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Sample records for larix gmelinii var

  1. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin from Larix gmelinii with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chunhui; Yang, Lei; Wang, Wenjie; Yang, Fengjian; Zhao, Chunjian; Zu, Yuangang

    2012-01-01

    An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE) was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ) from Larix gmelinii wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C) was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The L. gmelinii wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22942735

  2. Leaf conductance and CO(2) assimilation of Larix gmelinii growing in an eastern Siberian boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Vygodskaya, N N; Milyukova, I; Varlagin, A; Tatarinov, F; Sogachev, A; Kobak, K I; Desyatkin, R; Bauer, G; Hollinger, D Y; Kelliher, F M; Schulze, E D

    1997-10-01

    In July 1993, we measured leaf conductance, carbon dioxide (CO(2)) assimilation, and transpiration in a Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. ex Kuzen forest in eastern Siberia. At the CO(2) concentration of ambient air, maximum values (mean of 10 highest measured values) for CO(2) assimilation, transpiration and leaf conductance for water vapor were 10.1 micro mol m(-2) s(-1), 3.9 mmol m(-2) s(-1) and 365 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. The corresponding mean values, which were much lower than the maximum values, were 2.7 micro mol m(-2) s(-1), 1.0 mmol m(-2) s(-1) and 56 mmol m(-2) s(-1). The mean values were similar to those of Vaccinium species in the herb layer. The large differences between maximum and actual performance were the result of structural and physiological variations within the tree crowns and between trees that reduced maximum assimilation and leaf conductance by about 40 and 60%, respectively. Thus, maximum assimilation and conductance values averaged over the canopy were 6.1 micro mol m(-2) s(-1) and 146 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Dry air caused stomatal closure, which reduced assimilation by an additional 26%. Low irradiances in the morning and evening had a minor effect (-6%). Daily canopy transpiration was estimated to be 1.45 mm day(-1), which is higher than the value of 0.94 mm day(-1) measured by eddy covariance, but similar to the value of 1.45 mm day(-1) calculated from the energy balance and soil evaporation, and less than the value of 2.1 mm day(-1) measured by xylem flux. Daytime canopy carbon assimilation, expressed on a ground area basis, was 0.217 mol m(-2) day(-1), which is higher than the value measured by eddy flux (0.162 mol m(-2) day(-1) including soil respiration). We discuss the regulation of leaf gas exchange in Larix under the extreme climatic conditions of eastern Siberia (temperature > 35 degrees C and vapor pressure deficit > 5.0 kPa). PMID:14759900

  3. De novo characterization of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. transcriptome and analysis of its gene expression induced by jasmonates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Larix gmelinii is a dominant tree species in China’s boreal forests and plays an important role in the coniferous ecosystem. It is also one of the most economically important tree species in the Chinese timber industry due to excellent water resistance and anti-corrosion of its wood products. Unfortunately, in Northeast China, L. gmelinii often suffers from serious attacks by diseases and insects. The application of exogenous volatile semiochemicals may induce and enhance its resistance against insect or disease attacks; however, little is known regarding the genes and molecular mechanisms related to induced resistance. Results We performed de novo sequencing and assembly of the L. gmelinii transcriptome using a short read sequencing technology (Illumina). Chemical defenses of L. gmelinii seedlings were induced with jasmonic acid (JA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) for 6 hours. Transcriptomes were compared between seedlings induced by JA, MeJA and untreated controls using a tag-based digital gene expression profiling system. In a single run, 25,977,782 short reads were produced and 51,157 unigenes were obtained with a mean length of 517 nt. We sequenced 3 digital gene expression libraries and generated between 3.5 and 5.9 million raw tags, and obtained 52,040 reliable reference genes after removing redundancy. The expression of disease/insect-resistance genes (e.g., phenylalanine ammonialyase, coumarate 3-hydroxylase, lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase and allene oxide cyclase) was up-regulated. The expression profiles of some abundant genes under different elicitor treatment were studied by using real-time qRT-PCR. The results showed that the expression levels of disease/insect-resistance genes in the seedling samples induced by JA and MeJA were higher than those in the control group. The seedlings induced with MeJA elicited the strongest increases in disease/insect-resistance genes. Conclusions Both JA and MeJA induced seedlings of L. gmelinii showed

  4. [Temporal variation of soil greenhouse gases fluxes in a cold-temperate Larix gmelinii forest in Inner Mongolia, China].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Qiu-Liang; Li, Chang-Sheng; Chen, Gao-Wa; Wang, Fei

    2012-08-01

    By using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique, an in situ measurement was conducted on the soil CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes in a cold-temperate Larix gmelinii forest in Inner Mongolia from June to September 2007, aimed to understand the diurnal and seasonal variations of soil greenhouse gasses fluxes and their relations with the associated environmental factors in L. gmelinii forests in cold-temperate zone. In growth season, the soil in the L. gmelinii forest was the sink of atmospheric CH4, with the flux ranged from 22.3 to 107.8 microg CH4-C x m(-2) x h(-1). The mean monthly uptake of CH4 in June, July, August, and September was 34.0 +/- 7.1, 71.4 +/- 9.4, 86.3 +/- 7.9, and 40.7 +/- 6.2 microg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. The mean diurnal flux of soil CH4 from June to September showed the same variation trend, i. e., peaked at 10:00 am. The diurnal variation of soil CO2 flux showed an obvious double-peak, and the mean monthly CO2 flux was in the order of July > August > June > September. Soil N2O flux varied dramatically from -9.1 to 31.7 microg x m(-2) x h(-1). Soil temperature and humidity were the main factors affecting the CH4 and CO2 fluxes, and soil temperature mainly affected the N2O flux. In the L. gmelinii forest, the CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes measured at 10:00 am could represent the diurnal CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes on the same day. PMID:23189692

  5. Environmental regulation of xylem sap flow and total conductance of Larix gmelinii trees in eastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Arneth, A.; Kelliher, F. M.; Bauer, G.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Byers, J. N.; Hunt, J. E.; McSeveny, T. M.; Ziegler, W.; Vygodskaya, N. N.; Milukova, I.; Sogachov, A.; Varlagin, A.; Schulze, E.-D.

    1996-01-01

    Xylem sap flow and environmental variables were measured on seven consecutive midsummer days in a 130-year-old Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. forest located 160 km south of Yakutsk in eastern Siberia, Russia (61 degrees N, 128 degrees E, 300 m asl). The site received 20 mm of rainfall during the 4 days before measurements, and soil samples indicated that the trees were well watered. The tree canopy was sparse with a one-sided leaf area index of 1.5 and a tree density of 1760 ha(-1). On a clear day when air temperature ranged from 9 to 29 degrees C, and maximum air saturation deficit was 3.4 kPa, daily xylem sap flux (F) among 13 trees varied by an order of magnitude from 7 l day(-1) for subcanopy trees (representing 55% of trees in the forest) to 67 l day(-1) for emergent trees (representing 18% of trees in the forest). However, when based on xylem sap flux density (F'), calculated by dividing F by projected tree crown area (a surrogate for the occupied ground area), there was only a fourfold range in variability among the 13 trees, from 1.0 to 4.4 mm day(-1). The calculation of F' also eliminated systematic and large differences in F among emergent, canopy and subcanopy trees. Stand-level F', estimated by combining half-hourly linear relationships between F and stem cross-sectional area with tree size distribution data, ranged between 1.8 +/- 0.4 (standard deviation) and 2.3 +/- 0.6 mm day(-1). These stand-level F' values are about 0.6-0.7 mm day(-1) (30%) larger than daily tree canopy transpiration rates calculated from forest energy balance and understory evaporation measurements. Maximum total tree conductance for water vapor transfer (G(tmax), including canopy and aerodynamic conductances), calculated from the ratio of F' and the above-canopy air saturation deficit (D) for the eight trees with continuous data sets, was 9.9 +/- 2.8 mm s(-1). This is equivalent to a leaf-scale maximum stomatal conductance (g(smax)) of 6.1 mm s(-1), when expressed on a one

  6. The impact of an inverse climate-isotope relationship in soil water on the oxygen-isotope composition of Larix gmelinii in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Saurer, Matthias; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Prokushkin, Anatoly S; Rinne, Katja T; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2016-02-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18) O) in trees from high latitude ecosystems are valuable sources of information for recent and past environmental changes, but the interpretation is hampered by the complex hydrology of forests growing under permafrost conditions, where only a shallow layer of soil thaws in summer. We investigated larch trees (Larix gmelinii) at two sites with contrasting soil conditions in Siberia and determined δ(18) O of water from different soil depths, roots, twigs, and needles as well as δ(18) O of soluble carbohydrates regularly over two growing seasons. A comparison of results from the 2 yrs revealed an unexpected 'inverse' climate-isotope relationship, as dry and warm summer conditions resulted in lower soil and root δ(18) O values. This was due to a stronger uptake of isotopically depleted water pools originating from melted permafrost or previous winter snow. We developed a conceptual framework that considers the dependence of soil water profiles on climatic conditions for explaining δ(18) O in needle water, needle soluble carbohydrates and stem cellulose. The negative feedback of drought conditions on the source isotope value could explain decreasing tree-ring δ(18) O trends in a warming climate and is likely relevant in many ecosystems, where a soil isotope gradient with depth is observed. PMID:26610186

  7. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer, root branch order and temperature on respiration and tissue N concentration of fine roots in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuxia; Wang, Zhengquan; Li, Xingpeng; Zhang, Xiaoping; McLaughlin, Neil B

    2011-07-01

    Root respiration is closely related to root morphology, yet it is unclear precisely how to distinguish respiration-related root physiological functions within the branching fine root system. Root respiration and tissue N concentration were examined for different N fertilization treatments, sampling dates, branch orders and temperatures of larch (Larix gmelinii L.) and ash (Fraxinus mandshurica L.) using the excised roots method. The results showed that N fertilization enhanced both root respiration and tissue N concentration for all five branch orders. The greatest increases in average root respiration for N fertilization treatment were 13.30% in larch and 18.25% in ash at 6°C. However, N fertilization did not change the seasonal dynamics of root respiration. Both root respiration and root tissue N concentration decreased with increase in root branch order. First-order (finest) roots exhibited the highest respiration rates and tissue N concentrations out of the five root branch orders examined. There was a highly significant linear relationship between fine root N concentration and root respiration rate. Root N concentration explained >60% of the variation in respiration rate at any given combination of root order and temperature. Root respiration showed a classical exponential relationship with temperature, with the Q(10) for root respiration in roots of different branching orders ranging from 1.62 to 2.20. The variation in root respiration by order illustrates that first-order roots are more metabolically active, suggesting that roots at different branch order positions have different physiological functions. The highly significant relationship between root respiration at different branch orders and root tissue N concentration suggests that root tissue N concentration may be used as a surrogate for root respiration, simplifying future research into the C dynamics of rooting systems. PMID:21849591

  8. Do centennial tree-ring and stable isotope trends of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. indicate increasing water shortage in the Siberian north?

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Olga Vladimirovna; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Saurer, Matthias; Shashkin, Alexander V; Knorre, Anastasia A; Prokushkin, Anatoliy S; Vaganov, Eugene A; Kirdyanov, Alexander V

    2009-10-01

    Tree-ring width of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr., ratios of stable isotopes of C (delta(13)C) and O (delta(18)O) of whole wood and cellulose chronologies were obtained for the northern part of central Siberia (Tura, Russia) for the period 1864-2006. A strong decrease in the isotope ratios of O and C (after atmospheric delta(13)C corrections) and tree-ring width was observed for the period 1967-2005, while weather station data show a decrease in July precipitation, along with increasing July air temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Temperature at the end of May and the whole month of June mainly determines tree radial growth and marks the beginning of the vegetation period in this region. A positive correlation between tree-ring width and July precipitation was found for the calibration period 1929-2005. Positive significant correlations between C isotope chronologies and temperatures of June and July were found for whole wood and cellulose and negative relationships with July precipitation. These relationships are strengthened when the likely physiological response of trees to increased CO(2) is taken into account (by applying a recently developed delta(13)C correction). For the O isotope ratios, positive relationships with annual temperature, VPD of July and a negative correlation with annual precipitation were observed. The delta(18)O in tree rings may reflect annual rather than summer temperatures, due to the late melting of the winter snow and its contribution to the tree water supply in summer. We observed a clear change in the isotope and climate trends after the 1960s, resulting in a drastic change in the relationship between C and O isotope ratios from a negative to a positive correlation. According to isotope fractionation models, this indicates reduced stomatal conductance at a relatively constant photosynthetic rate, as a response of trees to water deficit for the last half century in this permafrost region. PMID:19590897

  9. Genetic relationship among eurasian and american larix species based on allozymes

    PubMed

    Semerikov; Lascoux

    1999-07-01

    Genetic variation at 16 allozyme loci was studied in both American (Larix occidentalis Nutt., L. laricina (Du Roi) C. Koch, L. lyallii Parl.) and Eurasian (L. sibirica Ledeb., L. gmelinii Rupr., L. olgensis A. Henry, L. kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr. (=L. leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.), L. kamtschatica (Rupr.) Carr. and L. decidua (Mill. )) larch species. Species with a limited range, such as L. olgensis and L. lyallii, had lower genetic variation than species with a wider range. Population differentiation within species was of the same order of magnitude among species. The resulting phylogeny indicates a clear separation between American and Eurasian species. This result is in agreement with recent palaeontological findings that suggest that gene flow between American and Eurasian species has been unlikely since the last glaciation. PMID:10447704

  10. Polysaccharide arabinogalactan from larch Larix sibirica as carrier for molecules of salicylic and acetylsalicylic acid: preparation, physicochemical and pharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Chistyachenko, Yulia S; Dushkin, Alexandr V; Polyakov, Nikolay E; Khvostov, Mikhail V; Tolstikova, Tatyana G; Tolstikov, Genrikh A; Lyakhov, Nikolay Z

    2015-05-01

    Inclusion complexes of salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) with polysaccharide arabinogalactan (AG) from larch wood Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii were synthesized using mechanochemical technology. In the present study, we have investigated physicochemical properties of the synthesized complexes in solid state and in aqueous solutions as well as their anti-aggregation and ulcerogenic activity. The evidence of the complexes formation was obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation technique. It was shown that in aqueous solution the molecules of SA and ASA are in fast exchange between the complex with AG macromolecules and solution. The stability constant of aspirin complex was calculated. It was shown that mechanochemically synthesized complexes are more stable when compared to the complex obtained by mixing solutions of the components. Complexes of ASA show two-fold increase of anti-platelet effect. It allows to reduce the dose of the antithrombotic drug and its ulcerogenic activity. These results substantiate the possibility to design new preparations on the basis of ASA with increased activity and safety. PMID:24517849

  11. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of arabinogalactan and dihydroquercetin simultaneously from Larix gmelinii as a pretreatment for pulping and papermaking.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Yang, Lei; Li, Wei; Yue, Jinquan; Li, Jian; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method using ethanol was applied for extracting arabinogalactan (AG) and dihydroquercetin (DHQ) simultaneously from larch wood, as a pretreatment for pulping and papermaking. The extraction parameters were optimized by a Box-Behnken experimental design with the yields of AG and DHQ as the response values. Under optimum conditions (three extractions, each using 40% ethanol, for 50 min, 200 W ultrasound power and 1∶18 solid-liquid ratio), the yields of AG and DHQ were 183.4 and 36.76 mg/g, respectively. After UAE pretreated, the wood chips were used for Kraft pulping (KP) and high boiling solvent pulping (HBSP). The pulping yield after pretreatment was higher than that of untreated (the pulping yields of untreated HBSP and KP were 42.37% and 39.60%, and the pulping yields of HBSP and KP after UAE-pretreated were 44.23% and 41.50% respectively), as indicated by a lower kappa number (77.91 and 27.30 for untreated HBSP and KP; 77.01 and 26.83 for UAE-pretreated HBSP and KP). Furthermore, the characteristics of paper produced from pretreated wood chips were superior to those from the untreated chips: the basis weight was lower (85.67 and 82.48 g·cm(-2) for paper from untreated KP and HBSP; 79.94 and 80.25 g·cm(-2) for paper from UAE-pretreated KP and HBSP), and the tensile strengths, tearing strengths, bursting strengths, and folding strengths were higher than these of paper after UAE-pretreated, respectively. PMID:25460911

  12. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Arabinogalactan and Dihydroquercetin Simultaneously from Larix gmelinii as a Pretreatment for Pulping and Papermaking

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chunhui; Yang, Lei; Li, Wei; Yue, Jinquan; Li, Jian; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method using ethanol was applied for extracting arabinogalactan (AG) and dihydroquercetin (DHQ) simultaneously from larch wood, as a pretreatment for pulping and papermaking. The extraction parameters were optimized by a Box-Behnken experimental design with the yields of AG and DHQ as the response values. Under optimum conditions (three extractions, each using 40% ethanol, for 50 min, 200 W ultrasound power and 1∶18 solid-liquid ratio), the yields of AG and DHQ were 183.4 and 36.76 mg/g, respectively. After UAE pretreated, the wood chips were used for Kraft pulping (KP) and high boiling solvent pulping (HBSP). The pulping yield after pretreatment was higher than that of untreated (the pulping yields of untreated HBSP and KP were 42.37% and 39.60%, and the pulping yields of HBSP and KP after UAE-pretreated were 44.23% and 41.50% respectively), as indicated by a lower kappa number (77.91 and 27.30 for untreated HBSP and KP; 77.01 and 26.83 for UAE-pretreated HBSP and KP). Furthermore, the characteristics of paper produced from pretreated wood chips were superior to those from the untreated chips: the basis weight was lower (85.67 and 82.48 g·cm−2 for paper from untreated KP and HBSP; 79.94 and 80.25 g·cm−2 for paper from UAE-pretreated KP and HBSP), and the tensile strengths, tearing strengths, bursting strengths, and folding strengths were higher than these of paper after UAE-pretreated, respectively. PMID:25460911

  13. Influence of Long-Term Thinning on the Biomass Carbon and Soil Respiration in a Larch (Larix gmelinii) Forest in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huimei; Liu, Wei; Wang, Wenjie; Zu, Yuangang

    2013-01-01

    Thinning management is used to improve timber production, but only a few data are available on how it influences ecosystem C sink capacity. This study aims to clarify the effects of thinning on C sinks of larch plantations, the most widespread forests in Northeastern China. Both C influx from biomass production and C efflux from each soil respiration component and its temperature sensitivity were determined for scaling-up ecosystem C sink estimation: microbial composition is measured for clarifying mechanism for respiratory changes from thinning treatment. Thinning management induced 6.23 mol C m−2 yr−1 increase in biomass C, while the decrease in heterotrophic respiration (Rh) at the thinned sites (0.9 mol C m−2 yr−1) has enhanced 14% of this biomass C increase. This decrease in Rh was a sum of the 42% decrease (4.1 mol C m−2 yr−1) in litter respiration and 3.2 mol C m−2 yr−1 more CO2 efflux from mineral soil in thinned sites compared with unthinned control. Increases in temperature, temperature sensitivity, alteration of litters, and microbial composition may be responsible for the contrary changes in Rh from mineral soil and litter respiration, respectively. These findings manifested that thinning management of larch plantations could enhance biomass accumulation and decrease respiratory efflux from soil, which resulted in the effectiveness improvement in sequestrating C in forest ecosystems. PMID:23710153

  14. Impact of Forest Fires on Tree-Ring δ13C and δ18O of Gmelinii Larch in the Permafrost Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorre, Anastasia; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Sidorova, Olga; Prokushkin, Anatoly

    2013-04-01

    Forest fire is one of the most important environmental factors which define forest ecosystem functioning in the continuous permafrost zone in the north of Siberia. Tree-ring width (TRW) and stable isotope (13C/12C and 18O/16O) chronologies from two Larix Gmelinii sites with initially different conditions (wet and dry) and characterized by different fire history (fires in 1852 at wet and 1896 at dry sites, respectively) were considered. It was found that the rate of tree radial growth is enlarged due to the increased depth of seasonally thawing soil layer after fire. This effect is well pronounced during the consequent 30-60 years after the fire event and the length of this period depends on the fire intensity and the type of post-fire ground vegetation. TRW and δ18O are identified to be the most sensitive parameters to the changes of tree growth condition after fire. Correlations between these tree-ring parameters from the two sites shift from significantly positive (r=0.40; p<0.05 for TRW and r=0.62; p<0.05 for δ18O) before to negative (r=-0.52; p<0.05 for TRW and r=-0.38; p<0.05 for δ18O) after fire. In ~30-40 years correlations return to be positive, and faster recovery for TRW than for δ18O is observed. Values of δ13C in tree-rings from the two sites are highly positively correlated (r=0.56; p<0.05) during all considered periods independently of the fire impact. This fact indicates that δ13C chronologies should be more adequate for climatic reconstruction in the region because of the climate signal consistency. However, comparative analyses of prior and post-fire climatic response of the dendrochronological parameters indicate sufficient? significant changes in tree-ring growth and isotopic ratio response to climate due to the increased demand of water for trees during the post-fire period (deeper seasonal retreat of permafrost). The results obtained imply a higher impact of forest fires on the permafrost ecosystem under projected climate change because

  15. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Source of Artemisia Ketone.

    PubMed

    Haider, S Z; Andola, H C; Mohan, M

    2012-05-01

    The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34%) followed by α-thujone (9.91%) and 1,8-cineole (6.57%), Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%), whereas ar-curcumene (8.54%) was identified as a second major compound followed by α-thujone (4.04%). Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes. PMID:23439844

  16. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jingli; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1) were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level. PMID:26633380

  17. History of Larix decidua Mill. (European larch) since 130 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Stefanie; Litt, Thomas; Sánchez-Goñi, Maria-Fernanda; Petit, Rémy J.

    2015-09-01

    Retrospective studies focussing on forest dynamics using fossil and genetic data can provide important keys to prepare forests for the future. In this study we analyse the impact of past climate and anthropogenic changes on Larix decidua Mill. (European larch) populations based on a new range-wide fossil compilation encompassing the last 130 ka and on recently produced genetic data (nuclear, mitochondrial). Results demonstrate that during the last 130 ka L. decidua persisted close to its current distribution range and colonized vast areas outside this range during the first two early Weichselian interstadials (c. 87-109 ka and c. 83-78 ka), reaching a distributional maxima in the north-central European lowlands. Some fossil sites point to notably rapid responses to some abrupt climate events (Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles and Heinrich Events). Combined fossil and genetic data identify at least six MIS 2 refuges and postglacial recolonization pathways. The establishment of extant L. decidua forests dates back to the first two millennia of the Holocene (c. 11.5-9.5 ka) and the onset of anthropogenic impact was inferred since the late Neolithic (c. 6 ka), with major changes occurring since the Bronze Age (c. 4 ka). During the last 300 years human-induced translocations resulted in recent admixture of populations originating from separate refuges. Altogether, the results of this study provide valuable clues for developing sustainable conservation and management strategies targeting ancient genetic lineages and for studying evolutionary issues.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA Diversity of Modern, Ancient and Wild Sheep (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) from Turkey: New Insights on the Evolutionary History of Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Pişkin, Evangelia; Engin, Atilla; Özer, Füsun; Yüncü, Eren; Doğan, Şükrü Anıl; Togan, İnci

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, to contribute to the understanding of the evolutionary history of sheep, the mitochondrial (mt) DNA polymorphisms occurring in modern Turkish native domestic (n = 628), modern wild (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) (n = 30) and ancient domestic sheep from Oylum Höyük in Kilis (n = 33) were examined comparatively with the accumulated data in the literature. The lengths (75 bp/76 bp) of the second and subsequent repeat units of the mtDNA control region (CR) sequences differentiated the five haplogroups (HPGs) observed in the domestic sheep into two genetic clusters as was already implied by other mtDNA markers: the first cluster being composed of HPGs A, B, D and the second cluster harboring HPGs C, E. To manifest genetic relatedness between wild Ovis gmelinii and domestic sheep haplogroups, their partial cytochrome B sequences were examined together on a median-joining network. The two parallel but wider aforementioned clusters were observed also on the network of Ovis gmelenii individuals, within which domestic haplogroups were embedded. The Ovis gmelinii wilds of the present day appeared to be distributed on two partially overlapping geographic areas parallel to the genetic clusters that they belong to (the first cluster being in the western part of the overall distribution). Thus, the analyses suggested that the domestic sheep may be the products of two maternally distinct ancestral Ovis gmelinii populations. Furthermore, Ovis gmelinii anatolica individuals exhibited a haplotype of HPG A (n = 22) and another haplotype (n = 8) from the second cluster which was not observed among the modern domestic sheep. HPG E, with the newly observed members (n = 11), showed signs of expansion. Studies of ancient and modern mtDNA suggest that HPG C frequency increased in the Southeast Anatolia from 6% to 22% some time after the beginning of the Hellenistic period, 500 years Before Common Era (BCE). PMID:24349158

  19. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of modern, ancient and wild sheep(Ovis gmelinii anatolica) from Turkey: new insights on the evolutionary history of sheep.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Sevgin; Koban Baştanlar, Evren; Dağtaş, Nihan Dilşad; Pişkin, Evangelia; Engin, Atilla; Ozer, Füsun; Yüncü, Eren; Doğan, Sükrü Anıl; Togan, Inci

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, to contribute to the understanding of the evolutionary history of sheep, the mitochondrial (mt) DNA polymorphisms occurring in modern Turkish native domestic (n = 628), modern wild (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) (n = 30) and ancient domestic sheep from Oylum Höyük in Kilis (n = 33) were examined comparatively with the accumulated data in the literature. The lengths (75 bp/76 bp) of the second and subsequent repeat units of the mtDNA control region (CR) sequences differentiated the five haplogroups (HPGs) observed in the domestic sheep into two genetic clusters as was already implied by other mtDNA markers: the first cluster being composed of HPGs A, B, D and the second cluster harboring HPGs C, E. To manifest genetic relatedness between wild Ovis gmelinii and domestic sheep haplogroups, their partial cytochrome B sequences were examined together on a median-joining network. The two parallel but wider aforementioned clusters were observed also on the network of Ovis gmelenii individuals, within which domestic haplogroups were embedded. The Ovis gmelinii wilds of the present day appeared to be distributed on two partially overlapping geographic areas parallel to the genetic clusters that they belong to (the first cluster being in the western part of the overall distribution). Thus, the analyses suggested that the domestic sheep may be the products of two maternally distinct ancestral Ovis gmelinii populations. Furthermore, Ovis gmelinii anatolica individuals exhibited a haplotype of HPG A (n = 22) and another haplotype (n = 8) from the second cluster which was not observed among the modern domestic sheep. HPG E, with the newly observed members (n = 11), showed signs of expansion. Studies of ancient and modern mtDNA suggest that HPG C frequency increased in the Southeast Anatolia from 6% to 22% some time after the beginning of the Hellenistic period, 500 years Before Common Era (BCE). PMID:24349158

  20. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Sun, Xiaowei; Yang, Fengjian; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zu, Yuangang

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) was successfully applied to the extraction of proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini bark. In this work, in order to evaluate the performance of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction process, a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were evaluated for extraction yield, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the ILMAE procedure for the proanthocyanidins was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the proanthocyanidins was obtained. Relative to other methods, the proposed approach provided higher extraction yield and lower energy consumption. The Larix gmelini bark samples before and after extraction were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the ILMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22606036

  1. [Effects of exotic Larix kaempferi on forest soil quality and bacterial diversity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Cao, Jing; Dong, Mao-Xing; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2008-10-01

    The study on the soil quality and bacterial diversity under 8-30 years old exotic Larix kaempferi, native Pinus tabulaeformis, and secondary deciduous broadleaf forest stands in Xiaolong-shan Mountains of Gansu, Northwest China showed that the soil pH under different forest stands had no distinct variation, but soil moisture content was increased with increasing age of forest stands. Soil organic matter and nitrogen contents were the highest under secondary deciduous forest, followed by under L. kaermpferi, and P. tabulaeformis. However, the soils under different ages of forest stands had no obvious variations in their organic matter and nitrogen contents, suggesting that tree species was the main factor affecting soil quality. Compared with P. tabulaeformis, exotic L. kaempferi could significantly increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents. PCR-DGGE banding patterns suggested that the soil under secondary deciduous broadleaf forest had the highest bacterial diversity, followed by under L. kaempferi, and P. tabulaeformis. The sequenced DGGE bands were classified into three bacterial groups, i. e., Proteobacteria, Cytophaga - Flavobacterium - Bacteroides, and high G + C content gram-positive type, among which, Proteobacteria occurred most frequently. Further detailed analyses suggested that the soil bacterial compositions under exotic Larix stands were more similar to each other than those under pine and secondary deciduous broadleaf forests. It was concluded that exotic L. kaempferi induced the changes of microbial diversity in the forest soils of this region. PMID:19123342

  2. Genetic variation, climate models and the ecological genetics of Larix occidentalis

    SciTech Connect

    Rehfeldt, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    Provenance tests of 138 populations of Larix occidentalis revealed genetic differentiation for eight variables describing growth, phenology, tolerance to spring frosts, effects of Meria laricis needle cast, and survival. Geographic variables accounted for as much as 34% of the variance among Rocky Mountain populations. Patterns of genetic variation were dominated by the effects of latitude and elevation, with populations from the north and from high elevations having the lowest growth potential, the least tolerance to the needle cast, and the lowest survival. However, the slope of the geographic clines was relatively flat. Populations in the same geographic area, for instance, need to be separated by about 500 m in elevation before genetic differentiation can be expected.

  3. [A site index model for Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation in Saihanba, north China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-zhi; Zhang, Dong-yan; Jiang, Feng-ling; Bai, Ye; Zhang, Zhi-dong; Huang, Xuan-rui

    2015-11-01

    It is often difficult to estimate site indices for different types of plantation by using an ordinary site index model. The objective of this paper was to establish a site index model for plantations in varied site conditions, and assess the site qualities. In this study, a nonlinear mixed site index model was constructed based on data from the second class forest resources inventory and 173 temporary sample plots. The results showed that the main limiting factors for height growth of Larix principis-rupprechtii were elevation, slope, soil thickness and soil type. A linear regression model was constructed for the main constraining site factors and dominant tree height, with the coefficient of determination being 0.912, and the baseline age of Larix principis-rupprechtii determined as 20 years. The nonlinear mixed site index model parameters for the main site types were estimated (R2 > 0.85, the error between the predicted value and the actual value was in the range of -0.43 to 0.45, with an average root mean squared error (RMSE) in the range of 0.907 to 1.148). The estimation error between the predicted value and the actual value of dominant tree height for the main site types was in the confidence interval of [-0.95, 0.95]. The site quality of the high altitude-shady-sandy loam-medium soil layer was the highest and that of low altitude-sunny-sandy loam-medium soil layer was the lowest, while the other two sites were moderate. PMID:26915198

  4. Pathogenicity of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi, seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Y; Shoji, T

    2009-06-01

    Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi, seedlings was tested with inoculation experiments under nursery conditions. Water suspensions of nematodes (mixed stages cultured on Botrytis cinerea or dispersal fourth-stage juveniles (DJ4) extracted from the adult Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus) were injected into the stems of 2- and 3-year-old Japanese larch and Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii, seedlings growing in a nursery. In another treatment, Japanese pine sawyer adults holding DJ4 were released under a net that covered the upper half of the seedlings. Regardless of nematode inoculation method, Japanese larch seedlings were as susceptible as Japanese black pine seedlings to B. xylophilus under nursery conditions. The rate of disease development was similar on larch and pine seedlings. Nematode population densities were lower in the stems of dead larch seedlings than in the stems of dead pine seedlings. Histopathological observations revealed that the distribution of nematodes in the stems of dead larch seedlings was mostly limited to the cortex, phloem and cambial zone. Traumatic resin canal formation was one of the most characteristic symptoms in larch seedlings which was dissimilar to that in pine seedlings. PMID:22661789

  5. Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Larix Gmelini Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Shen, J.; Zhu, X. D.

    As an important bio-material, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions of wood composites have increasing more concerns. The headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) was used to extract the VOCs emissions from larix gmelini particles. The HSSPME procedure was compared to conventional static headspace (HS) analysis for the VOCs emissions. Both methods gave the similar results, but the HSSPME was much more sensitive and exhibited better precision. Several parameters of the extraction and desorption procedure were studied and optimized (such as extraction temperature, extraction time, adsorption time, desorption time). The optimal parameters were obtained as extraction temperature 60 °C, extraction time 40 min, adsorption time 30 min and desorption time 40 min.The components of VOCs emissions in the samples were identified according to the GC-MS total ion chromatograms. The characteristic emissions obtained by HSSPME-GC-MS were alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, hexanal and 3- carene. Being a rapid, simple and practically non-interfering technique, HSSPME was successfully applied to analyze VOCs emissions in wood-composites.

  6. Economics of static VAR compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, F.L.; DeMarco, C.; Jung, T.H. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1992-09-01

    This project was initiated in anticipation of widened use of static VAR (volt-ampere-reactive) compensation on US bulk-power transmission systems to increase levels of secure power transfer. Project objectives were to deten-nine power system cost savings and reliability benefits resulting from such use. System operating cost and stability probabilities were compared with and without static VAR compensation, applying simulation techniques. For the particular system model studied, there was a 21.4 percent reduction in operating costs taking into account losses added by the static VAR compensator. A procedure was developed to compare instability probabilities for various loadings and static VAR compensator sizes on a power system. For the particular system model studied, the static VAR compensator provided a significant increase in stability but over a narrow range of loading. Static VAR compensation is one of a number of promising FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) technologies for handling the demands of increased power transfers on power systems where transmission lines cannot be built or as a short-term altemative to building additional lines.

  7. Hydraulic properties and fine root mass of Larix sibirica along forest edge-interior gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenlemuge, Tselmeg; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hertel, Dietrich; Schuldt, Bernhard; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2015-02-01

    At its southernmost distribution limit in Inner Asia, the boreal forest disintegrates into forest fragments on moist sites (e.g. north-facing slopes), which are embedded in grasslands. This landscape mosaic is characterized by a much higher forest edge-to-interior ratio than in closed boreal forests. Earlier work in the forest-steppe ecotone of Mongolia has shown that Larix sibirica trees at forest edges grow faster than in the forest interior, as the more xeric environment at the edge promotes self-thinning and edges are preferentially targeted by selective logging and livestock grazing. Lowered stand density reduces competition for water in these semi-arid forests, where productivity is usually limited by summer drought. We studied how branch and coarse root hydraulic architecture and xylem conductivity, fine root biomass and necromass, and fine root morphology of L. sibirica respond to sites differing in water availability. Studying forest edge-interior gradients in two regions of western Mongolia, we found a significant reduction of branch theoretical (Kp) and empirical conductivity (Ks) in the putatively more drought-affected forest interior in the Mongolian Altai (mean precipitation: 120 mm yr-1), while no branch xylem modification occurred in the moister Khangai Mountains (215 mm yr-1). Kp and Ks were several times larger in roots than in branches, but root hydraulics were not influenced by stand density or mean annual precipitation. Very low fine root biomass: necromass ratios at all sites, and in the forest interior in particular, suggest that L. sibirica seeks to maintain a relatively high root conductivity by producing large conduits, which results in high root mortality due to embolism during drought. Our results suggest that L. sibirica is adapted to the semi-arid climate at its southernmost distribution limit by considerable plasticity of the branch hydraulic system and a small but apparently dynamic fine root system.

  8. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack seedlings to maintain water

  9. Physiological responses of the hybrid larch (Larix × eurolepis Henry) to cadmium exposure and distribution of cadmium in plantlets.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Amandine; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne; Faugeron, Céline; Gloaguen, Vincent; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction of Cd is a growing biotechnology although we currently know few Cd hyperaccumulators, i.e., plant species able to accumulate at least 0.1 mg Cd g(-1) dry weight in aerial organs. Owing their deep root system and high biomass, trees are more and more preferred to herbaceous species for phytoextraction. Assuming that conifers could be relevant models under cold climates, we investigated cadmium tolerance of the hybrid larch Larix × eurolepis Henry (Larix decidua × Larix kaempferi) and the efficiency of this species to store this metal. In vitro grown larches were chosen in order to reduce time of exposure and to more rapidly evaluate their potential efficiency to accumulate Cd. One-month-old plantlets were exposed for 2 and 4 weeks to 250 and 500 μM Cd. Results showed that they tolerated a 4-week exposure to 250 μM Cd, whereas the content of photosynthetic pigment strongly dropped in plantlets growing in the presence of 500 μM Cd. In the presence of 250 μM Cd, shoot growth slightly decreased but photosynthetic pigment and total soluble carbohydrate contents were not modified and no lipid peroxidation was detected. In addition, these plantlets accumulated proline, particularly in shoots (two to three times more than control). In roots, Cd concentration in the intracellular fraction was always higher than in the cell wall fraction contrary to shoots where Cd concentration in the cell wall fraction increased with time and Cd concentration in the medium. In shoots, Cd concentration was lower than in roots with a ratio of 0.2 after 4 weeks of exposure but stayed around 0.2 mg g(-1) dry weight, thus a value higher than the threshold requested for Cd hyperaccumulators. Hybrid larch would thus be a relevant candidate for field test of Cd phytoextraction. PMID:26797952

  10. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on the nutrient uptake characteristics of Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi).

    PubMed

    Shinano, Takuro; Yamamoto, Takuya; Tawaraya, Keitaro; Tadokoro, Masaru; Koike, Takayoshi; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the response of Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi Sieb. & Zucc.) to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) (689 +/- 75 ppm in 2002 and 697 +/- 90 ppm in 2003) over 2 years in a field experiment with open-top chambers. Root activity was assessed as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake rates estimated from successive measurements of absorbed amounts. Dry matter production of whole plants was unaffected by elevated [CO(2)] in the first year of treatment, but increased significantly in response to elevated [CO(2)] in the second year. In contrast, elevated [CO(2)] increased the root to shoot ratio and fine root dry mass in the first year, but not in the second year. Elevated [CO(2)] had no effect on tissue N, P and K concentrations. Uptake rates of N, P and K correlated with whole-plant relative growth rates, but were unaffected by growth [CO(2)], as was ectomycorrhizal colonization, a factor assumed to be important for nutrient uptake in trees. We conclude that improved growth of Larix kaempferi in response to elevated [CO(2)] is accompanied by increased root biomass, but not by increased root activity. PMID:17169911

  11. Species presence frequency and diversity in different patch types along an altitudinal gradient: Larix chinensis Beissn in Qinling Mountains (China).

    PubMed

    Huang, Minyi; Duan, Renyan; Wang, Shixiong; Wang, Zhigao; Fan, Weiyi

    2016-01-01

    Forest communities are mosaic systems composed of patches classified into four different developmental patch types: gap patch (G), building patch (B), mature patch (M) and degenerate patch (D). To study the mechanisms maintaining diversity in subalpine coniferous forests, species presence frequency and diversity in the four distinct patch types (G, B, M and D) of Larix chinensis conifer forests at three altitudinal gradients in the Qinling Mountains were analyzed. Our results were as follows: (1) Different species (or functional groups) had distinct presence frequencies in the four different patch types along the altitudinal gradient; (2) Some species or functional groups (species groups sharing similar traits and responses to the environment) only occurred in some specific patches. For seed dispersal, species using wind mainly occurred in G and D, while species using small animals mainly occurred in B and M; (3) Species composition of adjacent patch types was more similar than non-adjacent patch types, based on the lower β diversity index of the former; (4) The maximum numbers of species and two diversity indices (D' and H') were found in the middle altitudes. Various gap-forming processes and dispersal limitation may be the two major mechanisms determining species diversity in Larix chinensis coniferous forests at the patch scale. PMID:26998409

  12. Species presence frequency and diversity in different patch types along an altitudinal gradient: Larix chinensis Beissn in Qinling Mountains (China)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Minyi; Wang, Shixiong; Wang, Zhigao; Fan, Weiyi

    2016-01-01

    Forest communities are mosaic systems composed of patches classified into four different developmental patch types: gap patch (G), building patch (B), mature patch (M) and degenerate patch (D). To study the mechanisms maintaining diversity in subalpine coniferous forests, species presence frequency and diversity in the four distinct patch types (G, B, M and D) of Larix chinensis conifer forests at three altitudinal gradients in the Qinling Mountains were analyzed. Our results were as follows: (1) Different species (or functional groups) had distinct presence frequencies in the four different patch types along the altitudinal gradient; (2) Some species or functional groups (species groups sharing similar traits and responses to the environment) only occurred in some specific patches. For seed dispersal, species using wind mainly occurred in G and D, while species using small animals mainly occurred in B and M; (3) Species composition of adjacent patch types was more similar than non-adjacent patch types, based on the lower β diversity index of the former; (4) The maximum numbers of species and two diversity indices (D′ and H′) were found in the middle altitudes. Various gap-forming processes and dispersal limitation may be the two major mechanisms determining species diversity in Larix chinensis coniferous forests at the patch scale. PMID:26998409

  13. Water relations and photosynthetic performance in Larix sibirica growing in the forest-steppe ecotone of northern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Bader, Martin; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Oyungerel, Shagjjav; Nyambayar, Suran; Runge, Michael; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Shoot water relations were studied in Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) trees growing at the borderline between taiga and steppe in northern Mongolia. Larix sibirica is the main tree species in these forests covering 80% of Mongolia's forested area. Minimum shoot water potentials (Psi(m)) close to the point of zero turgor (Psi(0)) repeatedly recorded throughout the growing season suggest that the water relations in L. sibirica were often critical. The Psi(m) varied in close relation to the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit, whereas Psi(0) was correlated with monthly precipitation. Young larch trees growing at the forest line to the steppe were more susceptible to drought than mature trees at the same sites. Furthermore, isolated trees growing on the steppe exhibited lower Psi(m) and recovered to a lower degree from drought overnight than the trees at the forest line. Indications of drought stress in L. sibirica were obtained in two study areas in Mongolia's forest-steppe ecotone: one in the mountain taiga of the western Khentey in northernmost Mongolia, the other in the forest-steppe at the southern distribution limit of L. sibirica on Mt. Bogd Uul, southern Khentey. Larix sibirica growing in riverine taiga with contact to the groundwater table was better water-supplied than the larch trees growing at the forest line to the steppe. Larch trees from the interior of light taiga forests on north-facing slopes, however, exhibited more critical water relations than the trees at the forest line. Frequent drought stress in mature trees and even more in young larch trees at the forest-steppe borderline suggests that L. sibirica does not have the potential to encroach on the steppe under the present climate, except in a sequence of exceptionally moist and cool years. A regression of the present borderline between forest and steppe is likely to occur, as average temperatures are increasing everywhere and precipitation is decreasing regionally in Mongolia's taiga forest

  14. Tree Growth and Competition in a Betula platyphylla–Larix cajanderi Post-fire Forest in Central Kamchatka

    PubMed Central

    DOLEŽAL, JIŘÍ; ISHII, HIROAKI; VETROVA, VALENTINA P.; SUMIDA, AKIHIRO; HARA, TOSHIHIKO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Fire is the dominant disturbance in central Kamchatka boreal forests, yet patterns and mechanisms of stand recovery have not been investigated. • Methods Measurements were made of 1433 stems ≥1·3 m height and annual radial increments of 225 randomly selected trees in a 0·4-ha plot of a 53-year-old fire-origin mixed-species stand to examine the spatio-temporal variation in establishment, growth, size inequality and the mode of competition among individual trees. Growth variations were related to tree size, age and local interference with neighbours. • Key Results Betula platyphylla formed the main canopy following a fire in 1947, with Larix cajanderi and Pinus pumila progressively reinvading the lower tree and shrub stratum. Most B. platyphylla originated from sprouts in small patches (polycormons) during the first 15 post-fire years. Betula platyphylla had normal distributions of diameter and age classes, but negatively skewed height distribution, as expected from shade-intolerant, pioneer species. Larix cajanderi had fewer tall and many short individuals. The smaller and younger B. platyphylla grew disproportionately more in diameter than larger trees from 1950 to 1975, and hence stem size inequalities decreased. The reverse trend was observed from 1995 to 2000: larger trees grew more, indicating an increasing asymmetry of competition for light. Betula platyphylla had steady diameter growth in the first 25 post-fire years, after which the growth declined in smaller trees. Neighbourhood analysis showed that the decline resulted from increased competition from taller neighbours. • Conclusions The observed growth patterns suggest that mode of interactions altered during stand development from early stages of weak competition for soil resources released by fire to later stages of asymmetric competition for light. Asymmetric crown competition started later than reported in other studies, which can be attributed to the lower stem

  15. Ribosomal genes of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii and var. farciminosum.

    PubMed

    Okeke, C N; Kappe, R; Zakikhani, S; Nolte, O; Sonntag, H G

    1998-11-01

    A total of 1704 basepairs of the 18S rDNA of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii (HCD, strain CBS175.57) and H. capsulatum var. farciminosum (HCF, strain CBS478.64) were sequenced (EMBL accession no. Z75306 and no. Z75307). The 18S rDNA of HCD was 100% identical to a published sequence of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum (HCC). The 18S rDNA of HCF showed one transversional point mutation at the nucleotide position 114 (ref. Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Hybridization confirmed that, in the 18S rDNA of two out of five strains of HCF, guanine was substituted for cytosine at the nucleotide position 114. Furthermore, identical group 1C1 introns (403 bp) were found to be inserted after position 1165 in four out of five strains of HCF, including the two strains with point mutations in the 18S rDNA, and a slightly different group 1C1 intron (408 bp) was detected in one strain of HCC without this point mutation. Intraspecific sequence variability in the highly conserved 18S rDNA because of occurrence of introns and mutations as a possible source of error in molecular diagnostics is discussed. In addition, internal transcribed spacer regions between the 18S rDNA and the 5.8S rDNA (ITS1) of three strains of HCF, and one strain each of HCC and HCD showed significant sequence variability between varieties and strains of H. capsulatum. PMID:9916456

  16. Physiological evaluation of the responses of Larix olgensis families to drought stress and proteomic analysis of the superior family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Zhang, H G; Pang, Q Y

    2015-01-01

    The conifer Larix olgensis has been analyzed to delineate physiological and proteomic changes that occur under drought stress. Studies of the deleterious effects of drought in the larch families have mainly focused on photosynthesis. In the present study, when the intensity of drought was increased, plant height was inhibited as both POD and MDA levels increased, which indicates oxidative stress. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis detected 23 significantly differentially expressed proteins, of which 18 were analyzed by peptide mass fingerprinting by using MALDI-TOF/TOF. Eight spots were found to be up-regulated, while the other 10 spots were down-regulated during drought stress. The proteins that were induced by drought treatment have been implicated in the physiological changes that occurred. These results could provide additional information that could lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of drought-sensitivity in larch plants. PMID:26634525

  17. TabVar: Tabulated Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Bachan, John

    2015-12-15

    TabVar: A Python library for manipulating datasets in the form of tabulated variables. Tables in tabvar contain many columns representing independent variables, but exactly one distinguished column for the dependent variable. Having a single distinguished column allows a natural lifting of arithmetic operators to tables, much (and in fact fully generalizing) multidimensional array arithmetic. The convenient syntax of whole-table arithmetic, along with the usual operations of filtering and aggregation, and all in the setting of python's interactive REPL allows for rapid exploration of datasets.

  18. TabVar: Tabulated Variables

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-12-15

    TabVar: A Python library for manipulating datasets in the form of tabulated variables. Tables in tabvar contain many columns representing independent variables, but exactly one distinguished column for the dependent variable. Having a single distinguished column allows a natural lifting of arithmetic operators to tables, much (and in fact fully generalizing) multidimensional array arithmetic. The convenient syntax of whole-table arithmetic, along with the usual operations of filtering and aggregation, and all in the setting ofmore » python's interactive REPL allows for rapid exploration of datasets.« less

  19. Long-term measurement of terpenoid flux above a Larix kaempferi forest using a relaxed eddy accumulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Tani, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Ueyama, Masahito

    2014-02-01

    Terpenoids emitted from forests contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols and affect the carbon budgets of forest ecosystems. To investigate seasonal variation in terpenoid flux involved in the aerosol formation and carbon budget, we measured the terpenoid flux of a Larix kaempferi forest between May 2011 and May 2012 by using a relaxed eddy accumulation method. Isoprene was emitted from a fern plant species Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the forest floor and monoterpenes from the L. kaempferi. α-Pinene was the dominant compound, but seasonal variation of the monoterpene composition was observed. High isoprene and monoterpene fluxes were observed in July and August. The total monoterpene flux was dependent on temperature, but several unusual high positive fluxes were observed after rain fall events. We found a good correlation between total monoterpene flux and volumetric soil water content (r = 0.88), and used this correlation to estimate monoterpene flux after rain events and calculate annual terpenoid emissions. Annual carbon emission in the form of total monoterpenes plus isoprene was determined to be 0.93% of the net ecosystem exchange. If we do not consider the effect of rain fall, carbon emissions may be underestimated by about 50%. Our results suggest that moisture conditions in the forest soil is a key factor controlling the monoterpene emissions from the forest ecosystem.

