qian, Pingping; Xu, Fan; Wu, Zhongliang; Wu, Yujun; He, Kai; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2016-05-01

    Stomata are highly specialized epidermal structures that control transpiration and gas exchange between plants and the environment. Signal networks underlying stomatal development have been previously uncovered but much less is known about how signals involved in stomatal development are transmitted to RNA polymerase II (Pol II or RPB), which plays a central role in the transcription of mRNA coding genes. Here, we identify a partial loss-of-function mutation of the third largest subunit of nuclear DNA-dependent Pol II (NRPB3) that exhibits an increased number of stomatal lineage cells and paired stomata. Phenotypic and genetic analyses indicated that NRPB3 is not only required for correct stomatal patterning, but is also essential for stomatal differentiation. Protein-protein interaction assays showed that NRPB3 directly interacts with two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, FAMA and INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1), indicating that NRPB3 serves as an acceptor for signals from transcription factors involved in stomatal development. Our findings highlight the surprisingly conserved activating mechanisms mediated by the third largest subunit of Pol II in eukaryotes. PMID:26989174

  1. Production of cloned NIBS (Nippon Institute for Biological Science) and α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout MGH miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the NIBS breed as surrogates

    PubMed Central

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Horii, Wataru; Hirakata, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Waki, Shiori; Sano, Junichi; Saitoh, Toshiki; Sahara, Hisashi; Shimizu, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Sachs, David H.; Nunoya, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear transfer (NT) technologies offer a means for producing the genetically modified pigs necessary to develop swine models for mechanistic studies of disease processes as well as to serve as organ donors for xenotransplantation. Most previous studies have used commercial pigs as surrogates. Method and Results In this study, we established a cloning technique for miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using Nippon Institute for Biological Science (NIBS) miniature pigs as surrogates. Moreover, utilizing this technique, we have successfully produced an α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) miniature swine. Fibroblasts procured from a NIBS miniature pig fetus were injected into 1312 enucleated oocytes. The cloned embryos were transferred to 11 surrogates of which five successfully delivered 13 cloned offspring; the production efficiency was 1.0% (13/1312). In a second experiment, lung fibroblasts obtained from neonatal GalT-KO MGH miniature swine were used as donor cells and 1953 cloned embryos were transferred to 12 surrogates. Six cloned offspring were born from five surrogates, a production efficiency of 0.3% (6/1953). Conclusions These results demonstrate successful establishment of a miniature pig cloning technique by SCNT using NIBS miniature pigs as surrogates. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of successful production of GalT-KO miniature swine using miniature swine surrogates. This technique could help to ensure a stable supply of the cloned pigs through the use of miniature pig surrogates and could expand production in countries with limited space or in facilities with special regulations such as specific pathogen-free or good laboratory practice. PMID:23581451

  2. NCI launches largest-ever study of breast cancer genetics in black women

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Genetic Study in African-Ancestry Populations initiative is a collaborative research project that will identify genetic factors that may underlie breast cancer disparities. It is the largest study ever to investigate how genetic and biol

  3. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  4. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 5: Introduction to Nuclear Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  5. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  6. Small Business Grants at the National Cancer Institute and National Institutes of Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Houston

    2002-10-01

    Ten Federal Agencies set aside 2.5% of their external research budget for US small businesses—mainly for technology research and development, including radiation sensor system developments. Five agencies also set aside another 0.15% for the Small Business Technology Transfer Program, which is intended to facilitate technology transfers from research laboratories to public use through small businesses. The second largest of these agencies is the Department of Health and Human Services, and almost all of its extramural research funds flow through the 28 Institutes and Centers of the National Institutes of Health. For information, instructions, and application forms, visit the NIH website's Omnibus Solicitation for SBIR and STTR applications. The National Cancer Institute is the largest NIH research unit and SBIR/STTR participant. NCI also issues SBIR and STTR Program Announcements of its own that feature details modified to better support its initiatives and objectives in cancer prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.

  7. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Structure and sequence of the gene for the largest subunit of trypanosomal RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Köck, J; Evers, R; Cornelissen, A W

    1988-01-01

    As the first step in the analysis of the transcription process in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, we have started to characterise the trypanosomal RNA polymerases. We have previously described the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and found that two almost identical RNA polymerase II genes are encoded within the genome of T. brucei. Here we present the identification, cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III. This gene contains a single open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with a Mr of 170 kD. In total, eight encoding a polypeptide with a Mr of 170 kD. In total, eight highly conserved regions with significant homology to those previously reported in other eukaryotic RNA polymerase largest subunits were identified. Some of these domains contain functional sites, which are conserved among all eukaryotic largest subunit genes analysed thus far. Since these domains make up a large part of each polypeptide, independent of the RNA polymerase class, these data strongly support the hypothesis that these domains provide a major part of the transcription machinery of the RNA polymerase complex. The additional domains which are uniquely present in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I and II, respectively, two large hydrophylic insertions and a C-terminal extension, might be a determining factor in specific transcription of the gene classes. Images PMID:3174432

  9. The Multivariate Largest Lyapunov Exponent as an Age-Related Metric of Quiet Standing Balance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Hongrui; Xiao, Jinzhuang

    2015-01-01

    The largest Lyapunov exponent has been researched as a metric of the balance ability during human quiet standing. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of this measurement method are not good enough for clinical use. The present research proposes a metric of the human body's standing balance ability based on the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent which can quantify the human standing balance. The dynamic multivariate time series of ankle, knee, and hip were measured by multiple electrical goniometers. Thirty-six normal people of different ages participated in the test. With acquired data, the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent was calculated. Finally, the results of the proposed approach were analysed and compared with the traditional method, for which the largest Lyapunov exponent and power spectral density from the centre of pressure were also calculated. The following conclusions can be obtained. The multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent has a higher degree of differentiation in differentiating balance in eyes-closed conditions. The MLLE value reflects the overall coordination between multisegment movements. Individuals of different ages can be distinguished by their MLLE values. The standing stability of human is reduced with the increment of age. PMID:26064182

  10. Economics of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Rossin, A D; Rieck, T A

    1978-08-18

    With 12 percent of U.S. electricity now being supplied by nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison has found nuclear plants to be good investments relative to other base load energy sources. The country's largest user of nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison, estimates that its commitment to nuclear saved its customers about 10 percent on their electric bills in 1977, compared to the cost with the next best alternative, coal. This advantage is seen as continuing, contrary to criticisms of the economics and reliability of nuclear power and claims that it has hidden subsidies. It is concluded that there is a need for both nuclear and coal and that government policy precluding or restricting either would be unwise. PMID:17794111

  11. Institutional Priority for Diversity at Christian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes-Collins, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This evaluative study explored the relationship between institutional priority for diversity and minority enrollment at four schools within the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities, a consortium of Christian institutions. This institutional evaluation utilized public resources in order to gather descriptive data on minority enrollment…

  12. Institute Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann; Steadman, Jackie; Little, Sally; Underwood, Debra; Blackman, Mack; Simonds, Judy

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a study conducted by the MSFC working group on Institutes in 1995 on the structure, organization and business arrangements of Institutes at a time when the agency was considering establishing science institutes. Thirteen institutes, ten science centers associated with the state of Georgia, Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and IIT Research Institute (IITRI), and general data on failed institutes were utilized to form this report. The report covers the working group's findings on institute mission, structure, director, board of directors/advisors, the working environment, research arrangements, intellectual property rights, business management, institute funding, and metrics.

  13. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Reese; George Miller; Stephen Frantz; Denis Beller; Denis Beller; Ed Morse; Melinda Krahenbuhl; Bob Flocchini; Jim Elliston

    2010-12-07

    The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program.

  14. Celebrating the 65th anniversary of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center — All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 6 October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) took place on 6 October 2010 in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS (FIAN) on the occasion of the 65th anniversary of founding of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center — All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF).The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Ilkaev R I (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region). Opening remarks "On the fundamental physics research programs at RFNC-VNIIEF" (2) Mikhailov A L (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "Hydrodynamic instabilities in various media"; (3) Trunin R F (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "Study of extreme states of metals using shock waves"; (4) Ivanovskii A V (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "Explosive magnetic energy generators and their application in research"; (5) Podurets A M (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "X-ray studies of the structure of matter in shock waves"; (6) Garanin S G (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "High-power lasers in studies of the physics of hot, dense plasma and thermonuclear fusion"; (7) Selemir V D (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "Physics research in ultrahigh magnetic fields"; (8) Mkhitar'yan L S (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "Gasdynamic thermonuclear fusion."Articles based on reports 1-7 are published below. An extended version of report 3 written as a review paper will be published in a later issue of Physics-Uspekhi. • Fundamental physics research at the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, R I Ilkaev Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 4, Pages 387-392 • Hydrodynamic instabilities, A L Mikhailov, N V Nevmerzhitskii, V A Raevskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 4, Pages 392-397 • Extreme states of metals: investigation using shock

  15. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  16. Assessment of the Relative Largest Earthquake Hazard Level in the NW Himalaya and its Adjacent Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsapanos, Theodoros M.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Olasoglou, Efthalia M.; Singh, Mayshree

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the level of the largest earthquake hazard is assessed in 28 seismic zones of the NW Himalaya and its vicinity, which is a highly seismically active region of the world. Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution (hereafter as GIII) is adopted for the evaluation of the largest earthquake magnitudes in these seismic zones. Instead of taking in account any type of Mmax, in the present study we consider the ω value which is the largest earthquake magnitude that a region can experience according to the GIII statistics. A function of the form Θ(ω, RP6.0) is providing in this way a relatively largest earthquake hazard scale defined by the letter K(K index). The return periods for the ω values (earthquake magnitudes) 6 or larger (RP6.0) are also calculated. According to this index, the investigated seismic zones are classified into five groups and it is shown that seismic zones 3 (Quetta of Pakistan), 11 (Hindukush), 15 (northern Pamirs), and 23 (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh of India) correspond to a "very high" K index which is 6.

  17. 78 FR 23624 - Determination and Certification Under the Foreign Assistance Act Relating to the Largest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Certification Under the Foreign Assistance Act Relating to the Largest Exporting and Importing Countries of Certain Precursor Chemicals Pursuant to Section 490(b)(1)(A) of the Foreign Assistance Act...

  18. Phase space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent for gait kinematic data

    SciTech Connect

    Josiński, Henryk; Świtoński, Adam; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2015-03-10

    The authors describe an example of application of nonlinear time series analysis directed at identifying the presence of deterministic chaos in human motion data by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent. The method was previously verified on the basis of a time series constructed from the numerical solutions of both the Lorenz and the Rössler nonlinear dynamical systems.

  19. Real-time measurements of the largest Lyapunov exponent in optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrylyak, M. S.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    An analog interference method for measuring the largest Lyapunov exponent in optical fields generated by scattering objects and mediums is proposed. The method is used to make a device for high-speed real time transverse correlation function optical fields measurement.

  20. Real-time measurements of the largest Lyapunov exponent in optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrylyak, M. S.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2011-09-01

    An analog interference method for measuring the largest Lyapunov exponent in optical fields generated by scattering objects and mediums is proposed. The method is used to make a device for high-speed real time transverse correlation function optical fields measurement.

  1. Profile of a Woman Officer; Findings of a Study of Executives in America's 1300 Largest Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The typical woman officer from the nation's largest industrial, banking, retail and utility companies is married, at least 50 years of age, has had some college, was born into a family of low or lower middle class income, and has a work salary of less than $30,000. While the number of women officers in leading business organizations is small, the…

  2. The 2003 Music in Our School's Month and World's Largest Concert Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA.

    On March 13, 2003 millions of school children, teachers, and citizens from around the world participate simultaneously in the "World's Largest Concert" (WLC). This concert, a sing-along program, is broadcast on PBS and the Armed Forces Radio and Television Network overseas. Participating in the WLC is a way to celebrate Music in Our Schools Month.…

  3. Coordinated observations using the world largest low-frequency radio telescopes and space misiions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Zarka, Ph.; Kolyadin, V. L.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Stepkin, S. V.; Panchenko, M.; Lecacheux, A.; Rucker, H. O.; Fischer, G.; Ulyanov, O. M.; Melnik, V. N.; Litvinenko, G. V.; Sidorchuk, M. A.; Bubnov, I. N.; Vasilyeva, Ya. Yu.; Bojko, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, V.; Mann, G.; Kalinichenko, N. N.; Falkovich, I. S.; Koval, A. A.; Mylostna, K.; Pylaev, O. S.; Shepelev, V. A.; Reznik, A. P.

    2013-09-01

    The positive possibilities of astrophysical objects studies(including the Solar system investigations) using coordinated observations with the largest existing and coming low frequency radio telescopes are shown. The observations of the Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, ant others with UTR-2, URAN, NDA radio telescopes, and WIND, Cassini and STEREO space missions at frequencies lower than 40 MHz have been carried out.

  4. Discovery of the Largest Orbweaving Spider Species: The Evolution of Gigantism in Nephila

    PubMed Central

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Coddington, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400–500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae. Methodology We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony). We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics. Conclusions Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional. PMID:19844575

  5. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  6. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  7. Medical Expenditure for Chronic Diseases in Mexico: The Case of Selected Diagnoses Treated by the Largest Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel Angel; Alarcon-Irigoyen, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases (CD) are a public health emergency in Mexico. Despite concern regarding the financial burden of CDs in the country, economic studies have focused only on diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Furthermore, these estimated financial burdens were based on hypothetical epidemiology models or ideal healthcare scenarios. The present study estimates the annual expenditure per patient and the financial burden for the nine most prevalent CDs, excluding cancer, for each of the two largest public health providers in the country: the Ministry of Health (MoH) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). Methods Using the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (ENSANUT) as the main source of data, health services consumption related to CDs was obtained from patient reports. Unit costs for each provided health service (e.g. consultation, drugs, hospitalization) were obtained from official reports. Prevalence data was obtained from the published literature. Annual expenditure due to health services consumption was calculated by multiplying the quantity of services consumed by the unit cost of each health service. Results The most expensive CD in both health institutions was chronic kidney disease (CKD), with an annual unit cost for MoH per patient of US$ 8,966 while for IMSS the expenditure was US$ 9,091. Four CDs (CKD, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and chronic ischemic heart disease) accounted for 88% of the total CDs financial burden (US$ 1.42 billion) in MoH and 85% (US$ 3.96 billion) in IMSS. The financial burden of the nine CDs analyzed represents 8% and 25% of the total annual MoH and IMSS health expenditure, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The financial burden from the nine most prevalent CDs, excluding cancer, is already high in Mexico. This finding by itself argues for the need to improve health promotion and disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment to ensure CD primary and secondary prevention. If the

  8. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  9. Enlarged Multilocus Data set Provides Surprisingly Younger Time of Origin for the Plethodontidae, the Largest Family of Salamanders.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xing-Xing; Liang, Dan; Chen, Meng-Yun; Mao, Rong-Li; Wake, David B; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Deep phylogenetic relationships of the largest salamander family Plethodontidae have been difficult to resolve, probably reflecting a rapid diversification early in their evolutionary history. Here, data from 50 independent nuclear markers (total 48,582 bp) are used to reconstruct the phylogeny and divergence times for plethodontid salamanders, using both concatenation and coalescence-based species tree analyses. Our results robustly resolve the position of the enigmatic eastern North American four-toed salamander (Hemidactylium) as the sister taxon of Batrachoseps + Tribe Bolitoglossini, thus settling a long-standing question. Furthermore, we statistically reject sister taxon status of Karsenia and Hydromantes, the only plethodontids to occur outside the Americas, leading us to new biogeographic hypotheses. Contrary to previous long-standing arguments that plethodontid salamanders are an old lineage originating in the Cretaceous (more than 90 Ma), our analyses lead to the hypothesis that these salamanders are much younger, arising close to the K-T boundary (~66 Ma). These time estimates are highly stable using alternative calibration schemes and dating methods. Our data simulation highlights the potential risk of making strong arguments about phylogenetic timing based on inferences from a handful of nuclear genes, a common practice. Based on the newly obtained timetree and ancestral area reconstruction results, we argue that (i) the classic "Out of Appalachia" hypothesis of plethodontid origins is problematic; (ii) the common ancestor of extant plethodontids may have originated in northwestern North America in the early Paleocene; (iii) origins of Eurasian plethodontids likely result from two separate dispersal events from western North America via Beringia in the late Eocene (~42 Ma) and the early Miocene (~23 Ma), respectively. PMID:26385618

  10. THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN A85: THE LARGEST CORE KNOWN SO FAR

    SciTech Connect

    López-Cruz, O.; Añorve, C.; Ibarra-Medel, H. J.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.

    2014-11-10

    We have found that the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in A85, Holm 15A, displays the largest core known so far. Its cusp radius, r {sub γ} = 4.57 ± 0.06 kpc (4.''26 ± 0.''06), is more than 18 times larger than the mean for BCGs and ≳ 1 kpc larger than A2261-BCG, hitherto the largest-cored BCG. Holm 15A hosts the luminous amorphous radio source 0039-095B and has the optical signature of a LINER. Scaling laws indicate that this core could host a supermassive black hole (SMBH) of mass M {sub •} ∼ (10{sup 9}-10{sup 11}) M {sub ☉}. We suggest that cores this large represent a relatively short phase in the evolution of BCGs, whereas the masses of their associated SBMH might be set by initial conditions.

  11. A method for reducing the largest relative errors in Monte Carlo iterated-fission-source calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, J. L.; Sutton, T. M.

    2013-07-01

    In Monte Carlo iterated-fission-source calculations relative uncertainties on local tallies tend to be larger in lower-power regions and smaller in higher-power regions. Reducing the largest uncertainties to an acceptable level simply by running a larger number of neutron histories is often prohibitively expensive. The uniform fission site method has been developed to yield a more spatially-uniform distribution of relative uncertainties. This is accomplished by biasing the density of fission neutron source sites while not biasing the solution. The method is integrated into the source iteration process, and does not require any auxiliary forward or adjoint calculations. For a given amount of computational effort, the use of the method results in a reduction of the largest uncertainties relative to the standard algorithm. Two variants of the method have been implemented and tested. Both have been shown to be effective. (authors)

  12. Limiting statistics of the largest and smallest eigenvalues in the correlated Wishart model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Tim; Kieburg, Mario; Guhr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The correlated Wishart model provides a standard tool for the analysis of correlations in a rich variety of systems. Although much is known for complex correlation matrices, the empirically much more important real case still poses substantial challenges. We put forward a new approach, which maps arbitrary statistical quantities, depending on invariants only, to invariant Hermitian matrix models. For completeness we also include the quaternion case and deal with all three cases in a unified way. As an important application, we study the statistics of the largest eigenvalue and its limiting distributions in the correlated Wishart model, because they help to estimate the behavior of large complex systems. We show that even for fully correlated Wishart ensembles, the Tracy-Widom distribution can be the limiting distribution of the largest as well as the smallest eigenvalue, provided that a certain scaling of the empirical eigenvalues holds.

  13. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Solar Manufacturer (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    Thanks in part to years of collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a manufacturer of thin-film solar modules has grown from a small garage-type operation to become the world's largest manufacturer of solar modules. First Solar, Inc. now manufactures cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar modules throughout the world, but it began in Ohio as a small company called Solar Cells, Inc.

  14. CV population densities: Using CFHT as the worlds largest time-series photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, D. A.; Haswell, C. A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Ringwald, F.

    2002-01-01

    Known samples of cataclysmic variables (CVs) are sparse and/or rife with selection effects and do not provide adequate tests of theories of their evolution. We have used the CFHT12k mosaic camera as the worlds largest time-series photometer, observing a 0.3 sq.deg. Galactic field with 3 minute time-resolution. The resulting unbiased, magnitude-limited sample of CVs, and their progenitors will be used to test the predictions of CV population models.

  15. Hospital Prices Increase in California, Especially Among Hospitals in the Largest Multi-hospital Systems.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Glenn A; Fonkych, Katya

    2016-01-01

    A surge in hospital consolidation is fueling formation of ever larger multi-hospital systems throughout the United States. This article examines hospital prices in California over time with a focus on hospitals in the largest multi-hospital systems. Our data show that hospital prices in California grew substantially (+76% per hospital admission) across all hospitals and all services between 2004 and 2013 and that prices at hospitals that are members of the largest, multi-hospital systems grew substantially more (113%) than prices paid to all other California hospitals (70%). Prices were similar in both groups at the start of the period (approximately $9200 per admission). By the end of the period, prices at hospitals in the largest systems exceeded prices at other California hospitals by almost $4000 per patient admission. Our study findings are potentially useful to policy makers across the country for several reasons. Our data measure actual prices for a large sample of hospitals over a long period of time in California. California experienced its wave of consolidation much earlier than the rest of the country and as such our findings may provide some insights into what may happen across the United States from hospital consolidation including growth of large, multi-hospital systems now forming in the rest of the rest of the country. PMID:27284126

  16. Lobbying Behaviors of Higher Education Institutions: Structures, Attempts, and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Brent; Miller, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    As colleges and universities are under increased pressure to demonstrate their effectiveness, leaders have come to rely on government relations personnel to adequately tell the story of the activities and needs of the campus. State governments typically are the largest single supplier of public institution funding, yet they have been challenged by…

  17. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  18. CPTAC Releases Largest-Ever Breast Cancer Proteome Dataset - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have released a dataset of proteins and phophorylated phosphopeptides identified through deep proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of breast tumor samples, previously genomically analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

  19. National Institutes of Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Information OppNet NIDB NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Institutes at NIH List of Institutes, Centers & ... be prevented. Pneumonia Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatments. Learning Disabilities Early interventions offer help with learning problems. ...

  20. Texas Heart Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join us! James T. Willerson MD Cardiovascular Seminar Texas Heart Institute Journal Scientific Publications Library & Learning Resources ... Education 12th Annual Diabetes Symposium September 17, 2016 Texas Heart Institute Program Director: Mandeep Bajaj, MD Clinical ...

  1. Swimmer-Training Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    This satirical essay proposes an institution of higher learning that would prepare students to become swimmers" and swimming instructors. Curriculum, teaching methods, student selection and evaluation are modelled on certain contemporary teacher-training institutes. (PD)

  2. Analysis of the largest tandemly repeated DNA families in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, Peter E; Hasson, Dan; Guillem, Flavia; Lescale, Chloe; Jin, Xiaoping; Abrusan, Gyorgy

    2008-01-01

    Background Tandemly Repeated DNA represents a large portion of the human genome, and accounts for a significant amount of copy number variation. Here we present a genome wide analysis of the largest tandem repeats found in the human genome sequence. Results Using Tandem Repeats Finder (TRF), tandem repeat arrays greater than 10 kb in total size were identified, and classified into simple sequence e.g. GAATG, classical satellites e.g. alpha satellite DNA, and locus specific VNTR arrays. Analysis of these large sequenced regions revealed that several "simple sequence" arrays actually showed complex domain and/or higher order repeat organization. Using additional methods, we further identified a total of 96 additional arrays with tandem repeat units greater than 2 kb (the detection limit of TRF), 53 of which contained genes or repeated exons. The overall size of an array of tandem 12 kb repeats which spanned a gap on chromosome 8 was found to be 600 kb to 1.7 Mbp in size, representing one of the largest non-centromeric arrays characterized. Several novel megasatellite tandem DNA families were observed that are characterized by repeating patterns of interspersed transposable elements that have expanded presumably by unequal crossing over. One of these families is found on 11 different chromosomes in >25 arrays, and represents one of the largest most widespread megasatellite DNA families. Conclusion This study represents the most comprehensive genome wide analysis of large tandem repeats in the human genome, and will serve as an important resource towards understanding the organization and copy number variation of these complex DNA families. PMID:18992157

  3. Cluster-Void Degeneracy Breaking: Dark Energy, Planck, and the Largest Cluster and Void

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlén, Martin; Zubeldía, Íñigo; Silk, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Combining galaxy cluster and void abundances breaks the degeneracy between mean matter density {{{Ω }}}{{m}} and power-spectrum normalization {σ }8. For the first time for voids, we constrain {{{Ω }}}{{m}}=0.21+/- 0.10 and {σ }8=0.95+/- 0.21 for a flat Λ CDM universe, using extreme-value statistics on the claimed largest cluster and void. The Planck-consistent results detect dark energy with two objects, independently of other dark energy probes. Cluster-void studies are also complementary in scale, density, and nonlinearity, and are of particular interest for testing modified-gravity models.

  4. Mitochondrial genome of Micrura bella (Nemertea: Heteronemertea), the largest mitochondrial genome known to phylum Nemertea.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chunyang; Shi-Chun, Sun

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Micrura bella was sequenced and analyzed. Being the largest mitogenome known to phylum Nemertea, the genome is 16 847 bp in length. It encodes 37 genes typical to metazoan mitogenomes and has the same gene arrangement with the other Heteronemertea mitogenomes sequenced to date. The genome has the maximal number of non-coding nucleotides (2037 bp at 25 sites) in Nemertea mitogenomes, among which two large non-coding regions were found (507 and 508 bp, respectively). PMID:26155969

  5. THE MASS OF (4) VESTA DERIVED FROM ITS LARGEST GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmanoski, Mike; Novakovic, Bojan; Apostolovska, Gordana E-mail: bojan@matf.bg.ac.r

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we present a recalculated value of the mass of (4) Vesta, derived from its largest gravitational perturbations on selected asteroids during their mutual close encounters. This was done by using a new method for mass determination, which is based on the linking of pre-encounter observations to the orbit determined from post-encounter ones. The estimated weighted mean of the mass of (4) Vesta is (1.300 {+-} 0.001) x 10{sup -10} M{sub sun}.

  6. Venezuelan projects advance to develop world`s largest heavy oil reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, G.; Stauffer, K.

    1996-07-08

    A number of joint venture projects at varying stages of progress promise to greatly increase Venezuela`s production of extra heavy oil. Units of Conoco, Chevron, Total, Arco, and Mobil have either signed agreements or are pursuing negotiations with affiliates of state-owned Petroleos de Venezuela SA on the development of huge reserves of 8--10{degree} gravity crude. Large heavy oil resources are present in the oil producing areas of eastern and western Venezuela, and the largest are in eastern Venezuela`s Orinoco heavy oil belt. The paper discusses the Orinoco heavy oil belt geology and several joint ventures being implemented.

  7. An unusual symbiont from the gut of surgeonfishes may be the largest known prokaryote.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, K D; Bullivant, S

    1991-01-01

    Symbionts first reported from the gut of a Red Sea surgeonfish, Acanthurus nigrofuscus (family Acanthuridae), were subsequently described as Epulopiscium fishelsoni. The taxonomic position of this very large (up to 576 microns in length) microorganism has previously been designated in the literature as either uncertain or eukaryotic. We suggest that similar symbionts from Great Barrier Reef surgeonfish may be prokaryotes, which together with E. fishelsoni from the Red Sea may represent the largest known forms of this cell type. Features identifying the symbionts as prokaryotes include the presence of bacterial-type flagella and a bacterial nucleoid and the absence of a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle. Images PMID:1885516

  8. Mesophotic fishes of the Abrolhos Shelf, the largest reef ecosystem in the South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Simon, T; Pinheiro, H T; Moura, R L; Carvalho-Filho, A; Rocha, L A; Martins, A S; Mazzei, E; Francini-Filho, R B; Amado-Filho, G M; Joyeux, J-C

    2016-07-01

    Fishes inhabiting rhodolith beds and reefs at mesophotic depths on the Abrolhos Shelf, which encompasses the largest and richest coral reef formation in the South Atlantic Ocean, were assessed through technical diving and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). A total of 74 fish species were recorded, including at least one new species, one new record for the south-western Atlantic and six new records for the Abrolhos region. Overfishing, mining and port activities are already threatening many endangered and commercially important species recorded on the mesophotic reefs of Abrolhos Shelf, and the establishment of marine protected areas and off-reserve fisheries regulations are urgently needed. PMID:27094882

  9. Canadian institute honours Hawking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has announced that a major new extension to its campus will be known as the Stephen Hawking Centre. The extension, which is currently being built, is due to open in 2011 and will double the size of the institute. It will also provide a home for the institute's Masters students, the first of whom joined the Perimeter Institute this autumn as part of its Perimeter Scholars international programme.

  10. Astronomical Institute of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Astronomical Institute of Athens is the oldest research institute of modern Greece (it faces the Parthenon). The Astronomical Institute (AI) of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) started its observational projects in 1847. The modern computer and research center are housed at the Penteli Astronomical Station with major projects and international collaborations focused on extragalactic ...