  20. Seasonal course of photosynthetic efficiency in Larix decidua Mill. in response to temperature and change in pigment composition during senescence.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, M; Rossini, M; Migliavacca, M; Cremonese, E; Colombo, R; Morra di Cella, U

    2013-11-01

    This manuscript presents a study aimed at characterizing the seasonal course of photosynthetic capacity of an alpine deciduous conifer, European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and photosynthetic pigment analysis. The study focused on the characterization of autumn senescence events which (contrary to bud-burst) are still scarcely investigated. The study was conducted on two natural European larch stands in the northwestern Italian Alps during two consecutive years. The results show that photosynthetic efficiency as assessed by fluorescence measurements was controlled by variations in air and soil temperature. Photosynthesis responded to variations in maximum air and soil temperature in a delayed way, with a varying lag depending on the seasonal period considered. The analysis of photosynthetic efficiency and pigment decline at the end of the growing season identified two senescence phases. During early senescence, plants manifested only the beginning of needle decolouration, while during late senescence pigment degradation led to a loss in photosynthetic efficiency. This behavior indicates that the beginning of needle yellowing and the decline in photosynthetic efficiency can occur at different times-a finding that should be considered in order to improve models of ecosystem processes. PMID:23263743

  1. [Stem radius growth of Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii nearby the tree-line of Luya Mountain].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan-Gang; Dong, Man-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Tao; Ren, Fei-Peng

    2009-06-01

    The stem radius growth (SRG) of six samples of Picea meyeri and five samples of Larix principis-rupprechtii nearby the tree-line of Luya Mountain in North China was measured by the dendrometer in the summer phase from July 15 to August 7 and the autumn phase from September 5 to October 9, 2007, with the environmental factors measured simultaneously. In the summer phase, there was no significant difference in the sensitivity of SRG to the environmental factors fluctuation between the two species; but in the relatively cold and dry autumn phase, the SRG of P. meyeri was more sensitive to the fluctuation of environmental factors. The accumulated SRG of the two species increased linearly in summer phase, but decreased first and kept stable then in autumn phase, with the growth increment of P. meyeri fluctuated more than that of L. principis-rupprechtii. The SRG of the two species correlated positively with hydrological factors and negatively with thermal factors, and the SRG of P. meyeri was strongly affected by air humidity and temperature, while that of L. principis-rupprechtii was mainly affected by soil moisture. PMID:19795632

  2. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  3. Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, D H; Pfeiffer, T J

    1990-01-01

    Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological association with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. So far, we have isolated C. neoformans var. gattii on 35 separate occasions, all from samples associated with E. camaldulensis. The global distribution of E. camaldulensis appears to correspond to the epidemiologic distribution of cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans var. gattii. No other environmental source for the fungus has yet been detected, and no other eucalypt has the distribution pattern corresponding to reported cases caused by this fungus. These findings may provided an explanation for the high incidence of infections caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in Australian aborigines living in the Northern Territory and for its low worldwide incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Images PMID:2199524

  4. Economics of static VAR compensation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, F.L.; DeMarco, C.; Jung, T.H.

    1992-09-01

    This project was initiated in anticipation of widened use of static VAR (volt-ampere-reactive) compensation on US bulk-power transmission systems to increase levels of secure power transfer. Project objectives were to deten-nine power system cost savings and reliability benefits resulting from such use. System operating cost and stability probabilities were compared with and without static VAR compensation, applying simulation techniques. For the particular system model studied, there was a 21.4 percent reduction in operating costs taking into account losses added by the static VAR compensator. A procedure was developed to compare instability probabilities for various loadings and static VAR compensator sizes on a power system. For the particular system model studied, the static VAR compensator provided a significant increase in stability but over a narrow range of loading. Static VAR compensation is one of a number of promising FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) technologies for handling the demands of increased power transfers on power systems where transmission lines cannot be built or as a short-term altemative to building additional lines.

  5. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  6. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent formation of secondary organic aerosols in a Larix kaempferi forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, T.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ono, K.; Wada, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Saigusa, N.; Kawamura, K.; Tani, A.

    2015-04-01

    We conducted simultaneous measurements of concentrations and above-canopy fluxes of isoprene and α-pinene, along with their oxidation products in aerosols in a Larix kaempferi (Japanese larch) forest in summer 2012. Vertical profiles of isoprene showed the maximum concentration near the forest floor with a peak around noon, whereas oxidation products of isoprene, i.e., methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), showed higher concentrations near the canopy level of the forest. The vertical profile suggests large emissions of isoprene near the forest floor, likely due to Dryopteris crassirhizoma (a fern species), and the subsequent reaction within the canopy. The concentrations of α-pinene also showed highest values near the forest floor with maximums in the early morning and late afternoon. The vertical profiles of α-pinene suggest its large emissions from soil and litter in addition to emissions from L. kaempferi leaves at the forest site. Isoprene and its oxidation products in aerosols exhibited similar diurnal variations within the forest canopy, providing evidence for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation via oxidation of isoprene most likely emitted from the forest floor. Although high abundance of α-pinene was observed in the morning, its oxidation products in aerosols showed peaks in daytime, due to a time lag between the emission and atmospheric reactions of α-pinene to form SOA. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis indicated that anthropogenic influence is the most important factor contributing to the elevated concentrations of molecular oxidation products of isoprene- (> 64%) and α-pinene-derived SOA (> 57%). The combination of the measured fluxes and vertical profiles of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) suggests that the inflow of anthropogenic precursors/aerosols likely enhanced the formation of both isoprene- and α-pinene-SOA within the forest canopy even when the BVOC flux was relatively low. This study highlights

  7. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer and organic amendment on the construction of nutrients reserves in Larix olgensis container seedlings].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong-xu; Xu, Cheng-yang; Ma, Lü-yi; Jiang, Li-ni

    2011-07-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of fertilization on Larix olgensis container seedlings. 36.36 or 18.18 mg controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) N and 0 or 1.82 g FM organic amendment (OA) per seedling were applied. There were no significant responses to fertilization in the seedling height, collar diameter, biomass, and potassium (K) uptake. Applying FM OA increased the number of first-order lateral roots with a length > 1 cm (P = 0.040), the tap root length (TRL) (P = 0.012), and the ratio of TRL to seedling height (P = 0.008). Comparing with low application rate CRF N, high application rate CRF N increased the N concentration in root (P = 0.035) as well as the N reserves in stem (P = 0.005), root (P = 0.037), and stem plus root (P = 0.030), and the P reserves in stem (P = 0.047). Applying 36.36 mg CRF N plus 1.82 g FM OA increased the N concentrations in leaf and in stem plus root by 137% (P = 0.040) and 21% (P = 0.013), respectively, and the N reserves in stem (P = 0.020), root (P = 0.017), and stem plus root (P = 0.013). Vector analysis revealed that high application rate of CRF N led to the excess of seedlings N and P, while applying FM OA alleviated the N and P deficiency but led to the K depletion. For nursing L. olgensis container seedlings, a solution of CRF 18 mg N combined with 1.82 g FM OA per seedling was recommended. PMID:22007448

  8. Scopafungin, a Crystalline Antibiotic Produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. enhygrus var. nova

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, LeRoy E.; Dietz, Alma

    1971-01-01

    Scopafungin (U-29,479) is a crystalline, nonpolyenic antimicrobial agent obtained from the culture broth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. enhygrus var. nova UC-2397. Scopafungin inhibits, in vitro, a variety of pathogenic fungi, yeasts, and gram-positive bacteria. PMID:4940870

  9. Volatiles of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    The volatile aroma constituents of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K. were separated by hydro distillation extraction (HDE) method using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. flower essential oil (FEO) was 0.12% (w/w) and the color was light green. Fifty-five volatile chemical components, which make up 88.38% of the total aroma composition, were tentatively characterized. C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. FEOs contained 27 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 7 ketones, 4 esters, 1 aldehyde, 1 amine, and 3 miscellaneous components. The major functional groups were terpene alcohol and ketone. Borneol (12.96), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (12.60), and camphor (10.54%) were the predominant volatiles. These compounds can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their active bio-functional properties. PMID:24471090

  10. Volatiles of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2012-09-01

    The volatile aroma constituents of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K. were separated by hydro distillation extraction (HDE) method using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. flower essential oil (FEO) was 0.12% (w/w) and the color was light green. Fifty-five volatile chemical components, which make up 88.38% of the total aroma composition, were tentatively characterized. C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. FEOs contained 27 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 7 ketones, 4 esters, 1 aldehyde, 1 amine, and 3 miscellaneous components. The major functional groups were terpene alcohol and ketone. Borneol (12.96), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (12.60), and camphor (10.54%) were the predominant volatiles. These compounds can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their active bio-functional properties. PMID:24471090

  11. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent formation of secondary organic aerosols in a Larix kaempferi forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, T.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ono, K.; Wada, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Saigusa, N.; Kawamura, K.; Tani, A.

    2015-10-01

    We conducted simultaneous measurements of concentrations and above-canopy fluxes of isoprene and α-pinene, along with their oxidation products in aerosols in a Larix kaempferi (Japanese larch) forest in summer 2012. Vertical profiles of isoprene showed the maximum concentration near the forest floor with a peak around noon, whereas oxidation products of isoprene, i.e., methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), showed higher concentrations near the canopy level of the forest. The vertical profile suggests large emissions of isoprene near the forest floor, likely due to Dryopteris crassirhizoma (a fern species), and the subsequent reaction within the canopy. The concentrations of α-pinene also showed highest values near the forest floor, with maximums in the early morning and late afternoon. The vertical profiles of α-pinene suggest its large emissions from soil and litter in addition to emissions from L. kaempferi leaves at the forest site. Isoprene and its oxidation products in aerosols exhibited similar diurnal variations within the forest canopy, providing evidence of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation via oxidation of isoprene most likely emitted from the forest floor. Although high abundance of α-pinene was observed in the morning, its oxidation products in aerosols showed peaks in daytime, due to a time lag between the emission and atmospheric reactions of α-pinene to form SOA. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis indicated that anthropogenic influence is the most important factor contributing to the elevated concentrations of molecular oxidation products of isoprene- (> 64 %) and α-pinene-derived SOA (> 57 %). The combination of the measured fluxes and vertical profiles of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) suggests that the inflow of anthropogenic precursors/aerosols likely enhanced the formation of both isoprene SOA and α-pinene SOA within the forest canopy even when the BVOC flux was relatively low. This study

  12. VarSITI - SCOSTEP's scientific program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Katya; Shiokawa, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    With the aim to promote international scientific activity in the different branches of solar terrestrial physics and its application for the benefit of humanity, SCOSTEP runs long-term (4-5 years) international interdisciplinary scientific programs. The current SCOSTEP's scientific program (2014-2018) is VarSITI - Variability of the Sun and Its Terrestrial Impacts. It has four scientific projects covering solar terrestrial problems all the way from the Sun through the interplanetary space, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and down to the Earth's atmosphere. We will present the VarSITI's projects and activities, and will highlight some of the results so far and plans for the future.

  13. Chemical constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Si-Feng; Zhao, Yan-Li; Liu, Ke-Chun; Wang, Xi-Min; Yang, Yong-Ping; Li, Xiao-Li

    2009-01-01

    A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model. PMID:19924077

  14. Static var compensators stabilize power voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, R.

    1996-06-01

    This article discusses the operation of a static var compensator as installed by Alabama Power near a steel mill with a large arc furnace load. This is expected to result in a number of benefits, including flicker reduction, dynamic power factor correction, harmonics filtering and a reduction in system losses.

  15. Bacterial endosymbionts of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum.

    PubMed

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Azanza, Rhodora V; Vargas, Vanessa Mercee D; Hedreyda, Cynthia T

    2006-11-01

    The study presents evidence in support of the bacterial theory associated with the toxicity of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum. Bacterial endosymbionts from Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum strain Pbc MZRVA 042595 were isolated and identified via 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Taxonomic diversity of the identified culturable intracellular microbiota associated with Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum was established to be limited to the Phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Major endosymbionts identified included Moraxella spp., Erythrobacter spp., and Bacillus spp., whereas Pseudomonas putida, Micrococcus spp., and Dietzia maris were identified as minor isolates. All identified strains except D. maris, P. putida, and Micrococcus spp. were shown to contain either saxitoxin or neo saxitoxin or both at levels < or =73 ng/10(7) bacterial cells based on high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Paralytic shellfish poisoning-like physiologic reactions in test animals used in the mouse assay were recorded for the endosymbionts except for P. putida. The study is the first to elucidate the possible contribution of bacterial endosymbionts in the toxicity of P. bahamense var. compressum isolated in the Philippines. PMID:16944340

  16. VAR Support from Distributed Wind Energy Resources: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Romanowitz, H.; Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Yinger, R.

    2004-07-01

    As the size and quantity of wind farms and other distributed generation facilities increase, especially in relation to local grids, the importance of a reactive power compensator or VAR support from these facilities becomes more significant. Poorly done, it can result in cycling or inadequate VAR support, and the local grid could experience excessive voltage regulation and, ultimately, instability. Improved wind turbine and distributed generation power control technologies are creating VAR support capabilities that can be used to enhance the voltage regulation and stability of local grids. Locating VAR support near the point of consumption, reducing step size, and making the control active all improve the performance of the grid. This paper presents and discusses alternatives for improving the integration of VAR support from distributed generation facilities such as wind farms. We also examine the relative effectiveness of distributed VAR support on the local grid and how it can b e integrated with the VAR support of the grid operator.

  17. Southern montane populations did not contribute to the recolonization of West Siberian Plain by Siberian larch (Larix sibirica): a range-wide analysis of cytoplasmic markers.

    PubMed

    Semerikov, Vladimir L; Semerikova, Svetlana A; Polezhaeva, Maria A; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-10-01

    While many species were confined to southern latitudes during the last glaciations, there has lately been mounting evidence that some of the most cold-tolerant species were actually able to survive close to the ice sheets. The contribution of these higher latitude outposts to the main recolonization thrust remains, however, untested. In the present study, we use the first range-wide survey of genetic diversity at cytoplasmic markers in Siberian larch (Larix sibirica; four mitochondrial (mt) DNA loci and five chloroplast (cp) DNA SSR loci) to (i) assess the relative contributions of southern and central areas to the current L. sibirica distribution range; and (ii) date the last major population expansion in both L. sibirica and adjacent Larix species. The geographic distribution of cpDNA variation was uninformative, but that of mitotypes clearly indicates that the southernmost populations, located in Mongolia and the Tien-Shan and Sayan Mountain ranges, had a very limited contribution to the current populations of the central and northern parts of the range. It also suggests that the contribution of the high latitude cryptic refugia was geographically limited and that most of the current West Siberian Plain larch populations likely originated in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains. Interestingly, the main population expansion detected through Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) in all four larch species investigated here pre-dates the LGM, with a mode in a range of 220,000-1,340,000 years BP. Hence, L. sibirica, like other major conifer species of the boreal forest, was strongly affected by climatic events pre-dating the Last Glacial Maximum. PMID:24033458

  18. Trace element concentrations in needles and bark of Larix Sibirica within the Mo-W ore field (Buryat Republic, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Ivan; Kosheleva, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to assess the changes in the trace element (TE) composition of Larix Sibirica species growing in the impact area of Dzhida Mo-W plant in the Zakamensk city. The objectives of the study were: (1) to reveal the biogeochemical background features and changes in the TE composition of larch needles and bark in the mining region; (2) to determine patterns of spatial distribution of TE content in larch organs; (3) to assess the ecological state of larch plantation in different land-use zones of the city. A landscape-geochemical survey of the territory was carried out in summer of 2013. Total of 21 mixed (taken from 3-5 trees) samples of needles and bark were collected in undisturbed and different land-use areas. The bulk contents of TEs in dry plant samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry with induced coupled plasma. Sixteen priority pollutants were selected for thorough analysis, including elements of hazard classes I (Zn, As, Pb, Cd), II (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Sb), III (V, Sr, Ba, W), and some others (Sn, Bi). Concentrations of TEs (C_b) in background trees were compared with the global clarks (C_g) for annual increment of terrestrial vegetation (Dobrovol'skii 2003) via calculating the global enrichment EF_g=C_b/Cg and dispersion factors DF_g=C_g/C_b}. The concentrations of the elements in the urban samples Ci were grouped depending on the type of land use and compared with the background (C_b) via calculating the local enrichment EF_l=C_i/Cb and dispersion factors DF_l=C_b/C_i. The ecological state of the urban plants was diagnosed using three TE ratios. The Fe/Mn ratio represents photosynthetic activity with optimum value 1.5-2.5. The Pb/Mn ratio characterizes balance between technogenic and biophilic elements, its value for unpolluted terrestrial plants is 0.006. The Cu/Zn ratio determines the proportionality in the provision of enzyme synthesis with these metals, its optimum value is 0.27. TE composition of needles of background larch is

  19. Glucose kinases from Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Villafán, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; Gosset, Guillermo; Sanchez, Sergio

    2014-07-01

    Glucose kinases (Glks) are enzymes of the glycolytic pathway involved in glucose phosphorylation. These enzymes can use various phosphoryl donors such as ATP, ADP, and polyphosphate. In several streptomycetes, ATP-glucose kinase (ATP-Glk) has been widely studied and regarded as the main glucose phosphorylating enzyme and is likely a regulatory protein in carbon catabolite repression. In cell extracts from the doxorubicin overproducing strain Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius, grown in glucose, a polyphosphate-dependent Glk (Pp-Glk) was detected by zymogram. Maximum activity was observed during the stationary growth phase (48 h) of cells grown in 100 mM glucose. No activity was detected when 20 mM glutamate was used as the only carbon source, supporting a role for glucose in inducing this enzyme. Contrary to wild-type strains of Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces lividans, and Streptomyces thermocarboxydus K-155, S. peucetius var. caesius produced 1.8 times more Pp-Glk than ATP-Glk. In addition, this microorganism produced five and four times more Pp-Glk and anthracyclines, respectively, than its wild-type S. peucetius parent strain, supporting a role for this enzyme in antibiotic production in the overproducer strain. A cloned 726-bp DNA fragment from S. peucetius var. caesius encoded a putative Pp-Glk, with amino acid identities between 83 and 87 % to orthologous sequences from the above-cited streptomycetes. The cloned fragment showed the polyphosphate-binding sequences GXDIGGXXIK, TXGTGIGSA, and KEX(4)SWXXWA. Sequences for the Zn-binding motif were not detected in this fragment, suggesting that Pp-Glk is not related to the Glk ROK family of proteins. PMID:24687748

  20. Dynamics at the treeline: differential responses of Picea mariana and Larix laricina to climate change in eastern subarctic Québec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour-Tremblay, Geneviève; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2012-12-01

    Treelines are known to be temperature-sensitive ecotones, and therefore could rapidly expand their range limits in response to climate warming. Observations of lack of range expansion, however, indicate that ecological constraints partly control the treeline ecotones. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate Picea mariana and Larix laricina recruitment and growth at and above the altitudinal treeline of Kangiqsualujjuaq (Nunavik), where warmer temperatures since the 1990s have already triggered shrub expansion. We mapped, harvested, dated and measured tree individuals along two altitudinal gradients from the forested stands below the treeline to hilltops. Since the 1990s, a pulse of L. laricina seedling establishment has occurred at and above the treeline. Dendrochronological analysis revealed that L. laricina underwent a rapid vertical growth and radial growth that accelerated from the 1990s. No recruitment was observed for P. mariana in response to the regional warming, suggesting a regeneration failure of this species. Our results indicated that the L. laricina colonization below and above the treeline in recent decades in response to the regional warming should modify the landscape physiognomy of the study area in the near future.

  1. Dendrochronology-based stand growth estimation of Larix olgensis forest in relation with climate on the eastern slope of Changbai Mountain, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bo; Xu, Qianqian; Liu, Wenhui; Zhang, Guochun; Xu, Qiongyao; Liu, Qijing

    2013-12-01

    The eastern slope of Changbai Mountain is characterized by pure larch forest ( Larix olgensis) with little human disturbance. Response of tree growth to climate in this area remains unknown. Meanwhile, little is known about how climate variations affect the biomass increase which could be recognized as a three-dimensional tree growth index. The objective of this study is to investigate the climate effects on the radial and biomass growth of larch on eastern slope of Changbai Mountain. Tree-ring width chronologies and mean annual biomass increment were established using tree-ring data. We used correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis to explore the relationship between larch growth and climatic factors from 1957 to 2009. Results show that tree-ring growth and mean annual biomass increment were primarily and significantly affected by previous year climatic variables with slight difference among months. Temperatures were more consistently and strongly correlated to the chronologies and mean annual biomass increment than was precipitation. Temperature is the main factor limiting larch growth on Changbai Mountain and the ongoing climate warming may accelerate the growth of the species. The current stand biomass of the area was 240.72 Mg·ha-1 and the annual stand biomass increment in 2009 was 2.91 Mg·ha-1. In conclusion, the old-growth forest in the study area is still accumulating carbon efficiently.

  2. Larix laricina, an Antidiabetic Alternative Treatment from the Cree of Northern Quebec Pharmacopoeia, Decreases Glycemia and Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Harbilas, Despina; Vallerand, Diane; Brault, Antoine; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T.; Musallam, Lina; Haddad, Pierre S.

    2012-01-01

    Larix laricina K. Koch is a medicinal plant belonging to traditional pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (Eastern James Bay area of Canada). In vitro screening studies revealed that, like metformin and rosiglitazone, it increases glucose uptake and adipogenesis, activates AMPK, and uncouples mitochondrial function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antiobesity potential of L. laricina in diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice. Mice were subjected for eight or sixteen weeks to a high fat diet (HFD) or HFD to which L. laricina was incorporated at 125 and 250 mg/kg either at onset (prevention study) or in the last 8 of the 16 weeks of administration of the HFD (treatment study). L. laricina effectively decreased glycemia levels, improved insulin resistance, and slightly decreased abdominal fat pad and body weights. This occurred in conjunction with increased energy expenditure as demonstrated by elevated skin temperature in the prevention study and improved mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis in the treatment protocol. L. laricina is thus a promising alternative and complementary therapeutic approach for the treatment and care of obesity and diabetes among the Cree. PMID:22888363

  3. An iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Approach to Clarify the Molecular Physiology of Somatic Embryo Development in Prince Rupprecht's Larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Hui; Fu, Shuangbin; Chen, Bo; Sun, Wenting; Zhang, Junqi; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Prince Rupprecht's larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr) is a native high-value forest tree species in North China whose clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis (SE) has the potential to rapidly capture the benefits of breeding or genetic engineering programs and to improve raw material uniformity and quality. To date, research has focused on clarifying the molecular mechanism of SE, but proteomic studies are still in the early stages. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis was performed on three developmental stages of SE in L. principis-rupprechtii in an attempt to identify a wide range of proteins that are regulated differentially during this process. Proteins were extracted and analyzed from the pro-embryogenic mass (PEM), globular embryo (GE), and cotyledon embryo (CE) stages of embryo development. We detected 503 proteins in total and identified 96 proteins expressed differentially during different developmental stages. The identified proteins were analyzed further to provide information about their expression patterns and functions during SE. Four clusters of proteins based on shared expression profiles were generated. Functional analysis showed that proteins involved in primary metabolism, phosphorylation, and oxidation reduction were upregulated during somatic embryo development. This work provides novel insights into the process of larch embryo development in vitro and a basis for further study of the biological process and opportunities for practical application of this knowledge. PMID:25781987

  4. An iTRAQ-based proteomics approach to clarify the molecular physiology of somatic embryo development in Prince Rupprecht's larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Hui; Fu, Shuangbin; Chen, Bo; Sun, Wenting; Zhang, Junqi; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Prince Rupprecht's larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr) is a native high-value forest tree species in North China whose clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis (SE) has the potential to rapidly capture the benefits of breeding or genetic engineering programs and to improve raw material uniformity and quality. To date, research has focused on clarifying the molecular mechanism of SE, but proteomic studies are still in the early stages. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis was performed on three developmental stages of SE in L. principis-rupprechtii in an attempt to identify a wide range of proteins that are regulated differentially during this process. Proteins were extracted and analyzed from the pro-embryogenic mass (PEM), globular embryo (GE), and cotyledon embryo (CE) stages of embryo development. We detected 503 proteins in total and identified 96 proteins expressed differentially during different developmental stages. The identified proteins were analyzed further to provide information about their expression patterns and functions during SE. Four clusters of proteins based on shared expression profiles were generated. Functional analysis showed that proteins involved in primary metabolism, phosphorylation, and oxidation reduction were upregulated during somatic embryo development. This work provides novel insights into the process of larch embryo development in vitro and a basis for further study of the biological process and opportunities for practical application of this knowledge. PMID:25781987

  5. CO2 enrichment alters diurnal stem radius fluctuations of 36-yr-old Larix decidua growing at the alpine tree line.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Melissa A; Zweifel, Roman; Dawes, Nicholas; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2014-06-01

    To understand how trees at high elevations might use water differently in the future, we investigated the effects of CO2 enrichment and soil warming (separately and combined) on the water relations of Larix decidua growing at the tree line in the Swiss Alps. We assessed diurnal stem radius fluctuations using point dendrometers and applied a hydraulic plant model using microclimate and soil water potential data as inputs. Trees exposed to CO2 enrichment for 9 yr showed smaller diurnal stem radius contractions (by 46 ± 16%) and expansions (42 ± 16%) compared with trees exposed to ambient CO2 . Additionally, there was a delay in the timing of daily maximum (40 ± 12 min) and minimum (63 ± 14 min) radius values for trees growing under elevated CO2 . Parameters optimized with the hydraulic model suggested that CO2 -enriched trees had an increased flow resistance between the xylem and bark, representing a more buffered water supply system. Soil warming did not alter diurnal fluctuation dynamics or the CO2 response. Elevated CO2 altered the hydraulic water flow and storage system within L. decidua trees, which might have contributed to enhanced growth during 9 yr of CO2 enrichment and could ultimately influence the future competitive ability of this key tree-line species. PMID:24571288

  6. Chemical diversity of volatiles of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens determined by simultaneous GC-FID and GC/MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Dinç, Muhittin; Doǧu, Süleyman; Başer, Kemal H C

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, three varieties of Teucrium orientale, var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens, were collected and investigated for chemical composition of the oils. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed high abundance of sesquiterpenes in the essential oils analyzed. All the oils contained β-caryophyllene (22.6, 8.5, and 6.3%, resp.) and hexadecanoic acid (7.9, 12.8, and 13.1%). Germacrene D (24.6 and 33.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.7 and 8.5%) were found to be the main constituents of var. orientale and var. puberulens, respectively. The high percentages of β-cubebene (26.9%), α-cubebene (9.0%), and α-copaene (7.2%) established the diversity of var. glabrescens. The qualitative difference between the essential oils allowed the differentiation between the varieties in agreement with the morphological observations described in Flora of Turkey for each variety studied. In addition, a cluster analysis of twelve Teucrium taxa based on the essential-oil composition has been carried out. Hovewer, the analysis did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of the genus, it largely confirmed the relationships between the infraspecific taxa of Teucrium orientale and T. chamaedrys. PMID:22700232

  7. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Rabdosia lophanthoides var. gerardianus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Zhan; Zhao, Wei; Feng, Xiu-Li; Liu, Fang-Le; Zhu, Chen-Chen

    2016-03-01

    Two new abietane diterpenoids, Gerardianin B (1) and Gerardianin C (2), one new lignan glycoside, Gerardianin D (3) and one new lupane-type triterpenoid, Gerardianol A (4), together with seven known abietane diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia lophanthoides var. gerardianus. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The cytotoxic activities of the nine diterpenoids were evaluated on human cancer cell lines. Compounds 6-11 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cell lines with IC50 from 4.68 to 9.43μM and HCF-8 cell lines with IC50 from 9.12 to 13.53μM. PMID:26608401

  8. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  9. 4-D-Var or ensemble Kalman filter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnay, Eugenia; Li, Hong; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Yang, Shu-Chih; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim

    2007-10-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4-D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or under consideration for operational implementation. With the Lorenz model, we explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4-D-Var, variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4-D-Var. For infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow non-linearly and become non-Gaussian, 4-D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. If the model is imperfect, the 4-D-Var with long windows requires weak constraint. Similar results are obtained with a quasi-geostrophic channel model. EnKF experiments made with the primitive equations SPEEDY model provide comparisons with 3-D-Var and guidance on model error and `observation localization'. Results obtained using operational models and both simulated and real observations indicate that currently EnKF is becoming competitive with 4-D-Var, and that the experience acquired with each of these methods can be used to improve the other. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.

  10. Formation and spread of callus tissue and tangential rows of resin ducts in Larix decidua and Picea abies following rockfall impacts.

    PubMed

    Schneuwly, Dominique M; Stoffel, Markus; Bollschweiler, Michelle

    2009-02-01

    After mechanical wounding, callus tissue and tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) are formed in many conifer species. This reaction can be used to date past events of geomorphic processes such as rockfall, debris flow and snow avalanches. However, only few points are known about the tangential spread or the timing of callus tissue and TRD formation after wounding. We analyzed 19 Larix decidua Mill. (European larch) and eight Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) trees that were severely damaged by rockfall activity, resulting in a total of 111 injuries. Callus tissue appeared sparsely on the cross sections and was detected on only 4.2% of the L. decidua samples and 3.6% of the P. abies samples. In contrast, TRDs were present on all cross sections following wounding and were visible on more than one-third (34% in L. decidua and 36.4% in P. abies) of the circumference where the cambium was not destroyed by the rockfall impact. We observe different reactions in the trees depending on the seasonal timing of wounding. The tangential spread of callus tissue and TRDs was more important if the injury occurred during the growth period than during the dormant season, with the difference between seasons being more pronounced for callus tissue formation than for TRD formation. We observed an intra-annual radial migration of TRDs with increasing tangential distance from the wound in 73.2% of the L. decidua samples and 96.6% of the P. abies samples. The persistence of TRD formation in the years following wounding showed that only L. decidua trees produced TRDs 2 years after wounding (10.5%), whereas P. abies trees produced TRDs 5 years after wounding (> 50%). PMID:19203953

  11. Does the Genotype Have a Significant Effect on the Formation of Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations? A Case Study Using Larix decidua from Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Klisz, Marcin; Koprowski, Marcin; Ukalska, Joanna; Nabais, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) can imprint environmental conditions within the growing season and most of the research on IADFs has been focused on their climatic signal. However, to our knowledge, the genetic influence on the frequency and type of IADFs has not been evaluated. To understand if the genotype can affect the formation of IADFs we have used a common garden experiment using eight families of Larix decidua established in two neighboring forest stands in northern Poland. Four types of IADFs were identified using X-ray density profiles: latewood-like cells within earlywood (IADF-type E), latewood-like cells in the transition from early- to latewood (IADF type E+), earlywood-like cells within latewood (IADF-type L), and earlywood-like cells in the border zone between the previous and present annual ring (IADF-type L+). The influence of explanatory variables i.e., families, sites, and years on identified density fluctuations was analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). We hypothesized that trees from different families will differ in terms of frequency and type of IADFs because each family will react to precipitation and temperature in a different way, depending on the origin of those trees. The most frequent fluctuation was E+ and L types on both sites. The most important factors in the formation of IADFs were the site and year, the last one reflecting the variable climatic conditions, with no significant effect of the family. However, the relation between the formation of IADFs and selected climate parameters was different between families. Although, our results did not give a significant effect of the genotype on the formation of IADFs, the different sensitivity to climatic parameters among different families indicate that there is a genetic influence. PMID:27242883

  12. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 μg SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  13. NPP changes of Larix chinensis estimated by tree-ring data and its response to climate change in the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Taibai, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, O.; Xuemei, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larix chinensis is mainly distributed in timberline of Mt. Taibai in the Qinling Mountains, a critical geographic demarcation for climate and vegetation distribution in China. Combined with biomass equations and the annual diameter at breast height calculated from tree-ring widths and investigation data of sampling plots, annual biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes were estimated. Correlation and response analyses were used to illustrate the relationship between the climate and NPP. The results show that from 1949 to 2014, the biomass of L. chinensis in the pure forests increases from 54.03 to 94.43 t/ha in the northern slope and 28.32 to 55.80 t/ha in the southern slope. The NPP of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes has varied concordantly over the past 65 years, with an average value of 0.62 and 0.42 t/(ha·a) respectively. The difference in NPPs between the northern and southern slope is decreasing for the slight decrease trend of NPP in northern slope. Temperature plays an important role in the growth of L. chinensis. Low temperature before the growing seasons (from pervious November to April) and warm conditions in the growing seasons (mainly from June to July) can increase the growth of L. chinensis. However, the relationships between NPP and temperature are different in the northern and southern slope. The NPP in southern slope is more positively correlated with the temperature in the growing seasons and there is no significant correlation relationship between the NPP and the temperature in previous winter (from pervious November to January), while the NPP in northern slope is more negatively correlated with the temperature before the growing seasons. These results will provide useful information for the future research of forest carbon cycling.

  14. Does the Genotype Have a Significant Effect on the Formation of Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations? A Case Study Using Larix decidua from Northern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Klisz, Marcin; Koprowski, Marcin; Ukalska, Joanna; Nabais, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) can imprint environmental conditions within the growing season and most of the research on IADFs has been focused on their climatic signal. However, to our knowledge, the genetic influence on the frequency and type of IADFs has not been evaluated. To understand if the genotype can affect the formation of IADFs we have used a common garden experiment using eight families of Larix decidua established in two neighboring forest stands in northern Poland. Four types of IADFs were identified using X-ray density profiles: latewood-like cells within earlywood (IADF-type E), latewood-like cells in the transition from early- to latewood (IADF type E+), earlywood-like cells within latewood (IADF-type L), and earlywood-like cells in the border zone between the previous and present annual ring (IADF-type L+). The influence of explanatory variables i.e., families, sites, and years on identified density fluctuations was analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). We hypothesized that trees from different families will differ in terms of frequency and type of IADFs because each family will react to precipitation and temperature in a different way, depending on the origin of those trees. The most frequent fluctuation was E+ and L types on both sites. The most important factors in the formation of IADFs were the site and year, the last one reflecting the variable climatic conditions, with no significant effect of the family. However, the relation between the formation of IADFs and selected climate parameters was different between families. Although, our results did not give a significant effect of the genotype on the formation of IADFs, the different sensitivity to climatic parameters among different families indicate that there is a genetic influence. PMID:27242883

  15. 4D-Var or Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnay, E.; Li, H.; Yang, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Ballabrera, J.

    2007-05-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or considered for operational implementation. We explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4D-Var, the variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage in both systems. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4D-Var, and for infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow nonlinearly and become non-Gaussian, 4D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. Results obtained with variations of EnKF using operational models and both simulated and real observations are reviewed. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PARASPORAL INCLUSION OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KYUSHUENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. kyushuensis synthesizes an irregularly shaped parasporal inclusion during sporulation. lectron microscopy revealed that the inclusions are composed of a relatively homogeneous appearing center surrounded by a thick, electron dense coating. urified incl...

  17. Weak bus-oriented optimal multi-objective VAR planning

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents a weak bus-oriented criterion to determine the candidate buses for installing new VAR sources in the VAR planning problem. First, an efficient method, using a voltage collapse proximity indicator, is described for identifying weak buses. Then appropriate VAR planning in those weak buses can enhance the system security margin, in particular, to prevent voltage collapse. Next, the goal attainment (GA) method based on the Simulated Annealing (SA) approach is applied to solving general multi-objective VAR planning problems by assuming that the decisionmaker (DM) has goals for each of the objective functions. The presented method can both obtain a better final solution and reduce the solution space. Results of application of the proposed method to the AEP-14 bus system as well as to a large, actual-size system are also presented.

  18. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

  19. Immunoelectrophoretic Analysis of Mycoplasma mycoides var. mycoides

    PubMed Central

    Stone, S. S.; Razin, S.

    1973-01-01

    Acrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to show the similarities and differences in the membrane proteins of two vaccine and two virulent strains of Mycoplasma mycoides var. mycoides. Immunoelectrophoretic (IEP) analysis was also used to partially characterize the associated antigens. Antibody spectra to the antigens of M. mycoides differ in rabbit, pig, and cattle sera. Rabbits produce better precipitating antibody against the anodic migrating protein mycoplasma antigens than cattle and pigs as seen in IEP. However, rabbit anti-M. mycoides serum did not show precipitating antibody against the heat-stable carbohydrate antigen. As judged by IEP, the major carbohydrate antigen extracted from the media, or boiled whole organism, is similar to that present in the sera-infected cattle and knee joints of calves. This carbohydrate antigen has a cathodic migration in IEP at pH 8.6. Periodate oxidation, classically used to destroy carbohydrate, also destroys most of the protein antigens. Heating the antigens to 56 C for 10 min destroys many of the noncarbohydrate antigens and 100 C eliminates all but the carbohydrate antigen. Extraction of M. mycoides with chloroform-methanol, phenol, ethanol, or ethanol-acetone reduced or eliminated most of the protein antigens. Some of the isolated antigenic fractions of M. mycoides were tested to determine their activity in the diagnostic complement fixation test for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and their inhibitory effect in this test by using bovine anti-M. mycoides antisera having precipitating antibody and circulating antigen. The complement fixation antigen is not the galactan, cannot be extracted by chloroform-methanol, but is stable to boiling at 100 C and may be extracted by phenol and partially precipitated by ethanol-acetone. Images PMID:4577417

  20. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  1. Correlation inequalities for two-component hypercubic /var phi//sub 4/ models

    SciTech Connect

    Soria, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    A collection of new and already known correlation inequalities is found for a family of two-component hypercubic /var phi//sub 4/ models, using techniques of duplicated variables, rotated correlation inequalities, and random walk representation. Among the interesting new inequalities are: rotated very special Dunlop-Newman inequality var phi//sub 1x//sup 2/; /var phi//sub 1z//sup 2/ + /var phi//sub 2z//sup 2/ greater than or equal to 0, rotated Griffiths I inequality var phi//sub 1x//var-phi//sub 1y/; /var phi//sub 1z//sup 2/ - /var phi//sub 2z//sup 2/> greater than or equal to 0, and anti-Lebowitz inequality u/sub 4//sup 1111/ greater than or equal to 0.

  2. Crude oil from the var'egansk field. [Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Driatskaya, Z.V.; Kaminskii, E.K.; Krylova, S.M.; Mkhchiyan, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    This article presents results from an investigation of a representative sample of the crude oil of the BV group (BV/sub 6/, BV/sub 7/, BV/sub 8/, and BV/sub 9/), taken at a central gathering point in the Tyumen Oblast. It indicates that Var'egansk crude is low-sulfur, medium-resin, and medium-wax. The Var'egansk field is a single-bed field, and its deposits are confined to the Jurassic and Cretaceous systems (Valanginian and Hauterivian-Barremian stages).

  3. BZ UMa and Var Her 04: Orphan TOADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Howell, S.

    2005-05-01

    Both BZ UMa and Var Her 04 are cataclysmic variable stars without a home. Neither fit easily into current classification systems so may extend the population distribution of two unique CV types: UGWZ dwarf novae and intermediate polars. New outburst photometry and archival X-Ray data shed some new light on BZ UMa's high energy state and new spectral and IR observations from Spitzer of dust around the newly discovered cataclysmic variable Var Her 04 may help find it a home as well.

  4. New Record of Mariannaea elegans var. elegans in Korea.

    PubMed

    Tang, Longqing; Hyun, Min Woo; Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi Ho

    2012-03-01

    A Mariannaea fungus was isolated during investigation of an elm tree infested with unidentified beetles. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Mariannaea elegans var. elegans. Fungal growth was better on malt extract agar than on potato dextrose agar and oatmeal agar. Optimal temperature and pH for growth of the fungus were 30℃ and pH 7.0, respectively. The fungus was found to have the ability to produce extracellular enzymes such as amylase, β-glucosidase, cellulase, and protease. This is first report on M. elegans var. elegans in Korea. PMID:22783129

  5. The VarS/VarA two-component system modulates the activity of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator HapR

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Amy M.; Liu, Zhi; Cai, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae uses quorum sensing to regulate the expression of a number of phenotypes, including virulence factor production, in response to changes in cell density. It produces small molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as cell density increases, and these autoinducers bind to membrane sensors once they reach a certain threshold. This binding leads to signalling through a downstream phosphorelay pathway to alter the expression of the transcriptional regulator HapR. Previously, it was shown that the VarS/VarA two-component system acts on a component of the phosphorelay pathway upstream of HapR to regulate HapR expression levels. Here, we show that in addition to this mechanism of regulation, VarS and VarA also indirectly modulate HapR protein activity. This modulation is mediated by the small RNA CsrB but is independent of the known quorum-sensing system that links the autoinducers to HapR. Thus, the VarS/VarA two-component system intersects with the quorum-sensing network at two levels. In both cases, the effect of VarS and VarA on quorum sensing is dependent on the Csr small RNAs, which regulate carbon metabolism, suggesting that V. cholerae may integrate nutrient status and cell density sensory inputs to tailor its gene expression profile more precisely to surrounding conditions. PMID:21393367

  6. [Induction and identification of polyploid of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuxiang; Gao, Jianping; Zhao, Xiaoming

    2003-05-01

    In this article, improved agar painting method, with semi-solid of 0.2% colchicine and 0.1% agar, was adopted to treat apical buds of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao seedlings. Obtained plants were proved to be tetraploids by identification of biological characteristics and chromosome numbers. PMID:14535010

  7. [Experiment on polyploid induction of Angelica dahurica var. formosana].

    PubMed

    Peng, F; Zhou, R; Liu, J

    1999-12-01

    Colchicine solution was applied to the primary adventitious buds of Angelica dahurica var. formosana in vitro to induce the polyploid. Compared with non-treated plantlet, the morphology, microhisology, and chromosome number of treated plantlets are varied. It proved that the polyploid induction was effective. PMID:12571900

  8. Cycloartane-Type Saponins from Astragalus tmoleus var. tmoleus.

    PubMed

    Avunduk, Sibel; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-01-01

    Five known cycloartane-type glycosides were isolated from the roots of A. tmoleus Boiss. var. tmoleus. The identification of these compounds was mainly achieved by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and FABMS. The results of our studies confirm that triterpene saponins with the cycloartane-type skeleton might be chemotaxonomically significant for the genus Astragalus. PMID:26996015

  9. Indolizidine, Antiinfective and Antiparasitic Compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prosopilosidine, a new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride, (1), was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa. Furthermore, three additional new and one known indolizidines, prosopilosine (2), isoprosopilosine (3), isoprosopilosidine (4) and jul...

  10. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Deepak; Moghe, Rohit; Tholomier, Damien

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  11. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. Methods: The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. Results: The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. Conclusions: AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:25337587

  12. Plasmodium falciparum var gene expression is modified by host immunity

    PubMed Central

    Warimwe, George M.; Keane, Thomas M.; Fegan, Gregory; Musyoki, Jennifer N.; Newton, Charles R. J. C.; Pain, Arnab; Berriman, Matthew; Marsh, Kevin; Bull, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a potentially important family of immune targets, which play a central role in the host–parasite interaction by binding to various host molecules. They are encoded by a diverse family of genes called var, of which there are ≈60 copies in each parasite genome. In sub-Saharan Africa, although P. falciparum infection occurs throughout life, severe malarial disease tends to occur only in childhood. This could potentially be explained if (i) PfEMP1 variants differ in their capacity to support pathogenesis of severe malaria and (ii) this capacity is linked to the likelihood of each molecule being recognized and cleared by naturally acquired antibodies. Here, in a study of 217 Kenyan children with malaria, we show that expression of a group of var genes “cys2,” containing a distinct pattern of cysteine residues, is associated with low host immunity. Expression of cys2 genes was associated with parasites from young children, those with severe malaria, and those with a poorly developed antibody response to parasite-infected erythrocyte surface antigens. Cys-2 var genes form a minor component of all genomic var repertoires analyzed to date. Therefore, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that the genomic var gene repertoire is organized such that PfEMP1 molecules that confer the most virulence to the parasite tend also to be those that are most susceptible to the development of host immunity. This may help the parasite to adapt effectively to the development of host antibodies through modification of the host–parasite relationship. PMID:20018734

  13. C.V. Riley’s lost aphids: Siphonophora fragariae var. immaculata and Aphis rapae var. laevigata (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The syntypes of Siphonophora fragariae var. immaculata Riley were rediscovered in the Aphidoidea collection of the United States of America National Museum of Natural History. Previously, S. fragariae immaculata was largely lost and forgotten. Through examination of the specimens, we hereby establ...

  14. Photosynthetic redox imbalance governs leaf sectoring in the Arabidopsis thaliana variegation mutants immutans, spotty, var1, and var2.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Dominic; Bode, Rainer; Li, Wenze; Krol, Marianna; Saccon, Diego; Wang, Shelly; Schillaci, Lori A; Rodermel, Steven R; Maxwell, Denis P; Hüner, Norman P A

    2009-11-01

    We hypothesized that chloroplast energy imbalance sensed through alterations in the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, measured as excitation pressure, governs the extent of variegation in the immutans mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. To test this hypothesis, we developed a nondestructive imaging technique and used it to quantify the extent of variegation in vivo as a function of growth temperature and irradiance. The extent of variegation was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.750) with an increase in excitation pressure irrespective of whether high light, low temperature, or continuous illumination was used to induce increased excitation pressure. Similar trends were observed with the variegated mutants spotty, var1, and var2. Measurements of greening of etiolated wild-type and immutans cotyledons indicated that the absence of IMMUTANS increased excitation pressure twofold during the first 6 to 12 h of greening, which led to impaired biogenesis of thylakoid membranes. In contrast with IMMUTANS, the expression of its mitochondrial analog, AOX1a, was transiently upregulated in the wild type but permanently upregulated in immutans, indicating that the effects of excitation pressure during greening were also detectable in mitochondria. We conclude that mutations involving components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, such as those present in immutans, spotty, var1, and var2, predispose Arabidopsis chloroplasts to photooxidation under high excitation pressure, resulting in the variegated phenotype. PMID:19897671

  15. Photosynthetic Redox Imbalance Governs Leaf Sectoring in the Arabidopsis thaliana Variegation Mutants immutans, spotty, var1, and var2[W

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Dominic; Bode, Rainer; Li, Wenze; Krol, Marianna; Saccon, Diego; Wang, Shelly; Schillaci, Lori A.; Rodermel, Steven R.; Maxwell, Denis P.; Hüner, Norman P.A.

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that chloroplast energy imbalance sensed through alterations in the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, measured as excitation pressure, governs the extent of variegation in the immutans mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. To test this hypothesis, we developed a nondestructive imaging technique and used it to quantify the extent of variegation in vivo as a function of growth temperature and irradiance. The extent of variegation was positively correlated (R2 = 0.750) with an increase in excitation pressure irrespective of whether high light, low temperature, or continuous illumination was used to induce increased excitation pressure. Similar trends were observed with the variegated mutants spotty, var1, and var2. Measurements of greening of etiolated wild-type and immutans cotyledons indicated that the absence of IMMUTANS increased excitation pressure twofold during the first 6 to 12 h of greening, which led to impaired biogenesis of thylakoid membranes. In contrast with IMMUTANS, the expression of its mitochondrial analog, AOX1a, was transiently upregulated in the wild type but permanently upregulated in immutans, indicating that the effects of excitation pressure during greening were also detectable in mitochondria. We conclude that mutations involving components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, such as those present in immutans, spotty, var1, and var2, predispose Arabidopsis chloroplasts to photooxidation under high excitation pressure, resulting in the variegated phenotype. PMID:19897671

  16. An in vivo and in vitro model of Plasmodium falciparum rosetting and autoagglutination mediated by varO, a group A var gene encoding a frequent serotype.

    PubMed

    Vigan-Womas, Inès; Guillotte, Micheline; Le Scanf, Cécile; Igonet, Sébastien; Petres, Stéphane; Juillerat, Alexandre; Badaut, Cyril; Nato, Farida; Schneider, Achim; Lavergne, Anne; Contamin, Hugues; Tall, Adama; Baril, Laurence; Bentley, Graham A; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2008-12-01

    In the Saimiri sciureus monkey, erythrocytes infected with the varO antigenic variant of the Plasmodium falciparum Palo Alto 89F5 clone bind uninfected red blood cells (rosetting), form autoagglutinates, and have a high multiplication rate, three phenotypic characteristics that are associated with severe malaria in human patients. We report here that varO parasites express a var gene having the characteristics of group A var genes, and we show that the varO Duffy binding-like 1alpha(1) (DBL1alpha(1)) domain is implicated in the rosetting of both S. sciureus and human erythrocytes. The soluble varO N-terminal sequence (NTS)-DBL1alpha(1) recombinant domain, produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system, induced high titers of antibodies that reacted with varO-infected red blood cells and disrupted varO rosettes. varO parasites were culture adapted in vitro using human erythrocytes. They formed rosettes and autoagglutinates, and they had the same surface serotype and expressed the same varO gene as the monkey-propagated parasites. To develop an in vitro model with highly homogeneous varO parasites, rosette purification was combined with positive selection by panning with a varO NTS-DBL1alpha(1)-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. The single-variant, clonal parasites were used to analyze seroprevalence for varO at the village level in a setting where malaria is holoendemic (Dielmo, Senegal). We found 93.6% (95% confidence interval, 89.7 to 96.4%) seroprevalence for varO surface-reacting antibodies and 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 82.8 to 91.6%) seroprevalence for the recombinant NTS-DBL1alpha(1) domain, and virtually all permanent residents had seroconverted by the age of 5 years. These data imply that the varO model is a relevant in vivo and in vitro model for rosetting and autoagglutination that can be used for rational development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing malaria pathology. PMID:18809668

  17. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns. PMID:25354144

  18. AI approach to optimal var control with fuzzy reactive loads

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Rahman, K.H.; Shahidehpour, S.M.; Daneshdoost, M.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to the optimal reactive power (var) control problem. The method incorporates the reactive load uncertainty in optimizing the overall system performance. The artificial neural network (ANN) enhanced by fuzzy sets is used to determine the memberships of control variables corresponding to the given load values. A power flow solution will determine the corresponding state of the system. Since the resulting system state may not be feasible in real-time, a heuristic method based on the application of sensitivities in expert system is employed to refine the solution with minimum adjustments of control variables. Test cases and numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach. Simplicity, processing speed and ability to model load uncertainties make this approach a viable option for on-line var control.

  19. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field. PMID:27062807

  20. Differential var gene transcription in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients with cerebral malaria compared to hyperparasitaemia

    PubMed Central

    Kyriacou, Helen M.; Stone, Graham N.; Challis, Richard J.; Raza, Ahmed; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Koné, Abdoulaye K.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Plowe, Christopher V.; Rowe, J. Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum variant erythrocyte surface antigens known as PfEMP1, encoded by the var gene family, are thought to play a crucial role in malaria pathogenesis because they mediate adhesion to host cells and immuno-modulation. Var genes have been divided into three major groups (A, B and C) and two intermediate groups (B/A and B/C) on the basis of their genomic location and upstream sequence. We analysed expressed sequence tags of the var gene DBLα domain to investigate var gene transcription in relation to disease severity in Malian children. We found that P. falciparum isolates from children with cerebral malaria (unrousable coma) predominantly transcribe var genes with DBLα1-like domains that are characteristic of Group A or B/A var genes. In contrast, isolates from children with equally high parasite burdens but no symptoms or signs of severe malaria (hyperparasitaemia patients) predominantly transcribe var genes with DBLα0-like domains that are characteristic of the B and C-related var gene groups. These results suggest that var genes with DBLα1-like domains (Group A or B/A) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, while var genes with DBLα0-like domains promote less virulent malaria infections. PMID:16996149

  1. Dynamic simulation of Static Var Compensators in distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Koessler, R.J. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper is a system study guide for the correction of voltage dips due to large motor startups with Static Var Compensators (SVCs). The method utilizes time simulations, which are an important aid in the equipment design and specification. The paper illustrates the process of setting-up a computer model and performing time simulations. The study process is demonstrated through an example, the Shawnee feeder in the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation service area.

  2. Graft-related endocarditis caused by Neosartorya fischeri var. spinosa.

    PubMed Central

    Summerbell, R C; de Repentigny, L; Chartrand, C; St Germain, G

    1992-01-01

    The first case of endocarditis caused by Neosartorya fischeri var. spinosa is reported. The patient was a child who received a calf pericardium graft after removal of a previously inserted Dacron graft associated with deterioration of adjacent tissue. Copious vegetations removed from the heart were found to be composed of septate hyaline fungal filaments. The fungus was recognized in culture by its bivalved, winged, spiny ascospores, its Aspergillus fischerianus anamorph, and its thermotolerance. Images PMID:1624579

  3. Transient response of a static VAR shunt compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.A.; Zelaya-De La Parra, H.

    1996-05-01

    A typical static VAR shunt compensator has been analyzed so that the step response and steady-state errors can be identified. The results show that the steady-state error is dependent upon the error in the measurement of the currents` phase alone. They also show that an unstable condition can occur, though it should rarely arise in practice. All the theory was verified on a low power (240 V, 3 A) system.

  4. Biotransformation of patchoulol by Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fangfang; Liao, Kangsheng; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Zhenbiao; Guo, Dean; Su, Ziren; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Biocatalysis of patchoulol (PA) was performed by the fungus Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans. Eight metabolites (1-8) including four new compounds were obtained, and their structures were elucidated as (5R,8S)-5,8 dihydroxypatchoulol (1), (5R*,9R*)-5,9 dihydroxypatchoulol (2), (6S*, 9S*)-6,9 dihydroxypatchoulol (3), and (4R*)-4 hydroxypatchoulol (4) by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:26778089

  5. New clerodane diterpenes from Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Wen-Juan; Jiao, Li-Xiang; Guo, Jun-Ming; Tian, Kai; Yang, Chun-Tao; Huang, Xiang-Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Four new clerodane diterpenes, namely sagittatayunnanosides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the roots of Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis, together with two known compounds, tinospinoside C (5) and tinospinoside E (6). The structures of the four new compounds were well elucidated by extensive analyses of the MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR data. The cytotoxic and antifouling activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated. PMID:24634023

  6. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} and the {Delta}I=1/2 rule

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-07-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale {Lambda}{sub {chi}}{approx_equal}1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} and the {Delta}I=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N{sub c} approximation, the isospin amplitudes A{sub 0} and A{sub 2} are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon}=23.6{sub {minus}7.8}{sup +12.4}{times}10{sup {minus}4}(Im{lambda}{sub t}/1.2{times}10{sup {minus}4}) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A{sub 0} and A{sub 2}, the ratio {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon} is in favor of the values {var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon}=(20{+-}9){times}10{sup {minus}4}.

  7. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A. M.; Li, Tao; Sim, B. Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F.; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-01-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase. PMID:27070311

  8. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, A; Jatana, M; Kumar, P; Chatha, L; Kaushal, A; Padhye, A A

    1997-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has an ecological association with five Eucalyptus species: E. blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala, E. rudis, and E. tereticornis. After human infections due to C. neoformans var. gattii were diagnosed in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, a study was undertaken to investigate the association of C. neoformans var. gattii with Indian eucalypts, especially in the state of Punjab. A total of 696 specimens collected from E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora and E. tereticornis (hybrid) trees were examined for the presence of C. neoformans var. gattii. Flowers from two trees of E. camaldulensis in the Chak Sarkar forest and one from the village of Periana near the Ferozepur area yielded five isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii. The origin of the trees could be traced to Australia, thus providing evidence that the distribution of E. camaldulensis correlated with the distribution of human cryptococcosis cases caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in northern India. PMID:9399553

  9. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase. PMID:27070311

  10. Differential expression of var gene groups is associated with morbidity caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection in Tanzanian children.

    PubMed

    Rottmann, Matthias; Lavstsen, Thomas; Mugasa, Joseph Paschal; Kaestli, Mirjam; Jensen, Anja T R; Müller, Dania; Theander, Thor; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2006-07-01

    The var gene family of Plasmodium falciparum encodes the variant surface antigen Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). PfEMP1 is considered an important pathogenicity factor in P. falciparum infection because it mediates cytoadherence to host cell endothelial receptors. var genes can be grouped into three major groups, A, B, and C, and the conserved var genes, var1-4, according to sequence similarities in coding and noncoding upstream regions. Using real-time quantitative PCR in a study conducted in Tanzania, the var transcript abundances of the different var gene groups were compared among patients with severe, uncomplicated, and asymptomatic malaria. Transcripts of var group A and B genes were more abundant in patients with severe malaria than in patients with uncomplicated malaria. In general, the transcript abundances of var group A and B genes were higher for children with clinical malaria than for children with asymptomatic infections. The var group C and var1-like transcript abundances were similar between the three sample groups. A transcript abundance pattern similar to that for var group A was observed for var2csa and var3-like genes. These results suggest that substantial and systematic differences in var gene expression exist between different clinical presentations. PMID:16790763

  11. Structural insight into epitopes in the pregnancy-associated malaria protein VAR2CSA.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Pernille; Nielsen, Morten A; Resende, Mafalda; Rask, Thomas S; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Theander, Thor; Lund, Ole; Salanti, Ali

    2008-02-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites binding specifically to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta. This sequestration of parasites is a major cause of low birth weight in infants and anemia in the mothers. VAR2CSA, a polymorphic multi-domain protein of the PfEMP1 family, is the main parasite ligand for CSA binding, and identification of protective antibody epitopes is essential for VAR2CSA vaccine development. Attempts to determine the crystallographic structures of VAR2CSA or its domains have not been successful yet. In this study, we propose 3D models for each of the VAR2CSA DBL domains and we show that regions in the fold of VAR2CSA inter-domain 2 and a PfEMP1 CIDR domain seem to be homologous to the EBA-175 and Pk alpha-DBL fold. This suggests that ID2 could be a functional domain. We also identify regions of VAR2CSA present on the surface of native VAR2CSA by comparing reactivity of plasma containing anti-VAR2CSA antibodies in peptide array experiments before and after incubation with native VAR2CSA. By this method we identify conserved VAR2CSA regions targeted by antibodies that react with the native molecule expressed on infected erythrocytes. By mapping the data onto the DBL models we present evidence suggesting that the S1+S2 DBL sub-domains are generally surface-exposed in most domains, whereas the S3 sub-domains are less exposed in native VAR2CSA. These results comprise an important step towards understanding the structure of VAR2CSA on the surface of CSA-binding infected erythrocytes. PMID:18282103

  12. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Garvey, Edward P.; Hoekstra, William J.; Schotzinger, Robert J.; Patterson, Thomas F.; Filler, Scott G.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis. PMID:26369977

  13. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Patterson, Thomas F; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis. PMID:26369977

  14. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression. PMID:25691743

  15. Observations on the formation of [var epsilon] martensite in an Fe-23. 2%Mn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Akguen, I.; Durlu, T.N. . Dept. of Physics)

    1994-11-15

    In Fe-Mn binary alloys the formation behavior of [var epsilon] martensite is quite sensitive to the Mn percentage and although both [var epsilon] and [alpha][prime] type martensites are formed in low Mn alloys, mostly [gamma] [yields] [var epsilon] transformation occur as the Mn concentration is increased. The present study was undertaken to examine the formation of thermally induced and also strain-induced [var epsilon] martensites, and their intersections in a Fe-23.2%Mn alloy by using transmission electron microscopy techniques.

  16. Regulation of Sugar Transport Systems in Fusarium oxysporum var. lini

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Rogélio L.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.

    1990-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum var. lini (ATCC 10960) formed a facilitated diffusion system for glucose (Ks, about 10 mM) when grown under repressed conditions. Under conditions of derepression, the same system was present together with a high-affinity (Ks, about 40 μM) active system. The maximum velocity of the latter was about 5% of that of the facilitated diffusion system. The high-affinity system was under the control of glucose repression and glucose inactivation. When lactose was the only carbon source in the medium, a facilitated diffusion system for lactose was found (Ks, about 30 mM). PMID:16348256

  17. AmeriFlux US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione

    SciTech Connect

    Baldocchi, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains on privately owned land, the Vaira Ranch site is classified as a grassland dominated by C3 annual grasses. Managed by local rancher, Fran Vaira, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. Species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. Growing season is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May.

  18. [Study on chemical constituents of Drosera peltata var. multisepala].

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Huang, Jin; Xu, Xianghua; Zhang, Yao; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Peizhong

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigatation of Drosera peltata var. multisepala led to the isolation of eleven compounds using various chromatographic techniques. The structures of these compounds were elucidated as isoshinanolone-4-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), isoshinanolone (2), epi-isoshinanolone (3), plumbagin (4), droserone (5), droserone-5-O-glucoside (6), quercetin (7), kaempferol (8) , gossypetin-8-O-glucoside (9), 3,3'-dimethoxy ellagic acid (10), and ellagic acid (11) by their physicochemical properties and spectral data analysis. Compound 1 was a new compound. Compounds 3, 8, 10, and 11 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:22737855

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Scaldaferro, M A; Prina, A R; Moscone, E A; Kwasniewska, J

    2013-09-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. "Cayenne", with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. PMID:23747514

  20. A new jacaranone derivative from Senecio scandens var. incisus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Shu; Lu, Peng; Duan, Chang-Hong; Feng, Jin-Chao

    2010-03-01

    A new jacaranone derivative, 2-(1,6-dihydroxy-4-oxocyclohex-2-enyl) acetic acid (1), has been isolated from the whole plants of Senecio scandens var. incisus, together with three known compounds: 2'-(p-hydroxyl-cinnamoyl)-6'-jacaranone-D-glucopyranoside (2), 2'-caffeoyl-6'-jacaranone-D-glucopyranoside (3) and kampferol-3-rhamnoside (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses and by comparison with the related known compounds. Cytotoxic activities of 1 against three human tumour cell lines have been evaluated by the MTT method. PMID:20221943

  1. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Jung; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Lee, Sanghyun; Choi, Ran Joo; Chung, Ha Sook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kang, Sam Sik

    2012-01-01

    Six new germacranolides, zawadskinolides A-F (1-6), and a new eudesmane glucoside, chrysantiloboside (7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum, along with thirteen known constituents. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic evidence. Bioassay showed that flavonoids such as apigenin (9), (-)-eriodictyol (10) and nepetin (12), as well as the sesquiterpene lactone, zawadskinolide F (6), inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values of 66.15, 132.55, 35.44, and 91.32 μM, respectively. PMID:22382409

  2. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  3. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  4. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Small var. latifolia (Fern.) Semple is an herbaceous perennial that grows in close proximity to the federally endangered species P. ruthii (Small) Small. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from 87 samples of P. graminifolia var. latifolia and addit...

  5. A well-conserved Plasmodium falciparum var gene shows an unusual stage-specific transcript pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kyes, Sue A.; Christodoulou, Zoe; Raza, Ahmed; Horrocks, Paul; Pinches, Robert; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Newbold, Chris I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The var multicopy gene family encodes Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) variant antigens, which, through their ability to adhere to a variety of host receptors, are thought to be important virulence factors. The predominant expression of a single cytoadherent PfEMP1 type on an infected red blood cell, and the switching between different PfEMP1 types to evade host protective antibody responses, are processes thought to be controlled at the transcriptional level. Contradictory data have been published on the timing of var gene transcription. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data suggested that transcription of the predominant var gene occurs in the later (pigmented trophozoite) stages, whereas Northern blot data indicated such transcripts only in early (ring) stages. We investigated this discrepancy by Northern blot, with probes covering a diverse var gene repertoire. We confirm that almost all var transcript types were detected only in ring stages. However, one type, the well-conserved varCSA transcript, was present constitutively in different laboratory parasites and does not appear to undergo antigenic variation. Although varCSA has been shown to encode a chondroitin sulphate A (CSA)-binding PfEMP1, we find that the presence of full-length varCSA transcripts does not correlate with the CSA-binding phenotype. PMID:12787360

  6. Generation of Antigenic Diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by Structured Rearrangement of Var Genes During Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D.; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7–72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle. PMID:25521112

  7. A weak-constraint 4DEnsembleVar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amezcua, Javier; Goodliff, Michael; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan

    2016-04-01

    4DEnsembleVar is a hybrid data assimilation method which, besides making use of flow-dependent ensemble covariance information, avoids the computation of tangent-linear and adjoint models for the evolution and observation operators. In this method, the information from the observation time is communicated to the initial time via 4D cross-time covariances. Large systems require localisation of covariance matrices to suppress long-distance spurious elements. In a 4D covariance, however, using static localisation matrices (as it is done in practice) can eliminate the effect of observations if their location (at observational time) is far from that of the variable they are influencing (at the initial time). In lack of time-dependent localisation functions, in this work we propose a simpler option to ameliorate this problem. We exploit the presence of model error to spread the information of observations to more time steps, introducing a weak-constrained 4DEnsembleVar. The benefits of this method are illustrated in the Korteweg-de-Vries system, the Lorenz 1996 system, and a modified shallow water system with simulated convection.

  8. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. PMID:21908301

  9. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  10. Impact of EnVar hybrid assimilation using EnKF ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, V. S.; Johny, C. J.; Sodhi, Jagdeep Singh; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    Performance of an EnVar hybrid data assimilation system based on 3D Var NGFS (NCMRWF Global Forecast System) of T574 configuration and Ensemble Kalman Filter is investigated. The experiment is conducted during the Indian monsoon season (June-September) 2015 and compared against operational GSI 3D Var system. Two way coupled dual resolution hybrid system with 80 member ensemble of T254L64 configuration are used and forecasts are done for 10days. In hybrid experiment 75% weight is given to ensemble covariance and 25% for static covariance. The forecast skill of experiments over different spatial domains is compared against observations and respective analysis. The hybrid experiment produced significant improvement in forecasts compared to 3D Var in all fields except lower level temperature over tropical regions. Improvement is also seen in the prediction of extreme rainfall events. The prediction of monsoon onset and track of cyclone Ashobaa with hybrid and 3D var system is discussed.

  11. Use of incremental analysis updates in 4D-Var data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Banglin; Tallapragada, Vijay; Weng, Fuzhong; Sippel, Jason; Ma, Zaizhong

    2015-12-01

    The four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation systems used in most operational and research centers use initial condition increments as control variables and adjust initial increments to find optimal analysis solutions. This approach may sometimes create discontinuities in analysis fields and produce undesirable spin ups and spin downs. This study explores using incremental analysis updates (IAU) in 4D-Var to reduce the analysis discontinuities. IAU-based 4D-Var has almost the same mathematical formula as conventional 4D-Var if the initial condition increments are replaced with time-integrated increments as control variables. The IAU technique was implemented in the NASA/GSFC 4D-Var prototype and compared against a control run without IAU. The results showed that the initial precipitation spikes were removed and that other discontinuities were also reduced, especially for the analysis of surface temperature.

  12. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  13. Occurrence of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum along the southern coast of the Baja California Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael; González-Armas, Rogelio

    2011-03-01

    As part of a continuing toxic microalgae monitoring program, 22 phytoplankton samples were collected from July to November 2010 at several sampling stations along the southern coast of the Baja California Peninsula. For the first time, the toxic dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum was found along the southeastern and southwestern coasts of the peninsula. P. bahamense var. bahamense was first observed off San José del Cabo, which is an extension of the range of this variety. Both varieties occur as solitary cells. P. bahamense var. compressum occurred at temperatures ranging between 24.5°C and 31°C, whereas var. P.bahamense occurred at 28.5°C to 29°C, indicating its tropical and subtropical nature. Occurrence of P. bahamense var. compressum along this coastline may be related to El Niño 2009-2010. PMID:21276986

  14. Variability of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils between Myrtus communis var. Leucocarpa DC and var. Melanocarpa DC.

    PubMed

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Maldini, Mariateresa; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Foddai, Marzia; Rourke, Jonathan P; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from several individuals of Myrtus communis L. (M. communis) growing in different habitats in Sardinia have been studied. The analyses were focused on four groups of samples, namely cultivated and wild M. communis var. melanocarpa DC, characterized by red/purple berries, and cultivated and wild M. communis var. leucocarpa DC, characterized by white berries. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated different EO fingerprints among the studied samples: cultivated and wild leucocarpa variety differs mainly from the melanocarpa variety by a high amount of myrtenyl acetate (>200 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL in leucocarpa and melanocarpa varieties respectively). Conversely, the wild group is characterized by a higher amount, compared with the cultivated species, of linalool (about 110 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL respectively), linalyl acetate (about 24 mg/mL and about 6 mg/mL respectively) whereas EOs of the cultivated plants were rich in pinocarveol-cis compared with wild plants (about 2 mg/mL and about 0.5 mg/mL respectively). Principal component analysis applied to the chromatographic data confirm a differentiation and classification of EOs from the four groups of M. communis plants. Finally, antioxidant activity of the studied EOs shows differences between the various categories of samples. PMID:26616932

  15. Microsatellite markers for Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    López-Roberts, M. Cristina; Barbosa, Ariane R.; Paganucci de Queiroz, Luciano; van den Berg, Cássio

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Fabaceae) is a South and Central American tree of great ecological importance and one of the most common species in several sites of seasonally dry forests. Our goal was to develop microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure of this species. Methods and Results: We designed and assessed 53 loci obtained from a microsatellite-enriched library and an intersimple sequence repeat library. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, and they presented a total of 39 alleles in a sample of 61 individuals from six populations. The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.355 and 0.479, respectively. Polymorphism information content was 0.390 and the Shannon index was 0.778. Conclusions: Polymorphism information content and Shannon index indicate that at least nine of the 14 microsatellite loci developed are moderate to highly informative, and potentially useful for population genetic studies in this species. PMID:26819856

  16. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  17. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage. PMID:26165967

  18. Utilization of Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) for inulinase production.

    PubMed

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Algur, Omer Faruk

    2015-08-18

    Inulinase production by Rhodotorula glutinis was carried out in this study, using leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) as an alternative carbon source due to its high inulin content and easy availability. Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize fermentation conditions. For this purpose, five influential factors (leek concentration, pH, incubation temperature, agitation speed, and fermentation time) related to inulinase production were selected at four convenient levels. The results showed that maximum inulinase activity was obtained as 30.89 U/mL, which was close to the predicted result (30.24 U/mL). To validate the obtained results, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed. Consequently, leek has a great potential as an effective and economical carbon source for inulinase production, and the use of Taguchi DOE enhanced enzyme activity about 2.87-fold when compared with the unoptimized condition. PMID:25036570

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Naibin; Sun, Honghe; Wang, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Chen, Xuesen

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis, a widely used apple rootstock, was determined using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing approach. The genome is 422,555 bp in length and has a GC content of 45.21%. It is separated by a pair of inverted repeats of 32,504 bp, to form a large single copy region of 213,055 bp and a small single copy region of 144,492 bp. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes, four pseudogenes, 25 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes. The genome is 25,608 bp longer than that of M. domestica, and several structural variations between these two mitogenomes were detected. PMID:26539696

  20. Antimicrobial phenolic derivatives from Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Aziz Abdur; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2007-11-01

    A phytochemical study on the root of Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura, using a series of silica gel column chromatography and reversed phase C-18 HPLC chromatography, led to the isolation of (1S, 2S)-1, 2, 3-trihydroxy-1-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane (1), 4-methoxycinnamic acid (2), acacetin (3) and caffeic acid methyl ester (4). The structures of these compounds were determined using spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRTOFMS and NMR), with comparison of their spectral data with previously reported values. Compound 1 was isolated for the first time, with compounds 2 and 4 from this plant reported for the first time. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the isolated compounds were measured using the disc diffusion method. Also, their cytotoxicities against the cancer cell lines, A549, B16F1 and SK-Mel-2, and brine shrimp lethalities were evaluated. PMID:18087803

  1. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae. PMID:26119117

  2. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. Results: The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0±28.3) and (225.0±21.2) μg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0±2.0) μg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0±1.0) μg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. Conclusions: The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects. PMID:24599694

  3. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., which must restrict to a limited number of specified people those who have the ability to alter or... VAR period, the total volume in gallons of transfers from the facility of unadditized base...

  4. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:22286610

  5. ClinVar: public archive of relationships among sequence variation and human phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Landrum, Melissa J.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Riley, George R.; Jang, Wonhee; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Church, Deanna M.; Maglott, Donna R.

    2014-01-01

    ClinVar (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) provides a freely available archive of reports of relationships among medically important variants and phenotypes. ClinVar accessions submissions reporting human variation, interpretations of the relationship of that variation to human health and the evidence supporting each interpretation. The database is tightly coupled with dbSNP and dbVar, which maintain information about the location of variation on human assemblies. ClinVar is also based on the phenotypic descriptions maintained in MedGen (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen). Each ClinVar record represents the submitter, the variation and the phenotype, i.e. the unit that is assigned an accession of the format SCV000000000.0. The submitter can update the submission at any time, in which case a new version is assigned. To facilitate evaluation of the medical importance of each variant, ClinVar aggregates submissions with the same variation/phenotype combination, adds value from other NCBI databases, assigns a distinct accession of the format RCV000000000.0 and reports if there are conflicting clinical interpretations. Data in ClinVar are available in multiple formats, including html, download as XML, VCF or tab-delimited subsets. Data from ClinVar are provided as annotation tracks on genomic RefSeqs and are used in tools such as Variation Reporter (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/variation/tools/reporter), which reports what is known about variation based on user-supplied locations. PMID:24234437

  6. Genome Sequence of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, a Quarantine Plant-Pathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruifang; Cheng, Yinghui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Guo, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae is a serious plant-pathogenic fungus causing red core disease in strawberries, resulting in a larger number of fruit produced, and the fungus has been regulated as a quarantine pest of many countries and regions. Here, we announce the genome sequence of P. fragariae var. fragariae, and this information might provide insight into the mechanism of pathogenicity and host specificity of this pathogen, as well as help us further identify targets for fungicides. PMID:25814589

  7. A Framework to Quantify the Economic Impact from Local VAR Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangxing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Tolbert, Leon M; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2008-01-01

    It is generally accepted that reactive power (or Var) compensation will bring benefits for utilities and industrial customers by providing local voltage and power factor support. However, there is a lack of a systematic approach to quantitatively identify the economic benefit. In addition, with deregulation and restructuring, it is important to indicate the amount of benefit that each market participant may potentially receive given the right price signals. If such information can be easily obtained and presented, it will be more convenient for decision-markers to determine the cost benefit sharing of installing a Var compensator. The vision of this paper is to lay out a possible method for quantitatively evaluating the benefits from local reactive power compensation. The approach is to quantify the benefits into several categories such as reduced losses, shifting reactive power flow to real power flow, and increased transfer. The calculation of these benefits are illustrated with a simple two-bus power system model and then presented with a more complicated model using Optimal Power Flow to calculate the benefits. Simulation on the more complex system is conducted with seven buses in two areas. The simulation results show that the possible economic benefits can be significant, if compared with capacity payments to central generators or payment of power factor penalties applied by utilities. The potential economic value of local Var compensation may give various parties in electricity supply, delivery and end-use consumption a better understanding of the Var benefits to assist their cost-benefit analysis for Var compensation installation. Sensitivity analysis is also provided to illustrate that the benefits may not be monotonically increasing. Also, this paper suggests that the future reactive power market should consider local Var providers or other way to encourage load Var capability, since local Var benefit is significant.

  8. A Framework to Quantify the Economic Benefit from Local VAR Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangxing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Tolbert, Leon M; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2008-01-01

    Abstract It is generally accepted that reactive power (or Var) compensation will bring benefits for utilities and industrial customers by providing local voltage and power factor support. However, there is a lack of a systematic approach to quantitatively identify the economic benefit. In addition, with the deregulation and restructuring, it is important to indicate the amount of benefit that each market participant may potentially receive given the right price signals. If such information can be easily obtained and presented, it will be more convenient for decision-markers to determine the cost benefit sharing of installing a Var compensator. This vision of this paper is to lay out a possible method for quantitatively evaluating the benefits from local reactive power compensation. The approach is to quantify the benefits into several categories such as reduced losses, shifting reactive power flow to real power flow, and increased transfer. The calculation of these benefits are illustrated with a simple two-bus power system model and then presented with a more complicated model using Optimal Power Flow to calculate the benefits. Simulation on the more complex system is conducted with seven buses in two areas. The simulation results show that the possible economic benefits can be significant, if compared with capacity payments to central generators or payment of power factor penalties applied by utilities. The potential economic value of local Var compensation may give various parties in electricity supply, delivery and end-use consumption a better understanding of the Var benefits to assist their cost-benefit analysis for Var compensation installation. Sensitivity analysis is also provided to illustrate that the benefits may not be monotonically increasing. Also, this paper suggests that the future reactive power market should consider local Var providers or other way to encourage load Var capability, since local Var benefit is significant.

  9. Several domains from VAR2CSA can induce Plasmodium falciparum adhesion-blocking antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum can result in several different syndromes with severe clinical consequences for the about 200 million individuals infected each year. During pregnancy, women living in endemic areas become susceptible to malaria due to lack of antibodies against a unique P. falciparum membrane protein, named VAR2CSA. This antigen is not expressed in childhood infections, since it binds chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) expressed on the intervillous space in the placenta. A vaccine appears possible because women acquire protective antibodies hindering sequestration in the placenta as a function of parity. A challenge for vaccine development is to design small constructs of this large antigen, which can induce broadly protective antibodies. It has previously been shown that one domain of VAR2CSA, DBL4-FCR3, induces parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies. In this study, it is demonstrated that other domains of VAR2CSA also can induce antibodies with inhibitory activity. Methods All VAR2CSA domains from the 3D7 and HB3 parasites were produced in Baculovirus-transfected insect cells. Groups of three rats per protein were immunized and anti-sera were tested for surface reactivity against infected erythrocytes expressing FCR3 VAR2CSA and for the ability to inhibit FCR3CSA parasite adhesion to CSA. The fine specificity of the immune sera was analysed by VAR2CSA peptide arrays. Results Inhibitory antibodies were induced by immunization with DBL3-HB3 T1 and DBL1-3D7. However, unlike the previously characterised DBL4-FCR3 response the inhibitory response against DBL1-3D7 and DBL3-HB3 T1 was poorly reproduced in the second rounds of immunizations. Conclusion It is possible to induce parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies when immunizing with a number of different VAR2CSA domains. This indicates that the CSA binding site in VAR2CSA is comprised of epitopes from different domains. PMID:20064234

  10. Four-dimensional ensemble variational (4D-En-Var) data assimilation for the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, N.; Bojarova, J.

    2014-07-01

    A four-dimensional ensemble variational (4D-En-Var) data assimilation has been developed for a limited area model. The integration of tangent linear and adjoint models, as applied in standard 4D-Var, is replaced with the use of an ensemble of non-linear model states to estimate four-dimensional background error covariances over the assimilation time window. The computational costs for 4D-En-Var are therefore significantly reduced in comparison with standard 4D-Var and the scalability of the algorithm is improved. The flow dependency of 4D-En-Var assimilation increments is demonstrated in single simulated observation experiments and compared with corresponding increments from standard 4D-Var and Hybrid 4D-Var ensemble assimilation experiments. Real observation data assimilation experiments carried out over a 6-week period show that 4D-En-Var outperforms standard 4D-Var as well as Hybrid 4D-Var ensemble data assimilation with regard to forecast quality measured by forecast verification scores.

  11. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy. PMID:26500589

  12. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans. PMID:25261494

  13. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. “Not changed” patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than “improved” and “recovered” patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy. PMID:26500589

  14. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  15. Estimating the age of deciduous forests in northeast China with Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data acquired in different phenological seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengqiu; Ju, Weimin; Fan, Wenyi; Gu, Zhujun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data acquired in leaf-on and leaf-off seasons to estimate stand age of Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla in northeast China. The relationships of six band reflectances, nine vegetation indices, and six texture measures with stand age were examined. Linear and multivariable regression models and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN) were employed to estimate forest age based on these variables. The results indicate that reflectance in short-wave infrared bands and wetness are more significantly correlated with stand age in the leaf-on image, while reflectance in blue and green bands and greenness are more sensitive to stand age in leaf-off image. The MLP NN model can be effectively used to retrieve the stand age; the highest coefficient of determination and minimum root mean square error values of retrieved age are 0.47 and 21.3 years for Larix gmelinii, and 0.60 and 10.1 years for Betula platyphylla, respectively. The predicted age errors increased significantly when stand ages were >100 and >50 years for Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla, respectively. Remote sensing data acquired in the leaf-on season is more suitable for estimating forest age than that acquired in the leaf-off season over the study area.

  16. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. PMID:26740078

  17. In vitro propagation of Dioscorea alata var. purpurae.

    PubMed

    Shah, Heena J; Lele, S S

    2012-07-01

    Dioscorea alata var. purpurae (Indian purple yam) is an important source of diosgenin, a triterpenoid that is used as a raw material in the synthesis of corticosteroid hormones. These drugs are used for the treatment of pharmacological conditions such as arthritis. This paper reports in vitro propagation of explants of various parts of Dioscorea-tuber, leaves, and nodes. Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with hormones and additives was used to get maximum callus initiation and shoot/root induction. All the cultures were maintained at 25 ± 2 °C under cool-white fluorescent tubes with 16-h photoperiod. Callus initiation was observed from 8th to 11th day of inoculation, and subsequent root/shoot was initiated in nodal callus after 21 days. Hormones such as kinetin, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, α-naphthalene acetic acid, and thiadizuron did not show significant enhancement. Also, there was no need for supplementing additives (silver nitrate, glutamine, L-: asparagine monohydrate, polyethylene glycol). Combination of 6-benzylaminopurine (0.2 ppm) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2 ppm) hormones gave the best results, and all parts of the plants gave similar callus induction. PMID:22476929

  18. Periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica filariasis in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Nguyen-Ngoc, L; Marcet, Y; Gardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-06-01

    In 1992, a study on microfilaremia periodicity was carried out on 12 Wuchereria bancrofti carriers in the Marquesas islands. Blood samples were collected simultaneously every 4 hours during a 48 hour period by finger-prick and venipuncture for determination of microfilaremia by both blood film and membrane filtration technique methods, and for determination of antigenemia. The membrane filtration results showed no significant nycthemeral variations between the microfilaria densities at hours 16:00, 20:00, 24:00, 04:00, 08:00 and 12:00. Conversely, the blood film method showed a significant difference between the microfilaria densities: the microfilaremia was higher during the day (12:00-20:00 hours) than during the night (24:00-08:00 hours). As for antigenemia, using Og 4 C3 monoclonal antibody, there was no significant fluctuation during 48 hours. These results confirm that W. bancrofti var. pacifica is subperiodic and diurnal in French Polynesia. In particular, they substantiate the validity of examining venous blood by the membrane filtration technique as the judgment criterion of choice in therapeutic trials and of examining capillary blood during peak hours by the blood film method for evaluating the endemic level in a population. PMID:8367671

  19. Reduced order POD/DEIM 4-D Var data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Michael; Stefanescu, Razvan

    2014-05-01

    The computational cost of realistic ensemble and hybrid variational/ensemble data assimilation is typically dominated by the cost of ensemble forecasting. The high computational cost of ensemble forecasting limits the number of ensembles, eventually creating a severe rank reduction. Consequently, the efficiency and quality of ensemble-based data assimilation are greatly reduced. With the ever-increasing spatiotemporal resolution and complexity of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, the room for ensemble forecasting is getting even smaller, creating a paradox: Although the NWP generally benefits from increased resolution and complexity of the models, the quality of their data assimilation is getting worse due to additional computational restrictions. We propose POD model order reduction substantially improving computational efficiency of NWP models. We present recent advances in this domain and the state-of the art of hyper reduction addressing issues of turbulence closure and nonlinearities allowing CPU speed -ups of orders of magnitude, reduced order 4-D VAR and future prospects of implementation to operational NMP models.

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  1. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-02-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  2. Genetic dissection of agronomic traits in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Bento, C S; Gonçalves, L S A; Santos, J O; Sudré, C P; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mapping is very useful for dissecting complex agronomic traits. Genetic mapping allows for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL), provide knowledge on a gene position and its adjacent region, and enable prediction of evolutionary mechanisms, in addition to contributing to synteny studies. The aim of this study was to predict genetic values associated with different agronomic traits evaluated in an F2 population of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum. Previously, a reference genetic map for C. baccatum was constructed, which included 183 markers (42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplification of polymorphic DNA) arranged in 16 linkage groups. The map was used to identify QTL associated with 11 agronomic traits, including plant height, crown diameter, number of days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit pulp thickness, soluble solids, and fruit dry weight. QTL mapping was performed by standard interval mapping. The number of small QTL effects ranged from 3-11, with a total of 61 QTL detected in 9 linkage groups. This is the first report involving QTL analysis for C. baccatum species. PMID:25867359

  3. Foam Separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, R. B.; Wang, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 μeq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2, CaSO4, MgCl2, or MgSO4 produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 × 105 up to 1.6 × 106 to 2.8 × 107 cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 × 107 to 4.8 × 107 cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 μeq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 × 104 to about 4.0 × 105 cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis. PMID:4961933

  4. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    PubMed

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow. PMID:23179714

  5. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    PubMed

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  6. Antiplasmodial sesquiterpenes from the seeds of Salacia longipes var. camerunensis.

    PubMed

    Mba'ning, Brice M; Lenta, Bruno N; Noungoué, Diderot T; Antheaume, Cyril; Fongang, Yanick F; Ngouela, Silvère A; Boyom, Fabrice F; Rosenthal, Philip J; Tsamo, Etienne; Sewald, Norbert; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2013-12-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Salacia longipes var. camerunensis led to the isolation of four sesquiterpenoid derivatives, salaterpene A (1) (1α,2β,8β-triacetoxy-6β,9β-dibenzoyloxy-4β-hydroxy-dihydro-β-agarofuran), salaterpene B (2) (1α,2β,8β-triacetoxy-9β-benzoyloxy-6β-cinnamoyloxy-4β-hydroxy-dihydro-β-agarofuran), salaterpene C (3) (1α,2β-diacetoxy-6β,9β-dibenzoyloxy-4β-hydroxy-dihydro-β-agarofuran) and salaterpene D (4) (2β-acetoxy-1α,6β-dibenzoyloxy-4β-hydroxy-9β-nicotinoyloxy-dihydro-β-agarofuran) together with two known compounds (5 and 6). The structures of the compounds were established by means of NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 1-4 and 6 were tested in vitro for their antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain W2. All the tested compounds exhibited a moderate potency with IC50 below 2.7 μM. PMID:23863332

  7. Antimicrobial evaluation of clerodane diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.

    PubMed

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Shukla, P K

    2009-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula has led to the isolation of seven clerodane diterpenoids and five alkaloids. (-)-14, 15-bisnor-3, 11E-kolavadien-13-one (1), (-)-16-oxocleroda-3,13(14)E-dien-15-oic acid (2), (-)-16alpha-hydroxycleroda-3,13 (14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (3), (+)-(4-->2)-abeo-16(R/S)-2, 13Z-kolavadien-15, 16-olide-3-al (4), (-)-3beta, 16beta-dihydroxycleroda-4(18), 13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (5), (-)-3, 12E-kolavadien-15-oic acid-16-al (6), (-)-labd-13E-en-8-ol-15-oic acid (7), liriodenine (8), (-)-anonaine (9), (+)-isoboldine (10), (-)-asimilobine (11) and hordenine (12) have been isolated. This is the first report of 1, 6 and 10 from this plant species while 12 is reported for first time from this genus. Clerodane derivatives 1-7 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Diterpene 3 was found to be most potent agent with MIC value of 6.25 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Sporothrix schenckii. PMID:19413108

  8. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from prunella vulgaris var. lilacina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Methods Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. Results The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced

  9. Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.

    PubMed

    Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

    2013-11-15

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low. PMID:24511710

  10. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Warhurst, David C.; Craig, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications. PMID:27483471

  11. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

    PubMed

    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications. PMID:27483471

  12. Stabilization of the HCP [var epsilon] phase in an Fe-21%Mn alloy subjected to cathodic hydrogen charging

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, T.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S. )

    1993-07-01

    Cathodic hydrogen charging induces some phase transformation in the surface layer of FCC iron alloys. Such a hydrogen-induced phase transformation has extensively been studied for austenitic stainless steels, where the FCC [gamma] phase transforms partially into an HCP [var epsilon][sub H] phase. The formation of the [var epsilon][sub H] phase has also been found in FCC Fe-Mn alloys and Fe-Ni-Mn alloys. The [var epsilon][sub H] phase is unstable in the absence of hydrogen and decomposes to an [var epsilon] martensite in the metastable FCC alloys. In order to make clear the nature of the [var epsilon][sub H] phase, it is necessary to reveal the stability of the [var epsilon] phase in FCC iron alloys during cathodic hydrogen charging. In the present study, the authors employed an Fe-21%Mn alloy which consisted of a mixture of the [gamma] and [var epsilon] phases in an as-quenched state. For this two-phase alloy, the [var epsilon] [r arrow] [gamma] transformation has so far been examined by a high-pressure equilibration method in a hydrogen-gas atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to compare the stability of the [gamma] phases in the two-phase alloy subjected to cathodic hydrogen charging in an aqueous solution. The influence of hydrogen on the [var epsilon] phase stability will be discussed, including the transformation in a hydrogen-gas atmosphere.

  13. A Novel Saponin Hydrolase from Neocosmospora vasinfecta var. vasinfecta

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Manabu; Sumida, Naomi; Yanai, Koji; Murakami, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We isolated a soybean saponin hydrolase from Neocosmospora vasinfecta var. vasinfecta PF1225, a filamentous fungus that can degrade soybean saponin and generate soyasapogenol B. This enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of about 77 kDa and a glycoprotein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the corresponding gene (sdn1) indicated that this enzyme consisted of 612 amino acids and had a molecular mass of 65,724 Da, in close agreement with that of the apoenzyme after the removal of carbohydrates. The sdn1 gene was successfully expressed in Trichoderma viride under the control of the cellobiohydrolase I gene promoter. The molecular mass of the recombinant enzyme, about 69 kDa, was smaller than that of the native enzyme due to fewer carbohydrate modifications. Examination of the degradation products obtained by treatment of soyasaponin I with the recombinant enzyme showed that the enzyme hydrolyzed soyasaponin I to soyasapogenol B and triose [α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl (1→2)-d-glucuronopyranoside]. Also, when soyasaponin II and soyasaponin V, which are different from soyasaponin I only in constituent saccharides, were treated with the enzyme, the ratio of the reaction velocities for soyasaponin I, soyasaponin II, and soyasaponin V was 2,680:886:1. These results indicate that this enzyme recognizes the fine structure of the carbohydrate moiety of soyasaponin in its catalytic reaction. The amino acid sequence of this enzyme predicted from the DNA sequence shows no clear homology with those of any of the enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of carbohydrates. PMID:14766566

  14. Novel picornavirus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Bíró, Hunor; Horváth, Katalin Barbara; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits. PMID:26588888

  15. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Melissa; Fernandes, Neil D.; Nowakowski, Dennis; Raftery, Mark; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhong, Ling; Thomas, Torsten; Egan, Suhelen

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds) are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence. PMID:26528274

  16. Characteristic odorants from bailingu oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis) and summer oyster mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus).

    PubMed

    Usami, Atsushi; Motooka, Ryota; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the characteristic odorants of the volatile oils from Pleurotus species (P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 52 and 54 components (P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus, respectively) were identified, representing about 98.8% and 85.1% of the volatile oils, respectively. The main components of the P. eryngii var. tuoliensis oil were palmitic acid (82, 38.0%), oleic acid (86, 25.0%) and linoleic acid (85, 9.7%). The main components of the P. cystidiosus oil, palmitic acid (82, 25.8%), indole (54, 9.1%) and myristic acid (77, 5.3%). Regarding the aroma components, 16 and 13 components were identified in the P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus oils respectively, by the GC-O analyses. The results of the sniffing test, odor activity value (OAV) and flavor dilution (FD) factor indicate that methional, 1-octen-3-ol and nonanal are the main aroma-active components of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis oil. On the other hands, dimethyl trisulfide and 1-octen-3-ol were estimated as the main aroma-active components of the P. cystidiosus oil. PMID:24919476

  17. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. PMID:27010411

  18. VarMod: modelling the functional effects of non-synonymous variants.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Morena; Wass, Mark N

    2014-07-01

    Unravelling the genotype-phenotype relationship in humans remains a challenging task in genomics studies. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean there are now thousands of sequenced human genomes, revealing millions of single nucleotide variants (SNVs). For non-synonymous SNVs present in proteins the difficulties of the problem lie in first identifying those nsSNVs that result in a functional change in the protein among the many non-functional variants and in turn linking this functional change to phenotype. Here we present VarMod (Variant Modeller) a method that utilises both protein sequence and structural features to predict nsSNVs that alter protein function. VarMod develops recent observations that functional nsSNVs are enriched at protein-protein interfaces and protein-ligand binding sites and uses these characteristics to make predictions. In benchmarking on a set of nearly 3000 nsSNVs VarMod performance is comparable to an existing state of the art method. The VarMod web server provides extensive resources to investigate the sequence and structural features associated with the predictions including visualisation of protein models and complexes via an interactive JSmol molecular viewer. VarMod is available for use at http://www.wasslab.org/varmod. PMID:24906884

  19. Allowing for model error in strong constraint 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Katherine; Lawless, Amos; Fowler, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) can be used to obtain the best estimate of the initial conditions of an environmental forecasting model, namely the analysis. In practice, when the forecasting model contains errors, the analysis from the 4D-Var algorithm will be degraded to allow for errors later in the forecast window. This work focusses on improving the analysis at the initial time by allowing for the fact that the model contains error, within the context of strong constraint 4D-Var. The 4D-Var method developed acknowledges the presence of random error in the model at each time step by replacing the observation error covariance matrix with an error covariance matrix that includes both observation error and model error statistics. It is shown that this new matrix represents the correct error statistics of the innovations in the presence of model error. A method for estimating this matrix using innovation statistics, without requiring prior knowledge of the model error statistics, is presented. The method is demonstrated numerically using a non-linear chaotic system with erroneous parameter values. We show that that the new method works to reduce the analysis error covariance when compared with a standard strong constraint 4D-Var scheme. We discuss the fact that an improved analysis will not necessarily provide a better forecast.

  20. Genetic diversity in wild diploid wheats Triticum monococcum var. boeoticum and T. urartu (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Smith-Huerta, N L; Huerta, A J; Barnhart, D; Waines, J G

    1989-08-01

    The genetic diversity of two wild diploid wheat species, Triticum monococcum var. boeoticum and T. urartu, was assessed using starch gel electrophoresis. Genetic diversity is uniformly low in both species. Number of alleles per locus was very low with a mean of 1.22 for T. monococcum var. boeoticum and 1.19 in T. urartu. Percentage of polymorphic loci was also low, with a mean of 19.71 for T. monococcum var. boeoticum and a mean of 18.35 for T. urartu. Mean gene diversity was low with a mean of 0.052 in populations of T. monococcum var. boeoticum and a mean of 0.040 in populations of T. urartu. Genetic affinities of the species and of populations were computed using Nei's identity index (NI). Overall genetic affinities of the two species are NI=0.697. The genetic affinities of different populations of a species are uniformly high with NIs ranging from 0.894 to 1.000 in T. monococcum var. boeoticum and from 0.898 to 1.000 in T. urartu. PMID:24227153

  1. A new approach for optimal VAR sources planning in large scale electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yingtung Hsiao; Chunchang Liu; Yuanlin Chen . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Hsiodong Chiang )

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach for contingency-constrained optimal reactive volt amper (VAR) sources planning in large-scale power systems. Features distinguishing the proposed approach from many of the existing methods include that it allows a more realistic problem formulation, and that it can find the (global) optimal solution. The new problem formulation takes into consideration practical aspects of VAR sources; the load constraints and operational constraints at different load levels. This solution methodology based on simulated annealing determines (1) the location to install VAR sources; (2) the types and sizes of VAR sources to be installed; and (3) the settings of VAR sources at different loading conditions. In order to speed up the solution algorithm, this paper makes a slight modification of the fast decoupled load flow and incorporates it into the solution algorithm. This method is suitable for large-scale power systems and has been tested on several power systems with promising results. Simulation results on the IEEE 30 buses system and the Tai-power 358 buses system are presented.

  2. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei. PMID:25345060

  3. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  4. Molecular and morphological evidence for Penstemon luculentus (Plantaginaceae): a replacement name for Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert L; Stevens, Mikel R; Johnson, Leigh A; Robbins, Matthew D; Anderson, Chris D; Ricks, Nathan J; Farley, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Penstemon luculentus R.L.Johnson & M.R.Stevens, nom. nov. replaces Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens Dorn & Lichvar. The varietal name glabrescens was not elevated because it was already occupied by Penstemon glabrescens Pennell, a different species. This new arrangement is supported by molecular and morphological evidence. An analysis of genetic diversity in populations of both varieties of Penstemon fremontii Torr. & A. Gray (glabrescens and fremontii) from the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using SSR (simple sequences repeats) or microsatellites markers, revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two. Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens was also genetically different from Penstemon gibbensii Dorn and Penstemon scariosus var. garrettii (Pennell) N.H. Holmgren. The combination of hirtellous stems, glabrous leaves, non-glandular inflorescence, and long anther hairs distinguish Penstemon luculentus from other morphologically similar species. PMID:27489478

  5. Molecular and morphological evidence for Penstemon luculentus (Plantaginaceae): a replacement name for Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert L.; Stevens, Mikel R.; Johnson, Leigh A.; Robbins, Matthew D.; Anderson, Chris D.; Ricks, Nathan J.; Farley, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Penstemon luculentus R.L.Johnson & M.R.Stevens, nom. nov. replaces Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens Dorn & Lichvar. The varietal name glabrescens was not elevated because it was already occupied by Penstemon glabrescens Pennell, a different species. This new arrangement is supported by molecular and morphological evidence. An analysis of genetic diversity in populations of both varieties of Penstemon fremontii Torr. & A. Gray (glabrescens and fremontii) from the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using SSR (simple sequences repeats) or microsatellites markers, revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two. Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens was also genetically different from Penstemon gibbensii Dorn and Penstemon scariosus var. garrettii (Pennell) N.H. Holmgren. The combination of hirtellous stems, glabrous leaves, non-glandular inflorescence, and long anther hairs distinguish Penstemon luculentus from other morphologically similar species. PMID:27489478

  6. Dynamic performance and control of a static var generator using cascade multilevel inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    A cascade multilevel inverter is proposed for static VAR shifting, compensation/generation applications. The new cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single-phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle. It can eliminate the need for transformers in multipulse inverters. A prototype static VAR generator (SVG) system using 11- level cascade inverter (21-level line-to-line voltage waveform) has been built. The output voltage waveform is equivalent to that of a 60- pulse inverter. This paper focuses on dynamic performance of the cascade inverter based SVG system. Control schemes are proposed to achieve a fast response which is impossible for a conventional static VAR compensator (SVC). Analytical, simulated and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed SVG system.

  7. Volt-VAR Optimization on American Electric Power Feeders in Northeast Columbus

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2012-05-10

    In 2007 American Electric Power launched the gridSMART® initiative with the goals of increasing efficiency of the electricity delivery system and improving service to the end-use customers. As part of the initiative, a coordinated Volt-VAR system was deployed on eleven distribution feeders at five substations in the Northeast Columbus Ohio Area. The goal of the coordinated Volt-VAR system was to decrease the amount of energy necessary to provide end-use customers with the same quality of service. The evaluation of the Volt-VAR system performance was conducted in two stages. The first stage was composed of simulation, analysis, and estimation, while the second stage was composed of analyzing collected field data. This panel paper will examine the analysis conducted in both stages and present the estimated improvements in system efficiency.