  11. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  12. Sequencing of tsunami waves: Why the first wave is not always the largest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    In many instances, the largest wave to hit a coastline during a tsunami is not the first one. Classical examples include the arrivals of the 1960 Chilean tsunami in Hilo, Hawaii, and of the 1964 Alaskan tsunami in Crescent City, California, where most casualties took place during later arrivals. This situation can be socially treacherous, since residents and civil defense authorities are led to believe that the worst is over after a first, relatively mild arrival, and to give an early "all clear" before the true largest wave, as was the case in Papeete, Tahiti during the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. We research this problem by using a number of simple models for which analytical solutions are available, as well as more realistic simulations of the large earthquake tsunamis of the past decade, and compare their results to a catalog of waveforms obtained at DART buoys spread over the Pacific Basin. Preliminary results indicate a transition from a regime of Maximum First Wave to one of Delayed Maximum when distance is increased, azimuth to receiver is moved away from the normal to fault strike, and/or source size is reduced.

  13. Constraining gravity at the largest scales through CMB lensing and galaxy velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, Anthony R.; Alam, Shadab; He, Siyu; Ho, Shirley

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a new method to constrain gravity on the largest cosmological scales by combining measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing and the galaxy velocity field. EG is a statistic, constructed from a gravitational lensing tracer and a measure of velocities such as redshift-space distortions (RSD), that can discriminate between gravity models while being independent of clustering bias and σ8. While traditionally, the lensing field for EG has been probed through galaxy lensing, CMB lensing has been proposed as a more robust tracer of the lensing field for EG at higher redshifts while avoiding intrinsic alignments. We perform the largest-scale measurement of EG ever, up to 150 Mpc h-1, by cross-correlating the Planck CMB lensing map with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) CMASS galaxy sample and combining this with our measurement of the CMASS auto-power spectrum and the RSD parameter β. We report EG(z = 0.57) = 0.243 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.013 (sys), a measurement in tension with the general relativity (GR) prediction at a level of 2.6σ. Note that our EG measurement deviates from GR only at scales greater than 80 Mpc h-1, scales which have not been probed by previous EG tests. Upcoming surveys, which will provide an order-of-magnitude reduction in statistical errors, can significantly constrain alternative gravity models when combined with better control of systematics.

  14. Evaluation of nonlinear properties of epileptic activity using largest Lyapunov exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Tatiana M.; Lüttjohann, Annika; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Sysoev, Ilya V.

    2016-04-01

    Absence seizures are known to be highly non-linear large amplitude oscillations with a well pronounced main time scale. Whilst the appearance of the main frequency is usually considered as a transition from noisy complex dynamics of baseline EEG to more regular absence activity, the dynamical properties of this type of epileptiformic activity in genetic absence models was not studied precisely. Here, the estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent from intracranial EEGs of 10 WAG/Rij rats (genetic model of absence epilepsy) was performed. Fragments of 10 seizures and 10 episodes of on-going EEG each of 4 s length were used for each animal, 3 cortical and 2 thalamic channels were analysed. The method adapted for short noisy data was implemented. The positive values of the largest Lyapunov exponent were found as for baseline as for spike wave discharges (SWDs), with values for SWDs being significantly less than for on-going activity. Current findings may indicate that SWD is a chaotic process with a well pronounced main timescale rather than a periodic regime. Also, the absence activity was shown to be less chaotic than the baseline one.

  15. Public health preparedness for the world's largest mass gathering: 2010 World Exposition in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yi, He; Zheng'an, Yuan; Fan, Wu; Xiang, Guo; Chen, Dong; Yongchao, He; Xiaodong, Sun; Hao, Pan; Mahany, Mollie; Keim, Mark

    2012-12-01

    The 2010 World Exposition in Shanghai China (Expo) was the largest mass gathering in world history, attracting a record 72 million visitors. More than 190 countries participated in the Expo, along with more than 50 international organizations. The 2010 Expo was six months in duration (May 1 through October 30, 2010), and the size of the venue site comprised 5.28 square kilometers. Great challenges were imposed on the public health system in Shanghai due to the high number and density of visitors, long duration of the event, and other risk factors such as high temperatures, typhoon, etc. As the major metropolitan public health agency in Shanghai, the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC) implemented a series of actions in preparing for, and responding to, the potential health impact of the world's largest mass gathering to date, which included partnerships for capacity building, enhancement of internal organizational structure, risk assessment, strengthened surveillance, disaster planning and exercises, laboratory management, vaccination campaign, health education, health intervention, risk communication and mass media surveillance, and technical support for health inspection. The clear-cut organizational structures and job responsibilities, as well as comprehensive operational and scientific preparations, were key elements to ensure the success of the 2010 World Exposition. PMID:22995587

  16. Metagenomic Characterisation of the Viral Community of Lough Neagh, the Largest Freshwater Lake in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsov, Timofey; de Leeuwe, Colin; Quinn, John P.; McGrath, John W.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; McElarney, Yvonne; Watson, Catherine; Arkhipova, Ksenia; Lavigne, Rob; Kulakov, Leonid A.

    2016-01-01

    Lough Neagh is the largest and the most economically important lake in Ireland. It is also one of the most nutrient rich amongst the world’s major lakes. In this study, 16S rRNA analysis of total metagenomic DNA from the water column of Lough Neagh has revealed a high proportion of Cyanobacteria and low levels of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes. The planktonic virome of Lough Neagh has been sequenced and 2,298,791 2×300 bp Illumina reads analysed. Comparison with previously characterised lakes demonstrates that the Lough Neagh viral community has the highest level of sequence diversity. Only about 15% of reads had homologs in the RefSeq database and tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales) were identified as a major grouping. Within the Caudovirales, the Podoviridae and Siphoviridae were the two most dominant families (34.3% and 32.8% of the reads with sequence homology to the RefSeq database), while ssDNA bacteriophages constituted less than 1% of the virome. Putative cyanophages were found to be abundant. 66,450 viral contigs were assembled with the largest one being 58,805 bp; its existence, and that of another 34,467 bp contig, in the water column was confirmed. Analysis of the contigs confirmed the high abundance of cyanophages in the water column. PMID:26927795

  17. Approximating natural connectivity of scale-free networks based on largest eigenvalue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.-Y.; Wu, J.; Li, M.-J.; Lu, X.

    2016-06-01

    It has been recently proposed that natural connectivity can be used to efficiently characterize the robustness of complex networks. The natural connectivity has an intuitive physical meaning and a simple mathematical formulation, which corresponds to an average eigenvalue calculated from the graph spectrum. However, as a network model close to the real-world system that widely exists, the scale-free network is found difficult to obtain its spectrum analytically. In this article, we investigate the approximation of natural connectivity based on the largest eigenvalue in both random and correlated scale-free networks. It is demonstrated that the natural connectivity of scale-free networks can be dominated by the largest eigenvalue, which can be expressed asymptotically and analytically to approximate natural connectivity with small errors. Then we show that the natural connectivity of random scale-free networks increases linearly with the average degree given the scaling exponent and decreases monotonically with the scaling exponent given the average degree. Moreover, it is found that, given the degree distribution, the more assortative a scale-free network is, the more robust it is. Experiments in real networks validate our methods and results.

  18. Metagenomic Characterisation of the Viral Community of Lough Neagh, the Largest Freshwater Lake in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Skvortsov, Timofey; de Leeuwe, Colin; Quinn, John P; McGrath, John W; Allen, Christopher C R; McElarney, Yvonne; Watson, Catherine; Arkhipova, Ksenia; Lavigne, Rob; Kulakov, Leonid A

    2016-01-01

    Lough Neagh is the largest and the most economically important lake in Ireland. It is also one of the most nutrient rich amongst the world's major lakes. In this study, 16S rRNA analysis of total metagenomic DNA from the water column of Lough Neagh has revealed a high proportion of Cyanobacteria and low levels of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes. The planktonic virome of Lough Neagh has been sequenced and 2,298,791 2×300 bp Illumina reads analysed. Comparison with previously characterised lakes demonstrates that the Lough Neagh viral community has the highest level of sequence diversity. Only about 15% of reads had homologs in the RefSeq database and tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales) were identified as a major grouping. Within the Caudovirales, the Podoviridae and Siphoviridae were the two most dominant families (34.3% and 32.8% of the reads with sequence homology to the RefSeq database), while ssDNA bacteriophages constituted less than 1% of the virome. Putative cyanophages were found to be abundant. 66,450 viral contigs were assembled with the largest one being 58,805 bp; its existence, and that of another 34,467 bp contig, in the water column was confirmed. Analysis of the contigs confirmed the high abundance of cyanophages in the water column. PMID:26927795

  19. Nuclear Science Division: 1993 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.D.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the activities of the Nuclear Science Division for the 1993 calendar year. This was another significant year in the history of the Division with many interesting and important accomplishments. Activities for the following programs are covered here: (1) nuclear structure and reactions program; (2) the Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics; (3) relativistic nuclear collisions program; (4) nuclear theory program; (5) nuclear data evaluation program, isotope project; and (6) 88-inch cyclotron operations.

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 7: Reactor Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 28: Welding Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  3. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 19: Radiation Shielding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  4. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 27: Metrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  5. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 12: Reactor Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  6. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 18: Radiological Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  7. Nuclear Technology Series. Course l: Radiation Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  8. Educating American youth on nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hechanova, T.E.

    1993-12-31

    A grave problem facing the American nuclear technology field is the non-education of American youth in nuclear sciences which produces an uneducated populace. This presentation addresses first hand efforts of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s ANS Student Branch at educating mainly high school students in nuclear science, and recruiting college students into the Nuclear Engineering Department.

  9. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  10. Mapping Hispanic-Serving Institutions: A Typology of Institutional Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Núñez, Anne-Marie; Crisp, Gloria; Elizondo, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs), institutions that enroll at least 25% Hispanic students, are institutionally diverse, including a much wider array of institutional types than other Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs). Furthermore, they have distinctive institutional characteristics from those typically emphasized in institutional typologies…

  11. Post-Implementation Success Factors for Enterprise Resource Planning Student Administration Systems in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Linda; Bozeman, William

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems can represent one of the largest investments of human and financial resources by a higher education institution. They also bring a significant process reengineering aspect to the institution and the associated implementation project through the integration of compiled industry best practices into the…

  12. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  13. Contamination Control Assessment of the World's Largest Space Environment Simulation Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Aaron; Henry, Michael W.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Sinclair, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Power Facility s thermal vacuum test chamber is the largest chamber in the world capable of providing an environment for space simulation. To improve performance and meet stringent requirements of a wide customer base, significant modifications were made to the vacuum chamber. These include major changes to the vacuum system and numerous enhancements to the chamber s unique polar crane, with a goal of providing high cleanliness levels. The significance of these changes and modifications are discussed in this paper. In addition, the composition and arrangement of the pumping system and its impact on molecular back-streaming are discussed in detail. Molecular contamination measurements obtained with a TQCM and witness wafers during two recent integrated system tests of the chamber are presented and discussed. Finally, a concluding remarks section is presented.

  14. Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [(14)C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life. PMID:24352146

  15. Some doubts about one of the largest smoking prevention programmes in Europe, the smokefree class competition.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François; Bouvier, Paul

    2006-09-01

    With over 600,000 participants in 16 countries, the smokefree class competition is one of the largest smoking prevention programmes in Europe. Participating classes that maintain a smoking prevalence usually below 10% are eligible for a contest and the winner is rewarded with money. There is however no convincing evidence that this competition has any effect on smoking prevalence beyond the short term, and this approach raises serious ethical issues. In particular, the central principle of this competition is to apply negative peer pressure upon teenage smokers. However, promoters of this competition have neglected to report the possible adverse consequences of using negative peer pressure upon smokers. This is a concern, because teenage smokers are more vulnerable than non-smokers, and they are at higher risk of suffering from psychological problems and school failure. PMID:16905718

  16. Estimating the largest Lyapunov exponent and noise level from chaotic time series.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tian-Liang; Liu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng

    2012-09-01

    A novel method for estimating simultaneously the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and noise level (NL) from a noisy chaotic time series is presented in this paper. We research the influence of noise on the average distance of different pairs of points in an embedding phase space and provide a rescaled formula for calculating the LLE when the time series is contaminated with noise. Our algorithm is proposed based on this formula and the invariant of the LLE in different dimensional embedding phase spaces. With numerical simulation, we find that the proposed method provides a reasonable estimate of the LLE and NL when the NL is less than 10% of the signal content. The comparison with Kantz algorithm shows that our method gives more accurate results of the LLE for the noisy time series. Furthermore, our method is not sensitive to the distribution of the noise. PMID:23020441

  17. From Pushing Paper to Pushing Dirt - Canada's Largest LLRW Cleanup Gets Underway - 13111

    SciTech Connect

    Veen, Walter van; Lawrence, Dave

    2013-07-01

    The Port Hope Project is the larger of the two projects in the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), Canada's largest low level radioactive waste (LLRW) cleanup. With a budget of approximately $1 billion, the Port Hope Project includes a broad and complex range of remedial elements from a state of the art water treatment plant, an engineered waste management facility, municipal solid waste removal, remediation of 18 major sites within the Municipality of Port Hope (MPH), sediment dredging and dewatering, an investigation of 4,800 properties (many of these homes) to identify LLRW and remediation of approximately 450 of these properties. This paper discusses the status of the Port Hope Project in terms of designs completed and regulatory approvals received, and sets out the scope and schedule for the remaining studies, engineering designs and remediation contracts. (authors)

  18. Delineating taxonomic boundaries in the largest species complex of black flies (Simuliidae) in the Oriental Region.

    PubMed

    Low, Van Lun; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Pramual, Pairot; Adler, Peter H; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Huang, Yao-Te; Da Pham, Xuan; Ramli, Rosli; Chen, Chee Dhang; Wannaket, Anukhcha; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Perspicuous assessments of taxonomic boundaries and discovery of cryptic taxa are of paramount importance in interpreting ecological and evolutionary phenomena among black flies (Simuliidae) and combating associated vector-borne diseases. Simulium tani Takaoka & Davies is the largest and perhaps the most taxonomically challenging species complex of black flies in the Oriental Region. We use a DNA sequence-based method to delineate currently recognized chromosomal and morphological taxa in the S. tani complex on the Southeast Asian mainland and Taiwan, while elucidating their phylogenetic relationships. A molecular approach using multiple genes, coupled with morphological and chromosomal data, supported recognition of cytoform K and morphoform 'b' as valid species; indicated that S. xuandei, cytoform L, and morphoform 'a' contain possible cryptic species; and suggested that cytoform B is in the early stages of reproductive isolation whereas lineage sorting is incomplete in cytoforms A, C, and G. PMID:26839292

  19. Active sand dunes are largest dust source in the Sahara Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    Dried up lakebeds and playas in the Sahara Desert of North Africa are large sources of dust in the atmosphere. The Bodélé Depression at the southern edge of the Sahara Desert, for example, is the single largest source of dust in the world; on average, 100 dust storms a year originate from the Bodélé Depression. A new study by Crouvi et al., however, finds that active sand dunes could be even bigger sources of desert dust in the atmosphere. Atmospheric dust plays active roles in climate and biological processes in the ocean: It regulates heating at the surface of the Earth; modifies cloud properties that affect rainfall; and acts as the only source of iron, a critical nutrient for microorganisms in the ocean. Little is known about types of dust sources in the Sahara Desert, which alone accounts for more than 50% of the dust in the atmosphere.

  20. Turkey's largest oil field poised for CO/sub 2/ immiscible EOR project

    SciTech Connect

    Kantar, K.; Connor, T.E.

    1984-11-26

    The Bati Raman project uses some of the latest EOR technology to increase production from Turkey's largest oil field. Engineering for this challenging project has drawn upon the petroleum industry's recent experience in CO/sub 2/EOR, on laboratory testing, and on new applications of proven technology to meet the construction and operational requirements of the project facilities. Construction is now in progress and completion is scheduled for mid1985. The data obtained during operation of the facilities will be used to guide Turkish Petroleum Corp's continuing EOR program. It will also contribute to the petroleum industry's knowledge of carbon dioxide technology and the engineering community's ability to efficiently meet future EOR design challenges.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the largest living fish: whale shark Rhincodon typus (Orectolobiformes: Rhincodontidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Ai, Weiming; Pan, Lianghao; Shi, Xiaofang

    2016-01-01

    The whale shark Rhincodon typus (Pisces: Chondrichthyes, Orectolobiformes, Rhincodontidae) is the largest living fish on Earth. In this study, we presented its complete mitogenome. It is 16,928 bp in length, contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one control region with the typical gene order and transcriptional direction in the vertebrates. Overall base composition of the R. typus mitogenome is 33.5% A, 24.3% C, 12.8% G and 29.5% T. Two start codon (GTG and ATG) and two stop codon patterns (TAG and TAA/T) were found in protein-coding genes. The tRNA-Ser2 could not be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure because of the replacement of its dihydrouridine arm by a simple loop. A termination associated sequences (TAS) and three conserved sequence blocks (CSB1-3) were identified in the control region. PMID:24660935

  2. Induced Seismicity: What is the Size of the Largest Expected Earthquake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, G.; Holschneider, M.

    2014-12-01

    The injections of fluids is a well-known origin for the triggering of earthquake sequences. The growing number of projects related to enhanced geothermal systems, fracking and others has led to the question, which maximum earthquake magnitude can be expected as a consequence of fluid injection. This question is addressed from the perspective of statistical analysis. Using basic empirical laws of earthquake statistics, we estimate the magnitude MT of the maximum expected earthquake in a pre-defined future time window T. A case study of the fluid injection site at Paradox Valley, Colorado, USA, demonstrates that the magnitude m=4.3 of the largest observed earthquake on 27 May 2000 is lying very well within the expectation from past seismicity without adjusting any parameters. Vice versa, for a given maximum tolerable earthquake at an injection site, we can constrain the corresponding amount of injected fluids that must not be exceeded within pre-defined confidence bounds.

  3. Delineating taxonomic boundaries in the largest species complex of black flies (Simuliidae) in the Oriental Region

    PubMed Central

    Low, Van Lun; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Pramual, Pairot; Adler, Peter H.; Ya’cob, Zubaidah; Huang, Yao-Te; Da Pham, Xuan; Ramli, Rosli; Chen, Chee Dhang; Wannaket, Anukhcha; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Perspicuous assessments of taxonomic boundaries and discovery of cryptic taxa are of paramount importance in interpreting ecological and evolutionary phenomena among black flies (Simuliidae) and combating associated vector-borne diseases. Simulium tani Takaoka & Davies is the largest and perhaps the most taxonomically challenging species complex of black flies in the Oriental Region. We use a DNA sequence-based method to delineate currently recognized chromosomal and morphological taxa in the S. tani complex on the Southeast Asian mainland and Taiwan, while elucidating their phylogenetic relationships. A molecular approach using multiple genes, coupled with morphological and chromosomal data, supported recognition of cytoform K and morphoform ‘b’ as valid species; indicated that S. xuandei, cytoform L, and morphoform ‘a’ contain possible cryptic species; and suggested that cytoform B is in the early stages of reproductive isolation whereas lineage sorting is incomplete in cytoforms A, C, and G. PMID:26839292

  4. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.

    2012-01-01

    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  5. Rates of speciation and morphological evolution are correlated across the largest vertebrate radiation.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Santini, Francesco; Eastman, Jonathan; Smith, Stephen A; Sidlauskas, Brian; Chang, Jonathan; Alfaro, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Several evolutionary theories predict that rates of morphological change should be positively associated with the rate at which new species arise. For example, the theory of punctuated equilibrium proposes that phenotypic change typically occurs in rapid bursts associated with speciation events. However, recent phylogenetic studies have found little evidence linking these processes in nature. Here we demonstrate that rates of species diversification are highly correlated with the rate of body size evolution across the 30,000+ living species of ray-finned fishes that comprise the majority of vertebrate biological diversity. This coupling is a general feature of fish evolution and transcends vast differences in ecology and body-plan organization. Our results may reflect a widespread speciational mode of character change in living fishes. Alternatively, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic 'evolvability'-the capacity of organisms to evolve-shapes the dynamics of speciation through time at the largest phylogenetic scales. PMID:23739623

  6. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusdell, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  7. Assembling the Largest, Most Distant Sample of Halo Wide Binaries for Galactic Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, J.; Chanamé, J.

    2015-10-01

    Samples of wide binaries (agtrsim \\ 100\\ AU) are a gold mine for Galactic studies. They have been used on a large list of applications in a diversity of fields. In the dynamical arena, wide binaries provided the first meaningful constraints on the mass and nature of disk dark matter and, more recently, they were used to close the remaining parameter space of MACHO-like halo dark matter not accessible to the micro-lensing campaigns. All these applications were possible when samples of these objects became large enough to not be dominated by random, chance alignments of two unrelated stars projected on the sky. Nevertheless, still today the largest available sample of the particularly valuable halo wide binaries free from selection biases, contains not much more than 100 systems, and conclusions on dark matter are very sensitive to this fact.

  8. Deoxygenation alters bacterial diversity and community composition in the ocean’s largest oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beman, J. Michael; Carolan, Molly T.

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have a central role in biogeochemical cycles and are expanding as a consequence of climate change, yet how deoxygenation will affect the microbial communities that control these cycles is unclear. Here we sample across dissolved oxygen gradients in the oceans’ largest OMZ and show that bacterial richness displays a unimodal pattern with decreasing dissolved oxygen, reaching maximum values on the edge of the OMZ and decreasing within it. Rare groups on the OMZ margin are abundant at lower dissolved oxygen concentrations, including sulphur-cycling Chromatiales, for which 16S rRNA was amplified from extracted RNA. Microbial species distribution models accurately replicate community patterns based on multivariate environmental data, demonstrate likely changes in distributions and diversity in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean, and highlight the sensitivity of key bacterial groups to deoxygenation. Through these mechanisms, OMZ expansion may alter microbial composition, competition, diversity and function, all of which have implications for biogeochemical cycling in OMZs.

  9. Identification of bacterial communities in sediments of Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China.

    PubMed

    Kou, Wenbo; Zhang, Jie; Lu, Xinxin; Ma, Yantian; Mou, Xiaozhen; Wu, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria play a vital role in various biogeochemical processes in lacustrine sediment ecosystems. This study is among the first to investigate the spatial distribution patterns of bacterial community composition in the sediments of Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake of China. Sediment samples were collected from the main basins and mouths of major rivers that discharge into the Poyang Lake in May 2011. Quantitative PCR assay and pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that the bacteria community abundance and compositions of Poyang Lake sediment varied largely among sampling sites. A total of 25 phyla and 68 bacterial orders were distinguished. Burkholderiales, Gallionellales (Beta-proteobacteria), Myxococcales, Desulfuromonadales (Delta-proteobacteria), Sphingobacteriales (Bacteroidetes), Nitrospirales (Nitrospirae), Xanthomonadales (Gamma-proteobacteria) were identified as the major taxa and collectively accounted for over half of annotated sequences. Moreover, correlation analyses suggested that higher loads of total phosphorus and heavy metals (copper, zinc and cadmium) could enhance bacterial abundance in the sediment. PMID:27047727

  10. Legionella pneumophila, armed to the hilt: justifying the largest arsenal of effectors in the bacterial world.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, Alexander W

    2016-02-01

    Many bacterial pathogens use dedicated translocation systems to deliver arsenals of effector proteins to their hosts. Once inside the host cytosol, these effectors modulate eukaryotic cell biology to acquire nutrients, block microbial degradation, subvert host defenses, and enable pathogen transmission to other hosts. Among all bacterial pathogens studied to date, the gram-negative pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, maintains the largest arsenal of effectors, with over 330 effector proteins translocated by the Dot/Icm type IVB translocation system. In this review, I will discuss some of the recent work on understanding the consequences of this large arsenal. I will also present several models that seek to explain how L. pneumophila has acquired and subsequently maintained so many more effectors than its peers. PMID:26709975

  11. The Trypanosoma brucei protein phosphatase gene: polycistronic transcription with the RNA polymerase II largest subunit gene.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, R; Cornelissen, A W

    1990-01-01

    We have previously described the trypanosomal gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and found that two almost identical genes are encoded within the Trypanosoma brucei genome. Here we show by Southern analyses that the 5' breakpoint between both loci is located approximately 7.5 kb upstream of the RNAP II genes. Northern analyses revealed that the 5' duplicated segment contains at least four other genes, which are transcribed in both bloodstream and procyclic trypanosomes. The gene located immediately upstream of the RNAP II gene in both loci was characterized by sequence analyses. The deduced amino acid sequences show a high degree of similarity to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase class 1 (PP1) genes. S1 mapping provided strong evidence in support of the fact that the PP1 and RNAP II genes belong to a single transcription unit. Images PMID:2169604

  12. Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Michail M.; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z.; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S.; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N.; Giuliano, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [14C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life.

  13. A protein kinase from wheat germ that phosphorylates the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, T J

    1989-01-01

    A protein kinase from wheat germ that phosphorylates the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IIA has been partially purified and characterized. The kinase has a native molecular weight of about 200 kilodaltons. This kinase utilizes Mg2+ and ATP and transfers about 20 phosphates to the heptapeptide repeats Pro-Thr-Ser-Pro-Ser-Tyr-Ser in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the 220-kilodalton subunit of soybean RNA polymerase II. This phosphorylation results in a mobility shift of the 220-kilodalton subunits of a variety of eukaryotic RNA polymerases to polypeptides ranging in size from greater than 220 kilodaltons to 240 kilodaltons on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The phosphorylation is highly specific to the heptapeptide repeats since a degraded subunit polypeptide of 180 kilodaltons that lacks the heptapeptide repeats is poorly phosphorylated. Synthetic heptapeptide repeat multimers inhibit the phosphorylation of the 220-kilodalton subunit. PMID:2535525

  14. Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation

    PubMed Central

    Yakimov, Michail M.; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z.; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S.; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N.; Giuliano, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [14C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life. PMID:24352146

  15. Rupture propagation behavior and the largest possible earthquake induced by fluid injection into deep reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischig, Valentin S.

    2015-09-01

    Earthquakes caused by fluid injection into deep underground reservoirs constitute an increasingly recognized risk to populations and infrastructure. Quantitative assessment of induced seismic hazard, however, requires estimating the maximum possible magnitude earthquake that may be induced during fluid injection. Here I seek constraints on an upper limit for the largest possible earthquake using source-physics simulations that consider rate-and-state friction and hydromechanical interaction along a straight homogeneous fault. Depending on the orientation of the pressurized fault in the ambient stress field, different rupture behaviors can occur: (1) uncontrolled rupture-front propagation beyond the pressure front or (2) rupture-front propagation arresting at the pressure front. In the first case, fault properties determine the earthquake magnitude, and the upper magnitude limit may be similar to natural earthquakes. In the second case, the maximum magnitude can be controlled by carefully designing and monitoring injection and thus restricting the pressurized fault area.

  16. The largest mid-infrared atlas of active galactic nuclei at sub-arcsecond spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, Daniel; Gandhi, Poshak; Honig, Sebastian F.; Smette, Alain

    2012-12-01

    We present the largest mid-infrared atlas of active galactic nuclei at sub-arcsecond spatial scales containing 249 objects. It comprises all ground-based HR MIR observations performed to date. This catalog includes a large number of new observations. The photometry in multiple filters allows for characterizing the properties of the dust emission for most objects. Because of its size and characteristics, this sample is very well-suited for AGN unification studies. In particular, we discuss the enlarged MIR-X-ray correlation which extends over six orders of magnitude in luminosity and potentially probes different physical mechanisms. Finally, tests for intrinsic differences between the AGN types are presented and we discuss dependencies of MIR-X-ray properties with respect to fundamental AGN parameters such as accretion rate and the column density and covering factor of obscuring material.

  17. Constraining gravity at the largest scales through CMB lensing and galaxy velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, Anthony R.; Alam, Shadab; He, Siyu; Ho, Shirley

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a new method to constrain gravity on the largest cosmological scales by combining measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing and the galaxy velocity field. $E_G$ is a statistic, constructed from a gravitational lensing tracer and a measure of velocities such as redshift-space distortions (RSD), that can discriminate between gravity models while being independent of clustering bias and $\\sigma_8$. While traditionally, the lensing field for $E_G$ has been probed through galaxy lensing, CMB lensing has been proposed as a more robust tracer of the lensing field for $E_G$ at higher redshifts while avoiding intrinsic alignments. We perform the largest-scale measurement of $E_G$ ever, up to 150 Mpc/$h$, by cross-correlating the Planck CMB lensing map with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) CMASS galaxy sample and combining this with our measurement of the CMASS auto-power spectrum and the RSD parameter $\\beta$. We report $E_G(z=0.57)=0.243\\pm0.060$ (stat) $\\pm0.013$ (sys), a measurement in tension with the general relativity prediction at a level of 2.6$\\sigma$. Note that our $E_G$ measurement deviates from GR only at scales greater than 80 Mpc/$h$, scales which have not been probed by previous $E_G$ tests. Upcoming surveys, which will provide an order-of-magnitude reduction in statistical errors, can significantly constrain alternative gravity models when combined with better control of systematics.