  8. A novel, high-frequency, per-phase static var compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, N.; Kamath, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    Static var compensators are being used to provide voltage control, var compensation, damping of oscillations, and improved transient stability in power systems. Conventional SVCs which consist of thyristor-switched capacitors and thyristor controlled inductors suffer from disadvantages of size and slow dynamic response. This makes it unsuitable for applications such as controlling the voltage flicker due to arc furnace loads. Advanced SVCs (STATCON or STATCOM) eliminate the above disadvantages. However, they have a disadvantage due to the presence of a large line-frequency transformer. In this paper, a novel, high-frequency, per-phase static var compensator is proposed, which has all the advantages of the advanced SVC. Various related topologies and control strategies are also enumerated and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  9. FlyVar: a database for genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Jiang, Lichun; Chen, Yong; Haelterman, Nele A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Chen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    FlyVar is a publicly and freely available platform that addresses the increasing need of next generation sequencing data analysis in the Drosophila research community. It is composed of three parts. First, a database that contains 5.94 million DNA polymorphisms found in Drosophila melanogaster derived from whole genome shotgun sequencing of 612 genomes of D. melanogaster. In addition, a list of 1094 dispensable genes has been identified. Second, a graphical user interface (GUI) has been implemented to allow easy and flexible queries of the database. Third, a set of interactive online tools enables filtering and annotation of genomic sequences obtained from individual D. melanogaster strains to identify candidate mutations. FlyVar permits the analysis of next generation sequencing data without the need of extensive computational training or resources. Database URL: www.iipl.fudan.edu.cn/FlyVar. PMID:26289428

  10. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  11. A computer package for optimal multi-objective VAR planning in large scale power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.D. . School of Electrical Engineering); Liu, C.C.; Chen, Y.L. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Hsiao, Y.T.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a simulated annealing based computer package for multi-objective, VAR planning in large scale power systems - SAMVAR. This computer package has three distinct features. First, the optimal VAR planning is reformulated as a constrained, multi-objective, non-differentiable optimization problem. The new formulation considers four different objective functions related to system investment, system operational efficiency, system security and system service quality. The new formulation also takes into consideration load, operation and contingency constraints. Second, it allows both the objective functions and equality and inequality constraints to be non-differentiable; making the problem formulation more realistic. Third, the package employs a two-stage solution algorithm based on an extended simulated annealing technique and the [var epsilon]-constraint method. The first-stage of the solution algorithm uses an extended simulated annealing technique to find a global, non-inferior solution. The results obtained from the first stage provide a basis for planners to prioritize the objective functions such that a primary objective function is chosen and tradeoff tolerances for the other objective functions are set. The primary objective function and the trade-off tolerances are then used to transform the constrained multi-objective optimization problem into a single-objective optimization problem with more constraints by employing the [var epsilon]-constraint method. The second-stage uses the simulated annealing technique to find the global optimal solution. A salient feature of SAMVAR is that it allows planners to find an acceptable, global non-inferior solution for the VAR problem. Simulation results indicate that SAMVAR has the ability to handle the multi-objective VAR planning problem and meet with the planner's requirements.

  12. Genetic Variability and Population Structure of the Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mengran; Huang, Chenyang; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Xiangli; Qu, Jibin; Zhang, Jinxia

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 123 wild strains of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis, which were collected from nine geographical locations in Yumin, Tuoli, and Qinghe counties in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, was analysed using two molecular marker systems (inter-simple sequence repeat and start codon targeted). At the variety level, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s gene diversity index for P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was 96.32% and 0.238, respectively. At the population level, Nei’s gene diversity index ranged from 0.149 to 0.218 with an average of 0.186, and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.213 to 0.339 with an average of 0.284. These results revealed the abundant genetic variability in the wild resources of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. Nei’s gene diversity analysis indicated that the genetic variance was mainly found within individual geographical populations, and the analysis of molecular variance revealed low but significant genetic differentiation among local and regional populations. The limited gene flow (Nm = 1.794) was inferred as a major reason for the extent of genetic differentiation of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. The results of Mantel tests showed that the genetic distance among geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was positively correlated with the geographical distance and the longitudinal distances (rGo = 0.789 and rLn = 0.873, respectively), which indicates that geographical isolation is an important factor for the observed genetic differentiation. Nine geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis were divided into three groups according to their geographical origins, which revealed that the genetic diversity was closely related to the geographical distribution of this wild fungus. PMID:24349475

  13. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the US and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (C. lanatus var. citroides) have been shown...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  16. Erasing the Epigenetic Memory and Beginning to Switch—The Onset of Antigenic Switching of var Genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Fastman, Yair; Noble, Robert; Recker, Mario; Dzikowski, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is regulated by transcriptional switches among members of the var gene family, each expressed in a mutually exclusive manner and encoding a different variant of the surface antigens collectively named PfEMP1. Antigenic switching starts when the first merozoites egress from the liver and begin their asexual proliferation within red blood cells. By erasing the epigenetic memory we created parasites with no var background, similar to merozoites that egress from the liver where no var gene is expressed. Creating a null-var background enabled us to investigate the onset of antigenic switches at the early phase of infection. At the onset of switching, var transcription pattern is heterogeneous with numerous genes transcribed at low levels including upsA vars, a subtype that was implicated in severe malaria, which are rarely activated in growing cultures. Analysis of subsequent in vitro switches shows that the probability of a gene to turn on or off is not associated with its chromosomal position or promoter type per se but on intrinsic properties of each gene. We concluded that var switching is determined by gene specific associated switch rates rather than general promoter type or locus associated switch rates. In addition, we show that fine tuned reduction in var transcription increases their switch rate, indicating that transcriptional perturbation can alter antigenic switching. PMID:22461905

  17. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  18. Genetic interactions reveal that specific defects of chloroplast translation are associated with the suppression of var2-mediated leaf variegation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiayan; Zheng, Mengdi; Wang, Rui; Wang, Ruijuan; An, Lijun; Rodermel, Steve R; Yu, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana L. yellow variegated (var2) mutant is defective in a chloroplast FtsH family metalloprotease, AtFtsH2/VAR2, and displays an intriguing green and white leaf variegation. This unique var2-mediated leaf variegation offers a simple yet powerful tool for dissecting the genetic regulation of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new var2 suppressor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION8 (SVR8), which encodes a putative chloroplast ribosomal large subunit protein, L24. Mutations in SVR8 suppress var2 leaf variegation at ambient temperature and partially suppress the cold-induced chlorosis phenotype of var2. Loss of SVR8 causes unique chloroplast rRNA processing defects, particularly the 23S-4.5S dicistronic precursor. The recovery of the major abnormal processing site in svr8 23S-4.5S precursor indicate that it does not lie in the same position where SVR8/L24 binds on the ribosome. Surprisingly, we found that the loss of a chloroplast ribosomal small subunit protein, S21, results in aberrant chloroplast rRNA processing but not suppression of var2 variegation. These findings suggest that the disruption of specific aspects of chloroplast translation, rather than a general impairment in chloroplast translation, suppress var2 variegation and the existence of complex genetic interactions in chloroplast development. PMID:23721655

  19. Hierarchical control design challenge problems for optimal VAR planning and real time voltage control in electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mehra, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    To optimize VAR sources on a power system, system planners must identify the location, size, and type of all available reactive power devices. The Control Design Challenge problem is to determine the least-costly VAR expansion pattern that will enable large power system to maintain acceptable voltage levels in all conditions.

  20. The Chondroitin Sulfate A-binding Site of the VAR2CSA Protein Involves Multiple N-terminal Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Jørgensen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Morten A.; Clausen, Thomas M.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Pinto, Vera V.; Arnot, David E.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Malaria during pregnancy is a major health problem for African women. The disease is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites, which accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). The interaction between infected erythrocytes and the placental receptor is mediated by a parasite expressed protein named VAR2CSA. A vaccine protecting pregnant women against placental malaria should induce antibodies inhibiting the interaction between VAR2CSA and CSA. Much effort has been put into defining the part of the 350 kDa VAR2CSA protein that is responsible for binding. It has been shown that full-length recombinant VAR2CSA binds specifically to CSA with high affinity, however to date no sub-fragment of VAR2CSA has been shown to interact with CSA with similar affinity or specificity. In this study, we used a biosensor technology to examine the binding properties of a panel of truncated VAR2CSA proteins. The experiments indicate that the core of the CSA-binding site is situated in three domains, DBL2X-CIDRPAM and a flanking domain, located in the N-terminal part of VAR2CSA. Furthermore, recombinant VAR2CSA subfragments containing this region elicit antibodies with high parasite adhesion blocking activity in animal immunization experiments. PMID:21398524

  1. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  4. Two New Highly Oxygenated Spirostanol Saponins from Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ling-Yu; Lu, Ting-Xiang; Qin, Xu-Jie; Ni, Wei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Hui; He, Hong-Ping; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated spirostanol saponins, named paristenosides A (1) and B (2), together with seven known compounds. Their structures were established mainly on the base of NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the two new saponins was tested. Two new highly oxygenated spirostanol saponins, paristenosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla. Their structures were established mainly based on NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. PMID:27255683

  5. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the perennial herb Hepatica nobilis var. japonica (Ranunculaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Kameoka, Shinichiro; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in the vulnerable plant Hepatica nobilis var. japonica (Ranunculaceae) to investigate its genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow. Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 12, and the expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.043 to 0.855. Eleven markers were successfully amplified in the cultivar ‘Mego’ from Japan. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers can be used to investigate the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow of H. nobilis var. japonica. PMID:25798342

  6. [Finding of dairy yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis in natural habitats].

    PubMed

    Naumov, G I; Naumova, E S; Glushakova, A M; Kachalkin, A V; Chernov, I Y

    2014-01-01

    Well-known yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis, which are usually associated with dairy prod- ucts, were discovered in nature (in woodland park soil under Impatiens glandulifera Royle plants). Reliable identification of the yeasts was carried out using physiological criteria (lactose and maltose utilization) and molecular markers (nucleotide sequence of the 5.8S-ITS rDNA fragment, pulsed-field electrophoresis, and Southern hybridization of chromosomal DNA with the LAC4 probe). Ecology of KI. lactis var. lactis is discussed. PMID:25941717

  7. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Claire H; Maeda, Hiroshi A; Goldman, Irwin L

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combined peak for β- and γ- forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Significant variation in amounts of tocochromanol compounds was observed across accessions and over time. Large increases in α-tocopherol were noted during both reproductive growth and the postharvest stages. The variation of tocochromanols in carrot root tissue provides useful information for future research seeking to understand the role of these compounds in carrot root tissue or to breed varieties with increased levels of these compounds. PMID:26504534

  8. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Luciana V; Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R F; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A; Janse, Chris J; Gamain, Benoit; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 10(4) P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei At doses of 10(5) and 10(6) IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6-EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA. PMID:27045035

  9. Toxicity of "Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki" to the Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Richard; Nadal, Gerard; Kincaid, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Reports the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (BT), which is highly toxic, to a non-target lepidopteran, the Painted Lady butterfly. Indicates that BT kills some Painted Lady butterfly larvae at the lowest dilution tested after 48 hours. (ASK)

  10. First record of genus Coelomomyces in Macau (China): Coelomomyces stegomyiae var. stegomyiae parasitizing Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C; Ribeiro, H; Novo, T; Bizarro, J; Easton, E R

    1996-09-01

    During a mosquito survey carried out in 1994-95, in Macau, southern China, Coelomomyces stegomyiae var. stegomyiae was found parasitizing Aedes albopictus. This constitutes the first record of this genus as potential agents of mosquito control in the area. PMID:8887236

  11. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements. This section contains requirements for automated detergent blending facilities and hand-blending detergent facilities. All gasoline and all PRC intended for use in gasoline must...

  12. Monitoring Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis for Biological Control of Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rust fungus Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis (P. jaceae) was first released as a classical biological control for yellow starthistle (YST) in California (CA) in 2003. At that time, a monitoring program was initiated to 1) determine the best time to release the agent, 2) determine if P. jaceae c...

  13. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.145 Alpha-Galactosidase derived from... following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme alpha-galactosidase and the mycelia of the microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer which produces the enzyme. (b) The...

  14. Recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Aspergillus delacroxii (formerly Aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Uhrin, Gábor Balázs; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Korup, Eva; Grønlund, Jens; Hjort, Ulla; Moser, Claus; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2015-01-01

    We report Aspergillus delacroxii (formerly Aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus) causing recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis. The fungus was the sole agent detected during replacement of a mechanical aortic valve conduit due to abscess formation. Despite extensive surgery and anti-fungal treatment, the patient had a cerebral hemorrhage 4 months post-surgery prompting a diagnosis of recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis and fungemia. PMID:26909244

  15. BREEDING BIOLOGY AND FLOWER VISITORS OF THE RARE WHITE RIVER PENSTEMON, PENSTEMON SCARIOSUS VAR. ALBIFLUVIS (SCROPHULARIACEAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the breeding system and flower visitors of White River penstemon, a rare endemic from the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado. Bagging treatments coupled with hand-pollinations showed that Penstemon scariosus var. albifluvis has a mixed mating system: while some seeds and fr...

  16. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. PMID:27060627

  17. Phragmalin limonoids from the stem barks of Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun-Lin; Fang, Xin; Liu, En-De; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Li, Shi-Fei; Zhang, Yu; He, Hong-Ping; Li, Shun-Lin; Di, Ying-Tong; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Seven new phragmalin limonoids, chukvelutilides I-O (1-7), were isolated from the stem barks of Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Among them, compound 1 showed moderate lethal activity against brine shrimp larvae, with an LC50 value of 84.1 µM. PMID:25153097

  18. N. sup. var epsilon. -acetyl-. beta. -lysine: An osmolyte synthesized by mothanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, K.R.; Gunsalus, R.P. ); Robertson, D.E.; Noll, D.; Roberts, M.F. )

    1990-12-01

    Methanosarcina thermophila, a nonmarine methanogenic archaebacterium, can grow in a range of saline concentrations. At less than 0.4 M NaCl, Ms. thermophila accumulated glutamate in response to increasing osmotic stress. At greater than 0.4 M NaCl, this organism synthesized a modified {beta}-amino acid that was identified as N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine by NMR spectroscopy and ion-exchange HPLC. This {beta}-amino acid derivative accumulated to high intracellular concentrations (up to 0.6 M) in Ms. thermophila and in another methanogen examined - Methanogenium cariaci, a marine species. The compound has features that are characteristic of a compatible solute: it is neutrally charged at physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological compatible solute, N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine synthesis was repressed and glycine betaine was accumulated. N{sup {var epsilon}}-Acetyl-{beta}-lysine was synthesized by species from three phylogenetic families when grown in high solute concentrations, suggesting that it may be ubiquitous among the methanogens. The ability to control the biosynthesis of N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine in response to extracellular solute concentration indicates that the methanogenic archaebacteria have a unique {beta}-amino acid biosynthetic pathway that is osmotically regulated.

  19. Monitoring the rust fungus Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis for biological control of yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) is a noxious weed that infests over 7 million hectares of rangeland in California. The rust fungus Puccinia jaceae Otth var. solstitialis (P. j. solstitialis) was first released as a classical biological control for yellow starthistle in California in 2...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Oleaginous Yeast Cryptococcus albidus var. albidus.

    PubMed

    Vajpeyi, Shashwat; Chandran, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete draft genome sequence of Cryptococcus albidus var. albidus, an oleaginous yeast, which can utilize various organic carbon sources for lipid synthesis. Availability of this genome will help elucidate factors driving lipid accumulation in C. albidus and contribute toward bioprocess development and optimization for engineered lipid production. PMID:27198024

  1. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population

    PubMed Central

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenue, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Varma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates and to evaluate the relationship between genotypes, geographical origin and clinical manifestations. A total of 83 globally collected C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Colombia, and the USA, recovered from different sources (primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis, disseminated cryptococcosis, the environment, and animals), were included in the study. All isolates were confirmed to belong to genotype VNIV by molecular typing and they were further investigated by MLST analysis. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic as well as network analysis strongly suggested the existence of a recombinant rather than a clonal population structure. Geographical origin and source of isolation were not correlated with a specific MLST genotype. The comparison with a set of outgroup C. neoformans var. grubii isolates provided clear evidence that the two varieties have different population structures. PMID:26768709

  2. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  3. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  4. ClinVar: public archive of interpretations of clinically relevant variants.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Melissa J; Lee, Jennifer M; Benson, Mark; Brown, Garth; Chao, Chen; Chitipiralla, Shanmuga; Gu, Baoshan; Hart, Jennifer; Hoffman, Douglas; Hoover, Jeffrey; Jang, Wonhee; Katz, Kenneth; Ovetsky, Michael; Riley, George; Sethi, Amanjeev; Tully, Ray; Villamarin-Salomon, Ricardo; Rubinstein, Wendy; Maglott, Donna R

    2016-01-01

    ClinVar (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is a freely available archive for interpretations of clinical significance of variants for reported conditions. The database includes germline and somatic variants of any size, type or genomic location. Interpretations are submitted by clinical testing laboratories, research laboratories, locus-specific databases, OMIM®, GeneReviews™, UniProt, expert panels and practice guidelines. In NCBI's Variation submission portal, submitters upload batch submissions or use the Submission Wizard for single submissions. Each submitted interpretation is assigned an accession number prefixed with SCV. ClinVar staff review validation reports with data types such as HGVS (Human Genome Variation Society) expressions; however, clinical significance is reported directly from submitters. Interpretations are aggregated by variant-condition combination and assigned an accession number prefixed with RCV. Clinical significance is calculated for the aggregate record, indicating consensus or conflict in the submitted interpretations. ClinVar uses data standards, such as HGVS nomenclature for variants and MedGen identifiers for conditions. The data are available on the web as variant-specific views; the entire data set can be downloaded via ftp. Programmatic access for ClinVar records is available through NCBI's E-utilities. Future development includes providing a variant-centric XML archive and a web page for details of SCV submissions. PMID:26582918

  5. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  6. ClinVar: public archive of interpretations of clinically relevant variants

    PubMed Central

    Landrum, Melissa J.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Benson, Mark; Brown, Garth; Chao, Chen; Chitipiralla, Shanmuga; Gu, Baoshan; Hart, Jennifer; Hoffman, Douglas; Hoover, Jeffrey; Jang, Wonhee; Katz, Kenneth; Ovetsky, Michael; Riley, George; Sethi, Amanjeev; Tully, Ray; Villamarin-Salomon, Ricardo; Rubinstein, Wendy; Maglott, Donna R.

    2016-01-01

    ClinVar (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is a freely available archive for interpretations of clinical significance of variants for reported conditions. The database includes germline and somatic variants of any size, type or genomic location. Interpretations are submitted by clinical testing laboratories, research laboratories, locus-specific databases, OMIM®, GeneReviews™, UniProt, expert panels and practice guidelines. In NCBI's Variation submission portal, submitters upload batch submissions or use the Submission Wizard for single submissions. Each submitted interpretation is assigned an accession number prefixed with SCV. ClinVar staff review validation reports with data types such as HGVS (Human Genome Variation Society) expressions; however, clinical significance is reported directly from submitters. Interpretations are aggregated by variant-condition combination and assigned an accession number prefixed with RCV. Clinical significance is calculated for the aggregate record, indicating consensus or conflict in the submitted interpretations. ClinVar uses data standards, such as HGVS nomenclature for variants and MedGen identifiers for conditions. The data are available on the web as variant-specific views; the entire data set can be downloaded via ftp. Programmatic access for ClinVar records is available through NCBI's E-utilities. Future development includes providing a variant-centric XML archive and a web page for details of SCV submissions. PMID:26582918

  7. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  8. Using Raw VAR Regression Coefficients to Build Networks can be Misleading.

    PubMed

    Bulteel, Kirsten; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Brose, Annette; Ceulemans, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in the behavioral sciences focus on the causal interplay of a number of variables across time. To reveal the dynamic relations between the variables, their (auto- or cross-) regressive effects across time may be inspected by fitting a lag-one vector autoregressive, or VAR(1), model and visualizing the resulting regression coefficients as the edges of a weighted directed network. Usually, the raw VAR(1) regression coefficients are drawn, but we argue that this may yield misleading network figures and characteristics because of two problems. First, the raw regression coefficients are sensitive to scale and variance differences among the variables and therefore may lack comparability, which is needed if one wants to calculate, for example, centrality measures. Second, they only represent the unique direct effects of the variables, which may give a distorted picture when variables correlate strongly. To deal with these problems, we propose to use other VAR(1)-based measures as edges. Specifically, to solve the comparability issue, the standardized VAR(1) regression coefficients can be displayed. Furthermore, relative importance metrics can be computed to include direct as well as shared and indirect effects into the network. PMID:27028486

  9. Resistance of Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Rootstocks to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) ‘Tri-X 313’ scions were grafted on ten different cucurbit rootstocks and evaluated in a field infested with southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, in Charleston, SC in 2009. The rootstocks evaluated included five wild watermelo...

  10. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements. This section contains requirements for automated detergent blending facilities and hand-blending detergent facilities. All gasoline and all PRC intended for use in gasoline must...

  11. Conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa induced by Baccharis coridifolia in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baccharis coridifolia is a plant that induces strong conditioned food aversion in ruminants. This research aimed to induce a conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa in goats, using B. coridifolia as an aversive agent, and to compare the aversion induced by this plant with the aver...

  12. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI AFFECTS A BENEFICIAL INSECT, THE CINNABAR MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki is used to control forest pests in regions where tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. occurs. iological control of this noxious weed may be compromised if the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (L), is susceptible ...

  13. Composition of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica (Coult. and Rose) mathias essential oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauchamp, P.E.; Dev, V.; Munevar-Mendoza, E.; Moore, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    ??-Pinene (35.0%, 53.8%) was the major component of both the aerial parts and the root oils of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica, respectively. ??-Phellandrene (12.2%) was the other most abundant component of the oil from aeial parts while ??-3-carene (14.2%) was the second abundant component of the root oil. ?? 2000 Allured Publishing Corp.

  14. Utilizing Nanobody Technology to Target Non-Immunodominant Domains of VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Magez, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Placental malaria is a major health problem for both pregnant women and their fetuses in malaria endemic regions. It is triggered by the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) in the intervillous spaces of the placenta and is associated with foetal growth restriction and maternal anemia. IE accumulation is supported by the binding of the parasite-expressed protein VAR2CSA to placental chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Defining specific CSA-binding epitopes of VAR2CSA, against which to target the immune response, is essential for the development of a vaccine aimed at blocking IE adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i) the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii) the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) are known to target epitopes that are less immunogenic to classical IgG and, due to their small size and protruding antigen-binding loop, able to reach and recognize cryptic, conformational epitopes which are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. The variable heavy chain (VHH) domain is the antigen-binding site of camelid HcAbs, the so called Nanobody, which represents the smallest known (15 kDa) intact, native antigen-binding fragment. In this study, we have used the Nanobody technology, an approach new to malaria research, to generate small and functional antibody fragments recognizing unique epitopes broadly distributed on VAR2CSA. PMID:24465459

  15. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Xing, Shiyan; Wu, Qikui; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process. PMID:25978425

  16. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Xing, Shiyan; Wu, Qikui; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process. PMID:25978425

  17. VarDict: a novel and versatile variant caller for next-generation sequencing in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zhongwu; Markovets, Aleksandra; Ahdesmaki, Miika; Chapman, Brad; Hofmann, Oliver; McEwen, Robert; Johnson, Justin; Dougherty, Brian; Barrett, J Carl; Dry, Jonathan R

    2016-06-20

    Accurate variant calling in next generation sequencing (NGS) is critical to understand cancer genomes better. Here we present VarDict, a novel and versatile variant caller for both DNA- and RNA-sequencing data. VarDict simultaneously calls SNV, MNV, InDels, complex and structural variants, expanding the detected genetic driver landscape of tumors. It performs local realignments on the fly for more accurate allele frequency estimation. VarDict performance scales linearly to sequencing depth, enabling ultra-deep sequencing used to explore tumor evolution or detect tumor DNA circulating in blood. In addition, VarDict performs amplicon aware variant calling for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based targeted sequencing often used in diagnostic settings, and is able to detect PCR artifacts. Finally, VarDict also detects differences in somatic and loss of heterozygosity variants between paired samples. VarDict reprocessing of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma dataset called known driver mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA and MET in 16% more patients than previously published variant calls. We believe VarDict will greatly facilitate application of NGS in clinical cancer research. PMID:27060149

  18. VarDict: a novel and versatile variant caller for next-generation sequencing in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Zhongwu; Markovets, Aleksandra; Ahdesmaki, Miika; Chapman, Brad; Hofmann, Oliver; McEwen, Robert; Johnson, Justin; Dougherty, Brian; Barrett, J. Carl; Dry, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate variant calling in next generation sequencing (NGS) is critical to understand cancer genomes better. Here we present VarDict, a novel and versatile variant caller for both DNA- and RNA-sequencing data. VarDict simultaneously calls SNV, MNV, InDels, complex and structural variants, expanding the detected genetic driver landscape of tumors. It performs local realignments on the fly for more accurate allele frequency estimation. VarDict performance scales linearly to sequencing depth, enabling ultra-deep sequencing used to explore tumor evolution or detect tumor DNA circulating in blood. In addition, VarDict performs amplicon aware variant calling for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based targeted sequencing often used in diagnostic settings, and is able to detect PCR artifacts. Finally, VarDict also detects differences in somatic and loss of heterozygosity variants between paired samples. VarDict reprocessing of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma dataset called known driver mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA and MET in 16% more patients than previously published variant calls. We believe VarDict will greatly facilitate application of NGS in clinical cancer research. PMID:27060149

  19. The role of N-terminus of Plasmodium falciparum ORC1 in telomeric localization and var gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Abhijit S.; Srivastava, Sandeep; Herrmann, Susann; Gupta, Ashish; Mitra, Pallabi; Gilberger, Tim Wolf; Dhar, Suman Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum origin recognition complex 1 (ORC1) protein has been implicated in DNA replication and silencing var gene family. However, the mechanism and the domain structure of ORC1 related to the regulation of var gene family are unknown. Here we show that the unique N-terminus of PfORC1 (PfORC1N1–238) is targeted to the nuclear periphery in vivo and this region binds to the telomeric DNA in vitro due to the presence of a leucine heptad repeats. Like PfORC1N1–238, endogenous full length ORC1, was found to be associated with sub telomeric repeat regions and promoters of various var genes. Additionally, binding and propagation of ORC1 to telomeric and subtelomeric regions was severely compromised in PfSir2 deficient parasites suggesting the dependence of endogenous ORC1 on Sir2 for var gene regulation. This feature is not previously described for Plasmodium ORC1 and contrary to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae where ORC function as a landing pad for Sir proteins. Interestingly, the overexpression of ORC1N1–238 compromises the binding of Sir2 at the subtelomeric loci and var gene promoters consistent with de-repression of some var genes. These results establish role of the N-terminus of PfORC1 in heterochromatin formation and regulation of var gene expression in co-ordination with Sir2 in P. falciparum. PMID:22379140

  20. Var Gene promoter activation in clonal Plasmodium falciparum isolates follows a hierarchy and suggests a conserved switching program that is independent of genetic background.

    PubMed

    Enderes, Corinna; Kombila, Davy; Dal-Bianco, Matthias; Dzikowski, Ron; Kremsner, Peter; Frank, Matthias

    2011-11-15

    Antigenic variation of Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by a mutually exclusive expression mechanism that limits expression to an individual member of the multicopy var gene family. This process determines the antigenic and adhesive phenotype of the infected red blood cell. Previously, we showed that var gene switching is influenced by chromosomal position. Here, we address whether var gene transcription follows a general conserved pattern in long-term laboratory parasites and in recently culture-adapted field parasites. Activation of the var gene family was monitored in biological replicates in each parasite isolate every 3-5 generations for up to 3 months. We used transgenic parasites carrying a drug-selectable marker at a defined var locus to characterize var gene activation after the exclusive expression of the transgene. Transgenic parasites exhibited a repeatable hierarchy of var gene activation and a fluctuating transcriptional activity of the transgenic var locus. Transcriptional profiling of wild-type laboratory and field parasites showed a universal bias toward transcription of UpsC var genes and a fluctuating transcriptional activity of the dominant var promoter. The data suggest the existence of an intrinsic var gene transcription program that is independent of genetic background. PMID:21926380

  1. Evidence that Synthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondrially Encoded Ribosomal Protein Var1p May Be Membrane Localized

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Alessandro; Mason, Thomas L.; Fox, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    The 5′-untranslated leaders of mitochondrial mRNAs appear to localize translation within the organelle. VAR1 is the only yeast mitochondrial gene encoding a major soluble protein. A chimeric mRNA bearing the VAR1 untranslated regions and the coding sequence for pre-Cox2p appears to be translated at the inner membrane surface. We propose that translation of the ribosomal protein Var1p is also likely to occur in close proximity to the inner membrane. PMID:12796311

  2. New family of pectinase genes PGU1b-PGU3b of the pectinolytic yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum.

    PubMed

    Naumov, G I; Shalamitskiy, M Yu; Naumova, E S

    2016-03-01

    Using yeast genome databases and literature data, we have conducted a phylogenetic analysis of pectinase PGU genes from Saccharomyces strains assigned to the biological species S. arboricola, S. bayanus (var. uvarum), S. cariocanus, S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, S. paradoxus, and hybrid taxon S. pastorianus (syn. S. carlsbergensis). Single PGU genes were observed in all Saccharomyces species, except S. bayanus. The superfamily of divergent PGU genes has been documented in S. bayanus var. uvarum for the first time. Chromosomal localization of new PGU1b, PGU2b, and PGU3b genes in the yeast S. bayanus var. uvarum has been determined by molecular karyotyping and Southern hybridization. PMID:27193705

  3. Naturally dissolved arsenic concentrations in the Alpine/Mediterranean Var River watershed (France).

    PubMed

    Barats, Aurélie; Féraud, Gilbert; Potot, Cécile; Philippini, Violaine; Travi, Yves; Durrieu, Gaël; Dubar, Michel; Simler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    A detailed study on arsenic (As) in rocks and water from the Var River watershed was undertaken aiming at identifying (i) the origin and the distribution of As in this typical Alpine/Mediterranean basin, and (ii) As input into the Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved As concentrations in the Var River range from 0.1 to 4.5 μg⋅L(-1), due to high hydrological variability and the draining through different geological formations. In the upper part of the Var drainage basin, in the Tinée and the Vésubie valleys, high levels of dissolved As concentrations occur (up to 263 μg⋅L(-1)). The two main sources of As in rocks are the Hercynian metamorphic rocks and the Permian argilites. Highly heterogeneous distribution of As in waters draining through metamorphic rocks is probably related to ore deposits containing arsenopyrite. As, U, W and Mo concentrations in water and rocks correspond to the formation of As-rich ore deposits around Argentera granite by hydrothermal fluids deposited at the end of the Hercynian chain formation, which occurred about 300 My ago. In 2009, weekly monitoring was performed on the Var River (15 km upstream of the mouth), highlighting an average dissolved As concentration (<0.45 μm) of 2.7 ± 0.9 μg⋅L(-1), which is significantly higher than the world-average baseline for river water (0.83 μg⋅L(-1)). Taking the average annual discharge (49.4 m(3)⋅s(-1)) into account and the As levels in the dissolved phase and in deposits of the Var River, dissolved As input into the Mediterranean Sea would be 4. 2± 1.4 tons⋅year(-1) which represents 59% of the total As flux. This study also reveals a probable non-conservative As behaviour, i.e., possible transfer between aqueous and solid phases, during the mixing of the Var River with a tributary. PMID:24388820

  4. DiffVar: a new method for detecting differential variability with application to methylation in cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Phipson, Belinda; Oshlack, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is known to be essential to development and dramatically altered in cancers. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip has been used extensively as a cost-effective way to profile nearly half a million CpG sites across the human genome. Here we present DiffVar, a novel method to test for differential variability between sample groups. DiffVar employs an empirical Bayes model framework that can take into account any experimental design and is robust to outliers. We applied DiffVar to several datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as an aging dataset. DiffVar is available in the missMethyl Bioconductor R package. PMID:25245051

  5. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  6. Leaf Peltate Glandular Trichomes of Vernonia galamensis ssp. galamensis var. ethiopica Gilbert: Development, Ultrastructure and Chemical Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants from the genus Vernonia produce a variety of flavonoids and bitter sesquiterpene lactones important for agriculture and human health. Leaf glandular trichomes of Vernonia galamensis ssp. galamensis var. ethiopica Gilbert (VGAE) were investigated for ultrastructural development and content com...

  7. Latent period and viability of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis urediniospores; implications for biological control of yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis into California in 2003, multiple urediniospore generations have been observed, along with teliospores and pycnia, on yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis). A field and laboratory study of urediniospore viability was conducted to dete...

  8. 7a-hydroxfriedelan-3one-26-OL-29-OIC acid and other constituents from Pileostegia Viburnoids VAR. Glabrescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The preliminary phytotoxic evaluations of a n-BuOH extract from traditional Chinese medicinal plant Pileostegia viburnoides var. glabrescens showed herbicidal activity against dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and monocot Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass). In order to identify the phytotoxic constituent...

  9. Expression of P. falciparum var Genes Involves Exchange of the Histone Variant H2A.Z at the Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Petter, Michaela; Lee, Chin Chin; Byrne, Timothy J.; Boysen, Katja E.; Volz, Jennifer; Ralph, Stuart A.; Cowman, Alan F.; Brown, Graham V.; Duffy, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum employs antigenic variation to evade the human immune response by switching the expression of different variant surface antigens encoded by the var gene family. Epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications and sub-nuclear compartmentalization contribute to transcriptional regulation in the malaria parasite, in particular to control antigenic variation. Another mechanism of epigenetic control is the exchange of canonical histones with alternative variants to generate functionally specialized chromatin domains. Here we demonstrate that the alternative histone PfH2A.Z is associated with the epigenetic regulation of var genes. In many eukaryotic organisms the histone variant H2A.Z mediates an open chromatin structure at promoters and facilitates diverse levels of regulation, including transcriptional activation. Throughout the asexual, intraerythrocytic lifecycle of P. falciparum we found that the P. falciparum ortholog of H2A.Z (PfH2A.Z) colocalizes with histone modifications that are characteristic of transcriptionally-permissive euchromatin, but not with markers of heterochromatin. Consistent with this finding, antibodies to PfH2A.Z co-precipitate the permissive modification H3K4me3. By chromatin-immunoprecipitation we show that PfH2A.Z is enriched in nucleosomes around the transcription start site (TSS) in both transcriptionally active and silent stage-specific genes. In var genes, however, PfH2A.Z is enriched at the TSS only during active transcription in ring stage parasites. Thus, in contrast to other genes, temporal var gene regulation involves histone variant exchange at promoter nucleosomes. Sir2 histone deacetylases are important for var gene silencing and their yeast ortholog antagonises H2A.Z function in subtelomeric yeast genes. In immature P. falciparum parasites lacking Sir2A or Sir2B high var transcription levels correlate with enrichment of PfH2A.Z at the TSS. As Sir2A knock out parasites mature the var genes are

  10. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M.; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F.

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines) have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM) can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA)-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA

  11. A var Gene Upstream Element Controls Protein Synthesis at the Level of Translation Initiation in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Brancucci, Nicolas M. B.; Witmer, Kathrin; Schmid, Christoph; Voss, Till S.

    2014-01-01

    Clonally variant protein expression in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum generates phenotypic variability and allows isogenic populations to adapt to environmental changes encountered during blood stage infection. The underlying regulatory mechanisms are best studied for the major virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). PfEMP1 is encoded by the multicopy var gene family and only a single variant is expressed in individual parasites, a concept known as mutual exclusion or singular gene choice. var gene activation occurs in situ and is achieved through the escape of one locus from epigenetic silencing. Singular gene choice is controlled at the level of transcription initiation and var 5′ upstream (ups) sequences harbour regulatory information essential for mutually exclusive transcription as well as for the trans-generational inheritance of the var activity profile. An additional level of control has recently been identified for the var2csa gene, where an mRNA element in the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) is involved in the reversible inhibition of translation of var2csa transcripts. Here, we extend the knowledge on post-transcriptional var gene regulation to the common upsC type. We identified a 5′ UTR sequence that inhibits translation of upsC-derived mRNAs. Importantly, this 5′ UTR element efficiently inhibits translation even in the context of a heterologous upstream region. Further, we found var 5′ UTRs to be significantly enriched in uAUGs which are known to impair the efficiency of protein translation in other eukaryotes. Our findings suggest that regulation at the post-transcriptional level is a common feature in the control of PfEMP1 expression in P. falciparum. PMID:24937593

  12. A var gene upstream element controls protein synthesis at the level of translation initiation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Witmer, Kathrin; Schmid, Christoph; Voss, Till S

    2014-01-01

    Clonally variant protein expression in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum generates phenotypic variability and allows isogenic populations to adapt to environmental changes encountered during blood stage infection. The underlying regulatory mechanisms are best studied for the major virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). PfEMP1 is encoded by the multicopy var gene family and only a single variant is expressed in individual parasites, a concept known as mutual exclusion or singular gene choice. var gene activation occurs in situ and is achieved through the escape of one locus from epigenetic silencing. Singular gene choice is controlled at the level of transcription initiation and var 5' upstream (ups) sequences harbour regulatory information essential for mutually exclusive transcription as well as for the trans-generational inheritance of the var activity profile. An additional level of control has recently been identified for the var2csa gene, where an mRNA element in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) is involved in the reversible inhibition of translation of var2csa transcripts. Here, we extend the knowledge on post-transcriptional var gene regulation to the common upsC type. We identified a 5' UTR sequence that inhibits translation of upsC-derived mRNAs. Importantly, this 5' UTR element efficiently inhibits translation even in the context of a heterologous upstream region. Further, we found var 5' UTRs to be significantly enriched in uAUGs which are known to impair the efficiency of protein translation in other eukaryotes. Our findings suggest that regulation at the post-transcriptional level is a common feature in the control of PfEMP1 expression in P. falciparum. PMID:24937593

  13. [The influence of choramphenicol and streptomycinsulphate on the growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum var. atrosepticum (van Hall) Dowson (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Brazda, G; Pett, B

    1976-01-01

    The influence of the antibiotics chloraphenicol (D-threo-form) and streptomycin sulphate against Pectobacterium carotovorum var. atrosepticum (syn. Erwinia carotovora) was investigated in vitro and on potato tubers. Chloramphenicol showed a greater effect as streptomycinsulphate in the applied concentrations. The success of the control of soft rot is determined by the period between the inoculation and the treatment of the tubers. 6 several strains of P. carotovorum var. atrosepticum showed a different sensibility to chloramphenicol and streptomycinsulphate. PMID:1037182

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica Serovars Anatum and Anatum var. 15+, Isolated from Retail Ground Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Marasini, Daya; Abo-Shama, Usama H.

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of two isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum and Anatum var. 15+ revealed the presence of two plasmids of 112 kb and 3 kb in size in each. The chromosome of Salmonella Anatum (4.83 Mb) was slightly smaller than that of Salmonella Anatum var. 15+ (4.88 Mb). PMID:26798111

  15. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis based on SMRT Sequencing Technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Qiushi; Li, Xiwen; Song, Jingyuan; Sun, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of cough symptoms related to the respiratory system. The chloroplast genome of F. unibracteata var. wabuensis (GenBank accession no. KF769142) was assembled using the PacBio RS platform (Pacific Biosciences, Beverly, MA) as a circle sequence with 151 009 bp. The assembled genome contains 133 genes, including 88 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and eight rRNA genes. This genome sequence will provide important resource for further studies on the evolution of Fritillaria genus and molecular identification of Fritillaria herbs and their adulterants. This work suggests that PacBio RS is a powerful tool to sequence and assemble chloroplast genomes. PMID:26370383

  16. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  17. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from bird droppings, fruits and vegetables in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, R; Castañón-Olivares, L R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans in various natural sources, such as bird droppings, fruits and vegetables, was investigated. A total of 711 samples were analyzed; C. neoformans var. neoformans was isolated from seven out of 74 bird droppings (9.5%), with parrots as one of the most significant sources. Fruits were positive in 9.5% of the 169 samples studied, specially citrus fruits, particularly grapefruit, in which the highest frequency was found. From the 468 vegetable samples, only 20 were positive (4.2%). It is emphasized that five of the positive vegetables species are autochthonous to Mexico: avocado (Nectandra salicifolia), beet (Beta vulgaris var. quinopodiace), chayote (Sechium edule), stringbean (Cassia sp), and nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica). PMID:7617014

  18. Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes with NGF-potentiating activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Chen, Li; Li, Bin; Yin, Hai-Long; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Yan-Hua; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenal F (1), volvalerenal G (2) and volvalerenic acid D (3), along with five known compounds 4-8, were isolated from the CHCl₃ soluble partition of the ethanol extract of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, as well as mass spectrometry. The eight germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids showed nerve growth factor (NGF) potentiating activity, which mediates the neurite outgrowth in PC 12D cells. This study intends to reveal the chemical basis of the use of V. officinalis var. latiofolia as a dietary supplement. PMID:24241156

  19. Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere 4D-Var: Formulation and Sensitivity Analysis Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngodock, Hans; Carrier, Matthew; Xu, Liang; Amerault, Clark; Campbell, Tim; Rowley, Clark

    2016-04-01

    The US Navy is currently developing the first coupled ocean-atmosphere four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system to be used for short-term regional forecasting. This project merges the 4D-Var capabilities of the atmospheric component of the Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS©) with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). This will provide the coupled ocean-atmosphere forecast with a fully balanced analysis that accounts for all combined observations in both primary fluids (i.e. ocean and atmosphere). In this present work, the formulation of the system is presented in detail along with a series of adjoint sensitivity analysis results using the coupled ocean-atmosphere adjoint model. The sensitivity of the atmosphere (ocean) to each ocean (atmosphere) model variable is analyzed in detail in order to illustrate the usefulness of this approach in the coupled data assimilation system.

  20. Concepts of static VAR system control for enhancing power transfer in long transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Padiyar, K.R. . Dept. of Electrical Communication Engineering); Varma, R.K. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper is conserved with the influence of different levels of complexity in modelling various constituent subsystems on the dynamic stability of power systems compensated by static var systems (SVS) operating on pure voltage control. The system components investigated include thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) transients, SVS delays, network transients, the synchronous generator and automatic voltage regulator (AVR). An overall model is proposed which adequately describes the system performance for small signal perturbations. The SVS performance is validated through detailed nonlinear simulation on a physical simulator. Static VAR systems are finding increased application in present day power systems due to their fast controllability for enhancement of dynamic and transient stability limits, control of dynamic overvoltages, damping of torsional oscillations, improvement in HVDC converter terminal performance, etc. In long transmission lines, a significant improvement in power transfer can be achieved by connecting an SVS at the midpoint, which is actuated by a control signal derived from local bus voltage.

  1. A revised scheme to compute horizontal covariances in an oceanographic 3D-VAR assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, R.; Dobricic, S.; Storto, A.; Masina, S.; Cuomo, S.

    2015-03-01

    We propose an improvement of an oceanographic three dimensional variational assimilation scheme (3D-VAR), named OceanVar, by introducing a recursive filter (RF) with the third order of accuracy (3rd-RF), instead of an RF with first order of accuracy (1st-RF), to approximate horizontal Gaussian covariances. An advantage of the proposed scheme is that the CPU's time can be substantially reduced with benefits on the large scale applications. Experiments estimating the impact of 3rd-RF are performed by assimilating oceanographic data in two realistic oceanographic applications. The results evince benefits in terms of assimilation process computational time, accuracy of the Gaussian correlation modeling, and show that the 3rd-RF is a suitable tool for operational data assimilation.

  2. Evaluation of Multiple Inverter Volt-VAR Control Interactions with Realistic Grid Impedances

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Anderson; Lundstrom, Blake

    2015-07-03

    Integration of large numbers of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems in electric distribution circuits often requires advanced functions (e.g. volt-VAR, frequency-Watt etc.). However, significant concerns have been raised about potential for PV inverters with such controls to interact with one another in a way that could cause grid instability. The lack of standardized inverter models makes it hard to simulate such transient interactions in software. Similarly it is very hard to test these dynamic inverter interactions in the laboratory. In this paper, unique Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) techniques are presented to experimentally test for interactions of multiple PV inverters connected to multiple points-of-common-coupling (PCCs) with grid impedances between them. Sample test results are provided from simulation-only scenarios and PHIL testing. Though simulation results indicated possible harmful interactions between inverters' volt-VAR controllers; no such interactions were found in the limited hardware testing.

  3. Study of the Geo-effectiveness of VarSITI Campaign Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, O. P. M.; Badruddin, B.

    2016-07-01

    We study the geomagnetic response during the five VarSITI campaign events, 14 July 2012, 08 October 2012, 17 March 2013, 31 May 2013 and 17 March 2015. We identify distinct features of interplanetary coronal mass ejections during the passage of these VarSITI campaign events. We analyze the hourly resolution data of geomagnetic indices along with the simultaneous and same time resolution data of interplanetary plasma and field parameters. We identify features of ICMEs and solar wind parameters during the development of different phases of geomagnetic storms. We discuss our results in the light of plasma/field variations and physical mechanism(s) playing important role in influencing the geomagnetic activity and GCR intensity.

  4. The anti-rheumatoid arthritis property of the folk medicine Dianbaizhu (Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis, Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Meng; Lu, Yi; Yan, Cheng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Liu, Zizhen; Xu, Guanling; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Xia; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Lu, Jianqiu; She, Gaimei

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese folk medicine Dianbaizhu, consisting of Gaultheria species, is widely used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by several minority nationalities. The species and plant parts of this genus used as Dianbaizhu in clinical application are confused. In order to elucidate the species and the medicinal parts, as well as to ascertain the effective components and the probable optimal source of Dianbaizhu, the different plant parts and polarity fractions of its mainstream species, G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis were investigated. The inhibition of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor produced in macrophage J774 were used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of those samples. G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis may be the preferred species for anti-RA effect. The underground parts of this taxon showed the best anti-inflammatory and anti-RA activities; the n-butanol and water fractions of the underground parts may be the most anti-RA active. PMID:25632482

  5. Inhibition of Lung Inflammation by Acanthopanax divaricatus var. Albeofructus and Its Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hee; Sun, Ya Nan; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2016-01-01

    In order to find potential therapeutic agents on lung inflammatory conditions, the extracts of Acanthopanax divaricatus var. albeofructus were prepared and its constituents were isolated. They include lignans such as (+)-syringaresinol (1), acanthoside B (2), salvadoraside (3) and acanthoside D (4), lariciresinol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) and phenylpropanoids such as 4-[(1E)-3-methoxy-1-propenyl]phenol (6), coniferin (7), and methyl caffeate (8). The extracts and several constituents such as compound 1, 6 and 8 inhibited the production of inflammatory markers, IL-6 and nitric oxide, from IL-1β-treated lung epithelial cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, the extracts and compound 4 significantly inhibited lung inflammation in lipolysaccharide-treated acute lung injury in mice by oral administration. Thus it is suggested that A. divaricatus var. albeofructus and its several constituents may be effective against lung inflammation. PMID:26759704

  6. Moniliformin produced by cultures of Fusarium moniliforme Var. subglutinans isolated from swine feed.

    PubMed

    Vesonder, R F

    1986-09-01

    Feed samples from Iowa suspected of causing vomiting and enlarged vulva as well as mortalities of swine were examined for toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon and F. moniliforme Sheldon var. subglutinans Wollenew. & Reink. accounted for 43% and 18.5%, respectively, of the total count of 4.75 X 10(5) propagules filamentous fungi per gram of swine feed, but representatives of various Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were also found. Eight isolates of F. moniliforme var. subglutinans from the feed produced 51-540 micrograms of moniliformin per g on cracked corn at 25 degrees C for six weeks. Zearalenone was not detected in these corn fermentations. Eight isolates of F. moniliforme from the feed did not produce detectable amounts of either zearalenone or monoliformin on cracked corn. Moniliformin was not detected in the feed samples. PMID:2945990

  7. Thymic dependence of immunity to Eimeria falciformis var. pragensis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, G M; Bellamy, J E

    1979-01-01

    Athymic (nude) mice, their normal littermates, and Swiss white mice were infected with 750 oocysts of Eimeria falciformis var. pragensis and reinfected twice with 20,000 oocysts, 20 and 40 days after the primary infection. The prepatent and patent periods of the primary infection were similar in each group of mice; however, the athymic mice discharged more oocysts. The normal littermates and Swiss white mice developed immunity to the parasite after the first or second infection, whereas the athymic mice never developed immunity. Infection with E. falciformis var. pragensis induced the production of antibodies in the normal littermates and Swiss white mice, whereas antibody production was impaired in athymic mice. Passive administration of immune serum did not protect athymic mice from reinfection by the parasite. Immunity to the parasite was thymus dependent, and "effector" T-lymphocytes seemed to be required for protection. Images PMID:311346

  8. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  9. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  10. Proliferodiscus inspersus var. magniascus and Rodwayella citrinula, Two Unrecorded Taxa of Hyaloscyphaceae (Tribe Arachnopezizeae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae-Gu; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    A fungal survey that targeted the tribe Arachnopezizeae (Hyaloscyphaceae, Helotiales) was conducted in Korea. One variety belonging to Proliferodiscus and one species belonging to Rodwayella are recorded for the first time from Korea. Proliferodiscus inspersus var. magniascus differs from P. earoleucus by its amyloid reaction in ascal apices and larger asci. Rodwayella citrinula is distinguished from other members of the genus by small ascospores and its occurrence on grasses. The descriptions, illustrations and cultural characteristics of the species are provided. PMID:24808741

  11. MetaNetVar: Pipeline for applying network analysis tools for genomic variants analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Eric; Hagenauer, Megan; Lesko, Matthew; Francis, Felix; Rodriguez, Oscar; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Huser, Vojtech; Busby, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Network analysis can make variant analysis better. There are existing tools like HotNet2 and dmGWAS that can provide various analytical methods. We developed a prototype of a pipeline called MetaNetVar that allows execution of multiple tools. The code is published at https://github.com/NCBI-Hackathons/Network_SNPs. A working prototype is published as an Amazon Machine Image - ami-4510312f . PMID:27158457

  12. Volvalerine A, an unprecedented N-containing sesquiterpenoid dimer derivative from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhao, You-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Volvalerine A (1), a novel N-containing bisesquiterpenoid derivative with a dihydroisoxazole ring, and its possible biosynthetic precursor, 1-hydroxy-1,11,11-trimethyldecahydrocyclopropane azulene-10-one (2), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were identified using spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 is also presented. PMID:26779941

  13. ent-Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Chinese Liverwort Chiloscyphus polyanthus var. rivularis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao-Zhen; Qiao, Ya-Nan; Li, Lin; Wang, Yong-Jie; Li, Yi; Fei, Xie; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Wang, Xiao; Fan, Pei-Hong; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Seven new ent-eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids (1-7) and six known analogues (8-13) were isolated from the Chinese liverwort Chiloscyphus polyanthus var. rivularis. Their structures were determined from analysis of MS and NMR spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A cytotoxic evaluation showed that compound 1 exhibited weak inhibitory activity against the A549 cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 27.7 µM. PMID:27336319

  14. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from the liverwort Treubia isignensis var. isignensis with chemotaxonomic significance.

    PubMed

    Coulerie, Paul; Nour, Mohammed; Thouvenot, Louis; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2014-08-01

    The New Caledonian endemic Treubia isignensis var. isignensis, which is known as a morphologically primitive liverwort, was extracted with diethyl ether and the crude extract analyzed by TLC and GC/MS. The species is chemically very primitive because it produces only maaliane-, eudesmane-, aristolane and gorgonane sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, which are significant chemical marker of the species; neither oxygenated terpenoids nor aromatic compounds were detected. PMID:25233573

  15. Searching for Pulsating Stars in Eclipsing Binaries in the OMC--VAR Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso-Garzón, J.; Moya, A.; Montesinos, B.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Domingo, A.

    The first catalogue of variable sources observed by OMC (OMC--VAR hereafter) contains light curves for 5263 variable stars, out of which we have been able to detect periodicities for 1137 objects. A large variety of objects can be found in the catalogue, but the most frequent ones in the present compilation are pulsating stars and eclipsing binaries. We have performed an analysis to find eclipsing systems showing evidences of pulsations in one of their components some preliminary results are shown.

  16. Five New Alkaloids from Cephalotaxus lanceolata and C. fortunei var. alpina.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ling; Zhong, Xiu-Hong; Cai, Jie; Bao, Mei-Fen; Zhang, Bing-Jie; Wu, Jing; Cai, Xiang-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Five new alkaloids (1-5) were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Cephalotaxus lanceolata and C. fortunei var. alpina along with 24 known alkaloids. The new structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR, FTIR, UV and MS. These new alkaloids showed no cytotoxicity to HeLa, SGC-7901 gastric cancer, and A-549 lung cancer cell lines. PMID:27016921

  17. New amylolytic yeast strains for starch and dextrin fermentation. [Schwanniomyces alluvius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus

    SciTech Connect

    Laluce, C.; Bertolini, M.C.; Ernandes, J.R. ); Martini, A.V.; Martini, A. )

    1988-10-01

    Yeast strains capable of fermenting starch and dextrin to ethanol were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian factories in which cassava flour is produced. Considerable alcohol production was observed for all the strains selected. One strain (DI-10) fermented starch rapidly and secreted 5 times as much amylolytic enzyme than that observed for Schwanniomyces alluvius UCD 54-83. This strain and three other similar isolates were classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus by morphological and physiological characteristics and molecular taxonomy.

  18. tmVar: a text mining approach for extracting sequence variants in biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Harris, Bethany R.; Kao, Hung-Yu; Lu, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Text-mining mutation information from the literature becomes a critical part of the bioinformatics approach for the analysis and interpretation of sequence variations in complex diseases in the post-genomic era. It has also been used for assisting the creation of disease-related mutation databases. Most of existing approaches are rule-based and focus on limited types of sequence variations, such as protein point mutations. Thus, extending their extraction scope requires significant manual efforts in examining new instances and developing corresponding rules. As such, new automatic approaches are greatly needed for extracting different kinds of mutations with high accuracy. Results: Here, we report tmVar, a text-mining approach based on conditional random field (CRF) for extracting a wide range of sequence variants described at protein, DNA and RNA levels according to a standard nomenclature developed by the Human Genome Variation Society. By doing so, we cover several important types of mutations that were not considered in past studies. Using a novel CRF label model and feature set, our method achieves higher performance than a state-of-the-art method on both our corpus (91.4 versus 78.1% in F-measure) and their own gold standard (93.9 versus 89.4% in F-measure). These results suggest that tmVar is a high-performance method for mutation extraction from biomedical literature. Availability: tmVar software and its corpus of 500 manually curated abstracts are available for download at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/pub/tmVar. Contact: zhiyong.lu@nih.gov PMID:23564842

  19. Induction of Adhesion-Inhibitory Antibodies against Placental Plasmodium falciparum Parasites by Using Single Domains of VAR2CSA▿

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten A.; Pinto, Vera V.; Resende, Mafalda; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali

    2009-01-01

    In areas of endemicity pregnancy-associated malaria is an important cause of maternal anemia, stillbirth, and delivery of low-birth-weight children. The syndrome is precipitated by the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, mediated through an interaction between a parasite protein expressed on erythrocytes named variant surface antigen 2-chondroitin sulfate A (VAR2CSA) and CSA on syncytiotrophoblasts. VAR2CSA is a large polymorphic protein consisting of six Duffy binding-like (DBL), domains and with current constraints on recombinant protein production it is not possible to produce entire VAR2CSA recombinant proteins. Furthermore, the presence of polymorphisms has raised the question of whether it is feasible to define VAR2CSA antigens eliciting broadly protective antibodies. Thus, the challenge for vaccine development is to define smaller parts of the molecule which induce antibodies that inhibit CSA binding of different parasite strains. In this study, we produced a large panel of VAR2CSA proteins and raised antibodies against these antigens. We show that antibodies against the DBL4 domain effectively inhibit parasite binding. As the inhibition was not limited to homologous parasite strains, it seems feasible to base a protective malaria vaccine on a single VAR2CSA DBL domain. PMID:19307213

  20. rVarBase: an updated database for regulatory features of human variants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liyuan; Du, Yang; Qu, Susu; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We present here the rVarBase database (http://rv.psych.ac.cn), an updated version of the rSNPBase database, to provide reliable and detailed regulatory annotations for known and novel human variants. This update expands the database to include additional types of human variants, such as copy number variations (CNVs) and novel variants, and include additional types of regulatory features. Now rVarBase annotates variants in three dimensions: chromatin states of the surrounding regions, overlapped regulatory elements and variants' potential target genes. Two new types of regulatory elements (lncRNAs and miRNA target sites) have been introduced to provide additional annotation. Detailed information about variants' overlapping transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) (often less than 15 bp) within experimentally supported TF-binding regions (∼ 150 bp) is provided, along with the binding motifs of matched TF families. Additional types of extended variants and variant-associated phenotypes were also added. In addition to the enrichment in data content, an element-centric search module was added, and the web interface was refined. In summary, rVarBase hosts more types of human variants and includes more types of up-to-date regulatory information to facilitate in-depth functional research and to provide practical clues for experimental design. PMID:26503253

  1. The New 4D-En-Var Regional Deterministic Prediction System at the Canadian Meteorological Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, Jean-François; Milewski, Thomas; Reszka, Mateusz; Fillion, Luc; Buehner, Mark; St-James, Judy; Pellerin, Simon

    2014-05-01

    The regional deterministic prediction system (RDPS) at the Canadian Meteorological Center will be replaced in the near future by the 4D-En-Var scheme, in which the background error covariances are a combination of climatological covariances and flow-dependent covariances derived from an ensemble-Kalman-filter global prediction system. The new approach is computationally less expensive than 4D-Var (currently operational) and has shown to be a promising technique in the context of global data assimilation. The RDPS uses a limited-area domain covering all of North America and a horizontal grid spacing of 10 km. Here we discuss the final stages of the development of this scheme, shortly before introduction into operations. Specifically, we show a comparison of the forecasting skill between the operational system and the new 4D-En-Var scheme, as well as the impact of several improvements related to the treatment of observations and the addition of new observation sources such as ground-based GPS.

  2. Trypsin inhibitors from Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum leaves involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ribeiro, S F F; Gonçalves, L S A; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Vasconcelos, I M; Gomes, V M

    2014-01-01

    Several plant organs contain proteinase inhibitors, which are produced during normal plant development or are induced upon pathogen attack to suppress the enzymatic activity of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we examined the presence of proteinase inhibitors, specifically trypsin inhibitors, in the leaf extract of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum inoculated with PepYMV (Pepper yellow mosaic virus). Leaf extract from plants with the accession number UENF 1624, which is resistant to PepYMV, was collected at 7 different times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h). Seedlings inoculated with PepYMV and control seedlings were grown in a growth chamber. Protein extract from leaf samples was partially purified by reversed-phase chromatography using a C2/C18 column. Residual trypsin activity was assayed to detect inhibitors followed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis to determine the N-terminal peptide sequence. Based on trypsin inhibitor assays, trypsin inhibitors are likely constitutively synthesized in C. baccatum var. pendulum leaf tissue. These inhibitors are likely a defense mechanism for the C. baccatum var. pendulum- PepYMV pathosystem. PMID:25501145

  3. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin. PMID:25829625

  4. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required. PMID:26960355

  5. Role of a phenazine antibiotic from Pseudomonas fluorescens in biological control of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    PubMed Central

    Thomashow, L S; Weller, D M

    1988-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 (NRRL B-15132) and its rifampin-resistant derivative 2-79RN10 are suppressive to take-all, a major root disease of wheat caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Strain 2-79 produces the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylate, which is active in vitro against G. graminis var. tritici and other fungal root pathogens. Mutants defective in phenazine synthesis (Phz-) were generated by Tn5 insertion and then compared with the parental strain to determine the importance of the antibiotic in take-all suppression on wheat roots. Six independent, prototrophic Phz- mutants were noninhibitory to G. graminis var. tritici in vitro and provided significantly less control of take-all than strain 2-79 on wheat seedlings. Antibiotic synthesis, fungal inhibition in vitro, and suppression of take-all on wheat were coordinately restored in two mutants complemented with cloned DNA from a 2-79 genomic library. These mutants contained Tn5 insertions in adjacent EcoRI fragments in the 2-79 genome, and the restriction maps of the region flanking the insertions and the complementary DNA were colinear. These results indicate that sequences required for phenazine production were present in the cloned DNA and support the importance of the phenazine antibiotic in disease suppression in the rhizosphere. Images PMID:2841289

  6. [Major features of decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation on sandy land].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyun; Jiang, Fengqi; Li, Xiaodan; Xue, Yang; Qiu, Sufen

    2004-12-01

    In view of the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Zhanggutai sand land of Liaoning Province, this paper studied the major characteristics of the decline. The appearance of the declining man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was grey green, its needle leaf was very thin, the blooming and fruiting rate was low, the average quantity of cones per tree was only 10.4-16.5, with only 6.96 g to 7.39 g per thousand seeds, and there were many empty and astringent seeds. The seasonal dynamics of nutrients in 2-year-old pine needle leaf was similar, i.e., the N and P contents decreased, while K content increased, showing that the nutrient cycle was imbalance. The chlorophyll content in 2-year-old needle leaf of declined forest was high, while that in 1-year-old healthy forest was also high but with a wide increasing range. The infected harm of shoot blight was the clearest mark to the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. After the forest declined, the height and the DBH of the pine trees decreased evidently, and the structure of DBH distribution moved "left". The quantity of weak pine trees increased by 15.9%-27.2%, the roots decreased by 22.9%-28.9%, and the absorbing roots (diameter < 0.5 cm) decreased most seriously. PMID:15825430

  7. ViVar: A Comprehensive Platform for the Analysis and Visualization of Structural Genomic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Sante, Tom; Vergult, Sarah; Volders, Pieter-Jan; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Trooskens, Geert; De Preter, Katleen; Dheedene, Annelies; Speleman, Frank; De Meyer, Tim; Menten, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Structural genomic variations play an important role in human disease and phenotypic diversity. With the rise of high-throughput sequencing tools, mate-pair/paired-end/single-read sequencing has become an important technique for the detection and exploration of structural variation. Several analysis tools exist to handle different parts and aspects of such sequencing based structural variation analyses pipelines. A comprehensive analysis platform to handle all steps, from processing the sequencing data, to the discovery and visualization of structural variants, is missing. The ViVar platform is built to handle the discovery of structural variants, from Depth Of Coverage analysis, aberrant read pair clustering to split read analysis. ViVar provides you with powerful visualization options, enables easy reporting of results and better usability and data management. The platform facilitates the processing, analysis and visualization, of structural variation based on massive parallel sequencing data, enabling the rapid identification of disease loci or genes. ViVar allows you to scale your analysis with your work load over multiple (cloud) servers, has user access control to keep your data safe and is easy expandable as analysis techniques advance. URL: https://www.cmgg.be/vivar/ PMID:25503062

  8. Assimilation of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles using WRF-Var

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William

    2008-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model contains a three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var), which allows a user to join data from multiple sources into one coherent analysis. WRF-Var combines observations with a background field traditionally generated using a previous model forecast through minimization of a cost function. In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations may be able to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AIRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used as input to a sophisticated retrieval scheme which has been shown to produce temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers and humidity profiles with accuracy of 15% in 2 km layers in both clear and partly cloudy conditions. The retrieval algorithm also provides estimates of the accuracy of the retrieved values at each pressure level, allowing the user to select profiles based on the required error tolerances of the application. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high-resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background field type using gen_be and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics in the WRF-Var. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are obtained from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators are used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture

  9. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  10. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  11. RBP-Var: a database of functional variants involved in regulation mediated by RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Fengbiao; Xiao, Luoyuan; Li, Xianfeng; Liang, Jialong; Teng, Huajing; Cai, Wanshi; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors bind to the genome by forming specific contacts with the primary DNA sequence; however, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have greater scope to achieve binding specificity through the RNA secondary structure. It has been revealed that single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that alter RNA structure, also known as RiboSNitches, exhibit 3-fold greater local structure changes than replicates of the same DNA sequence, demonstrated by the fact that depletion of RiboSNitches could result in the alteration of specific RNA shapes at thousands of sites, including 3′ UTRs, binding sites of microRNAs and RBPs. However, the network between SNVs and post-transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here, we developed RBP-Var, a database freely available at http://www.rbp-var.biols.ac.cn/, which provides annotation of functional variants involved in post-transcriptional interaction and regulation. RBP-Var provides an easy-to-use web interface that allows users to rapidly find whether SNVs of interest can transform the secondary structure of RNA and identify RBPs whose binding may be subsequently disrupted. RBP-Var integrates DNA and RNA biology to understand how various genetic variants and post-transcriptional mechanisms cooperate to orchestrate gene expression. In summary, RBP-Var is useful in selecting candidate SNVs for further functional studies and exploring causal SNVs underlying human diseases. PMID:26635394

  12. NF-κB-targeted anti-inflammatory activity of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina in macrophages RAW 264.7.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2013-01-01

    Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina, a herbal medicine, has long been used in Korea for the treatment of sore throat, and to alleviate fever and accelerate wound healing. Although the therapeutic effect of P. vulgaris var. lilacina is likely associated with anti-inflammatory activity, the precise underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we sought to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the various solvent fractions (hexane, butanol, chloroform and water) from the ethanol extract of P. vulgaris var. lilacina in activated macrophages. The hexane fraction exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activities, inducing inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Moreover, the hexane fraction from P. vulgaris var. lilacina significantly inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p50 and p65 subunits. These results indicate that P. vulgaris var. lilacina has an anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24177568

  13. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds. PMID:22065063

  14. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA.

    PubMed

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  15. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S.; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  16. [Experimental inoculation of Terminalia catappa seedlings with an environmental isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype C ].

    PubMed

    Escandón, Patricia; Huérfano, Sandra; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    In 1997, our laboratory reported for the first time the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype C associated with almond tree (Terminalia catappa) detritus. This finding led to a more detailed follow up of the association between the plant and the yeast. Preliminary data have shown that survival of the yeast in almond trees seedlings goes beyond 100 days. The aim of the present study was to establish if under the conditions previously studied, C. neoformans var. gattii would remain viable for longer periods. A total of 83 almond tree seedings, 20-40 cm high, were inoculated with C. neoformans var. gattii serotype C (INS-755). Assays were carried out inoculating the stem or the soil where the seedlings were planted. Observations were undertaken for a period of up to 12 months. As processing techniques we employed the endophytic fungi procedure (stems), maceration (roots, leaves) and standard suspension method (soils). Additionally, microscopic visualization of the yeast in plant tissues was done with trypan blue plus lactophenol. C. neoformans var. gattii was recovered from the inoculated plants for a period of up to 12 months post-inoculation; additionally, the fungus had the capacity to migrate from the stem to the soil and viceversa, without causing macroscopic or microscopic alterations in the plant tissues. This finding suggests that there appears to be an association between the host plant and C. neoformans var. gattii in the environment. PMID:12596450

  17. Functional Antibodies against VAR2CSA in Nonpregnant Populations from Colombia Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Arango, Eliana M.; Cabrera, Ana; Arroyo, Maria Isabel; Kain, Kevin C.; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Maestre, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancy, parity-dependent immunity is observed in response to placental infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibodies recognize the surface antigen, VAR2CSA, expressed on infected red blood cells and inhibit cytoadherence to the placental tissue. In most settings of malaria endemicity, antibodies against VAR2CSA are predominantly observed in multigravid women and infrequently in men, children, and nulligravid women. However, in Colombia, we detected antibodies against multiple constructs of VAR2CSA among men and children with acute P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. The majority of men and children (>60%) had high levels of IgGs against three recombinant domains of VAR2CSA: DBL5ε, DBL3X, and ID1-ID2. Surprisingly, these antibodies were observed only in pregnant women, men, and children exposed either to P. falciparum or to P. vivax. Moreover, the anti-VAR2CSA antibodies are of high avidity and efficiently inhibit adherence of infected red blood cells to chondroitin sulfate A in vitro, suggesting that they are specific and functional. These unexpected results suggest that there may be genotypic or phenotypic differences in the parasites of this region or in the host response to either P. falciparum or P. vivax infection outside pregnancy. These findings may hold significant clinical relevance to the pathophysiology and outcome of malaria infections in this region. PMID:24686068

  18. RBP-Var: a database of functional variants involved in regulation mediated by RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Mao, Fengbiao; Xiao, Luoyuan; Li, Xianfeng; Liang, Jialong; Teng, Huajing; Cai, Wanshi; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors bind to the genome by forming specific contacts with the primary DNA sequence; however, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have greater scope to achieve binding specificity through the RNA secondary structure. It has been revealed that single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that alter RNA structure, also known as RiboSNitches, exhibit 3-fold greater local structure changes than replicates of the same DNA sequence, demonstrated by the fact that depletion of RiboSNitches could result in the alteration of specific RNA shapes at thousands of sites, including 3' UTRs, binding sites of microRNAs and RBPs. However, the network between SNVs and post-transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here, we developed RBP-Var, a database freely available at http://www.rbp-var.biols.ac.cn/, which provides annotation of functional variants involved in post-transcriptional interaction and regulation. RBP-Var provides an easy-to-use web interface that allows users to rapidly find whether SNVs of interest can transform the secondary structure of RNA and identify RBPs whose binding may be subsequently disrupted. RBP-Var integrates DNA and RNA biology to understand how various genetic variants and post-transcriptional mechanisms cooperate to orchestrate gene expression. In summary, RBP-Var is useful in selecting candidate SNVs for further functional studies and exploring causal SNVs underlying human diseases. PMID:26635394

  19. Effects of bacteria on cadmium bioaccumulation in the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Chao, Lei; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two cadmium-tolerant bacteria, Staphylococcus pasteuri (S. pasteuri X1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens X2), on cadmium uptake by the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., a pot experiment with artificially contaminated soil was conducted. The results demonstrated that both cadmium-tolerant bacteria enhanced the dry weight of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. The total dry weights of plants in the control CK20, S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 treatments were 0.85, 1.13, and 1.38 g/pot, respectively. Compared with the control CK20 findings, the total dry weight of plants was increased by 32.8 and 61.1% after inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2, respectively, indicating that A. tumefaciens X2 more strongly promoted the growth of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. than S. pasteuri X1. In addition, inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cadmium uptake by plants and improved the bioaccumulation of cadmium by the plants from the soil. Moreover, the inoculation of S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 effectively facilitated the transfer of cadmium in the soil from the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions to the soluble plus exchangeable and weakly specially adsorbed fractions in the rhizosphere soils of plants. The bacterial enhancement of cadmium phytoavailability might provide a potential and promising method to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:23488173

  20. VAR2CSA Signatures of High Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia in the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Rovira-Vallbona, Eduard; Monteiro, Isadora; Bardají, Azucena; Serra-Casas, Elisa; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Quelhas, Diana; Valim, Clarissa; Alonso, Pedro; Dobaño, Carlota; Ordi, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) accumulate in the placenta through the interaction between Duffy-binding like (DBL) domains of parasite-encoded ligand VAR2CSA and chondroitin sulphate-A (CSA) receptor. Polymorphisms in these domains, including DBL2X and DBL3X, may affect their antigenicity or CSA-binding affinity, eventually increasing parasitemia and its adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. A total of 373 DBL2X and 328 DBL3X sequences were obtained from transcripts of 20 placental isolates infecting Mozambican women, resulting in 176 DBL2X and 191 DBL3X unique sequences at the protein level. Sequence alignments were divided in segments containing combinations of correlated polymorphisms and the association of segment sequences with placental parasite density was tested using Bonferroni corrected regression models, taking into consideration the weight of each sequence in the infection. Three DBL2X and three DBL3X segments contained signatures of high parasite density (P<0.003) that were highly prevalent in the parasite population (49–91%). Identified regions included a flexible loop that contributes to DBL3X-CSA interaction and two DBL3X motifs with evidence of positive natural selection. Limited antibody responses against signatures of high parasite density among malaria-exposed pregnant women could not explain the increased placental parasitemia. These results suggest that a higher binding efficiency to CSA rather than reduced antigenicity might provide a biological advantage to parasites with high parasite density signatures in VAR2CSA. Sequences contributing to high parasitemia may be critical for the functional characterization of VAR2CSA and the development of tools against placental malaria. PMID:23936092

  1. SEVIRI 4D-var assimilation analysing the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    We present first results of four dimensional variational (4D-var) data assimilation analysis applying SEVIRI observations to the Eulerian regional chemistry and aerosol transport model EURAD-IM (European Air Pollution Dispersion - Inverse Model). Optimising atmospheric dispersion models in terms of volcanic ash transport predictions by observations is especially essential for the aviation industry and associated interests. Remote sensing satellite observations are instrumental for ash detection and monitoring. We choose volcanic ash column retrievals of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) because as infrared instrument on the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation it delivers measurements with high temporal resolution during day and night. The retrieval method relies on the reverse absorption effect. In the framework of the national initiative ESKP (Earth System Knowledge Platform) and the European ACTRIS-2 (Aerosol, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure) project, we developed new modules (forward and adjoint) within the EURAD-IM, which are able to process SEVIRI ash column data as observational input to the 4D-var system. The focus of the 4D-var analysis is on initial value optimisation of the volcanic ash clouds that were emitted during the explosive Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. This eruption caused high public interest because of air traffic closures and it was particularly well observed from many different observation systems all over Europe. Considering multiple observation periods simultaneously in one assimilation window generates a continuous trajectory in the phase space and ensures that past observations are considered within their uncertainties. Results are validated mainly by lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) observations, both ground and satellite based.

  2. Micropropagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière from orthotropic stem explants.

    PubMed

    Sarmast, Mostafa Khoshhal; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of the present work were in vitro propagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière (Norfolk Island pine) with focus on the evaluation of the mean number of shoots per explant (MNS/E) and mean length of shoots per explants (MLS/E) produced by different parts of the orthotropic stem of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca in response to plant growth regulators. Norfolk Island pine axillary meristems responded very well to the 2-iso-pentenyl adenine (2iP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) levels. Explants taken from stem upper segments in the media containing 2iP had a higher MNS/E (3.47) and MLS/E (6.27 mm) in comparison to those taken from stem lower segments, which were 0.71 and 0.51 mm, respectively. Using 0.045 μM TDZ in the MS medium not only resulted in 4.60 MNS/E with 7.08 mm MLS/E but proliferated shoots showed a good performance as well. Investigating the best position of stem explant on mother plant as well as the best concentrations of growth regulators were performed which were useful for efficient micropropagation of this plant. Thirty three percent of explants were rooted in the MS medium containing 3 % sucrose, supplemented with 7.5 μM of both NAA and IBA for 2 weeks before transferring to a half strength MS medium without any growth regulator. Plantlets obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse with less than 20 % mortality. This procedure considered the first successful report for regeneration and acclimatization of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca plantlet through main stem explants. PMID:23814441

  3. Sexual Cycle of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Virulence of Congenic a and α Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kirsten; Cox, Gary M.; Wang, Ping; Toffaletti, Dena L.; Perfect, John R.; Heitman, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a human-pathogenic fungus that has evolved into three distinct varieties that infect most prominently the central nervous system. A sexual cycle involving haploid cells of a and α mating types has been reported for two varieties (C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D, and C. neoformans var. gattii, serotypes B and C), yet the vast majority of infections involve a distinct variety (C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A) that has been thought to be clonal and restricted to the α mating type. We recently identified the first serotype A isolate of the a mating type which had been thought to be extinct (strain 125.91). Here we report that this unusual strain can mate with a subset of pathogenic serotype A strains to produce a filamentous dikaryon with fused clamp connections, basidia, and viable recombinant basidiospores. One meiotic segregant mated poorly with the serotype A reference strain H99 but robustly with a crg1 mutant that lacks a regulator of G protein signaling and is hyperresponsive to mating pheromone. This meiotic segregant was used to create congenic a and α mating type serotype A strains. Virulence tests with rabbit and murine models of cryptococcal meningitis showed that the serotype A congenic a and α mating type strains had equivalent virulence in animal models, in contrast to previous studies linking the α mating type to increased virulence in congenic serotype D strains. Our studies highlight a role for sexual recombination in the evolution of a human fungal pathogen and provide a robust genetic platform to establish the molecular determinants of virulence. PMID:12933823

  4. Water-soluble polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida mycelial biomass.

    PubMed

    Komura, Dirce L; Ruthes, Andrea C; Carbonero, Elaine R; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2014-09-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida known as Hiratake has a high nutritional value, presents medicinal and nutraceutical properties and it is one of the consumed mushrooms in Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the chemical structure of polysaccharides found in mycelial biomass produced by submerged culture of P. ostreatus var. florida in order to compare with those found in P. ostreatus var. florida fruit bodies. Aqueous and alkali extracts obtained from mycelial biomass were purified, 13C NMR, GC-MS and chemical techniques were used to characterize three polysaccharide structures: a mannogalactan (MG-PfM) with α-D-Galp and 3-O-Me-α-D-Galp units, both (1→6)-linked, highly substituted at O-2 by D-Manp, a glycogen-like polymer (GLY-PfM) with α-D-Glp (1→4)-linked main chain, partially substituted at O-6 by α-D-Glcp side chains and a (1→3), (1→6) β-D-glucan (βGLC-PfM) with a main chain of β-D-Glcp (1→3)-linked units, partially substituted at O-6 by side chains of 6-O-substituted β-D-glucopyranosyl units, on an average of one to every two residues of the backbone. These results show the possibility to obtain similar and also different molecules from those found in the fruiting body of the same mushroom species, therefore the submerged culture of mushroom is a promising way to give raise molecules of interest. PMID:25008131

  5. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. (Santalaceae) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, new morphological and genetic studies confirmed its distinctiveness. The key for New Caledonian varieties of Santalum austrocaledonicum has been updated and a short description of its essential oil composition and organoleptic quality is given. PMID:26491390

  6. Piperitone from Mentha longifolia var. chorodictya Rech F. reduces the nitrofurantoin resistance of strains of enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Shahverdi, A R; Rafii, F; Tavassoli, F; Bagheri, M; Attar, F; Ghahraman, A

    2004-11-01

    The diluted essential oil of Mentha longifolia (L.) var. chlorodictya Rech F. foliage enhanced the bactericidal activity of nitrofurantoin decreasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nitrofurantoin for nitrofurantoin-resistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of the essential oil detected a fraction (R(f) = 0.35, UV lambda(max) of 232.5), which was the most effective in enhancement of nitrofurantoin activity. Using gas liquid chromatography and known standards, the active fraction was identified as piperitone. 1 microl of the piperitone fraction decreased the MIC of nitrofurantoin 3-20 fold for the different strains of Enterobacteriaceae tested. PMID:15597306

  7. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    PubMed

    Redwane, A; Lazrek, H B; Bouallam, S; Markouk, M; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    2002-02-01

    The present study indicates the efficacy of extracts and fractions of Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.) as larvicidal agents and their possible use in biological control of Culex pipiens, the urban nuisance mosquito. Extracts and fractions were tested against second and fourth instar larvae. The LC(50) values of gallotannins were 335 and 373 ppm, respectively for the 2nd and 4th instar period. The most interesting value of LC(50) (24 h) is obtained with the fraction F(2) (60 ppm). PMID:11801390

  8. A clarified position for solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme in the evolutionary history of tomatoes (solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ranc, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Santoni, Sylvain; Causse, Mathilde

    2008-01-01

    Background The natural phenotypic variability present in the germplasm of cultivated plants can be linked to molecular polymorphisms using association genetics. However it is necessary to consider the genetic structure of the germplasm used to avoid false association. The knowledge of genetic structure of plant populations can help in inferring plant evolutionary history. In this context, we genotyped 360 wild, feral and cultivated accessions with 20 simple sequence repeat markers and investigated the extent and structure of the genetic variation. The study focused on the red fruited tomato clade involved in the domestication of tomato and confirmed the admixture status of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme). We used a nested sample strategy to set-up core collection maximizing the genetic diversity with a minimum of individuals. Results Molecular diversity was considerably lower in S. lycopersicum i.e. the domesticated form. Model-based analysis showed that the 144 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions were structured into two groups: one close to the domesticated group and one resulting from the admixture of the S. lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium genomes. SSR genotyping also indicates that domesticated and wild tomatoes have evolved as a species complex with intensive level of hybridization. We compiled genotypic and phenotypic data to identify sub-samples of 8, 24, 32 and 64 cherry tomato accessions that captured most of the genetic and morphological diversity present in the entire S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme collection. Conclusion The extent and structure of allelic variation is discussed in relation to historical events like domestication and modern selection. The potential use of the admixed group of S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme for association genetics studies is also discussed. Nested core collections sampled to represent tomato diversity will be useful in diversity studies. Molecular and phenotypic variability of

  9. A new isoquinoline alkaloid with anti-microbial properties from Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid. var. jaeschkeana.

    PubMed

    Alamzeb, Muhammad; Khan, M Rafiullah; Mamoon-Ur-Rashid; Ali, Saqib; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    One new isoquinoline alkaloid named berberidione (1) along with four new source alkaloids berberine (2), palmatine (3), jatrorrhizine (4) and chondrofoline (5) and three new source non-alkaloids syringic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7) and stigmasterol (8) was isolated and characterised from different fractions of Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid var. jaeschkeana. All the structures were determined from 1D and 2D spectroscopic data. Crude extract, sub-fractions and isolated compounds showed excellent anti-microbial properties. The toxicity level for the alkaloids was found to be very low on THP-1 cells. PMID:25424893

  10. A new ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside from Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhao-Bao; Wang, Guang-Li; Huang, Lan-Zhi; Heng, Lin-Sen; Li, Xiao-Hui

    2013-01-01

    A new ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside (1), named glaucocalyxin G, has been isolated from the n-butanol-soluble fraction of the dried whole plants of Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx along with two known compounds, namely arjunglucoside (2) and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3). The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR techniques such as HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments and comparison with the literature data. PMID:23614395

  11. Oleanane type saponins from the stems of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Xiaoxia; Ruan, Jingya; Wang, Tingting; Dong, Yongzhe; Hao, Jia; Liu, Erwei; Han, Lifeng; Gao, Xiumei; Wang, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Astragalus membranaceus is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) belonging to the Leguminosae family. It has been used as antidiabetic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective in the TCM clinic. From the stems of A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, 14 oleanane type saponins (1-14) including eight new ones, astroolesaponins A (1), B (2), C1 (3), C2 (4), D (5), E1 (6), E2 (7), and F (8) were obtained, and their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-5, 7, 8, 11, and 13 showed decreased effects on triglyceride levels in sodium oleate induced HepG2 cells. PMID:26687558

  12. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    PubMed

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil. PMID:24196112

  13. Dry-heat Resistance of Bacillus Subtilis Var. Niger Spores on Mated Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simko, G. J.; Devlin, J. D.; Wardle, M. D.

    1971-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were placed on the surfaces of test coupons manufactured from typical spacecraft materials including stainless steel, magnesium, titanium, and aluminum. These coupons were then juxtaposed at the inoculated surfaces and subjected to test pressures of 0, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 psi. Tests were conducted in ambient, nitrogen, and helium atmospheres. While under the test pressure condition, the spores were exposed to 125 C for intervals of 5, 10, 20, 50, or 80 min. Survivor data were subjected to a linear regression analysis that calculated decimal reduction times.

  14. Spectrum of Var C in M33 in its maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, A.; Fabrika, S.; Sholukhova, O.

    2013-11-01

    The classical LBV star Var C in M33 has entered a luminous (or low excitation) state as it was described in ATels #5362, #5403. We have taken spectra of the star with the Russian BTA telescope using SCORPIO spectrograph. The spectra were obtained on 5 Oct 2013 with spectral resolution of 13Å (3800-7200 Å range), on 01 Nov and 02 Nov with resolution of 2.2Å (in 4100-5800 Å and 5800-7400 Å ranges respectively).

  15. Spectral analysis of LBV stars in M31: AF And and Var 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, A. F.; Sholukhova, O.; Fabrika, S.

    2015-01-01

    We study spectra of two bona fide LBV stars in M31: AF And and Var 15. The spectra were obtained with the 6-m telescope (Russia) from 2005 to 2012. The model spectra were calculated with the CMFGEN code. We have not found strong changes in the spectra of the LBV stars in that time interval, however a certain variability has been detected. We estimate the star and wind parameters, such as luminosity, temperature, raduis, mass loss rate, escape velocity, hydrogen content, and reddening. We study the stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and find their initial masses using evolutionary tracks by Meynet et al. (1994).

  16. Relationship between poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production and delta-endotoxin for Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A Karin; Farrera, Reynold R; López, Ruth; Pérez-Guevara, Fermín

    2006-05-01

    A linear relationship between total solid concentration (TSC), delta-endotoxin production [Cry = 0.2795(TSC)-0.2472, R2 = 0.8644] and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation [PHB = 0.1327(TSC) + 0.3974, R2 = 0.9877] in Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-73 was observed. A similar correlation between delta-endotoxin and PHB accumulation [Cry = 2.1573(PHB)-1.1248, R2 = 0.9181] was found. A minimum PHB accumulation of 0.52 mg l(-1) was required before the onset of delta-endotoxin production. PMID:16642302

  17. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively. PMID:26475984

  18. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. (Santalaceae) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, new morphological and genetic studies confirmed its distinctiveness. The key for New Caledonian varieties of Santalum austrocaledonicum has been updated and a short description of its essential oil composition and organoleptic quality is given. PMID:26491390

  19. Four New Flavonoids with α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities from Morus alba var. tatarica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Long; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhou, Zhong-Bo; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Four new flavonoids, mortatarins A-D (1-4, resp.), along with eight known flavonoids (5-12) were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba var. tatarica. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configuration of 4 was determined by analysis of its CD spectrum. All isolates were tested for inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. Compounds 4, 7, and 8 exhibited a significant degree of inhibition with IC50 values of 5.0 ± 0.3, 7.5 ± 0.5, and 5.9 ± 0.2 μM, respectively. PMID:26567954

  20. Determination of trace elements in cole (Brassica oleraceae var. acephale) at Trabzon region in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tıraşoğlu, E.; Çevik, U.; Ertuğral, B.; Apaydın, G.; Baltaş, H.; Ertuğrul, M.

    2005-08-01

    The elemental analysis of cole (Brassica oleraceae var. acephale) has been carried out in the Trabzon region (Turkey) using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Cole is one of the most commonly consumed vegetables by people living in that region. The reason for this is its abundance and easy growth in four seasons. We have analyzed cole samples for 11 stations using 50 mCi Fe-55 and Am-241 radioactive sources. We have found that potassium was present in the highest concentration in cole for every station. The concentration of Cl generally changed according to the distance between the sea and the sampling station.

  1. [Exploration of influencing factors of price of herbal based on VAR model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nuo; Liu, Shu-Zhen; Yang, Guang

    2014-10-01

    Based on vector auto-regression (VAR) model, this paper takes advantage of Granger causality test, variance decomposition and impulse response analysis techniques to carry out a comprehensive study of the factors influencing the price of Chinese herbal, including herbal cultivation costs, acreage, natural disasters, the residents' needs and inflation. The study found that there is Granger causality relationship between inflation and herbal prices, cultivation costs and herbal prices. And in the total variance analysis of Chinese herbal and medicine price index, the largest contribution to it is from its own fluctuations, followed by the cultivation costs and inflation. PMID:25751965

  2. Antineoplastic agents; I. Three spirostanol glycosides from rhizomes of Dioscorea collettii var. hypoglauca.

    PubMed

    Hu, K; Dong, A; Yao, X; Kobayashi, H; Iwasaki, S

    1996-12-01

    By activity-guided fractionation, three known steroidal saponins, prosapogenin A of dioscin, dioscin and gracillin, were isolated from the total saponin fraction of Dioscorea coiletti var. hypoglauca as active compounds causing morphological abnormality of Pyricularia oryzae mycelia. The compounds also exhibited cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell line K562 in vitro. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical evidence and IR, FAB-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and two-dimensional NMR (2D-NMR) analysis. PMID:9000889

  3. Origin of Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa (Arecaceae) on the "islet of the gods": Aoshima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, N; Nobe, R; Ogawa, K; Murooka, Y

    2000-07-01

    RAPD analysis was performed to discuss the origin of Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa using samples from eight localities, Iriomotejima, Ishigakijima, Okinawa, Yakushima, Tanegashima, Cape Sata, Tsukishima, and Aoshima, in Japan. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were obtained using five random primers and analyzed by the unweighted pair group method arithmetic (UPGMA). Data from Iriomotejima clustered with data from Aoshima, suggesting the possibility that seeds or green woods were carried by the tidal current from the southern fields of Iriomotejima to Aoshima. PMID:10898784

  4. Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of an ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Din, Wardah M; Chu, Jessica; Clarke, Garry; Jin, Khoo T; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Fry, Jeff R; Wiart, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    In the annals of biomedical theory perhaps no single class of natural product has enjoyed more ingenious speculation than antioxidants formally aimed at counteracting oxidative insults which are involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, skin ageing and wound healing. In pursuing our study of Malaysian traditional medicines with antioxidant properties, we became interested in Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort., used traditionally to heal wounds. To examine whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. could suppress oxidation an ethanol extract was tested by conventional chemical in vitro assays i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay (FRAP), DPPH scavenging assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. To explore whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. protected cells against oxidative injuries, we exposed human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). In all the aforementioned experiments, the ethanol extracts elicited potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. To gain a better understanding of the phytochemical nature of the antioxidant principle involved, five fractions (F1-F5) obtained from the ethanol extract were tested using FRAP, DPPH and BCB assays. Our results provided evidence that F5 was the most active fraction with antioxidant potentials equal to 2.090 +/- 0.307 microg/mL, 0.532 +/- 0.041 microg/mL, 0.032 +/- 0.025 microg/mL in FRAP, DPPH and BCB assay, respectively. Interestingly, F5 protected HepG2 against t-BHP oxidative insults. To further define the chemical identity of the antioxidant principle, we first performed a series of phytochemical tests, followed by liquid-chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) profiling which showed that the major compound contained in F5 was geraniin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the wound healing property of Acalypha wilkesiana

  5. var gene transcription and PfEMP1 expression in the rosetting and cytoadhesive Plasmodium falciparum clone FCR3S1.2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum is in part due to the ability of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC) to adhere to intra-vascular host cell receptors and serum-proteins. Binding of the pRBC is mediated by Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a large multi-variant molecule encoded by a family of ≈60 var genes. Methods The study of var gene transcription in the parasite clone FCR3S1.2 was performed by semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression of the major PfEMP1 in FCR3S1.2 pRBC was analysed with polyclonal sera in rosette disruption assays and immunofluorecence. Results Transcripts from var1 (FCR3S1.2var1; IT4var21) and other var genes were detected by semi-quantitative PCR but results from qPCR showed that one var gene transcript dominated over the others (FCR3S1.2var2; IT4var60). Antibodies raised in rats to the recombinant NTS-DBL1α of var2 produced in E. coli completely and dose-dependently disrupted rosettes (≈95% at a dilution of 1/5). The sera reacted with the Maurer's clefts in trophozoite stages (IFA) and to the infected erythrocyte surface (FACS) indicating that FCR3S1.2var2 encodes the dominant PfEMP1 expressed in this parasite. Conclusion The major transcript in the rosetting model parasite FCR3S1.2 is FCR3S1.2var2 (IT4var60). The results suggest that this gene encodes the PfEMP1-species responsible for the rosetting phenotype of this parasite. The activity of previously raised antibodies to the NTS-DBL1α of FCR3S1.2var1 is likely due to cross-reactivity with NTS-DBL1α of the var2 encoded PfEMP1. PMID:21266056

  6. Immunogenicity of the Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1-VarO Adhesin: Induction of Surface-Reactive and Rosette-Disrupting Antibodies to VarO Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Guillotte, Micheline; Juillerat, Alexandre; Igonet, Sébastien; Hessel, Audrey; Petres, Stéphane; Crublet, Elodie; Le Scanf, Cécile; Lewit-Bentley, Anita; Bentley, Graham A.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBC) to human erythrocytes (i.e. rosetting) is associated with severe malaria. Rosetting results from interactions between a subset of variant PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) adhesins and specific erythrocyte receptors. Interfering with such interactions is considered a promising intervention against severe malaria. To evaluate the feasibility of a vaccine strategy targetting rosetting, we have used here the Palo Alto 89F5 VarO rosetting model. PfEMP1-VarO consists of five Duffy-Binding Like domains (DBL1-5) and one Cysteine-rich Interdomain Region (CIDR1). The binding domain has been mapped to DBL1 and the ABO blood group was identified as the erythrocyte receptor. Here, we study the immunogenicity of all six recombinant PfEMP1-VarO domains and the DBL1- CIDR1 Head domain in BALB/c and outbred OF1 mice. Five readouts of antibody responses are explored: ELISA titres on the recombinant antigen, VarO-iRBC immunoblot reactivity, VarO-iRBC surface-reactivity, capacity to disrupt VarO rosettes and the capacity to prevent VarO rosette formation. For three domains, we explore influence of the expression system on antigenicity and immunogenicity. We show that correctly folded PfEMP1 domains elicit high antibody titres and induce a homogeneous response in outbred and BALB/c mice after three injections. High levels of rosette-disrupting and rosette-preventing antibodies are induced by DBL1 and the Head domain. Reduced-alkylated or denatured proteins fail to induce surface-reacting and rosette-disrupting antibodies, indicating that surface epitopes are conformational. We also report limited cross-reactivity between some PfEMP1 VarO domains. These results highlight the high immunogenicity of the individual domains in outbred animals and provide a strong basis for a rational vaccination strategy targeting rosetting. PMID:26222304

  7. A Multiscale Transient Modeling Approach for Predicting the Solidification Structure in VAR-Processed Alloy 718 Ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastac, Laurentiu

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a comprehensive multiscale modeling approach capable of predicting at the mesoscopic scale level the ingot solidification structure and solidification-related defects commonly occurring during the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process. The approach consists of a coupling between a fully transient macroscopic code and a mesoscopic solidification structure code. The predictions from the multiscale model, including grain morphology and size and columnar-to-equiaxed transition, were validated against experimental measurements for a 20-inch (508 mm) diameter VAR alloy 718 ingots. The validated model was then used to investigate the effects of melting rate and ingot diameter on the solidification structure of VAR processed 718 ingots.

  8. Colonization of barley roots by endophytic fungi and their reduction of take-all caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    PubMed

    Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Jansson, Hans-Börje; Mendgen, Kurt; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    2008-08-01

    Fungal root endophytes obtained from natural vegetation were tested for antifungal activity in dual culture tests against the root pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Fifteen isolates, including Acremonium blochii, Acremonium furcatum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cylindrocarpon sp., Cylindrocarpon destructans, Dactylaria sp., Fusarium equiseti, Phoma herbarum, Phoma leveillei, and a sterile mycelium, selected based on the dual culture test, were inoculated on barley roots in growth tubes under axenic conditions, both in the absence and presence of G. graminis var. tritici. All isolates colonized the rhizosphere and very often the root cortex without causing disease symptoms and without affecting plant growth. Eight isolates significantly reduced the symptoms caused by G. graminis var. tritici, and 6 of them reduced its presence in the roots. PMID:18772922

  9. Acetyl Eburicoic Acid from Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus Suppresses Inflammation in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Evelyn; Son, Youngmin; Jeon, Bo Ra; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycete Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus belongs to the Aphyllophorales, Polyporaceae, and grows on the needleleaf tree. The fruiting bodies of Laetiporus species are known to produce N-methylated tyramine derivatives, polysaccharides, and various lanostane triterpenoids. As part of our ongoing effort to discover biologically active compounds from wood-rotting fungi, an anti-inflammatory triterpene, LSM-H7, has been isolated from the fruiting body of L. sulphureus var. miniatus and identified as acetyl eburicoic acid. LSM-H7 dose-dependently inhibited the NO production in RAW 264.7 cells without any cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations. Furthermore it suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α, when compared with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. These data suggest that LSM-H7 is a crucial component for the anti-inflammatory activity of L. sulphureus var. miniatus. PMID:26190920

  10. Essential oil compositions and anticholinesterase activities of two edible plants Tragopogon latifolius var. angustifolius and Lycopsis orientalis.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Abdulselam; Gören, Ahmet C; Boğa, Mehmet; Yeşil, Yeter; Kolak, Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    This is the first report in the literature on essential oil compositions of Tragopogon latifolius var. angustifolius and Lycopsis orientalis which were analysed by using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The main constituents of T. latifolius var. angustifolius were identified as α-selinene (10.5%), 2,5-di-tert octyl-p-benzoquinone (9.5%) and valencene (7.0%); however, the main components of L. orientalis were identified as heptacosane (10.5%), τ-muurolene (9.6%) and tetratetracontane (9.4%). The essential oils of T. latifolius var. angustifolius and L. orientalis species exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase enzymes at 200 μg/mL. PMID:24708513

  11. Selection and characterization of Euglena anabaena var. minor as a new candidate Euglena species for industrial application.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kengo; Mitra, Sharbanee; Iwata, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Kato, Sueo; Yamada, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Euglena gracilis is a microalgae used as a model organism. Recently, mass cultivation of this species has been achieved for industrial applications. The genus Euglena includes more than 200 species that share common useful features, but the potential industrial applications of other Euglena species have not been evaluated. Thus, we conducted a pilot screening study to identify other species that proliferate at a sufficiently rapid rate to be used for mass cultivation; we found that Euglena anabaena var. minor had a rapid growth rate. In addition, its cells accumulated more than 40% weight of carbohydrate, most of which is considered to be a euglenoid specific type of beta-1-3-glucan, paramylon. Carbohydrate is stored in E. anabaena var. minor cells during normal culture, whereas E. gracilis requires nitrogen limitation to facilitate paramylon accumulation. These results suggest the potential industrial application of E. anabaena var. minor. PMID:25988946

  12. Differential Induction of Functional IgG Using the Plasmodium falciparum Placental Malaria Vaccine Candidate VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Vera V.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Jensen, Kamilla E.; Resende, Mafalda; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Andersen, Gorm; Andersen, Pernille; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemic areas placental malaria (PM) is an important complication of malaria. The recurrence of malaria in primigravidae women irrespective of acquired protection during childhood is caused by the interaction between the parasite-expressed VAR2CSA antigen and chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placental intervillous space and lack of protective antibodies. PM impairs fetal development mainly by excessive inflammation processes. After infections during pregnancy women acquire immunity to PM conferred by antibodies against VAR2CSA. Ideally, a vaccine against PM will induce antibody-mediated immune responses that block the adhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE) in the placenta. Principal Findings We have previously shown that antibodies raised in rat against individual domains of VAR2CSA can block IE binding to CSA. In this study we have immunized mice, rats and rabbits with each individual domain and the full-length protein corresponding to the FCR3 VAR2CSA variant. We found there is an inherently higher immunogenicity of C-terminal domains compared to N-terminally located domains. This was irrespective of whether antibodies were induced against single domains or the full-length protein. Species-specific antibody responses were also found, these were mainly directed against single domains and not the full-length VAR2CSA protein. Conclusions/Significance Binding inhibitory antibodies appeared to be against conformational B-cell epitopes. Non-binding inhibitory antibodies reacted highly against the C-terminal end of the VAR2CSA molecule especially the highly polymorphic DBL6ε domain. Differential species-specific induction of antibody responses may allow for more direct analysis of functional versus non-functional B-cell epitopes. PMID:21464946

  13. The influence of VAR processes and parameters on white spot formation in Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Damkroger, B.K.; Kelley, J.B.; Schlienger, M.E.; Van Den Avyle, J.A.; Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.