  18. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Five Largest Islands of Indonesia: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zain, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is still controversial and mainly investigated in the largest ethnic group, Javanese. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection using four different tests including culture, histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and rapid urease test. We also analyzed risk factors associated with H. pylori infection in five largest islands in Indonesia. From January 2014–February 2015 we consecutively recruited a total of 267 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Java, Papua, Sulawesi, Borneo and Sumatera Island. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.1% (59/267). Papuan, Batak and Buginese ethnics had higher risk for H. pylori infection than Javanese, Dayak and Chinese ethnics (OR = 30.57, 6.31, 4.95; OR = 28.39, 5.81, 4.61 and OR = 23.23, 4.76, 3.77, respectively, P <0.05). The sensitivity and specificity for RUT and culture were 90.2%, 92.9% and 80.5%, 98.2%, respectively. The patients aged 50–59 years group had significantly higher H. pylori infection than 30–39 years group (OR 2.98, P = 0.05). Protestant had significantly higher H. pylori infection rate than that among Catholic (OR 4.42, P = 0.008). It was also significantly lower among peoples who used tap water as source of drinking water than from Wells/river (OR 9.67, P = 0.03). However only ethnics as become independent risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although we confirmed low prevalence of H. pylori in Javanese; predominant ethnic in Indonesia, several ethnic groups had higher risk of H. pylori infection. The age, religion and water source may implicate as a risk factor for H. pylori infection in Indonesia. PMID:26599790

  19. Climate-driven changes in riverine inputs affecting the stoichiometry of Earth's largest lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, R.; Small, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Superior, Earth's largest lake by area, has seen a steady increase in nitrate levels over the past century, while phosphorus remains exceedingly low, resulting in an increasingly imbalanced stoichiometry. Although its ratio of watershed area:lake area is relatively small, rivers emptying into Lake Superior could be important drivers of long-term changes in lake stoichiometry. To better assess how the Lake Superior watershed affects its stoichiometry, we examined the chemistry of two of its largest tributaries, the Saint Louis River and the Nipigon River, at their confluences with Lake Superior. Both of these rivers have high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) but low nitrate (NO3) concentrations relative to the lake. Using simple mixing models, we found these nearshore confluences to create sinks of lake NO3 as a result of relatively high rates of denitrification. Climate change is altering the amounts and patterns of delivery of materials from land to lakes and we also examined the plume from a June, 2012 100-year flood in the Saint Louis River. Three days after this historic rain event, we found elevated chlorophyll levels throughout the plume, up to 5-fold higher than in the open lake. Combining our samples with satellite imagery, we conservatively estimate that this plume contained 598,000 kg of phosphorus in dissolved and particulate form, or 40% of the average annual P input to the lake. If storm events such as this occur with increasing frequency as predicted in climate change scenarios, the lake's productivity may increase and stoichiometry could become more balanced, through greater P input and increased N retention due to sedimentation and denitrification.

  20. Ages and Loads of Riverine Carbon of the Five Largest Rivers in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. J.; Shin, Y.; Oh, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the quantity and quality of riverine carbon is crucial to predict the changes of the regional carbon cycle and to efficiently manage drinking water quality. We investigated both the loads and ages of carbon exported by the five largest rivers in South Korea using seasonal sampling and dual carbon isotope analysis for 2012 - 2013. Annually a total of 581 Gg of carbon (DIC, DOC, and POC combined) was transported to the ocean through the five rivers, releasing 7.6, 1.7, and 0.8 g-C m-2 yr-1 of DIC, DOC, and POC, respectively, which accounted for 80%, 14%, and 6% of the annual loads of riverine carbon, respectively. About 37-45% of annual riverine DIC loads, 37-51% of DOC loads, and 33-47% of POC loads were released from the basins during the summer monsoon (June - August) indicating strong effects of precipitation in the riverine carbon export. Modern to ~1,020 years old carbon was released from the five river basins. The δDI13C and ΔDI14C showed a negative correlation in each river whereas no consistent correlation was observed between δDO13C and ΔDO14C, suggesting a large variation in DOC sources. Riverine POC load increased sharply after a typhoon and ΔPO14C was higher in summer than winter in the five rivers. The results suggested that both quantity and quality of riverine carbon released from the five largest basins could be strongly influenced by the Asian monsoon climates and that relatively young dissolved carbon could be predominantly released as the intensity and frequency of storms increase.

  1. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Five Largest Islands of Indonesia: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Syam, Ari Fahrial; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zain, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is still controversial and mainly investigated in the largest ethnic group, Javanese. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection using four different tests including culture, histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and rapid urease test. We also analyzed risk factors associated with H. pylori infection in five largest islands in Indonesia. From January 2014-February 2015 we consecutively recruited a total of 267 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Java, Papua, Sulawesi, Borneo and Sumatera Island. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.1% (59/267). Papuan, Batak and Buginese ethnics had higher risk for H. pylori infection than Javanese, Dayak and Chinese ethnics (OR = 30.57, 6.31, 4.95; OR = 28.39, 5.81, 4.61 and OR = 23.23, 4.76, 3.77, respectively, P <0.05). The sensitivity and specificity for RUT and culture were 90.2%, 92.9% and 80.5%, 98.2%, respectively. The patients aged 50-59 years group had significantly higher H. pylori infection than 30-39 years group (OR 2.98, P = 0.05). Protestant had significantly higher H. pylori infection rate than that among Catholic (OR 4.42, P = 0.008). It was also significantly lower among peoples who used tap water as source of drinking water than from Wells/river (OR 9.67, P = 0.03). However only ethnics as become independent risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although we confirmed low prevalence of H. pylori in Javanese; predominant ethnic in Indonesia, several ethnic groups had higher risk of H. pylori infection. The age, religion and water source may implicate as a risk factor for H. pylori infection in Indonesia. PMID:26599790

  2. Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit during Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Bellier, S; Dubois, M F; Nishida, E; Almouzni, G; Bensaude, O

    1997-01-01

    Xenopus laevis oogenesis is characterized by an active transcription which ceases abruptly upon maturation. To survey changes in the characteristics of the transcriptional machinery which might contribute to this transcriptional arrest, the phosphorylation status of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1 subunit) was analyzed during oocyte maturation. We found that the RPB1 subunit accumulates in large quantities from previtellogenic early diplotene oocytes up to fully grown oocytes. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the RPB1 subunit was essentially hypophosphorylated in growing oocytes from Dumont stage IV to stage VI. Upon maturation, the proportion of hyperphosphorylated RPB1 subunits increased dramatically and abruptly. The hyperphosphorylated RPB1 subunits were dephosphorylated within 1 h after fertilization or heat shock of the matured oocytes. Extracts from metaphase II-arrested oocytes showed a much stronger CTD kinase activity than extracts from prophase stage VI oocytes. Most of this kinase activity was attributed to the activated Xp42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, a MAP kinase of the ERK type. Making use of artificial maturation of the stage VI oocyte through microinjection of a recombinant stable cyclin B1, we observed a parallel activation of Xp42 MAP kinase and phosphorylation of RPB1. Both events required protein synthesis, which demonstrated that activation of p34(cdc2)off kinase was insufficient to phosphorylate RPB1 ex vivo and was consistent with a contribution of the Xp42 MAP kinase to RPB1 subunit phosphorylation. These results further support the possibility that the largest RNA polymerase II subunit is a substrate of the ERK-type MAP kinases during oocyte maturation, as previously proposed during stress or growth factor stimulation of mammalian cells. PMID:9032270

  3. Ceres In Context: What the Rest of the Asteroid Population Tells Us About Its Largest Member

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, A.

    2015-12-01

    Ceres is famously the largest object in the asteroid belt. Over the course of the last 215 years it has been considered everything from a unique protoplanet (or indeed full-fledged "planet") to a large but run-of-the-mill piece of rock. Over the last decade, models of Ceres' thermal history and shape measurements based on HST imagery have led to the recognition that Ceres is a differentiated object, and likely an ice-rich one. In the last year the Dawn spacecraft has provided unprecedented views of Ceres' surface and combined with data from observational facilities like Herschel and countless telescopes it has shown the varied nature of its geology and ongoing processes. Even given these recent results, Ceres remains an inhabitant of the asteroid belt, existing in the ambient environment and affected by impactors, micrometeorites, solar wind, and other factors. While we only have spacecraft imagery from a very small number of targets, we do have a wealth of Earth-based data from the objects that have shared space with Ceres for billions of years. The insights gained from studying these objects can be applied to Ceres to understand its context and nature. Similarly, what we learn at Ceres will be applicable in many ways to other objects, particularly the twenty or so largest asteroids, which tend to be low-albedo, water-rich bodies. I will discuss our current understanding of the asteroids, particularly those that share important characteristics with Ceres, and focus on what we can learn about Ceres from these bodies.

  4. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. Clinical Benefits of Systemic Chemotherapy for Patients with Metastatic Pheochromocytomas or Sympathetic Extra-Adrenal Paragangliomas: Insights from the Largest Single Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Ramirez, Montserrat; Feng, Lei; Habra, Mouhammed A.; Rich, Thereasa; Dickson, Paxton V.; Perrier, Nancy; Phan, Alexandria; Waguespack, Steven; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Jimenez, Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefits of systemic chemotherapy for patients with metastatic pheochromocytomas or sympathetic paragangliomas by assessing reduction in tumor size, blood pressure, and improvement in overall survival. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with metastatic pheochromocytomas-sympathetic paragangliomas who had received chemotherapy at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Results Clinical benefit and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Of fifty-four patients treated with chemotherapy, fifty-two were evaluable for response. Seventeen (33%) experienced a response, defined as decreased or normalized blood pressure/decreased number and dosage of antihypertensive medications and/or reduced tumor size after the first chemotherapy regimen. The median OS time was 6.4 years (95 confidence interval (CI): 5.2–16.4) for responders and 3.7 (95% CI: 3.0–7.5) years for non-responders. Of patients who had synchronous metastatic disease, a positive response at 1 year after the start of chemotherapy was associated with a trend toward a longer overall survival (log-rank test, P-value =0.095). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, the effect of response to chemotherapy on overall survival was significant (hazard ratio=0.22, 95% confidence interval: 0.05–1.0; P-value = 0.05). All responders had been treated with dacarbazine and cyclophosphamide. Vincristine was included for 14 responders and doxorubicin was included for 12 responders. We could not identify clinical factors that predicted response to chemotherapy. Conclusion Chemotherapy may decrease tumor size and facilitate blood pressure control in about 33% of patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma-sympathetic paraganglioma. These patients exhibit a longer survival. PMID:22006217

  6. Empowering your institution through assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Douglas J.; Lee, Tamera P.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to describe the process of linking Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) data with 2002 LibQUAL+ data and to address four analytical questions created by the AAHSL Task Force on Quality Assessment that relate both to user satisfaction and to services provided by AAHSL libraries. Methods: For the thirty-five AAHSL libraries that participated in the 2002 LibQUAL+ survey, nested-effect of variance was analyzed using a linear mixed model. Using the Pearson correlation coefficient, this study explored four questions about the effect of user demographics on perceived levels of satisfaction with library services. Results: The supposition that library user satisfaction may differ according to library institutional reporting structure was unsupported. Regarding effect on mean overall satisfaction, size of library staff is not significant (P = 0.860), number of constituents is slightly significant (P = 0.027), and ratio of staff to constituents has a moderate and significant effect (P = 0.004). Conclusions: From a demographic perspective, the 2002 LibQUAL+ survey represents the largest cross section of AAHSL libraries. Increased understanding of how qualitative assessment can supplement quantitative data supports evidence-based decision-making and practice. It also could promote changes in data collection and usage. PMID:17252066

  7. Enhancing professionalism at GPU Nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, R.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Late in 1988, GPU Nuclear embarked on a major program aimed at enhancing professionalism at its Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island nuclear generating stations. The program was also to include its corporate headquarters in Parsippany, New Jersey. The overall program was to take several directions, including on-site degree programs, a sabbatical leave-type program for personnel to finish college degrees, advanced technical training for licensed staff, career progression for senior reactor operators, and expanded teamwork and leadership training for control room crew. The largest portion of this initiative was the development and delivery of professionalism training to the nearly 2,000 people at both nuclear generating sites.

  8. The largest caldera-forming eruptions in Kamchatka: geochronology, definition, volumes, and petrologic and isotopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Leonov, V.; Shipley, N. K.

    2012-12-01

    The continental arc of Kamchatka has the highest magma production rates in the world and arguably the largest number of calderas per unit arc length, which are in response to rapid head-on collision at a subduction angle of ~45°. Kamchatkan caldera sizes and volumes of ignimbrite eruptions some of the world's largest, but rapid volcanic and tectonic uplift and burial, rapid erosion rates, and bulldozing effects of multiple glaciations have reshaped Pleistocene and older calderas. This has left behind remnants of isolated, yet thick, often intracaldera-only ignimbrite sequences. While the contribution of Kamchatkan arc volcanism to global Pleistocene volcanism and oscillating Pleistocene climate is of prime importance, the combination of harsh climate, remoteness, poor road infrastructure, and heavy vegetation cover make fieldwork and recognition of caldera volcanics challenging. We present new results of geologic, geochronologic, geochemical and isotopic investigation of two of the largest caldera in Kamchatka - Pauzhetka (27x18km, 0.44Ma) and Karymshina (30x16km, 1.78 Ma). In both places large-volume climactic ignimbrites are represented by quartz-, zircon-, and biotite- bearing, but sanidine-free rhyolitic to high-silica rhyolitic tuffs. These compositional characteristics and evolved trace elemental ratios indicate a high degree of differentiation rarely achieved in other silicic rocks of the Kamchatka arc and worldwide. Crystallinity of ignimbrites ranges from high (35%) to relatively low (10%). Preliminary investigation of chemical and isotopic variations in pre-caldera sequences in both calderas demonstrates diverse peripheral eruptions of basaltic to dacitic compositions, with predominance of the former. The search for the precursor high-silica rhyolite continues. At Karymshina, pre-caldera magmas have a greater diversity of Sr (0,703283-0,703552) and Nd (0,513046- 0,512962) ratios, and moderately diverse and elevated δ18O values (5.5-7.5‰). In contrast

  9. Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Built upon a tradition of almost 300 years, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP) is in an historical sense the successor of one of the oldest astronomical observatories in Germany. It is the first institute in the world which incorporated the term `astrophysical' in its name, and is connected with distinguished scientists such as Karl Schwarzschild and Albert Einstein. The AIP constitutes on...

  10. Institutional Inbreeding Reexamined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyer, Jean C.; Conrad, Clifton F.

    1984-01-01

    Data from the 1977 Survey of the American Professoriate were used to examine the relationship among institutional origin, productivity, and institutional rewards. When an adjustment was made for time allocation, inbred faculty were found to be more productive but are paid significantly less than noninbred faculty. (Author/BW)

  11. Institutionalism "Old" and "New."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selznick, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Explores the new institutionalism's ethos and direction. Drawing a sharp line between old and new inhibits the contribution of institutional theory to major issues of bureaucracy and social policy. Problems of accountability and responsiveness, public and private bureaucracy, regulation and self-regulation, and management and governance will…

  12. Evaluating Residential Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millham, Spencer

    Drawing on the research experience of the Dartington Social Research Unit, this paper discusses methods and perspectives used in evaluating English residential institutions for children. Work of the Dartington Social Research Unit has involved evaluating aspects of a wide range of institutions, from elite boarding schools to children's homes and…

  13. Understanding Institutional Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; Pagano, Marian F.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a semantic differential measure to investigate the institutional image of Tufts University (Massachusetts), both internal and external, is reported. The study focused on (1) differences between the current and desired image, and (2) differences among alumni, current student, and other constituencies' views of the institution.…

  14. Engagement and Institutional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David; Hudson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that institutional commitment to community engagement can be understood by examining levels of student, faculty, and community involvement in engagement; organizational structure, rewards, and campus publications supporting engagement; and compatibility of an institution's mission with this work (Holland, 1997). Underlying all of…

  15. Revising the Institutional Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominick, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Revision of a college mission statement through a broadly participatory process can provide a new and sharpened sense of direction and priorities and a powerful mechanism for institutional change. Although institutional circumstances and processes may differ, the experience of Wittenberg University (Ohio) serves as an example of a model for…

  16. Genesis of the largest Amazonian wetland in northern Brazil inferred by morphology and gravity anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Cassola Molina, Eder; Cremon, Édipo Henrique

    2016-08-01

    The Pantanal Setentrional (PS) is the second largest wetland in Brazil, occurring in a region of northern Amazonia previously regarded as part of the intracratonic Solimões Basin. However, while Paleozoic to Neogene strata are recorded in this basin, the PS constitutes a broad region with an expressive record of only Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits. The hypothesis investigated in the present work is if these younger deposits were formed within a sedimentary basin having a geological history separated from the Solimões Basin. Due to the location in a remote region of low accessibility, the sedimentary fill of the PS wetland remains largely unknown in subsurface. In the present work, we combine geomorphological and gravity data acquired on a global basis by several satellite gravity missions to approach the geological context of this region. The results revealed a wetland characterized in surface by a low-lying terrain with wedge shape and concave-up geometry that is in sharp contact with highland areas of Precambrian rocks of the Guiana Shield. Such contact is defined by a series of mainly NE- or NW-trending straight lineaments that eventually extend into both the Guiana Shield and the PS wetland. Also of relevance is that a great part of the PS wetland sedimentary cover consists of dominantly sandy deposits preserved as residual paleo-landforms with triangular shapes previously related to megafan depositional systems. These are distributed radially at the northern margin of the PS, with axis toward basement rocks and fringes toward the wetland's center, the latter containing the largest megafan landform. The analysis of gravity anomaly data revealed a main NNE-trending chain ∼500 km in length defined by high gravity values (i.e., up to 60 mGal); these are bounded by negative anomalies as low as -90 mGal. The chain with positive gravity anomaly marks the center of a subsiding area having a geological evolution that differs from the adjacent intracratonic

  17. Paleohydraulic reconstruction of the largest Glacial Lake Missoula draining(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alho, Petteri; Baker, Victor R.; Smith, Larry N.

    2010-11-01

    Glacial Lake Missoula (GLM) was the source of Earth's largest known peak flood discharges onto the Channeled Scabland, northwestern United States. The original studies of GLM were based on geomorphological mapping of lake sediments and shorelines. More recently, studies have emphasized the computational fluid dynamics of downstream megaflood routing and characteristics in the Channeled Scabland and adjacent areas. However, actual details of the lake-draining processes GLM have received little scientific attention. In this paper, we employ two-dimensional hydraulic modelling to understand the paleoflow conditions for different scenarios of draining GLM at its highest stands. Values are calculated for three GLM drainage hydrographs (2.6; 13; 17 × 10 6 m 3 s -1) that previous studies had estimated for outlet flows. Consistent with regional mapping and with the original interpretation of fluvial geomorphology by other studies, the modelling shows that lake silt sequences in the gorges of GLM must postdate the most highly energetic outburst events from the lake. This is because the flows generated in the lake by megaflood outflows are sufficiently energetic to erode any accumulated silt deposits. In contrast, the gravels underlying the silts in these zones include boulder-sized clasts, large-scale cross stratification, and 70-100 m-high bars forms, all of which indicate very high-energy flood flow conditions. The modelling also shows that the paleohydraulic conditions which developed in the lake basin during the largest megaflood outflows would be capable of accounting for the observed bedrock scour at Rainbow Lake Pass, various "high eddy deposits" (eddy bars of flood gravel) in gorges, and the "giant ripple marks" (subaqueous gravel dunes) that were classically described in the 1940s. Previous studies interpreted the glacial lake silt/rhythmites and related deposits, such as the Ninemile Section, as evidence for numerous fillings and drainings of GLM. Our modelling

  18. Hydraulics and basin morphometry of the largest flash floods in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The maximum rainfall-runoff floods measured by indirect methods in small basins (0.39-370 km2) in the conterminous United States are examined. This analysis identified twelve floods that were the largest ever measured. These floods all occurred in semiarid to arid areas. For eleven of the twelve largest rainfall-runoff floods measured in small basins by the slope-area method, values of hydraulic depth; hydraulic radius; width-depth ratio; n value; mean velocity; velocity-head coefficient; Froude number; water-surface, energy, and channel slopes; shear stress; and unit stream power are tabulated. Estimated composite n values weighted by subsection conveyance range from 0.028 to 0.048 with a mean of 0.038. Mean velocities ranged from 3.47 to 9.97 m s-1. Froude numbers ranged from 0.81 to 2.49, with 9 of 12 floods having values greater than 1.00. Water-surface, energy, and channel slopes vary considerably for each flood. Energy slope always was less than water-surface slope by values of 1-104%. Channel slope was greater than energy slope in eight floods. Shear stresses ranged between 61 and 855 N m-2, and unit stream power from 212 to 8131 w m-1. Floods in these small basins produced shear stresses and unit stream powers several hundred times greater than floods in large rivers. Floods on other small streams, with smaller unit discharges, produced greater shear stresses and stream powers. This indicates that the force of a flood is controlled by the depth-slope product, not absolute discharge. In the twelve watersheds studied, basin relief ranged from 165 to 1280 m, elongation ratios ranged from 0.55 to 0.80, the number of first-order streams (basin magnitude) ranged from 10 to 4297, drainage density ranged from 4.1 to 10.9 km km-2, basin slope ranged from 0.0043 to 0.2486, relief ratio ranged from 0.0097 to 0.34, ruggedness number ranged from 0.69 to 7.17, and first-order channel frequency ranged from 5.1 to 38.6 km-2. Elongation ratios were larger, and drainage

  19. Foundations and Public Information: Sunshine or Shadow? Preliminary Findings from a Study of the Public Information Accountability of the Country's Largest Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Ellen; And Others

    The types of written information that the largest foundations in the United States voluntarily make available to the public were studied. Of the 208 foundations contacted, 150 were the largest grant-making foundations, 30 were the largest community foundations, and 28 were the largest corporate foundations. The response rate to written and…

  20. Kepler-1647b: The Largest and Longest-period Kepler Transiting Circumbinary Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Veselin B.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy; Short, Donald R.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B.; Gregorio, Joao; Hinse, Tobias C.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Kane, Stephen; Kull, Ilya; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Mazeh, Tsevi; Müller, Tobias W. A.; Pepper, Joshua; Quinn, Samuel N.; Ragozzine, Darin; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H.; Torres, Guillermo; Windmiller, Gur; Borucki, William J.

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R Jup, it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M Jup. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric (e bin = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  1. The nutrient economy of Lodoicea maldivica, a monodominant palm producing the world's largest seed.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Peter J; Fleischer-Dogley, Frauke; Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N

    2015-05-01

    The iconic Lodoicea maldivica palm appears to invest heavily in reproduction, with females bearing the world's largest seeds and males producing copious pollen. We asked how these palms, which grow in extremely poor soils, obtain sufficient nutrients to support such high levels of reproductive function. Our study site was the Vallée de Mai UNESCO Site on Praslin, Seychelles. We measured the trees' allocations of dry matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to aboveground growth and reproduction, quantified stemflow and throughfall, and measured availabilities of N and P in the soil. We show that the nutrient costs of reproduction are very high in male and female plants, and for P far exceed those of vegetative growth. We describe how the palm leaves form a huge funnel that intercepts particulate material, especially pollen, which is flushed to the base of the trunk when it rains. In this way, Lodoicea improves its nutrient supply and that of its dispersal-limited offspring. Lodoicea shares many functional characteristics with dominant trees of other monodominant forests in the humid tropics. It also exhibits unique features, including its huge seed, effective funnelling mechanism and diverse community of closely associated animals, suggesting a long evolutionary history under relatively stable conditions. PMID:25616088

  2. The Spots of October 2003: The Largest Irradiance Dip of Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A. M.; Preminger, D. P.; Walton, S. R.

    2004-05-01

    In October 2003, two large active regions rotated onto the solar disk. During their transit across the disk, a third region emerged and rapidly grew. These active regions produced the largest decrease (over 4 W/m2) in the total solar irradiance (TSI) for cycle 23. Irradiance variations derived from ground-based photometry have been compared with the TSI record from the TIM/SORCE experiment. We find that ground-based irradiance variations due to sunspots and faculae/network are correlated with the TIM/SORCE TSI with a multiple correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9754 for an eight-month interval from 1 June 2003 to 31 January 2004. The residuals between the TIM/SORCE TSI and the ground-based data had a daily rms of approximately 80 ppm. The value of the quiet Sun irradiance was found to be 1361.3 ± 0.1 W/m2. This work was partially supported by grants from NASA and NSF.

  3. Seasonal variations of trace elements in precipitation at the largest city in Tibet, Lhasa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Qianggong; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Precipitation samples were collected from March 2010 to August 2012 at an urban site in Lhasa, the capital and largest city of Tibet. The volume weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of 17 trace elements in precipitation were higher during the non-monsoon season than in the monsoon season, but inverse seasonal variations occurred for wet deposition fluxes of most of the trace elements. Concentrations for most of trace elements were negatively correlated with precipitation amount, indicating that below-cloud scavenging of trace elements was an important mechanism contributing to wet deposition of these elements. The elements Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and U displayed low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), whereas Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd Sn, Pb, and Bi showed high EF values in precipitation, suggesting that anthropogenic activities might be important contributors of these elements at Lhasa. However, this present work indicates a much lower anthropogenic emission at Lhasa than in seriously polluted regions. Our study will not only provide insights for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in Lhasa but also enhance our understanding for updating the baseline for environmental protection over the Tibetan Plateau.

  4. Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997

    PubMed Central

    Huijnen, V.; Wooster, M. J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Gaveau, D. L. A.; Flemming, J.; Parrington, M.; Inness, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Main, B.; van Weele, M.

    2016-01-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño. We estimate carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest seen in maritime southeast Asia since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997. Compared to that event, a much better constrained regional total carbon emission estimate can be made for the 2015 fires through the use of present-day satellite observations of the fire’s radiative power output and atmospheric CO concentrations, processed using the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and combined with unique in situ smoke measurements made on Kalimantan. PMID:27241616

  5. Investigation of Science Faculty with Education Specialties within the Largest University System in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Seth D.; Pelaez, Nancy J.; Rudd, James A.; Stevens, Michael T.; Tanner, Kimberly D.; Williams, Kathy S.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to improve science education include university science departments hiring Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES), scientists who take on specialized roles in science education within their discipline. Although these positions have existed for decades and may be growing more common, few reports have investigated the SFES approach to improving science education. We present comprehensive data on the SFES in the California State University (CSU) system, the largest university system in the United States. We found that CSU SFES were engaged in three key arenas including K–12 science education, undergraduate science education, and discipline-based science education research. As such, CSU SFES appeared to be well-positioned to have an impact on science education from within science departments. However, there appeared to be a lack of clarity and agreement about the purpose of these SFES positions. In addition, formal training in science education among CSU SFES was limited. Although over 75% of CSU SFES were fulfilled by their teaching, scholarship, and service, our results revealed that almost 40% of CSU SFES were seriously considering leaving their positions. Our data suggest that science departments would likely benefit from explicit discussions about the role of SFES and strategies for supporting their professional activities. PMID:21364098

  6. The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation.

    PubMed

    Baziotis, Ioannis P; Liu, Yang; DeCarli, Paul S; Melosh, H Jay; McSween, Harry Y; Bodnar, Robert J; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure minerals in meteorites provide clues for the impact processes that excavated, launched and delivered these samples to Earth. Most Martian meteorites are suggested to have been excavated from 3 to 7 km diameter impact craters. Here we show that the Tissint meteorite, a 2011 meteorite fall, contains virtually all the high-pressure phases (seven minerals and two mineral glasses) that have been reported in isolated occurrences in other Martian meteorites. Particularly, one ringwoodite (75 × 140 μm(2)) represents the largest grain observed in all Martian samples. Collectively, the ubiquitous high-pressure minerals of unusually large sizes in Tissint indicate that shock metamorphism was widely dispersed in this sample (~25 GPa and ~2,000 °C). Using the size and growth kinetics of the ringwoodite grains, we infer an initial impact crater with ~90 km diameter, with a factor of 2 uncertainty. These energetic conditions imply alteration of any possible low-T minerals in Tissint. PMID:23360995

  7. TCM Database@Taiwan: The World's Largest Traditional Chinese Medicine Database for Drug Screening In Silico

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advancing computational technologies have greatly speeded up the development of computer-aided drug design (CADD). Recently, pharmaceutical companies have increasingly shifted their attentions toward traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for novel lead compounds. Despite the growing number of studies on TCM, there is no free 3D small molecular structure database of TCM available for virtual screening or molecular simulation. To address this shortcoming, we have constructed TCM Database@Taiwan (http://tcm.cmu.edu.tw/) based on information collected from Chinese medical texts and scientific publications. TCM Database@Taiwan is currently the world's largest non-commercial TCM database. This web-based database contains more than 20,000 pure compounds isolated from 453 TCM ingredients. Both cdx (2D) and Tripos mol2 (3D) formats of each pure compound in the database are available for download and virtual screening. The TCM database includes both simple and advanced web-based query options that can specify search clauses, such as molecular properties, substructures, TCM ingredients, and TCM classification, based on intended drug actions. The TCM database can be easily accessed by all researchers conducting CADD. Over the last eight years, numerous volunteers have devoted their time to analyze TCM ingredients from Chinese medical texts as well as to construct structure files for each isolated compound. We believe that TCM Database@Taiwan will be a milestone on the path towards modernizing traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:21253603

  8. Anatomizing one of the largest saltwater inflows into the Baltic Sea in December 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Naumann, Michael; Mohrholz, Volker; Burchard, Hans

    2015-11-01

    In December 2014, an exceptional inflow event into the Baltic Sea was observed, a so-called Major Baltic Inflow (MBI). Such inflow events are important for the deep water ventilation in the Baltic Sea and typically occur every 3-10 years. Based on first observational data sets, this inflow had been ranked as the third largest since 100 years. With the help of a multinested modeling system, reaching from the North Atlantic (8 km resolution) to the Western Baltic Sea (600 m resolution, which is baroclinic eddy resolving), this event is reproduced in detail. The model gave a slightly lower salt transport of 3.8 Gt, compared to the observational estimate of four Gt. Moreover, by using passive tracers to mark the different inflowing water masses, including an age tracer, the inflowing water masses could be tracked and their paths and timing through the different basins could be reproduced and investigated. The analysis is supported by the recently developed Total Exchange Flow (TEF) to quantify the volume transport in different salinity classes. To account for uncertainties in the modeled velocity and tracer fields, a Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) is applied to correct possible biases and errors. With the help of the MCA, 95% confidence intervals are computed for the transport estimates. Based on the MCA, the "best guess" of the volume transport is 291.0 ± 13.65 km3 and 3.89 ± 0.18 Gt for the total salt transport.