    1994-05-01

    Significant progress has occurred lately regarding the classification, characterization, and formation of white spots during vacuum arc remelting (VAR). White spots have been generally split into three categories: discrete white spots, which are believed to be associated with undissolved material which has fallen in from the shelf, crown, or torus regions; dendritic white spots, usually associated with dendrite clusters having fallen from the electrode; and solidification white spots, believed to be caused by local perturbations in the solidifications conditions. Characteristics and proposed formation mechanisms of white spots are reviewed and discussed in context of physical processes occurring during VAR, such as fluid flow and arc behavior. Where possible, their formation mechanisms will be considered with respect to specific operating parameters. In order to more fully understand the formation of solidification white spots, an experimental program has been begun to characterize the solidification stability of Alloy 718 and variants with respect to changes in growth rate and thermal environment. A description of the experimental program and preliminary results are included.

  14. Genetic Authentication of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai by Improved RAPD-Derived DNA Markers.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Boxu; Wei, Chunli; Cheng, Jingliang; Imani, Saber; Chen, Hanchun; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-01-01

    The evergreen shrub, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai is one of the most popular garden-plants, with significant ornamental importance. Here, we have cloned improved random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) derived fragments into T-vector, and developed sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. These markers have been deposited in GenBank database with the accession numbers KP641310, KP641311, KP641312 and KP641313 respectively. The BLAST search of database confirmed the novelty of these markers. The four SCAR markers, namely ZZH11, ZZH31, ZZH41 and ZZH51 can specifically recognize the genetic materials of G. jasminoides from other plant species. Moreover, SCAR marker ZZH31 can be used to distinguish G. jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai from other G. jasminoides on the market. Together, this study has developed four stably molecular SCAR markers by improved RAPD-derived DNA markers for the genetic identification and authentication, and for ecological conservation of medicinal and ornamental plant G. jasminoides. PMID:26569205

  15. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  16. Peroxidase is involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Diz, M S S; Robaina, R R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Carvalho, A O; Gomes, V M

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) are among the defense mechanisms of plants that work as an important barrier to the development of pathogens. These proteins are classified into 17 families according to their amino acid sequences, serology, and/or biological or enzyme activity. The present study aimed to identify PRs associated with the pathosystem of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum: Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Forty-five-day-old plants from accession UENF 1624, previously identified as resistant to PepYMV, were inoculated with the virus. Control and infected leaves were collected for analysis after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The inoculated and control plants were grown in cages covered with anti-aphid screens. Proteins were extracted from leaf tissue and the presence of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, peroxidase, and lipid transport protein was verified. No difference was observed between the protein pattern of control and infected plants when β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and lipid transport protein were compared. However, increased peroxidase expression was observed in infected plants at 48 and 72 h after inoculation, indicating that this PR is involved in the response of resistance to PepYMV in C. baccatum var. pendulum. PMID:23661464

  17. 4D-Var identification of DMD Reduced-Order Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, Gilles; Cordier, Laurent; Noack, Bernd R.

    2014-11-01

    A reduced-order modelling (ROM) strategy is crucial to achieve model-based control in a wide class of flow configurations. In turbulence, ROMs are mostly derived by Galerkin projection of first principles equations onto the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes. POD is widely used since it extracts from a sequence of data an orthonormal basis which captures optimally the flow energy. Unfortunately, energy level is not necessarily the correct criterion in terms of dynamical modelling and deriving a dynamical system based on POD modes leads sometimes to irrelevant models. In this communication, the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) as recently proposed by Schmid (JFM 2010) is used to determine the DMD modes. A DMD ROM is then derived by Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes equations onto a selected set of optimized-DMD modes. Finally, a four-dimensional variational assimilation approach (4D-Var) is employed to identify the coefficients of the DMD ROM. Essentially, 4D-Var combines imperfect observations, a background solution and the underlying dynamical principles governing the system under observation to determine an optimal estimation of the true state of the system. The methodology is illustrated for a DNS cylinder wake flow at Re = 200 and PIV measurements at Re = 13000. Partially funded by the ANR Chair of Excellence TUCOROM and the Carnot project INTACOO.

  18. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  19. Generation of Maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; López, Mercedes G

    2002-02-13

    During the cooking process of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul to produce tequila, besides the hydrolysis of inulin to generate fermentable sugars, many volatiles, mainly Maillard compounds, are produced, most of which may have a significant impact on the overall flavor of tequila. Exudates (agave juice) from a tequila company were collected periodically, and color, Brix, fructose concentration, and reducing sugars were determined as inulin breakdown took place. Maillard compounds were obtained by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2), and the extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. Increments in color, Brix, and reducing sugars were observed as a function of time, but a decrease in fructose concentration was found. Many Maillard compounds were identified in the exudates, including furans, pyrans, aldehydes, and nitrogen and sulfur compounds. The most abundant Maillard compounds were methyl-2-furoate, 2,3-dihydroxy-3,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. In addition, a series of short- and long-chain fatty acids was also found. A large number of the volatiles in A. tequilana Weber var. azul were also detected in tequila extracts, and most of these have been reported as a powerful odorants, responsible for the unique tequila flavor. PMID:11829648

  20. First isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype C, from the environment in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Callejas, A; Ordoñez, N; Rodriguez, M C; Castañeda, E

    1998-10-01

    The natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype B in the environment was established by Australian investigators who demonstrated its association with species of Eucalyptus. The aim of the present study was to search for the habitat of this variety in a city of Colombia, where clinical cases due to this variety occur with great frequency. For a period of 5 months detritus, vegetable material and air samples in and around 68 almond trees (Terminalia catappa) located in the city were studied. C. neoformans var. gattii serotype C was the only variety isolated from two of the 68 trees sampled. These trees were positive for 4 of the 5 months during which they were studied. From the first positive sample kept under refrigeration, it was possible to isolate the fungus up to 3 months later. This is the first report of the isolation of serotype C from the environment. More studies are required in order to establish the ecological significance of this finding. PMID:10075505

  1. Cloning, expression, and characterization of thermostable manganese superoxide dismutase from Thermoascus aurantiacus var. levisporus.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning-Ning; Zheng, Yan; E, Shi-Jin; Li, Duo-Chuan

    2009-02-01

    A superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene of Thermoascus aurantiacus var. levisporus, a thermophilic fungus, was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Pichia pastoris and its gene product was characterized. The coding sequence predicted a 231 residues protein with a unique 35 amino acids extension at the N-terminus indicating a mitochondrial-targeting sequence. The content of Mn was 2.46 microg/mg of protein and Fe was not detected in the purified enzyme. The enzyme was found to be inhibited by NaN(3), but not by KCN or H(2)O(2). These results suggested that the SOD in Thermoascus aurantiacus var. levisporus was the manganese superoxide dismutase type. In comparison with other MnSODs, all manganese-binding sites were also conserved in the sequence (H88, H136, D222, H226). The molecular mass of a single band of the enzyme was estimated to be 21.7 kDa. The protein was expressed in tetramer form with molecular weight of 68.0 kDa. The activity of purified protein was 2,324 U/mg. The optimum temperature of the enzyme was 55 degrees C and it exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.5. The enzyme was thermostable at 50 and 60 degrees C and the half-life at 80 degrees C was approximately 40 min. PMID:19229500

  2. Enhancement of Cadmium Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soils with Artemisia princeps var. orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, Yong Sik

    Phytoextraction using plants to remove toxic metals from the environment is an emerging technology for contaminated land remediation. The maximum efficiency of phytoextraction is controlled by the availability of metals in the soil. Plant availability of soil metals are often manipulated by additions of chelating agents. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the effects of chelator and ligands on phytoextraction of Cd from contaminated soils with an endemic plant, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis. Cadmium content in the plant was highest in (NH4)2SO4 treatment, but sulfur powder had little effect on Cd accumulation in the plant due to low buffering capacity of the soil and slow turnover rate of S° to SO42-. Cadmium content in the plant was slightly increased in oxalic acid and EDTA treatments by accompanying pH decrease in the soil. Phytoremediation Index (PI) increased in the order of control < sulfur powder (S°) < oxalic acid < (NH4)2SO4< EDTA treatments. In addition, Cd content in the plant showed the same trend with PI except for EDTA treatment. It could be postulated that EDTA addition should be avoided for the soil with high Cd availability as it might accelerate a continuous leaching of Cd-EDTA complexes from surface to subsoil during the phytoextraction. Overall results indicated that (NH4)2SO4 can be used to enhance Cd accumulation in the Artemisia princeps var. orientalis during phytoextraction.

  3. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  4. Multiyear climate prediction with initialization based on 4D-Var data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Masuda, Shuhei; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Awaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    An initialization relevant to interannual-to-decadal climate prediction has usually used a simple restoring approach for oceanic variables. Here we demonstrate the potential use of four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation on the leading edge of initialization approach particularly in multiyear (5 year long) climate prediction. We perform full-field initialization rather than anomaly initialization and assimilate the atmosphere states together with the ocean states to an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model. In particular, it is noteworthy that ensembles of multiyear hindcasts using our assimilation results as initial conditions exhibit an improved skill in hindcasting the multiyear changes of the upper ocean heat content (OHC) over the central North Pacific. The 4D-Var approach enables us to directly assimilate a time trajectory of slow changes of the Aleutian Low that are compatible with the sea surface height and the OHC. Consequently, we can estimate a coupled climate state suitable for hindcasting dynamical changes over the extratropical North Pacific as observed.

  5. Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, an edible wild plant in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sarac, Nurdan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The ethanolic extract of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, a wild edible plant in Anatolia was isolated, and its antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic properties were investigated. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by the inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, total AA, and phenolic compounds. The mutagenic and antimutagenic activities were investigated by Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test. Results: The IC50 value for DPPH radicals was 7.84 ± 0.603 mg/mL. The total AA increased with an increase in the concentration of the extracts (1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL), containing linoleic acid emulsion. The total phenolic content was 284.71 ± 5.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract. The results showed that the ethanolic extract can be considered safe, because it does not have any mutagenic effect at the tested concentrations. As a result, the ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibited antimutagenic effects at 2.5, 0.25, and 0.025 mg/plate concentrations. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study of the antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of T. longirostis var. longirostis. These activities are an important topic in the food industry, as well as in the medical field. PMID:26288475

  6. Thermal Death of Bacillus subtilis var. niger Spores on Selected Lander Capsule Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Paik, W. W.; Sherry, E. J.; Stern, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    Dry-heat sterilization of planetary lander capsules requires a knowledge of the thermal resistivity of microorganisms in the environment to which they will be subjected during sterilization of the space hardware. The dry-heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores on various lander capsule materials was determined at 125 C. Eight surface materials were evaluated, including a reference material, stainless steel. Survivor curves were computed, and decimal reduction times (D values) were obtained by a linear regression analysis. In four tests on stainless steel, the average value of D at 125 C was 17.07 min. The D values for the other seven materials tested ranged from 18.64 min on magnesium surfaces to 20.83 min on conversion-coated magnesium. Of the materials evaluated, the results indicate that there is only a significant difference in the thermal resistance of B. subtilis var. niger spores on conversion-coated magnesium and conversion-coated aluminum from that on the reference material, stainless steel. The differences in D values for all the test surfaces may be the result of variations in test procedures rather than the effect of the surfaces on the thermal resistivity of the spores. PMID:4391845

  7. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-07-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent. PMID:22605953

  8. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent. PMID:22605953

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura Extract on RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dong Ryun; Hwang, Jin-Ki; Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Kim, Min Seuk; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Seoung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura, known as "Gujulcho" in Korea, has been used in traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. However, these effects have not been tested on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells that regulate bone metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of C. zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura ethanol extract (CZE) on osteoclast differentiation induced by treatment with the receptor activator of NF- κ B ligand (RANKL). CZE inhibited osteoclast differentiation and formation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of CZE on osteoclastogenesis was due to the suppression of ERK activation and the ablation of RANKL-stimulated Ca(2+)-oscillation via the inactivation of PLC γ 2, followed by the inhibition of CREB activation. These inhibitory effects of CZE resulted in a significant repression of c-Fos expression and a subsequent reduction of NFATc1, a key transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation, fusion, and activation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that CZE negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various bone diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. PMID:24174976

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura Extract on RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Dong Ryun; Hwang, Jin-Ki; Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Seoung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura, known as “Gujulcho” in Korea, has been used in traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. However, these effects have not been tested on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells that regulate bone metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of C. zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura ethanol extract (CZE) on osteoclast differentiation induced by treatment with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). CZE inhibited osteoclast differentiation and formation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of CZE on osteoclastogenesis was due to the suppression of ERK activation and the ablation of RANKL-stimulated Ca2+-oscillation via the inactivation of PLCγ2, followed by the inhibition of CREB activation. These inhibitory effects of CZE resulted in a significant repression of c-Fos expression and a subsequent reduction of NFATc1, a key transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation, fusion, and activation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that CZE negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various bone diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. PMID:24174976

  11. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  12. Steroidal saponins with antimicrobial activity from stems and leaves of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Sun, Dong-Jie; Ni, Wei; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Hua, Yan; He, Li; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2012-10-01

    Rhizoma Paridis, the root of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Trilliaceae), is a Chinese traditional medicine, which resources become less and less. However, the aerial parts of this herb, which can regenerate every year, were discarded. In order to expand the resources, detailed chemical investigation on the stems and leaves of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis led to isolation of one sapogenin and 24 steroidal saponins (1-25), including 6 new glycosides, named chonglouosides SL-1-SL-6 (1-6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed analyses of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra and acid hydrolysis. Among them, compounds 3 and 4 are the first 23,27-dihydroxydiosgenin saponin having a sugar chain attached to C-23 or C-27, while compound 6 is the first 27-hydroxyruscogenin glycoside bearing 1, 27-di-O-sugar chains. The known compounds 10, 12, 14, 19, 20, 22, and 25 were isolated from the genus Paris for the first time. Antimicrobial testing activities of the selected compounds showed that compound 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17, 18, 21, and 24 were active against Propionibacterium acnes with MIC values of 62.5, 62.5, 3.9, 16.5, 17.2, 7.8, 39.0, 17.2, 31.3, 62.5, and 31.3 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:22846376

  13. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation. PMID:25491336

  14. Allelopathy of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa on the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Hassani, D; Cheng, Z W; Wang, C Y; Wu, J

    2014-01-01

    Five gradient concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/mL) of leaching liquors from the roots, stems, and leaves of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa were used as conditioning fluid to examine its influence on seed germination conditions of the native plant Geum japonicum var. chinense in Huangshan. All leaching liquors of organs suppressed the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense and reduced the final germination percentage and rate, and increased the germination inhibition rate, with a bimodal dependence on concentration. The leaching liquor inhibited the seed germination significantly at the concentration of 0.02 g/mL respectively. The seed germination was also inhibited as the concentration reached to 0.04 g/mL and beyond. Hence the allelopathic effects of the organs were significantly enhanced respectively. This phenomenon represented the presence of allelopathy substances in the root, stem and leaf of Bidens frondosa. PMID:25511044

  15. Mutations in SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION1, a Factor Required for Normal Chloroplast Translation, Suppress var2-Mediated Leaf Variegation in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Liu, Xiayan; Alsheikh, Muath; Park, Sungsoon; Rodermel, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana yellow variegated2 (var2) mutant is variegated due to lack of a chloroplast FtsH-like metalloprotease (FtsH2/VAR2). We have generated suppressors of var2 variegation to gain insight into factors and pathways that interact with VAR2 during chloroplast biogenesis. Here, we describe two such suppressors. Suppression of variegation in the first line, TAG-FN, was caused by disruption of the nuclear gene (SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION1 [SVR1]) for a chloroplast-localized homolog of pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase, which isomerizes uridine to Ψ in noncoding RNAs. svr1 single mutants were epistatic to var2, and they displayed a phenotypic syndrome that included defects in chloroplast rRNA processing, reduced chloroplast translation, reduced chloroplast protein accumulation, and elevated chloroplast mRNA levels. In the second line (TAG-IE), suppression of variegation was caused by a lesion in SVR2, the gene for the ClpR1 subunit of the chloroplast ClpP/R protease. Like svr1, svr2 was epistatic to var2, and clpR1 mutants had a phenotype that resembled svr1. We propose that an impairment of chloroplast translation in TAG-FN and TAG-IE decreased the demand for VAR2 activity during chloroplast biogenesis and that this resulted in the suppression of var2 variegation. Consistent with this hypothesis, var2 variegation was repressed by chemical inhibitors of chloroplast translation. In planta mutagenesis revealed that SVR1 not only played a role in uridine isomerization but that its physical presence was necessary for proper chloroplast rRNA processing. Our data indicate that defects in chloroplast rRNA processing are a common, but not universal, molecular phenotype associated with suppression of var2 variegation. PMID:18599582

  16. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    PubMed

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion; Smith, Joseph D; Pagano, Ian S; Ako, Simon; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4)SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+)) and those without (PM(-)) at delivery. Results showed that PM(-) women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047) and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009) than PM(+) women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI) and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9) and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0) reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria. PMID:22761948

  17. [Distribution pattern of Rhododendron aganniphum var. schizopeplum population at the timberline of Sejila Mountains, Tibet of China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi-Qiang; Luo, Da-Qing; Lu, Jie; Ma, He-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Rhododendron aganniphum var. schizopeplum grows at the elevation of 4300-4500 m in Sejila Mountains, being a dominant species of shrub layer at the timberline of southeast Tibet. Based on the sampling plot investigation and basal diameter structure analysis, this paper studied the distribution pattern of R. aganniphum var. schizopeplum population at the timberline of Sejila Mountains. With the increase of altitude, the population density of R. aganniphum var. schizopeplum increased, but the population height decreased. At the same altitudes, the population density on the shady slope was larger than that on the sunny slope, while the basal diameter was smaller. On the two slope directions, the distribution of the basal diameter classes of the population appeared as "(see text for symbol)" shape, i. e., middle-aged individuals were more, while seedlings and saplings were relatively less. The intraspecific competition of R. aganniphum var. schizopeplum population was in the form of wave, being stronger on shady slope than on sunny slope, and existing self-thinning. PMID:24015551

  18. FIRST REPORT OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF CAULIFLOWER (BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. BOTRYTIS) CAUSED BY PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. ALISALENSIS IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel bacterial blight commercial romanesca (green) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) was seen for the first time in coastal California in 2005. Koch’s postulates were completed and the etiology of the pathogen was determined. Characterization showed that pathogen was Pseudomonas syrin...

  19. FIRST REPORT OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF RUTABAGA (BRASSICA NAPUS VAR. NAPOBRASSICA) CAUSED BY PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. ALISALENSIS IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel bacterial blight on commercial organically grown rutabaga (Brassica napus var. napobrassica) was seen for the first time in coastal California in 2005. Koch’s postulates were completed and the etiology of the pathogen was elucidated. Characterization showed that pathogen was Pseudomonas syri...

  20. Molecular-marker characterization of strawberry differential genotypes for race determination of isolates of Phytophthora fragariae var.fragariae Hickman

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten Fragaria L. (strawberry) differentials for race determination of isolates of Phytophthora fragariae C.J. Hickman var. fragariae, the causal organism of red stele root rot disease, were molecularly characterized with previously published polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based sequence-characterize...

  1. Antiparasitic and antimicrobial indolizidines from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var glandulosa from Nevada and Texas USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new indolizidine alkaloid, named (Delta) 1,6-juliprosopine (1), together with previously known indolizidine analogs (2-6), was isolated from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa, collected from Nevada, USA; while two other known indolizidines juliprosopine (6) and juliprosine (7) were...

  2. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  3. Synthesis and disproof of the structure proposed for the tetrahydrofuranol isolated from Michelia compressa var. lanyuensis (Magnoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The previously proposed structure for a tetrahydrofuranol isolated from the leaves of Michelia compressa var. lanyuensis (Magnoliaceae) was synthesised in an enantiopure form using diethyl D-tartarate as the starting material. The synthetic sample showed spectroscopic data incompatible with those for the natural product and thus unequivocally disproved the previously assigned structure. PMID:26732234

  4. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  5. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  6. Microsatellite Typing of Clinical and Environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii Isolates from Cuba Shows Multiple Genetic Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Illnait-Zaragozi, Maria-Teresa; Martínez-Machín, Gerardo F.; Fernández-Andreu, Carlos M.; Boekhout, Teun; Meis, Jacques F.; Klaassen, Corné H. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Human cryptococcal infections have been associated with bird droppings as a likely source of infection. Studies toward the local and global epidemiology of Cryptococcus spp. have been hampered by the lack of rapid, discriminatory, and exchangeable molecular typing methods. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected nine microsatellite markers for high-resolution fingerprinting from the genome of C. neoformans var. grubii. This panel of markers was applied to a collection of clinical (n = 122) and environmental (n = 68; from pigeon guano) C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba. All markers proved to be polymorphic. The average number of alleles per marker was 9 (range 5–51). A total of 104 genotypes could be distinguished. The discriminatory power of this panel of markers was 0.993. Multiple clusters of related genotypes could be discriminated that differed in only one or two microsatellite markers. These clusters were assigned as microsatellite complexes. The majority of environmental isolates (>70%) fell into 1 microsatellite complex containing only few clinical isolates (49 environmental versus 2 clinical). Clinical isolates were segregated over multiple microsatellite complexes. Conclusions/Significance A large genotypic variation exists in C. neoformans var. grubii. The genotypic segregation between clinical and environmental isolates from pigeon guano suggests additional source(s) of human cryptococcal infections. The selected panel of microsatellite markers is an excellent tool to study the epidemiology of C. neoformans var. grubii. PMID:20161737

  7. Application of a detached leaf assay to evaluate resistance to Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella contributes to the Ascochyta blight complex of pea. Fall-sown peas are exposed to cool moist conditions in the spring which are favorable for development of the disease. Thirty-five registered cultivars, and breeding lines were evaluated for disease development based...

  8. Diversity, virulence and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol sensitivity of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici isolates from Washington State.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens buildup in soils that have undergone continuous wheat or barley monoculture, resulting in take-all decline (TAD). We tested whether Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) isolates (causal agent of take-all) in mon...

  9. The Effect of Dose Size on Bioavailability of Acylated and Nonacylated Anthocyanins from Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies indicate that anthocyanin (ACN) intake conveys a variety of health benefits, which depend on absorption and metabolic mechanisms that deliver ACNs and their bioactive metabolites to responsive tissues. We evaluated red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) ACN bioavailability a...

  10. A new diterpenoid and a new triterpenoid glucosyl ester from the leaves of Callicarpa japonica Thunb. var. luxurians Rehd.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masateru; Chikuba, Tomoyo; Mishima, Kenji; Yamasaki, Toru; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2009-07-01

    A new abietane-type diterpenoid and a new oleanane-type triterpenoid glucosyl ester were isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa japonica Thunb. var. luxurians Rehd. (Verbenaceae) along with 11 known compounds, comprising seven triterpenoids, two sterols, a flavonoid, and an aliphatic glycoside. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. PMID:19184273

  11. Gene flow analysis demonstrates that Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi constitutes a distinct species, Phytophthora rubi comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Man in 't Veld, Willem A

    2007-01-01

    Isozyme analysis and cytochrome oxidase sequences were used to examine whether differentiation of P. fragariae var. fragariae and P. fragariae var. rubi at the variety level is justified. In isozyme studies six strains of both P. fragariae varieties were analyzed with malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), aconitase (ACO), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), comprising altogether seven putative loci. Five unique alleles (Mdh-1(A), Mdh-2(B), Gpi(A), Aco(B) and Idh-1(B)) were found in strains of P. fragariae var. fragariae, whereas five unique alleles (Mdh-1(B), Mdh-2(A), Gpi(B), Aco(A) and Idh-1(A)) were present in strains of P. fragariae var. rubi. It was inferred from these data that there is no gene flow between the two P. fragariae varieties. Cytochrome oxidase I (Cox I) sequences showed consistent differences at 15 positions between strains of Fragaria and Rubus respectively. Based on isozyme data, cytochrome oxidase I sequences, and previously published differences in restyriction enzyme patterns of mitochondrial DNA, sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, AFLP patterns and pathogenicity, it was concluded that both specific pathogenic varieties of P. fragariae are reproductively isolated and constitute a distinct species. Consequently strains isolated from Rubus idaeus are assigned to Phytophthora rubi comb. nov. PMID:17682774

  12. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Differential Responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to Simulated Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Simon, Martin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive) and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant) are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species. PMID:24625662

  13. Epidemics of ray blight on pyrethrum are linked to seed contamination and overwintering inoculum of Phoma ligulicola var. inoxydabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ray blight, caused by Stagonosporopsis ligulicola var. inoxydablis, is the most damaging disease of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) in Australia. Data collected from 72 plots in commercial pyrethrum fields since 2001 to 2009 revealed substantial annual variations in isolation frequency of the...

  14. First report of bacterial blight of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in Monterey County, California in 2006. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomon...

  15. First report of downy mildew disease caused by Plasmopara halstedii on the native Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton var. speciosa (Wender.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The showy black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton var. speciosa (Wender.) is an important perennial wildflower native to the Northeast and Midwest regions of the United States. Besides its aesthetic value in the landscape, this native plant attracts pollinators and provides seeds for birds during t...

  16. A single member of the Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family determines cytoadhesion to the placental receptor chondroitin sulphate A

    PubMed Central

    Viebig, Nicola K; Gamain, Benoit; Scheidig, Christine; Lépolard, Catherine; Przyborski, Jude; Lanzer, Michael; Gysin, Jürg; Scherf, Artur

    2005-01-01

    In high-transmission regions, protective clinical immunity to Plasmodium falciparum develops during the early years of life, limiting serious complications of malaria in young children. Pregnant women are an exception and are especially susceptible to severe P. falciparum infections resulting from the massive adhesion of parasitized erythrocytes to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) present on placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Epidemiological studies strongly support the feasibility of an intervention strategy to protect pregnant women from disease. However, different parasite molecules have been associated with adhesion to CSA. In this work, we show that disruption of the var2csa gene of P. falciparum results in the inability of parasites to recover the CSA-binding phenotype. This gene is a member of the var multigene family and was previously shown to be composed of domains that mediate binding to CSA. Our results show the central role of var2CSA in CSA adhesion and support var2CSA as a leading vaccine candidate aimed at protecting pregnant women and their fetuses. PMID:16025132

  17. Transcriptome analysis and identification of genes associated with ¿-3 fatty acid biosynthesis in Perilla frutescens (L.) var. frutescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) var frutescens) produces high levels of a-linolenic acid (ALA), a '-3 fatty acid important to health and development. To uncover key genes involved in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in perilla, we conducted deep sequencing of cDNAs f...

  18. The epidemiology and mating behavior of Arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the household hedgehog and other rodents was made between January 17, 2002 and February 28, 2002 in Japan. Quills and hairs were collected from sources identified via the internet. The fungus was isolated only from the quills of four-toed hedgehogs (7/18; 39%) from Kanto to Kyushu regions. Isolates were examined morphologically, physiologically and genetically, and identified as T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph. The isolates were also genetically compared with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus)-borne T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei and Kenyan hedgehog (Aterelix albiventris)-borne Arthroderma benhamiae, and their genotypes of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA were all identical. The isolates were crossed with A. benhamiae Americano-European race and African race, A. vanbreuseghemii and A. simii, with the result that they mated only with African race (+) or (-). Mating types of the isolates were (+) in 6 isolates and (-) in one. An intra-isolate mating between one of the 6 plus isolates and the minus one formed abundant mature gymnothesia, the mating type ratio of the F1 progeny was approximately 1:1, and the sib crossings of F1 progeny produced abundant fertile gymnothesia. The present study revealed that the intra-Japanese hedgehog-borne isolate crossing showed complete fertility and that the sexual degeneration pointed out by Takashio (Mycologia 71: 968-976, 1979) did not exist. Two pairs of mating, (+) and (-) mating types of Japanese isolates with (-) and (+) tester strains of A. benhamiae African race formed less gymnothesia, mating type ratios were unbalanced, and sib crossings of F1 progeny produced small gymnothesia containing a low number of asci, pseudogymothesia, or none, respectively. These results show that A. benhamiae var. erinacei, the teleomorph of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei, belongs to a different mating group (e.g. hedgehog race) than the Americano-European and

  19. DC8 and DC13 var Genes Associated with Severe Malaria Bind Avidly to Diverse Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marion; Brazier, Andrew J.; Melcher, Martin; Sampath, Sowmya; Smith, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    During blood stage infection, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) bind to host blood vessels. This virulence determinant enables parasites to evade spleen-dependent killing mechanisms, but paradoxically in some cases may reduce parasite fitness by killing the host. Adhesion of infected erythrocytes is mediated by P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a family of polymorphic adhesion proteins encoded by var genes. Whereas cerebral binding and severe malaria are associated with parasites expressing DC8 and DC13 var genes, relatively little is known about the non-brain endothelial selection on severe malaria adhesive types. In this study, we selected P. falciparum-IEs on diverse endothelial cell types and demonstrate that DC8 and DC13 var genes were consistently among the major var transcripts selected on non-brain endothelial cells (lung, heart, bone marrow). To investigate the molecular basis for this avid endothelial binding activity, recombinant proteins were expressed from the predominant upregulated DC8 transcript, IT4var19. In-depth binding comparisons revealed that multiple extracellular domains from this protein bound brain and non-brain endothelial cells, and individual domains largely did not discriminate between different endothelial cell types. Additionally, we found that recombinant DC8 and DC13 CIDR1 domains exhibited a widespread endothelial binding activity and could compete for DC8-IE binding to brain endothelial cells, suggesting they may bind the same host receptor. Our findings provide new insights into the interaction of severe malaria adhesive types and host blood vessels and support the hypothesis that parasites causing severe malaria express PfEMP1 variants with a superior ability to adhere to diverse endothelial cell types, and may therefore endow these parasites with a growth and transmission advantage. PMID:23825944

  20. Processes of late Quaternary turbidity current flow and deposition on the Var deep sea fan, northwest Mediterranean sea

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, D. ); Savoye, B. )

    1993-09-01

    Late Quaternary sedimentation patterns on the Var deep-sea fan are known from high-resolution seismic boomer profiles (vertical resolution < 1 m), piston cores, SAR side-scan sonargraphs, and submersible dives. Foram biostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating provide chronologic control that is seismically correlated across the fan. Regional erosional events correspond to the isotopic state 2 and 6 glacial maxima. A widespread surface sand layer was deposited from the 1979 turbidity current, which broke two submarine cables. Numerical modeling constrains its character. A small slide on the upper prodelta developed into an accelerating turbidity current, which eroded sand from the Var canyon. The current was 30 m thick in the upper valley, expanding downflow to >120 m, where it spilled over the eastern Var sedimentary ridge at a velocity of 2.5 ms[sup [minus]1]. Other Holocene turbidity currents (with a 103-yr recurrence interval) were muddier and thicker, but also deposited sand on middle fan-valley levees and are inferred to have had a similar slide-related origin. Late Pleistocene turbidity currents deposited on the high Var sedimentary ridge. The presence of sediment waves and the cross-flow slope inferred from levee asymmetry indicate that some flow were hundreds of meters thick, with velocities of 0.35 ms[sup [minus]1]. Estimated times for deposition of thick levee mud beds are many days or weeks. Late Pleistocene flows therefore are interpreted to result from hyperpycnal flow of glacial outwash in the Var River. Variation in late Pleistocene-Holocene turbidite sedimentation thus is controlled more by changes in sediment supply than by sea level.

  1. Characterization of the bacterial flora associated with root systems of Pinus contorta var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Dangerfield, J A; Westlake, D W; Cook, F D

    1978-12-01

    Root systems of young and mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Englem.) were removed from forest stands and the associated aerobic bacterial flora isolated. Characterization of rhizoplane and control soil isolates from these tree root systems demonstrated differences from that reported for agricultural crops. Ammonifying, proteolytic, and amylolytic organisms were proportionately reduced within the rhizoplane. The rhizoplane organisms grew more slowly than the control soil isolates, although they responded in greater numbers to the addition of an amino acid supplement to the growth media. The rhizoplane organisms also showed an increased ability to solubilize phosphate. The chitinolytic organisms were suppressed within the rhizoplane of the mature tree but were stimulated by the young trees. With this exception, the rhizoplane microflora of older and younger trees were similar. PMID:747813

  2. Inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Bento, C S; Rodrigues, R; Gonçalves, L S A; Oliveira, H S; Santos, M H; Pontes, M C; Sudré, C P

    2013-01-01

    We investigated inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV) in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum accessions UENF 1616 (susceptible) crossed with UENF 1732 (resistant). Plants from generations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1:1, and BC1:2 were inoculated and the symptoms were evaluated for 25 days. Subsequently, an area under the disease progress curve was calculated and subjected to generation means analysis. Only the average and epistatic effects were significant. The broad and narrow sense heritability estimates were 35.52 and 21.79%, respectively. The estimate of the minimum number of genes that control resistance was 7, indicating that resistance is polygenic and complex. Thus, methods to produce segregant populations that advocate selection in more advanced generations would be the most appropriate to produce chili pepper cultivars resistant to PepYMV. PMID:23661433

  3. Influence of microstructural purity on the bending fatigue behavior of VAR-melted superelastic Nitinol.

    PubMed

    Launey, Maximilien; Robertson, Scott W; Vien, Lot; Senthilnathan, Karthikeyan; Chintapalli, Prashanth; Pelton, Alan R

    2014-06-01

    The bending fatigue resistance of commercially-available Standard versus High Purity Nitinol was evaluated at 3% mean strain and a range of strain amplitudes with the simple wire Z-specimen geometry. The Standard grade Nitinol demonstrated a 10(7)-cycle fatigue strain limit of 0.50% alternating strain, comparable to results reported elsewhere in the literature. Conversely, the High Purity grade VAR Nitinol demonstrated a 5-fold improvement in fatigue resistance with an impressive 10(7)-cycle fatigue strain limit of 2.5% alternating strain. The High Purity Nitinol has an oxygen+nitrogen content of 60wppm, maximum wrought-material inclusion length of 17µm, and inclusion volume fraction of 0.28%, all substantially less than industry standards. With all processing variables held constant except for inclusion content, it is clear that this marked fatigue superiority is due exclusively to the reduction in both size and area fraction of inclusions. PMID:24603214

  4. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  5. Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis refractory to ivermectin treatment in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuri; Murayama, Nobuo; Ikemura, Hiroshi; Morita, Tatsushi; Nagata, Masahiko

    2010-12-01

    A 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu presented with severe generalized pruritus. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. A Yorkshire terrier in the same household simultaneously developed pruritus due to scabies. Both dogs were treated with 300 μg/kg ivermectin, at first orally and then subcutaneously at 14 day intervals. However, live mites were still found on day 35, and the skin condition deteriorated in both dogs. These findings suggested that the S. scabiei in these dogs was clinically refractory to ivermectin. The pruritus in both dogs rapidly and completely disappeared following topical fipronil administration. This appears to be the first report of canine scabies refractory to ivermectin treatment. PMID:20880016

  6. Seroprevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei var canis antibodies among aborigines in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Normaznah, Y; Saniah, K; Nazma, M; Mak, J W; Krishnasamy, M; Hakim, S L

    1996-03-01

    The Aborigines or Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia who are still seminomadic are known to have a close association with dogs. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect anti-Sarcoptes scabiei var canis antibodies in this community as a measure of exposure to the mite. Out of 312 Orang Asli tested, 24.7% were positive for polyvalent anti-Sarcoptes antibodies. No significant difference was found between the positive rates in males (26.1%) and females (23.6%). Only 1.9% were positive for IgA and none was positive for IgE anti-Sarcoptes antibodies. Since there were very few patients with clinical manifestation of scabies, there is a possibility that continuous exposure to the dogs mite confers cross-protective immunity in the community against human scabies. PMID:9031401

  7. Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhajhoj, Hassan

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR), Impulse Response Function (IFR) and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides of cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace.

    PubMed

    Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jarosław; Mieszczakowska, Monika; Ginies, Christian; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2009-12-01

    The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic acid was the main pectin component of alcohol insoluble solids. Enzymes used as juice processing aids decreased the content of uronic acid. Araban and galactan side chains bonded tightly to cellulose presence was suggested by high content of arabinose and galactose in hemicellulose fraction. The process of drying at below 70 degrees C did not influence polysaccharide composition of sour cherry pomaces. Alcohol insoluble solids of fruits expressed higher hydration properties than of pomaces. PMID:19757068

  9. Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan

    2007-07-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  10. Studies on the phenylethanoid glycosides with anti-complement activity from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood.

    PubMed

    Si, Chuan-Ling; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Zhong; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Four epimeric phenylethanoid glycosides, including a new one, R,S-beta-ethoxy-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside named isoilicifolioside A (1), and three known compounds, ilicifolioside A (2), campneoside II (3), and isocampneoside II (4), were isolated from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood. The structures of the four compounds were elucidated by the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectra. This is the first report of the chemical profile of this tree. Compounds 1-4 exhibited excellent anti-complement activity with IC(50) values less than 74 microM, compared with tiliroside (IC(50) = 104 microM) and rosmarinic acid (IC(50) = 182 microM) that were used as positive controls. PMID:19031237

  11. Protective Effect of Anthocyanin from Lonicera Caerulea var. Edulis on Radiation-Induced Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haitian; Wang, Zhenyu; Ma, Fengming; Yang, Xin; Cheng, Cuilin; Yao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of anthocyanin extracted from Lonicera caerulea var. edulis (ALC), was studied in ICR mice. Different doses of ALC were intragastrically administered to mice once a day, prior to radiation. After two weeks, the mice received a one-time 5 Gy whole body 60Coγ radiation. The spleen index, thymus index, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and glutathione (GSH) content in liver tissue were measured. Compared with the radiation control group, the levels of MDA in all ALC treated groups decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Moreover, the GSH content, activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver tissue were enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) in all ALC groups. These results demonstrate that ALC may be a potential radioprotector, and a further study of the molecular mechanism is needed for further application. PMID:23109882

  12. Protective effect of anthocyanin from Lonicera Caerulea var. Edulis on radiation-induced damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haitian; Wang, Zhenyu; Ma, Fengming; Yang, Xin; Cheng, Cuilin; Yao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of anthocyanin extracted from Lonicera caerulea var. edulis (ALC), was studied in ICR mice. Different doses of ALC were intragastrically administered to mice once a day, prior to radiation. After two weeks, the mice received a one-time 5 Gy whole body (60)Coγ radiation. The spleen index, thymus index, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and glutathione (GSH) content in liver tissue were measured. Compared with the radiation control group, the levels of MDA in all ALC treated groups decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Moreover, the GSH content, activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver tissue were enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) in all ALC groups. These results demonstrate that ALC may be a potential radioprotector, and a further study of the molecular mechanism is needed for further application. PMID:23109882

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Antiangiogenic Activity of Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum).

    PubMed

    Bae, Hong-Sook; Kim, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Da Hye; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Jun, Mira; Kim, Oh-Yoen; Kim, Sun Wook; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon

    2016-04-01

    Crowberry, Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum, is widely used in folk medicine and grows naturally in Korea. Although some constituents and biological activity of Korean crowberry have been examined, there is little detailed information available. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of crowberry (EECB) on the inhibition of angiogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. The effects of EECB were tested on in vitro models of angiogenesis, that is, tube formation and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). EECB exhibited significant inhibitory effects on tube formation of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, crowberry significantly suppressed the proliferation of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, strong antiangiogenic activity of EECB samples was observed in the in vivo assay using chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). These results indicate that crowberry may have potential applications in the prevention and treatment of angiogenesis-dependent human diseases. PMID:27396205

  14. Retention for Stoploss reinsurance to minimize VaR in compound Poisson-Lognormal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleh, Achmad Zanbar; Noviyanti, Lienda; Nurrahmawati, Irma

    2015-12-01

    Automobile insurance is one of the emerging general insurance's product in Indonesia. Fluctuation in total premium revenues and total claim expenses leads to a risk that insurance company can not be able to pay consumer's claims, thus reinsurance is needeed. Reinsurance is a risk transfer mechanism from the insurance company to another company called reinsurer, one of the reinsurance type is Stoploss. Because reinsurer charges premium to the insurance company, it is important to determine the retention or the total claims to be retain solely by the insurance company. Thus, retention is determined using Value at Risk (VaR) which minimize the total risk of the insurance company in the presence of Stoploss reinsurance. Retention depends only on the distribution of total claims and reinsurance loading factor. We use the compound Poisson distribution and the Log-Normal Distribution to illustrate the retention value in a collective risk model.

  15. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25620234

  16. Aromatic Constituents from the Stems of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. Mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jia; Li, Jian; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yanxia; Ruan, Jingya; Dong, Yongzhe; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Four new aromatic constituents, astraflavonoids A (1), B (2), C (3), and astramemoside A (4), along with sixteen known ones 5-20 were obtained from the stems of A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Among the known isolates, 14 was obtained from the Astragalus genus for the first time, while 7-12, 18-20 were isolated from the species for the first time. The effects of the compounds obtained from the plant on glucose consumption were analyzed in differentiated L6 myotubes in vitro, whereby compounds 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15 and 18 displayed significant promoting effects on glucose consumption in L6 myotubes. Among them, the activities of 1, 2 and 7 were comparable to that of insulin, which suggested that these compounds may be involved in glucose metabolism and transport. PMID:26999087

  17. Characterization of Inclusions in VIM/VAR NiTi Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coda, A.; Zilio, S.; Norwich, D.; Sczerzenie, F.

    2012-12-01

    Inclusions content is important for the mechanical behavior and performances of NiTi-based products particularly in fatigue-rated devices. Higher inclusions content has been correlated to reductions in transformation temperatures and strain recovery under mechanical or thermo-mechanical cycling. Moreover, most fatigue fractures show inclusions at the initiation site. However, there is a general lack of information on the nature and characteristics of such inclusions, especially those typically recognized as intermetallics oxides. In this study, the common scanning electron microscopy technique has been used to investigate the chemistry and morphology of inclusions in commercial standard VIM/VAR binary NiTi alloys. The defined experimental procedure, results, and their significance will be presented and discussed.

  18. Lignans and triterpenoids from Vitex negundo var. heterophylla and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Li, Da-Hong; Hu, Xu; Li, Sheng-Ge; Sai, Chun-Mei; Sun, Xiao-Cong; Su, Tong; Bai, Jiao; Wang, Zi-Hou; Li, Zhan-Lin; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Three new phenylnaphthalene-type lignans, vitexnegheteroins E-G (1-3), and a new polyoxygenated ursane-type triterpene, vitexnegheteroin H (9), were isolated from the seeds of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, together with ten known compounds. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments, as well as their mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing their experimental ECD spectra with that calculated by the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method. The isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines, inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in murine microglial BV-2 cells, and antioxidant activities for ABTS radical scavenging. PMID:27118321

  19. Essential oil yield and chemical composition changes during leaf ontogeny of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii var. motia).

    PubMed

    Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara; Rajput, Dharmendra K; Patel, Rajendra P; Purnanand, Somasi

    2010-12-01

    Changes in leaf biomass yield, essential oil yield, and chemical composition were investigated during leaf ontogeny of palmarosa {Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. var. motia Burk., family Poaceae}. Eleven leaves representing different developmental stages, serially numbered from the apex to the base of the plant were utilized for the study. Leaf biomass yield increased up to the eighth leaf. Essential oil recovery increased up to the third leaf; thereafter it decreased. Minimum essential oil recovery was observed in the eleventh leaf. Essential oil yield/leaf increased up to the sixth leaf. Essential oil yield and concentrations of linalool, alpha-terpineol, geranyl isobutyrate and geraniol were relatively higher in the essential oils of mature, older leaves. Essential oil recovery, and percentages of myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, geranyl acetate, (E,Z) farnesol and geranyl hexanoate were higher in the essential oils of young, expanding leaves. PMID:21299128

  20. Colorless Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Florets of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25620234

  1. Chemical constituents of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ka-Li; Li, Xian; Ye, Ji; Lu, Lu; Xu, Xi-Ke; Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Shen, Yun-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Two new flavan derivatives tazettones C-D (1-2), one new β-coumaranone (tazettone E, 3), one new flavan (tazettone F, 4), and one new phenylpropanoid (tazettone G, 5), together with six known flavonoids (6-11), were isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structures of 1-3 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All isolated compounds were tested for antioxidant activity by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Compounds 6-8 and 10-11 exhibited potent antioxidant activity against H2O2-induced impairment in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells at tested concentrations. PMID:27476617

  2. A performance comparison of static VAr compensator based on Goertzel and FFT algorithm and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Kececioglu, O Fatih; Gani, Ahmet; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to introduce a new approach for measuring and calculation of fundamental power components in the case of various distorted waveforms including those containing harmonics. The parameters of active, reactive, apparent power and power factor, are measured and calculated by using Goertzel algorithm instead of fast Fourier transformation which is commonly used. The main advantage of utilizing Goertzel algorithm is to minimize computational load and trigonometric equations. The parameters measured in the new technique are applied to a fixed capacitor-thyristor controlled reactor based static VAr compensation system to achieve accurate power factor correction for the first time. This study is implemented both simulation and experimentally. PMID:27047717

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis control of synanthropic mites (Acari: Acaridida) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Nesvorna, Marta; Erbanova, Michaela; Hubert, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins present a potential for control of pest mites. Information concerning the effect of Bt and its possible application to the biocontrol of synathropic mites is rare. The toxic effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis producing Cry3A toxin was tested on the mites Acarus siro L., Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, and Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) via feeding tests. Fifty mites were reared on Bt additive diets in concentrations that ranged from 0 to 100 mg g(-1) under optimal conditions for their development. After 21 days, the mites were counted and the final populations were analyzed using a polynomial regression model. The Bt diet suppressed population growth of the four mite species. The fitted doses of Bt for 50% suppression of population growth were diets ranging from 25 to 38 mg g(-1). There were no remarkable differences among species. Possible applications of Bt for the control of synanthropic mites are discussed. PMID:19381844

  4. Targeted metabolite analysis and biological activity of Pieris brassicae fed with Brassica rapa var. rapa.

    PubMed

    Pereira, David M; Noites, Alexandra; Valentão, Patricia; Ferreres, Federico; Pereira, José A; Vale-Silva, Luis; Pinto, Eugénia; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-01-28

    For the first time, an insect-plant system, Pieris brassicae fed with Brassica rapa var. rapa, was tested for its biological capacity, namely, antioxidant (DPPH*, *NO, and O(2)*- radicals) and antimicrobial (bacteria and fungi) activities. Samples from the insect's life cycle (larvae, excrements, exuviae, and butterfly) were always found to be more efficient than the host plant. Also, P. brassicae materials, as well as its host plant, were screened for phenolics and organic acids. The host plant revealed higher amounts of both compounds. Two phenolic acids, ferulic and sinapic, as well as kaempferol 3-Osophoroside, were common to insect (larvae and excrements) and plant materials, with excrements being considerably richer. Detection of sulfated compounds in excrements, absent in host plant, revealed that metabolic processes in this species involved sulfation. Additionally, deacylation and deglycosilation were observed. All matrices presented the same organic acids qualitative profile, with the exception of excrements. PMID:19115952

  5. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops. PMID:24599866

  6. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources for static var generation

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng |; Lai, Jih-Sheng; McKeever, J.; VanCoevering, J.

    1995-09-01

    A new multilevel voltage-source inverter with a separate dc sources is proposed for high-voltage, high-power applications, such as flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) including static var generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle as the number of levels increases. It can solve the problems of conventional transformer-based multipulse inverters and the problems of the multilevel diode-clamped inverter and the multilevel flying capacitor inverter. To demonstrate the superiority of the new inverter, a SVG system using the new inverter topology is discussed through analysis, simulation and experiment.