  9. Ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Golezardy, H; Uys, A C

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern African wild ruminants, namely giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis, African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, and eland, Taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. To this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. Twenty-eight ixodid tick species were recovered. All stages of development of ten species, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis silacea, Ixodes pilosus group, Margaropus winthemi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus maculatus and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected. The adults of 13 species, of which the immature stages use small mammals as hosts, namely Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus capensis, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus gertrudae, Rhipicephalus lounsburyi, Rhipicephalus lunulatus, Rhipicephalus pravus group and Rhipicephalus simus, were also collected. PMID:17933365

  10. Monitoring coastal pollution associated with the largest oil refinery complex of Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Bone, David; Bastidas, Carolina; Ramos, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated pollution levels in water and sediments of Península de Paraguaná and related these levels with benthic macrofauna along a coastal area where the largest Venezuelan oil refineries have operated over the past 60 years. For this, the concentration of heavy metals, of hydrocarbon compounds and the community structure of the macrobenthos were examined at 20 sites distributed along 40 km of coastline for six consecutive years, which included windy and calm seasons. The spatial variability of organic and inorganic compounds showed considerably high coastal pollution along the study area, across both years and seasons. The southern sites, closest to the refineries, had consistently higher concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds in water and sediments when compared to those in the north. The benthic community was dominated by polychaetes at all sites, seasons and years, and their abundance and distribution were significantly correlated with physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Sites close to the oil refineries were consistently dominated by families known to tolerate xenobiotics, such as Capitellidae and Spionidae. The results from this study highlight the importance of continuing long-term environmental monitoring programs to assess the impact of effluent discharge and spill events from the oil refineries that operate in the western coast of Paraguaná, Venezuela. PMID:27375970

  11. The evolution of gene expression and binding specificity of the largest transcription factor family in primates

    PubMed Central

    Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Mathew, Lisha; Wong, Alex; Trono, Didier; Jensen, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The KRAB-containing zinc finger (KRAB-ZF) proteins represent the largest family of transcription factors (TFs) in humans, yet for the great majority, their function and specific genomic target remain unknown. However, it has been shown that a large fraction of these genes arose from segmental duplications, and that they have expanded in gene and zinc finger number throughout vertebrate evolution. To determine whether this expansion is linked to selective pressures acting on different domains, we have manually curated all KRAB-ZF genes present in the human genome together with their orthologous genes in three closely related species and assessed the evolutionary forces acting at the sequence level as well as on their expression profiles. We provide evidence that KRAB-ZFs can be separated into two categories according to the polymorphism present in their DNA-contacting residues. Those carrying a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in their DNA-contacting amino acids exhibit significantly reduced expression in all tissues, have emerged in a recent lineage, and seem to be less strongly constrained evolutionarily than those without such a polymorphism. This work provides evidence for a link between age of the TF, as well as polymorphism in their DNA-contacting residues and expression levels—both of which may be jointly affected by selection. PMID:26593440

  12. Nutritional properties of the largest bamboo fruit Melocanna baccifera and its ecological significance.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Nair, Sadasivan Nair Ajikumaran; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Mallampalli, Karuna Sri Lakshmi; Venkataraman, Ramaswamy; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera is a unique bamboo which produces the largest fruits in the grass family. Its gregarious flowering once in 45-50 years in north east India and adjacent regions is a botanical enigma, resulting in a glut of fruits. Proper utilization of M. baccifera fruits is not extant, and huge quantities of fruits are left underexploited due to lack of scientific information on their chemical composition and nutritional potential. Here we report the nutritional properties of M. baccifera fruits, and the ecological significance of its fruiting. This pear-shaped, fleshy bamboo fruit is rich in amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and phenolics (ferulic acid). Protein content (free, bound) in M. baccifera fruits is very low. Fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid), minerals (potassium), and only B series vitamins (B3) are detected in them. Rat feeding experiments showed that M. baccifera fruit alone is not a complete food, but with other protein supplements, it is a valuable food additive. This study could lead to better utilization of M. baccifera fruits during future flowering/fruiting events. These results could also help in the successful management of rodent outbreaks and other ecological problems associated with M. baccifera fruiting. PMID:27194218

  13. Bioremediation efficiency of the largest scale artificial Porphyra yezoensis cultivation in the open sea in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hailong; Huo, Yuanzi; Zhang, Jianheng; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yating; He, Peimin

    2015-06-15

    The bioremediation efficiency of China's largest scale Porphyra yezoensis cultivation for removing dissolved nutrients and controlling harmful algae was studied in the radial sandbanks waters of Jiangsu Province in the year 2012-2013. Mean nutrient concentration values in the P. yezoensis cultivation area were significantly lower than those in the non-cultivation area, especially during the cultivation season (p<0.05). Tissue nitrogen and phosphorus contents of seaweeds were 5.99-0.80% (dry weight (DW)) and 0.16-0.19% (DW), respectively. Production of P. yezoensis was 58950.87tons DW. Based on these values, 3688.15tons of tissue nitrogen and 105.61tons of tissue phosphorus were removed by harvesting P. yezoensis. The richness index of the red tide species Skeleton emacostatum declined from 0.32 to 0.05 during the P. yezoensis cultivation season. These results indicate that large-scale cultivation of P. yezoensis can be used to efficiently alleviate eutrophication and control harmful algae blooms in open sea. PMID:25865344

  14. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Belinda F.; Aiken, William; Mayhew, Richard; Gordon, Yulit; Reid, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL). Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5–1059 ng/mL). Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population. PMID:27034668

  15. Nutritional properties of the largest bamboo fruit Melocanna baccifera and its ecological significance

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Nair, Sadasivan Nair Ajikumaran; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Mallampalli, Karuna Sri Lakshmi; Venkataraman, Ramaswamy; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera is a unique bamboo which produces the largest fruits in the grass family. Its gregarious flowering once in 45–50 years in north east India and adjacent regions is a botanical enigma, resulting in a glut of fruits. Proper utilization of M. baccifera fruits is not extant, and huge quantities of fruits are left underexploited due to lack of scientific information on their chemical composition and nutritional potential. Here we report the nutritional properties of M. baccifera fruits, and the ecological significance of its fruiting. This pear-shaped, fleshy bamboo fruit is rich in amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and phenolics (ferulic acid). Protein content (free, bound) in M. baccifera fruits is very low. Fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid), minerals (potassium), and only B series vitamins (B3) are detected in them. Rat feeding experiments showed that M. baccifera fruit alone is not a complete food, but with other protein supplements, it is a valuable food additive. This study could lead to better utilization of M. baccifera fruits during future flowering/fruiting events. These results could also help in the successful management of rodent outbreaks and other ecological problems associated with M. baccifera fruiting. PMID:27194218

  16. Psychiatric disorders and suicide in the nation's largest state prison system.

    PubMed

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Penn, Joseph V; Thomas, Christopher R; Temple, Jeff R; Baillargeon, Gwen; Murray, Owen J

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the overall rate of psychiatric disorders and suicides in the nation's largest state prison population. Data from 234,031 Texas Department of Criminal Justice inmates who were incarcerated for any duration between September 2006 and September 2007 were analyzed by Poisson regression, to assess the independent associations of major psychiatric disorders and demographic characteristics with suicide. Across the entire study cohort, 41 inmates (18 per 100,000) were reported to have committed suicide during the 12-month follow-up period; 21 of them had a diagnosis of a serious mental illness. An elevated risk of suicide was observed among inmates with major depressive disorder (relative risk [RR] = 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-13.8), bipolar disorder (RR = 4.6, CI = 1.3-15.9), and schizophrenia (RR = 7.3, CI = 1.7-15.9). The highest overall risk was present in those inmates with a nonschizophrenic psychotic disorder (RR = 13.8, CI = 5.8-32.9). These findings highlight the importance of maintaining suicide prevention programs in correctional settings, with particular emphasis on screening and monitoring of patients with severe psychiatric disorders. PMID:19535556

  17. Reducing Health Disparities: Strategy Planning and Implementation in Israel's Largest Health Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Balicer, Ran D; Shadmi, Efrat; Lieberman, Nicky; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Goldfracht, Margalit; Jana, Liora; Cohen, Arnon D; Regev-Rosenberg, Sigal; Jacobson, Orit

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe an organization-wide disparity reduction strategy and to assess its success in quality improvement and reduction of gaps in health and health care. Study Setting Clalit Health Services, Israel's largest non-for-profit insurer and provider serving 3.8 million persons. Study Design Before and after design: quality assessment before and 12-month postinitiation of the strategic plan. A composite weighted score of seven quality indicators, measuring attainment of diabetes, blood pressure, and lipid control, lack of anemia in infants, and performance of mammography, occult blood tests, and influenza vaccinations. Data Extraction Methods Quality indicator scores, derived from Clalit's central data warehouse, based on data from electronic medical records. Principal Findings Low-performing clinics, of low-socioeconomic and minority populations, were targeted for intervention. Twelve months after the initiation of the project continuous improvement was observed coupled with a reduction of 40 percent of the gap between disadvantaged clinics, serving ∼10 percent of enrollees, and all other medium-large clinics. Conclusion The comprehensive strategy, following a quality improvement framework, with a top-down top-management incentives and monitoring, and a bottom-up locally tailored interventions, approach, is showing promising results of overall quality improvement coupled with disparity reduction in key health and health care indicators. PMID:21352224

  18. The largest white light flare ever observed: 25 April 1984, 0001 UT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidig, D. F.; Grosser, H.; Kiplinger, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    The X13/3B flare of 25 April 1984, 0001 UT, was accompanied by intense white light emission that reached a peak power output approx 2x10 to the 29 erg/sec in the optical/near UV continuum; the total energy radiated in the continuum alone reached 10 to the 32 power ergs. This was the most powerful white light flare yet recorded, exceeding the peak output of the largest previously known event by more than one order of magnitude. The flare was a two-ribbon type with intense embedded kernels as observed in both Balmer-alpha line and Balmer continuum, and each of these flare ribbons covered separate umbrae shortly after the maximum of the event. The onset and peak of the white light emission coincided with the onset and peak of the associated E greater than 100 KeV hard X-ray burst, while the 1-8 angstrom soft X-ray emission reached its maximum 4 minutes after the peak in white light.

  19. Synchronized observations by using the STEREO and the largest ground-based decametre radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.; Lecacheux, A.; Mann, G.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Kaiser, M. L.; Briand, C.; Zarka, P.; Abranin, E. P.; Dorovsky, V. V.; Koval, A. A.; Mel'nik, V. N.; Mukha, D. V.; Panchenko, M.

    2013-08-01

    We consider the approach to simultaneous (synchronous) solar observations of radio emission by using the STEREO-WAVES instruments (frequency range 0.125-16 MHz) and the largest ground-based low-frequency radio telescope. We illustrate it by the UTR-2 radio telescope implementation (10-30 MHz). The antenna system of the radio telescope is a T-shape-like array of broadband dipoles and is located near the village Grakovo in the Kharkiv region (Ukraine). The third observation point on the ground in addition to two space-based ones improves the space-mission performance capabilities for the determination of radio-emission source directivity. The observational results from the high sensitivity antenna UTR-2 are particularly useful for analysis of STEREO data in the condition of weak event appearances during solar activity minima. In order to improve the accuracy of flux density measurements, we also provide simultaneous observations with a large part of the UTR-2 radio telescope array and its single dipole close to the STEREO-WAVES antennas in sensitivity. This concept has been studied by comparing the STEREO data with ground-based records from 2007-2011 and shown to be effective. The capabilities will be useful in the implementation of new instruments (LOFAR, LWA, MWA, etc.) and during the future Solar Orbiter mission.

  20. Scaling relationships among drivers of aquatic respiration from the smallest to the largest freshwater ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Ed K; Schoolmaster, Donald; Amado, A.M; Stets, Edward G.; Lennon, J.T.; Domaine, L.; Cotner, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    To address how various environmental parameters control or constrain planktonic respiration (PR), we used geometric scaling relationships and established biological scaling laws to derive quantitative predictions for the relationships among key drivers of PR. We then used empirical measurements of PR and environmental (soluble reactive phosphate [SRP], carbon [DOC], chlorophyll a [Chl-a)], and temperature) and landscape parameters (lake area [LA] and watershed area [WA]) from a set of 44 lakes that varied in size and trophic status to test our hypotheses. We found that landscape-level processes affected PR through direct effects on DOC and temperature and indirectly via SRP. In accordance with predictions made from known relationships and scaling laws, scale coefficients (the parameter that describes the shape of a relationship between 2 variables) were found to be negative and have an absolute value 1, others <1). We also found evidence of a significant relationship between temperature and SRP. Because our dataset included measurements of respiration from small pond catchments to the largest body of freshwater on the planet, Lake Superior, these findings should be applicable to controls of PR for the great majority of temperate aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Emplacement and dewatering of the world's largest exposed sand injectite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, Timothy J.; Rowe, Christie D.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2012-08-01

    Sandstone injectites form by up or down-section flow of a mobilized sand slurry through fractures in overlying rock. They act as reservoirs and high-permeability conduits through lower permeability rock in hydrocarbon systems. The Yellow Bank Creek Complex, Santa Cruz County, California is the largest known exposure of a sandstone injectite in the world. The complex contains granular textures that record processes of sand slurry flow, multiple pore fluids, and dewatering after emplacement. The injection was initially mobilized from a source containing both water and hydrocarbons. The water-sand slurry reached emplacement depth first, due to lower fluid viscosity. As the sand slurry emplaced, the transition from slurry flow to pore water percolation occurred. This transition resulted in preferred flow channels ˜6 mm wide in which sand grains were weakly aligned (laminae). The hydrocarbon-sand slurry intruded the dewatering sands and locally deformed the laminae. Compaction of the injectite deposit and pore fluid escape caused spaced compaction bands and dewatering pipes which created convolutions of the laminae. The hydrocarbon-rich sand slurry is preserved today as dolomite-cemented sand with oil inclusions. The laminae in this injectite are easily detected due to preferential iron oxide-cementation of the well-aligned sand laminae, and lack of cement in the alternating laminae. Subtle textures like these may develop during sand flow and be present but difficult to detect in other settings. They may explain permeability anisotropy in other sand deposits.

  2. KIC-5473556: the largest and longest-period Kepler transiting circumbinary planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Veselin

    2015-12-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of short-period CBPs orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet in the KIC-5473556 system has a very long orbital period (~1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission -- making it the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing. With a radius of nearly 12 REarth, it is also the largest such planet to date. It produced three transits in the light curve of KIC 5473556, one of them during a syzygy. The planet revolves around an ~11-day Eclipsing Binary consisting of two Solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined to the line of sight, mildly eccentric (ebin = 0.16) orbit. The CBP measurably perturbs the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to constrain its mass well. Here we present our spectroscopic and photometric observations of the target, discuss our analysis of the system, and outline the theoretical implications of our discovery.

  3. Characterization of the gene encoding the largest subunit of Plasmodium falciparum RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Li, W B; Bzik, D J; Tanaka, M; Gu, H M; Fox, B A; Inselburg, J

    1991-06-01

    We report here the isolation, sequence analysis, structure, and expression of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III (RPIII) from Plasmodium falciparum. The P. falciparum RPIII gene consists of 5 exons and 4 introns, is expressed in all of the asexual erythrocytic stages of the parasite as a 8.5-kb mRNA, and is present in a single copy on chromosome 13. The predicted 2339 amino acid residue RPIII subunit contained 5 regions that were conserved between different eukaryotic RPIII subunits, and 4 variable regions that separated the conserved regions. Three of the variable regions were greatly enlarged in comparison to the corresponding variable regions in other RPIII subunits. Variable region C' represented nearly one-third of the P. falciparum RPIII subunit (750 amino acid residues), included a unique repeated decapeptide sequence, and had some homology with yeast DNA topoisomerase II. Noteworthy amino acid sequences and structures were identified in both the conserved regions and in the enlarged variable regions, and their possible role(s) as domains that regulate RPIII enzyme activity is discussed. PMID:1656254

  4. Largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia and implications for multituberculate evolution and biology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Xingliao; Pu, Hanyong; Jia, Songhai; Zhang, Jiming; Lü, Junchang; Meng, Jin

    2015-01-01

    A new multituberculate, Yubaartar zhongyuanensis gen. and sp. nov., is reported from the Upper Cretaceous of Luanchuan County, Henan Province, China. The holotype of the new taxon is a partial skeleton with nearly complete cranium and associated lower jaws with in situ dentitions. The new species is the southern-most record of a Late Cretaceous multituberculate from outside of the Mongolian Plateau in Asia and represents the largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia. The new specimen displays some intriguing features previously unknown in multituberculates, such as the first evidence of replacement of the ultimate upper premolar and a unique paleopathological case in Mesozoic mammals in which the animal with a severely broken right tibia could heal and survive in natural condition. The phylogenetic analysis based on craniodental characters places Yubaartar as the immediate outgroup of Taeniolabidoidea, a group consisting of a North American clade and an Asian clade. This relationship indicates at least a faunal interchange of multituberculates before the K-Pg transition. The new evidence further supports the hypothesis that disparity in dental complexity, which relates to animal diets, increased with generic richness and disparity in body size, and that an adaptive shift towards increased herbivory across the K-Pg transitional interval. PMID:26492455

  5. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Daniel A.; Ballard, Kacey; Hardy, Joseph L.; Katz, Benjamin; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Scanlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity's collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches at a large scale: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance. PMID:23801955

  6. Hydroclimatological influences on recently increased droughts in China's largest freshwater lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Wu, G.

    2016-01-01

    Lake droughts are the consequence of climatic, hydrologic and anthropogenic influences. Quantification of droughts and estimation of the contributions from the individual factors are essential for understanding drought features and their causation structure. This is also important for policymakers to make effective adaption decisions, especially under changing climate. This study examines Poyang Lake, China's largest freshwater lake, which has been undergoing drastic hydrological alternation in the past decade. Standardized lake stage is used to identify and quantify the lake droughts, and hydroclimatic contributions are determined with a water budget analysis, in which absolute deficiency is defined in reference to normal hydrologic conditions. Our analyses demonstrate that in the past decade the lake droughts worsened in terms of duration, frequency, intensity and severity. Hydroclimatic contributions to each individual drought varied between droughts, and the overall contribution to the lake droughts in the past decade came from decreased inflow, increased outflow, and reduced precipitation and increased evapotranspiration in the lake region. The decreased inflow resulted mainly from reduced precipitation and less from increased evapotranspiration over the Poyang Lake basin. The increased outflow was attributable to the weakened blocking effects of the Yangtze River, which the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) established upstream. The TGD impoundments were not responsible for the increased number of drought events, but they may have intensified the droughts and changed the frequency of classified droughts. However, the TGD contribution is limited in comparison with hydroclimatic influences. Hence, the recently increased droughts were due to hydroclimatic effects, with a less important contribution from anthropogenic influences.

  7. Unveiling the formation route of the largest galaxies in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea, Jaime D.; Solanes, José M.

    2016-09-01

    Observational evidence indicates that the role of gas is secondary to that of gravity in the formation of the most luminous spheroids inhabiting the centres of galaxy associations, as originally conjectured in the late 80s/early 90s. However, attempts to explain the origin of the Fundamental Plane (FP) of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) - a tilted version of the scaling relation connecting the size, velocity dispersion and mass of virialized homologous systems - based on sequences of pairwise mergers, have systematically concluded that dissipation cannot be ignored. We use controlled simulations of the pre-virialization stage of galaxy groups to show that multiple collisionless merging is capable of creating realistic first-ranked galaxies. Our mock remnants define a thin FP that perfectly fits data from all kinds of giant ETGs in the local volume, showing the existence of a unified relationship for these systems. High-ranked galaxies occupy in the FP different areas than standard objects, a segregation which is viewed essentially as zero-point offsets in the 2D correlations arising from standard projections of this plane. Our findings make a strong case for considering hierarchical dissipationless merging a viable route for the formation of the largest galaxies in the Universe.

  8. Current Hybrid Electric Vehicle performance based on temporal data from the world's largest HEV fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipke, K.

    1994-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) procured new data collection equipment for the 42 vehicles registered to compete in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge, increasing the amount of information gathered from the worlds largest fleet of HEVs. Data were collected through an on-board data storage device and then analyzed to determine effects of different hybrid control strategies on energy efficiency and driving performance. In this paper, the results of parallel hybrids versus series hybrids with respect to energy usage and acceleration performance are examined, and the efficiency and performance of the power-assist types are compared to that of the range-extender types. Because on-board and off-board electrical charging performance is critical to an efficient vehicle energy usage cycle, charging performance is presented and changes and improvements from the 1993 HEV Challenge are discussed. Peak power used during acceleration is presented and then compared to the electric motor manufacturer ratings. Improvements in data acquisition methods for the 1995 HEV Challenge are recommended.

  9. Nutritional properties of the largest bamboo fruit Melocanna baccifera and its ecological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Nair, Sadasivan Nair Ajikumaran; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Mallampalli, Karuna Sri Lakshmi; Venkataraman, Ramaswamy; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2016-05-01

    Melocanna baccifera is a unique bamboo which produces the largest fruits in the grass family. Its gregarious flowering once in 45–50 years in north east India and adjacent regions is a botanical enigma, resulting in a glut of fruits. Proper utilization of M. baccifera fruits is not extant, and huge quantities of fruits are left underexploited due to lack of scientific information on their chemical composition and nutritional potential. Here we report the nutritional properties of M. baccifera fruits, and the ecological significance of its fruiting. This pear-shaped, fleshy bamboo fruit is rich in amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and phenolics (ferulic acid). Protein content (free, bound) in M. baccifera fruits is very low. Fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid), minerals (potassium), and only B series vitamins (B3) are detected in them. Rat feeding experiments showed that M. baccifera fruit alone is not a complete food, but with other protein supplements, it is a valuable food additive. This study could lead to better utilization of M. baccifera fruits during future flowering/fruiting events. These results could also help in the successful management of rodent outbreaks and other ecological problems associated with M. baccifera fruiting.

  10. Social and Spatial Clustering of People at Humanity’s Largest Gathering

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Ian; Khanna, Tarun; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic behavior of scientific and societal systems results from the aggregation of microscopic behaviors of their constituent elements, but connecting the macroscopic with the microscopic in human behavior has traditionally been difficult. Manifestations of homophily, the notion that individuals tend to interact with others who resemble them, have been observed in many small and intermediate size settings. However, whether this behavior translates to truly macroscopic levels, and what its consequences may be, remains unknown. Here, we use call detail records (CDRs) to examine the population dynamics and manifestations of social and spatial homophily at a macroscopic level among the residents of 23 states of India at the Kumbh Mela, a 3-month-long Hindu festival. We estimate that the festival was attended by 61 million people, making it the largest gathering in the history of humanity. While we find strong overall evidence for both types of homophily for residents of different states, participants from low-representation states show considerably stronger propensity for both social and spatial homophily than those from high-representation states. These manifestations of homophily are amplified on crowded days, such as the peak day of the festival, which we estimate was attended by 25 million people. Our findings confirm that homophily, which here likely arises from social influence, permeates all scales of human behavior. PMID:27258037

  11. Monitoring coastal pollution associated with the largest oil refinery complex of Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Croquer, Aldo; Bone, David; Bastidas, Carolina; Ramos, Ruth; García, Elia

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated pollution levels in water and sediments of Península de Paraguaná and related these levels with benthic macrofauna along a coastal area where the largest Venezuelan oil refineries have operated over the past 60 years. For this, the concentration of heavy metals, of hydrocarbon compounds and the community structure of the macrobenthos were examined at 20 sites distributed along 40 km of coastline for six consecutive years, which included windy and calm seasons. The spatial variability of organic and inorganic compounds showed considerably high coastal pollution along the study area, across both years and seasons. The southern sites, closest to the refineries, had consistently higher concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds in water and sediments when compared to those in the north. The benthic community was dominated by polychaetes at all sites, seasons and years, and their abundance and distribution were significantly correlated with physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Sites close to the oil refineries were consistently dominated by families known to tolerate xenobiotics, such as Capitellidae and Spionidae. The results from this study highlight the importance of continuing long-term environmental monitoring programs to assess the impact of effluent discharge and spill events from the oil refineries that operate in the western coast of Paraguaná, Venezuela. PMID:27375970

  12. Percolation under noise: Detecting explosive percolation using the second-largest component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viles, Wes; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Tang, Ariana; Kramer, Mark A.; Kolaczyk, Eric D.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of distinguishing between different rates of percolation under noise. A statistical model of percolation is constructed allowing for the birth and death of edges as well as the presence of noise in the observations. This graph-valued stochastic process is composed of a latent and an observed nonstationary process, where the observed graph process is corrupted by type-I and type-II errors. This produces a hidden Markov graph model. We show that for certain choices of parameters controlling the noise, the classical (Erdős-Rényi) percolation is visually indistinguishable from a more rapid form of percolation. In this setting, we compare two different criteria for discriminating between these two percolation models, based on the interquartile range (IQR) of the first component's size, and on the maximal size of the second-largest component. We show through data simulations that this second criterion outperforms the IQR of the first component's size, in terms of discriminatory power. The maximal size of the second component therefore provides a useful statistic for distinguishing between different rates of percolation, under physically motivated conditions for the birth and death of edges, and under noise. The potential application of the proposed criteria for the detection of clinically relevant percolation in the context of applied neuroscience is also discussed.

  13. The Largest Multi-Planar Wire Arrays on Zebra with LCM and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Shrestha, I. K.; Lorance, M. Y.; Stafford, A.; Schultz, K. A.; Coverdale, C. A.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Two new approaches of i) simultaneous study of implosion and radiative characteristics of different materials in wire array Z-pinch plasma in one shot [Safronova et al, PoP 21, 031205 (2014)] and ii) investigation of larger sized wire arrays (to enhance energy coupling to plasmas and provide better diagnostic access) were further developed in experiments with 1.7 MA Zebra with a Load Current Multiplier. In particular, the largest multi-Planar Wire Arrays with two outer planes from alloyed Al wires placed as far from each other as at 19 mm (compare with 6 and 9 mm studied before) and with a modified central plane from Ni-60 (mostly Cu), were investigated. Though K-shell Al and L-shell Cu plasmas have similar temperatures and densities, the ablation dynamics and radiation of Al and Cu planes is somewhat different, which was investigated in detail using the full set of diagnostics and modeling. Advantages of using such wire arrays at higher currents to study plasma flow and radiation from different materials and jets are highlighted. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001984 and in part by DE-NA0002075. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Human impact on the fish diversity in the four largest lakes of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Degerman, E; Hammar, J; Nyberg, P; Svärdson, G

    2001-12-01

    The four largest Swedish lakes, Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren, Hjälmaren, host important commercial fisheries for char, salmon, trout, whitefish, vendace (cisco), perch, pike-perch, pike and eel, i.e. highly diverse biological resources. Case studies illustrate physical, chemical and biological impacts on some of these commercial species caused by constructions of dams and ship canals, eutrophication, and overexploitation. Although some original species have been lost and a few new species have been added, the recent human interference has basically caused major shifts in dominance of the fish community structures because of eutrophication, alterations in the abundance of eel or crayfish, and due to overfishing. The latter is in some cases caused by the Great Lake Fishery Paradox--in an environment with several predators and competitors, but with ample food resources, especially salmonid fish but also species like pike-perch may adapt a life history favoring growth over sexual maturation. If harvested at a conventional size these populations will decline rapidly due to too small spawning stocks. PMID:11878026

  15. In vivo degradation of RNA polymerase II largest subunit triggered by alpha-amanitin.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, V T; Giannoni, F; Dubois, M F; Seo, S J; Vigneron, M; Kédinger, C; Bensaude, O

    1996-01-01

    Alpha-Amanitin is a well-known specific inhibitor of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in vitro and in vivo. It is a cyclic octapeptide which binds with high affinity to the largest subunit of RNAPII, RPB1. We have found that in murine fibroblasts exposure to alpha-amanitin triggered degradation of the RPB1 subunit, while other RNAPII subunits, RPB5 and RPB8, remained almost unaffected. Transcriptional inhibition in alpha-amanitin-treated cells was slow and closely followed the disappearance of RPB1. The degradation rate of RPB1 was alpha-amanitin dose dependent and was not a consequence of transcriptional arrest. Alpha-Amanitin-promoted degradation of RPB1 was prevented in cells exposed to actinomycin D, another transcriptional inhibitor. Epitope-tagged recombinant human RPB1 subunits were expressed in mouse fibroblasts. In cells exposed to alpha-amanitin the wild-type recombinant subunit was degraded like the endogenous protein, but a mutated alpha-amanitin-resistant subunit remained unaffected. Hence, alpha-amanitin did not activate a proteolytic system, but instead its binding to mRPB1 likely represented a signal for degradation. Thus, in contrast to other inhibitors, such as actinomycin D or 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole, which reversibly act on transcription, inhibition by alpha-amanitin cannot be but an irreversible process because of the destruction of RNAPII. PMID:8760875

  16. Kepler-1647b: The Largest and Longest-period Kepler Transiting Circumbinary Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Veselin B.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy; Short, Donald R.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B.; Gregorio, Joao; Hinse, Tobias C.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Kane, Stephen; Kull, Ilya; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Mazeh, Tsevi; Müller, Tobias W. A.; Pepper, Joshua; Quinn, Samuel N.; Ragozzine, Darin; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H.; Torres, Guillermo; Windmiller, Gur; Borucki, William J.

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (˜1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R Jup, it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M Jup. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric (e bin = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  17. Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijnen, V.; Wooster, M. J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Gaveau, D. L. A.; Flemming, J.; Parrington, M.; Inness, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Main, B.; van Weele, M.

    2016-05-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño. We estimate carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest seen in maritime southeast Asia since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997. Compared to that event, a much better constrained regional total carbon emission estimate can be made for the 2015 fires through the use of present-day satellite observations of the fire’s radiative power output and atmospheric CO concentrations, processed using the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and combined with unique in situ smoke measurements made on Kalimantan.

  18. Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997.

    PubMed

    Huijnen, V; Wooster, M J; Kaiser, J W; Gaveau, D L A; Flemming, J; Parrington, M; Inness, A; Murdiyarso, D; Main, B; van Weele, M

    2016-01-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño. We estimate carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest seen in maritime southeast Asia since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997. Compared to that event, a much better constrained regional total carbon emission estimate can be made for the 2015 fires through the use of present-day satellite observations of the fire's radiative power output and atmospheric CO concentrations, processed using the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and combined with unique in situ smoke measurements made on Kalimantan. PMID:27241616

  19. Bubble nucleation in simple and molecular liquids via the largest spherical cavity method

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Abascal, José L. F.; Valeriani, Chantal; Bresme, Fernando

    2015-04-21

    In this work, we propose a methodology to compute bubble nucleation free energy barriers using trajectories generated via molecular dynamics simulations. We follow the bubble nucleation process by means of a local order parameter, defined by the volume of the largest spherical cavity (LSC) formed in the nucleating trajectories. This order parameter simplifies considerably the monitoring of the nucleation events, as compared with the previous approaches which require ad hoc criteria to classify the atoms and molecules as liquid or vapor. The combination of the LSC and the mean first passage time technique can then be used to obtain the free energy curves. Upon computation of the cavity distribution function the nucleation rate and free-energy barrier can then be computed. We test our method against recent computations of bubble nucleation in simple liquids and water at negative pressures. We obtain free-energy barriers in good agreement with the previous works. The LSC method provides a versatile and computationally efficient route to estimate the volume of critical bubbles the nucleation rate and to compute bubble nucleation free-energies in both simple and molecular liquids.

  20. Tracking leatherback turtles from the world's largest rookery: assessing threats across the South Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Matthew J.; Augowet Bonguno, Eric; Broderick, Annette C.; Coyne, Michael S.; Formia, Angela; Gibudi, Alain; Mounguengui Mounguengui, Gil Avery; Moussounda, Carine; NSafou, Monique; Nougessono, Solange; Parnell, Richard J.; Sounguet, Guy-Philippe; Verhage, Sebastian; Godley, Brendan J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive work carried out on leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the North Atlantic and Indo-Pacific, very little is known of the at-sea distribution of this species in the South Atlantic, where the world's largest population nests in Gabon (central Africa). This paucity of data is of marked concern given the pace of industrialization in fisheries with demonstrable marine turtle bycatch in African/Latin American waters. We tracked the movements of 25 adult female leatherback turtles obtaining a range of fundamental and applied insights, including indications for methodological advancement. Individuals could be assigned to one of three dispersal strategies, moving to (i) habitats of the equatorial Atlantic, (ii) temperate habitats off South America or (iii) temperate habitats off southern Africa. While occupying regions with high surface chlorophyll concentrations, these strategies exposed turtles to some of the world's highest levels of longline fishing effort, in addition to areas with coastal gillnet fisheries. Satellite tracking highlighted that at least 11 nations should be involved in the conservation of this species in addition to those with distant fishing fleets. The majority of tracking days were, however, spent in the high seas, where effective implementation of conservation efforts is complex to achieve. PMID:21208949

  1. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. PMID:24361571

  2. A hybrid multiresolution scheme to efficiently model the structure of reionization on the largest scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Seek; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Park, Jaehong; Poole, Gregory B.; Lacey, C. G.; Baugh, C. M.

    2016-02-01

    Redshifted 21-cm measurements of the structure of ionized regions that grow during reionization promise to provide a new probe of early galaxy and structure formation. One of the challenges of modelling reionization is to account both for the subhalo scale physics of galaxy formation and the regions of ionization on scales that are many orders of magnitude larger. To bridge this gap we first calculate the statistical relationship between ionizing luminosity and Mpc-scale overdensity using detailed models of galaxy formation computed using relatively small volume - (˜100 Mpc h-1)3, high-resolution dark matter simulations. We then use a Monte Carlo technique to apply this relationship to reionization of the intergalactic medium within large volume dark matter simulations - (>1 Gpc h-1)3. The resulting simulations can be used to address the contribution of very large scale clustering of galaxies to the structure of reionization, and show that volumes larger than 500 Mpc h-1 are required to probe the largest reionization features mid-way through reionization. As an example application of our technique, we demonstrate that the predicted 21-cm power spectrum amplitude and gradient could be used to determine the importance of supernovae feedback for early galaxy formation.

  3. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Daniel A; Ballard, Kacey; Hardy, Joseph L; Katz, Benjamin; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Scanlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity's collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches at a large scale: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance. PMID:23801955

  4. Landscapes of thermal inequity: disproportionate exposure to urban heat in the three largest US cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Bruce C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-11-01

    Heat waves are the most significant cause of mortality in the US compared to other natural hazards. Prior studies have found increased heat exposure for individuals of lower socioeconomic status in several US cities, but few comparative analyses of the social distribution of urban heat have been conducted. To address this gap, our paper examines and compares the environmental justice consequences of urban heat risk in the three largest US cities: New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Risk to urban heat is estimated on the basis of three characteristics of the urban thermal landscape: land surface temperature, vegetation abundance, and structural density of the built urban environment. These variables are combined to develop an urban heat risk index, which is then statistically compared with social vulnerability indicators representing socioeconomic status, age, disability, race/ethnicity, and linguistic isolation. The results indicate a consistent and significant statistical association between lower socioeconomic and minority status and greater urban heat risk, in all three cities. Our findings support a growing body of environmental justice literature that indicates the presence of a landscape of thermal inequity in US cities and underscores the need to conduct comparative analyses of social inequities in exposure to urban heat.

  5. Identification of a nucleic acid-binding region within the largest subunit of Drosophila melanogaster RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Kontermann, R. E.; Kobor, M.; Bautz, E. K.

    1993-01-01

    The largest and the second-largest subunit of the multisubunit eukaryotic RNA polymerases are involved in interaction with the DNA template and the nascent RNA chain. Using Southwestern DNA-binding techniques and nitrocellulose filter binding assays of bacterially expressed fusion proteins, we have identified a region of the largest, 215-kDa, subunit of Drosophila RNA polymerase II that has the potential to bind nucleic acids nonspecifically. This nucleic acid-binding region is located between amino acid residues 309-384 and is highly conserved within the largest subunits of eukaryotic and bacterial RNA polymerases. A homology to a region of the DNA-binding cleft of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I involved in binding of the newly synthesized DNA duplex provides indirect evidence that the nucleic acid-binding region of the largest subunit participates in interaction with double-stranded nucleic acids during transcription. The nonspecific DNA-binding behavior of the region is similar to that observed for the native enzyme in nitrocellulose filter binding assays and that of the separated largest subunit in Southwestern assays. A high content of basic amino acid residues is consistent with the electrostatic nature of nonspecific DNA binding by RNA polymerases. PMID:8443600

  6. The Colombian nuclear scenario: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    In Colombia, the absence of nuclear-oriented policies based on technical knowledge, the closing of the Nuclear Affairs Institute (1956-1998), the association of the word "nuclear" with weapons, plus the country's last six decades of internal conflict and narcotraffic have discourage the technical, social and environmental nuclear advance. However, there are technical, social and economic national challenges that could be faced by the present nuclear technical capacities.

  7. The role played by stakeholders in the public debate that brought Italy out of the club of nuclear energy producers.

    PubMed

    Cantone, Marie Claire; Sturloni, Giancarlo; Brunelli, Giancarlo

    2007-10-01

    In 1964, Italy was the fourth largest world producer of electricity generated by nuclear reactors, second in Europe only to United Kingdom. In subsequent years, various controversial political events contributed towards drastically slowing down the development of the Italian national nuclear program. The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, which caused a public outcry all over Europe, had particularly serious repercussions in Italy. In a controversial referendum, held in November 1987, Italian citizens voted to repeal three laws promoting the installation of nuclear power plants (NPP) on Italian soil and allowing the National Institute for Electrical Energy (ENEL) to participate in the construction of NPP's abroad. This work analyzes the reasons for that decision and the communication strategies of the stakeholders that took part in the public debate on nuclear energy during the weeks following the Chernobyl accident. Drawing from the methodologies used in media studies, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of two leading Italian newspapers was performed. The results reveal that a variety of stakeholders, upholding different values and interests, took part in the debate. There being no tradition of a public dialogue and participation in Italy, the debate was polarized to a "yes/no choice," which eventually caused Italy to abandon the production of nuclear power for civilian use. PMID:17846521

  8. Rewriting the Landform History of One of Africa's Three Largest Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Kalahari Basin in southern Africa - one of the largest basins in Africa, along with the Congo and Chad basins - has attracted attention since David Livingstone traveled through the area in the 1840s. It is a semiarid desert with a large freshwater swampland known as the Okavango Swamp (150 km radius). This prominent megafan (a fan with radii >100 km), with its fingers of dark green forests projecting into the dun colors of the dunes of the Kalahari semi-desert, has been well photographed by astronauts over the years. The study area in the northern Kalahari basin is centered on the Okavango megafan of northwest Botswana, whose swampland has become well known as an African wildlife preserve of importance to biology and tourism alike. The Okavango River is unusual because it has deposited not one but two megafans along its course: the Okavango megafan and the Cubango megafan. The Okavango megafan is one of only three well-known megafans in Africa. Megafans on Earth were once thought to be rare, but recent research has documented 68 in Africa alone. Eleven megafans, plus three more candidates, have been documented in the area immediately surrounding the Okavango feature. These 11 megafans occupy the flattest and smoothest terrains adjacent to the neighboring upland and stand out as the darkest areas in the roughness map of the area. Megafan terrains occupy at least 200,000 sq km of the study area. The roughness map shown is based on an algorithm used first on Mars to quantify topographic roughness. Research of Earth's flattest terrains is just beginning with the aid of such maps, and it appears that these terrains are analogous to the flattest regions of Mars. Implications: 1. The variability in depositional style in each subbasin may apply Africa-wide: rift megafan length is dominated by rift width, whereas Owambo subbasin megafans are probably controlled by upland basin size; Zambezi subbasin megafans appear more like foreland basin types, with the position of

  9. Modeling transitions in the hydrologic and thermal regimes of Earth's largest lake system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A.; Anderson, E. J.; Blanken, P.; Lofgren, B. M.; Wang, J.; Stow, C.

    2014-12-01

    Starting in the late 1990s, the seasonal hydrologic and thermal regimes of Earth's largest lake system have been characterized by very high surface water temperatures, below-average ice cover, persistent low water levels and extremely high over-lake evaporation rates. However, the harsh winter conditions of 2013-2014 led to very low surface water temperatures and an exceptionally broad and persistent areal extent of ice cover. The contrast between the extreme 2013-2014 winter conditions on the Great Lakes and the conditions from the preceding 15-year period raises compelling questions about the extent to which hydrometeorological conditions have changed in the Great Lakes region, how they might be expected to change in the future, and to what extent those changes are reflected in currrent regional research-oriented and operational forecasts. Here, we analyze historical intra-seasonal relationships between late winter and subsequent late fall thermal regimes on the Great Lakes and find that, for some of the lakes, memory of seasonal heat content is strong, but can be significantly impacted by hydrometeorological conditions including wind speed and solar radiation. In fact, we find that the late 1990s, a period coinciding with one of the strongest El Ninos on record, represent a shift in the hydrologic and thermal regimes of the Great Lakes, and that projections for the fall of 2014 suggest that the regime might be offset by the recent cold winter. Our findings also provide evidence that the transition in the Great Lakes' altered thermal regime in the late 1990s was triggered by abrupt increases not only in air and water temperatures associated with the coincident El Nino, but also by a combination of reduced cloud cover and above-average summer solar radiation. The extent to which these changes are explicitly represented in regional forecasting systems is critically important to regional water resource management planning.

  10. Nature Appropriation and Associations with Population Health in Canada’s Largest Cities

    PubMed Central

    Rainham, Daniel; Cantwell, Rory; Jason, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Earth is a finite system with a limited supply of resources. As the human population grows, so does the appropriation of Earth’s natural capital, thereby exacerbating environmental concerns such as biodiversity loss, increased pollution, deforestation and global warming. Such concerns will negatively impact human health although it is widely believed that improving socio-economic circumstances will help to ameliorate environmental impacts and improve health outcomes. However, this belief does not explicitly acknowledge the fact that improvements in socio-economic position are reliant on increased inputs from nature. Gains in population health, particularly through economic means, are disconnected from the appropriation of nature to create wealth so that health gains become unsustainable. The current study investigated the sustainability of human population health in Canada with regard to resource consumption or “ecological footprints” (i.e., the resources required to sustain a given population). Ecological footprints of the 20 largest Canadian cities, along with several important determinants of health such as income and education, were statistically compared with corresponding indicators of human population health outcomes. A significant positive relationship was found between ecological footprints and life expectancy, as well as a significant negative relationship between ecological footprints and the prevalence of high blood pressure. Results suggest that increased appropriation of nature is linked to improved health outcomes. To prevent environmental degradation from excessive appropriation of natural resources will require the development of health promotion strategies that are de-coupled from ever-increasing and unsustainable resource use. Efforts to promote population health should focus on health benefits achieved from a lifestyle based on significantly reduced consumption of natural resources. PMID:23531492

  11. NEGOTIATING PLACE AND GENDERED VIOLENCE IN CANADA’S LARGEST OPEN DRUG SCENE

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    Background Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside is home to Canada’s largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and ‘marginal men’ (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants’ spatial practices. Results Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into “dangerous” drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Conclusion Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection

  12. Using DNA to track the origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 trade ban

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Samuel K.; Mailand, Celia; Booth, Rebecca; Mutayoba, Benezeth; Kisamo, Emily; Clark, Bill; Stephens, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The illegal ivory trade recently intensified to the highest levels ever reported. Policing this trafficking has been hampered by the inability to reliably determine geographic origin of contraband ivory. Ivory can be smuggled across multiple international borders and along numerous trade routes, making poaching hotspots and potential trade routes difficult to identify. This fluidity also makes it difficult to refute a country's denial of poaching problems. We extend an innovative DNA assignment method to determine the geographic origin(s) of large elephant ivory seizures. A Voronoi tessellation method is used that utilizes genetic similarities across tusks to simultaneously infer the origin of multiple samples that could have one or more common origin(s). We show that this joint analysis performs better than sample-by-sample methods in assigning sample clusters of known origin. The joint method is then used to infer the geographic origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 ivory trade ban. Wildlife authorities initially suspected that this ivory came from multiple locations across forest and savanna Africa. However, we show that the ivory was entirely from savanna elephants, most probably originating from a narrow east-to-west band of southern Africa, centered on Zambia. These findings enabled law enforcement to focus their investigation to a smaller area and fewer trade routes and led to changes within the Zambian government to improve antipoaching efforts. Such outcomes demonstrate the potential of genetic analyses to help combat the expanding wildlife trade by identifying origin(s) of large seizures of contraband ivory. Broader applications to wildlife trade are discussed. PMID:17360505

  13. Rejuvenating the Largest Treatment Wetland in Florida: Tracer Moment and Model Analysis of Wetland Hydraulic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. R.; Wang, H.; Jawitz, J. W.; Sees, M. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Orlando Easterly Wetland (OEW), the largest municipal treatment wetland in Florida, began operation in 1987 mainly for reducing nutrient loads in tertiary treated domestic wastewater produced by the city of Orlando. After more than ten years of operation, a decrease in total P removal effectiveness has occurred since 1999, even though the effluent concentration of the wetland has remained below the permitted limit of 0.2 mg/L,. Hydraulic inefficiency in the wetland, especially in the front-end cells of the north flow train, was identified as a primary cause of the reduced treatment effectiveness. In order to improve the hydraulic performance of the OEW and maintain its efficient phosphorus treatment, a rejuvenation program (including muck removal followed by re-vegetation) was initiated on the front-end cells of the north flow train in 2002. The effectiveness of this activity for the improvement of hydraulic performance was evaluated with a tracer test and subsequent moment and model analyses for the tracer resident time distribution (RTDs). Results were compared to similar tracer tests conducted prior to rejuvenation activities. The models included one-path tank-in-series (TIS), two-path TIS, one-dimensional transport with inflow and storage (OTIS), plug flow with dispersion (PFD), and plug flow with fractional dispersion (PFFD). The hydraulic performance was characterized by both wetland hydraulic efficiency and the spreading of tracers. The results demonstrated that the rejuvenation considerably improved the hydraulic performance in the restored area. Also presented is a comparison of the wetland response between both bromide and lithium tracers, and the determination of the complete moments of residence time distributions (RTD) in cell-network wetlands.

  14. Using DNA to track the origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 trade ban.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Samuel K; Mailand, Celia; Booth, Rebecca; Mutayoba, Benezeth; Kisamo, Emily; Clark, Bill; Stephens, Matthew

    2007-03-01

    The illegal ivory trade recently intensified to the highest levels ever reported. Policing this trafficking has been hampered by the inability to reliably determine geographic origin of contraband ivory. Ivory can be smuggled across multiple international borders and along numerous trade routes, making poaching hotspots and potential trade routes difficult to identify. This fluidity also makes it difficult to refute a country's denial of poaching problems. We extend an innovative DNA assignment method to determine the geographic origin(s) of large elephant ivory seizures. A Voronoi tessellation method is used that utilizes genetic similarities across tusks to simultaneously infer the origin of multiple samples that could have one or more common origin(s). We show that this joint analysis performs better than sample-by-sample methods in assigning sample clusters of known origin. The joint method is then used to infer the geographic origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 ivory trade ban. Wildlife authorities initially suspected that this ivory came from multiple locations across forest and savanna Africa. However, we show that the ivory was entirely from savanna elephants, most probably originating from a narrow east-to-west band of southern Africa, centered on Zambia. These findings enabled law enforcement to focus their investigation to a smaller area and fewer trade routes and led to changes within the Zambian government to improve antipoaching efforts. Such outcomes demonstrate the potential of genetic analyses to help combat the expanding wildlife trade by identifying origin(s) of large seizures of contraband ivory. Broader applications to wildlife trade are discussed. PMID:17360505

  15. Worlds apart 1: Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Madhya Pradesh. High fertility scars India's largest state.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R

    1994-01-01

    The Indian government targeted 90 districts, which had poor demographic indicators and poor infrastructure, for provision of health services. Targeted areas were identified as having a birth rate of over 39, low female literacy, low age at marriage, and generally poor economic conditions. Many (23) targeted districts were in India's largest state, Madhya Pradesh (MP). Estimates of infrastructure cost indicated that, in MP, the minimum cost would be $320 million or Rs. 10,000 million for minimum national standards and an additional Rs. 200 million annually for operational expenses. However, the current operating budget was only Rs. 400 million. Some small communities, such as in Dhar, have voluntarily contributed supplies and labor to improve health facilities. The vast size of the territory in MP (149 persons per km) creates coverage difficulties for health workers (with a potential radius of 33.5 km per worker). 34,000 of the 71,000 inhabited villages were more than 6 kilometers from the nearest paved road. No additional funding has been provided nationally for districts with larger geographic areas or for inaccessible areas. Literacy was particularly low in MP, which also had 40% of the tribal population in all of India (25% of MP population). Female literacy in 1991 was only 28.8%. Many positive social initiatives have been undertaken to increase use of the IUD, to reach women with only two children, to prevent early marriage, to build community support and improve health skills, and to coordinate delivery of health services for multiple needs, including maternal and child health and family planning. Delivery of services is but one focus of family planning; another equally important focus is attitudinal change about such beliefs as son preference. MP had the highest growth rate in India (26.8%), a total 1991 population of 66 million, and total fertility of 4.6. Infant mortality in MP was the second highest at 117/1000. PMID:12345834

  16. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

  17. Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region

    PubMed Central

    Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami

    2014-01-01

    East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37–53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia. PMID:23596197

  18. Solomon Islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Richard J; Bird, Tomas; Gereniu, Collin; Pita, John; Ramohia, Peter C; Walter, Richard; Goerlich, Clara; Limpus, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands' future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA) was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet. PMID:25853880

  19. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Site Optimization for Poyang Lake, the Largest Freshwater Lake in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Wu, Mengan; Deng, Yanqing; Tang, Chunyan; Yang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a coupled method to optimize the surface water quality monitoring sites for a huge freshwater lake based on field investigations, mathematical analysis, and numerical simulation tests. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the research area. Based on the field investigated water quality data in the 5 years from 2008 to 2012, the water quality inter-annual variation coefficients at all the present sites and the water quality correlation coefficients between adjacent sites were calculated and analyzed to present an optimization scheme. A 2-D unsteady water quality model was established to get the corresponding water quality data at the optimized monitoring sites, which were needed for the rationality test on the optimized monitoring network. We found that: (1) the water quality of Piaoshan (No. 10) fluctuated most distinguishably and the inter-annual variation coefficient of NH3-N and TP could reach 99.77% and 73.92%, respectively. The four studied indexes were all closely related at Piaoshan (No. 10) and Tangyin (No. 11), and the correlation coefficients of COD and NH3-N could reach 0.91 and 0.94 separately. (2) It was suggested that the present site No. 10 be removed to avoid repeatability, and it was suggested that the three sites of Changling, Huzhong, and Nanjiang be added to improve the representativeness of the monitoring sites. (3) According to the rationality analysis, the 21 optimized water quality monitoring sites could scientifically replace the primary network, and the new monitoring network could better reflect the water quality of the whole lake. PMID:25407419

  20. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change.

    PubMed

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; van Vliet, Michelle T H; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-07-15

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline in irrigation water use replacing a former plan which intended to develop reservoirs and irrigation. However, none of these water management plans, which have large socio-economic impacts, have been assessed under future changes in climate and water availability. By adapting a method of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for hypersaline lakes, we estimated annually 3.7·10(9)m(3) water is needed to preserve Urmia Lake. Then, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was forced with bias-corrected climate model outputs for both the lowest (RCP2.6) and highest (RCP8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios to estimate future water availability and impacts of water management strategies. Results showed a 10% decline in future water availability in the basin under RCP2.6 and 27% under RCP8.5. Our results showed that if future climate change is highly limited (RCP2.6) inflow can be just enough to meet the EFRs by implementing the reduction irrigation plan. However, under more rapid climate change scenario (RCP8.5) reducing irrigation water use will not be enough to save the lake and more drastic measures are needed. Our results showed that future water management plans are not robust under climate change in this region. Therefore, an integrated approach of future land-water use planning and climate change adaptation is therefore needed to improve future water security and to reduce the desiccating of this hypersaline lake. PMID:27070383

  1. Lessons Learned in Deploying the World s Largest Scale Lustre File System

    SciTech Connect

    Dillow, David A; Fuller, Douglas; Wang, Feiyi; Oral, H Sarp; Zhang, Zhe; Hill, Jason J; Shipman, Galen M

    2010-01-01

    The Spider system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) is the world's largest scale Lustre parallel file system. Envisioned as a shared parallel file system capable of delivering both the bandwidth and capacity requirements of the OLCF's diverse computational environment, the project had a number of ambitious goals. To support the workloads of the OLCF's diverse computational platforms, the aggregate performance and storage capacity of Spider exceed that of our previously deployed systems by a factor of 6x - 240 GB/sec, and 17x - 10 Petabytes, respectively. Furthermore, Spider supports over 26,000 clients concurrently accessing the file system, which exceeds our previously deployed systems by nearly 4x. In addition to these scalability challenges, moving to a center-wide shared file system required dramatically improved resiliency and fault-tolerance mechanisms. This paper details our efforts in designing, deploying, and operating Spider. Through a phased approach of research and development, prototyping, deployment, and transition to operations, this work has resulted in a number of insights into large-scale parallel file system architectures, from both the design and the operational perspectives. We present in this paper our solutions to issues such as network congestion, performance baselining and evaluation, file system journaling overheads, and high availability in a system with tens of thousands of components. We also discuss areas of continued challenges, such as stressed metadata performance and the need for file system quality of service alongside with our efforts to address them. Finally, operational aspects of managing a system of this scale are discussed along with real-world data and observations.

  2. Solomon Islands Largest Hawksbill Turtle Rookery Shows Signs of Recovery after 150 Years of Excessive Exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Richard J.; Bird, Tomas; Gereniu, Collin; Pita, John; Ramohia, Peter C.; Walter, Richard; Goerlich, Clara; Limpus, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands’ future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA) was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet. PMID:25853880

  3. Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kevin J; Shultz, Allison J; Title, Pascal O; Mason, Nicholas A; Barker, F Keith; Klicka, John; Lanyon, Scott M; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-06-01

    Thraupidae is the second largest family of birds and represents about 4% of all avian species and 12% of the Neotropical avifauna. Species in this family display a wide range of plumage colors and patterns, foraging behaviors, vocalizations, ecotypes, and habitat preferences. The lack of a complete phylogeny for tanagers has hindered the study of this evolutionary diversity. Here, we present a comprehensive, species-level phylogeny for tanagers using six molecular markers. Our analyses identified 13 major clades of tanagers that we designate as subfamilies. In addition, two species are recognized as distinct branches on the tanager tree. Our topologies disagree in many places with previous estimates of relationships within tanagers, and many long-recognized genera are not monophyletic in our analyses. Our trees identify several cases of convergent evolution in plumage ornaments and bill morphology, and two cases of social mimicry. The phylogeny produced by this study provides a robust framework for studying macroevolutionary patterns and character evolution. We use our new phylogeny to study diversification processes, and find that tanagers show a background model of exponentially declining diversification rates. Thus, the evolution of tanagers began with an initial burst of diversification followed by a rate slowdown. In addition to this background model, two later, clade-specific rate shifts are supported, one increase for Darwin's finches and another increase for some species of Sporophila. The rate of diversification within these two groups is exceptional, even when compared to the overall rapid rate of diversification found within tanagers. This study provides the first robust assessment of diversification rates for the Darwin's finches in the context of the larger group within which they evolved. PMID:24583021

  4. Hydrological drivers of record-setting water level rise on Earth's largest lake system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Bruxer, J.; Durnford, D.; Smith, J. P.; Clites, A. H.; Seglenieks, F.; Qian, S. S.; Hunter, T. S.; Fortin, V.