  7. [Spectrometric determination of trace elements in 'Jinguang' prunus mume var. bungo of different growth periods].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-lai; Fan, Wen-xiu; Gao, Qi-ming; Jing, Rui-jun; Lin, Zi-yu

    2005-07-01

    A study was carried out on the content of trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu of prunus mume var. bungo in different growth periods by WFX-110 atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated that the linear relationships of different elements within the limits of working curves are good and the range of the recovery is 98% -105%, hence showing that the results are satisfactory. The total content of these five trace elements increases as the fruit grows, but the concentration is related to the growth of fruit and fruit core, which provides us with valuable data. The contents of the trace elements essential to human body are relatively high, which shows that this fruit breed has a relatively high nutritive value. PMID:16241076

  8. Detection of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies.

    PubMed

    Ergin, C; Ilkit, M; Kaftanoglu, O

    2004-10-01

    The plant flora has an important role in the ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans. It is estimated that the environmental spreading and contamination of human beings with this yeast occurs via contaminated particles of plants. Cultivation of canopy parts of plants in selective media is the most widely used isolation method of this yeast. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii was isolated from honeybee colonies in Eucalyptus forests but was not isolated from the places where this flora did not exist. Our results indicate that the occurrence of C. neoformans in honeybee colonies during the flowering season of Eucalyptus spp. trees can be an important bioindicator for environmental yeast presence. The screening of honeybee colonies is a practical and a rapid method for the monitoring of the C. neoformans presence in flowering plants. PMID:15504129

  9. Agropyrenol and agropyrenal, phytotoxins from Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a fungal pathogen of Elitrigia repens.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Berestetskiy, Alexander; Troise, Ciro; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Motta, Andrea; Evidente, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    A strain of Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a fungal pathogen of the perennial weed Elytrigia repens, produced several toxins in a liquid medium, and its primary toxin, named agropyrenol, was characterized as a substituted salicylaldehyde on the basis of its chemical and spectroscopic properties. Its absolute stereochemistry was determined by Mosher's method. Two other minor metabolites were isolated from the same culture and named agropyrenal and agropyrenone, respectively. They were characterized as a trisubstituted naphthalene carbaldehyde and a pentasubstituted 3H-benzofuranone, respectively, using the same techniques. When assayed on leaves of several weed plants, i.e., Mercurialis annua, Chenopodium album and Setaria viridis, agropyrenol proved to be phytotoxic, causing the appearance of necrotic lesions, agropyrenal was less active, while agropyrenone was inactive. None of the compounds showed antibiotic, fungicidal or zootoxic activity. PMID:22525222

  10. Effects of point-source atmospheric pollution on boreal-forest vegetation of northwestern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasova, T.M.; Kovalev, B.I.; Filipchuk, A.N.

    1992-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution from the Noril'sk Mining-Metallurgical Complex, in the form of heavy metals and sulfur components, has resulted in damage to plant communities in the area. Vegetation on over 550,000 ha has been detrimentally affected by the pollution fallout, primarily sulfur dioxide. Forests (mainly Larix sibirica) and most lichens have been killed within a 300,000-ha zone around Noril'sk and extending about 50 km to the south and southeast. Less severe damage to lichens and vascular plants extends 170 km to the south and 80 km to the east of the pollution source consistent with prevailing winds during the period of plant growth. Terricolous lichens are particularly vulnerable to the pollution products and among vascular plants Larix gmelinii, Picea obovata, Ledum palustre, Calamagrostis sp., and Salix lanata show least resistance.

  11. Antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Dongmei; Chen, Liping; Yang, Xiuyan; Tu, Ya; Jiao, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Depressive order is one of the most common psychiatric diseases, and Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis has shown many bioactivities in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from T. ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the compositions of essential oil. The immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspending test (TST), and open field test (OFT) were used to evaluate the antidepressive effects of essential oil. Furthermore, chronic mild stress (CMS) rats were established, and contents of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron capture detector (HPLC-ECD). Western blotting was performed to investigate the effects of essential oil on the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein in rats' brain. The GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of essential oil were estragole (6.16 %), β-elemene (24.91 %), β-cubebene (14.29 %), and γ-elemene (8.05 %). The results from the FST and TST demonstrated that the immobility time could be significantly reduced by essential oil (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg), without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in the OFT. Additionally, the contents of DA, NE, 5-HT, and BDNF in the hippocampus of CMS rats could be increased by treatment with essential oil at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg. All these results suggested that essential oil could be considered as a new candidate for curing depressive disorders. PMID:25465853

  12. Distribution and baseline values of trace elements in the sediment of Var River catchment, Southeast France.

    PubMed

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Michèl, Hervé; Funel, Geneviève Barci; Féraud, Gilbert

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on the determination of trace element (TE)-Li, As, Co, Cs, Cu, Pb, U, and Zn-and major element (ME)-Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Mn, Na, and K-concentrations in 18 riverbed sediments and a sediment core from the Var River catchment using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were compared with those of a reference sediment core, and the contribution of clay and organic carbon contents in the distribution of TE and ME in the sediment samples was investigated. The mean concentrations of the ME were comparable in both core and riverbed samples and were within the natural averages. In the case of TE, the concentrations were lower in riverbed sediment samples than those found in the sediment core. High mean concentration of As was observed (7.6 μg g(-1)) in both core and riverbed sediments, relatively higher than the worldwide reported values. The obtained data indicated that the natural high level of arsenic might be originated from the parent rocks, especially metamorphic rocks surrounding granites and from Permian sediments. Statistical approach, viz., Pearson correlation matrix, was applied to better understand the correlation among TE in both riverbed and sediment core samples. No significant metallic contamination was detected in the low Var valley despite of the localization of several industrial facilities. Therefore, results confirm that the concentrations of the TE obtained in the riverbed sediments could be considered as a baseline guide for future pollution monitoring program. PMID:25139237

  13. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus gene expression & replication by crude destruxins from Metarhizium anisopliae var. dcjhyium

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Cong; Yu, Jiuru; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Changjin

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Destruxin A, destruxin B and destruxin E isolated from entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae showed a strong suppressive effect on the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in human hepatoma cells. In this study, the anti-HBV effects of the crude destruxins extracted from M. anisopliae var. dcjhyium were detected both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: HepG2.2.15 cells were cultured to observe the inhibitory effects of the crude destruxins on the gene expression and replication of HBV by radioimmunoassay detection and real-time quantitative PCR. In vivo, duck HBV (DHBV)-infected ducks were treated with the crude destruxins at 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 μg/kg once a day for 15 days, DHBV DNA was examined by real-time quantitative PCR. Results: The crude destruxins suppressed the replication of HBV-DNA and the production of HBsAg and HBeAg with IC50 of about 1.2 and 1.4 μg/ml. Transcript of viral mRNA was significantly suppressed by the crude destruxins in HepG2.2.15 cells. In vivo, the duck serum DHBV-DNA levels were markedly reduced in the group of the crude destruxins. Interpretation & conclusions: The crude destruxins inhibited the gene expression and replication of HBV both in vitro and in vivo, and their anti-HBV effect was stronger than that with destruxin B. Our results indicate that the crude destruxins from M.anisopliae var. dcjhyium may be potential antivirus agents. Further studies need to be done to confirm these findings. PMID:24521644

  14. The Drosophila Su(var)3–7 Gene Is Required for Oogenesis and Female Fertility, Genetically Interacts with piwi and aubergine, but Impacts Only Weakly Transposon Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Begeot, Flora; Koryakov, Dmitry E.; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Vieira, Cristina; Spierer, Pierre; Delattre, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is made of repetitive sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs), the regulation of which is critical for genome stability. We have analyzed the role of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3–7 protein in Drosophila ovaries. We present evidences that Su(var)3–7 is required for correct oogenesis and female fertility. It accumulates in heterochromatic domains of ovarian germline and somatic cells nuclei, where it co-localizes with HP1. Homozygous mutant females display ovaries with frequent degenerating egg-chambers. Absence of Su(var)3–7 in embryos leads to defects in meiosis and first mitotic divisions due to chromatin fragmentation or chromosome loss, showing that Su(var)3–7 is required for genome integrity. Females homozygous for Su(var)3–7 mutations strongly impair repression of P-transposable element induced gonadal dysgenesis but have minor effects on other TEs. Su(var)3–7 mutations reduce piRNA cluster transcription and slightly impact ovarian piRNA production. However, this modest piRNA reduction does not correlate with transposon de-silencing, suggesting that the moderate effect of Su(var)3–7 on some TE repression is not linked to piRNA production. Strikingly, Su(var)3–7 genetically interacts with the piwi and aubergine genes, key components of the piRNA pathway, by strongly impacting female fertility without impairing transposon silencing. These results lead us to propose that the interaction between Su(var)3–7 and piwi or aubergine controls important developmental processes independently of transposon silencing. PMID:24820312

  15. Structural and functional insight into how the Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA protein mediates binding to chondroitin sulfate A in placental malaria.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Thomas M; Christoffersen, Stig; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Langkilde, Annette Eva; Jensen, Kamilla E; Resende, Mafalda; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Andersen, Daniel; Berisha, Besim; Ditlev, Sisse B; Pinto, Vera V; Nielsen, Morten A; Theander, Thor G; Larsen, Sine; Salanti, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem. Pregnant women are susceptible to infection regardless of previously acquired immunity. Placental malaria is caused by parasites capable of sequestering in the placenta. This is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen that interacts with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). One vaccine strategy is to block this interaction with VAR2CSA-specific antibodies. It is a priority to define a small VAR2CSA fragment that can be used in an adhesion blocking vaccine. In this, the obvious approach is to define regions of VAR2CSA involved in receptor binding. It has been shown that full-length recombinant VAR2CSA binds specifically to CSA with nanomolar affinity, and that the CSA-binding site lies in the N-terminal part of the protein. In this study we define the minimal binding region by truncating VAR2CSA and analyzing CSA binding using biosensor technology. We show that the core CSA-binding site lies within the DBL2X domain and parts of the flanking interdomain regions. This is in contrast to the idea that single domains do not possess the structural requirements for specific CSA binding. Small-angle x-ray scattering measurements enabled modeling of VAR2CSA and showed that the CSA-binding DBL2X domain is situated in the center of the structure. Mutating classic sulfate-binding sites in VAR2CSA, along with testing dependence of ionic interactions, suggest that the CSA binding is not solely dependent on the sulfated CSA structure. Based on these novel PfEMP1 structure-function studies, we have constructed a small VAR2CSA antigen that has the capacity to induce highly adhesion-blocking antibodies. PMID:22570492

  16. Structural and Functional Insight into How the Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA Protein Mediates Binding to Chondroitin Sulfate A in Placental Malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Thomas M.; Christoffersen, Stig; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Langkilde, Annette Eva; Jensen, Kamilla E.; Resende, Mafalda; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.; Andersen, Daniel; Berisha, Besim; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Pinto, Vera V.; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Larsen, Sine; Salanti, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem. Pregnant women are susceptible to infection regardless of previously acquired immunity. Placental malaria is caused by parasites capable of sequestering in the placenta. This is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen that interacts with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). One vaccine strategy is to block this interaction with VAR2CSA-specific antibodies. It is a priority to define a small VAR2CSA fragment that can be used in an adhesion blocking vaccine. In this, the obvious approach is to define regions of VAR2CSA involved in receptor binding. It has been shown that full-length recombinant VAR2CSA binds specifically to CSA with nanomolar affinity, and that the CSA-binding site lies in the N-terminal part of the protein. In this study we define the minimal binding region by truncating VAR2CSA and analyzing CSA binding using biosensor technology. We show that the core CSA-binding site lies within the DBL2X domain and parts of the flanking interdomain regions. This is in contrast to the idea that single domains do not possess the structural requirements for specific CSA binding. Small-angle x-ray scattering measurements enabled modeling of VAR2CSA and showed that the CSA-binding DBL2X domain is situated in the center of the structure. Mutating classic sulfate-binding sites in VAR2CSA, along with testing dependence of ionic interactions, suggest that the CSA binding is not solely dependent on the sulfated CSA structure. Based on these novel PfEMP1 structure-function studies, we have constructed a small VAR2CSA antigen that has the capacity to induce highly adhesion-blocking antibodies. PMID:22570492

  17. VarPy: A python library for volcanology and rock physics data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filgueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcom; Bell, Andrew; Snelling, Brawen; Main, Ian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of digital instrumentation in volcanology and rock physics is leading to a wealth of data, which in turn is increasing the need for computational analyses and models. Today, these are largely developed by each individual or researcher. The introduction of a shared library that can be used for this purpose has several benefits: 1. when an existing function in the library meets a need recognised by a researcher it is usually much less effort than developing ones own code; 2. once functions are established and multiply used they become better tested, more reliable and eventually trusted by the community; 3. use of the same functions by different researchers makes it easier to compare results and to compare the skill of rival analysis and modelling methods; and 4. in the longer term the cost of maintaining these functions is shared over a wide community and they therefore have greater duration. Python is a high-level interpreted programming language, with capabilities for object-oriented programming. Often scientists choose this language to program their programs because of the increased productivity it provides. Although, there are many software tools available for interactive data analysis and development, there are not libraries designed specifically for volcanology and rock physics data. Therefore, we propose a new Python open-source toolbox called "VarPy" to facilitate rapid application development for rock physicists and volcanologists, which allow users to define their own workflows to develop models, analyses and visualisations. This proposal is triggered by our work on data assimilation in the NERC EFFORT (Earthquake and Failure Forecasting in Real Time) project, using data provided by the NERC CREEP 2 experimental project and volcanic experiments from INVG observatory Etna and IGN observatory Hierro as a test cases. In EFFORT project we are developing a scientist gateway which offers services for collecting and sharing volcanology

  18. Full-Length Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA Binds Specifically to CSPG and Induces Potent Parasite Adhesion-Blocking Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Khunrae, Pongsak; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Nielsen, Morten A.; Andersen, Gorm; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Pinto, Vera V.; Theander, Thor G.; Higgins, Matthew K.; Salanti, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the world's leading causes of human suffering and poverty. Each year, the disease takes 1–3 million lives, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. The adhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs) to vascular endothelium or placenta is the key event in the pathogenesis of severe P. falciparum infection. In pregnant women, the parasites express a single and unique member of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family named VAR2CSA, which is associated with the ability of the IEs to adhere specifically to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) in the placenta. Several Duffy-binding-like domains from VAR2CSA molecules have been shown in vitro to bind to CSA, but it has also been demonstrated that Duffy-binding-like domains from PfEMP1 proteins other than VAR2CSA can bind CSA. In addition, the specificity of the binding of VAR2CSA domains to glycosaminoglycans does not match that of VAR2CSA-expressing IEs. This has led to speculation that the domains of native VAR2CSA need to come together to form a specific binding site or that VAR2CSA might bind to CSA through a bridging molecule. Here, we describe the expression and purification of the complete extracellular region of VAR2CSA secreted at high yields from insect cells. Using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrate that VAR2CSA alone binds with nanomolar affinity to human chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan and with significantly weaker affinity to other glycosaminoglycans, showing a specificity similar to that observed for IEs. Antibodies raised against full-length VAR2CSA completely inhibit recombinant VAR2CSA binding, as well as parasite binding to chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan. This is the first study to describe the successful production and functionality of a full-length PfEMP1. The specificity of the binding and anti-adhesion potency of induced IgG, together with high-yield production, encourages the use of full-length PfEMP1 in vaccine development strategies. PMID

  19. From In Vivo to In Vitro: Dynamic Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Expression Patterns of Patient Isolates during Adaptation to Culture

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yufu; Xue, Xiangyang; Yan, He; Sun, Xiaodong; Wang, Jian; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Pan, Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), encoded by the var gene family, plays a crucial role in disease virulence through its involvement in binding to various host cellular receptors during infection. Growing evidence suggests that differential expression of the various var subgroups may be involved in parasite virulence. To further explore this issue, we have collected isolates from symptomatic patients in south China-Myanmar border, and characterized their sequence diversity and transcription profiles over time of var gene family, and cytoadherence properties from the time of their initial collection and extending through a two month period of adaptation to culture. Initially, we established a highly diverse, DBLα (4 cysteines) subtype-enriched, but unique local repertoire of var-DBL1α sequences by cDNA cloning and sequencing. Next we observed a rapid transcriptional decline of upsA- and upsB-subtype var genes at ring stage through qRT-PCR assays, and a switching event from initial ICAM-I binding to the CD36-binding activity during the first week of adaptive cultivation in vitro. Moreover, predominant transcription of upsA var genes was observed to be correlated with those isolates that showed a higher parasitemia at the time of collection and the ICAM-1-binding phenotype in culture. Taken together, these data indicate that the initial stage of adaptive process in vitro significantly influences the transcription of virulence-related var subtypes and expression of PfEMP1 variants. Further, the specific upregulation of the upsA var genes is likely linked to the rapid propagation of the parasite during natural infection due to the A-type PfEMP1 variant-mediated growth advantages. PMID:21674009

  20. Transcriptome Sequence Analysis of an Ornamental Plant, Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, Revealed the Potential Unigenes Involved in Terpenoid and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Kanakala, S.; He, Yehua; Zhang, Junli; Zhong, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    Background Ananas comosus var. bracteatus (Red Pineapple) is an important ornamental plant for its colorful leaves and decorative red fruits. Because of its complex genome, it is difficult to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth and development. Thus high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is necessary to generate large quantities of transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery and functional genomic studies. Results The Ananas comosus var. bracteatus transcriptome was sequenced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We obtained a total of 23.5 million high quality sequencing reads, 1,555,808 contigs and 41,052 unigenes. In total 41,052 unigenes of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, 23,275 unigenes were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 23,134 unigenes were annotated in the Swiss-Port database. Out of these, 17,748 and 8,505 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database identified 5,825 unigenes which were mapped to 117 pathways. The assembly predicted many unigenes that were previously unknown. The annotated unigenes were compared against pineapple, rice, maize, Arabidopsis, and sorghum. Unigenes that did not match any of those five sequence datasets are considered to be Ananas comosus var. bracteatus unique. We predicted unigenes encoding enzymes involved in terpenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Conclusion The sequence data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. To our knowledge; this is the first report on the de novo transcriptome sequencing of the Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. Unigenes obtained in this study, may help improve future gene expression, genetic and genomics studies in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. PMID:25769053

  1. The Chemokine Platelet Factor-4 Variant (PF-4var)/CXCL4L1 Inhibits Diabetes-Induced Blood–Retinal Barrier Breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M.; Mohammad, Ghulam; Nawaz, Mohd Imtiaz; Abdelsaid, Mohammed; Siddiquei, Mohammad Mairaj; Alam, Kaiser; Van den Eynde, Kathleen; De Hertogh, Gert; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Van Damme, Jo; Struyf, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the expression of platelet factor-4 variant (PF-4var/CXCL4L1) in epiretinal membranes from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and the role of PF-4var/CXCL4L1 in the regulation of blood–retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in diabetic rat retinas and human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMEC). Methods. Rats were treated intravitreally with PF-4var/CXCL4L1 or the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent bevacizumab on the first day after diabetes induction. Blood–retinal barrier breakdown was assessed in vivo with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextran and in vitro in HRMEC by transendothelial electrical resistance and FITC-conjugated dextran cell permeability assay. Occludin, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, VEGF, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), caspase-3 levels, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, or spectrophotometry. Results. In epiretinal membranes, vascular endothelial cells and stromal cells expressed PF-4var/CXCL4L1. In vitro, HRMEC produced PF-4var/CXCL4L1 after stimulation with a combination of interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α, and PF-4var/CXCL4L1 inhibited VEGF-mediated hyperpermeability in HRMEC. In rats, PF-4var/CXCL4L1 was as potent as bevacizumab in attenuating diabetes-induced BRB breakdown. This effect was associated with upregulation of occludin and VE-cadherin and downregulation of HIF-1α, VEGF, TNF-α, RAGE, and caspase-3, whereas ROS generation was not altered. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that increasing the intraocular PF-4var/CXCL4L1 levels early after the onset of diabetes protects against diabetes-induced BRB breakdown. PMID:25711636

  2. Sativin: a novel antifungal miraculin-like protein isolated from legumes of the sugar snap Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon.

    PubMed

    Ye, X Y; Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2000-07-01

    An antifungal protein designated sativin was isolated from the legumes of the sugar snap (also known as honey pea) Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon. The procedure entailed extraction, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose. The protein exhibited a molecular weight of 38 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It possessed an N-terminal amino acid sequence which showed similarity to those of miraculin (a sweet protein) and pisavin (a ribosome-inactivating protein from Pisum sativum var arvense Poir manifesting similarity to miraculin). Unlike pisavin, however, sativin demonstrated negligible ribonuclease activity and inhibited translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with a very low potency (IC50= 14 microM). Sativin exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus ostreatus but not against Rhizoctonia solani. PMID:10968407

  3. The metabolism of foreign compounds in the cestode, Moniezia expansa, and the nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides var suum.

    PubMed

    Douch, P G; Blair, S S

    1975-05-01

    1. The ability of the cestode Moniezia expansa and the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var suum to metabolize foreign compounds has been assessed. 2. Both species were unable to oxidase aldrin, aniline, biphenyl, butylbenzene and nitrobenzene or to demethylate aminopyrine, and 4-nitroanisole. 3. M. expansa and A. lumbricoides var suum readily induced 4-nitroanisole, nitrobenzene, 4-nitrobenzoic acid and 4-nitrophenol to the corresponding amines. Azobenzene, dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 1,2-dimethyl-4-(4-carboxyphenylazo)-5-hydroxybenzene were also reduced. 4. Hydrolysis of esters, acetanilide, acetylsalicylic acid, aryl sulphates and aryl phosphates took place readily. However, beta-glucuronides were not hydrolysed. 5. The following reactions were not detected in either species: phosphate, sulphate, beta-glucuronide or beta-glycoside conjugation of phenolic compounds; acetylation of amino compounds, or the formation of glycine conjugates with 4-aminobenzoic acid or benzoic acid. 6. Male nematodes showed a higher rate of drug metabolism than female nematodes. PMID:239489

  4. Exploring coupled 4D-Var data assimilation using an idealised atmosphere-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Polly; Fowler, Alison; Lawless, Amos; Haines, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The successful application of data assimilation techniques to operational numerical weather prediction and ocean forecasting systems has led to an increased interest in their use for the initialisation of coupled atmosphere-ocean models in prediction on seasonal to decadal timescales. Coupled data assimilation presents a significant challenge but offers a long list of potential benefits including improved use of near-surface observations, reduction of initialisation shocks in coupled forecasts, and generation of a consistent system state for the initialisation of coupled forecasts across all timescales. In this work we explore some of the fundamental questions in the design of coupled data assimilation systems within the context of an idealised one-dimensional coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The system is based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS) atmosphere model and a K-Profile Parameterisation (KKP) mixed layer ocean model developed by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) climate group at the University of Reading. It employs a strong constraint incremental 4D-Var scheme and is designed to enable the effective exploration of various approaches to performing coupled model data assimilation whilst avoiding many of the issues associated with more complex models. Working with this simple framework enables a greater range and quantity of experiments to be performed. Here, we will describe the development of our simplified single-column coupled atmosphere-ocean 4D-Var assimilation system and present preliminary results from a series of identical twin experiments devised to investigate and compare the behaviour and sensitivities of different coupled data assimilation methodologies. This includes comparing fully and weakly coupled assimilations with uncoupled assimilation, investigating whether coupled assimilation can eliminate or lessen initialisation shock in coupled model forecasts, and

  5. Hydrodynamic processes, velocity structure and stratification in natural turbidity currents: Results inferred from field data in the Var Turbidite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migeon, Sébastien; Mulder, Thierry; Savoye, Bruno; Sage, Françoise

    2012-03-01

    The Var Turbidite System (NW Mediterranean Sea) is fed during the present-day highstand sea level by large earthquake-induced ignitive turbidity currents, low-density turbidity currents resulting from retrogressive failures triggered on the upper continental slope, and hyperpycnal flows related to the Var River floods. Using a large dataset including bathymetric data, side-scan sonar images, seismic-reflection profiles, cores and photographs of the seafloor, this paper attempts to better constrain the hydrodynamic behaviour of debris flows and turbidity currents along the Upper and Middle Valley of the Var Turbidite System. The drastic change of the seafloor morphology between the Upper and the Middle Valley suggests that gravity flows undergo rapid transformation from cohesive to fully turbulent behaviour. This transformation is related to a hydraulic jump caused by an abrupt decrease in slope angle at the transition between the Upper and the Middle Valley and is associated with en masse deposition and elevation of the seafloor. Strong seafloor erosion prevails in the Middle Valley, suggesting that, for a low and constant slope angle, turbulent flows must regain a balance between concentration and flow thickness rapidly after they experience hydraulic jump. The internal stratification and vertical grain-size distribution within turbulent flows are inferred from the distribution of fine- to coarse-grained turbidites found in cores located along the crest of the Var Sedimentary Ridge with a decreasing elevation above the floor of the Middle Valley. The theoretical vertical velocity profile deduced from the vertical grain-size distribution exhibits a general trend and an inflection of the gradient curve different from those of the velocity profiles classically obtained using numerical modelling.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of molluscicidal activity of extracts from Cotula cinerea (L) and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    PubMed

    Redwane, A; Markouk, M; Lazrek, H B; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the molluscicidal activity of different extracts obtained from Cotula cinerea and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea, acetonic extract and gallotanin of Quercus infectoria galls have presented high activity against Bulinus truncatus. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea was fractionated by chromatography on silica gel column. We have isolated two very active fractions at concentrations respectively of 52.5 and 27.5 ppm. PMID:9872015

  7. Biosynthetic Pathway of the Reduced Polyketide Product Citreoviridin in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus Revealed by Heterologous Expression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Shyang; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Wang, Clay C C

    2016-03-18

    Citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of F1-ATPase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. These potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. The identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans are reported. Two intermediates were isolated that allowed the proposal of the biosynthetic pathway of citreoviridin. PMID:26954888

  8. Helikaurolides A-D with a Diterpene-Sesquiterpene Skeleton from Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Varela, Rosa M; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macías, Francisco A

    2015-10-01

    Four novel compounds (1-4) with an unprecedented skeleton that combines a sesquiterpene lactone and a kaurane diterpene acid were isolated from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna extract, which was obtained under supercritical conditions. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. The biosynthetic routes involve sesquiterpene lactones and kauranic acid, both of which were previously isolated from this species. PMID:26368065

  9. Rhizophora mucronata var. alokii – a new variety of mangrove species from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India (Rhizophoraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ragavan, P.; Mohan, P. M.; Jayaraj, R. S. C.; Ravichandran, K.; Saravanan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rhizophora mucronata var. alokii (Rhizophoraceae), a new variety of Rhizophora from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, is described and illustrated. The new variety is remarkable in having four stamens, laterally folded leaves, a short peduncle, thick leathery petals, and a four-sided ovary with a sessile style. A key for the species of Rhizophora of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is also provided. PMID:26312036

  10. PhenoVar: a phenotype-driven approach in clinical genomics for the diagnosis of polymalformative syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We propose a phenotype-driven analysis of encrypted exome data to facilitate the widespread implementation of exome sequencing as a clinical genetic screening test. Twenty test-patients with varied syndromes were selected from the literature. For each patient, the mutation, phenotypic data, and genetic diagnosis were available. Next, control exome-files, each modified to include one of these twenty mutations, were assigned to the corresponding test-patients. These data were used by a geneticist blinded to the diagnoses to test the efficiency of our software, PhenoVar. The score assigned by PhenoVar to any genetic diagnosis listed in OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) took into consideration both the patient’s phenotype and all variations present in the corresponding exome. The physician did not have access to the individual mutations. PhenoVar filtered the search using a cut-off phenotypic match threshold to prevent undesired discovery of incidental findings and ranked the OMIM entries according to diagnostic score. Results When assigning the same weight to all variants in the exome, PhenoVar predicted the correct diagnosis in 10/20 patients, while in 15/20 the correct diagnosis was among the 4 highest ranked diagnoses. When assigning a higher weight to variants known, or bioinformatically predicted, to cause disease, PhenoVar’s yield increased to 14/20 (18/20 in top 4). No incidental findings were identified using our cut-off phenotypic threshold. Conclusion The phenotype-driven approach described could render widespread use of ES more practical, ethical and clinically useful. The implications about novel disease identification, advancement of complex diseases and personalized medicine are discussed. PMID:24884844

  11. [Spatial point pattern analysis of Abies georgei var. smithii in forest of Sygera Mountains in southeast Tibet, China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuan-qi; Tian, Min-xia; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zheng, Wei-lie; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, based on a 4 hm2 stem-mapping plot, we analyzed spatial distributions of Abies georgei var. smithii, the dominant species in forest of Sygera Mountains in southeast Tibet, China. Pair-correlation function was used to characterize univariate spatial point patterns of three size classes of the population and bivariate spatial patterns between those and different sizes of dead wood. A. georgei var. smithii population was characterized by reverse J-shaped DBH distribution, indicating an increasing population. Saplings of the population were spatially obviously aggregated at the small scales (0-7 m), and mid-sized trees and large-sized trees of the population were randomly or uniformly distributed. The aggregation intensities of A. georgei var. smithii decreased with the increasing diameter classes and spatial scales. Saplings and mid-sized trees were significantly and negatively associated with large-sized trees at the small scales (0-35 and 0-30 m), but the associations reversed at the large scales (45-100 and 80-100 m). In addition, with the increasing age difference between diameter classes of the population, the intensities of positive or negative correlations increased. Spatial associations between saplings and dead large-sized trees, and between mid-sized trees and dead large-sized trees were negative at the small scales (0-34 and 5-27 m), but positive at the large scales (49-100 and 73-100 m). This suggested that released niche space due to dead large-sized trees is not enough to weaken their negative impacts on saplings. We concluded that self-thinning effect and Janzen-Connell hypothesis may be the main mechanisms for the spatial pattern formation of A. georgei var. smithii population. PMID:26572011

  12. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164. Methods: Various parts of the herbs were extracted from fruit using ethanol as the solvent, and the cytotoxicity and cell viability of the ethanolic extract were determined by the MTT assay. To determine whether necrosis or apoptosis is the predominant cause of cell death, cell death detection was performed using the ELISA method. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- (TdT-) mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Moreover, a sensitive immunoblotting technique was used to examine the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins. Results: Our findings suggested that the ethalonic extract of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa altered cell morphology, decreased cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner in WEHI-164 cells (IC50 = 229.024μg/ml), when compared to a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, Toxol (Vesper Pharmaceuticals), with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the decrease of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and quantitatively confirmed by Immunoblotting analysis. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study have demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of Ethanol Extracts from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa, and clearly showed that apoptosis was the major mechanism of in-vitro cell death induced by the extract. PMID:25671193

  13. Llama immunization with full-length VAR2CSA generates cross-reactive and inhibitory single-domain antibodies against the DBL1X domain.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Gangnard, Stéphane; Vidal, Marta; Vuchelen, Anneleen; Dechavanne, Sebastien; Chan, Sherwin; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Ramboarina, Stephanie; Chêne, Arnaud; Gamain, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    VAR2CSA stands today as the leading vaccine candidate aiming to protect future pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas against the severe clinical outcomes of pregnancy associated malaria (PAM). The rational design of an efficient VAR2CSA-based vaccine relies on a profound understanding of the molecular interactions associated with P. falciparum infected erythrocyte sequestration in the placenta. Following immunization of a llama with the full-length VAR2CSA recombinant protein, we have expressed and characterized a panel of 19 nanobodies able to recognize the recombinant VAR2CSA as well as the surface of erythrocytes infected with parasites originating from different parts of the world. Domain mapping revealed that a large majority of nanobodies targeted DBL1X whereas a few of them were directed towards DBL4ε, DBL5ε and DBL6ε. One nanobody targeting the DBL1X was able to recognize the native VAR2CSA protein of the three parasite lines tested. Furthermore, four nanobodies targeting DBL1X reproducibly inhibited CSA adhesion of erythrocytes infected with the homologous NF54-CSA parasite strain, providing evidences that DBL1X domain is part or close to the CSA binding site. These nanobodies could serve as useful tools to identify conserved epitopes shared between different variants and to characterize the interactions between VAR2CSA and CSA. PMID:25487735

  14. Overexpression of Iris. lactea var. chinensis metallothionein llMT2a enhances cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-qin; Zhao, Yan-Hai; Deng, Yan-ming; Zhu, Xu-dong; Huang, Su-Zhen

    2014-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich, low molecular weight, heavy metal-binding protein molecules. Here, a full-length cDNA homologue of MT2a (type 2 metallothionein) was isolated from the cadmium-tolerant species Iris. lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis). Expression of IlMT2a in I. lactea var. chinensis roots and leaves was up-regulated in response to cadmium stress. When the gene was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana), root length of transgenic lines was longer than that of wild-type under 50μM or 100μM cadmium stress. However, there was no difference of cadmium absorption between wild-type and trangenic lines. Histochemical staining by 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and nitroblue tetrazoliu (NBT) clearly demonstrated that transgenic lines accumulated remarkably less H2O2 and O2(-) than wild-type. Together, IlMT2a may be a promising gene for the cadmium tolerance improvement. PMID:24780229

  15. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine. PMID:24009862

  16. One-dimensional variational (1D-Var) retrieval of middle to upper tropospheric humidity using AIRS radiance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Kozo; Okamoto, Hajime; Sato, Kaori

    2014-06-01

    A one-dimensional variational analysis (1D-Var retrieval) of tropospheric humidity was conducted using hyper-spectral radiance data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). For the vertical range of the atmosphere between 200 and 600 hPa, the same high-resolution retrieval of humidity profiles as for clear-sky conditions was possible over low clouds if the cloud height was lower than 800 hPa. Global analyses from a global data assimilation system were used for initial profiles, and clear conditions over 800 hPa height were determined from AIRS radiance data. Results of analyses for 50 days of global radiosonde matchup data from 21 December 2008 to 8 February 2009 revealed that our 1D-Var calculations derived humidity profiles were closer to the sonde profiles than those of a global analysis at a height over 600 hPa. Furthermore, the results of 1D-Var retrieval often represented high and supersaturated relative humidity around the supposed ice clouds. The altitudes of the high humidity region agreed with the height of ice clouds that had been detected by CloudSat/CALIPSO. As well as possibly improving the humidity profiles in a numerical model by data assimilation, it is expected that these humidity analyses using AIRS radiance data will provide additional information for the study of ice clouds in the middle to upper troposphere.

  17. An historical analysis of the California Current circulation using ROMS 4D-Var: System configuration and diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Emilie; Moore, Andrew M.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Fiechter, Jérôme; Drake, Patrick; Crawford, William J.; Jacox, Michael G.; Nuss, Emma

    2016-03-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation tool has been used to compute two sequences of circulation analyses for the U.S. west coast. One sequence of analyses spans the period 1980-2010 and is subject to surface forcing derived from relatively low resolution atmospheric products from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform wind product (CCMP) and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis project. The second sequence spans the shorter period 1999-2012 and is subject to forcing derived from a high resolution product from the Naval Research Laboratory Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). The two analysis periods are divided into eight day windows, and all available satellite observations of sea surface temperature and sea surface height, as well as in situhydrographic profiles are assimilated into ROMS using 4D-Var. The performance of the system is monitored in terms of the cost function and the statistics of the innovations, and the impact of data assimilated on the circulation is assessed by comparing the posterior circulation estimates with the prior circulation and the circulation from a run of the model without data assimilation, with particular emphasis on eddy kinetic energy. This is part I of a two part series, and the circulation variability of the 4D-Var analyses will be documented in part II.

  18. Inheritance of the complete mitochondrial genomes Cyprinus capio furong(♀) × Cyprinus carpio var.singguonensis(♂).

    PubMed

    Peng, Huizhen; Liu, Qiaolin; Xiao, Tiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 15 sets of primers were used to amplify contiguous, overlapping segments of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂) in order to characterize and compare their mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,581 bp and deposited in the GenBank with the accession number KP210473. The organization of the mitochondrial genomes contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNAs) and a major non-coding control region which was similar to those reported mitochondrial genomes. Most genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for the ND6 and 8 tRNA genes, encoding on the L-strand. The nucleotide skewness for the coding strands of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂) (AT-skew = 0.12, GC-skew = -0.27) were biased toward T and G. The complete mitogenome may provide important date for the study of genetic mechanism of C. capio furong(♀) × C. carpio var.singguonensis(♂). PMID:25648921

  19. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii-Induced Arthritis with Encephalitic Dissemination in a Dog and Review of Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Mota, Francisco Claudio D; Lindsay, Scott; de Oliveira, Luiza M; Medeiros, Alessandra Aparecida; Pretto-Giordano, Lucienne Garcia; Saut, João Paulo Elsen; Krockenberger, Mark

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings associated with Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii in a 4-year-old female Boxer dog from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Clinically, there was a swelling at the right metatarsal region and the hock joint with enlargement of regional lymph nodes. Radiographical evaluation revealed lysis of the tarsal bone; cytology demonstrated cryptococcal intralesional organisms at the swollen joint. Despite empirical antifungals therapeutic, the animal developed neurological cryptococcosis and died spontaneously. Significant pathological alterations included arthritis, lymphadenitis, and encephalitic cryptococcomas associated with numerous intralesional narrow-necked budding encapsulated yeasts. Immunohistochemistry utilising monoclonal antibodies that label C. neoformans sp. complex capsule, characterised the yeasts as C. neoformans var. grubii. Collectively, the pathological and immunohistochemical findings of this dog indicate that the intralesional organisms observed within the articular surface of the hock joint, lymph nodes, and the brain were C. neoformans var. grubii, confirming the participation of this fungal pathogen in the development of cryptococcal arthritis. In this case, the most likely pathogenesis was percutaneous inoculation with resultant abscess-like lesion, which resulted in the draining sinus, swelling of the right hind limb with progression to the articular disease. Thereafter, the fungal pathogen probably compromised the adjacent lymph nodes with subsequent haematogenous distribution to the brain, terminating with cryptococcal arthritis, lymphadenitis, and encephalitis. PMID:27126588

  20. Analyses of effects of α-cembratrien-diol on cell morphology and transcriptome of Valsa mali var. mali.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ning; Du, Yongmei; Liu, Xinmin; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Yanhua; Shi, John; Xue, Sophia Jun; Zhang, Zhongfeng

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the underlying mechanisms of growth inhibition of Valsa mali var. mali, the causative pathogen of apple tree canker disease, by α-cembratrien-diol. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of α-cembratrien-diol against V. mali var. mali is 18.0mg/L. Treatment of V. mali var. mali with α-cembratrien-diol resulted in various mycelial and cellular abnormalities, and the up- and down-regulation of 94 and 170 differentially expressed genes, respectively. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that α-cembratrien-diol substantially altered the expression of genes involved in the redox process, tetrapyrrole binding, coenzyme binding, heme binding, and iron binding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis also showed significant enrichment of specific metabolic pathways involving the set of differentially expressed genes. The present study will assist in the development of alternative α-cembratrien-diol-based biological control agents and ultimately facilitate organic apple production. PMID:27507455

  1. Cloning, expression and purification of isoflavone-2'-hydroxylase from Astragalus membranaceus Bge. Var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Lin; Pan, Haiyun; Xu, Rongyan; Zhong, Yang; Chen, Jiakuan; Nan, Peng

    2015-03-01

    Plant cytochrome P450 enzymes play vital roles in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites, including phenylpropanoids and phytoalexins. Isoflavone-2'-hydroxylase (AmI2'H) from Astragalus membranaceus Bge. Var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao is a membrane protein and an eukaryotic cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in isoflavonoid biosynthesis. We cloned the AmI2'H gene by employing RACE methods and modified the gene sequence to facilitate protein expression and increase protein solubility. Two vectors, pET-28a(+) and pCW ori(+), were used to express AmI2'H in Escherichia coli. The expression efficiency and purity of target protein were analyzed and demonstrated that pET-28a(+) vector containing the AmI2'H gene could produce larger amounts of target proteins with higher purity than pCWori(+). The purified proteins were identified as AmI2'H by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and their proper folding was assessed by CO difference spectrum. PMID:25462811

  2. Utilization of Lactic Acid by Fusarium oxysporum var. lini: Regulation of Transport and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ieso M.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.

    1994-01-01

    Lactic acid was transported in Fusarium oxysporum var. lini ATCC 10960 by a saturable transport system that had a half-saturation constant of 56.6 ± 7.5 μM and a maximum velocity of 0.61 ± 0.10 mmol h-1 g-1 (dry weight) at 26°C and pH 5.0. This transport system was inducible and was not expressed in the presence of a repressing substrate. Evidence is presented that the anionic form lactate- was taken up by the cells. Propionic, acetic, pyruvic, and bromoacetic acids but not succinic acid competitively inhibited the transport of lactic acid. Bromoacetic acid, which was not metabolized, was taken up to a steady-state level when intracellular and extracellular concentrations were identical, indicating that the transport system was not accumulative. The enzymatic activity that was physiologically more relevant in the metabolism of lactic acid was lactate: ferricytochrome c oxidase. This enzyme did not exhibit stereospecifity and was induced by lactic acid. PMID:16349143

  3. Effects of algae on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis against larval black flies.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Marianne S; Overmyer, Jay P; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Ray

    2004-06-01

    Personnel from several black fly control programs have reported that the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelesis (Bti) is reduced during periods when algal concentrations are high in the waterways. Although the reduction in Bti-induced mortality in black fly larvae is presumed to be related to the presence of algae, no scientific data support this theory. In this study, 4 genera of algae (Microcytis, Scenedesmus, Dictrosphaerium, and Chlorella) commonly detected in Pennsylvania rivers where Bti-induced mortality in black fly larvae has been reduced were assessed to determine their respective effects on Bti-induced mortality by using an orbital shaker bioassay with laboratory-reared black fly larvae (Simulium vittatum cytospecies IS-7). A significant reduction in Bti-induced mortality was observed when Scenedesmus was present in the flasks at concentrations > or = 16,000 cells/ml. The Bti-induced mortality of larvae was not significantly reduced when Chlorella, Dictyosphaerium, or Microcytis was present in the flasks, even at concentrations > or = 250,000 cells/ml. These results indicate that the presence of certain types of algae can reduce the mortality of black flies exposed to Bti. Although not clearly defined, the mechanisms involved may be related to algal morphology due to overall size and structures associated with certain types of algae, and possible interference with feeding. PMID:15264627

  4. Estimation of volcanic ash emissions from satellite data using trajectory-based 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sha; Lin, Haixiang; Heemink, Arnold; Segers, Arjo; Fu, Guangliang

    2016-04-01

    An accurate determination of emission parameters are crucial to the volcanic ash forecast for aviation, health and climate interests. In this study, we reconstruct the vertical profile of the volcanic ash emission from satellite ash mass loading data using trajectory-based 4D-Var (Trj4DVar) approach with Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptive event and the corresponding SEVIRI data as a study case. Since the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010, besides ash mass loadings retrieved from satellite data, the additional information of plume height and mass eruption rate is always available from volcanic ash detections and observations. Modifications is made in Trj4DVar to integrate the additional information into the data assimilation system to improve the estimation of volcanic ash emissions and achieve a better initial condition for quantitative predictions. The modified Trj4DVar has been tested in twin experiments designed based on the study case, and shows significant improvement on straightforward Trj4DVar since it has great correction impact to recognize the injection height and produce more accurate emission estimation and reliable initial field of volcanic ash loading. To apply the approach to the real case with SEVIRI data, two strategies was proposed: observational mask matrix and separate time windows. The results produced a better initial condition and predictive forecast that were more fitter the SEVIRI ash mass loading fields, which showed a great potential of applying the method in practice.

  5. Toxicity and Affecting Factors of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Israelensis on Chironomus kiiensis Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chuan-Wang; Sun, Li-Li; Wen, Rong-Rong; Li, Xiao-Peng; Wu, Hong-Qu; Wang, Zhi-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) is a suitable agent for controlling Chironomus kiiensis, a major pest polluting water. In this study, laboratory bioassays were used to study toxicity and affecting factors of Bti on C. kiiensis larvae. Tests were conducted using three commercial Bti formulations (oil miscible suspension, 1,200 ITU/mL; wettable power, 1,200 ITU/mg; technical material, 5,000 ITU/mg) of Bti. The toxicity of Bti formulations to third and fourth instar C. kiiensis larvae was in decreasing order of technical material, oil miscible suspension, and wettable powder, based on the 12 and 24 hour LC50 values. Increasing larval densities (from 10 to 30 per bioassay cup) increased the LC50 values for fourth instar C. kiiensis larvae. The LC50 values for fourth instar larvae reared in sand substrate were higher than those from soil substrate, and autoclaved substrates significantly increased the LC50 values. The technical material of Bti at 12 and 24 hours responded similarly to changes in temperature between 30° C and 15° C, but the LC50 values at a range of tested temperatures showed distinct differences in time points. PMID:23465075

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana on Knee Damage Associated with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ching-Fent; Wang, Kun-Teng; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Lee, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Sung-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Vitis thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. var. taiwaniana Lu (VT) is an indigenous plant in Taiwan that is traditionally used for promoting joint health. In this study, we used in vitro primary human chondrocytes (PHCs) and two in vivo animal models to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of VT on arthritis. Results showed that the water extract of the stems and roots from VT (VT-SR) was rich in flavones and phenols with 1.1 mg/g of resveratrol, 6.7 mg/g of hopeaphenol, and 5.1 mg/g of (+)-ɛ-viniferin. VT-SR significantly scavenged DPPH radicals and inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PHCs without exhibiting significant cytotoxicity. In in vivo models, the VT-SR (500 mg/kg) significantly decreased serum PGE2 and knee 2-18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) levels in LPS-induced acute inflammatory arthritis in rabbits. In addition, dietary supplementation with VT-SR for 28 days significantly alleviated type II collagenase-induced rat osteoarthritis with improvements in weight bearing and range of motion tests. In conclusion, our results suggest that the VT-SR is a good candidate for developing dietary supplements to prevent joint deterioration and inhibit inflammation. PMID:24720858

  7. Fire reinforces structure of pondcypress (Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium) domes in a wetland landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Adam C.; Kobziar, Leda N.; Snyder, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Fire periodically affects wetland forests, particularly in landscapes with extensive fire-prone uplands. Rare occurrence and difficulty of access have limited efforts to understand impacts of wildfires fires in wetlands. Following a 2009 wildfire, we measured tree mortality and structural changes in wetland forest patches. Centers of these circular landscape features experienced lower fire severity, although no continuous patch-size or edge effect was evident. Initial survival of the dominant tree, pondcypress (Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium), was high (>99%), but within one year of the fire approximately 23% of trees died. Delayed mortality was correlated with fire severity, but unrelated to other hypothesized factors such as patch size or edge distance. Tree diameter and soil elevation were important predictors of mortality, with smaller trees and those in areas with lower elevation more likely to die following severe fire. Depressional cypress forests typically exhibit increasing tree size towards their interiors, and differential mortality patterns were related to edge distance. These patterns result in the exaggeration of a dome-shaped profile. Our observations quantify roles of fire and hydrology in determining cypress mortality in these swamps, and imply the existence of feedbacks that maintain the characteristic shape of cypress domes.

  8. Phenolic, flavonoid contents, anticholinesterase and antioxidant evaluation of Iris germanica var; florentina.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad; Zeb, Anwar

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential of Iris germanica var; florentina. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory potential of plant samples were investigated by Ellman's assay. Antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH, H2O2 and ABTS free radical scavenging assays. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents were expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg RTE/g, respectively. In AChE inhibition assay, Ig.Fl, Ig.Sp and Ig.Cf fractions exhibited highest activity with IC50 values of < 0.1, 5.64 and 19 μg/mL, respectively. In BChE inhibitory assay, Ig.Fl, Ig.Sp, Ig.Cf and Ig.Cr were most active with IC50 of < 0.1, < 0.1, 31 and 78 μg/mL, respectively. In DPPH assay, Ig.Fl and Ig.Cf exhibited highest inhibition of free radicals, 80.52% (IC50 = 9 μg/mL) and 78.30% (IC50 = 8 μg/mL), respectively. In ABTS assay Ig.Cr, Ig.Cf, Ig.Fl and Ig.Sp exhibited IC50 values of < 0.1, 2, 2 and 3 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26166432

  9. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Gerardo F; de Aguiar, Ana C; Carrera, Ceferino; Olachea, Ángel; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Martínez, Julian; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed. PMID:27416068

  10. Antimicrobial Agents Produced by Marine Aspergillus terreus var. africanus Against Some Virulent Fish Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Khouloud M; Gohar, Yousry M

    2012-09-01

    Screening of fungal isolates collected from different locations of Alexandria coast, Egypt, was carried out to obtain new biologically active metabolites against some virulent fish pathogens (Edwardsiella tarda, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio ordalli and Vibrio angularuim). Among 26 fungal isolates, Aspergillus terreus var. africanus was identified as the most potent isolate. Production of the bioactive material was optimized using response surface methodology including fermentation media, incubation period, temperature, pH, and thermo-stability. Spectral properties of the gas chromatography/mass spectrum of the ethyl acetate crude extract were determined. Partially purified components of the crude extract were chromatographically separated and bioassayed. Out of ten separated compounds, five were with considerable antibacterial agent. The bio-toxicity of crude showed a slight toxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 = 1,500 μg/l). Antibacterial activity of the crude was compared with some known standard antibiotics and found to be superior over many where its MIC against some pathogen reached 1 μg/ml. PMID:23997326

  11. The Role of Light in Cold Acclimation of Hedera helix L. var. Thorndale 1

    PubMed Central

    Steponkus, Peter L.; Lanphear, F. O.