    2016-05-01

    Between January 2013 and December 2014, water levels on Lake Superior and Lake Michigan-Huron, the two largest lakes on Earth by surface area, rose at the highest rate ever recorded for a 2 year period beginning in January and ending in December of the following year. This historic event coincided with below-average air temperatures and extensive winter ice cover across the Great Lakes. It also brought an end to a 15 year period of persistently below-average water levels on Lakes Superior and Michigan-Huron that included several months of record-low water levels. To differentiate hydrological drivers behind the recent water level rise, we developed a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) routine for inferring historical estimates of the major components of each lake's water budget. Our results indicate that, in 2013, the water level rise on Lake Superior was driven by increased spring runoff and over-lake precipitation. In 2014, reduced over-lake evaporation played a more significant role in Lake Superior's water level rise. The water level rise on Lake Michigan-Huron in 2013 was also due to above-average spring runoff and persistent over-lake precipitation, while in 2014, it was due to a rare combination of below-average evaporation, above-average runoff and precipitation, and very high inflow rates from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River. We expect, in future research, to apply our new framework across the other Laurentian Great Lakes, and to Earth's other large freshwater basins as well.

  5. Approximating the largest eigenvalue of the modified adjacency matrix of networks with heterogeneous node biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Edward; Pomerance, Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Motivated by its relevance to various types of dynamical behavior of network systems, the maximum eigenvalue λA of the adjacency matrix A of a network has been considered and mean-field-type approximations to λA have been developed for different kinds of networks. Here A is defined by Aij=1 (Aij=0) if there is (is not) a directed network link to i from j . However, in at least two recent problems involving networks with heterogeneous node properties (percolation on a directed network and the stability of Boolean models of gene networks), an analogous but different eigenvalue problem arises, namely, that of finding the largest eigenvalue λQ of the matrix Q , where Qij=qiAij and the “bias” qi may be different at each node i . (In the previously mentioned percolation and gene network contexts, qi is a probability and so lies in the range 0≤qi≤1 .) The purposes of this paper are to extend the previous considerations of the maximum eigenvalue λA of A to λQ , to develop suitable analytic approximations to λQ , and to test these approximations with numerical experiments. In particular, three issues considered are (i) the effect of the correlation (or anticorrelation) between the value of qi and the number of links to and from node i , (ii) the effect of correlation between the properties of two nodes at either end of a network link (“assortativity”), and (iii) the effect of community structure allowing for a situation in which different q values are associated with different communities.

  6. HOT Faults", Fault Organization, and the Occurrence of the Largest Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J. M.; Hillers, G.; Archuleta, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    We apply the concept of "Highly Optimized Tolerance" (HOT) for the investigation of spatio-temporal seismicity evolution, in particular mechanisms associated with largest earthquakes. HOT provides a framework for investigating both qualitative and quantitative features of complex feedback systems that are far from equilibrium and punctuated by rare, catastrophic events. In HOT, robustness trade-offs lead to complexity and power laws in systems that are coupled to evolving environments. HOT was originally inspired by biology and engineering, where systems are internally very highly structured, through biological evolution or deliberate design, and perform in an optimum manner despite fluctuations in their surroundings. Though faults and fault systems are not designed in ways comparable to biological and engineered structures, feedback processes are responsible in a conceptually comparable way for the development, evolution and maintenance of younger fault structures and primary slip surfaces of mature faults, respectively. Hence, in geophysical applications the "optimization" approach is perhaps more aptly replaced by "organization", reflecting the distinction between HOT and random, disorganized configurations, and highlighting the importance of structured interdependencies that evolve via feedback among and between different spatial and temporal scales. Expressed in the terminology of the HOT concept, mature faults represent a configuration optimally organized for the release of strain energy; whereas immature, more heterogeneous fault networks represent intermittent, suboptimal systems that are regularized towards structural simplicity and the ability to generate large earthquakes more easily. We discuss fault structure and associated seismic response pattern within the HOT concept, and outline fundamental differences between this novel interpretation to more orthodox viewpoints like the criticality concept. The discussion is flanked by numerical simulations of a

  7. Approximating the largest eigenvalue of the modified adjacency matrix of networks with heterogeneous node biases.

    PubMed

    Ott, Edward; Pomerance, Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Motivated by its relevance to various types of dynamical behavior of network systems, the maximum eigenvalue lambdaA of the adjacency matrix A of a network has been considered and mean-field-type approximations to lambdaA have been developed for different kinds of networks. Here A is defined by Aij=1 (Aij=0) if there is (is not) a directed network link to i from j. However, in at least two recent problems involving networks with heterogeneous node properties (percolation on a directed network and the stability of Boolean models of gene networks), an analogous but different eigenvalue problem arises, namely, that of finding the largest eigenvalue lambdaQ of the matrix Q, where Qij=qiAij and the "bias" qi may be different at each node i. (In the previously mentioned percolation and gene network contexts, qi is a probability and so lies in the range 0

  8. Climatic effects of urban expansion over the three largest urban agglomerations of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qian; Yu, Deyong; Georgescu, Matei; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization has long been known to affect local, regional, and global climate. China is urbanizing at an unprecedented rate, and modification of land surface to urban areas has raised climate concerns for its citizens. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we examine how urbanization under different intensities and climate regimes affects regional climate of the three largest urban agglomerations across China - the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD). We simulated three urban expansion scenarios corresponding to 1988, 2000, and 2010 conditions into the WRF model, with each scenario simulated by three separate summers (i.e., 2001, 2003, and 2005). Urban extent of the three regions indicates stable growth during 1988 - 2000, followed by a phase of rapid expansion during 2000 - 2010. Our simulations show that urban environment-induced near-surface warming, mainly rising temperatures during nighttime, is greatest over the BTH with local maximum warming approaching 1.5 °C, followed by the YRD with peak warming reaching 1 °C and the PRD 0.8 °C. Due to the initial moisture conditions, the YRD and the PRD suffer more humidity deficit, particularly during daytime, with maximum reductions in water vapor mixing ratio reaching 0.8 g/kg. Our findings demonstrate that urban expansion has warmed and dried the urbanized regions in eastern China. The spatial pattern and magnitude of temperature and humidity differences quantified by our simulations provide useful information for understanding the impacts of urbanization on regional climate and for developing mitigation and adaptation strategies that can alleviate the deleterious impacts induced by urban expansion.

  9. Grassland bird responses to land management in the largest remaining tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Rahmig, Corina J; Jensen, William E; With, Kimberly A

    2009-04-01

    Extensive habitat loss and changing agricultural practices have caused widespread declines in grassland birds throughout North America. The Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma--the largest remaining tallgrass prairie--is important for grassland bird conservation despite supporting a major cattle industry. In 2004 and 2005, we assessed the community, population, and demographic responses of grassland birds to the predominant management practices (grazing, burning, and haying) of the region, including grasslands restored under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). We targeted 3 species at the core of this avian community: the Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), and Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna). Bird diversity was higher in native prairie hayfields and grazed pastures than CRP fields, which were dominated by Dickcissels. Although Dickcissel density was highest in CRP, their nest success was highest and nest parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Moluthrus ater) lowest in unburned hayfields (in 2004). Conversely, Grasshopper Sparrow density was highest in grazed pastures, but their nest success was lowest in these pastures and highest in burned hayfields, where cowbird parasitism was also lowest (in 2004). Management did not influence density and nest survival of Eastern Meadowlarks, which were uniformly low across the region. Nest success was extremely low (5-12%) for all 3 species in 2005, perhaps because of a record spring drought. Although the CRP has benefited grassland birds in agricultural landscapes, these areas may have lower habitat value in the context of native prairie. Hayfields may provide beneficial habitat for some grassland birds in the Flint Hills because they are mowed later in the breeding season than elsewhere in the Midwest. Widespread grazing and annual burning have homogenized habitat-and thus grassland-bird responses-across the Flint Hills. Diversification of management practices could increase

  10. Assessing Climate Change Effect on the World's Largest Lakes Using Satellite Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Gabriel, R.; Norouzi, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Landsat program offers the longest continuous global record of the Earth's surface using satellite imagery for over forty years (1972-2014). Millions of images and relevant data have since been acquired using the instrument on the Landsat satellite to monitor the Earth's interesting phenomena. There are Landsat receiving stations around the world including the United States that process and archive the images that are a unique resource for global change research and applications in agriculture, forestry, regional planning, geology, cartography and global warming. So far, National Oceanic Atmospheric and Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), have launched a total of eight successfully orbiting satellites throughout its forty-two years of service. The main objective of this project aims to use Landsat images to monitor the changes of the world's largest lakes from 1972 to present. We focus on areas around the planet that are home to large scale lakes such as Lake Urmia, Lake Vanern, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Albert and Lake Mweru. Then using U.S Geological Survey (USGS) database as a source for gathering cloud free images that are covering each lake, we were able to download and obtain necessary data. For larger lakes, images were mosaic to cover the entire area of the lake and using a Maximum Likelihood technique images were specifically classified into land and water content using ENVI software. The extent of the water content was quantified for each year and a temporal analysis of the area was performed. It is also found that the lakes which locates near the equator or at low latitude are seriously facing threats of becoming mostly dry. Future work is needed for establishing the dynamic characteristic of more lakes' water extent changes and also to compare them with other available information such as precipitation and soil moisture in each region. In lakes where high latitude, the change in extent of ice during winter

  11. Preserving the World Second Largest Hypersaline Lake under Future Irrigation and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; van Vliet, Michelle; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline in irrigation water use replacing a former plan which intended to develop reservoirs and irrigation. However, none of these water management plans, which have large socio-economic impacts, have been assessed under future changes in climate and water availability. By adapting a method of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for hypersaline lakes, we estimated annually 3.9•109 m3 water is needed to preserve Urmia Lake. Then, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was forced with bias-corrected climate model outputs for both the lowest (RCP2.6) and highest (RCP8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios to estimate future water availability and impacts of water management strategies. Results showed a 10% decline in future water availability in the basin under RCP2.6 and 27% under RCP8.5. Our results showed that if future climate change is highly limited (RCP2.6) inflow can be just enough to meet the EFRs by implementing the reduction irrigation plan. However, under more rapid climate change scenario (RCP8.5) reducing irrigation water use will not be enough to save the lake and more drastic measures are needed. Our results showed that future water management plans are not robust under climate change in this region. Therefore, an integrated approach of future land-water use planning and climate change adaptation is therefore needed to improve future water security and to reduce the desiccating of this hypersaline lake.

  12. Nature appropriation and associations with population health in Canada's largest cities.

    PubMed

    Rainham, Daniel; Cantwell, Rory; Jason, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Earth is a finite system with a limited supply of resources. As the human population grows, so does the appropriation of Earth's natural capital, thereby exacerbating environmental concerns such as biodiversity loss, increased pollution, deforestation and global warming. Such concerns will negatively impact human health although it is widely believed that improving socio-economic circumstances will help to ameliorate environmental impacts and improve health outcomes. However, this belief does not explicitly acknowledge the fact that improvements in socio-economic position are reliant on increased inputs from nature. Gains in population health, particularly through economic means, are disconnected from the appropriation of nature to create wealth so that health gains become unsustainable. The current study investigated the sustainability of human population health in Canada with regard to resource consumption or "ecological footprints" (i.e., the resources required to sustain a given population). Ecological footprints of the 20 largest Canadian cities, along with several important determinants of health such as income and education, were statistically compared with corresponding indicators of human population health outcomes. A significant positive relationship was found between ecological footprints and life expectancy, as well as a significant negative relationship between ecological footprints and the prevalence of high blood pressure. Results suggest that increased appropriation of nature is linked to improved health outcomes. To prevent environmental degradation from excessive appropriation of natural resources will require the development of health promotion strategies that are de-coupled from ever-increasing and unsustainable resource use. Efforts to promote population health should focus on health benefits achieved from a lifestyle based on significantly reduced consumption of natural resources. PMID:23531492

  13. Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region.

    PubMed

    Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami

    2014-07-01

    East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37-53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia. PMID:23596197

  14. Effects of light on the largest extant benthic foraminifer, Cycloclypeus carpenteri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Kazuhiko; Kanda, Yoji

    2015-04-01

    Cycloclypeus carpenteri is the largest extant benthic foraminifer. This species dwells in deep euphotic depths of warm oligotrophic waters, and is a host to diatom endosymbionts. Fossil Cycloclypeus has been found in tropical shelf carbonates since the Oligocene. Light is supposed to be the primary environmental factor controlling the depth distribution of this species. However, physiological responses of this foraminifer to light are not yet well understood. We investigated short-term and long-term effects of light on Cycloclypeus carpenteri collected from about 70 m depth, west of Okinawa Island (Japan). To determine short-term responses to light, net oxygen production was measured at different light levels and wavelengths using an oxygen microelectrode. Photosynthesis-irradiance curve of this species indicated that net oxygen production increased up to 50 µE m-2 s-1, was saturated until 100 µE m-2 s-1, then was photoinhibited over 100 µE m-2 s-1. Net production was higher when incubated on blue wavelength than on either red or green wavelengths. To determine long-term light effects, asexually reproduced clone individuals were incubated for about 4 months at different light levels ranging from 0 to 100 µE m-2 s-1. The long-term incubations indicated that growth rates measured by the surface area were optimal at light levels from 5 to 50 µE m-2 s-1, but were lowered at 0 and 100 µE m-2 s-1. These results suggest that Cycloclypeus carpenteri can be acclimatized at less than 100 µE m-2 s-1 of light by changing photopigment (chrolophyll) concentrations of algal symbionts, but this species cannot survive in dark and over 100 µE m-2 s-1 of light due to the breakdown of algal symbiosis.

  15. Alcohol availability and youth homicide in the 91 largest US cities, 1984-2006.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert N; Williams, Kirk R; McCaffree, Kevin J; Acensio, Emily K; Browne, Angela; Strom, Kevin J; Barrick, Kelle

    2011-09-01

    The aggregate relationship between homicide and alcohol availability is well established across a number of national and sub-national settings in North America, Europe and some parts of Asia. However, results linking youth homicide and alcohol availability at the retail level are largely absent from the literature, especially at the city level and across longer time periods. In a multivariate, pooled time series and cross-section study, youth homicide offending rates for two age groups, 13-17 and 18-24, were analysed for the 91 largest cities in the USA between 1984 and 2006. Data for social and economic characteristics, drug use, street gang activity and gun availability were also used as time series measures. Data on the availability of alcohol for each city were gathered from the US Census of Economic Activity, which is conducted every 5 years. These data were used to construct an annual time series for the density of retail alcohol outlets in each city. Results indicated that net of other variables, several of which had significant impacts on youth homicide, the density of alcohol outlets had a significant positive effect on youth homicide for those aged 13-17 and 18-24. Such positive effects have been found for adults in national and neighbourhood level studies, but this is the first study to report such evidence for teenagers and young adults. An important policy implication of these findings is that the reduction of the density of retail alcohol outlets in a city may be an effective tool for violent crime reduction among such youth. PMID:21896073

  16. Termination-altering mutations in the second-largest subunit of yeast RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Shaaban, S A; Krupp, B M; Hall, B D

    1995-01-01

    In order to identify catalytically important amino acid changes within the second-largest subunit of yeast RNA polymerase III, we mutagenized selected regions of its gene (RET1) and devised in vivo assays for both increased and decreased transcription termination by this enzyme. Using as the reporter gene a mutant SUP4-o tRNA gene that in one case terminates prematurely and in the other case fails to terminate, we screened mutagenized RET1 libraries for reduced and increased transcription termination, respectively. The gain in suppression phenotype was in both cases scored as a reduction in the accumulation of red pigment in yeast strains harboring the ade2-1 ochre mutation. Termination-altering mutations were obtained in regions of the RET1 gene encoding amino acids 300 to 325, 455 to 486, 487 to 521, and 1061 to 1082 of the protein. In degree of amino acid sequence conservation, these range from highly variable in the first to highly conserved in the last two regions. Residues 300 to 325 yielded mainly reduced-termination mutants, while in region 1061 to 1082, increased-termination mutants were obtained exclusively. All mutants recovered, while causing gain of suppression with one SUP4 allele, brought about a reduction in suppression with the other allele, thus confirming that the phenotype is due to altered termination rather than an elevated level of transcription initiation. In vitro transcription reactions performed with extracts from several strong mutants demonstrated that the mutant polymerases respond to RNA terminator sequences in a manner that matches their in vivo termination phenotypes. PMID:7862140

  17. The 100-C-7 Remediation Project. An Overview of One of DOE's Largest Remediation Projects - 13260

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Thomas C.; Strom, Dean; Beulow, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Closure Hanford LLC (WCH) completed remediation of one of the largest waste sites in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The waste site, 100-C-7, covers approximately 15 football fields and was excavated to a depth of 85 feet (groundwater). The project team removed a total of 2.3 million tons of clean and contaminated soil, concrete debris, and scrap metal. 100-C-7 lies in Hanford's 100 B/C Area, home to historic B and C Reactors. The waste site was excavated in two parts as 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1. The pair of excavations appear like pit mines. Mining engineers were hired to design their tiered sides, with safety benches every 17 feet and service ramps which allowed equipment access to the bottom of the excavations. The overall cleanup project was conducted over a span of almost 10 years. A variety of site characterization, excavation, load-out and sampling methodologies were employed at various stages of remediation. Alternative technologies were screened and evaluated during the project. A new method for cost effectively treating soils was implemented - resulting in significant cost savings. Additional opportunities for minimizing waste streams and recycling were identified and effectively implemented by the project team. During the final phase of cleanup the project team applied lessons learned throughout the entire project to address the final, remaining source of chromium contamination. The C-7 cleanup now serves as a model for remediating extensive deep zone contamination sites at Hanford. (authors)

  18. THE CHANDRA VIEW OF THE LARGEST QUASAR LENS SDSS J1029+2623

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, Naomi; Oguri, Masamune; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Richards, Gordon T.; Ofek, Eran O.; Blandford, Roger D.; Schrabback, Tim; Inada, Naohisa

    2012-10-10

    We present results from Chandra observations of the cluster lens SDSS J1029+2623 at z{sub l} = 0.58, which is a gravitationally lensed quasar with the largest known image separation. We clearly detect X-ray emission both from the lensing cluster and the three lensed quasar images. The cluster has an X-ray temperature of kT = 8.1{sup +2.0}{sub -1.2} keV and bolometric luminosity of L{sub X} = 9.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. Its surface brightness is centered near one of the brightest cluster galaxies, and it is elongated east-west. We identify a subpeak northwest of the main peak, which is suggestive of an ongoing merger. Even so, the X-ray mass inferred from the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption appears to be consistent with the lensing mass from the Einstein radius of the system. We find significant absorption in the soft X-ray spectrum of the faintest quasar image, which can be caused by an intervening material at either the lens or source redshift. The X-ray flux ratios between the quasar images (after correcting for absorption) are in reasonable agreement with those at optical and radio wavelengths, and all the flux ratios are inconsistent with those predicted by simple mass models. This implies that microlensing effect is not significant for this system and dark matter substructure is mainly responsible for the anomalous flux ratios.

  19. The world's largest macroalgal bloom in the Yellow Sea, China: Formation and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongyan; Keesing, John K.; He, Peimin; Wang, Zongling; Shi, Yajun; Wang, Yujue

    2013-09-01

    The world's largest trans-regional macroalgal blooms during 2008-2012 occurred in the Yellow Sea, China. This review addresses the causes, development and future challenges in this unique case. Satellite imagery and field observations showed that the macroalgal blooms in the Yellow Sea originated from the coast of Jiangsu province and that favorable geographic and oceanographic conditions brought the green macroalgae from the coast offshore. Optimal temperature, light, nutrients and wind contributed to the formation and transport of the massive bloom north into the Yellow Sea and its deposition onshore along the coast of Shandong province. Morphological and genetic evidence demonstrated that the species involved was Ulva prolifera, a fouling green commonly found growing on structures provided by facilities of Porphyra aquaculture. Large scale Porphyra aquaculture (covering >20,000 ha) along the Jiangsu coast thus hypothetically provided a nursery bed for the original biomass of U. prolifera. Porphyra growers remove U. prolifera from the mariculture rafts, and the cleaning releases about 5000 wet weight tonnes of green algae into the water column along the coast of Jiangsu province; the biomass then is dispersed by hydrographic forcing, and takes advantage of rather high nutrient supply and suitable temperatures to grow to impressive levels. Certain biological traits of U. prolifera —efficient photosynthesis, rapid growth rates, high capacity for nutrient uptake, and diverse reproductive systems— allowed growth of the original 5000 tonnes of U. prolifera biomass into more than one million tonnes of biomass in just two months. The proliferation of U. prolifera in the Yellow Sea resulted from a complex contingency of circumstances, including human activity (eutrophication by release of nutrients from wastewater, agriculture, and aquaculture), natural geographic and hydrodynamic conditions (current, wind) and the key organism's biological attributes. Better

  20. Dragon's Paradise Lost: Palaeobiogeography, Evolution and Extinction of the Largest-Ever Terrestrial Lizards (Varanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hocknull, Scott A.; Piper, Philip J.; van den Bergh, Gert D.; Due, Rokus Awe; Morwood, Michael J.; Kurniawan, Iwan

    2009-01-01

    Background The largest living lizard species, Varanus komodoensis Ouwens 1912, is vulnerable to extinction, being restricted to a few isolated islands in eastern Indonesia, between Java and Australia, where it is the dominant terrestrial carnivore. Understanding how large-bodied varanids responded to past environmental change underpins long-term management of V. komodoensis populations. Methodology/Principal Findings We reconstruct the palaeobiogeography of Neogene giant varanids and identify a new (unnamed) species from the island of Timor. Our data reject the long-held perception that V. komodoensis became a giant because of insular evolution or as a specialist hunter of pygmy Stegodon. Phyletic giantism, coupled with a westward dispersal from mainland Australia, provides the most parsimonious explanation for the palaeodistribution of V. komodoensis and the newly identified species of giant varanid from Timor. Pliocene giant varanid fossils from Australia are morphologically referable to V. komodoensis suggesting an ultimate origin for V. komodoensis on mainland Australia (>3.8 million years ago). Varanus komodoensis body size has remained stable over the last 900,000 years (ka) on Flores, a time marked by major faunal turnovers, extinction of the island's megafauna, the arrival of early hominids by 880 ka, co-existence with Homo floresiensis, and the arrival of modern humans by 10 ka. Within the last 2000 years their populations have contracted severely. Conclusions/Significance Giant varanids were once a ubiquitous part of Subcontinental Eurasian and Australasian faunas during the Neogene. Extinction played a pivotal role in the reduction of their ranges and diversity throughout the late Quaternary, leaving only V. komodoensis as an isolated long-term survivor. The events over the last two millennia now threaten its future survival. PMID:19789642

  1. Minority Innovation Challenges Institute

    NASA Video Gallery

    Do you want to learn more about how to compete in NASA’s technical challenges for both prestige and significant cash prizes? NASA’s Minority Innovation Challenges Institute trains and mentors mino...

  2. Institutionally based videoconferencing.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Robert Lee; Sager, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care via video-teleconferencing (VTC) technology is thought to have reached a tipping point. As a medical speciality with relatively few material or technical requirements for service delivery, psychiatry has been one of the earliest to embrace the possibility of providing evaluations and treatment at a distance. Such technical infrastructure as is necessary can often be found in the institutions already in existence. It was natural therefore that institutionally based telepsychiatry would lay the foundation for the development of the field. In this article we review the history and development of institutional VTC in a wide variety of clinically supervised settings such as hospitals, outpatient clinics, and forensic settings. We cite evidence supporting institutionally sponsored use and expand on key takeaways for the development and expansion of videoconferencing in these settings. We also speculate on the future direction and development of psychiatric care provided by these arrangements. PMID:26507786

  3. National Institute on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join Our Mailing List Email The Leader in Aging Research NIA, one of the 27 Institutes and ... broad scientific effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of ...

  4. Critical Materials Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex King

    2013-01-09

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  5. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Alex King

    2013-06-05

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  6. Institute for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, G.

    1974-01-01

    The functions of the Institute for Science Education (IPN) at Kiel, West Germany, are described. The main activities of the IPN focus on development of curricula for science education and investigation of special problems arising in science teaching. (PEB)

  7. Breaking down institutional barriers: Undergraduate institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper assesses the knowledge base on the undergraduate years, and the critical transition to graduate school or the workplace. The paper addresses the overarching issues associated with the institutional climate of undergraduate colleges and the transition on to the next step. What are the particular dynamics of retaining students in SM&E? How do these differ for various ethnic groups and by discipline? What has been the impact on minority students of curriculum reform and attempts to improve the quality of undergraduate instruction in the sciences and mathematics (especially among the gatekeeper courses)? Do present curriculum reforms and teaching practices reflect what is known about different learning styles of students from different ethnic backgrounds? What do we know about the attitudes and practices of college faculty in mentoring minority students in science and math courses? Has mentoring been a factor for change in campus climate? What do we know about higher education interventions, and why have these programs been more successful in engineering than in science? Can interventions change negative campus climates, or become a precipitating factor institutional change?

  8. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  9. National Cancer Institute Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Rosemary S.L. . E-mail: rw26f@nih.gov; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2006-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Perspectives this year presented information on the systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) research projects: (1) being investigated at the NCI's Intramural Center for Cancer Research; (2) funded by NCI's Radiation Research Program and other extramural programs; and (3) the appropriate National Institutes of Health/NCI funding mechanisms applicable to researchers for obtaining funds for STaRT projects.

  10. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  11. INEEL Institutional Plan - FY 2000-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Enge, Ray Stevenson

    1999-11-01

    In this first Institutional Plan prepared by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the INEEL will focus it's efforts on three strategic thrusts; (1) Environmental Management stewardship for DOE-EM, (2) Nuclear reactor technology for DOE-Nuclear Energy (NE), and (3) Energy R&D, demonstration, and deployment (initial focus on biofuels and chemical from biomass). The first strategic thrust focuses on meeting DOE-EM's environmental cleanup and long-term stewardship needs in a manner that is safe, cost-effective, science-based, and approved by key stakeholders. The science base at the INEEL will be further used to address a grand challenge for the INEEL and the DOE complex - the development of a fundamental scientific understanding of the migration of subsurface contaminants. The second strategic thrust is directed at DOE-NE's needs for safe, economical, waste-minimized, and proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies. As NE lead laboratories, the INEEL and ANL will pursue specific priorities. The third strategic thrust focuses on DOE's needs for clean, efficient, and renewable energy technology. As an initial effort, the INEEL will enhance its capability in biofuels, bioprocessing, and biochemicals. The content of this Institutional Plan is designed to meet basic DOE requirements for content and structure and reflect the key INEEL strategic thrusts. Updates to this Institutional Plan will offer additional content and resource refinements.

  12. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  13. LINC-NIRVANA for the LBT: setting up the world's largest NIR binoculars for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofferbert, Ralph; Baumeister, Harald; Bertram, Thomas; Berwein, Jürgen; Bizenberger, Peter; Böhm, Armin; Böhm, Michael; Borelli, José Luis; Brangier, Matthieu; Briegel, Florian; Conrad, Albert; De Bonis, Fulvio; Follert, Roman; Herbst, Tom; Huber, Armin; Kittmann, Frank; Kürster, Martin; Laun, Werner; Mall, Ulrich; Meschke, Daniel; Mohr, Lars; Naranjo, Vianak; Pavlov, Aleksei; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Schinnerer, Eva; Storz, Clemens; Trowitzsch, Jan; Yan, Zhaojun; Zhang, Xianyu; Eckart, Andreas; Horrobin, Matthew; Rost, Steffen; Straubmeier, Christian; Wank, Imke; Zuther, Jens; Beckmann, Udo; Connot, Claus; Heininger, Matthias; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Kröner, Tim; Nussbaum, Eddy; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Bergomi, Maria; Brunelli, Alessandro; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Viotto, Valentina; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bregoli, Giovanni; Ciliegi, Paolo; Cosentino, Guiseppe; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Foppiani, Italo; Lombini, Matteo; Schreiber, Laura; D'Alessio, Francesco; Li Causi, Gianluca; Lorenzetti, Dario; Vitali, Fabrizio; Bertero, Mario; Boccacci, Patrizia; La Camera, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    LINC-NIRVANA (LN) is the near-infrared, Fizeau-type imaging interferometer for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona, USA (3267m of elevation). The instrument is currently being built by a consortium of German and Italian institutes under the leadership of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) in Heidelberg, Germany. It will combine the radiation from both 8.4m primary mirrors of LBT in such a way that the sensitivity of a 11.9m telescope and the spatial resolution of a 22.8m telescope will be obtained within a 10.5arcsec x 10.5arcsec scientific field of view. Interferometric fringes of the combined beams are tracked in an oval field with diameters of 1 and 1.5arcmin. In addition, both incoming beams are individually corrected by LN's multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) system to reduce atmospheric image distortion over a circular field of up to 6arcmin in diameter. This paper gives a comprehensive technical overview of the instrument comprising the detailed design of LN's four major systems for interferometric imaging and fringe tracking, both in the NIR range of 1 - 2.4μm, as well as atmospheric turbulence correction at two altitudes, both in the visible range of 0.6 - 0.9μm. The resulting performance capabilities and a short outlook of some of the major science goals will be presented. In addition, the roadmap for the related assembly, integration and verification (AIV) process will be discussed. To avoid late interface-related risks, strategies for early hardware as well as software interactions with the telescope have been elaborated. The goal is to ship LN to the LBT in 2014.

  14. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  15. The 2013 Russian fireball largest ever detected by CTBTO infrasound sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph; Mialle, Pierrick; Brown, David; Herry, Pascal; Brachet, Nicolas

    2013-07-01

    15 February 2013, a large Earth-impacting fireball disintegrated over the Ural Mountains. This extraordinary event is, together with the 1908 Tunguska fireball, among the most energetic events ever instrumentally recorded. It generated infrasound returns, after circling the globe, at distances up to ~85,000 km, and was detected at 20 infrasonic stations of the global International Monitoring System (IMS). For the first time since the establishment of the IMS infrasound network, multiple arrivals involving waves that traveled twice round the globe have been clearly identified. A preliminary estimate of the explosive energy using empirical period-yield scaling relations gives a value of 460 kt of TNT equivalent. In the context of the future verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, this event provides a prominent milestone for studying in detail infrasound propagation around the globe for almost 3 days as well as for calibrating the performance of the IMS network.

  16. What Caused the UK's Largest Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Mass Stranding Event?

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Robert; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Barnett, James; Brownlow, Andrew; Brownell Jr., Robert L.; Clare, Frances C.; Davison, Nick; Law, Robin J.; Loveridge, Jan; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Morris, Steven; Murphy, Sinéad; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Pinn, Eunice; Seibel, Henrike; Siebert, Ursula; Sierra, Eva; Simpson, Victor; Tasker, Mark L.; Tregenza, Nick; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) and mild otitis media (1/5) in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26), local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26) suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06∶30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June). Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes). International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars) occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a “two-stage process” where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3–4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE. PMID

  17. Serenitatis: The Oldest, Largest Impact Basin Sampled in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Serenitatis Basin was recognized in the early 1960s as a multiring impact basin. Poikilitic impact melt breccias collected on the Apollo 17 mission, generally inferred to be Serenitatis impact melt, precisely define its age as 3.893 +/- 0.009 Ga. On the topographic map produced from Clementine data, the basin has a well-defined, circular structure corresponding closely with mare fill. In the review by , this circular structure has a diameter of 620 km (Taurus ring). The main rim is deemed to have a diameter of 920 km (Vitruvius ring). Thus Serenitatis is both the oldest and the largest basin in the solar system to which we can confidently assign samples. The central flooded part of the Serenitatis Basin displays a mascon gravity anomaly. Gravity and topographic studies by Neumann, correcting for the mascon, indicate that the crust was thinned to about 30 km compared to a surrounding thickness of about 55 km. The rim has a slightly thickened crust. The Apollo 17 landing site lies between the Taurus and the Vitruvius rings. Remote studies show that the Taurus highlands differ in chemical composition from those around the Crisium and Nectaris Basins. They are consistently lower in alumina and higher in Fe and radioactive elements: the highlands are the noritic, rather than the anorthosite, stereotype of the ancient highlands. Tracks show that many of the poikilitic impact melt breccias rolled from high in the massifs, possibly from ledges. They vary in grain size and texture. Larger boulders display sharp contacts between texturally different units, which differ slightly big significantly in composition. They have about 18% Al2O3 and incompatible elements of about 100x chondrites. The breccias contain lithic clasts. Feldspathic granulitic breccias are the most common, but these do not form any significant component of the melt composition itself. Other lithic components are mainly plutonic igneous rocks such as norite and troctolite. Ferroan anorthosites and mare

  18. What caused the UK's largest common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) mass stranding event?

    PubMed

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Robert; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Barnett, James; Brownlow, Andrew; Brownell, Robert L; Clare, Frances C; Davison, Nick; Law, Robin J; Loveridge, Jan; Macgregor, Shaheed K; Morris, Steven; Murphy, Sinéad; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Pinn, Eunice; Seibel, Henrike; Siebert, Ursula; Sierra, Eva; Simpson, Victor; Tasker, Mark L; Tregenza, Nick; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) and mild otitis media (1/5) in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26), local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26) suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06:30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June). Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes). International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars) occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a "two-stage process" where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3-4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE. PMID:23646103

  19. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria

  20. Drilling the Largest Oceanic Detachment in the World: the Godzilla Mullion in the Parece Vela Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Okino, K.; Snow, J. E.; Salisbury, M.

    2003-12-01

    Recently discovered megamullions at slow-spreading ridges have been interpreted as exhumed footwalls of oceanic detachment faults in magma-starved ridge environments. These features are believed to result from extreme tectonic extension, and thus they are ideal to study processes of tectonic extension in oceanic lithosphere. In addition to tectonic issues, these features provide excellent tectonic windows to the lower crust and uppermost mantle. Drilling megamullion structures allows us to study tectonic processes, serpentinization and magnetization at shallow depth and mantle composition and fabrics at a deeper level. The largest megamullion structure in the world is the Godzilla Mullion in the extinct Parece Vela backarc basin, Philippine Sea. Recent reconnaissance studies by our group have revealed the following unique characteristics of this structure: (1) The Godzilla Mullion is huge, ˜ 10 times larger in area than megamullions identified so far on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). (2) The latest KR03-01 cruise dredged mantle peridotites (see Snow et al., this session) from entire length of the Godzilla Mullion (over 125 km), suggesting that an ultramafic exposure of some ˜ 7000 km2. (3) The Godzilla Mullion develops along the full along-strike length of the spreading segment. In the MAR, the megamullions normally develop at inside corners of ridge-transform intersections. (4) Peridotites from the Parece Vela Basin include very fertile lherzolites with spinel Cr# [Cr/(Cr+Al)] = ˜ 0.17. (5) The Godzilla Mullion was formed in a relatively fast intermediate-spreading environment with 7.0 cm/y full-rate. We may expect a relatively high magmatic budget in the fast/intermediate-spreading Parece Vela Basin, since a high magmatic budget is generally expected for a fast-spreading ridge. However, the characteristics noted above instead indicate a small degree of mantle melting. We suggest that these features may result from the characteristic ridge-transform geometry of

  1. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  2. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World’s Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world’s largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  3. Evaluation of world's largest social welfare scheme: An assessment using non-parametric approach.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjeet

    2016-08-01

    Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the world's largest social welfare scheme in India for the poverty alleviation through rural employment generation. This paper aims to evaluate and rank the performance of the states in India under MGNREGA scheme. A non-parametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to calculate the overall technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies of states in India. The sample data is drawn from the annual official reports published by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Based on three selected input parameters (expenditure indicators) and five output parameters (employment generation indicators), I apply both input and output oriented DEA models to estimate how well the states utilize their resources and generate outputs during the financial year 2013-14. The relative performance evaluation has been made under the assumption of constant returns and also under variable returns to scale to assess the impact of scale on performance. The results indicate that the main source of inefficiency is both technical and managerial practices adopted. 11 states are overall technically efficient and operate at the optimum scale whereas 18 states are pure technical or managerially efficient. It has been found that for some states it necessary to alter scheme size to perform at par with the best performing states. For inefficient states optimal input and output targets along with the resource savings and output gains are calculated. Analysis shows that if all inefficient states operate at optimal input and output levels, on an average 17.89% of total expenditure and a total amount of $780million could have been saved in a single year. Most of the inefficient states perform poorly when it comes to the participation of women and disadvantaged sections (SC&ST) in the scheme. In order to catch up with the performance of best performing states, inefficient states on an average need to enhance

  4. What happens after and during deglaciation? Some insight from observations at the largest glacier in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Avian, Michael; Lieb, Gerhard K.; Kaufmann, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    Pasterze Glacier is the largest glacier in Austria and the Eastern Alps. The glacier is located at the foot of Mt. Großglockner (3798 m a.s.l.), the highest peak in Austria, and is accessible rather easily by a high alpine road ending above the main glacier tongue. At present, the glacier covers an area of about 17 km2, has a length of 8.3 km, a maximum ice thickness of about 190 m and is characterized by two unequally sized glacier tongues. The main glacier tongue is c.4 km long and heavily covered by debris. Since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) at around AD 1850 this glacier receded by 2.1 km. During the last c.160 years the main glacier tongue lowered by some 250 m on average. The glacier surface flow velocity decreased substantially, i.e. for example by 32% between the time periods 2003-2006 and 2006-2009. Glacier recession revealed large areas of previously ice-buried bedrock as well as minerogenic and biogenic sediments. In this contribution we present a compendium of research results based on several projects related to pure proglacial but also paraglacial processes and landforms in the vicinity of the present glacier. We will discuss (a) rock slope adjustment processes and its causes influencing for instance the supraglacial debris cover of the main glacier tongue substantially, (b) landform dynamics in the outwash plain and adjacent slopes close to the present glacier terminus, (c) the role of dead-ice for the proglacial landsystem, (d) formation and rapid enlargement of rock outcrops within the ice-fall, and (e) related natural hazard aspects. A further aspect discussed here - which is rather particular for Pasterze Glacier - is the (e) biogenic material (peat lumps and wood fragments) which has been found in recently deglaciated terrain. This material provides valuable insight into past ecological, glaciological and climatological conditions. Further rapid back- and downwasting of this glacier is very likely due to lack of ice replenishment. The

  5. Evolution of Hang Son Doong, Vietnam: the largest cave passage in the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Hang Son Doong (HSD), or Mountain River Cave, in the Quang Binh province of Vietnam, is considered to be the largest cave passage in the world. It has continuous widths near 100 m, and heights locally exceeding 200 m in a passage >6.5 km long. HSD is one of many extremely large caves in the tropical karst of the Ke Bang massif, a massively bedded limestone surrounded by metamorphic and clastic sedimentary rocks. Why are these caves so large? Is it because they are young and rapidly formed, or instead did they form slowly in exceptionally strong bedrock? To address these questions it is necessary to examine the style and timing of speleogenesis. Hang Son Doong was formed by an allogenic river sinking along a straight subvertical fault. The cave is formed largely within a brecciated fault zone that extends up to 100 m wide. A relict karst valley indicates that speleogenesis occurred due to wholesale capture of the surface river. The cave pattern is strongly fault-controlled with few branches, consistent with a primarily allogenic rather than distributed recharge. The cave is punctuated by two collapse dolines, one of which impedes discharge today. Massive slackwater deposits perhaps 100 m thick accumulated upstream of this doline collapse, and are overlain by corroded flowstone. To place some time constraints on speleogenesis, two samples were collected for cosmogenic nuclide burial dating with 26Al and 10Be in allogenic quartz. One was from the slackwater deposits, and another from a breccia-filled tributary passage at a fault junction. Both samples postdate cave formation, and can only be used to place minimum ages on the cave. Cosmogenic nuclide concentrations are very low, leading to large uncertainties in the ages. Nonetheless, the burial ages yield some important information. Initial results indicate that the slackwater deposits formed recently, during the past 300 ky. The filled passage, on the other hand, is much older and dates to the Pliocene. Re

  6. Godzilla Mullion: current understanding on the nature of the world’s largest oceanic core complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Snow, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Oceanic core complex (OCC) provides a valuable opportunity to directly study the architecture of oceanic lithosphere, together with the tectono-magmatic processes that were associated with its formation and evolution. The world’s largest OCC, Godzilla Mullion, occurs along the Parece Vela Rift, extinct spreading center of the Parece Vela Basin in the Philippine Sea. Backarc basins are not in some way anomalous, but are in fact generating a significant fraction of the total oceanic crust. Therefore, the opportunity to explore the architecture of Godzilla Mullion is an important contribution to the overall understanding of oceanic lithosphere. In order to understand the different processes of OCC formation and the composition of the backarc mantle, and to provide a comparison of present day backarc mantle useful for the study of ophiolitic lower crustal and mantle sequences, we have conducted a series of cruises to the area in the last decade. In 2009, during YK09-05 cruise of R/V Yokosuka, we performed successful 9 dives of Shinkai 6500 and 3 dives of deep-towed camera, resulting in 12 new sample locations on the surface of Godzilla Mullion. The number of sample locations on the surface of Godzilla Mullion is now 36 different locations in total. Before YK09-05 cruise, we used a single name of “Godzilla Mullion” for its description. However, now that we have 36 sample locations, it has become difficult to describe the very enormous OCC with a single name. We thus have given 13 different names to the distinct topographic elements of Godzilla Mullion. In this contribution, we will introduce our current understanding of the nature of Godzilla Mullion, summarizing the recent results of geological mapping and its comparison with seismic tomography model. Godzilla Mullion has large lateral heterogeneity in the crust, varying from the region dominated with mantle peridotite overlain by a carapace of diabase and basalt, to the region with a massive gabbroic section

  7. Net discharge anomalies drive uncertainty in catch in the world's largest inland fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Mekong River is one of the world's largest rivers at more than 4,600 km long and a watershed of nearly 800,000 km2. The Tonle Sap Lake (TSL) in Cambodia is believed to be one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world because of its unique hydrologic regime and large input of nutrient-rich sediment from the Mekong. The TSL is the cornerstone of food security in Cambodia yielding ~ 15% of the estimated 2.6M tonne catch in the Mekong basin and providing key nursery habitat for fishes that constitute the catch in other parts of the basin. The TSL fishery is driven by a flood pulse that occurs during and after the SE Asian Monsoon. The timing, duration and magnitude of the monsoon is thought to be a key driver of primary and secondary (fish) production in the system. All three-timing, duration and magnitude--are likely to be different under future climate and as a result of the proposed and recently constructed dams on tributaries in Vietnam and elsewhere. Here I use spectral methods to characterize the timing and magnitude of the flood pulse. Specifically, I use the Discrete Fast Fourier Transform (DFFT) to estimate the seasonal trend in daily discharge for the past 40 years at the Stung Treng gage. The whitened time series represent departures from the long term trend--anomalies--and hence implicitly capture the timing of unusual events. I hypothesize that 'timing is everything' and hence that anomalies will capture variation in the second moment of the fishery. Using a novel metric--the net annual discharge anomaly--I show that catch is significantly more variable in years with net negative flow anomalies; and quite predictable in years with net positive flow anomalies. These results suggest that changes in timing of monsoon flows alone--due to climate change or dams--can significantly increase the uncertainty in catch of a fishery that is vital for food security in the Mekong basin.

  8. Sequencing of tsunami waves: why the first wave is not always the largest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the factors contributing to the `sequencing' of tsunami waves in the far field, that is, to the distribution of the maximum sea surface amplitude inside the dominant wave packet constituting the primary arrival at a distant harbour. Based on simple models of sources for which analytical solutions are available, we show that, as range is increased, the wave pattern evolves from a regime of maximum amplitude in the first oscillation to one of delayed maximum, where the largest amplitude takes place during a subsequent oscillation. In the case of the simple, instantaneous uplift of a circular disk at the surface of an ocean of constant depth, the critical distance for transition between those patterns scales as r_0^3 / h^2 where r0 is the radius of the disk and h the depth of the ocean. This behaviour is explained from simple arguments based on a model where sequencing results from frequency dispersion in the primary wave packet, as the width of its spectrum around its dominant period T0 becomes dispersed in time in an amount comparable to T0, the latter being controlled by a combination of source size and ocean depth. The general concepts in this model are confirmed in the case of more realistic sources for tsunami excitation by a finite-time deformation of the ocean floor, as well as in real-life simulations of tsunamis excited by large subduction events, for which we find that the influence of fault width on the distribution of sequencing is more important than that of fault length. Finally, simulation of the major events of Chile (2010) and Japan (2011) at large arrays of virtual gauges in the Pacific Basin correctly predicts the majority of the sequencing patterns observed on DART buoys during these events. By providing insight into the evolution with time of wave amplitudes inside primary wave packets for far field tsunamis generated by large earthquakes, our results stress the importance, for civil defense authorities, of issuing warning and

  9. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  10. An enlarged largest subunit of Plasmodium falciparum RNA polymerase II defines conserved and variable RNA polymerase domains.

    PubMed Central

    Li, W B; Bzik, D J; Gu, H M; Tanaka, M; Fox, B A; Inselburg, J

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II from Plasmodium falciparum. The RPII gene is expressed in the asexual erythrocytic stages of the parasite as a 9 kb mRNA, and is present as a single copy gene located on chromosome 3. The P. falciparum RPII subunit is the largest (2452 amino acids) eukaryotic RPII subunit, and it contains enlarged variable regions that clearly separate and define five conserved regions of the eukaryotic RPII largest subunits. A distinctive carboxyl-terminal domain contains a short highly conserved heptapeptide repeat domain which is bounded on its 5' side by a highly diverged heptapeptide repeat domain, and is bounded on its 3' side by a long carboxyl-terminal extension. Images PMID:2690004

  11. An enlarged largest subunit of Plasmodium falciparum RNA polymerase II defines conserved and variable RNA polymerase domains.

    PubMed

    Li, W B; Bzik, D J; Gu, H M; Tanaka, M; Fox, B A; Inselburg, J

    1989-12-11

    We have isolated the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II from Plasmodium falciparum. The RPII gene is expressed in the asexual erythrocytic stages of the parasite as a 9 kb mRNA, and is present as a single copy gene located on chromosome 3. The P. falciparum RPII subunit is the largest (2452 amino acids) eukaryotic RPII subunit, and it contains enlarged variable regions that clearly separate and define five conserved regions of the eukaryotic RPII largest subunits. A distinctive carboxyl-terminal domain contains a short highly conserved heptapeptide repeat domain which is bounded on its 5' side by a highly diverged heptapeptide repeat domain, and is bounded on its 3' side by a long carboxyl-terminal extension. PMID:2690004

  12. The World's Largest Submarine Canyon—Kroenke Canyon in the Western Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, M. F.; Adams, N.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Heckman, M.; Ketter, T.; Neale, J. F.; Reyes, A.; Travers, A.

    2015-12-01

    Kroenke Canyon lies on the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) in the western Equatorial Pacific, between the Solomon Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. In late 2014 aboard the Schmidt Ocean Institute's RV Falkor, we mapped, albeit incompletely, the Canyon for the first time, revealing that it is both the longest (>700 km) and the most voluminous (>6800 km3) submarine canyon yet discovered on Earth. Kroenke Canyon appears to originate in the vicinity of Ontong Java (Solomon Islands) and Nukumanu (Papua New Guinea) atolls, and presumably began to develop when the atolls were high-standing volcanic islands surmounting the ~120 Ma igneous basement of the OJP. The Canyon is characterised by numerous tributaries and significant mass wasting. Kroenke Canyon incises the layer-cake stratigraphy of OJP sediment and sedimentary rock, mostly carbonate with some interbedded chert, which has provided numerous slip surfaces for submarine landslides. The carbonate compensation depth (CCD) roughly coincides with the depth of the transition between the OJP and the neighbouring Nauru Basin. As a result, despite the large volume of sediment eroded and transported by canyon-forming processes, only a minor fan is evident in the Nauru Basin because most of the carbonate has dissolved.

  13. THE LARGEST WESTERN EXPERIENCE WITH HEPATOPANCREATODUODENECTOMY: LESSONS LEARNED WITH 35 CASES

    PubMed Central

    FERNANDES, Eduardo de Souza Martins; de MELLO, Felipe Tavares; RIBEIRO-FILHO, Joaquim; do MONTE-FILHO, Asterio Pinto; FERNANDES, Moacir Martins; COELHO, Romulo Juventino; MATOS, Monique Couto; de SOUZA, Antonio Augusto Peixoto; TORRES, Orlando Jorge Martins

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatopancreatoduodenectomy is one of the most complex abdominal operations mainly indicated in advanced biliary carcinoma. Aim: To present 10-year experience performing this operation in advanced malignant tumors. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study. From 2004 to 2014, 35 hepatopancreatoduodenectomies were performed in three different institutions. The most common indication was advanced biliary carcinoma in 24 patients (68.5%). Results: Eighteen patients had gallbladder cancer, eight Klatskin tumors, five neuroendocrine tumors with liver metastasis, one colorectal metastasis invading the pancreatic head, one intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with liver metastasis, one gastric cancer recurrence with liver involvement and one ocular melanoma with pancreatic head and right liver lobe metastasis. All patients were submitted to pancreatoduodenectomy with a liver resection as follows: eight right trisectionectomies, five right lobectomies, four left lobectomies, 18 central lobectomies (IVb, V and VIII). The overall mortality was 34.2% (12/35) and the overall morbidity rate was 97.4%. Conclusion: Very high mortality is seen when major liver resection is performed with pancreatoduodenectomy, including right lobectomy and trisectionectomy. Liver failure in combination with a pancreatic leak is invariably lethal. Efforts to ensure a remnant liver over 40-50% of the total liver volume are the key to obtain patient survival. PMID:27120733

  14. Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Brandt, A.; Danovaro, R.; de Mol, B.; Escobar, E.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Menot, L.; Buhl-Mortensen, P.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Smith, C. R.; Tittensor, D. P.; Tyler, P. A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vecchione, M.

    2010-09-01

    The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller - indeed, minimal - proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold-water corals have an increased

  15. Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Brandt, A.; Danovaro, R.; Escobar, E.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Menot, L.; Buhl-Mortensen, P.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Smith, C. R.; Tittensor, D. P.; Tyler, P. A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vecchione, M.

    2010-04-01

    The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th Century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 27 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st Century. However, for most of these habitats, the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller - indeed, minimal - proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation, thus, shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps, where chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold-water corals have an increased

  16. Lessons from the Largest Epidemic of Avian Influenza Viruses in Taiwan, 2015.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Fen; King, Chwan-Chuen; Wan, Cho-Hua; Chang, Yun-Cheng; Chan, Ta-Chien; David Lee, Chang-Chun; Chou, Po-Hao Borris; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Li, Yao-Tsun; Tseng, Tzu-Jung; Lee, Pei-Fen; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung

    2016-05-01

    The largest epidemic of avian influenza (AI) in history attacked poultry and wild birds throughout Taiwan starting January 6, 2015. This study analyzed surveillance results, epidemiologic characteristics, and viral sequences by using government-released information, with the intention to provide recommendations to minimize future pandemic influenza. The H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic AI viruses (HPAIVs) had not been detected in Taiwan before 2015. During this epidemic, four types of etiologic agents were identified: the three novel subtypes H5N2, H5N8, and H5N3 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIVs and one endemic chicken H5N2 subtype (Mexican-like lineage) of low pathogenic AI viruses. Cocirculation of mixed subtypes also occurred, with H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIVs accompanied by the H5N8 and H5N3 subtypes or old H5N2 viruses in the same farm. More than 90% of domestic geese died from this AI epidemic; geese were affected the most at the early outbreaks. The epidemic peaked in mid-January for all three novel H5 subtypes. Spatial epidemiology found that most affected areas were located in southwestern coastal areas. In terrestrial poultry (mostly chickens), different geographic distributions of AI virus subtypes were detected, with hot spots of H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 vs. past-endemic old H5N2 viruses in Changhwa (P = 0.03) and Yunlin (P = 0.007) counties, respectively, of central Taiwan. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of all the early 10 Taiwan H5 clade 2.3.4.4 isolates covering the three subtypes showed that they were very different from the HA of the past local H5 viruses from domestic ducks (75%-80%) and chickens (70%-75%). However, they had the highest sequence identity percentages (99.53%-100%), with the HA of A/crane/Kagoshima/KU13/2014(H5N8) isolated on December 7, 2014, in Japan being higher than those of recent American and Korean H5 HPAIVs [A/Northern pintail/Washington/40964/2014 (H5N2) and A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014 (H5N8): 99.02%-99.54% and A/Baikal teal

  17. 2013 Russian Fireball Largest Ever Detected by CTBTO Infrasound Sensors (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, C.; Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.; Herry, P.; Brachet, N.; Mialle, P.; Brown, D.

    2013-12-01

    On 15 February 2013 at 03h20 UT, a large Earth impacting fireball disintegrated over the Ural Mountains near the city of Chelyabinsk. The bolide produced shock waves that blew out windows, injured hundreds of people and damaged buildings in many surrounding cities. Infrasonic waves generated by the explosion propagated over very long distances. The event was globally detected by 20 arrays part of the 44 operating infrasound IMS (International Monitoring System) stations of the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization). This fireball event provides a prominent milestone for studying, in detail, infrasound propagation traveling twice around the globe for almost two days at distances larger than 80000 km. Therefore, its analysis offers a unique opportunity to calibrate detection and location methods and evaluate the global performance of the IMS network. The presentation will provide an overview on the global recordings and analyses. Moreover, in order to explain the detection capability of the overall operating IMS network, range-dependent propagation modeling considering both a point-like explosive source and a line source is performed.

  18. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutations in RPA190, the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wittekind, M; Dodd, J; Vu, L; Kolb, J M; Buhler, J M; Sentenac, A; Nomura, M

    1988-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutations in RNA polymerase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae are described. A plasmid carrying RPA190, the gene encoding the largest subunit of the enzyme, was subjected to in vitro mutagenesis with hydroxylamine. Using a plasmid shuffle screening system, five different plasmids were isolated which conferred a temperature-sensitive phenotype in haploid yeast strains carrying the disrupted chromosomal RPA190 gene. These temperature-sensitive alleles were transferred to the chromosomal RPA190 locus for mapping and physiology experiments. Accumulation of RNA was found to be defective in all mutant strains at the nonpermissive temperature. In addition, analysis of pulse-labeled RNA from two mutant strains at 37 degrees C showed that the transcription of rRNA genes was decreased, while that of 5S RNA was relatively unaffected. RNA polymerase I was partially purified from several of the mutant strains grown at the nonpermissive temperature and was shown to be deficient when assayed in vitro. Fine-structure mapping and sequencing of the mutant alleles demonstrated that all five mutations were unique. The rpa190-1 and rpa190-5 mutations are tightly clustered in region I (S.S. Broyles and B. Moss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:3141-3145, 1986), the putative zinc-binding region that is common to all eucaryotic RNA polymerase large subunits. The rpa190-3 mutation is located between regions III and IV, and a strain carrying it behaves as a mutant that is defective in the synthesis of the enzyme. This mutation lies within a previously unidentified segment of highly conserved amino acid sequence homology that is shared among the largest subunits of eucaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases. Another temperature-sensitive mutation, rpa190-2, creates a UGA nonsense codon. Images PMID:3054507

  19. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  20. Honors and Institutional Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransdell, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Honors colleges and programs often evolve in response to a mandate from boards of regents or trustees. Such mandates can lead to new or accelerated change within the institution, change that in many cases is linked to and represented by honors. Such has been the case at Western Kentucky University (WKU), where the honors program has played a key…

  1. An Institute for Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet; Weis, R. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses professional development that offers practical tips for elementary teachers to implement in their classrooms right away. The programs at the Institute of Math, Science, and Technology Education at Texas Christian University at Fort Worth, Texas, offer a professional development model. In this successful collaborative, formed…

  2. Instituting the Greater Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Teachers, higher education administrators and financial planners are well acquainted with the work of TIAA-CREF. The insurance and investment company has been a central player in teacher retirement and financial planning for nearly a century. Twelve years ago, the organization spawned the TIAA-CREF Institute, a research-focused arm that brings…

  3. Managing Institutional Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchiori, Gerlinda S.

    1990-01-01

    A managerial process for enhancing the image and public reputation of a higher education institution is outlined. It consists of five stages: market research; data analysis and market positioning; communication of results and recommendations to the administration; development of a global image program; and impact evaluation. (MSE)

  4. Confronting Institutional Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keleher, Terry; Johnson, Tammy

    2001-01-01

    The best way to measure institutional racism is to examine effects (statistical outcomes), not intentions. Administrators can actively address racial inequality, collect realistic data, combine equity and quality considerations in all policies, support accountability while resisting high-stakes tests, involve the whole community, and avoid silver…

  5. Institute Born of Gratitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Vin

    1980-01-01

    The Wang Institute of Graduate Studies plans to offer a master's degree in software engineering. The development of an academic program to produce superior, technically qualified managers for the computer industry's software production is discussed. (Journal availability: Datamation, 666 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10103.) (MLW)

  6. A Contested Institutional Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    The College of William and Mary (Williamsburg, Virginia) found itself at a crossroads in 2005. Their long-popular president Timothy J. Sullivan was retiring after 13 years at the helm of the world's second oldest institution of higher education (Petkofsky, 2004). Long known as a bastion of conservatism, William and Mary could now change their…

  7. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE (SEI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) is a federally funded research and development center established in 1984 by the U.S. Department of Defense and operated by Carnegie Mellon University. SEI has a broad charter to provide leadership in the practice of software engineering t...