    1968-01-01

    The role of light in cold acclimation of Hedera helix L. var. Thorndale appears to differ from that reported for winter annuals. Although light greatly enhances the degree of hardiness attained, cold acclimation is not obligatorily linked to a light requirement. Photoperiods, varying from 8 to 24 hours, received during the cold acclimation period were equally effective in promoting maximum hardiness. Relatively low light intensities and short photoperiods stimulated maximum hardiness, and proportional increases in hardiness in response to increased photoperiods were demonstrated only in stems of prestarved plants. Exclusion of CO2 and high concentrations of photosynthetic inhibitors decreased hardiness, but in no instance was hardiness reduced to the level of the dark control. The data are only compatible with a photosynthetic role of light if it is assumed that only a small portion of the total photosynthates are required to elicit maximum hardiness. Alternatively, the light stimulation which was elicited by low light intensities, short photoperiods, in the absence of CO2, and in the presence of photosynthetic inhibitors, may be a light signal similar to a phytochrome response. PMID:16656748

  12. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  13. Efficacy and safety of Labisia pumila var alata water extract among pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; George, Annie; Hazlina, Nik Hussain Nik; Azidah, Abdul Kadir; Idiana, Hassan Intan; Law, Kim Sooi; Bahari, Ismail Shaiful; Zahiruddin, Wan Mohamed Wan; Liske, Eckehard; Azreena, Abas

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Labisia pumila var alata (L. pumila) water extract for improving quality of life, cardiovascular and hormonal balance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 16-week study in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. The subjects were randomized to 400 mg propriety extract of L. pumila or placebo. A Women's Health Questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. A total of 197 subjects (L. pumila: n=102 and placebo: n=95) were analyzed. Subjects in the herbal group showed improved memory/concentration, vasomotor symptoms, menstrual symptoms, and sleep problems by 8.3%, 15.9%, 11.8%, and 31.0%, respectively. The greatest improvement was observed for the question: "I get frightened or panic feelings for apparently no reason at all" with a 53% decrease as compared with placebo. Improvements were also seen in the cardiovascular parameters, and the safety profiles were normal. Postmenopausal women supplemented with L. pumila showed no changes in gynecological relevant hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 17β-Estradiol. Water extract of L. pumila was shown to be safe and effective for improving several parameters of quality of life and cardiovascular risks factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]). PMID:25000151

  14. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Hassan, Intan Idiana; Shukor, Norlela; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values. PMID:22701504

  15. The influence of different hydroponic conditions on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingna; Zhou, Sai; Liu, Li; Du, Liang; Wang, Jianmei; Huang, Zhenling; Ma, Lijian; Ding, Songdong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Ruibing; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different hydroponic conditions (such as concentration of thorium (Th), pH, carbonate, phosphate, organic acids, and cations) on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa were evaluated. The results showed that acidic cultivation solutions enhanced thorium accumulation in the plants. Phosphate and carbonate inhibited thorium accumulation in plants, possibly due to the formation of Th(HPO4)(2+), Th(HPO4)2, or Th(OH)3CO3 (-) with Th(4+), which was disadvantageous for thorium uptake in the plants. Organic aids (citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid) inhibited thorium accumulation in roots and increased thorium content in the shoots, which suggested that the thorium-organic complexes did not remain in the roots and were beneficial for thorium transfer from the roots to the shoots. Among three cations (such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and zinc ion (Zn(2+))) in hydroponic media, Zn(2+) had no significant influence on thorium accumulation in the roots, Fe(2+) inhibited thorium accumulation in the roots, and Ca(2+) was found to facilitate thorium accumulation in the roots to a certain extent. This research will help to further understand the mechanism of thorium uptake in plants. PMID:25475618

  16. Polyphenols isolated from leaves of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana regulate APP related pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin; Lin, Ting; Xu, Junyue; Ding, Rong; Wang, Guanghui; Shen, Ruichi; Zhang, Yun-Wu; Chen, Haifeng

    2016-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. The major component of the plaques, amyloid-β (Aβ), is generated from amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavages. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that overproduction/accumulation of Aβ in vulnerable brain regions is a primary cause of the pathogenesis of AD. Among the twelve polyphenols isolated from the leaf extracts of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT), stenophyllol C, stenophyllol B, ampelopsin C, vitisin A, and davidiol A were shown to significantly reduce both Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in N2a695 cells. Further studies revealed that ampelopsin C and vitisin A reduce Aβ production through inhibiting β-secretase activity, while the effects of the other active polyphenols on reducing Aβ generation are through different mechanisms. These results suggest that VTT extracts may be beneficial for AD prevention and treatment. PMID:26675439

  17. Standardized Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina Extract Enhances Cognitive Performance in Normal Naive Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Jin; Ahn, Young Je; Lee, Hyung Eun; Hong, Eunyoung; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-11-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is closely associated with neuronal plasticity, cognitive function and the etiology of neurological diseases. We previously reported that the standardized ethanolic extract of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina (EEPV) can be used for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments associated with Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EEPV on cognitive ability in normal naive mice and the underlying mechanism(s) governing these effects, including adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In the passive avoidance task, sub-chronic administration of EEPV (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days markedly induced the improvement of cognitive function in mice. In addition, sub-chronic administration of EEPV (25 or 50 mg/kg) for 14 days significantly increased neural cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons, but not newly generated cell survival, in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Increased ERK, Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus were also observed after such administration. Our results indicate that EEPV may enhance cognitive function via the activation of various intracellular signaling molecules and the up-regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:26376910

  18. [Chemical constituents of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx and their anti-complementary activity].

    PubMed

    Yao, Shi; Xu, Nai-Yu; Chu, Chun-Jun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx and their anti-complementary activity on the basis of preliminary studies. Target isolation guided by anti-complementary activity test, compounds in the chloroform and n-butanol fractions were isolated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and preparative HPLC. The structures were identified by various spectroscopic data including ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR data. The compounds were evaluated for anti-complementary activity in vitro. Eleven compounds were isolated from the chloroform and n-butanol soluble fractions and identified as stigmasterol (1), stigmas-9 (11) -en-3-ol (2), glaucocalyxin D (3), kamebakaurin (4), maslinic acid (5), corosolic acid (6), minheryins I (7), diosmetin (8), caffeic acid ethylene ester (9), caffeic acid (10) and vitexin (11). Isoquercetrin, rutin, quercetin, 3-methylquercetin, luteolin, 7-methylluteolin, and apigenin which were isolated from the preliminary studies together with compounds 9 and 10 showed inhibition of the complement system by the classical pathway. Compounds 2, 4, 6-9 and 11 were obtained from this plant for the first time. Caffeic acid (10) showed the strongest activity in vitro with a CH50 value of 0.041 g x L(-1). PMID:23672041

  19. Extreme consumption of Beta vulgaris var. rubra can cause metal ion accumulation in the liver.

    PubMed

    Blázovics, Anna; Sárdi, Eva; Szentmihályi, Klára; Váli, L; Takács-Hájos, Mária; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva

    2007-09-01

    Redox homeostasis can be considered as the cumulative action of all free radical reactions and antioxidant defences in different tissues, which provide suitable conditions for life. Transition metal ions are ubiquitous in biological systems. Beta vulgaris var. rubra (table beet root) contains several bioactive agents (e.g. betain, betanin, vulgaxanthine, polyphenols, folic acid) and different metal elements (e.g. Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn), which act on the various physiological routes. Therefore we studied the effect of this metal rich vegetable on element content of the liver in healthy rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 7) (200 +/- 20 g) were treated with lyophilised powder of table beet root (2 g/kg b.w.) added into the rat chow for 10 days. Five healthy animals served as control. We found significant accumulation of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn and P in the liver, which was proved by ICP-AES measurements. We suppose that the extreme consumption of table beet root can cause several disturbances not only in cases of healthy patients but, e.g. in patients suffering with metal accumulating diseases, e.g. porphyria cutanea tarda, haemochromatosis or Wilson disease-although moderate consumption may be beneficial in iron-deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:17899785

  20. Beta vulgaris subspecies cicla var. flavescens (Swiss chard): flavonoids, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic activities.

    PubMed

    Hashem, A N; Soliman, M S; Hamed, M A; Swilam, N F; Lindequist, U; Nawwar, M A

    2016-04-01

    The novel flavonoids, 2",2"'-di-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-vicenin II, a di-C-glycosyl flavone, and herbacetin 3-O-β-xylopyranosyl- (1"' --> 2")-O-β-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the leaves of Beta vulgaris subspecies cicla L. var. flavescens, an edible plant which is consumed in the Mediterranean areas, additional to the known flavonoids, 6-C-glucosyl isoscutellarein, vitexin-(1"' --> 2")-O-β-xylopyranosyl, vitexin-(1'" --> 2")-O-α-rhamnopyranosyI and vitexin. All metabolites were established by conventional methods of analysis and their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis, including 1 D and 2D-NMR and by HR-ESIMS, as well. The extract of the plant leaves shows hepatoprotective effects in rats intoxicated by administration of acetaminophen and exhibits hypolipidemic activity in rats with high-fat-diet induced hypercholesterolemia. The evaluation was done through measuring the liver function enzymes (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase, the lipid profile (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) and histopathological analysis of liver slides. PMID:27209705

  1. Purification and characterization of 4-N-trimethylamino-1-butanol dehydrogenase from Fusarium merismoides var. acetilereum.

    PubMed

    Fujimitsu, Hiroshi; Taniyama, Yuko; Tajima, Sae; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Arima, Jiro; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2016-09-01

    From investigation of 60 filamentous fungi, we identified Fusarium merismoides var. acetilereum, which uses 4-N-trimethylamino-1-butanol (TMA-butanol) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The fungus produced NAD(+)-dependent TMA-butanol dehydrogenase (DH) when it was cultivated in medium containing TMA-butanol. The enzyme showed molecular mass of 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 160 kDa by gel filtration, suggesting that it is a homotetramer. TMA-butanol DH is stable at pH 7.5-9.0. It exhibits moderate stability with respect to temperature (up to 30 °C). Additionally, it has optimum activity at 45 °C and at pH 9.5. The enzyme has broad specificity to various alkyl alcohols and amino alkyl alcohols, and the carbon chains of which are longer than butanol. Moreover, the activity is strongly inhibited by oxidizing agents, carbonyl and thiol modulators, and chelating agents. This report is the first study examining TMA-butanol DH from eukaryotic microbes. PMID:27121905

  2. Effects of GA3 pregerminative treatment on Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca germination and seedlings morphology.

    PubMed

    González-López, Óscar; Casquero, Pedro A

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana lutea L. is widely used in bitter beverages and in medicine; Gentianae Radix is the pharmaceutical name of the root of G. lutea. These uses have generated a high demand. The wild populations of Gentiana lutea var. aurantiaca (M. Laínz) M. Laínz have been decimated; it is necessary to establish guidelines for its cultivation. Gentian as most alpine species has dormant seeds. Dormancy can be removed by cold and by means of a gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment. However, cold treatments produce low germination percentages and GA3 treatments may produce off-type seedlings. So, the objective was to determine, for the first time, the presowing treatments that allow high germination rate and good seedling morphology. The best pregerminative doses of GA3 to break seed dormancy were 100, 500, and 1000 ppm, while the best doses to optimize the seedling habit were 50 and 100 ppm. This study provides, for the first time, a 100 ppm GA3 dose that led to a high germination rate and good seedling morphology, as the starting point for gentian regular cultivation. PMID:25105167

  3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of Solanum tuberosum L. var. Vitelotte.

    PubMed

    Bontempo, Paola; Carafa, Vincenzo; Grassi, Roberto; Basile, Adriana; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Altucci, Lucia

    2013-05-01

    Solanum tuberosum L. var. Vitelotte is a potato variety widely used for human consumption. The pigments responsible for its attractive color belong to the class of anthocyanins. The objectives of this study were to characterize and measure the concentration of anthocyanins in pigmented potatoes and to evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and their anti-proliferative effects in solid and hematological cancer cell lines. Anthocyanins exert anti-bacterial activity against different bacterial strains and a slight activity against three fungal strains. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Rhyzoctonia solani were the most affected microorganisms. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP methods; the extract showed a higher reducing capability than anti-radical activity. Moreover, we found that in different cancer cell models the anthocyanins cause inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. These biological activities are likely due to the high content of malvidin 3-O-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-O-glucoside and petunidin 3-O-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-O-glucoside. PMID:23313609

  4. Past landscape dynamics in mountain territories: historical trajectory of vulnerability in the Vars catchment (French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puissant, Anne; Cioloboc, Florin; Schlosser, Arnaud; Gazo, Aurelien; Martin, Brice; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades and centuries, mountain landscapes have experiment natural and man-made landcover/use changes with mainly the development of tourism activities and the reduction of agro-pastoral activities. These transformations have directly influenced the spatial organization of mountain landscapes. To better anticipate the future exposure of the territory to natural hazards, decision-makers need retrospective analyses of the past changes. In the frame of the SAMCO project, whose objective is to propose mountain risk assessment methodologies in the context of global changes, this research presents a retrospective analysis of land cover/use changes (from 1948 to 2013) in the Vars catchment (French South Alps) submitted to several natural hazards (rockfall, landslide, and flood). Database of elements at risk has been built for five dates and evolution of vulnerability is performed through a versatile GIS-based analysis tool developed for the estimation of vulnerability indicators (physical, economical, social) at a fine scale (1:5000). Results allow identifying several areas with different trajectories of vulnerability which can be use as input data for risk analysis and define future trends.

  5. Purification and biochemical characterization of Eumiliin from Euphorbia milii var. hislopii latex.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, K C; Morais, N C G; Queiroz, M R; Silva, M C; Gomes, M S; Costa, J O; Mamede, C C N; Torres, F S; Penha-Silva, N; Beletti, M E; Canabrava, H A N; Oliveira, F

    2010-05-01

    A protease, which we designate Eumiliin, was isolated from the latex of Euphorbia milii var. hislopii by a combination of ion-exchange chromatographic steps using DEAE-Sephacel and gel-filtration with Sephadex G-75. Eumiliin is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and gave one main peak at 29,814 KDa in MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Eumiliin has caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities, but no hemorrhagic or defibrinating activities. The enzyme readily hydrolyzes the Aalpha-chain of fibrinogen and, more slowly, the Bbeta-chain. Its fibrinogenolytic activity is inhibited by beta-mercaptoethanol and leupeptin. In contrast, EDTA and benzamidine did not affect the activity of Eumiliin. The caseinolytic activity of Eumiliin had a pH optimum of 8.0 and was stable in solution at up to 40 degrees C; activity was completely lost at >or=80 degrees C. Intraplantar injection of Eumiliin (1-25 microg/paw) caused a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia, which peaked 1-5h after enzyme injection. Intraplantar injection of Eumiliin (1-25 microg/paw) also caused an oedematogenic response that was maximal after 1h. Morphological analyses indicated that Eumiliin induced an intense myonecrosis, with visible leukocyte infiltrate and damaged muscle cells 24h after injection. PMID:20206951

  6. Plasmodium falciparum var genes expressed in children with severe malaria encode CIDRα1 domains.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Jakob S; Wang, Christian W; Mkumbaye, Sixbert I; Minja, Daniel Tr; Petersen, Bent; Turner, Louise; Petersen, Jens Ev; Lusingu, John Pa; Theander, Thor G; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Most severe Plasmodium falciparum infections are experienced by young children. Severe symptoms are precipitated by vascular sequestration of parasites expressing a particular subset of the polymorphic P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion molecules. Parasites binding human endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) through the CIDRα1 domain of certain PfEMP1 were recently associated with severe malaria in children. However, it has remained unclear to which extend the EPCR-binding CIDRα1 domains epitomize PfEMP1 expressed in severe malaria. Here, we characterized the near full-length transcripts dominating the var transcriptome in children with severe malaria and found that the only common feature of the encoded PfEMP1 was CIDRα1 domains. Such genes were highly and dominantly expressed in both children with severe malarial anaemia and cerebral malaria. These observations support the hypothesis that the CIDRα1-EPCR interaction is key to the pathogenesis of severe malaria and strengthen the rationale for pursuing a vaccine or adjunctive treatment aiming at inhibiting or reducing the damaging effects of this interaction. PMID:27354391

  7. A detailed analysis of the recombination landscape of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Gao, Wei; Lavrijssen, Brian; Hendrickx, Patrick; Sedaghat-Tellgerd, Narges; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Kong, Won-Sik; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Baars, Johan J P; Visser, Richard G F

    2016-08-01

    The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the world's most cultivated mushroom species, but in spite of its economic importance generation of new cultivars by outbreeding is exceptional. Previous genetic analyses of the white bisporus variety, including all cultivars and most wild isolates revealed that crossing over frequencies are low, which might explain the lack of introducing novel traits into existing cultivars. By generating two high quality whole genome sequence assemblies (one de novo and the other by improving the existing reference genome) of the first commercial white hybrid Horst U1, a detailed study of the crossover (CO) landscape was initiated. Using a set of 626 SNPs in a haploid offspring of 139 single spore isolates and whole genome sequencing on a limited number of homo- and heterokaryotic single spore isolates, we precisely mapped all COs showing that they are almost exclusively restricted to regions of about 100kb at the chromosome ends. Most basidia of A. bisporus var. bisporus produce two spores and pair preferentially via non-sister nuclei. Combined with the COs restricted to the chromosome ends, these spores retain most of the heterozygosity of the parent thus explaining how present-day white cultivars are genetically so close to the first hybrid marketed in 1980. To our knowledge this is the first example of an organism which displays such specific CO landscape. PMID:27288752

  8. Evaluation of wound healing activity of extracts of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, P K; Singh, A; Gaurav, K; Goel, Shalini; Khanna, H D; Goel, R K

    2009-01-01

    Plantain banana (M. sapientum var. paradisiaca, MS) has been shown to possess ulcer healing activity. The present work with plantain banana was undertaken with the premise that the drug promoting ulcer healing could have effect on wound healing also. Wound healing activity of MS was studied in terms of (i) percent wound contraction, epithelization period and scar area; (ii) wound breaking strength and (iii) on granulation tissue antioxidant status [estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), free radical (lipid peroxidation, an indicator of tissue damage) and connective tissue formation and maturation (hexuronic acid, hydroxyproline and hexosamine levels)] in excision, incision and dead space wound models respectively. The rats were given graded doses (50-200 mg/kg/day) of aqueous (MSW) and methanolic (MSE) extracts of MS orally for a period of 10-21 days depending upon the type of study. Both extracts (100 mg/kg) when studied for incision and dead space wounds parameters, increased wound breaking strength and levels of hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamine, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione in the granulation tissue and decreased percentage of wound area, scar area and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. Both the extracts showed good safety profile. Plantain banana thus, favoured wound healing which could be due to its antioxidant effect and on various wound healing biochemical parameters. PMID:19317349

  9. SAGE-Var: An Infrared Survey of Variability in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebel, D.; Boyer, M. L.; Srinivasan, S.; Whitelock, P.; Meixner, M.; Babler, B.; Feast, M.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Ita, Y.; Meade, M.; Shiao, B.; Whitney, B.

    2015-07-01

    We present the first results from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Var program, a follow up to the Spitzer legacy program SAGE (Meixner et al.). We obtained four epochs of photometry at 3.6 and 4.5 μm covering the bar of the LMC and the central region of the SMC in order to probe the variability of extremely red sources missed by variability surveys conducted at shorter wavelengths, and to provide additional epochs of observation for known variables. Our six total epochs of observations allow us to probe infrared (IR) variability on 15 different timescales ranging from ˜20 days to ˜5 yr. Out of a full catalog of 1 717 554 (LMC) and 457 760 (SMC) objects, we find 10 (LMC) and 6 (SMC) large amplitude Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) variables without optically measured variability owing to circumstellar dust obscuration. The catalog also contains multiple observations of known AGB variables, type I and II Cepheids, eclipsing variables, R CrB stars, and young stellar objects, which will be discussed in following papers. Here we present IR Period-Luminosity (PL) relations for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds, as well as improved PL relationships for AGB stars pulsating in the fundamental mode using mean magnitudes constructed from six epochs of observations.

  10. Ribes fasciculatum var. chinense Attenuated Allergic Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-Wook; Kim, Su-Jin; Ahn, Eun-Mi; Oh, Sa-Rang; Lee, Hye-Ja; Jeong, Ji-Ahn; Lee, Ju-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ribes fasciculatum var. chinense MAX. (R. fasciculatum) has traditionally been used in Korea to treat inflammatory diseases. However, the exact mechanism that accounts for the anti-inflammatory effect of R. fasciculatum is not completely understood. We aimed to ascertain the pharmacological effects of R. fasciculatum on both compound 48/80- or histamine-induced scratching behaviors and 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) in mice. Additionally, to find a possible explanation for the anti-inflammatory effects of R. fasciculatum, we evaluated the effects of R. fasciculatum on the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Treatment of R. fasciculatum significantly reduced compound 48/80- or histamine-induced the pruritus in mice. R. fasciculatum attenuated the AD symptoms such as eczematous, erythema and dryness and serum IgE levels in AD model. Additionally, R. fasciculatum inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The maximal rates of TNF-α and IL-6 inhibition by R. fasciculatum (1 mg/ml) were approximately 32.12% and 46.24%, respectively. We also showed that R. fasciculatum inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Collectively, the findings of this study provide us with novel insights into the pharmacological actions of R. fasciculatum as a potential molecule for use in the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25489423

  11. Identification and characterization of a LTR retrotransposon from the genome of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liping; Yin, Guojun; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Ding, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    A Ty3/gypsy-retrotransposon-type transposon was found in the genome of the Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in a previous study (unpublished), and was designated a JRE retrotransposon (Jian retrotransposon). The full-length JRE retrotransposon is 5126 bp, which includes two long terminal repeats of 470 bp at the 5' end and 453 bp at the 3' end, and two open reading frames between them: 4203 bp encoding the group-specific antigen (GAG) and polyprotein (POL). The pol gene has a typical Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon structure, and the gene order is protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase (PR-RT-RH-IN). A phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that it has similarities of 40.7, 40, and 32.8 %, to retrotransposons of Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, and Xiphophorus maculatus, respectively. Therefore, JRE might belong to the JULE retrotransposon family. The copy number of the JRE transposon in the genome of the Jian carp is 124, determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA of the JRE retrotransposon is expressed in five Jian carp tissues, the liver, kidney, blood, muscle, and gonad, and slightly higher in the kidney and liver than in the other tissues. PMID:27178280

  12. Essential-oil composition of the Tunisian endemic cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. numidica TRAB.).

    PubMed

    El Hamrouni-Aschi, Kaouther; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Boussaid, Mohamed; Akrimi, Noureddine; Toumi, Lamjed

    2013-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from leaves, wood, and cones of the Tunisian endemic cypress Cupressus sempervirens L. var. numidica Trab. collected from three natural populations were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the wood, leaf, and cone oils, 38, 35, and 26 constituents, representing 94.4, 97.8, and 98.5% of the total oil composition, respectively, were identified. Monoterpenes constituted the major fraction of the oils from all organs and for all populations. The oils were found to be of an α-pinene (64.2%)/δ-car-3-ene (11.1%) chemotype with considerable contents of α-humulene (3.4%) in the leaf oil, cedrol (2.8%) in the wood oil, and sabinene (3.2%) in the cone oil, respectively. α-Pinene, δ-car-3-ene, limonene, carvacrol methyl ether, α-humulene, and α-amorphene were the main components that differentiated the oils of the three organs in the cypress of Makthar. PMID:23776018

  13. [Study on intestinal absorption of formononetin in Millettia nitita var. hirsutissima in rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Li; Xiong, Xian-Bing; Su, Dan; Song, Yong-Gui; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2013-10-01

    To use the single-pass intestine perfusion (SPIP) model and HPLC to determine the concentration of formononetin, the effect of quality concentrations of formononetin, different intestinal segments and P-glycoprotein inhibitor on intestinal absorption of formononetin, in order to observe the intestinal absorption mechanism of formononetin from Millettia nitita var. hirsutissima in rats. The experimental results showed that the qulaity concentration of formononetin in the perfusate had no significant effect on the absorption rate constant (K(a)) and the apparent absorption coefficient (P(app)); K(a) and P(app) of formononetin in duodenum, jejunum and ileum showed no significant difference. However, K(a) was significantly higher than that in colon (P < 0.05), with significant difference between that in intestinum tenue and colon. P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil showed significant difference in K(a) and P(app) in intestinal segments (P < 0.05). This indicated that the absorption mechanism of formononein in rat intestinal tracts passive diffusion, without any saturated absorption. Formononein is absorbed well in all intestines. Their absorption windows were mainly concentrated in the intestinum tenue, without specific absorption sites. Formononein may be the substrate of P-glycoprotein. PMID:24490575

  14. Effects of Olea europea var. oleaster leaves in hypercholesterolemic insulin-resistant sand rats.

    PubMed

    Bennani-Kabchi, N; Fdhil, H; Cherrah, Y; Kehel, L; el Bouayadi, F; Amarti, A; Saïdi, M; Marquié, G

    1999-01-01

    Sand rats fed a hypercaloric diet manifest obesity and diabetes. We have used this model to develop hypercholesterolaemia and describe the beneficial action of Olea europea var. oleaster leaves. Twenty-eight sand rats submitted to a high cholesterol diet for four months were assigned to control and treated groups. Plant decoction at 10 per cent was given orally for two months. Results showed that the control group exhibited hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and moderate hyperinsulinaemia. Light microscopic study showed thickening of capillary walls in skin, pancreas and kidney. The treatment produced hypoglycaemic (43 per cent, p < 0.001), antihyperglycaemic (48 per cent, p < 0.001) and hypoinsulinaemic (39 per cent, p < 0.01) activities. In addition, the plant presented a hypocholesterolaemic effect (47 per cent, p < 0.001) accompanied by lowering of oxidized LDL (30 per cent, p < 0.01). Accordingly, capillary wall thickening was reduced in skin and pancreas and completely prevented in kidney. The data demonstrate that oleaster leaves possess at least two active compounds to treat hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes. PMID:10709446

  15. Kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis growth on high glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Berbert-Molina, M A; Prata, A M R; Pessanha, L G; Silveira, M M

    2008-11-01

    The kinetic and general growth features of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis were evaluated. Initial glucose concentration (S0) in fermentation media varied from 10 to 152 g/l. The results afforded to characterize four morphologically and physiologically well-defined culture phases, independent of S0 values: Phase I, vegetative growth; Phase II, transition to sporulation; Phase III, sporulation; and Phase IV, spores maturation and cell lysis. Important process parameters were also determined. The maximum specific growth rates (microX,m) were not affected with S0 up to 75 g/l (1.0-1.1 per hour), but higher glucose concentrations resulted in growth inhibition by substrate, revealed by a reduction in microX,m values. These higher S0 values led to longer Phases III and IV and delayed sporulation. Similar biomass concentrations (Xm=15.2-15.9 g/l) were achieved with S0 over 30.8 g/l, with increasing residual substrate, suggesting a limitation in some other nutrients and the use of glucose to form other metabolites. In this case, with S0 from 30.8 to 152 g/l, cell yield (YX/S) decreased from 0.58 to 0.41 g/g. On the other hand, with S0=10 g/l growth was limited by substrate, and YX/S has shown its maximum value (0.83 g/g). PMID:18712542

  16. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined. PMID:25170807

  17. Caprellid assemblages (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in shallow waters invaded by Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea from southeastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Luis, M.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.; Bayle-Sempere, J. T.

    2009-06-01

    Growth of the invasive algae Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea in shallow habitats may influence the faunal assemblage composition. We studied its effects on caprellid assemblages associated with shallow-water habitats of hard and soft bottoms from the SE Iberian Peninsula (native rocky-bottom algae, C. racemosa from hard and soft bottoms, and Caulerpa prolifera, Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica from soft bottoms). Samples were taken in two different sampling periods (September 2004 and March 2005). A total of seven caprellid species were identified, with important differences in their distribution in different habitats. Total abundance of caprellids was very high in March on native algae on hard bottoms, and on C. racemosa on both soft and hard bottoms. On both hard and soft bottoms, abundances of Caprella hirsuta recorded from C. racemosa were low. On the other hand, a higher abundance of other species, namely C. acanthifera, C. santosrosai, Phtisica marina and Pseudoprotella phasma, was recorded from C. racemosa. The results indicate that C. racemosa may have a positive influence on some caprellid species, while seasonal changes are also evident. It is concluded that introduced C. racemosa may serve as a new habitat, promoting and maintaining caprellid populations in shallow Mediterranean habitats.

  18. The voltage profile improvement using static var compensator (SVC) in power system transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdan, G. M.; Mulyadi, Y.; Hasbullah

    2016-04-01

    In transmission system named ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ there are the voltage drop which relatively high and the voltage profile at the receiving ends below 0.95 p.u. Therefore, this research proposed a method to improve the voltage profile in the transmission system using one of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) technology which is Static Var Compensator (SVC) and ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan and New Ujungberung’ as the object. This research aims to get the voltage profile in ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ before and after connected to SVC and to set optimal location and rating of SVC to maintain the voltage profile at the system that has desire range (0.95 p.u – 1.05 p.u). To get the result in accordance with these objects, Newton –Raphson power flow solution is applied to the system. The result of Newton- Raphson power flow solution of the system shows the voltage profile before connecting to SVC are averagely 140.95 kV or 0.94 p.u while after connecting to SVC are 145.28 kV or 0.97 p.u. The SVC installation is connected to ‘Bandung Utara I’ as the weakest bus, and the SVC rating is -250 Mvar to 300 Mvar.

  19. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. and Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangfang; Wang, Peng; Ji, Dandan; Kang, Guangwen; Xiang, Fengning

    2011-10-01

    In an attempt to transfer the genetic components needed for taxol synthesis into a more tractable plant, protoplasts of Taxus chinensis var. mairei were UV irradiated for various times prior to their fusion with protoplasts of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium. Of the 60 presumptive hybrid calli obtained, selections of the 9 most rapidly growing were recognized as hybrid clones based on a combination of their callus morphology, esterase profile, chromosome number, and RAPD genotype. The RAPD data showed that 82.4-96.8% of the hybrid genome was inherited from the recipient (B. scorzonerifolium) and 4.6-13.9% from the donor (T. chinensis), with 1.6-6.9% of the RAPD fragments being not present in either parent. None of the hybrid clones expressed a detectable quantity of taxol, but four produced more of the triterpenoid oleanolic acid than did calli of the recipient. With the use of semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, it was possible to show variation in the expression of several triterpenoid biosynthetic pathway related genes between B. scorzonerifolium and the hybrids. Increasing the concentration of oleanolic acid requires that the expression levels of the genes encoding IPP isomerase, squalene synthase, squalene epoxidase and β-amyrin synthase are increased, while at the same time, those of the genes encoding the branching enzymes cycloartenol synthase and lupeol synthase need to be reduced. PMID:21660549

  20. Association study between single nucleotide polymorphisms in leptin and growth traits in Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Li, H; Li, J; Yu, F; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that affects the regulation of body weight, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite. In this study, we cloned the jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-A2 genes in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) and performed an association analysis between identified polymorphisms and growth traits. Three polymorphisms in exons of jlLEP-A1 (A1-T113C) and jlLEP-A2 (A2-G415A and A2-G427A) were identified, and genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 263 female and 294 male Jian carp. All three SNPs were missense mutations. Association analysis revealed that the three SNPs were significantly associated with growth traits in male Jian carp. Only SNP A1-T113C was significantly associated with growth traits in female Jian carp. Analysis of diplotypes derived from jlLEP-A2 SNPs revealed an association with growth traits in male but not female Jian carp. These results demonstrate that polymorphisms in the leptin gene are associated with growth traits and may be used for marker-assisted selection programs in Jian carp breeding and production. PMID:27525905

  1. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Wafaa; Al-Gendy, Amal; Al-Youssef, Hanan; El-Shazely, Assem

    2012-01-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, 1-beta-hydroxy-8-oxoeremophila-7,9-dien-12-oic acid (1), in addition to two known flavonol glycosides, rutin (2) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside-7-O-rutinoside (3), was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss. (family Asteraceae). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC), MS and UV data, and through comparison with the literature. The ethyl acetate fraction and the isolated rutin showed significant cytotoxic activity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT 116) and to less extent against brain (U 251) and breast carcinoma (MCF 7). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant level of activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, while the total extract showed the best antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was significant (96.7%) when compared to ascorbic acid. It also showed anti-inflammatory activity but no diuretic effect. PMID:22624330

  2. Enhanced tocopherol levels during early germination events in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis seeds.

    PubMed

    Siles, Laura; Alegre, Leonor; Tijero, Verónica; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-10-01

    Most angiosperms accumulate vitamin E in the form of tocopherols in seeds, exerting a protective antioxidant role. However, several palm trees principally accumulate tocotrienols, rather than tocopherols, in seeds, as it occurs in other monocots. To unravel the protective role of either tocopherols or tocotrienols against lipid peroxidation during seed germination in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis; seed viability, natural and induced germination capacity, seed water content, malondialdehyde levels (as an indicator of the extent of lipid peroxidation) and vitamin E levels (including both tocopherols and tocotrienols) were examined at various germination phases in a simulated, natural seed bank. At the very early stages of germination (operculum removal), malondialdehyde levels increased 2.8-fold, to decrease later up to 74%, thus indicating a transient lipid peroxidation at early stages of germination. Tocopherol levels were absent in quiescent seeds and did not increase during operculum removal, but increased later presumably dampening malondialdehyde accumulation. Thereafter, tocopherols continued increasing, while lipid peroxidation levels decreased. By contrast, tocotrienols levels remained constant or even decreased as germination progressed, showing no correlation with lipid peroxidation levels. We hypothesize that despite their high tocotrienol content, seeds synthesize tocopherols during germination to protect lipids from peroxidation events. PMID:26241488

  3. RiceVarMap: a comprehensive database of rice genomic variations

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hu; Yao, Wen; Ouyang, Yidan; Yang, Wanneng; Wang, Gongwei; Lian, Xingming; Xing, Yongzhong; Chen, Lingling; Xie, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Rice Variation Map (RiceVarMap, http:/ricevarmap.ncpgr.cn) is a database of rice genomic variations. The database provides comprehensive information of 6 551 358 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1 214 627 insertions/deletions (INDELs) identified from sequencing data of 1479 rice accessions. The SNP genotypes of all accessions were imputed and evaluated, resulting in an overall missing data rate of 0.42% and an estimated accuracy greater than 99%. The SNP/INDEL genotypes of all accessions are available for online query and download. Users can search SNPs/INDELs by identifiers of the SNPs/INDELs, genomic regions, gene identifiers and keywords of gene annotation. Allele frequencies within various subpopulations and the effects of the variation that may alter the protein sequence of a gene are also listed for each SNP/INDEL. The database also provides geographical details and phenotype images for various rice accessions. In particular, the database provides tools to construct haplotype networks and design PCR-primers by taking into account surrounding known genomic variations. These data and tools are highly useful for exploring genetic variations and evolution studies of rice and other species. PMID:25274737

  4. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  5. Toxins Produced by Valsa mali var. mali and Their Relationship with Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caixia; Li, Chao; Li, Baohua; Li, Guifang; Dong, Xiangli; Wang, Guoping; Zhang, Qingming

    2014-01-01

    Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm), the causal agent of apple tree canker disease, produces various toxic compounds, including protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxyacetophenone, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid and phloroglucinol. Here, we examined the relationship between toxin production and the pathogenicity of Vmm strains and determined their bioactivities in several assays, for further elucidating the pathogenesis mechanisms of Vmm and for developing new procedures to control this disease. The toxins were quantified with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, and the results showed that the strain with attenuated virulence produced low levels of toxins with only three to four kinds of compounds being detectable. In contrast, higher amounts of toxins were produced by the more aggressive strain, and all five compounds were detected. This indicated a significant correlation between the pathogenicity of Vmm strains and their ability to produce toxins. However, this correlation only existed in planta, but not in vitro. During the infection of Vmm, protocatechuic acid was first detected at three days post inoculation (dpi), and the others at seven or 11 dpi. In addition, all compounds produced noticeable symptoms on host plants at concentrations of 2.5 to 40 mmol/L, with protocatechuic acid being the most effective compound, whereas 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid were the most active compounds on non-host plants. PMID:24662481

  6. Protective Effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala Fruit Extract against Oxidative Renal Damage Caused by Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Poontawee, Warut; Natakankitkul, Surapol; Wongmekiat, Orawan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium nephrotoxicity is a serious environmental health problem as it will eventually end up with end stage renal disease. The pathobiochemical mechanism of this toxic heavy metal is related to oxidative stress. This study investigated whether Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala fruit extract (CNFE) could protect the kidney against oxidative injury caused by cadmium. Initial analysis of the extract revealed antioxidant abilities and high levels of polyphenols, particularly catechin. Its potential renal benefits was further explored in rats treated with vehicle, CNFE, cadmium (2 mg/kg), and cadmium plus CNFE (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg) for four weeks. Oxidative renal injury was developed after cadmium exposure as evidenced by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine retention, glomerular filtration reduction, renal structural damage, together with increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, but decreased antioxidant thiols, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in renal tissues. Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity was diminished in rats supplemented with CNFE, particularly at the doses of 1 and 2 g/kg. It is concluded that CNFE is able to protect against the progression of cadmium nephrotoxicity, mostly via its antioxidant power. The results also point towards a promising role for this naturally-occurring antioxidant to combat other human disorders elicited by disruption of redox homeostasis. PMID:26805807

  7. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  8. In vitro evaluation of combination of fluconazole and flucytosine against Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M H; Barchiesi, F; McGough, D A; Yu, V L; Rinaldi, M G

    1995-01-01

    Amphotericin B and fluconazole are current acceptable therapies for cryptococcal meningitis; however, their effect remains suboptimal. The combination of fluconazole and flucytosine has yielded encouraging clinical results in human immunodeficiency virus patients with cryptococcal meningitis. To investigate the biological basis of this finding, we performed in vitro combination testing of fluconazole and flucytosine against 50 clinical strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans. Synergy (fractional inhibitory concentration index of < 1.0) was observed in 62% of cases, while antagonism (fractional inhibitory concentration index of > 2.0) was not observed. For cases in which synergy was not achieved (autonomous or additive effects), the beneficial effect of the combination was still seen (i.e., there was still a decrease, although not as dramatic, in the MIC of one or both drugs when used in combination). The in vitro inhibitory action of flucytosine was greatly enhanced by the addition of fluconazole; the flucytosine MICs for Cryptococcus isolates were markedly decreased to concentrations which were severalfold lower than the achievable cerebrospinal fluid flucytosine concentration. On the other hand, the addition of flucytosine did not greatly enhance the in vitro activity of fluconazole if the initial fluconazole MIC for the isolate was > or = 8 micrograms/ml. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to further elucidate the potential utility of fluconazole-flucytosine combination therapy. PMID:7486902

  9. Antiparasitic and Antimicrobial Indolizidines from the Leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa†

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Aziz Abdur; Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Jacob, Melissa R.; Sahu, Rajnish; Jain, Surendra K; Khan, Shabana I.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Muhammad, Ilias

    2013-01-01

    A new indolizidine alkaloid, named Δ1,6-juliprosopine (1), together with previously known indolizidine analogs (2–6), was isolated from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa, collected from Nevada, USA; while two other known indolizidines juliprosopine (6) and juliprosine (7) were isolated from P. glandulosa leaves collected in Texas, USA. The structures of compound 1 and 7 were determined using a combination of NMR and MS techniques. Compound 7 exhibited potent antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 strains with IC50 values of 170 and 150 ng/mL, respectively, while 1 was found to be less active (IC50 values 560 and 600 ng/mL). Both the compounds were devoid of VERO cells toxicity up to a concentration of 23800 ng/mL. The antileishmanial activity of indolizidines was evaluated against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, axenic amastigotes and amastigotes in THP1 macrophage cultures. When tested against macrophage cultures, the tertiary bases (1, 3, 6) were found to be more potent than quaternary salts (2, 5, 7), displayed IC50 values between 0.8–1.7 μg/mL and 3.1–6.0 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 7 showed potent antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium intracellulare, while 1 was potent only against C. neoformans and weakly active against other organisms. PMID:21384317

  10. Faeriefungin: a new broad-spectrum antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus var. autotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Nair, M G; Putnam, A R; Mishra, S K; Mulks, M H; Taft, W H; Keller, J E; Miller, J R; Zhu, P P; Meinhart, J D; Lynn, D G

    1989-01-01

    Faeriefungin, a polyol polyene macrolide lactone antibiotic, was isolated from the mycelium of Streptomyces griseus var. autotrophicus, MSU-32058/ATCC 53668, collected from the soil sample of a fairy ring in an old lawn in Lansing, Michigan. Faeriefungin has some properties similar to the previously reported polyene macrolides, mycoticin and flavofungin, but possesses different physiochemical and biological properties. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Alternaria spp. were completely inhibited by faeriefungin at 3.2 micrograms/ml, Candida spp. at 5.5 micrograms/ml, and Pythium, Phialophora, Leptosphaeria spp., and some selected Gram-negative penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at 16.0 micrograms/ml. At a concentration of 100 ppm, it caused 100% mortality of mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti, Rockefeller strain) and free-living nematodes (Panagrellus redivivus). Unlike the related polyene macrolides, faeriefungin is crystalline and stable with broad-spectrum antimicrobial and insecticidal activity. Preliminary cytotoxicity studies with human erythrocytes and rat liver epithelial cells indicated that faeriefungin and amphotericin B have comparable toxicity. Solution nmr study has indicated that faeriefungin is a mixture of two compounds, faerifungins A [1] and B [2], and that they differ in the attachment of a H or an Me at C-33. PMID:2509636

  11. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Hassan, Intan Idiana; Shukor, Norlela; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values. PMID:22701504

  12. Anthocyanin accumulation and transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Pan, Yu; Zhao, Zhiping; Tian, Shibing; Hu, Zongli

    2014-12-24

    Bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide for its edible leaves. The purple cultivars rich in health-promoting anthocyanins are usually more eye-catching and valuable. Fifteen kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from a purple bok choy cultivar (Zi He) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in bok choy, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in seedlings and leaves of the purple cultivar and the green cultivar (Su Zhouqing). Compared with the other tissues, BrTT8 and most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in the leaves and light-grown seedlings of Zi He. The results that heterologous expression of BrTT8 promotes the transcription of partial anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in regeneration shoots of tomato indicate that BrTT8 plays an important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:25419600

  13. Structure of the polyphenolic component of suberin isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Nikola).

    PubMed

    Mattinen, Maija-Liisa; Filpponen, Ilari; Järvinen, Riikka; Li, Bin; Kallio, Heikki; Lehtinen, Pekka; Argyropoulos, Dimitris

    2009-10-28

    Suberin is present in the underground parts of vegetables and in the bark of trees. Characterization of suberin and the structure of its polyphenolic component have been hampered by insolubility of the polymers. Thus, enzymatically isolated and extractive free suberin enriched fraction from potato, Solanum tuberosum var. Nikola, and the chemically further fractionated phenolics were characterized in solid state by FTIR, DSC, and elemental analysis to identify the groups and to verify success of isolation. For MW and quantitative determination of the groups, polymers were solubilized in ionic liquid derivatized and analyzed by GPC and (31)P NMR. Suberin enriched fraction, MW = ca. 44 x 10(3) g/mol, is a mixture of carbohydrates and polyesters of aliphatic long chain hydroxy fatty acids and diacids linked via ester bonds to the phenolics, MW = ca. 27 x 10(3) g/mol, formed by guaiacyl- and p-hydroxyphenyl structures. Phenolics in peels may be important sources of antioxidants for various applications. PMID:19785417

  14. Assessing the dendrochronological and dendroclimatic potential of Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica var. shastensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbenson, M. C. A.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present five new ring-width records from Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica var. shastensis) stands in northern California and southwestern Oregon to evaluate growth trends and their relation to climate across the species' latitudinal range. The chronologies are made up of 173 living trees in total, and earliest adequate replication ranges from AD 1624 to AD 1812. The oldest tree sampled has an inner-ring date of AD 1340. Chronologies display shared variability in ring-width at inter-annual timescales; however, reliable cross-dating across the full study region is not possible. The five chronologies, together with one publicly available record, were compared to local and regional climate data. Significant correlations between red fir tree growth and local climate were found at all six sites but no relationship was consistent throughout the latitudinal gradient. Prior analysis has suggested that the growth of the species is primarily limited by summer minimum temperature, but this relationship was not apparent at most sites within our network. Instead, the associations observed between red fir growth and climate are multivariate, dependent on the temporal resolution of climate data used, and may also be influenced by both latitude and elevation.

  15. Variants of Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus (formerly Aspergillus ochraceus) with altered ochratoxin a production

    SciTech Connect

    Chelack, W.S.; Borsa, J.; Szekely, J.G. ); Marquardt, R.R.; Frohlich, A.A. )

    1991-09-01

    The present studies, using Asperigillus alutaceus var. alutaceus Berkeley et Curtis (formerly A. ochraceus Wilhelm) NRRL 3174 along with three other wild-type strains, were undertaken in an attempt to understand the effects of irradiation and other treatments on mycotoxin production in grain. Bedford barley was inoculated with spores of NRRL 3174, gamma irradiated, and incubated at 28C and 25% moisture. After 10 days of incubation, two colony types, ocher (parental) and yellow (variant), were isolated from the grain. Further culturing of the yellow variant resulted in the spontaneous appearance of a white variant that exhibited greatly enhanced fluorescence under UV light. In subsequent work, we have also isolated variants producing a soluble red pigment. In addition, in model experiments involving irradiation (1 kGy) of pure cultures, induction frequencies ranging between 2 and 4% (survival basis) were observed for the yellow and red variants. Inoculation of these variants into wheat and incubation for 14 days at 28C and 32% moisture resulted in ochratoxin A production in the relative amounts of 0.09:1:4.6:9.3 for the red, ocher (parental), yellow, and white variants, respectively. Additional characteristics of these isolates are described. Confirmation that the white high-ochratoxin-A-producing variants were derived from the parental strain was demonstrated by obtaining revertant sectors in monoclonal cultures of the variants.

  16. Phenylethanoid and phenylpropanoid glycosides with melanogenesis inhibitory activity from the flowers of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Kuramoto, Hiroyuki; Kamei, Iyori; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    A methanol extract of the flowers of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem. (Amaryllidaceae) demonstrated inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated murine B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. From the extract, four new phenylethanoid glycosides, tazettosides A–D (1–4), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, tazettoside E (5), were isolated along with 23 known compounds (6–28). Of the isolates, 1 (IC50 = 22.0 μM) and 4 (82.5 μM), 3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxy-3,4-dihydrophenanthridine (13, IC50 = 28.5 μM), 5,6-dihydrobicolorine (14, 23.7 μM), tazettine (16, 60.8 μM), benzyl β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (18, 27.8 μM), 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (21, 74.6 μM), 3-phenylpropyl β-D-glucopyranoside (22, 59.0 μM), and cinnamyl β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (24, 88.0 μM) showed inhibitory effects without notable cytotoxicity at the effective concentrations. PMID:26475459

  17. Experimental reintroduction of the federally endangered Santa Cruz Island bush mallow (Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nestioticus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilken, D.H.; McEachern, K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nesioticus were begun in 1995 to understand its distribution, reproductive biology and ecological requirements. After 100+ years of depredation by sheep, two known populations of fewer than 20 plants each survived in 1995. Molecular studies showed that each of the two populations was composed of 1–3 genets. During our study, two additional populations of similar size were discovered. Plants are self-compatible but require insect visitation to augment pollination. Based on seed set, viable embryos, and germination rates, we found no evidence for inbreeding depression. Bush mallow also reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes, the primary means of establishment and persistence in natural populations, and a key feature for maximizing recovery success. Ex situ observations and trial in situ outplantings suggested that supplemental watering was critical to initial survival. We developed a recovery strategy composed of four plots located at varying elevations and aspects. Each plot was enclosed to exclude feral pigs, which posed a continuing threat. Each plot was planted with twelve rooted plants derived from each of three natural populations. Plants were provided supplemental watering for four months. Survivorship after one year ranged from 46% to 91%. Significant differences in survivorship were observed relative to source of plants. After twelve months some plants were flowering and reproducing vegetatively.

  18. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shigeaki F; Yazaki, Kenichi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Kitao, Mitsutoshi

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction method in an 18-year-old stand naturally regenerated after disturbance by road construction in Japan. To evaluate the contribution of N2 fixation to the nitrogen (N) economy in this alder stand, we also measured the phenology of the alder, the litterfall, the decomposition rate of the leaf litter, and N accumulation in the soil. The acetylene reduction activity per unit nodule mass (ARA) under field conditions appeared after bud break, peaked the maximum in midsummer after full expansion of the leaves, and disappeared after all leaves had fallen. There was no consistent correlation between ARA and tree size (dbh). The amount of N2 fixed in this alder stand was estimated at 56.4 kg ha-1 year-1 when a theoretical molar ratio of 3 was used to convert the amount of reduced acetylene to the amount of fixed N2. This amount of N2 fixation corresponded to the 66.4 percent of N in the leaf litter produced in a year. These results suggested that N2 fixation still contributed to the large portion of N economy in this alder stand. PMID:24287656

  19. Genetic diversity of allozymes in turnip (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa) from the Nordic area.

    PubMed

    Persson, K; Fält, A S; von Bothmer, R

    2001-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships based on isozymes were studied in 31 accessions of turnip (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa). The material included varieties, elite stocks, landraces and older turnip of slash-and-burn type from the Nordic area. A total of 9 isozyme loci and 26 alleles were studied. The isozyme systems were ACO, DIA, GPI, GOT, PGM, PGD and SKD. The level of heterozygosity was reduced in the landraces, but it was high for the variety group 'Ostersundom'. Turnip has a higher genetic variation than other crops within B. rapa and than in other species with the same breeding system. The genetic diversity showed that 18.7% of the genetic variation was within the accessions, and the total H tau value was 0.358. Gpi-I and Pgd-I showed the lowest variation compared with the other loci. The cluster analysis revealed five clusters, with one main cluster including 25 of the 31 accessions. The dendrogram indicated that the variety group 'Ostersundom' clustered together whereas the variety group 'Bortfelder' was associated with country of origin. The landraces were spread in different clusters. The 'slash-and-burn' type of turnip belonged to two groups. PMID:11525064

  20. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement. PMID:26971329