  8. Institutional Effectiveness Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lynn S.; And Others

    Prepared for discussion at a retreat of the board of trustees of Florida Community College at Jacksonville (FCCJ), this packet of materials identifies 31 indicators of institutional performance and assesses FCCJ in terms of those indicators for which data were available. First, the packet presents a flow chart which illustrates the model used by…

  9. Implementing Sustainable Institutional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Joseph; Johnson, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has found that few institutions of higher education implemented the necessary strategies to make their campuses sustainable (Thompson and Green 2005). Ironically, universities are the segment of society with the most access to the intellectual capital needed to provide sound sustainable practices and measurements. Having top…

  10. Taylor Business Institute, Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jerry

    The Office of the State Comptroller in New York audited the records and procedures used in administering the Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) at Taylor Business Institute (Taylor) for the academic years 1995-96 through 1997-98. Taylor, located in Manhattan, offers both degree programs and diploma programs in Accounting, Business Management,…

  11. Planning for Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Frank W., Comp.; Garthwaite, Elloyse M., Comp.

    Drawing from the experiences of Delgado Community College (DCC) in Louisiana, this manual offers guidance on choosing and implementing an institutional planning system. Section 1 offers introductory comments on planning, educators' reluctance to embrace the management systems of the private sector, and the growing recognition of the importance of…

  12. Institutional Research Bulletin, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou-Sayf, Frank, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The "Institutional Research Bulletin" is a collection of research summaries relating to Kapi'olani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. Highlights from the 1993 volume (September-December) include: (1) the number of students in art classes and programs increased from 1988-1992; (2) the results of a survey about how health students find out about KCC…

  13. Personnel Management Institutes 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Stanley B., Jr.

    This report is a compilation of presentations made at the Personnel Management Institutes held by the New York State School Boards Association in the fall of 1974. Included are the following six presentations: "New Laws Affecting School Boards and School Administration," by Bernard T. McGivern; "How to Prepare for Tenure Hearings, PERB Hearings,…

  14. Leadership in Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunko, Esmeralda

    2012-01-01

    Many questions concerning quality of functioning and effectiveness are connected with the management of education as a professional field in educational organizations. The role of educational leadership in an educational organization raises many questions related to legislative regulations of activities, issues of institutional placement,…

  15. Defense Language Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Discussed in this Defense Language Institute (DLI) brochure are its intensive language programs' history, and its four schools, which are located in Monterey, California, Washington, D.C., Lackland Air Force Base, and Fort Bliss, Texas. Proficiency levels determined by the DLI and utilization of the audiolingual method are also described.…

  16. One Institution: Six Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Winthrop R.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    This expanded issue of the Research Review examines six alternatives to current patterns in the community college. In the first article, the authors offer guidelines for formulating institution-building capabilities, developing curricula, and designing a Personal Development program according to a Life Skills Education model. The second paper…

  17. Asian Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Naval Research, London (England).

    The Asian Institute of Technology is a notable success for that part of the world where success is not too common. It is an excellent example of not only the initiative and organization of a technical university, but also of the success of a foreign aid program. This report gives details of this organization and accomplishments. (Author)

  18. Summer Youth Forestry Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesch, Gabrielle E.; Neuffer, Tamara; Zobrist, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Youth Forestry Institute (SYFI) was developed to inspire youth through experiential learning opportunities and early work experience in the field of natural resources. Declining enrollments in forestry and other natural resource careers has made it necessary to actively engage youth and provide them with exposure to careers in these…

  19. The branding of institutions.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, S

    1991-02-20

    Institutional operations capitalizing on national foodservice brands have seen sales increase as much as 40%, operators say. But what if operators choose to stay independent and develop their own brands? Our feature presents both business strategies and the concepts that are winning customers. PMID:10109711

  20. The role of family institutes in promoting the practice of family therapy.

    PubMed

    Rampage, Cheryl

    2014-09-01

    Much of the development of family therapy as a discipline was an outcome of the clinical, training, and theory-building activities conducted at family institutes around the United States. Beginning in the 1960s, these institutes were the crucibles in which the concepts and practices of family therapy flourished. The author, a leader at one of the largest family institutes in the United States, discusses the role of family institutes in promoting the practice of family therapy, as well as the challenges of doing so. PMID:24785549

  1. Holoparasitic Rafflesiaceae possess the most reduced endophytes and yet give rise to the world's largest flowers

    PubMed Central

    Nikolov, Lachezar A.; Tomlinson, P. B.; Manickam, Sugumaran; Endress, Peter K.; Kramer, Elena M.; Davis, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Species in the holoparasitic plant family Rafflesiaceae exhibit one of the most highly modified vegetative bodies in flowering plants. Apart from the flower shoot and associated bracts, the parasite is a mycelium-like endophyte living inside their grapevine hosts. This study provides a comprehensive treatment of the endophytic vegetative body for all three genera of Rafflesiaceae (Rafflesia, Rhizanthes and Sapria), and reports on the cytology and development of the endophyte, including its structural connection to the host, shedding light on the poorly understood nature of this symbiosis. Methods Serial sectioning and staining with non-specific dyes, periodic–Schiff's reagent and aniline blue were employed in order to characterize the structure of the endophyte across a phylogenetically diverse sampling. Key Results A previously identified difference in the nuclear size between Rafflesiaceae endophytes and their hosts was used to investigate the morphology and development of the endophytic body. The endophytes generally comprise uniseriate filaments oriented radially within the host root. The emergence of the parasite from the host during floral development is arrested in some cases by an apparent host response, but otherwise vegetative growth does not appear to elicit suppression by the host. Conclusions Rafflesiaceae produce greatly reduced and modified vegetative bodies even when compared with the other holoparasitic angiosperms once grouped with Rafflesiaceae, which possess some vegetative differentiation. Based on previous studies of seeds together with these findings, it is concluded that the endophyte probably develops directly from a proembryo, and not from an embryo proper. Similarly, the flowering shoot arises directly from the undifferentiated endophyte. These filaments produce a protocorm in which a shoot apex originates endogenously by formation of a secondary morphological surface. This degree of modification to the vegetative

  2. Lending a Hand: A Report on the Lobbying Expenditures and Political Contributions of the Five Largest Student Loan Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Public Interest Research Group, Washington, DC.

    Using data from a variety of sources, including public records and the Web site of the Center for Responsive Politics, this study examined the political spending of the five largest holders of federally subsidized student loans: Sallie Mae, the Student Loan Corporation of Citibank, First Union National Bank, Wells Fargo Education Financial…

  3. Ten Years Later: Findings from a Replication of a Study of Teacher Evaluation Practices in Our 100 Largest School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loup, Karen S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A follow-up was conducted 10 years after a study of teacher evaluation practices in the 100 largest US school districts to determine changes since 1987. Responses from 68 districts show that teacher evaluation practices and policies at the local level usually still do not incorporate important research findings. (SLD)

  4. German Migrant Teachers in Australia: Insights into the Largest Cohort of Non-English Speaking Background Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bense, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this paper investigates the situation of German migrant teachers in Australia. Although German born teachers represent the largest group of non-English speaking background teachers in Australia, there is no study of the circumstances and experiences of these teachers in Australia. This study aims to fill this gap. It…

  5. Teacher Evaluation Practices in Our Largest School Districts: Are They Measuring Up to "State-of-the-Art" Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Chad D.; Garland, JoAnne S.

    One hundred of the largest school districts from seven regions were surveyed to scrutinize local teacher evaluation policies and practices, to determine the efficiency of local evaluation instruments and procedures, and to compare local teacher evaluation with state teacher evaluation programs. The Teacher Evaluation Practices Survey (TEPS) was…

  6. Haven't We Been Here Before? Some Comments on Steve Coffman's Proposal for "Earth's Largest Library".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGervey, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the concept of Earth's Largest Library (ELL), a mega-virtual library based on the Amazon.com model. Topics include who will be included; privacy; censorship; scope of the collection; costs; legal aspects; collection development; personnel management; access; the concept of community; public service; lending policies; technical…

  7. A Content Analysis of Codes of Ethics and Related Documents from 100 of America's Largest Community, Junior, and Technical Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, William F.

    In 1992, a study was conducted of the codes of ethics and relevant policy and procedural statements of the largest two-year colleges in each state. By analyzing these documents, the study sought to determine whether a common body of ethics is surfacing among the colleges surveyed; compare academic codes of ethics with business codes of ethics, and…

  8. Ground Ant Diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberá Nature Reserve, the Largest Wetland of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Iberá Nature Reserve in northeastern Argentina protects one of the largest freshwater wetlands and reservoirs of species in South America. However, key invertebrate groups such as the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) remain almost unknown. The main objective of this work was to study the ground an...

  9. Ownership, financing, and management strategies of the ten largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Charlene; Hauser, Clarilee; Olney, Brian; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the ownership, financing, and management strategies of the 10 largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States, including the four largest chains purchased by private equity corporations. Descriptive data were collected from Internet searches, company reports, and other sources for the decade 1998-2008. Since 1998, the largest chains have made many changes in their ownership and structure, and some have converted from publicly traded companies to private ownership. This study shows the increasing complexity of corporate nursing home ownership and the lack of public information about ownership and financial status. The chains have used strategies to maximize shareholder and investor value that include increasing Medicare revenues, occupancy rates, and company diversification, establishing multiple layers of corporate ownership, developing real estate investment trusts, and creating limited liability companies. These strategies enhance shareholder and investor profits, reduce corporate taxes, and reduce liability risk. There is a need for greater transparency in ownership and financial reporting and for more government oversight of the largest for-profit chains, including those owned by private equity companies. PMID:22053531

  10. Healthy Cities, Healthy Suburbs: Progress in Meeting Healthy People Goals for the Nation's 100 Largest Cities & Their Suburbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrulis, Dennis P.; Duchon, Lisa M.; Reid, Hailey Maier

    This review of seven Healthy People objectives for the nation's 100 largest cities and their surrounding areas documents considerable but inconsistent progress toward improving health in urban and suburban areas. It describes achievements in reaching Healthy People 2000/2010 goals, which were created by the Office of the Surgeon General of the…

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Organizational Strategy and Performance among California's Largest Unified School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abode, Philip Sanmi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the nature of the relationship between organizational strategy and district performance among California's largest unified school districts. Organizational strategy was measured using planned and realized strategies (independent variables). Realized strategy is also referred to strategic orientation.…

  12. Flow cytometry reveals that the rust fungus, Uromyces bidentis (Pucciniales), possesses the largest fungal genome reported--2489 Mbp.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Ana Paula; Tavares, Sílvia; Tavares, Daniela; Silva, Maria Do Céu; Loureiro, João; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2015-12-01

    Among the Eukaryotes, Fungi have relatively small genomes (average of 44.2 Mbp across 1850 species). The order Pucciniales (Basidiomycota) has the largest average genome size among fungi (305 Mbp), and includes the two largest fungal genomes reported so far (Puccinia chrysanthemi and Gymnosporangium confusum, with 806.5 and 893.2 Mbp, respectively). In this work, flow cytometry was employed to determine the genome size of the Bidens pilosa rust pathogen, Uromyces bidentis. The results obtained revealed that U. bidentis presents a surprisingly large haploid genome size of 2489 Mbp. This value is almost three times larger than the previous largest fungal genome reported and over 50 times larger than the average fungal genome size. Microscopic examination of U. bidentis nuclei also showed that they are not as different in size from the B. pilosa nuclei when compared with the differences between other rusts and their host plants. This result further reinforces the position of the Pucciniales as the fungal group with the largest genomes, prompting studies addressing the role of repetitive elements and polyploidy in the evolution, pathological specialization and diversity of fungal species. PMID:25784533

  13. Oprelvekin. Genetics Institute.

    PubMed

    Sitaraman, S V; Gewirtz, A T

    2001-10-01

    Genetics Institute has developed and launched oprelvekin (rhIL-11; Neumega), a recombinant form of human IL-11. In November 1997, the FDA cleared oprelvekin for the prevention of severe thrombocytopenia and the reduction of the need for platelet transfusions following myelosuppressive chemotherapy in susceptible patients with non-myeloid malignancies 12703021. The product was launched at the end of 1997 [312556]. By December 1999, phase III trials for Crohn's disease (CD) were underway [363007]. Genetics Institute had commenced a 150-patient phase II trial for mild-to-moderate CD and mucositis and the company planned to file regulatory procedures for the indication of CD in 1999 [271210]. An oral formulation for this indication has been developed. Oprelvekin is also undergoing phase I clinical trials for colitis [396157], phase II clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis [413835] and clinical trials for psoriasis [299644]. In March 1997, Wyeth-Ayerst became the licensee for Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia (with the exception of Japan). Genetics Institute holds marketing rights for North America [239273]. In Japan, oprelvekin is being developed by Genetics Institute and Yamanouchi; phase III trials have commenced [295049] and were ongoing in May 2001 [411763]. In April 1996, analysts at Yamaichi estimated launch in 2001 and maximum annual sales of over yen 10 billion [215896]. In January 1998, Morgan Stanley Dean Witter predicted Yamanouchi's share of sales to be yen 1 billion in 2001, rising to yen 2 billion in 2002 [315458]. Sales of oprelvekin were US $34 million for Genetics institute in fiscal 2000 while, in July 2001, Credit Suisse First Boston estimated that this figure will be US $30 million and US $34 million in 2001 and 2002, respectively [416883]. PMID:11890354

  14. Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Brandt, A.; Danovaro, R.; de Mol, B.; Escobar, E.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Menot, L.; Buhl-Mortensen, P.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Smith, C. R.; Tittensor, D. P.; Tyler, P. A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vecchione, M.

    2010-09-01

    The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller - indeed, minimal - proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold-water corals have an increased

  15. Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Brandt, A.; Danovaro, R.; Escobar, E.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Menot, L.; Buhl-Mortensen, P.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Smith, C. R.; Tittensor, D. P.; Tyler, P. A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vecchione, M.

    2010-04-01

    The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th Century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 27 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st Century. However, for most of these habitats, the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller - indeed, minimal - proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation, thus, shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps, where chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold-water corals have an increased

  16. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, announced today that it has signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe. The ALMA antennas present difficult technical challenges, since the antenna surface accuracy must be within 25 microns, the pointing accuracy within 0.6 arc seconds, and the antennas must be able to be moved between various stations on the ALMA site. This is especially remarkable since the antennas will be located outdoor in all weather conditions, without any protection. Moreover, the ALMA antennas can be pointed directly at the Sun. ALMA will have a collecting area of more than 5,600 square meters, allowing for unprecedented measurements of extremely faint objects. The signing ceremony took place on December 6, 2005 at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany. "This contract represents a major milestone. It allows us to move forward, together with our American and Japanese colleagues, in this very ambitious and unique project," said ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "By building ALMA, we are giving European astronomers access to the world's leading submillimetre facility at the beginning of the next decade, thereby fulfilling Europe's desire to play a major role in this field of fundamental research." Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO of Alcatel Alenia Space, said: "We would like to thank ESO for trusting us to take on this new challenge. We are bringing to the table not only our recognized expertise in antenna development, but also our long-standing experience in

  17. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  18. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  19. Cyclotron-based nuclear science. Progress report, April 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Research at the cyclotron institute is summarized. These major areas are covered: nuclear structure; nuclear reactions and scattering; polarization studies; interdisciplinary nuclear science; instrumentation and systems development; and publications. (GHT)

  20. Molecular phylogeny, divergence time estimates and historical biogeography within one of the world's largest monocot genera.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin-Qin; Zhou, Song-Dong; Huang, De-Qing; He, Xing-Jin; Wei, Xian-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A primary aim of historical biogeography is to identify the causal factors or processes that have shaped the composition and distribution of biotas over time. Another is to infer the evolution of geographic ranges of species and clades in a phylogenetic context. To this end, historical biogeography addresses important questions such as: Where were ancestors distributed? Where did lineages originate? Which processes cause geographic ranges to evolve through time? Allium subgenus Anguinum comprises approximately twelve taxa with a disjunct distribution in the high mountains from south-western Europe to eastern Asia and in northeastern North America. Although both the systematic position and the geographical limits of Anguinum have been identified, to date no molecular systematic study has been performed utilizing a comprehensive sampling of these species. With an emphasis on the Anguinum eastern Asian geographical group, the goals of the present study were: (i) to infer species-level phylogenetic relationships within Anguinum, (ii) to assess molecular divergence and estimated the times of the major splits in Anguinum and (iii) to trace the biogeographic history of the subgenus. Four DNA sequences (ITS, matK, trnH-psbA, rps16) were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Allium subgen. Anguinum RbcL sequences were used to estimate divergences time for Allium, and sequences of ITS were used to estimate the divergence times for Anguinum and its main lineages and to provide implications for the evolutionary history of the subgenus. Phylogenetic analyses for all Allium corroborate that Anguinum is monophyletic and indicate that Anguinum is composed of two sister groups: one with a Eurasian-American distribution, and the other restricted to eastern Asia. In the eastern Asian geographical group, incongruence between gene trees and morphology-based taxonomies was recovered as was incongruence between data from plastid and nuclear sequences. This incongruence is likely due to

  1. Molecular phylogeny, divergence time estimates and historical biogeography within one of the world's largest monocot genera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin-Qin; Zhou, Song-Dong; Huang, De-Qing; He, Xing-Jin; Wei, Xian-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A primary aim of historical biogeography is to identify the causal factors or processes that have shaped the composition and distribution of biotas over time. Another is to infer the evolution of geographic ranges of species and clades in a phylogenetic context. To this end, historical biogeography addresses important questions such as: Where were ancestors distributed? Where did lineages originate? Which processes cause geographic ranges to evolve through time? Allium subgenus Anguinum comprises approximately twelve taxa with a disjunct distribution in the high mountains from south-western Europe to eastern Asia and in northeastern North America. Although both the systematic position and the geographical limits of Anguinum have been identified, to date no molecular systematic study has been performed utilizing a comprehensive sampling of these species. With an emphasis on the Anguinum eastern Asian geographical group, the goals of the present study were: (i) to infer species-level phylogenetic relationships within Anguinum, (ii) to assess molecular divergence and estimated the times of the major splits in Anguinum and (iii) to trace the biogeographic history of the subgenus. Four DNA sequences (ITS, matK, trnH-psbA, rps16) were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Allium subgen. Anguinum. RbcL sequences were used to estimate divergences time for Allium, and sequences of ITS were used to estimate the divergence times for Anguinum and its main lineages and to provide implications for the evolutionary history of the subgenus. Phylogenetic analyses for all Allium corroborate that Anguinum is monophyletic and indicate that Anguinum is composed of two sister groups: one with a Eurasian–American distribution, and the other restricted to eastern Asia. In the eastern Asian geographical group, incongruence between gene trees and morphology-based taxonomies was recovered as was incongruence between data from plastid and nuclear sequences. This incongruence is likely due to

  2. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This report outlines the National Space Biomedical Research Institute's (NSBRI) activities during FY 2004, the Institute's seventh year. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Institute's lead institution, Baylor College of Medicine.

  3. Are Schools and Colleges Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatter, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks whether schools and colleges should be regarded as institutions as well as organizations, and if so what are the implications. Different conceptions of "institution" are examined including an attempt to distinguish "institution" from "organization". It is suggested that institutions are committed to a…

  4. The Functions of Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saupe, Joe L.

    The nature and purpose of institutional research (IR), forms of research, and the function of IR in the organizational structures of colleges and universities are examined. Institutional research is defined as research conducted within a higher education institution to provide information that supports institutional planning, policy formulation,…

  5. [Symbolizm of medical institutions].

    PubMed

    Dworzański, Wojciech; Dworzańska, Anna; Niezabitowska, Ewa; Stolarek, Małgorzata; Opielak, Grzegorz; Madej, Barbara; Burdan, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    Marketing in health service has become an indispensable tool for creating and maintaining a positive image of medical institutions which to a great extent determines their success on the market. This process entails not only providing professional, reliable and up-to-date patient care but also establishing good reputation among those who already use it and its potential customers. It should be recognizable also for deliverers, investors, competitors, media and particularly for society and local authorities. The key to success is professionalism of personnel and their identification with the mission of the institution and the direction of changes being implemented there. For a complete success and recognition is essential health care facilities, which affects virtually matched the name and symbol, and communication of people responsible for contact with the media. PMID:22400177

  6. Institutions and poverty.

    PubMed

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution. PMID:20645460

  7. Institute for Mechanical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Institute of Mechanical Engineering has the objectives of supporting in Canada the following activities: improvement of vehicles, propulsion systems, and transportation-related facilities and services; improvements in the design and operation of maritime engineering works; protection of the environment; enhancement of energy flexibility; advancement of firms engaged in manufacturing and resource extraction; and related programs of other government departments and agencies. In 1990-91 the Institute, which had changed its name that year from the Division of Mechanical Engineering, consolidated its research activities from nine laboratories to six programs. Activities in these six programs are described: Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Coastal Zone Engineering, Cold Regions Engineering, Combustion and Fluids Engineering, Ground Transportation Technology, and Machinery and Engine Technology.

  8. Transportation Institutional Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  9. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 10: Power Plant Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 13: Power Plant Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  12. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 35: Systems and Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 31: Quality-Assurance Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  14. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 9: Reactor Auxiliary Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  15. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 33: Control Systems I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  16. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  17. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 16: Mechanical Component Characteristics and Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  18. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 34: Control Systems II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  19. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 20: Radiation Monitoring Techniques (Radiochemical).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 29: Civil/Structural Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 22: Advanced Radionuclide Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  3. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  4. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 11: Radiation Detection and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  5. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 4: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  6. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  7. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 3: Principles of Process Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  9. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 15: Metallurgy and Metals Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  10. Japanese suppliers in transition from domestic nuclear reactor vendors to international suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-06-27

    Japan is emerging as a major leader and exporter of nuclear power technology. In the 1990s, Japan has the largest and strongest nuclear power supply industry worldwide as a result of the largest domestic nuclear power plant construction program. The Japanese nuclear power supply industry has moved from dependence on foreign technology to developing, design, building, and operating its own power plants. This report describes the Japanese nuclear power supply industry and examines one supplier--the Mitsubishi group--to develop an understanding of the supply industry and its relationship to the utilities, government, and other organizations.

  11. Suppressor analysis of temperature-sensitive mutations of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a suppressor gene encodes the second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Yano, R; Nomura, M

    1991-01-01

    The SRP3-1 mutation is an allele-specific suppressor of temperature-sensitive mutations in the largest subunit (A190) of RNA polymerase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two mutations known to be suppressed by SRP3-1 are in the putative zinc-binding domain of A190. We have cloned the SRP3 gene by using its suppressor activity and determined its complete nucleotide sequence. We conclude from the following evidence that the SRP3 gene encodes the second-largest subunit (A135) of RNA polymerase I. First, the deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product contains several regions with high homology to the corresponding regions of the second-largest subunits of RNA polymerases of various origins, including those of RNA polymerase II and III from S. cerevisiae. Second, the deduced amino acid sequence contains known amino acid sequences of two tryptic peptides from the A135 subunit of RNA polymerase I purified from S. cerevisiae. Finally, a strain was constructed in which transcription of the SRP3 gene was controlled by the inducible GAL7 promoter. When this strain, which can grow on galactose but not on glucose, was shifted from galactose medium to glucose medium, a large decrease in the cellular concentration of A135 was observed by Western blot analysis. We have also identified the specific amino acid alteration responsible for suppression by SRP3-1 and found that it is located within the putative zinc-binding domain conserved among the second-largest subunits of eucaryotic RNA polymerases. From these results, it is suggested that this putative zinc-binding domain is in physical proximity to and interacts with the putative zinc-binding domain of the A190 subunit. Images PMID:1990281

  12. Nuclear weapons and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

  13. The ``Nuclear Renaissance'' and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, Edwin S.

    2007-05-01

    As interest grows around the world in nuclear power as an energy source that could help control greenhouse gas emissions, some have proclaimed the arrival of a ``nuclear renaissance.'' But can the increased risks of more nuclear power be managed? The political crisis surrounding Iran's pursuit of uranium enrichment has exposed weaknesses in the nuclear nonproliferation regime. Also, al Qaeda's declared interest in weapons of mass destruction raises the concern that terrorists could acquire nuclear weapons by stealing materials from poorly secured facilities. Growth of nuclear energy would require the construction of many additional uranium enrichment plants. And the generation of more spent nuclear fuel without a credible waste disposal strategy would increase political support for reprocessing, which separates large quantities of weapon-usable plutonium from spent fuel. There is little evidence that the various institutional arrangements and technical schemes proposed to mitigate the security risks of a major nuclear expansion would be effective. This talk will focus on the measures necessary to allow large-scale global growth of nuclear power without resulting in an unacceptably high risk of nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism, and will discuss the feasibility of such measures. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.E1.2

  14. INSTITUTION - DYNAMAP V.12.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    GDT Institutions represents point locations within New England for common institution landmark types including hospitals, educational institutions, religious institutions, government centers, and cemeteries

  15. Critical gaps in the world's largest electronic medical record: Ad Hoc nursing narratives and invisible adverse drug events.

    PubMed

    Hurdle, John F; Weir, Charlene R; Roth, Beverly; Hoffman, Jennifer; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2003-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, operates one of the largest healthcare networks in the world. Its electronic medical record (EMR) is fully integrated into clinical practice, having evolved over several decades of design, testing, trial, and error. It is unarguably the world's largest EMR, and as such it makes an important case study for a host of timely informatics issues. The VHA consistently has been at the vanguard of patient safety, especially in its provider-oriented EMR. We describe here a study of a large set of adverse drug events (ADEs) that eluded a rigorous ADE survey based on prospective EMR chart review. These numerous ADEs were undetected (and hence invisible) in the EMR, missed by an otherwise sophisticated ADE detection scheme. We speculate how these invisible nursing ADE narratives persist and what they portend for safety re-engineering. PMID:14728184

  16. Transcription initiation complexes and upstream activation with RNA polymerase II lacking the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Buratowski, S; Sharp, P A

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II assembles with other factors on the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter to generate pairs of transcription initiation complexes resolvable by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. The pairing of the complexes is caused by the presence or absence of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit. This domain is not required for transcription stimulation by the major late transcription factor in vitro. Images PMID:2398901

  17. On-Campus Enrollment in Arkansas Higher Education Institutions, Fall 1982. Report 82-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscum, Joanne

    Fall 1982 on-campus enrollment data in Arkansas colleges and universities are presented, along with a narrative description of trends. The total headcount enrollment increased 1.6 percent to a record enrollment of 72,300, and the largest increase occurred in part-time enrollment at the state-supported two-year institutions. While enrollment was…

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar Tolworthi Strain Pasteur Institute Standard

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Kohzo; Nakashima, Kaede

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tolworthi strain Pasteur Institute Standard was determined. The genome consists of a 5.9-Mb chromosome and eight plasmids, one of which is linear. The second largest plasmid (293 kb) carries the genes encoding insecticidal proteins. PMID:26139717

  19. Enrollment and Completions at Private Career Schools. A Factual Look at Private Career Institutions in Nebraska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, Lincoln.

    A survey of 53 private career institutions in Nebraska (56 percent located in the Omaha area) revealed the following statistics for the period July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991: (1) 9,275 students were enrolled; (2) business programs enrolled the largest percentage (35 percent) of the total student population, with business, trade, and technical…

  20. The Open Academic Model for the Systems Engineering Graduate Program at Stevens Institute of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasfer, Kahina

    2012-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Program at Stevens Institute of Technology has developed the Open Academic Model (OAM) to guide its strategic planning and operations since its founding in 2001. Guided by OAM, the Stevens Systems Engineering Program (SSEP) has grown from inception in 2001 into one of the largest in the US. The main objectives of the…